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Sample records for methanol lomeohtm process

  1. Process for obtaining methanol. Verfahren zur Gewinnung von Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, H; Watson, A

    1983-12-08

    Synthetic gas is generated and converted to methanol in a reactor. After the separation of the crude methanol, there is a multi-stage methanol distillation. Condensate occurring during distillation is at least partly fed back before the methanol synthesis.

  2. UO2 production process with methanol washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondermann, T.

    1978-01-01

    The invention refers to a process for the recovery of methanol used for washing the ammonium uranyl carbonate obtained during UO 2 production. The methanol contains about 50% H 2 O, about 10% (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , and is radioactive. According to the invention the methanol is purified at reduced pressure in a distillation unit and then led back to the washing unit. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MBE [de

  3. Process and catalysts for the gasification of methanol. [German Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.; Dennis, A.J.; Shevels, T.F.

    1975-02-13

    The invention concerns catalysts and catalytic processes for the gasification of methanol which is used to manufacture methane from methanol. Mixtures of iron and chromium oxide, phosphate, phosphoric acid, tungstate, tungstic acid, aluminium phosphate, aluminium oxide are suitable as dehydrating catalysts. Gasification takes place together with steam and dehydrogenating catalysts at high temperature. The molar ratios steam: methanol are described.

  4. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  5. Waste-to-methanol: Process and economics assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Centi, Gabriele; Salladini, Annarita; Palo, Emma; Perathoner, Siglinda; Spadaccini, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The waste-to-methanol (WtM) process and related economics are assessed to evidence that WtM is a valuable solution both from economic, strategic and environmental perspectives. Bio-methanol from Refuse-derived-fuels (RdF) has an estimated cost of production of about 110€/t for a new WtM 300t/d plant. With respect to waste-to-energy (WtE) approach, this solution allows various advantages. In considering the average market cost of methanol and the premium as biofuel, the WtM approach results in a ROI (Return of Investment) of about 29%, e.g. a payback time of about 4years. In a hybrid scheme of integration with an existing methanol plant from natural gas, the cost of production becomes a profit even without considering the cap for bio-methanol production. The WtM process allows to produce methanol with about 40% and 30-35% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with respect to methanol production from fossil fuels and bio-resources, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriyana [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jenderal Achmad Yani Univerity (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Susanto, Herri, E-mail: herri@che.itb.ac.id; Subagjo [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H{sub 2} to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H{sub 2} for increasing H{sub 2}/CO ratio. CO{sub 2} removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy

  7. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriyana; Susanto, Herri; Subagjo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H 2 to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H 2 for increasing H 2 /CO ratio. CO 2 removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy balance and economic

  8. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  9. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucheng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  10. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  11. Synthesis and Optimization of a Methanol Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grue, J.; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2003-01-01

    of reaction. The resulting model consists of a system of DAEs. The model is compared with rigorous simulation results from Pro/II and good agreement is found. The process is optimized followed by heat integration and large differences in the operating economy of the plant can be observed as a result hereof...

  12. Performance analysis of solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sheng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yifan; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process is proposed. • The two processes are modeled and simulated. • Performance analysis of the two processes are conducted. • The proposed process can cut down the greenhouse gas emission. • The proposed process can save natural gas consumption. - Abstract: Methanol is an important platform chemical. Methanol production using natural gas as raw material has short processing route and well developed equipment and technology. However, natural gas reserves are not large in China. Solar energy power generation system integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol (NGTM) process is developed, which may provide a technical routine for methanol production in the future. The solar energy power generation produces electricity for reforming unit and system consumption in solar energy integrated natural-gas-to-methanol system (SGTM). Performance analysis of conventional natural-gas-to-methanol process and solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process are presented based on simulation results. Performance analysis was conducted considering carbon efficiency, production cost, solar energy price, natural gas price, and carbon tax. Results indicate that solar energy integrated with natural-gas-to-methanol process is able to cut down the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. In addition, solar energy can replace natural gas as fuel. This can reduce the consumption of natural gas, which equals to 9.2% of the total consumed natural gas. However, it is not economical considering the current technology readiness level, compared with conventional natural-gas-to-methanol process.

  13. A novel process for methanol synthesis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1994-01-25

    The use of methanol (MeOH) as a fuel additive and in MTBE production has renewed interest in the search for improved MeOH processes. Commercial processes are characterized by high pressures and temperatures with low per pass conversion (10--12%). Efforts are underway to find improved MeOH synthesis processes. A slurry phase ``concurrent`` synthesis of MeOH/methyl formate (MeF) which operates under relatively mild conditions (100{degrees}C lower than present commercial processes) was the subject of investigation in this work. Evidence for a reaction scheme involving the carbonylation of MeOH to MeF followed by the hydrogenolysis of MeF to two molecules of MeOH -- the net result being the reaction of H{sub 2} with CO to give MeOH via MeF, is presented. Up to 90% per pass conversion and 98% selectivity to methanol at rates comparable to commercial processes have been obtained in spite of the presence of as much as 10,000 ppM CO{sub 2} and 3000 ppM H{sub 2}O in the gas and liquid respectively. The effect of process parameters such as temperature, pressure, H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the reactor, flow rate and catalyst loading were also investigated. The use of temperatures above 170{degrees}C at a pressure of 50 atm results in MeF being the limiting reactant. Small amounts of CH{sub 4} are also formed. Significant MeOH synthesis rates at a pressure in the range of 40--50 atm makes possible the elimination of an upstream shift reactor and the use of an air-blown syngas generator. The nature of the catalysts was studied and correlated with the behavior of the various species in the concurrent synthesis.

  14. Novel efficient process for methanol synthesis by CO2 hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Pragt, J.J.; Vos, H.J.; Bargeman, Gerrald; de Groot, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is an alternative fuel that offers a convenient solution for efficient energy storage. Complementary to carbon capture activities, significant effort is devoted to the development of technologies for methanol synthesis by hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. While CO2 is available from plenty

  15. Kinetic particularities of strained alicyclic compounds formation in catalytic methanol to hydrocarbon transformation process

    OpenAIRE

    Doluda V.; Brovko R.; Giniatullina N.; Sulman M.

    2017-01-01

    The catalytic transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons is a complex chemical process, accompanied by chain parallel chemical transformation reactions. The most valuable products of the methanol to hydrocarbons catalytic transformation reaction are the strained hydrocarbons — cyclopropane derivatives. These compounds can be used as a high-energy fuel, and also as a valuable chemical raw material. However, the yield of strained compounds in methanol to hydrocarbons catalytic transformation ...

  16. Production of gasoline from coal or natural gas by the methanol-to-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinritz-Adrian, M.; Brandl, A.; Zhoa, Xinjin; Tabak, S. [Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    After discussing the basis of the methanol-to-gas (MTG) process, the fixed bed and fluid bed versions are described. The Motunui and MTG complex near Montunui, New Zealand that methanol uses natural gas is briefly described. Shanxi Jincheng, Anthracite Coal Mining Co. is currently building its first coal-based MTG plant. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Development of sustainable CO2 conversion processes for the methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Nguyen, Tuan B.H.; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2015-01-01

    reforming process has to be integrated with the existing conventional methanol plant to obtain a reduced CO2 emission as well as lowered production costs. On the other hand, the CO2 hydrogenation based methanol plant could achieve a reduction of net CO2 emission at a reasonable production cost only......Utilization of CO2 feedstock through CO2 conversion for producing valuable chemicals as an alternative to sequestration of the captured CO2 is attracting increasing attention in recent studies. Indeed, the methanol production process via thermochemical CO2 conversion reactions is considered a prime...... candidate for commercialization. The aim of this study is to examine two different options for a sustainable methanol plant employing the combined reforming and CO2 hydrogenation reactions, respectively. In addition, process improvement strategies for the implementation of the developed processes are also...

  18. A New Process for Co-production of Ammonia and Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, A.

    2004-01-01

    A new process for co-production of ammonia and methanol is proposed. The process involves the production of synthesis gas by oxygen blown auto thermal reformer (ATR) at a pressure of 40-100 bars, a methanol synthesis loop at a pressure of 50-100 bars and an ammonia synthesis loop at a pressure of 200-300 bars. The oxygen required for the ATR is supplied by an air separation plant. The synthesis gases from the ATR are cooled and compressed, in a first stage compression, to the required methanol loop pressure. The purge stream from the methanol loop is sent to an intermediate temperature shift converter ITSC followed by a physical solvent CO 2 removal unit and them purified in a pressure Swing Adsorber (PSA). The purified hydrogen from the PSA together with the almost pure nitrogen from the air separation plant are re compressed, in a second stage compression

  19. EFFECT OF STARCH ADDITION ON THE PERFORMANCE AND SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION OF UASB PROCESS TREATING METHANOLIC WASTEWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Kobayashi, Takuro; Takahashi, Shintaro; Li, Yu-You; Omura, Tatsuo

    A mesophilic(35℃) UASB reactor treating synthetic wastewater containing methanol with addition of starch was continuously operated for over 430 days by changing the organic loading rate from 2.5 to 120kg-COD/m3.d. The microbial community structure of the granules was analyzed with the molecular tools and its metabolic characteristics were evaluated using specific methanogenic activity tests. The process was successfully operated with over 98% soluble COD removal efficiency at VLR 30kg-COD/m3.d for approximately 300 days, and granulation satisfactory proceeded. The results of cloning and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis suggest that groups related the genus Methanomethylovorans and the genus Methanosaeta were predominant in the reactor although only the genus Methanomethylovorans was predominant in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater in the previous study. Abundance of the granules over 0.5 mm in diameter in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater with addition of starch was 3 times larger than that in the reactor treating methanolic wastewater. Specific methanogenic activity tests in this study indicate that the methanol-methane pathway and the methanol-H2/CO2-methane pathway were predominant, and however, there was a certain level of activity for acetate-methane pathway unlike the reactor treating methanolic wastewater. These results suggest addition of starch might be responsible for diversifying the microbial community and encouraging the granulation.

  20. Large-scale methanol plants. [Based on Japanese-developed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tado, Y

    1978-02-01

    A study was made on how to produce methanol economically which is expected as a growth item for use as a material for pollution-free energy or for chemical use, centering on the following subjects: (1) Improvement of thermal economy, (2) Improvement of process, and (3) Problems of hardware attending the expansion of scale. The results of this study were already adopted in actual plants, obtaining good results, and large-scale methanol plants are going to be realized.

  1. Fuel and power coproduction: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process demonstration at Kingsport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drown, D.P.; Brown, W.R.; Heydorn, E.C.; Moore, R.B.; Schaub, E.S.; Brown, D.M.; Jones, W.C.; Kornosky, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert syngas (primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) to methanol. Because of its superior heat management, the process is able to be designed to directly handle the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or of other hydrocarbon feedstocks. When added to an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, the LPMEOH{trademark} process converts a portion of the CO-rich syngas produced by the gasifier to methanol, and the remainder of the unconverted gas is used to fuel the gas turbine combined-cycle power plant. The LPMEOH{trademark} process has the flexibility to operate in a daily electricity demand load-following manner. Coproduction of power and methanol via IGCC and the LPMEOH{trademark} process provides opportunities for energy storage for electrical demand peak shaving, clean fuel for export, and/or chemical methanol sales.

  2. Effects of methanol on lipases: molecular, kinetic and process issues in the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Marina; Pleiss, Jürgen; Valero, Francisco; Ferrer, Pau

    2015-01-01

    The biotechnological production of biodiesel is based on transesterification/esterification reactions between a source of fatty acids and a short-chain alcohol, usually methanol, catalysed by enzymes belonging to the class known as lipases. Several lipases used in industrial processes, although stable in the presence of other organic solvents, are inactivated by methanol at or below the concentration optimal for biodiesel production, making it necessary to use stepwise methanol feeding or pre-treatment of the enzyme. In this review article we focus on what is currently know about methanol inactivation of lipases, a phenomenon which is not common to all lipase enzymes, with the goal of improving the biocatalytic process. We suggest that different mechanisms can lead to inactivation of different lipases, in particular substrate inhibition and protein unfolding. Attempts to improve the performances of methanol sensitive lipases by mutagenesis as well as process engineering approaches are also summarized. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Comparative energetic assessment of methanol production from CO_2: Chemical versus electrochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kalbani, Haitham; Xuan, Jin; García, Susana; Wang, Huizhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We model two emission-to-fuel processes which convert CO_2 to fuels. • We optimize the heat exchanger networks for the two processes. • We compare the two processes in terms of energy requirement and climate impact. • The process based on CO_2 electrolysis is more energy efficient. • Both of the processes can reduce CO_2 emissions if renewable energies are used. - Abstract: Emerging emission-to-liquid (eTL) technologies that produce liquid fuels from CO_2 are a possible solution for both the global issues of greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion. Among those technologies, CO_2 hydrogenation and high-temperature CO_2 electrolysis are two promising options suitable for large-scale applications. In this study, two CO_2-to-methanol conversion processes, i.e., production of methanol by CO_2 hydrogenation and production of methanol based on high-temperature CO_2 electrolysis, are simulated using Aspen HYSYS. With Aspen Energy Analyzer, heat exchanger networks are optimized and minimal energy requirements are determined for the two different processes. The two processes are compared in terms of energy requirement and climate impact. It is found that the methanol production based on CO_2 electrolysis has an energy efficiency of 41%, almost double that of the CO_2 hydrogenation process provided that the required hydrogen is sourced from water electrolysis. The hydrogenation process produces more CO_2 when fossil fuel energy sources are used, but can result in more negative CO_2 emissions with renewable energies. The study reveals that both of the eTL processes can outperform the conventional fossil-fuel-based methanol production process in climate impacts as long as the renewable energy sources are implemented.

  4. Technological processes for obtaining high octane benzene from methanol. Tekhnologicheskie protsessy polucheniya vysokooktanovogo benzina iz metanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapustin, M A; Nefedov, B K

    1982-01-01

    The study is on one of the most promising processes for obtaining high octane components of motor fuel from methanol, with crude that has been made with a mixture of CO and H/sub 2/ gases, separated from coal, shale oil, natural and waste smoky gases, heavy oil sediments. The results of foreign scientific and technological studies over the last 5 years in synthesizing high octane benzene from methanol are systematized. Possible improvements over the next 10-15 years in these processes were examined.

  5. 1995 world methanol conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The 20 papers contained in this volume deal with the global markets for methanol, the production of MTBE, integrating methanol production into a coal-to-SNG complex, production of methanol from natural gas, catalysts for methanol production from various synthesis gases, combined cycle power plants using methanol as fuel, and economics of the methanol industry. All papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base

  6. EVALUATION OF A PROCESS TO CONVERT BIOMASS TO METHANOL FUEL - PROJECT SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the design of a reactor capable of gasifying approximately 50 lb/hr of biomass for a pilot-scale facility to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate the Hynol Process, a high-temperature, high-pressure method for converting biomass into methanol...

  7. Theoretical study of C-C bond formation in the methanol to gasoline process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaszkowski, S.R.; Santen, van R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Density functional theory is used to study one of the most successful routes to the production of synthetic fuels, the conversion of methanol to gasoline (MTG process) with an acidic zeolite. With our calculations we have determined transition states and adsorption complexes of reactants,

  8. SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF METHANOL FROM COMBINED WIND TURBINE AND FUEL CELL POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper examines an integrated use of ultra-clean wind turbines and high temperature fuel cells to produce methanol, especially for transportation purposes. The principal utility and application of the process is the production of transportation fuel from domestic resources to ...

  9. Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Alvin, Nurdin, Muhammad; Hanifah, Ummu; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione is important compound on the human body. Glutathione have a widely use at pharmacy and cosmetics as detoxification, skin whitening agent, antioxidant and many other. This study aims to obtain glutathione from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation waste of second generation bioethanol. The remaining yeast in the empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermentation was separated from the fermentation solution use centrifugation process and then extracted using a methanol-water solution. The extraction process was done by maceration which was assisted by sonication process. Solvent concentration and time of sonication were varied to see its effect on glutathione concentration. The concentration of glutathione from the extraction process was analyzed using alloxan method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the highest glutathione concentration was approximately 1.32 g/L obtained with methanol solvent at 90 minutes of maceration following with 15 minutes sonication.

  10. Process development of coke oven gas to methanol integrated with CO2 recycle for satisfactory techno-economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Qun; Gong, Min-Hui; Huang, Yi; Feng, Jie; Hao, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Ji-Long; Li, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    A novel process designed for producing methanol from coke oven gas (COG) integrated with CO 2 recycle is proposed. In the new system, oxygen replacing air is blown to combustor for assisting combustion of COG and unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process. The combustion process provides to the heat required in the coking process. The rest COG reacts with the recycled CO 2 separated from the exhaust gas to produce syngas for methanol synthesis. The unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process with low grade energy level is recycled to the combustor. In the whole methanol production process, there is no additional process with respect to supplementary carbon, and the carbon resource only comes from the internal CO 2 recycle in the plant. With the aid of techno-economic analysis, the new system presents the energy or exergy saving by 5–10%, the CO 2 emission reduction by about 70% and the internal rate of return increase by 5–8%, respectively, in comparison with the traditional COG to methanol process. - Highlights: • A process for producing methanol from COG integrated with CO 2 recycle is first proposed. • CO 2 from the exhaust gas is recycled to supply carbon for producing syngas. • New integrated plant simplifies the production process with 5–8% IRR increase. • New system presents about 5–10% energy saving, about 70% CO 2 emission reduction.

  11. A Systematic Approach for Conceptual and Sustainable Process Design: Production of Methylamines From Methanol and Ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad Imran Bin; Almoor, Karim

    2012-01-01

    and environmentally acceptable plant for producing mono-methylamines, di-methylamines and tri-methylamines from methanol and ammonia. The systematic method divides the process design work into 12 sequential tasks that covers all stages of conceptual design, starting from the consideration of qualitative aspects...... of the process flow sheet and preliminary calculations to the detailed process simulations, equipment sizing, costing, an economic evaluation, and sustainability of the designed process. At the end of task-9, the base case design is obtained, which is then further refined and improved with respect to heat...

  12. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  13. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOTH) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOI-P Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work continued on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, product-use test program. Approximately 12,000 gallons of fuel-grade methanol (98+ wt% methanol, 4 wt% water) produced during operation on carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas at the LPMEOW Demonstration Unit was loaded into trailers and shipped off-site for Mure product-use testing. At one of the projects, three buses have been tested on chemical-grade methanol and on fhel-grade methanol from the LPMEOW Demonstration Project. During the reporting period, planning for a proof-of-concept test run of the Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME~ Process at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX continued. The commercial catalyst manufacturer (Calsicat) has prepared the first batch of dehydration catalyst in large-scale equipment. Air Products will test a sample of this material in the laboratory autoclave. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laborato~ autoclave), was monitored for the initial extended operation at the lower initial reactor operating temperature of 235oC. At this condition, the decrease in catalyst activity with time from the period 20 December 1997 through 27 January 1998 occurred at a rate of 1.0% per

  14. Hynol: An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO2 emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H2-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO2 emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  15. Electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid in fuel cell processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seland, Frode

    2005-07-01

    spectra with features in the corresponding d.c. voltammograms, and the ability to investigate conditions with partially covered surfaces that are inaccessible in steady-state measurements. A variety of spectral types were observed, and for methanol these showed only a single adsorption relaxation aside from the double-layer/charge-transfer relaxation, though some structure in the phase of the latter relaxation hints at another process. The charge-transfer resistance showed Tafel behaviour for potentials in the rising part of the oxidation peak. The rate limiting step was proposed to be the electrochemical reaction between adsorbed CO and OH at the edge of islands of OH, with competition between OH and CO adsorption for the released reaction sites. Only a single adsorption relaxation in methanol oxidation was observed, implying that only one single coverage is required to describe the state of the surface and the kinetics. It was assumed that this single coverage is that of OH, and all the surface not covered with OH is covered with CO so that the coverage of CO is not an independent variable. Inductive behaviour and negative relaxation times in the methanol oxidation were attributed to nucleation and growth behaviour. Linear voltammetry reversal and sweep-hold experiments also indicated nucleation-growth-collision behaviour in distinct potential regions, both in the forward and reverse potential scan for methanol oxidation on platinum. In both methanol oxidation and formic acid oxidation, a negative differential resistance (NDR) was observed in the potential regions that possess a negative d.c. polarization slope, and was attributed to the formation of surface oxide which inhibited the oxidation of methanol or formic acid. EIS spectra for formic acid clearly showed the presence of an additional low frequency relaxation at potentials where we expect adsorbed dissociated water or platinum oxide to be present, implying that more than one single coverage is required to

  16. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-31

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOIWM Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, the Cooperative Agreement was modified (Mod AO11) on 8 October 1996, authorizing the transition born Budget Period No. 2 (Design and Construction) to the . final Budget Period (Commissioning, Start-up, and Operation), A draft Topical Report on Process Economics Studies concludes that methanol coproduction with integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power utilizing the LPMEOW process technology, will be competitive in serving local market needs. Planning for a proof-of- concept test run of the liquid phase dimethyl ether (DME) process at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) was recommended; and a deeision to proceed is pending. Construction (Task 2.2) is 97'Mo complete, asof31 December 1996. Completion of pipe pressure testing has taken longer than expected. This will delay completion of construction by about three weeks. Commissioning activities (Task 2.3) commenced in mid-October of 1996, and the demonstration unit is scheduled to be mechanically complete on 24 January 1997.

  17. Coke oven gas to methanol process integrated with CO_2 recycle for high energy efficiency, economic benefits and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Min-hui; Yi, Qun; Huang, Yi; Wu, Guo-sheng; Hao, Yan-hong; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO_2 recycle assistance with COG to CH_3OH with dry reforming is proposed. • New process with dry reforming improves H_2 utilization and energy saving. • Process with H_2 separation (CWHS) is more preferable to CH_3OH output. • CWHS shows an excellent performance in energy, economy and CO_2 emission reduction. - Abstract: A process of CO_2 recycle to supply carbon for assisting with coke oven gas to methanol process is proposed to realize clean and efficient coke oven gas utilization. Two CO_2 recycle schemes with respect to coke oven gas, namely with and without H_2 separation before reforming, are developed. It is revealed that the process with H_2 separation is more beneficial to element and energy efficiency improvement, and it also presents a better techno-economic performance in comparison with the conventional coke oven gas to methanol process. The exergy efficiency, direct CO_2 emission, and internal rate of return of the process with H_2 separation are 73.9%, 0.69 t/t-methanol, and 35.1%, respectively. This excellent performance implies that reforming technology selection, H_2 utilization efficiency, and CO_2 recycle ways have important influences on the performance of the coke oven gas to methanol process. The findings of this study represent significant progress for future improvements of the coke oven gas to methanol process, especially CO_2 conversion integrated with coke oven gas utilization in the coking industry.

  18. Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas via a supercritical methanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, N.N.A.N.; Kamarudin, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents the techno-economic of a production of biodiesel from JCO. • The results obtained 99.96% of biodiesel with 96.49% of pure glycerol. • This proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive compare to other resources. - Abstract: This paper presents the conceptual design and economic evaluation of a production of methyl esters (biodiesel) from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) via a supercritical methanol process with glycerol as a by-product. The process consists of four major units: transesterification (PFR), methanol recovery (FT) and (DC1), recovery of glycerol (DEC), and biodiesel purification (DC2). The material and heat balance are also presented here. A biodiesel production of 40,000 tonnes-yr −1 is taken as case study. Biodiesel obtained from supercritical transesterification with Jatropha curcas oil as feedstock resulting in high purity methyl esters (99.96%) with almost pure glycerol (96.49%) obtained as by-product. The biodiesel can be sold at USD 0.78 kg −1 , while the manufacturing and capital investment costs are in the range of USD 25.39 million-year −1 and USD 9.41 million year −1 , respectively. This study proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive with purities comparable to those found in other studies

  19. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ~ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2-2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation.

  20. Evaporation phase change processes of water/methanol mixtures on superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Cheng-Kun; Lu, Yen-Wen

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation phenomena are a critical and frequently seen phase change process in many heat transfer applications. In this paper, we study the evaporation process of a sessile droplet on two topologically different surfaces, including smooth and nanostructured surfaces. The nanostructured surface has an array of high-aspect-ratio nanowires (height/diameter ∼ 125) and is implemented by using a simple template-based nanofabrication method. It possesses superhydrophobicity (>140°) and low contact angle hysteresis (1.2–2.1°), allowing the liquid droplets to remain in the 'fakir' state throughout the evaporation processes. Sessile droplets of deionized (DI) water and water/methanol binary mixture test liquids with their contact angles and base diameters are monitored. The results show that the nanostructures play a critical role in the droplet dynamics during evaporation

  1. Selection of Sustainable Processes using Sustainability Footprint Method: A Case Study of Methanol Production from Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical products can be obtained by process pathways involving varying amounts and types of resources, utilities, and byproduct formation. When such competing process options such as six processes for making methanol as are considered in this study, it is necessary to identify t...

  2. MOLECULAR SIEVES AS CATALYSTS FOR METHANOL DEHYDRATION IN THE LPDMEtm PROCESS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-01-01

    Several classes of molecular sieves were investigated as methanol dehydration catalysts for the LPDME(trademark) (liquid-phase dimethyl ether) process. Molecular sieves offer a number of attractive features as potential catalysts for the conversion of methanol to DME. These include (1) a wide range of acid strengths, (2) diverse architectures and channel connectivities that provide latitude for steric control, (3) high active site density, (4) well-investigated syntheses and characterization, and (5) commercial availability in some cases. We directed our work in two areas: (1) a general exploration of the catalytic behavior of various classes of molecular sieves in the LPDME(trademark) system and (2) a focused effort to prepare and test zeolites with predominantly Lewis acidity. In our general exploration, we looked at such diverse materials as chabazites, mordenites, pentasils, SAPOs, and ALPOs. Our work with Lewis acidity sought to exploit the structural advantages of zeolites without the interfering effects of deleterious Broensted sites. We used zeolite Ultrastable Y (USY) as our base material because it possesses a high proportion of Lewis acid sites. This work was extended by modifying the USY through ion exchange to try to neutralize residual Broensted acidity

  3. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOW Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, initial planning and procurement work began on the seven project sites which have been accepted for participation in the off-site, methanol product-use test plan. Two of the projects have begun pre-testing of equipment and three other projects have commenced with equipment procurement, Methanol produced from carbon monoxide (CO)- rich syngas at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, TX has been shipped to four of the project sites in anticipation of the start of testing during the first quarter of calendar year 1998. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for a freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laboratory autoclave), continued to decline more rapidly than expected. In response to concentrations of arsenic and sulfbr detected on catalyst samples from the LPMEOW Reactor, Eastman replaced both the arsine- and sulfiwremoval material in the Eastman guard bed which treats the primary syngas feed stream (&danced Gas) prior to its introduction into both the Eastman fixed-bed methanol plant and the LPMEOWM Demonstration Unit. After restarting the demonstration unit, the catalyst deactivation rate remained essentially unchanged. Parallel testing in the laboratory using arsine-doped, and subsequently arsine- and SuIfi-doped syngas, ako ftiIed to prove that arsine was responsible for the higher-than-expected rate of

  4. Achieving a More Sustainable Process Design for the Production of Methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Gonzalez Garcia, Marta; Callau, Ana Diez

    Methanol is an important chemical product because it can be used as a raw material for the production of other chemicals (1), for example dimethyl carbonate, formaldehyde and methyl tert-butyl ether and it is also one of the most produced bulk chemicals with an annual global production of 100...... million metric tonnes per year (1). Methanol can be produced using different reaction paths, for example natural gas. If natural gas is used for methanol production then CO2 is produced, utilized and can be emitted. Therefore, achieving a more sustainable design for the production of methanol...

  5. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH(TM)) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-06-30

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHTM) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOIYM Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. During this quarter, comments from the DOE on the Topical Report "Economic Analysis - LPMEOHTM Process as an Add-on to IGCC for Coproduction" were received. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing for the coproduction of dimethyl ether (DIME) and methanol was made. DME design verification testing studies show the liquid phase DME (LPDME) process will have a significant economic advantage for the coproduction of DME for local markets. An LPDME catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed. A recommendation document summarizing catalyst targets, experimental results, and the corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst was issued on 30 June 1997. The off-site, product-use test plan was updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Acurex Environmental Corporation and Air Products screened proposals for this task by the likelihood of the projects to proceed and the timing for the initial methanol requirement. Eight sites from the list have met these criteria. The formal submission of the eight projects for review and concurrence by the DOE will be made during the next reporting period. The site paving and final painting were completed in May of 1997. Start-up activities were completed during the reporting period, and the initial methanol production from the demonstration unit occurred on 02 April 1997. The first extended stable operation at the nameplate capacity of 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons

  6. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state

  7. Methanol Synthesis: Optimal Solution for a Better Efficiency of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Leonzio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an ANOVA analysis and a response surface methodology are applied to analyze the equilibrium of methanol reaction from pure carbon dioxide and hydrogen. In the ANOVA analysis, carbon monoxide composition in the feed, reaction temperature, recycle and water removal through a zeolite membrane are the analyzed factors. Carbon conversion, methanol yield, methanol productivity and methanol selectivity are the analyzed responses. Results show that main factors have the same effect on responses and a common significant interaction is not present. Carbon monoxide composition and water removal have a positive effect, while temperature and recycle have a negative effect on the system. From central composite design, an optimal solution is found in order to overcome thermodynamic limit: the reactor works with a membrane at lower temperature with carbon monoxide composition in the feed equal to 10 mol % and without recycle. In these conditions, carbon conversion, methanol yield, methanol selectivity, and methanol production are, respectively, higher than 60%, higher than 60%, between 90% and 95% and higher than 0.15 mol/h when considering a feed flow rate of 1 mol/h. A comparison with a traditional reactor is also developed: the membrane reactor ensures to have a carbon conversion higher of the 29% and a methanol yield higher of the 34%. Future researches should evaluate an economic analysis about the optimal solution.

  8. Methanol as an energy source and/or energy carrier in membrane processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Basile, A.; Drioli, E.

    2007-01-01

    Methanol is commonly considered a hydrogen source and/or hydrogen carrier. In fact, methanol can be produced by partial oxidation of biomass and in this case it is considered a source for hydrogen and therefore for energy. It can also be produced from carbon dioxide and hydrogen; in this case, it

  9. Optimization of a gas turbine in the methanol process, using the NLP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralj, Anita Kovac; Glavic, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Heat and power integration can reduce fuel usage, CO 2 and SO 2 emissions and, thereby, pollution. In the simultaneous heat and power integration approach and including additional production, the optimization problem is formulated using a simplified process superstructure. Nonlinear programming (NLP) contains equations which enable structural heat and power integration and parametric optimization. In the present work, the NLP model is formulated as an optimum energy target of process integration and electricity generation using a gas turbine with a separator. The reactor acts as a combustion chamber of the gas turbine plant, producing high temperature. The simultaneous NLP approach can account for capital cost, integration of combined heat and power, process modification, and additional production trade-offs accurately, and can thus yield a better solution. It gives better results than non-simultaneous methods. The NLP model does not guarantee a global cost optimum, but it does lead to good, perhaps near optimum designs. This approach is illustrated by an existing, complex methanol production process. The objective function generates a possible increase in annual profit of 1.7 MEUR/a

  10. Optimal Design of Safety Instrumented Systems for Pressure Control of Methanol Separation Columns in the Bisphenol a Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Bok Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A bisphenol A production plant possesses considerable potential risks in the top of the methanol separation column, as pressurized acetone, methanol, and water are processed at an elevated temperature, especially in the event of an abnormal pressure increase due to a sudden power outage. This study assesses the potential risks in the methanol separation column through hazard and operability assessments and evaluates the damages in the case of fire and explosion accident scenarios. The study chooses three leakage scenarios: a 5-mm puncture on the methanol separation column, a 50-mm diameter fracture of a discharge pipe and a catastrophic rupture, and, simulated using Phast (Ver. 6.531, the concentration distribution of scattered methanol, thermal radiation distribution of fires, and overpressure distribution of vapor cloud explosions. Implementation of a safety-instrumented system equipped with two-out-of-three voting as a safety measure can detect overpressure at the top of the column and shut down the main control valve and the emergency shutoff valve simultaneously. By applying a safety integrity level of three, the maximal release volume of the safety relief valve can be reduced and, therefore, the design capacity of the flare stack can also be reduced. Such integration will lead to improved safety at a reduced cost.

  11. The removal of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) from contaminated water by advanced oxidation processes in the presence of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Tawabini, B.S. [Research Inst., King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2003-07-01

    A bench-scale laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effect of alcohol (i.e. methanol) presence on the removal efficiency of phthalates from water using Fenton's reagent and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was selected as a target compound. In one batch of experiments, only DMP was spiked into pure water, while in the other batch, DMP was initially dissolved in methanol prior to spiking into water samples. A UV lamp of 100 m Watt emitting at a wavelength of approximately 254 nm was used to provide the radiation. Temperature and pH conditions were kept constant at 25 C and 3, respectively. The results showed that Fenton's reagent was effective in reducing the concentration of DMP in water in the absence of the methanol. More than 90% of DMP was removed within 45 minutes at hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and ferrous ion (Fe{sup 2+}) concentrations of 1.0 and 0.4 mM respectively. However, Fenton's reagent failed to do so in the presence of methanol. On the other hand, results showed that UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system was effective in removing DMP from both pure, as well as methanol-spiked water. The results clearly indicated that UV radiation plays a fundamental role in the degradation of the target compound. (orig.)

  12. Challenges in the Greener Production of Formates/Formic Acid, Methanol, and DME by Heterogeneously Catalyzed CO2 Hydrogenation Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Álvarez, Andrea

    2017-06-28

    The recent advances in the development of heterogeneous catalysts and processes for the direct hydrogenation of CO2 to formate/formic acid, methanol, and dimethyl ether are thoroughly reviewed, with special emphasis on thermodynamics and catalyst design considerations. After introducing the main motivation for the development of such processes, we first summarize the most important aspects of CO2 capture and green routes to produce H2. Once the scene in terms of feedstocks is introduced, we carefully summarize the state of the art in the development of heterogeneous catalysts for these important hydrogenation reactions. Finally, in an attempt to give an order of magnitude regarding CO2 valorization, we critically assess economical aspects of the production of methanol and DME and outline future research and development directions.

  13. A nanogravimmetric investigation of the charging processes on ruthenium oxide thin films and their effect on methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.C.; Cogo, L.; Tanimoto, S.T.; Calegaro, M.L.; Bulhoes, L.O.S

    2006-01-01

    The charging processes and methanol oxidation that occur during the oxidation-reduction cycles in a ruthenium oxide thin film electrode (deposited by the sol-gel method on Pt covered quartz crystals) were investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance techniques. The ruthenium oxide rutile phase structure was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The results obtained during the charging of rutile ruthenium oxide films indicate that in the anodic sweep the transition from Ru(II) to Ru(VI) occurs followed by proton de-intercalation. In the cathodic sweep, electron injection occurs followed by proton intercalation, leading to Ru(II). The proton intercalation/de-intercalation processes can be inferred from the mass/charge relationship which gives a slope close to 1 g mol -1 (multiplied by the Faraday constant) corresponding to the molar mass of hydrogen. From the chronoamperometric measurements, charge and mass saturation of the RuO 2 thin films was observed (440 ng cm -2 ) during the charging processes, which is related to the total number of active sites in these films. Using the electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance technique to study the methanol oxidation reaction at these films was possible to demonstrate that bulk oxidation occurs without the formation of strongly adsorbed intermediates such as CO ads , demonstrating that Pt electrodes modified by ruthenium oxide particles can be promising catalysts for the methanol oxidation as already shown in the literature

  14. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-21

    he Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOEP Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. The LPMEOHW Demonstration Facility completed its first year of operation on 02 April 1998. The LPMEOW Demonstration Facility also completed the longest continuous operating run (65 days) on 21 April 1998. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laboratory autoclave), was monitored throughout the reporting period. During a six-week test at a reactor temperature of 225oC and Balanced Gas flowrate of 700 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was steady at 0.29-0.36% per day. During a second one-month test at a reactor temperature of 220oC and a Balanced Gas flowrate of 550-600 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was 0.4% per day, which matched the pefiorrnance at 225"C, as well as the 4-month proof-of-concept run at the LaPorte AFDU in 1988/89. Beginning on 08 May 1998, the LPMEOW Reactor temperature was increased to 235oC, which was the operating temperature tier the December 1997 restart with the fresh charge of catalyst (50'Yo of design loading). The flowrate of the primary syngas feed stream (Balanced Gas) was also increased to 700-750 KSCFH. During two stable operating periods between 08 May and 09 June 1998, the average catalyst deactivation rate was 0.8% per day. Due to the scatter of the statistical analysis of the results, this test was extended to better

  15. First principle chemical kinetics in zeolites: the methanol-to-olefin process as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Speybroeck, Veronique; De Wispelaere, Kristof; Van der Mynsbrugge, Jeroen; Vandichel, Matthias; Hemelsoet, Karen; Waroquier, Michel

    2014-11-07

    To optimally design next generation catalysts a thorough understanding of the chemical phenomena at the molecular scale is a prerequisite. Apart from qualitative knowledge on the reaction mechanism, it is also essential to be able to predict accurate rate constants. Molecular modeling has become a ubiquitous tool within the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, we review current computational procedures to determine chemical kinetics from first principles, thus by using no experimental input and by modeling the catalyst and reacting species at the molecular level. Therefore, we use the methanol-to-olefin (MTO) process as a case study to illustrate the various theoretical concepts. This process is a showcase example where rational design of the catalyst was for a long time performed on the basis of trial and error, due to insufficient knowledge of the mechanism. For theoreticians the MTO process is particularly challenging as the catalyst has an inherent supramolecular nature, for which not only the Brønsted acidic site is important but also organic species, trapped in the zeolite pores, must be essentially present during active catalyst operation. All these aspects give rise to specific challenges for theoretical modeling. It is shown that present computational techniques have matured to a level where accurate enthalpy barriers and rate constants can be predicted for reactions occurring at a single active site. The comparison with experimental data such as apparent kinetic data for well-defined elementary reactions has become feasible as current computational techniques also allow predicting adsorption enthalpies with reasonable accuracy. Real catalysts are truly heterogeneous in a space- and time-like manner. Future theory developments should focus on extending our view towards phenomena occurring at longer length and time scales and integrating information from various scales towards a unified understanding of the catalyst. Within this respect molecular

  16. Analysis of transesterification comparing processes with methanol and ethanol for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz; Park, Kil Jin [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The increasing demand for energy on the industrialized world stimulates researches in a renewable fuel. Biodiesel appears like an alternative and utilizes a vegetable oil or animal fat as raw material. The most common method for conversion of the raw material in fuel that can be utilized in Diesel engines is called transesterification. Brazil has a big agricultural potential to produce grains and oils. One of them is the peanut oil that is predominantly cultivated in the southeast of Brazil. There is a prevision that the peanut production reaches 232 thousand tons this year. In this work was evaluated the methanol transesterification and ethanol transesterification of peanut oil using a basic catalyst. The comparison between reactions with the two alcohols showed that methyl esters yield was greater than ethyl esters, with maximum yield of 88.04% for methanol and 84.64% for ethanol. Besides the higher yield, reactions with methanol are easily conducted than with ethanol, the biodiesel purification treatment of final product is quickly and the separation between esters and glycerol is instantaneous. (author)

  17. Methanol from biomass and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    For Hawaii in the near term, the only liquid fuels indigenous sources will be those that can be made from biomass, and of these, methanol is the most promising. In addition, hydrogen produced by electrolysis can be used to markedly increase the yield of biomass methanol. This paper calculates cost of producing methanol by an integrated system including a geothermal electricity facility plus a plant producing methanol by gasifying biomass and adding hydrogen produced by electrolysis. Other studies cover methanol from biomass without added hydrogen and methanol from biomass by steam and carbon dioxide reforming. Methanol is made in a two-step process: the first is the gasification of biomass by partial oxidation with pure oxygen to produce carbon oxides and hydrogen, and the second is the reaction of gases to form methanol. Geothermal steam is used to generate the electricity used for the electrolysis to produce the added hydrogen

  18. Obtaining low temperature catalysts for methanol synthesis by no-waste process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il' ko, E G; Sushchaya, L E; Bondar' , P G

    1982-11-01

    Low temperature production of catalysts for methanol synthesis involves considerable pollution of the environment as well as formation of side products. The authors propose producing such catalysts from joint precipitates of copper and zinc carbonates includiing stabilizers produced by decomposing solvents, then drying, aging and shaping. This method avoids waste water usually formed in scrubbing to remove ions of alkaline metals. Aluminum hydroxide is suggested as a stabilizer. The catalyst tablets prepared in this way were found to have activity like those produced by other methods, and were suitable for industrial use.

  19. Novel manufacturing process for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) by defined layer structures; Neuartiges Herstellungsverfahren fuer Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzellen (DMFC) durch definierte Schichtstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Thomas

    2007-07-17

    A novel method to prepare membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) by a layer-upon-layer fabrication onto a porous substrate is presented. The novel preparation technique is based on a single method for the fabrication of the whole MEA, e.g. spraying one functional layer onto the other, and therefore simplifies its preparation considerably. It also permits new fuel cell designs with in-plane serial connection of single cells. The new concept offers high flexibility in the choice of cell geometry as well as superior control of the structural parameters. Layer thickness, composition, catalyst and ionomer loadings can easily be varied and adapted. Cells fabricated with the new concept are especially suited for low power micro fuel cells operated at ambient conditions. In this work, process parameters enabling such a layer-upon-layer MEA preparation have been developed. Advanced catalyst inks and electrolyte solutions were formulated as precursors for each functional layer. Nafion {sup registered} as well as polyaryl-based polymers were investigated for the fabrication of dense electrolyte layers. Catalyst layers were prepared from inks containing Pt and PtRu-black catalysts which were suspended in suitable solvents with diluted proton-conducting electrolytes. The critical parameters for the layer build-up were identified and optimized afterwards. Various candidate materials for the porous substrate were characterized and selected for further investigation. Experiments and calculation models led to a concept and an advanced design for a serially connected multi-cells unit on the substrate. The inplane conductivity of the electrodes turned out to be the critical parameter resulting in high ohmic losses especially when the electrodes were applied on non-conductive substrates. Various conductive coatings were tested to selectively increase the conductivity of non-conductive substrates, which are prerequisite for serial connection. Only

  20. Hot new gamble on methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, J.

    1981-10-01

    Methanol from coal, wood, or natural gas is being considered as an extender or an alternative source of gasoline. Firms such as Nova and Celanese are gambling millions on the proposition that methanol is a crucial steppingstone to the fuels and chemicals of the future. With a new process developed by Mobil Oil, methanol from coal could be converted into gasoline. By the 1990s Imperial Oil Ltd. expects there will be at least one methanol plant using Alberta coal. These and other plans by the Alberta and British Columbia governments and by Canadian industry to produce methanol are reported.

  1. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20). Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI) and the ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily) indicating that potential degradation of HBsAg could

  2. The silver catalyst process for converting methanol to formaldehyde - kinetic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzer, E.; Emig, G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie 1

    1998-12-31

    In pre-experiments a tubular reactor was checked whether it is suitable for kinetic measurement on the system of the silver-catalysed partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Detrimental effects of heat-transfer and mass-transfer on the experimental results were ruled out. Investigations on the characteristics of the reaction showed that it is possible to manipulate the composition of the product mixture by changing the inlet concentration of the reactants. A modified power-law model was established to describe the reaction kinetics. It considers the preadsorption step of oxygen on the catalysts surface and fits the experimental data quite well. During the rapid oxidation the catalysts surface undergoes a drastic change. It gets coarse and has an adsorption capacity of 11 m{sup 2}/g after being exposed to the reaction mixture. (orig.)

  3. Development of an Efficient Methanol Production Process for Direct CO2 Hydrogenation over a Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Samimi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and utilization as a raw material for methanol production are options for addressing energy problems and global warming. However, the commercial methanol synthesis catalyst offers a poor efficiency in CO2 feedstock because of a low conversion of CO2 and its deactivation resulting from high water production during the process. To overcome these barriers, an efficient process consisting of three stage heat exchanger reactors was proposed for CO2 hydrogenation. The catalyst volume in the conventional methanol reactor (CR is divided into three sections to load reactors. The product stream of each reactor is conveyed to a flash drum to remove methanol and water from the unreacted gases (H2, CO and CO2. Then, the gaseous stream enters the top of the next reactor as the inlet feed. This novel configuration increases CO2 conversion almost twice compared to one stage reactor. Also to reduce water production, a water permselective membrane was assisted in each reactor to remove water from the reaction side. The proposed process was compared with one stage reactor and CR from coal and natural gas. Methanol is produced 288, 305, 586 and 569 ton/day in CR, one-stage, three-stage and three-stage membrane reactors (MR, respectively. Although methanol production rate in three-stage MR is a bit lower than three stage reactors, the produced water, as the cause of catalyst poisoning, is notably reduced in this configuration. Results show that the proposed process is a strongly feasible way to produce methanol that can competitive with a traditional synthesis process.

  4. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  5. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV–vis Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Goetze, Joris; Yarulina, Irina; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2018-01-01

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained

  6. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV-vis Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetze, Joris; Yarulina, I.; Gascon Sabate, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2018-01-01

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose

  7. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  8. A whole biodiesel conversion process combining isolation, cultivation and in situ supercritical methanol transesterification of native microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazzar, Souhir; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar; Marzouki, Mohamed Néjib; Acién-Fernández, Francisco Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José María; Molina-Grima, Emilio; Smaali, Issam

    2015-08-01

    A coupled process combining microalgae production with direct supercritical biodiesel conversion using a reduced number of operating steps is proposed in this work. Two newly isolated native microalgae strains, identified as Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., were cultivated in both batch and continuous modes. Maximum productivities were achieved during continuous cultures with 318mg/lday and 256mg/lday for Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., respectively. Microalgae were further characterized by determining their photosynthetic performance and nutrient removal efficiency. Biodiesel was produced by catalyst-free in situ supercritical methanol transesterification of wet unwashed algal biomass (75wt.% of moisture). Maximum biodiesel yields of 45.62wt.% and 21.79wt.% were reached for Chlorella sp. and Nannochloris sp., respectively. The analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids of Chlorella sp. showed a decrease in their proportion when comparing conventional and supercritical transesterification processes (from 37.4% to 13.9%, respectively), thus improving the quality of the biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A quantitative study of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process of a Pichia pastoris Mut⁺/pAOX1-lacZ strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongxing; Jost, Laurent; Pirlot, Nathalie; Sassi, Hosni; Daukandt, Marc; Rodriguez, Christian; Fickers, Patrick

    2013-04-08

    One of the main challenges for heterologous protein production by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris at large-scale is related to its high oxygen demand. A promising solution is a co-feeding strategy based on a methanol/sorbitol mixture during the induction phase. Nonetheless, a deep understanding of the cellular physiology and the regulation of the AOX1 promoter, used to govern heterologous protein production, during this co-feeding strategy is still scarce. Transient continuous cultures with a dilution rate of 0.023 h(-1) at 25°C were performed to quantitatively assess the benefits of a methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process with a Mut+ strain in which the pAOX1-lacZ construct served as a reporter gene. Cell growth and metabolism, including O2 consumption together with CO2 and heat production were analyzed with regard to a linear change of methanol fraction in the mixed feeding media. In addition, the regulation of the promoter AOX1 was investigated by means of β-galactosidase measurements. Our results demonstrated that the cell-specific oxygen consumption (qO2) could be reduced by decreasing the methanol fraction in the feeding media. More interestingly, maximal β-galactosidase cell-specific activity (>7500 Miller unit) and thus, optimal pAOX1 induction, was achieved and maintained in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.75 C-mol/C-mol of methanol fraction. In addition, the qO2 was reduced by 30% at most in those conditions. Based on a simplified metabolic network, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed to quantify intracellular metabolic flux distributions during the transient continuous cultures, which further shed light on the advantages of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process. Finally, our observations were further validated in fed-batch cultures. This study brings quantitative insight into the co-feeding process, which provides valuable data for the control of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding, aiming at enhancing biomass and heterologous protein productivities

  10. A quantitative study of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process of a Pichia pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main challenges for heterologous protein production by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris at large-scale is related to its high oxygen demand. A promising solution is a co-feeding strategy based on a methanol/sorbitol mixture during the induction phase. Nonetheless, a deep understanding of the cellular physiology and the regulation of the AOX1 promoter, used to govern heterologous protein production, during this co-feeding strategy is still scarce. Results Transient continuous cultures with a dilution rate of 0.023 h-1 at 25°C were performed to quantitatively assess the benefits of a methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process with a Mut+ strain in which the pAOX1-lacZ construct served as a reporter gene. Cell growth and metabolism, including O2 consumption together with CO2 and heat production were analyzed with regard to a linear change of methanol fraction in the mixed feeding media. In addition, the regulation of the promoter AOX1 was investigated by means of β-galactosidase measurements. Our results demonstrated that the cell-specific oxygen consumption (qO2) could be reduced by decreasing the methanol fraction in the feeding media. More interestingly, maximal β-galactosidase cell-specific activity (>7500 Miller unit) and thus, optimal pAOX1 induction, was achieved and maintained in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.75 C-mol/C-mol of methanol fraction. In addition, the qO2 was reduced by 30% at most in those conditions. Based on a simplified metabolic network, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed to quantify intracellular metabolic flux distributions during the transient continuous cultures, which further shed light on the advantages of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process. Finally, our observations were further validated in fed-batch cultures. Conclusion This study brings quantitative insight into the co-feeding process, which provides valuable data for the control of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding, aiming at enhancing biomass and

  11. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  12. The `ASCAB` process of producing synthesis gas (methanol, ammonia) or medium joule gas from lignin-cellulose materials (wood, sugar cane wastes, peat, straw, agricultural wastes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, J

    1988-12-31

    The aim of this work is to relate the build a demonstration unit at a small city in France, on the principle of pressurized gasification of lignin-cellulose biomass with oxygen and steam, for the production of methanol, ammonia and low btu gases. In another type of application, the process should also be used for the incineration of some industrial wastes. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Methanol and carbonylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, J.; Perron, R.

    1987-01-01

    The overall focus of the book is on homogeneous catalysed processes which were seen to offer the most promising routes to C/sub 2/ oxygenates. The first three chapters review the industrial synthesis and applications of carbon monoxide such as in the manufacture of gasoline (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch, Mobil processes), organic chemicals (e.g. ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), industrial importance of C/sub 2/ oxygenates, and use of methanol as a future feedstock are discussed. The next six chapters are each concerned with the production of a particular C/sub 2/ oxygenate and a detailed analysis of the methods and catalysts used. The hydrocarbonylation of methanol occupies a large chapter (136 references) with a comparative examination of the catalysts available, and their modification to increase selectivity to either acetylaldehyde or ethanol. Following chapters examine the synthesis of ethyl acetate, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, vinyl acetate, ethylene glycol and oxalic acid.

  14. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  15. Endogenous methanol regulates mammalian gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.

  16. Methanol absorption characteristics for the removal of H2S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) in a pilot-scale biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Myung Won; Yun, Young Min; Cho, Won Chul; Ra, Ho Won; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Kim, Yong Ku; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, See Hoon; Eom, Won Hyun; Lee, Uen Do; Lee, Sang Bong

    2014-01-01

    The BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is an attractive process that produces liquid biofuels from biomass. The FT (Fisher–Tropsch) process is used to produce synfuels such as diesel and gasoline from gasified biomass. However, the H 2 S (hydrogen sulfide), COS (carbonyl sulfide) and CO 2 (carbon dioxide) in the syngas that are produced from the biomass gasifiers cause a decrease of the conversion efficiency and deactivates the catalyst that is used in the FT process. To remove the acid gases, a pilot-scale methanol absorption tower producing diesel at a rate of 1 BPD (barrel per day) was developed, and the removal characteristics of the acid gases were determined. A total operation time of 500 h was achieved after several campaigns. The average syngas flow rate at the inlet of methanol absorption tower ranged from 300 to 800 L/min. The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H 2 S from 30 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV and COS from 2 ppmV to less than 1 ppmV with a removal of CO 2 from 20% to 5%. The outlet gas composition adhered to the guidelines for FT reactors. No remaining sulfurous components were found, and the tar component was analyzed in the spent methanol after long-term operations. - Highlights: • The gas cleaning system in a pilot-scale BTL (biomass-to-liquid) process is reported. • Although methanol absorption tower is conventional process, its application to BTL process is attempted. • The methanol absorption tower efficiently removed H 2 S, COS and CO 2 in the syngas. • The sulfurous and tar components in the methanol are analyzed

  17. Process chain analysis for methanol production from biomass with the aid of mathematical models; Prozesskettenanalyse fuer die Methanolerzeugung aus Biomasse mit Hilfe von mathematischen Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Using the example of primary energy consumption for methanol production from cellulose-rich biomass, it is shown that process chain analysis with mathematical modelling of the technical systems enables calculations of eco-inventories as a function of the relevant process parameters. Optimisation of process chains with regard to ecological indicators or cost necessitates mathematical modelling because of the many different parameters and parameter combinations involved. (orig) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Primaerenergieaufwands bei der Methanolgewinnung aus zellulosealtiger Biomasse wurde gezeigt, dass die Prozesskettenanalyse mit Abbildung der technischen Systeme in mathematischen Modellen die Berechnung von Oekoinventaren in Abhaengigkeit der relevanten Prozessparameter erlaubt. Die Optimierung von Prozessketten hinsichtlich oekologischer Indikatoren oder Kosten ist wegen der Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Parametern und deren Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten nur mit Hilfe mathematischer Modelle moeglich. (orig)

  18. Process chain analysis for methanol production from biomass with the aid of mathematical models; Prozesskettenanalyse fuer die Methanolerzeugung aus Biomasse mit Hilfe von mathematischen Modellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saller, G; Krumm, W [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Using the example of primary energy consumption for methanol production from cellulose-rich biomass, it is shown that process chain analysis with mathematical modelling of the technical systems enables calculations of eco-inventories as a function of the relevant process parameters. Optimisation of process chains with regard to ecological indicators or cost necessitates mathematical modelling because of the many different parameters and parameter combinations involved. (orig) [Deutsch] Am Beispiel des Primaerenergieaufwands bei der Methanolgewinnung aus zellulosealtiger Biomasse wurde gezeigt, dass die Prozesskettenanalyse mit Abbildung der technischen Systeme in mathematischen Modellen die Berechnung von Oekoinventaren in Abhaengigkeit der relevanten Prozessparameter erlaubt. Die Optimierung von Prozessketten hinsichtlich oekologischer Indikatoren oder Kosten ist wegen der Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Parametern und deren Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten nur mit Hilfe mathematischer Modelle moeglich. (orig)

  19. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  20. Generation of gaseous methanol reference standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geib, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Methanol has been proposed as an automotive fuel component. Reliable, accurate methanol standards are essential to support widespread monitoring programs. The monitoring programs may include quantification of methanol from tailpipe emissions, evaporative emissions, plus ambient air methanol measurements. This paper will present approaches and results in the author's investigation to develop high accuracy methanol standards. The variables upon which the authors will report results are as follows: (1) stability of methanol gas standards, the studies will focus on preparation requirements and stability results from 10 to 1,000 ppmv; (2) cylinder to instrument delivery system components and purge technique, these studies have dealt with materials in contact with the sample stream plus static versus flow injection; (3) optimization of gas chromatographic analytical system will be discussed; (4) gas chromatography and process analyzer results and utility for methanol analysis will be presented; (5) the accuracy of the methanol standards will be qualified using data from multiple studies including: (a) gravimetric preparation; (b) linearity studies; (c) independent standards sources such as low pressure containers and diffusion tubes. The accuracy will be provided as a propagation of error from multiple sources. The methanol target concentrations will be 10 to 500 ppmv

  1. Measurements of the phase behavior of ternary systems of interest to the gas process: II : the system CO2 + methanol + prednisolone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Tesauro, C.; Reverchon, E.; Peters, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the phase behavior of the ternary system carbon dioxide + methanol + prednisolone has been studied experimentally. For this purpose, carbon dioxide has been chosen as the anti-solvent gas, methanol as the organic solvent, and prednisolone as the model drug that should be micronized

  2. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  3. Electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol using PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts prepared by an alcohol-reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Almir Oliveira; Dias, Ricardo R.; Tusi, Marcelo M.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinace, Estevam V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-03-30

    PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts were prepared by the alcohol reduction process using ethylene glycol as the solvent and reduction agent and Vulcan Carbon XC72 as the support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation of methanol and ethanol were studied by chronoamperometry using a thin porous coating technique. The PtSn/C electrocatalyst prepared by this methodology showed superior performance compared to the PtRu/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation at room temperature. (author)

  4. Electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol using PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts prepared by an alcohol-reduction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Almir Oliveira; Dias, Ricardo R.; Tusi, Marcelo M.; Linardi, Marcelo; Spinacé, Estevam V.

    PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts were prepared by the alcohol reduction process using ethylene glycol as the solvent and reduction agent and Vulcan Carbon XC72 as the support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical oxidation of methanol and ethanol were studied by chronoamperometry using a thin porous coating technique. The PtSn/C electrocatalyst prepared by this methodology showed superior performance compared to the PtRu/C and PtSnRu/C electrocatalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation at room temperature.

  5. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  6. Catalytic methanol dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Shindler, Y.; Tatrtakovsky, L.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the methanol dissociation study on copper/potassium catalyst with alumina support at various temperatures are presented. The following gaseous and liquid products at. The catalytic methanol dissociation is obtained: hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and dimethyl ether. Formation rates of these products are discussed. Activation energies of corresponding reactions are calculated

  7. Methanol fuel update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colledge, R.; Spacek, J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of methanol fuel developments, with particular reference to infrastructure, supply and marketing. Methanol offers reduced emissions, easy handling, is cost effective, can be produced from natural gas, coal, wood, or municipal waste, is a high performance fuel, is safer than gasoline, and contributes to energy security. Methanol supply, environmental benefits, safety/health issues, economics, passenger car economics, status of passenger car technology, buses, methanol and the prosperity initiative, challenges to implementation, and the role of government and original equipment manufacturers are discussed. Governments must assist in the provision of methanol refuelling infrastructure, and in providing an encouraging regulatory atmosphere. Discriminatory and inequitable taxing methods must be addressed, and an air quality agenda must be defined to allow the alternative fuel industry to respond in a timely manner

  8. Reduction of FFA in jatropha curcas oil via sequential direct-ultrasonic irradiation and dosage of methanol/sulfuric acid catalyst mixture on esterification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade-Tacca, Cesar Augusto; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Ji, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yi-Yu; Yen, Yue-Quen; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic irradiation (UI) can auto-induce temperature rise. • Esterification at higher temperature (T) by UI offers greater reduction of acid value. • Sequential UI and catalyst dosing enhance esterification conversion efficiency (η). • UR of jatropha oil at higher T results in less water content on ester as product. • A 99.35% of η is achievable via sequential UI and dosing of 5 mL per dose. - Abstract: Production of jatropha-ester (JO-ester) from jatropha oil (JO) under sequential direct-ultrasonic irradiation (UI) with auto-induced temperature rise followed by adding a mixture of methanol/sulfuric-acid catalyst (M/C) dose between high temperature intervals was studied. Comparisons with various doses of 5, 10, 16.6 and 25 mL at different temperature intervals of 108.9–120 °C, 100–120 °C, 85–120 °C and 75–120 °C respectively were performed. System parameters examined include: esterification times (t E ) for UI, settling time (t S ) after esterification and temperature (T). Properties of acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), kinematic viscosity (kV), density (ρ LO ) and water content (m w ) of JO and JO-ester product were measured. The esterification conversion efficiencies (η) were determined and assessed. An η of 99.35% was obtained at temperature interval of 108.9–120 °C with 5 mL per dose for 20 doses and t E of 167.39 min (denoted as Process U 120-5 ), which is slightly higher than η of 98.87% at temperature interval of 75–120 °C with 25 mL per dose for 4 doses and t E of 108.79 min (noted as Process U 120-25 ). The JO-ester obtained via sequential UI with adding doses of 5 mL possess AV of 0.24 mg KOH/g, IV of 124.77 g I 2 /100 g, kV of 9.89 mm 2 /s, ρ LO of 901.73 kg/m 3 and m w of 0.3 wt.% showing that sequential UI and dose at higher temperature interval can give higher reduction of AV compared with 36.56 mg KOH/g of original oil. The effects of t S and t E on AV are of minor and moderate importance

  9. Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-30

    The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.

  10. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Compact Fuel-Cell System Would Consume Neat Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Kindler, Andrew; Valdez, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed direct methanol fuel-cell electric-power-generating system, the fuel cells would consume neat methanol, in contradistinction to the dilute aqueous methanol solutions consumed in prior direct methanol fuel-cell systems. The design concept of the proposed fuel-cell system takes advantage of (1) electro-osmotic drag and diffusion processes to manage the flows of hydrogen and water between the anode and the cathode and (2) evaporative cooling for regulating temperature. The design concept provides for supplying enough water to the anodes to enable the use of neat methanol while ensuring conservation of water for the whole fuel-cell system.

  12. The Asian methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future

  13. Integrated methanol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a plant for methanol manufacture from gasified coal, particularly using nuclear power. In order to reduce the cost of the hydrogen circuits, the methanol synthesis is integrated in the coal gasification plant. The coal used is gasified with hydration by means of hydrogen and the crude gas emerging, after cooling and separating the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, is mixed with the synthetic gas leaving the methane cracking furnace. This mixture is taken to the methanol synthesis and more than 90% is converted into methanol in one pass. The gas mixture remaning after condensation and separation of methanol is decomposed into three fractions in low temperature gas decomposition with a high proportion of unconverted carbon monoxide. The flow of methane is taken to the cracking furnace with steam, the flow of hydrogen is taken to the hydrating coal gasifier, and the flow of carbon monoxide is taken to the methanol synthesis. The heat required for cracking the methane can either be provided by a nuclear reactor or by the coke left after hydrating gasification. (orig./RB) [de

  14. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  15. World scale fuel methanol facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapor, M.C.; Hederman, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Since the Administration announced a clean alternative fuels initiative, industry and government agencies' analyses of the economics of methanol as an alternative motor vehicle fuel have accelerated. In the short run, methanol appears attractive because excess production capacity currently has depressed methanol prices and marginal costs of production are lower than other fuels (current excess capacity). In the long run, however, full costs are the more relevant. To lower average production costs, U.S. policy interest has focused on production from a world-scale, 10,000 tons per day (tpd) methanol plant facility on a foreign site. This paper reviews several important site and financial considerations in a framework to evaluate large scale plant development. These considerations include: risks associated with a large process plant; supply economics of foreign sites; and investment climates and financial incentives for foreign investment at foreign sites

  16. Insights into the Activity and Deactivation of the Methanol-to-Olefins Process over Different Small-Pore Zeolites As Studied with Operando UV–vis Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The nature and evolution of the hydrocarbon pool (HP) species during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process for three small-pore zeolite catalysts, with a different framework consisting of large cages interconnected by small eight-ring windows (CHA, DDR, and LEV) was studied at reaction temperatures between 350 and 450 °C using a combination of operando UV–vis spectroscopy and online gas chromatography. It was found that small differences in cage size, shape, and pore structure of the zeolite frameworks result in the generation of different hydrocarbon pool species. More specifically, it was found that the large cage of CHA results in the formation of a wide variety of hydrocarbon pool species, mostly alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes. In the DDR cage, 1-methylnaphthalene is preferentially formed, while the small LEV cage generally contains fewer hydrocarbon pool species. The nature and evolution of these hydrocarbon pool species was linked with the stage of the reaction using a multivariate analysis of the operando UV–vis spectra. In the 3-D pore network of CHA, the reaction temperature has only a minor effect on the performance of the MTO catalyst. However, for the 2-D pore networks of DDR and LEV, an increase in the applied reaction temperature resulted in a dramatic increase in catalytic activity. For all zeolites in this study, the role of the hydrocarbon species changes with reaction temperature. This effect is most clear in DDR, in which diamantane and 1-methylnaphthalene are deactivating species at a reaction temperature of 350 °C, whereas at higher temperatures diamantane formation is not observed and 1-methylnaphthalene is an active species. This results in a different amount and nature of coke species in the deactivated catalyst, depending on zeolite framework and reaction temperature. PMID:28603658

  17. Insights into the Activity and Deactivation of the Methanol-to-Olefins Process over Different Small-Pore Zeolites As Studied with Operando UV-vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Joris; Meirer, Florian; Yarulina, Irina; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2017-06-02

    The nature and evolution of the hydrocarbon pool (HP) species during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process for three small-pore zeolite catalysts, with a different framework consisting of large cages interconnected by small eight-ring windows (CHA, DDR, and LEV) was studied at reaction temperatures between 350 and 450 °C using a combination of operando UV-vis spectroscopy and online gas chromatography. It was found that small differences in cage size, shape, and pore structure of the zeolite frameworks result in the generation of different hydrocarbon pool species. More specifically, it was found that the large cage of CHA results in the formation of a wide variety of hydrocarbon pool species, mostly alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes. In the DDR cage, 1-methylnaphthalene is preferentially formed, while the small LEV cage generally contains fewer hydrocarbon pool species. The nature and evolution of these hydrocarbon pool species was linked with the stage of the reaction using a multivariate analysis of the operando UV-vis spectra. In the 3-D pore network of CHA, the reaction temperature has only a minor effect on the performance of the MTO catalyst. However, for the 2-D pore networks of DDR and LEV, an increase in the applied reaction temperature resulted in a dramatic increase in catalytic activity. For all zeolites in this study, the role of the hydrocarbon species changes with reaction temperature. This effect is most clear in DDR, in which diamantane and 1-methylnaphthalene are deactivating species at a reaction temperature of 350 °C, whereas at higher temperatures diamantane formation is not observed and 1-methylnaphthalene is an active species. This results in a different amount and nature of coke species in the deactivated catalyst, depending on zeolite framework and reaction temperature.

  18. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV-vis Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Joris; Yarulina, Irina; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2018-03-02

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV-vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV-vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c -axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV-vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  19. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV–vis Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV–vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV–vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c-axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV–vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  20. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV–vis Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Goetze, Joris

    2018-02-06

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV–vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV–vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c-axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV–vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  1. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, N. F. I.; Hasran, U. A.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell.

  2. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, N F I; Hasran, U A; Kamarudin, S K

    2015-01-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell. (paper)

  3. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  4. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  5. Determination of N-nitrosamines in processed meats by liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-methanol chemical ionisation/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Marina Bergoli; Sabik, Hassan; Gariépy, Claude; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Arul, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    A simple, accessible and reproducible method was developed and validated as an alternative for the determination of nine volatile N-nitrosamines (NAs) in meat products, using a low volume of organic solvent and without requiring specific apparatus, offering the possibility of practical implementation in routine laboratories. The NAs were extracted with dichloromethane followed by a clean-up with phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-chemical ionisation/mass spectrometry (GC-CI/MS) in positive-ion mode using methanol as reagent. Limits of detection and quantification, recovery and reproducibility were determined for all NAs (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosodipropylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosodiphenylamine). Satisfactory sensitivity and selectivity were obtained even without concentrating the extract by solvent evaporation, avoiding the loss of the nine NAs studied. Limits of detection ranged from 0.15 to 0.37 µg kg(-1), whereas limits of quantification ranged from 0.50 to 1.24 µg kg(-1). Recoveries calculated in cooked ham that had been spiked at 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) were found to be between 70% and 114% with an average relative standard deviation of 13.2%. The method was successfully used to analyse five samples of processed meat products on the day of purchase and 7 days later (after storage at 4°C). The most abundant NAs found in the analysed products were N-nitrosodipropylamine and N-nitrosopiperidine, which ranged from 1.75 to 34.75 µg kg(-1) and from 1.50 to 4.26 µg kg(-1), respectively. In general, an increase in the level of NAs was observed after the storage period. The proposed method may therefore be a useful tool for food safety control once it allows assessing the profile and the dietary intake of NAs in food over time.

  6. Groundwater issues relating to an Alaskan methanol spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a Dec. 1989 methanol spill which resulted from sabotage to three railroad tank cars. Samples taken from nearby drinking-water wells and groundwater-monitoring wells were below the analytical detection limit. Monitoring well data demonstrated that groundwater flow was not toward local residential wells. Dilution by snow and subsequent freezing in the soil limited the downward spread of the methanol, an advantage not found in milder, more temperate conditions. Contaminated material was removed and processed to reclaim the methanol. Volatilization and biodegradation should remove any remaining methanol. Cleanup options were limited by the possible hazardous waste classification of the contaminated soil. The regulatory status of spilled methanol waste should be re-evaluated, especially if use of methanol as a motor fuel increases

  7. Biological Methanol Production by a Type II Methanotroph Methylocystis bryophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, In-Won

    2016-04-28

    Methane (CH₄) is the most abundant component in natural gas. To reduce its harmful environmental effect as a greenhouse gas, CH₄ can be utilized as a low-cost feed for the synthesis of methanol by methanotrophs. In this study, several methanotrophs were examined for their ability to produce methanol from CH₄; including Methylocella silvestris, Methylocystis bryophila, Methyloferula stellata, and Methylomonas methanica. Among these methanotrophs, M. bryophila exhibited the highest methanol production. The optimum process parameters aided in significant enhancement of methanol production up to 4.63 mM. Maximum methanol production was observed at pH 6.8, 30°C, 175 rpm, 100 mM phosphate buffer, 50 mM MgCl₂ as a methanol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 50% CH₄ concentration, 24 h of incubation, and 9 mg of dry cell mass ml(-1) inoculum load, respectively. Optimization of the process parameters, screening of methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors, and supplementation with formate resulted in significant improvements in methanol production using M. bryophila. This report suggests, for the first time, the potential of using M. bryophila for industrial methanol production from CH₄.

  8. Methanol production by Mycobacterium smegmatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, L.S.; Ballou, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis cells produce [ 3 H]methanol when incubated with [methyl- 3 H]methionine. The methanol is derived from S-adenosylmethionine rather than methyltetrahydrofolate. M. smegmatis cells carboxymethylate several proteins, and some of the methanol probably results from their demethylation, but most of the methanol may come from an unidentified component with a high gel mobility. Although methanol in the medium reached 19 μM, it was not incorporated into the methylated mannose polysaccharide, a lipid carrier in this organism

  9. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  10. Nitrofurantoin methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu R. Vangala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic nitrofurantoin {systematic name: (E-1-[(5-nitro-2-furylmethylideneamino]imidazolidine-2,4-dione} crystallizes as a methanol monosolvate, C8H6N4O5·CH4O. The nitrofurantoin molecule adopts a nearly planar conformation (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0344 Å. Hydrogen bonds involve the co-operative N—H...O—H...O heterosynthons between the cyclic imide of nitrofurantoin and methanol O—H groups. There are also C—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the nitrofurantoin molecules which support the key hydrogen-bonding synthon. The overall crystal packing is further assisted by weak C—H...O interactions, giving a herringbone pattern.

  11. Methanol from biomass by partial oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of methanol should grow when petroleum again becomes scarce and expensive. An active program should be continued to develop technology and resolve outstanding questions. Some of the elements of this program included in this paper are: Make design studies and more accurate cost estimates for the largest plant. The increased size of this plant over the small plant studied by S and W should result in improved methanol yield and better energy efficiency. Continue development of the SERI biomass gasifier for a better understanding of design and operating parameters, for design of larger units, for higher operating pressures, and for gasification of Hawaiian woods and agricultural wastes. An earlier gasifier test bed in Hawaii is very desirable. Develop a plan to build successfully larger methanol plants in Hawaii to provide the basis for a large plant. Develop a plan for large-scale production of biomass in the islands. Elements of the plan might include technical (types of trees, maximizing wood per acre, and harvesting processes), economic (price to be paid for the biomass), social, cultural, and political factors. Develop a plan to convert liquid fuel users to methanol and begin implementing the plan as the initial small plants supply methanol. Develop an overall plant to integrate the various parts of the program covered above

  12. Metabolic Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for Methanol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoff, Sabrina; Schmitz, Katja; Niedenführ, Sebastian; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is already an important carbon feedstock in the chemical industry, but it has found only limited application in biotechnological production processes. This can be mostly attributed to the inability of most microbial platform organisms to utilize methanol as a carbon and energy source. With the aim to turn methanol into a suitable feedstock for microbial production processes, we engineered the industrially important but nonmethylotrophic bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum toward the utilization of methanol as an auxiliary carbon source in a sugar-based medium. Initial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde was achieved by heterologous expression of a methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus, whereas assimilation of formaldehyde was realized by implementing the two key enzymes of the ribulose monophosphate pathway of Bacillus subtilis: 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase. The recombinant C. glutamicum strain showed an average methanol consumption rate of 1.7 ± 0.3 mM/h (mean ± standard deviation) in a glucose-methanol medium, and the culture grew to a higher cell density than in medium without methanol. In addition, [13C]methanol-labeling experiments revealed labeling fractions of 3 to 10% in the m + 1 mass isotopomers of various intracellular metabolites. In the background of a C. glutamicum Δald ΔadhE mutant being strongly impaired in its ability to oxidize formaldehyde to CO2, the m + 1 labeling of these intermediates was increased (8 to 25%), pointing toward higher formaldehyde assimilation capabilities of this strain. The engineered C. glutamicum strains represent a promising starting point for the development of sugar-based biotechnological production processes using methanol as an auxiliary substrate. PMID:25595770

  13. Dynamic signature of molecular association in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, C. E.; Copley, J. R. D.; Faraone, A.; Self, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements and molecular dynamics simulations were combined to investigate the collective dynamics of deuterated methanol, CD 3 OD. In the experimentally determined dynamic structure factor, a slow, non-Fickian mode was observed in addition to the standard density-fluctuation heat mode. The simulation results indicate that the slow dynamical process originates from the hydrogen bonding of methanol molecules. The qualitative behavior of this mode is similar to the previously observed α-relaxation in supercooled water [M. C. Bellissent-Funel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3644 (2000)] which also originates from the formation and dissolution of hydrogen-bonded associates (supramolecular clusters). In methanol, however, this mode is distinguishable well above the freezing transition. This finding indicates that an emergent slow mode is not unique to supercooled water, but may instead be a general feature of hydrogen-bonding liquids and associating molecular liquids.

  14. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  15. Sensor-less control of the methanol concentration of direct methanol fuel cells at varying ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new algorithm is proposed for the sensor-less control of methanol concentration. • Two different strategies are used depending on the ambient temperatures. • Energy efficiency of the DMFC system has been improved by using the new algorithm. - Abstract: A new version of an algorithm is used to control the methanol concentration in the feed of DMFC systems without using methanol sensors under varying ambient temperatures. The methanol concentration is controlled indirectly by controlling the temperature of the DMFC stack, which correlates well with the methanol concentration. Depending on the ambient temperature relative to a preset reference temperature, two different strategies are used to control the stack temperature: either reducing the cooling rate of the methanol solution passing through an anode-side heat exchanger; or, lowering the pumping rate of the pure methanol to the depleted feed solution. The feasibility of the algorithm is evaluated using a DMFC system that consists of a 200 W stack and the balance of plant (BOP). The DMFC system includes a sensor-less methanol controller that is operated using a LabView system as the central processing unit. The algorithm is experimentally confirmed to precisely control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature at target values under an environment of varying ambient temperatures

  16. Real-time observation of the dehydrogenation processes of methanol on clean Ru(001) and Ru(001)-p(2×2) O surfaces by a temperature-programmed electron-stimulated desorption ion angular distribution/time-of-flight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takehiko; Itai, Yuichiro; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    1999-12-01

    Decomposition processes of methanol on clean and oxygen-precovered Ru(001) surfaces have been visualized in real time with a temperature-programmed (TP) electron-stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (ESDIAD)/time-of-flight (TOF) system. The mass of desorbed ions during temperature-programmed surface processes was identified by TOF measurements. In the case of methanol (CH 3OD) adsorption on Ru(001)-p(2×2)-O, a halo pattern of H + from the methyl group of methoxy species was observed at 100-200 K, followed by a broad pattern from the methyl group at 230-250 K and by a near-center pattern from O + ions originating from adsorbed CO above 300 K. The halo pattern is attributed to a perpendicular conformation of the CO bond axis of the methoxy species, leading to off-normal CH bond scission. On the other hand, methanol adsorbed on clean Ru(001) did not give any halo pattern but a broad pattern was observed along the surface normal, indicating that the conformation of the methoxy species is not ordered on the clean surface. Comparison between the ESDIAD images of the oxygen-precovered surface and the clean surface suggests that the precovered oxygen adatoms induce ordering of the methoxy species. Real-time ESDIAD measurements revealed that the oxygen atoms at the Ru(001)-p(2×2)-O surface have a positive effect on selective dehydrogenation of the methoxy species to CO+H 2 and a blocking effect on CO bond breaking of the methoxy species.

  17. The (p, ρ, T) of (methanol + benzene) and (methanol + ethylbenzene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naziev, Yashar M.; Shahverdiyev, Astan N.; Hasanov, Vaqif H.

    2005-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) of methanol, ethylbenzene and (methanol + benzene) and (methanol + ethylbenzene) at temperatures between (290 and 500) K and pressures in the range (0.1 to 60) MPa have been measured with a magnetic suspension densimeter with an uncertainty of ±0.1%. Our measurements with methanol deviate from the literature values by less than 0.2%. The (p, ρ, T) measurements were fitted with experimental uncertainties by an empirical equation. The temperature and mole fraction dependence of the coefficients of the equation of state are presented

  18. Formaldehyde, methanol and hydrocarbon emissions from methanol-fueled cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Lipari, F.; Potter, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions tests were conducted on several methanol- and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Separate samples for chromatographic analysis of formaldehyde, methanol, and individual hydrocarbons were collected in each of the three phases of the driving cycle and in each of the two portions of the evaporative emissions test. One vehicle, equipped with an experimental variable-fuel engine, was tested using methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures of 100, 85, 50, 15, and 0 percent methanol. Combustion-generated hydrocarbons were lowest using methanol fuel, and increased several-fold as the gasoline fraction was increased. Gasoline components in the exhaust increased from zero as the gasoline fraction of the fuel was increased. On the other hand, formaldehyde emissions were several times higher using methanol fuel than they were using gasoline. A dedicated methanol car and the variable-fuel car gave similar emissions patterns when they both were tested using methanol fuel. The organic-carbon composition of the exhaust was 85-90 percent methanol, 5-7 percent formaldehyde, and 3-9 percent hydrocarbons. Several cars that were tested using gasoline emitted similar distributions of hydrocarbons, even through the vehicles represented a broad range of current and developmental engine families and emissions control systems

  19. Oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel as prepared by supercritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayu Xin; Hiroaki Imahara; Shiro Saka [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science

    2008-08-15

    A non-catalytic supercritical methanol method is an attractive process to convert various oils/fats efficiently into biodiesel. To evaluate oxidation stability of biodiesel, biodiesel produced by alkali-catalyzed method was exposed to supercritical methanol at several temperatures for 30 min. As a result, it was found that the tocopherol in biodiesel is not stable at a temperature higher than 300{sup o}C. After the supercritical methanol treatment, hydroperoxides were greatly reduced for biodiesel with initially high in peroxide value, while the tocopherol slightly decreased in its content. As a result, the biodiesel prepared by the supercritical methanol method was enhanced for oxidation stability when compared with that prepared by alkali-catalyzed method from waste oil. Therefore, supercritical methanol method is useful especially for oils/fats having higher peroxide values. 32 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Development of methanol evaporation plate to reduce methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiming

    This research focuses on methanol crossover reduction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) through separating the methanol vapor from its liquid phase and feeding the vapor passively at low temperature range. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by using commercial available membrane with different thickness at different anode catalyst loading levels, and tested under the operating conditions below 100°C in cell temperature and cathode exit open to ambient pressure. Liquid methanol transport from the anode through the membrane into cathode ("methanol crossover") is identified as one of the major efficiency losses in a DMFC. It is known that the methanol crossover rate in the vapor phase is much lower than in liquid phase. Vapor feed can be achieved by heating the liquid methanol to elevated temperatures (>100°C), but other issues limit the performance of the cell when operating above 100°C. High temperature membranes and much more active cathode catalyst structures are required, and a complex temperature control system must be employed. However, methanol vapor feed can also occur at a lower temperature range (evaporation through a porous body. The methanol crossover with this vapor feed mode is lower compared with the direct liquid methanol feed. A new method of using a methanol evaporation plate (MEP) to separate the vapor from its liquid phase to reduce the liquid methanol crossover at low temperature range is developed. A MEP plays the roles of liquid/vapor methanol phase separation and evaporation in a DMFC. The goal of this study is to develop a MEP with the proper properties to achieve high methanol phase separation efficiency and fast methanol evaporation rate over a wide range of temperature, i.e., from room temperature up to near boiling temperature (100°C). MEP materials were selected and characterized. MEPs made from three different types were tested extensively with different MEA and porous back layer configurations. The benefits of

  1. Methanol synthesis beyond chemical equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Wilbers, E.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    In commercial methanol production from syngas, the conversion is thermodynamically limited to 0.3-0.7 leading to large recycles of non-converted syngas. This problem can be overcome to a significant extent by in situ condensation of methanol during its synthesis which is possible nowadays due to the

  2. Methanex, Hoechst Celanese dissolve methanol partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1993-01-01

    One of the many joint venture alliances recently announced in the petrochemical sector is ending in divorce. Hoechst Celanese Chemical (Dallas) and Methanex Corp. (Vancouver) are in the process of dissolving the partnership they had formed to restart Hoechst Celanese's methanol plant at Clear Lake, TX. Hoechst Celanese says it is actively seeking replacement partners and has several likely prospects, while Methanex is concentrating on its other ventures. Those include its just-completed acquisition of Fletcher Challenge's (Auckland, NZ) methanol business and a joint venture with American Cyanamid to convert an ammonia plant at Fortier, LA to methanol. Methanex will still be the world's largest producer of methanol. Officially, the negotiations between Methanex and Hoechst Celanese 'just broke down over the last month or so,' says Steve Yurich, operations manager for the Clear Lake plant. Market sources, however, say that Methanex found itself 'with too many irons in the fire' and pulled out before it ran into financial or perhaps even antitrust difficulties

  3. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  4. Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Cifre, P.; Badr, O.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of renewable methanol, a sustainable carbon source is needed. This carbon can be provided by biomass or CO 2 in the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power stations, cement factories, fermentation processes and water purification plants. Methanol production pathways via biomass gasification and CO 2 recovery from the flue gasses of a fossil fuel-fired power station have been reviewed in this study. The cost of methanol production from biomass was found to lie in the range of 300-400 EUR/tonne of methanol, and the production cost of CO 2 based methanol was between 500 and 600 EUR/tonne. Despite the higher production costs compared with methanol produced by conventional natural gas reforming (i.e. 100-200 EUR/tonne, aided by the low current price of natural gas), these new processes incorporate environmentally beneficial aspects that have to be taken into account. (author)

  5. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Stephen [Arkema Inc.; Mountz, David [Arkema Inc.; He, Wensheng [Arkema Inc.; Zhang, Tao [Arkema Inc.

    2013-12-31

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  6. High-speed conversion of carbon dioxide into methanol using catalyst. Shokubai ni yoru nisanka tanso no kosoku methanol ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inui, T. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Enineering)

    1993-02-01

    This paper describes high-speed conversion of CO2 into methanol. When a Cu-Zn-Cr-Al oxide-based catalyst (MSCp catalyst) prepared by using a sedimentation process used for synthesizing methanol from CO is applied to converting CO2 into methanol, the methanol yield decreases down to a several fraction of CO to methanol conversion, with a possibility of greater catalytic deactivation. If this catalyst prepared by using a homogeneous gelation process (MSCg catalyst) is used, the yield of methanol from CO2 increases by 240 plus percent over the case of using the MSCp catalyst, and no catalytic deactivation occurs at all during a use for ten and odd hours. Further, when La2O3 is added to the MSCg catalyst at 4% by weight, the methanol yield increases by about two times as much as the case without addition, and the temperature at which the maximum yield is achieved shifts to a lower temperature side by about 20[degree]C. Combining Ag or Pd with the MSCg catalyst provides the same effects. The paper touches on an attempt of high-speed CO2 conversion using this catalyst loaded with ceramic fibers. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  8. Notes on HTR applications in methanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.; Barnert, H.

    1997-01-01

    Notes on the study of HTR applications are presented. The study in particular should be directed toward the most feasible applications of HTR for process heat generation. A prospective study is the conversion of CO 2 gas from Natuna to methanol or formic acid. Further studies needs to be deepened under the auspices of IAEA and countries that have similar interest. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs

  9. Visualizing ignition and combustion of methanol mixtures in a diesel engine; Methanol funmu no glow chakka to nensho no kashika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inomoto, Y; Harada, T; Kusaka, J; Daisho, Y; Kihara, R; Saito, T [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A glow-assisted ignition system tends to suffer from poor ignitability and slow flame propagation at low load in a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with methanol. To investigate the ignition process and improve such disadvantages, methanol sprays, their ignition and flames were visualized at high pressures and temperatures using a modified two-stroke engine. The results show that parameters influencing ignition, the location of a glow-plug, swirl level, pressure and temperature are important. In addition, a full kinetics calculation was conducted to predict the delay of methanol mixture ignition by taking into account 39 chemical species and 157 elementary reactions. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Atmospheric deposition of methanol over the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Nightingale, Philip D.; Beale, Rachael; Liss, Peter S.; Blomquist, Byron; Fairall, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In the troposphere, methanol (CH3OH) is present ubiquitously and second in abundance among organic gases after methane. In the surface ocean, methanol represents a supply of energy and carbon for marine microbes. Here we report direct measurements of air–sea methanol transfer along a ∼10,000-km north–south transect of the Atlantic. The flux of methanol was consistently from the atmosphere to the ocean. Constrained by the aerodynamic limit and measured rate of air–sea sensible heat exchange, methanol transfer resembles a one-way depositional process, which suggests dissolved methanol concentrations near the water surface that are lower than what were measured at ∼5 m depth, for reasons currently unknown. We estimate the global oceanic uptake of methanol and examine the lifetimes of this compound in the lower atmosphere and upper ocean with respect to gas exchange. We also constrain the molecular diffusional resistance above the ocean surface—an important term for improving air–sea gas exchange models. PMID:24277830

  11. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H 2 PtCl 6 .6H 2 O (Aldrich), SnCl 2 .2H 2 O (Aldrich),and RhCl 2 .XH 2 O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2θ = 40 0 , 47 0 , 67 0 and 82 0 , which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2–3 nm. For PtSn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2θ = 34 0 and 52 0 that were identified as a SnO 2 phase. PtSn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electrocatalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  12. Methanol Oxidation on Pt3Sn(111) for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Methanol Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Zhigang; Guo, Chen; Wang, Weili; Wei, Shuxian; Ng, Siu-Pang; Chen, Xiangfeng; Ding, Ning; Guo, Wenyue; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2016-05-18

    PtSn alloy, which is a potential material for use in direct methanol fuel cells, can efficiently promote methanol oxidation and alleviate the CO poisoning problem. Herein, methanol decomposition on Pt3Sn(111) was systematically investigated using periodic density functional theory and microkinetic modeling. The geometries and energies of all of the involved species were analyzed, and the decomposition network was mapped out to elaborate the reaction mechanisms. Our results indicated that methanol and formaldehyde were weakly adsorbed, and the other derivatives (CHxOHy, x = 1-3, y = 0-1) were strongly adsorbed and preferred decomposition rather than desorption on Pt3Sn(111). The competitive methanol decomposition started with the initial O-H bond scission followed by successive C-H bond scissions, (i.e., CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO). The Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations and energy barrier decomposition analyses identified the C-H and O-H bond scissions as being more competitive than the C-O bond scission. Microkinetic modeling confirmed that the vast majority of the intermediates and products from methanol decomposition would escape from the Pt3Sn(111) surface at a relatively low temperature, and the coverage of the CO residue decreased with an increase in the temperature and decrease in partial methanol pressure.

  13. Life-cycle assessment for coal-based methanol production in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Changhang; Bai, Hongtao; Lu, Yuanye

    2018-01-01

    using the coal coking technology than by producing methanol using the coal gasification technology, especially in terms of acidification, global warming, and photochemical oxidation. In particular, significantly less environmental harm in terms of climate change and radiation is caused by the coal...... coking technology than by the coal gasification technology. Different sub-processes clearly make different contributions to environmental harm. The results indicated that the methanol production process, heating, and desalination are the main sources of environmental harm for both the coal gasification...... technology and coal coking technology. Importantly, the public engineering process rather than the methanol production process itself was found to determine emissions for the different methanol production methods....

  14. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  15. Methanol-enhanced removal and metabolic conversion of formaldehyde by a black soybean from formaldehyde solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hao; Xiong, Yun; Li, Kun-Zhi; Chen, Li-Mei

    2017-02-01

    Methanol regulation of some biochemical and physiological characteristics in plants has been documented in several references. This study showed that the pretreatment of methanol with an appropriate concentration could stimulate the HCHO uptake by black soybean (BS) plants. The process of methanol-stimulated HCHO uptake by BS plants was optimized using the Central Composite Design and response surface methodology for the three variables, methanol concentration, HCHO concentration, and treatment time. Under optimized conditions, the best stimulation effect of methanol on HCHO uptake was obtained. 13 C-NMR analysis indicated that the H 13 CHO metabolism produced H 13 COOH, [2- 13 C]Gly, and [3- 13 C]Ser in BS plant roots. Methanol pretreatment enhanced the metabolic conversion of H 13 CHO in BS plant roots, which consequently increased HCHO uptake by BS plants. Therefore, methanol pretreatment might be used to increase HCHO uptake by plants in the phytoremediation of HCHO-polluted solutions.

  16. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  17. Thermal stability of biodiesel in supercritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroaki Imahara; Eiji Minami; Shusaku Hari; Shiro Saka [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science

    2008-01-15

    Non-catalytic biodiesel production technologies from oils/fats in plants and animals have been developed in our laboratory employing supercritical methanol. Due to conditions in high temperature and high pressure of the supercritical fluid, thermal stability of fatty acid methyl esters and actual biodiesel prepared from various plant oils was studied in supercritical methanol over a range of its condition between 270{sup o}C/17 MPa and 380{sup o}C/56 MPa. In addition, the effect of thermal degradation on cold flow properties was studied. As a result, it was found that all fatty acid methyl esters including poly-unsaturated ones were stable at 270{sup o}C/17 MPa, but at 350{sup o}C/43 MPa, they were partly decomposed to reduce the yield with isomerization from cis-type to trans-type. These behaviors were also observed for actual biodiesel prepared from linseed oil, safflower oil, which are high in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Cold flow properties of actual biodiesel, however, remained almost unchanged after supercritical methanol exposure at 270{sup o}C/17 MPa and 350{sup o}C/43 MPa. For the latter condition, however, poly-unsaturated fatty acids were sacrificed to be decomposed and reduced in yield. From these results, it was clarified that reaction temperature in supercritical methanol process should be lower than 300{sup o}C, preferably 270{sup o}C with a supercritical pressure higher than 8.09 MPa, in terms of thermal stabilization for high-quality biodiesel production. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Continuous synthesis of methanol: heterogeneous hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate over Cu/HMS catalysts in a fixed bed reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Yuanyuan; Wen, Chao; Wang, Bin; Dai, Wei-Lin

    2015-09-18

    Continuous fixed-bed catalytic hydrogenation of ethylene carbonate (EC) to methanol and ethylene glycol (EG), an emerging synthetic process of methanol via indirect conversion of CO2, was successfully performed over Cu/HMS catalysts prepared by the ammonia evaporation (AE) method. The catalysts possessed superb performance with a conversion of 100% and a selectivity to methanol of 74%.

  19. Methanol adsorption on Pt(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, A.V.; Chottiner, G.S.; Hoffman, R.W.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1984-12-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to study the decomposition of methanol on a Pt(111) surface. Several intermediate states in the decomposition are identified by quenching the sample when reactions occur. At 100 K a set of peaks at 800, 1040, 1350, and 2890 cm -1 indicates the presence of a multilayer molecularly adsorbed methanol. As the sample is warmed to 130 K peaks develop at 1700 and 2780 cm -1 , suggesting the formation of formaldehyde on the surface. With further heating, peaks grow at 1820 and 2560 cm -1 due to the formation of a formyl species during the decomposition of methanol over Pt(111). Further heating leads to the final conversion of the surface species to adsorbed CO and carbonaceous residues

  20. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  1. Catalytic production of hydrogen from methanol for mobile, stationary and portable fuel-cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, Boris N

    2008-01-01

    Main catalytic processes for hydrogen production from methanol are considered. Various schemes of fuel processors for hydrogen production in stationary, mobile and portable power plants based on fuel cells are analysed. The attention is focussed on the design of catalytic reactors of fuel processors and on the state-of-the-art in the design of catalysts for methanol conversion, carbon monoxide steam conversion and carbon monoxide selective oxidation. Prospects for the use of methanol in on-board fuel processors are discussed.

  2. Towards a methanol economy based on homogeneous catalysis: methanol to H2 and CO2 to methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberico, E.; Nielsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to implement both the exhaustive dehydrogenation of aqueous methanol to hydrogen and CO2 and the reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and water, may pave the way to a methanol based economy as part of a promising renewable energy system. Recently, homogeneous...

  3. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...

  4. Methanol ice co-desorption as a mechanism to explain cold methanol in the gas-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligterink, N. F. W.; Walsh, C.; Bhuin, R. G.; Vissapragada, S.; van Scheltinga, J. Terwisscha; Linnartz, H.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Methanol is formed via surface reactions on icy dust grains. Methanol is also detected in the gas-phase at temperatures below its thermal desorption temperature and at levels higher than can be explained by pure gas-phase chemistry. The process that controls the transition from solid state to gas-phase methanol in cold environments is not understood. Aims: The goal of this work is to investigate whether thermal CO desorption provides an indirect pathway for methanol to co-desorb at low temperatures. Methods: Mixed CH3OH:CO/CH4 ices were heated under ultra-high vacuum conditions and ice contents are traced using RAIRS (reflection absorption IR spectroscopy), while desorbing species were detected mass spectrometrically. An updated gas-grain chemical network was used to test the impact of the results of these experiments. The physical model used is applicable for TW Hya, a protoplanetary disk in which cold gas-phase methanol has recently been detected. Results: Methanol release together with thermal CO desorption is found to be an ineffective process in the experiments, resulting in an upper limit of ≤ 7.3 × 10-7 CH3OH molecules per CO molecule over all ice mixtures considered. Chemical modelling based on the upper limits shows that co-desorption rates as low as 10-6 CH3OH molecules per CO molecule are high enough to release substantial amounts of methanol to the gas-phase at and around the location of the CO thermal desorption front in a protoplanetary disk. The impact of thermal co-desorption of CH3OH with CO as a grain-gas bridge mechanism is compared with that of UV induced photodesorption and chemisorption.

  5. NMR studies on graphite-methanol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Akkad, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic relaxation times for protons of methanol on graphite have been studied. The perpendicular and the transversal magnetization as a function of temperature were measured. The results show that the presence of graphite slowed down the methanol movement compared with that in the pure alcohol, and that the methanol molecules are attached to the graphite surface via methyl groups. (author)

  6. Sorption of methanol in alkali exchange zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, M.; Rep, M.; Corma, Avelino; Palomares, A.E.; Palomares gimeno, A.E.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Lercher, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Metal cation methanol sorption complexes in MFI (ZSM5), MOR and X have been studied by in situ i.r. spectroscopy in order to understand the nature of interactions of methanol in the molecular sieve pores. The results show that (a) a freely vibrating hydroxy and methyl group of methanol exist on

  7. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical

  8. Methanol decomposition and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Ludwig, W.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption, decompn., and oxidn. of methanol (CH3OH) has been studied on Ir(111) using temp.-programmed desorption and high-energy resoln. fast XPS. Mol. methanol desorption from a methanol-satd. surface at low temp. shows three desorption peaks, around 150 K (alpha ), around 170 K (beta 1), and

  9. Purification of methanol for transportation use; Rening av metanol foer anvaendning som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenck, Anna von; Jansson, Mikael; Ljungquist, Pierre

    2008-11-15

    In this study a techno-economic analysis has been performed on the possibility of separating malodours sulphur compounds from the methanol obtained in the condensate after the evaporation in the kraft pulping process. The application for the clean methanol should be as transportation fuel. Two cases have been simulated in the simulation model Hysys, Case 1 using only distillation and Case 2 were distillation has been complemented with chemicals to further reduce the organic sulphur content. An economical analysis has been performed and it has been showed that the production cost for the cleaned methanol is in the range 2.7-4.2 SEK/l methanol

  10. Evidence for Conversion of Methanol to Formaldehyde in Nonhuman Primate Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Rongwei; Zheng, Na; Rizak, Joshua; Hu, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have reported that methanol toxicity to primates is mainly associated with its metabolites, formaldehyde (FA) and formic acid. While methanol metabolism and toxicology have been best studied in peripheral organs, little study has focused on the brain and no study has reported experimental evidence that demonstrates transformation of methanol into FA in the primate brain. In this study, three rhesus macaques were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of methanol to investigate whether a metabolic process of methanol to FA occurs in nonhuman primate brain. Levels of FA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were then assessed at different time points. A significant increase of FA levels was found at the 18th hour following a methanol injection. Moreover, the FA level returned to a normal physiological level at the 30th hour after the injection. These findings provide direct evidence that methanol is oxidized to FA in nonhuman primate brain and that a portion of the FA generated is released out of the brain cells. This study suggests that FA is produced from methanol metabolic processes in the nonhuman primate brain and that FA may play a significant role in methanol neurotoxicology.

  11. Experimental study on methanol recovery through flashing vaporation in continuous production of biodiesel via supercritical methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cunwen; Chen Wen; Wang Weiguo; Wu Yuanxin; Chi Ruan; Tang Zhengjiao

    2011-01-01

    To improve the oil conversion, high methanol/oil molar ratio is required in the continuous production of biodiesel via supercritical methanol transesterification in tubular reactor. And thus the subsequent excess methanol recovery needs high energy consumption. Based on the feature of high temperature and high pressure in supercritical methanol transesterification, excess methanol recovery in reaction system by flashing vaporation is conducted and the effect of reaction temperature, reaction pressure and flashing pressure on methanol recovery and methanol concentration in gas phase is discussed in detail in this article. Results show that at the reaction pressure of 9-15 MPa and the reaction temperature of 240-300 o C, flashing pressure has significant influence on methanol recovery and methanol content in gas phase, which can be effectively improved by reducing flashing pressure. At the same time, reaction temperature and reaction pressure also have an important effect on methanol recovery and methanol content in gas phase. At volume flow of biodiesel and methanol 1:2, tubular reactor pressure 15 MPa, tubular reactor temperature 300 o C and the flashing pressure 0.4 MPa, methanol recovery is more than 85% and methanol concentration of gas phase (mass fraction) is close to 99% after adiabatic braising; therefore, the condensate liquid of gas phase can be injected directly into methanol feedstock tank to be recycled. Research abstracts: Biodiesel is an important alternative energy, and supercritical methanol transesterification is a new and green technology to prepare biodiesel with some obvious advantages. But it also exists some problems: high reaction temperature, high reaction pressure and large molar ratio of methanol/oil will cause large energy consumption which restricts supercritical methanol for the industrial application of biodiesel. So a set of tubular reactor-coupled flashing apparatus is established for continuous preparing biodiesel in supercritical

  12. Metabolism of methanol in acetogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivey, D.K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Acetogens can grown on methanol in the presence of a cosubstrate that is more oxidized than methanol. Three mol of acetate is formed from 4 mol methanol and 2 mol CO 2 . One mol of methanol is oxidized to CO 2 . The levels of the tetrahydrofolate enzymes, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, and corrinoids indicate the presence of the acetyl CoA pathway when growing on methanol. The acetyl-CoA pathway of acetate synthesis as presently understood does not include methanol as a substrate. It is demonstrated that methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formate by a methanol dehydrogenase. It is also possible that the methyl group of methanol is transferred directly to either a corrinoid-type enzyme, or tetrahydrofolate. When cells of C. thermoautotrophicum are grown on 14 CO 2 , acetate becomes labeled in both carbons with a ratio 14 CH 3 / 14 COOH of 0.7. In addition, methanol gets labeled. When cells are grown on 14 CH 3 OH, label appears in both acetate carbons with a ratio of 3.3, and also appears in CO 2 . Thus methanol is preferentially incorporated into the methyl group of acetate, whereas CO 2 is the preferred source of the carboxyl carbon

  13. Triboluminescence and associated decomposition of solid methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, G.J.; Moore, D.E.; Hawke, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The decomposition is initiated by the cooling of solid methanol through the β → α transiRon at 157.8K, producing the gases hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. The passage through this lambda transition causes the breakup of large crystals of β-methanol into crystallites of α-methanol and is accompanied by light emission as well as decomposition. This triboluminescence is accompanied by, and apparently produced by, electrical discharges through methanol vapor in the vicinity of the solid. The potential differences needed to produce the electrical breakdown of the methanol vapor apparently arise from the disruption of the long hydrogen bonded chains of methanol molecules present in crystalline methanol. Charge separation following crystal deformation is a characteristic of substances which exhibit gas discharge triboluminescence; solid methanol has been found to emit such luminescence when mechanically deformed in the absence of the β → α transition The decomposition products are not produced directly by the breaking up of the solid methanol but from the vapor phase methanol by the electrical discharges. That gas phase decomposition does occur was confirmed by observing that the vapors of C 2 H 5 OH, CH 3 OD, and CD 3 OD decompose on being admitted to a vessel containing methanol undergoing the β → α phase transition. (U.S.)

  14. The methanol industry's missed opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout its history the methanol industry has been backward in research and development and in industry cooperation on public image and regulatory matters. It has been extremely reticent as to the virtue of its product for new uses, especially for motor fuel. While this is perhaps understandable looking back, it is inexcusable looking forward. The industry needs to cooperate on a worldwide basis in research and market development, on the one hand, and in image-building and political influence, on the other, staying, of course, within the US and European and other regional antitrust regulations. Unless the industry develops the motor fuel market, and especially the exciting new approach through fuel cell operated EVs, to siphon off incremental capacity and keep plants running at 90% or more of capacity, it will continue to live in a price roller-coaster climate. A few low-cost producers will do reasonably well and the rest will just get along or drop out here and there along the way, as in the past. Having come so far from such a humble beginning, it is a shame not to realize the full potential that is clearly there: a potential to nearly double sales dollars without new plants and to produce from a plentiful resource, at least for the next half-century, all the methanol that can be imagined to be needed. Beyond that the industry can turn to renewable energy--the sun--via biomass growth, to make their product. In so doing, it can perhaps apply methanol as a plant growth stimulant, in effect making the product fully self-sustainable. The world needs to know what methanol can do to provide--economically and reliably--the things upon which a better life rests

  15. Methanol from biomass: A technoeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Biomass-derived methanol offers significant potential as an alternative transportation fuel. Methanol is cleaner burning and has a lower flame temperature than gasoline. These characteristics can result in lower carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions when methanol is used as a fuel. Methanol produced from biomass offers potential advantages over that from other sources. When produced from biomass which is subsequently regrown, methanol does not contribute net emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. The introduction of alternative fuels will likely be driven by a number of political and economic decisions. The ability of biomass to compete with other resources will be determined in part by the economics of the production systems. In this paper, recent technoeconomic analyses of biomass-methanol systems are presented. The results are compared with methanol production from coal and natural gas

  16. Hydrogenation of silyl formates: sustainable production of silanol and methanol from hydrosilane and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jangwoo; Kim, Seung Hyo; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2018-05-10

    A new process for simultaneously obtaining two chemical building blocks, methanol and silanol, was realized starting from silyl formates which can be derived from silane and carbon dioxide. Understanding the reaction mechanism enabled us to improve the reaction efficiency by the addition of a small amount of methanol.

  17. An experimental study of CO2 hydrogenation into methanol involving a zeolite membrane reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Paturzo, L.; Basile, A.

    2004-01-01

    Conversion of CO2 into methanol by catalytic hydrogenation has been recognised as one of the most promising processes for stabilising the atmospheric CO2 level, and furthermore the methanol produced could be used as fuel or basic chemical for satisfying the large demand world-wide. The purpose of

  18. Biofiltration of air contaminated with methanol and toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakamas Chetpattananondh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofiltration of air contaminated with VOCs is inexpensive compared with the conventional techniques and very effective for treating large volumes of moist air streams with low concentrations of VOCs. In this study, biofiltration for the purification of polluted air from methanol, a hydrophilic VOC, and toluene, a hydrophobic VOC, was investigated. The experiments were operated using three separated stainless steel biofilters, for methanol, toluene, and a mixture of methanol and toluene, respectively. Biofilter consisted of a mixture of palm shells and activated sludge as a filter-bed material. Only the indigenous microorganisms of the bed medium without any addition of extra inoculum were used throughout the whole process. The polluted air inlet concentration was varied from 0.3-4.7 g/m3 with flow rates ranging from 0.06-0.45 m3/h, equivalent to the empty bed residence times of 9-71 sec. Polluted air was successfully treated by biofiltration, 100% removal efficiencies would be obtained when the air flow rate was lower than 0.45 m3/h. The presence of toluene did not affect the removal rate of methanol while the removal rate of toluene was decreased with the presence of methanol in air stream according to the competition phenomenon.

  19. Biodiesel from sunflower oil in supercritical methanol with calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sunflower seed oil was subjected to the transesterification reaction with calcium oxide (CaO) in supercritical methanol for obtaining biodiesel. Methanol is used most frequently as the alcohol in the transesterification process. Calcium oxide (CaO) can considerably improve the transesterification reaction of sunflower seed oil in supercritical methanol. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as the catalyst content, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of soybean oil to alcohol, were investigated and compared with those of non-catalyst runs. The catalytic transesterification ability of CaO is quite weak under ambient temperature. At a temperature of 335 K, the yield of methyl ester is only about 5% in 3 h. When CaO was added from 1.0% to 3.0%, the transesterification speed increased evidently, while when the catalyst content was further enhanced to 5%, the yield of methyl ester slowly reached to a plateau. It was observed that increasing the reaction temperature had a favorable influence on the methyl ester yield. In addition, for molar ratios ranging from 1 to 41, as the higher molar ratios of methanol to oil were charged, the greater transesterification speed was obtained. When the temperature was increased to 525 K, the transesterification reaction was essentially completed within 6 min with 3 wt% CaO and 41:1 methanol/oil molar ratio

  20. Experimental investigation two phase flow in direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat, M. D.; Kaplan, Y.; Celik, S.; Oeztural, A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have received many attentions specifically for portable electronic applications since it utilize methanol which is in liquid form in atmospheric condition and high energy density of the methanol. Thus it eliminates the storage problem of hydrogen. It also eliminates humidification requirement of polymeric membrane which is a problem in PEM fuel cells. Some electronic companies introduced DMFC prototypes for portable electronic applications. Presence of carbon dioxide gases due to electrochemical reactions in anode makes the problem a two phase problem. A two phase flow may occur at cathode specifically at high current densities due to the excess water. Presence of gas phase in anode region and liquid phase in cathode region prevents diffusion of fuel and oxygen to the reaction sites thus reduces the performance of the system. Uncontrolled pressure buildup in anode region increases methanol crossover through membrane and adversely effect the performance. Two phase flow in both anode and cathode region is very effective in the performance of DMYC system and a detailed understanding of two phase flow for high performance DMFC systems. Although there are many theoretical and experimental studies available on the DMFC systems in the literature, only few studies consider problem as a two-phase flow problem. In this study, an experimental set up is developed and species distributions on system are measured with a gas chromatograph. System performance characteristics (V-I curves) is measured depending on the process parameters (temperature, fuel ad oxidant flow rates, methanol concentration etc)

  1. Effect of methanol feeding strategies on production and yield of recombinant mouse endostatin from Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, L B; Phue, J N; Shiloach, Joseph

    2003-05-20

    Pichia pastoris, a methylotrophic yeast, is an efficient producer of recombinant proteins in which the heterologous gene is under the control of the methanol-induced AOX1 promoter. Hence, the accepted production procedure has two phases: In the first phase, the yeast utilizes glycerol and biomass is accumulated; in the second phase, the yeast utilizes methanol which is used both as an inducer for the expression of the recombinant protein and as a carbon source. Since the yeast is sensitive to methanol concentration, the methanol is supplied gradually to the growing culture. Three methanol addition strategies were evaluated for the purpose of optimizing recombinant endostatin production. Two strategies were based on the yeast metabolism; one responding to the methanol consumption using a methanol sensor, and the other responding to the oxygen consumption. In these two strategies, the methanol supply is unlimited. The third strategy was based on a predetermined exponential feeding rate, controling the growth rate at 0.02 h(-1), in this strategy the methanol supply is limited. Throughout the induction phase glycerol, in addition to methanol, was continuously added at a rate of 1 g L h(-1). Total endostatin production was similar in all three strategies, (400 mg was obtained from 3 L initial volume), but the amount of methanol added and the biomass produced were lower in the predetermined rate method. This caused the specific production of endostatin per biomass and per methanol to be 2 times higher in the predetermined rate than in the other two methods, making the growth control strategy not only more efficient but also more convenient for downstream processing. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 82: 438-444, 2003.

  2. A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sensor-less methanol control algorithm based on feedback from the stack temperature is developed. • Feasibility of the algorithm is tested using a DMFC system with a recirculating fuel loop. • The algorithm precisely controls the methanol concentration without the use of methanol sensors. • The sensor-less controller shortens the time that the DMFC system requires to go from start-up to steady-state. • This controller is effective in handling unexpected changes in the methanol concentration and stack temperature. - Abstract: A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature (SLCCF) has been developed. The SLCCF algorithm is embedded into an in-house LabVIEW program that has been developed to control the methanol concentration in the feed of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This control method utilizes the close correlation between the stack temperature and the methanol concentration in the feed. Basically, the amounts of methanol to be supplied to the re-circulating feed stream are determined by estimating the methanol consumption rates under given operating conditions, which are then adjusted by a proportional–integral controller and supplied into the feed stream to maintain the stack temperature at a set value. The algorithm is designed to control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature for both start-up and normal operation processes. Feasibility tests with a 200 W-class DMFC system under various operating conditions confirm that the algorithm successfully maintains the methanol concentration in the feed as well as the stack temperature at set values, and the start-up time required for the DMFC system to reach steady-state operating conditions is reduced significantly compared with conventional sensor-less methods

  3. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  4. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH trademark) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature

  5. Modeling and Simulation of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohr, M.; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    From intro.: The direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell uses aqueous solutions of methanol as fuel and oxygen or air as the oxidant and uses an ionically conducting polymer membrane such as Nafion(sup r)117 and the electrolyte. This type of direct oxidation cell is fuel versatile and offers significant advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operation...The present study focuses on the results of a phenomenological model based on current understanding of the various processed operating in these cells.

  6. Characterization and Modeling of a Methanol Reforming Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    topologies is the Reformed Methanol Fuel Cell (RMFC) system that operates on a mix of methanol and water. The fuel is reformed with a steam reforming to a hydrogen rich gas, however with additional formation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide. High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT...... to heat up the steam reforming process. However, utilizing the excess hydrogen in the system complicates the RMFC system as the amount of hydrogen can vary depending on the fuel methanol supply, fuel cell load and the reformer gas composition. This PhD study has therefore been involved in investigating......Many fuel cells systems today are operated with compressed hydrogen which has great benefits because of the purity of the hydrogen and the relatively simple storage of the fuel. However, compressed hydrogen is stored in the range of 800 bar, which can be expensive to compress.One of the interesting...

  7. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  8. Electrochemical characterization of Pt-Ru-Pd catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Han, C; Kim, I T; An, J C; Lee, J J; Lee, H K; Shim, J

    2011-01-01

    PtRuPd nanoparticles on carbon black were prepared and characterized as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells. Nano-sized Pd (2-4 nm) particles were deposited on Pt/C and PtRu/C (commercial products) by a simple chemical reduction process. The structural and physical information of the PtRuPd/C were confirmed by TEM and XRD, and their electrocatalytic activities were measured by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry. The catalysts containing Pd showed higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction than the other catalysts. This might be attributed to an increase in the electrochemical surface area of Pt, which is caused by the addition of Pd; this results in increased catalyst utilization.

  9. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  10. Recent Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed. The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow rate air and high concentrations of methanol. Improvements in cathode structure and operation at low methanol concentration have been shown to result in improved cell performance.

  11. Sulfur Rich Coal Gasification and Low Impact Methanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the methanol was employed in numerous innovative applications and is a key compound widely used as a building block or intermediate for producing synthetic hydrocarbons, solvents, energy storage medium and fuel. It is a source of clean, sustainable energy that can be produced from traditional and renewable sources: natural gas, coal, biomass, landfill gas and power plant or industrial emissions. An innovative methanol production process from coal gasification is proposed in this work. A suitable comparison between the traditional coal to methanol process and the novel one is provided and deeply discussed. The most important features, with respect to the traditional ones, are the lower carbon dioxide emissions (about 0.3% and the higher methanol production (about 0.5% without any addition of primary sources. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a coal feed/fuel with a high sulfur content allows higher reductions of carbon dioxide emissions. The key idea is to convert hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. This is the Acid Gas to Syngas technology, a completely new and effective route of processing acid gases. The main concept is to feed an optimal ratio of hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide and to preheat the inlet acid gas before the combustion. The reactor is simulated using a detailed kinetic scheme.

  12. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  13. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, whereas with the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) little COD removal is achieved. Moreover, the accumulation of VFA can lead to reactor instability due to pH drops...

  14. Methanol Extract of Myelophycus caespitosus Inhibits the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol Extract of Myelophycus caespitosus Inhibits the Inflammatory Response in Lipopolysaccharidestimulated BV2 Microglial Cells by Downregulating NF-kB via Inhibition of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

  15. Developments in the European methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speed, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the late eighties/early nineties the World Methanol Market was basically divided into three regional markets--America, Asia Pacific and Europe. These markets were interrelated but each had its own specific characteristics and traditional suppliers. Now the situation has changed; in the mid nineties there is a Global Methanol Market with global players and effective global pricing and the European market is governed by events world-wide. Europe is however a specific market with specific characteristics which are different from those of other markets although it is also part of the Global Market. Hence before the author focuses on Europe he looks at the World Market. The paper discusses world methanol production and consumption by region, world methanol consumption by end use, world methanol supply demand balance, the west European market, western European methanol production, methanol imports to W. Europe, the Former Soviet Union supplies, W. European methanol consumption by end use, MTBE in Europe, duties on methanol imports into W. Europe, investment in Europe, the effect of the 1994/95 price spike, and key issues for the future of the industry

  16. Methanol in the L1551 Circumbinary Torus

    OpenAIRE

    White, Glenn J.; Fridlund, C. W. M.; Bergman, P.; Beardsmore, A.; Liseau, Rene; Phillips, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    We report observations of gaseous methanol in an edge-on torus surrounding the young stellar object L1551 IRS5. The peaks in the torus are separated by ~ 10,000 AU from L1551 IRS5, and contain ~ 0.03 earth masses of cold methanol. We infer that the methanol abundance increases in the outer part of the torus, probably as a result of methanol evaporation from dust grain surfaces heated by the shock luminosity associated with the shocks associated with the jets of an externally located x-ray sou...

  17. Soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    Methanol is used by oil and gas operators to inhibit hydrate formation in the recovery of heavy oils, in natural gas production and transport, as well as in various other production applications. Emissions from methanol primary occur from miscellaneous solvent usage, methanol production, end-product manufacturing, and storage and handling losses. This document provided soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol releases into the environment. The guidelines were consistent with the Alberta Environment tier 1 soil and groundwater framework. The chemical and physical properties of methanol were reviewed. The environmental fate and behavior of methanol releases was discussed, and the behaviour and effects of methanol in terrestrial and aquatic biota were evaluated. The toxicity of methanol and its effects in humans and mammalian species were reviewed. Soil quality and ground water quality guidelines were presented. Surface water and soil guideline calculation methods were provided, and ecological exposure and ground water pathways were discussed. Management limits for methanol concentrations were also provided. 162 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

  19. Improvement of biodiesel methanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Datta Bharadwaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to improve the performance of biodiesel–methanol blends in a VCR engine by using optimized engine parameters. For optimization of the engine, operational parameters such as compression ratio, fuel blend, and load are taken as factors, whereas performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (Bth and brake specific fuel consumption (Bsfc and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide (CO, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC, Nitric oxides (NOx and smoke are taken as responses. Experimentation is carried out as per the design of experiments of the response surface methodology. Optimization of engine operational parameters is carried out using Derringers Desirability approach. From the results obtained it is inferred that the VCR engine has maximum performance and minimum emissions at 18 compression ratio, 5% fuel blend and at 9.03 kg of load. At this optimized operating conditions of the engine the responses such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, and smoke are found to be 31.95%, 0.37 kg/kW h, 0.036%, 5 ppm, 531.23 ppm and 15.35% respectively. It is finally observed from the mathematical models and experimental data that biodiesel methanol blends have maximum efficiency and minimum emissions at optimized engine parameters.

  20. Research Progress on the Indirect Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xian-Long; Jiang, Zheng; Su, Dang Sheng; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2016-02-19

    Methanol is a sustainable source of liquid fuels and one of the most useful organic chemicals. To date, most of the work in this area has focused on the direct hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. However, this process requires high operating temperatures (200-250 °C), which limits the theoretical yield of methanol. Thus, it is desirable to find a new strategy for the efficient conversion of CO2 to methanol at relatively low reaction temperatures. This Minireview seeks to outline the recent advances on the indirect hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. Much emphasis is placed on discussing specific systems, including hydrogenation of CO2 derivatives (organic carbonates, carbamates, formates, cyclic carbonates, etc.) and cascade reactions, with the aim of critically highlighting both the achievements and remaining challenges associated with this field. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characteristics of PVdF copolymer/Nafion blend membrane for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ki-Yun; Eom, Ji-Yong; Jung, Ho-Young; Choi, Nam-Soon; Lee, Yong Min; Park, Jung-Ki; Choi, Jong-Ho; Park, Kyung-Won; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2004-01-01

    For direct methanol fuel cell, blends of vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (P(VdF-co-HFP)) and Nafion were prepared the different equivalent weight of Nafion. The investigations of the blend morphology were performed by means of permeability test, uptake measurement, differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy. In the blend membranes, many pores were created as the content of Nafion in blend increased. Then, the methanol uptake was sharply increased. But the methanol permeability was not sharply increased because the methanol permeation through blend membranes is diffusion-controlled process. The methanol permeability of N10 (low equivalent weight) series was similar to that of N11 series (high equivalent weight). The proton conductivity of N10 series was around one and a half times higher than that of N11 series. The cell performance of the blend was much enhanced when the equivalent weight of Nafion was 1000

  2. Electrokinetic transport of water and methanol in Nafion membranes as observed by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, Fredrik; Vernersson, Thomas; Pettersson, Erik Thyboll; Dvinskikh, Sergey V.; Lindbergh, Goeran; Furo, Istvan

    2010-01-01

    Electrophoretic NMR (eNMR) and pulsed-field-gradient NMR (PFG-NMR) methods were used to study transport processes in situ and in a chemically resolved manner in the electrolyte of an experimental direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) setup, constituted of several layers of Nafion 117. The measurements were conducted at room temperature for membranes fully swollen by methanol-water mixtures over a wide concentration interval. The experimental setup and the experimental protocol for the eNMR experiments are discussed in detail. The magnitude of the water and methanol self-diffusion coefficients show a good agreement with previously published data while the ratio of the two self-diffusion coefficients may indicate an imperfect mixing of the two solvent molecules. On the molecular level, the drag of water and methanol molecules by protons is roughly of the same magnitude, with the drag of methanol molecules increasing with increasing methanol content. The electro-osmotic drag defined on mass-flow basis increased for methanol from a low level with increasing methanol concentration while that of water remained roughly constant.

  3. Design of methanol Feed control in Pichia pastoris fermentations based upon a growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Smith, Leonard A; Plantz, Bradley A; Schlegel, Vicki L; Meagher, Michael M

    2002-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is an effective system for recombinant protein productions that utilizes methanol as an inducer, and also as carbon and energy source for a Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strain. Pichia fermentation is conducted in a fed-batch mode to obtain a high cell density for a high productivity. An accurate methanol control is required in the methanol fed-batch phase (induction phase) in the fermentation. A simple "on-off" control strategy is inadequate for precise control of methanol concentrations in the fermentor. In this paper we employed a PID (proportional, integral and derivative) control system for the methanol concentration control and designed the PID controller settings on the basis of a Pichia growth model. The closed-loop system was built with four components: PID controller, methanol feed pump, fermentation process, and methanol sensor. First, modeling and transfer functions for all components were derived, followed by frequency response analysis, a powerful method for calculating the optimal PID parameters K(c) (controller gain), tau(I) (controller integral time constant), and tau(D) (controller derivative time constant). Bode stability criteria were used to develop the stability diagram for evaluating the designed settings during the entire methanol fed-batch phase. Fermentations were conducted using four Pichia strains, each expressing a different protein, to verify the control performance with optimal PID settings. The results showed that the methanol concentration matched the set point very well with only small overshoot when the set point was switched, which indicated that a very good control performance was achieved. The method developed in this paper is robust and can serve as a framework for the design of other PID feedback control systems in biological processes.

  4. Technoeconomic analysis of a methanol plant based on gasification of biomass and electrolysis of water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Houbak, N.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2010-01-01

    , and the low-temperature waste heat is used for district heat production. This results in high total energy efficiencies (similar to 90%) for the plants. The specific methanol costs for the six plants are in the range 11.8-25.3 (sic)/GJ(exergy). The lowest cost is obtained by a plant using electrolysis......Methanol production process configurations based on renewable energy sources have been designed. The processes were analyzed in the thermodynamic process simulation tool DNA. The syngas used for the catalytic methanol production was produced by gasification of biomass, electrolysis of water, CO2...... with a different syngas production method, were compared. The plants achieve methanol exergy efficiencies of 59-72%, the best from a configuration incorporating autothermal reforming of biogas and electrolysis of water for syngas production. The different processes in the plants are highly heat integrated...

  5. An in situ infrared study of dimethyl carbonate synthesis from carbon dioxide and methanol over zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyeong Taek; Bell, Alexis T.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) synthesis from methanol and carbon dioxide over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using in situ infrared spectroscopy. The dissociative adsorption of methanol occurs more slowly than the adsorption of carbon dioxide, but the species formed from methanol are bound more strongly. Upon adsorption, the oxygen atom of methanol binds to coordinately unsaturated Zr4+ cations present at the catalyst surface. Rapid dissociation of the adsorbed methanol leads to the formation of a methoxide group (Zr-OCH3) and the release of a proton, which reacts with a surface hydroxyl group to produce water. Carbon dioxide inserts in the Zr-O bond of the methoxide to form a mondentate methyl carbonate group (Zr-OC(O)OCH3). This process is facilitated by the interactions of C and O atoms in CO2 with Lewis acid-base pairs of sites (Zr4+O2-) on the surface of the catalyst. Methyl carbonate species can also be produced via the reaction of methanol with carbon dioxide adsorbed in the form of bicarbonate species with methanol, a process that results in the transfer of a methyl group to the carbonate and restores a hydroxyl group to the zirconia surface. The decomposition of DMC on monoclinic zirconia has also been investigated and has been observed to occur via the reverse of the processes described for the synthesis of DMC

  6. ( Asteraceae ) methanol extracts against Helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol vehicle did not affect H. pylori growth. Conclusion: The observed antibacterial effect of G. glutinosum extracts may be of benefit as an adjuvant treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori. Key words: Gymnosperma glutinosum, Helicobacter pylori, methanol extract, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).

  7. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methanol is a high production volume chemical used as a feedstock for chemical syntheses and as a solvent and fuel additive. Methanol is acutely toxic to humans, causing acidosis, blindness in death at high dosages, but its developmental and reproductive toxicity in humans is poo...

  8. Methanol as fuel: evaluation of atmosphere contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.D.; Romano, J.; Guardani, M.L.G.

    1991-01-01

    With the beginning of methanol use as automotive fuel in Sao Paulo city, 1990, were realized special measurements of methanol, formaldehyde, ethanol and acetaldehyde in atmosphere. Other indicators of air quality as carbon and ozone monoxide were also observed in this study. (C.M.)

  9. Development of a methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, Baard

    2003-03-01

    Vehicles powered by fuel cells are from an environmental aspect superior to the traditional automobile using internal combustion of gasoline. Power systems which are based upon fuel cell technology require hydrogen for operation. The ideal fuel cell vehicle would operate on pure hydrogen stored on-board. However, storing hydrogen on-board the vehicle is currently not feasible for technical reasons. The hydrogen can be generated on-board using a liquid hydrogen carrier such as methanol and gasoline. The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop a catalytic hydrogen generator for automotive applications using methanol as the hydrogen carrier. The first part of this work gives an introduction to the field of methanol reforming and the properties of a fuel cell based power system. Paper I reviews the catalytic materials and processes available for producing hydrogen from methanol. The second part of this thesis consists of an experimental investigation of the influence of the catalyst composition, materials and process parameters on the activity and selectivity for the production of hydrogen from methanol. In Papers II-IV the influence of the support, carrier and operational parameters is studied. In Paper V an investigation of the catalytic properties is performed in an attempt to correlate material properties with performance of different catalysts. In the third part of the thesis an investigation is performed to elucidate whether it is possible to utilize oxidation of liquid methanol as a heat source for an automotive reformer. In the study which is presented in Paper VI a large series of catalytic materials are tested and we were able to minimize the noble metal content making the system more cost efficient. In the final part of this thesis the reformer prototype developed in the project is evaluated. The reformer which was constructed for serving a 5 k W{sub e} fuel cell had a high performance with near 100 % methanol conversion and CO

  10. Thermoelectric generation coupling methanol steam reforming characteristic in microreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Cao, Yiding; Wang, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generator converts heat to electric energy by thermoelectric material. However, heat removal on the cold side of the generator represents a serious challenge. To address this problem and for improved energy conversion, a thermoelectric generation process coupled with methanol steam reforming (SR) for hydrogen production is designed and analyzed in this paper. Experimental study on the cold spot character in a micro-reactor with monolayer catalyst bed is first carried out to understand the endothermic nature of the reforming as the thermoelectric cold side. A novel methanol steam reforming micro-reactor heated by waste heat or methanol catalytic combustion for hydrogen production coupled with a thermoelectric generation module is then simulated. Results show that the cold spot effect exists in the catalyst bed under all conditions, and the associated temperature difference first increases and then decreases with the inlet temperature. In the micro-reactor, the temperature difference between the reforming and heating channel outlets decreases rapidly with an increase in thermoelectric material's conductivity coefficient. However, methanol conversion at the reforming outlet is mainly affected by the reactor inlet temperature; while at the combustion outlet, it is mainly affected by the reactor inlet velocity. Due to the strong endothermic effect of the methanol steam reforming, heat supply of both kinds cannot balance the heat needed at reactor local areas, resulting in the cold spot at the reactor inlet. When the temperature difference between the thermoelectric module's hot and cold sides is 22 K, the generator can achieve an output voltage of 55 mV. The corresponding molar fraction of hydrogen can reach about 62.6%, which corresponds to methanol conversion rate of 72.6%. - Highlights: • Cold spot character of methanol steam reforming was studied through experiment. • Thermoelectric generation Coupling MSR process has been

  11. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier...... cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51...... gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic...

  12. Investigations into low pressure methanol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafutdinov, Irek

    The central topic of this work has been synthesis, characterization and optimization of novel Ni-Ga based catalysts for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The overall goal was to search for materials that could be used as a low temperature (and low pressure) methanol synthesis catalyst....... This is required for small scale delocalized methanol production sites, where installation of energy demanding compression units should be avoided. The work was triggered by DFT calculations, which showed that certain bimetallic systems are active towards methanol synthesis from CO2 and H2 at ambient pressure...... containing 5:3 molar ratio of Ni:Ga, the intrinsic activity (methanol production rate per active surface area) is comparable to that of highly optimised Cu/ZnO/Al2O3. Formation of the catalyst was investigated with the aid of in-situ XRD and in-situ XAS techniques. The mechanism of alloying was proposed...

  13. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B; Kogelschatz, U [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  14. C1 Metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum: an Endogenous Pathway for Oxidation of Methanol to Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoff, Sabrina; Mühlroth, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Methanol is considered an interesting carbon source in “bio-based” microbial production processes. Since Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important host in industrial biotechnology, in particular for amino acid production, we performed studies of the response of this organism to methanol. The C. glutamicum wild type was able to convert 13C-labeled methanol to 13CO2. Analysis of global gene expression in the presence of methanol revealed several genes of ethanol catabolism to be upregulated, indicating that some of the corresponding enzymes are involved in methanol oxidation. Indeed, a mutant lacking the alcohol dehydrogenase gene adhA showed a 62% reduced methanol consumption rate, indicating that AdhA is mainly responsible for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. Further studies revealed that oxidation of formaldehyde to formate is catalyzed predominantly by two enzymes, the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald and the mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase AdhE. The Δald ΔadhE and Δald ΔmshC deletion mutants were severely impaired in their ability to oxidize formaldehyde, but residual methanol oxidation to CO2 was still possible. The oxidation of formate to CO2 is catalyzed by the formate dehydrogenase FdhF, recently identified by us. Similar to the case with ethanol, methanol catabolism is subject to carbon catabolite repression in the presence of glucose and is dependent on the transcriptional regulator RamA, which was previously shown to be essential for expression of adhA and ald. In conclusion, we were able to show that C. glutamicum possesses an endogenous pathway for methanol oxidation to CO2 and to identify the enzymes and a transcriptional regulator involved in this pathway. PMID:24014532

  15. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli

    2015-02-17

    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  16. Abiotic and biotic control of methanol exchanges in a temperate mixed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Laffineur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol exchanges over a mixed temperate forest in the Belgian Ardennes were measured for more than one vegetation season using disjunct eddy-covariance by a mass scanning technique and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS. Half-hourly methanol fluxes were measured in the range of −0.6 μg m−2 s−1 to 0.6 μg m−2 s−1, and net daily methanol fluxes were generally negative in summer and autumn and positive in spring. On average, the negative fluxes dominated (i.e. the site behaved as a net sink, in contrast to what had been found in previous studies.

    An original model describing the adsorption/desorption of methanol in water films present in the forest ecosystem and the methanol degradation process was developed. Its calibration, based on field measurements, predicted a mean methanol degradation rate of −0.0074 μg m−2 s−1 and a half lifetime for methanol in water films of 57.4 h. Biogenic emissions dominated the exchange only in spring, with a standard emission factor of 0.76 μg m−2 s−1.

    The great ability of the model to reproduce the long-term evolution, as well as the diurnal variation of the fluxes, suggests that the adsorption/desorption and degradation processes play an important role in the global methanol budget. This result underlines the need to conduct long-term measurements in order to accurately capture these processes and to better estimate methanol fluxes at the ecosystem scale.

  17. Abiotic and biotic control of methanol exchanges in a temperate mixed forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffineur, Q.; Aubinet, M.; Schoon, N.; Amelynck, C.; Müller, J.-F.; Dewulf, J.; van Langenhove, H.; Steppe, K.; Heinesch, B.

    2012-01-01

    Methanol exchanges over a mixed temperate forest in the Belgian Ardennes were measured for more than one vegetation season using disjunct eddy-covariance by a mass scanning technique and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Half-hourly methanol fluxes were measured in the range of -0.6 μg m-2 s-1 to 0.6 μg m-2 s-1, and net daily methanol fluxes were generally negative in summer and autumn and positive in spring. On average, the negative fluxes dominated (i.e. the site behaved as a net sink), in contrast to what had been found in previous studies. An original model describing the adsorption/desorption of methanol in water films present in the forest ecosystem and the methanol degradation process was developed. Its calibration, based on field measurements, predicted a mean methanol degradation rate of -0.0074 μg m-2 s-1 and a half lifetime for methanol in water films of 57.4 h. Biogenic emissions dominated the exchange only in spring, with a standard emission factor of 0.76 μg m-2 s-1. The great ability of the model to reproduce the long-term evolution, as well as the diurnal variation of the fluxes, suggests that the adsorption/desorption and degradation processes play an important role in the global methanol budget. This result underlines the need to conduct long-term measurements in order to accurately capture these processes and to better estimate methanol fluxes at the ecosystem scale.

  18. Biocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol as a key step for development of methane-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Yeub; Lee, Seung Hwan; Choi, Yoo Seong; Park, Si Jae; Na, Jeong Geol; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Choongik; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-12-28

    Methane is considered as a next-generation carbon feedstock owing to the vast reserves of natural and shale gas. Methane can be converted to methanol by various methods, which in turn can be used as a starting chemical for the production of value-added chemicals using existing chemical conversion processes. Methane monooxygenase is the key enzyme that catalyzes the addition of oxygen to methane. Methanotrophic bacteria can transform methane to methanol by inhibiting methanol dehydrogenase. In this paper, we review the recent progress made on the biocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol as a key step for methane-based refinery systems and discuss future prospects for this technology.

  19. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of temperature and feed composition on catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether over {gamma}-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshteh Raoof; Majid Taghizadeh; Ali Eliassi; Fereydoon Yaripour [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran). Chemical Engineering Department

    2008-10-15

    Catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) is performed in an adiabatic fixed bed heterogeneous reactor by using acidic {gamma}-alumina. By changing the mean average temperature of the catalyst bed (or operating temperature of the reactor) from 233 up to 303{sup o}C, changes in methanol conversion were monitored. The results showed that the conversion of methanol strongly depended on the reactor operating temperature. Also, conversion of pure methanol and mixture of methanol and water versus time were studied and the effect of water on deactivation of the catalyst was investigated. The results revealed that when pure methanol was used as the process feed, the catalyst deactivation occurred very slowly. But, by adding water to the feed methanol, the deactivation of the {gamma}-alumina was increased very rapidly; so much that, by increasing water content to 20 weight percent by weight, the catalyst lost its activity by about 12.5-fold more than in the process with pure methanol. Finally, a temperature dependent model developed to predict pure methanol conversion to DME correlates reasonably well with experimental data. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Sorption phenomena of methanol on heat treated coal; Netsushori wo hodokoshita sekitan no methanol kyuchaku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Experiments were carried out to learn methanol sorption characteristics of heat-treated coal. When Taiheiyo coal is heat-treated at 125{degree}C, performed with a first methanol adsorption at 25{degree}C, and then desorption at 25{degree}C, a site with strong interaction with methanol and a site with relatively weak interaction are generated in test samples. A small amount of methanol remains in both sites. Then, when the methanol is desorbed at as low temperature as 70{degree}C, the methanol in the site with strong interaction remains as it has existed therein, but the methanol in the site with relatively weak interaction desorbs partially, hence the adsorption amount in a second adsorption at 25{degree}C increases. However, when desorption is performed at as high temperature as 125{degree}C, the methanol in the site with strong interaction also desorbs, resulting in increased adsorption heat in the second adsorption. The adsorption velocity drops, however. Existence of methanol in a site with strong interaction affects the adsorption velocity, but no effect is given by methanol in a site with weak interaction. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Energy conservation in methanol plant using CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadi, Marjan; Tahouni, Nassim; Panjeshahi, M. Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of turbo expander integration with an industrial plant was studied. • Combined pinch-exergy analysis was used to achieve optimum performance of process. • Generation of power led to profitability of gas turbine integrated plant. - Abstract: Today, the efficient use of energy is a significant critical issue in various industries such as petrochemical industries. Hence, it seems essential to apply proper strategies to reduce energy consumption in such processes. A methanol production plant at a live Petrochemical Complex was selected as the case study in this research. The plant was first evaluated with combined pinch and exergy analysis from exergetic dissipation point of view. Owing to high temperature and pressure of reactor outlet stream, methanol synthesis reactor products contain considerable content of exergy. For the purpose of the present survey, the available content of exergy was used for power production by integrating a turbine expander with methanol reactor product. Utilization of reactor product’s high pressure in turbine reduces the temperature of turbine outlet stream to levels lower than those required for heating demands of existing streams in methanol synthesis cycle. Therefore, to keep the stream thermally balanced, the required hot utility of the process is increased and to compensate this increase, the heat exchanger network of the process was retrofitted based on pinch analysis concepts. The results showed that in gas turbine integrated scheme, approximately a net power of 7.5 MW is produced. Also, the total investment of turbine, compressor and heat exchangers area equals to 18.2 × 10 6 US$, and the annual saving value is about 6.1 × 10 6 US$/y. Based on economic data, payback period is estimated to be 3 years.

  3. Stability studies of oxytetracycline in methanol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Nan; Yang, Jinghui; Zeng, Ming; Xu, Chenshan; Li, Lun; Zhang, Meng; Li, Liting

    2018-02-01

    As one kind of typical tetracycline antibiotics, antibiotic residues of oxytetracycline have been frequently detected in many environmental media. In this study, the stability of oxytetracycline in methanol solution was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with UV-vis (HPLC-UV). The results show that the stability of oxytetracycline in methanol solution is highly related to its initial concentration and the preserved temperature. Under low temperature condition, the solution was more stable than under room temperature preservation. Under the same temperature preservation condition, high concentrations of stock solutions are more stable than low concentrations. The study provides a foundation for preserving the oxytetracycline-methanol solution.

  4. A rare presentation of methanol toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is a highly toxic alcohol resembling ethanol in smell and taste. Methanol poisoning is a lethal form of poisoning that can cause severe metabolic acidosis, visual disturbances, and neurological deficit. Brain lesions typically described in methanol toxicity are in the form of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic necrosis of the basal ganglia and sub-cortical white matter. To our knowledge, lesions in the parietal, temporal, or frontal areas of cerebrum and cerebellar hemispheres have been rarely reported so far. We herewith report this rare presentation.

  5. Methanol to propylene. From development to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, S.; Rothaemel, M. [Air Liquide Forschung und Entwicklung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pohl, S.; Gorny, M. [Lurgie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions

    2012-07-01

    In the late 1990s the development of the so-called MTP {sup registered} (methanol-to-propylene) process, a Lurgi Technology (by Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions) started. This constitutes a novel route to a valuable product that would not rely on crude oil as feedstock (as conventional propylene production does), but instead utilizes coal or natural gas and potentially biomass. These alternative feedstocks are first converted to synthesis gas, cleaned, and then converted to methanol. The development of the methanol-to-propylene conversion was achieved in a close collaboration between R and D and engineering. Two pilot plants at the R and D center in Frankfurt and a demonstration plant in Norway have been used to demonstrate the yields, catalyst lifetime and product quality and to support the engineering team in plant design and scale-up. Especially the last item is important as it was clear from the very beginning that the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant would already be world-scale, actually one of the largest propylene producing plants in the world. This required a safe and diligent scale-up as the MTP {sup registered} reactors in the commercial plant receive about 7,000 times the feed of the demo unit and as much as 100,000 times the feed of the pilot plant. The catalyst used is a zeolite ZSM-5 that was developed by our long-term cooperation partner Sued-Chemie (now Clariant). At the end of 2010, the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant in Ningdong in the Chinese province of Ningxia was started up as part of a coal-to-chemicals complex owned by the Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group. In this complex the complete chain starting from coal through to the final polypropylene product is realized. The customer successful started the polymer-grade propylene production in April 2011 and then announced in May 2011 that he sold the first 1000 tons of polypropylene made with propylene coming from the MTP {sup registered} unit. Following this

  6. Systematic staging design applied to the fixed-bed reactor series for methanol and one-step methanol/dimethyl ether synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manenti, Flavio; Leon-Garzon, Andres R.; Ravaghi-Ardebili, Zohreh; Pirola, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates possible design advances in the series of fixed-bed reactors for methanol and dimethyl ether synthesis. Specifically, the systematic staging design proposed by Hillestad [1] is applied to the water-cooled and gas-cooled series of reactors of Lurgi's technology. The procedure leads to new design and operating conditions with respect to the current best industrial practice, with relevant benefits in terms of process yield, energy saving, and net income. The overall mathematical model for the process simulation and optimization is reported in the work together with dedicated sensitivity analysis studies. - Highlights: • Systematic staging design is applied to methanol and methanol/DME synthesis. • New configurations for the synthesis reactor network are proposed and assessed. • Comparison with the industrial best practice is provided. • Energy-process optimization is performed to improve the overall yield of the process

  7. The adsorption of methanol and water on SAPO-34: in situ and ex situ X-ray diffraction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wragg, David S.; Johnsen, Rune; Norby, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of methanol on SAPO-34 has been studied using a combination of in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction to follow the process and ex situ high resolution powder diffraction to determine the structure. The unit cell volume of SAPO-34 is found to expand by 0.5% during methanol ad...

  8. Regulatory aspects of methanol metabolism in yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotsenko, Y.A.; Bystrykh, L.V.; Ubiyvovk, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Formaldehyde is the first and key intermediate in the metabolism of methylotrophic yeasts since it stands at a branch point of pathways for methanol oxidation and assimilation. Methanol and, formaldehyde are toxic compounds which severely affect the growth rate, yield coefficient, etc., of yeasts. Two questions arise when considering regulation of methanol metabolism in yeasts how a nontoxic level of formaldehyde is maintained in the cell and how the formaldehyde flow is distributed into oxidation and assimilation. To answer these questions we studied the role of GSH, which spontaneously binds formaldehyde, yielding S-hydroxymethylglutathione; in vivo rates of formaldehyde dissimilation and assimilation by using [ 14 C]methanol; profiles of enzymes responsible for production and utilization of formaldehyde; and levels of metabolites affecting dissimilation and assimilation of formaldehyde. All of the experiments were carried out with the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii KD1. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  10. Phytochemical screening and antiproliferative effects of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Phytochemical screening. Thin layer chromatographic profile (TLC) of methanol crude extract and antiproliferative studies were carried out in this research. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, anthraquinone, steroid, triterpenes, saponin, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloid.

  11. Thermodynamic functions of hydrogen bonding of amines in methanol derived from solution calorimetry data and headspace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, Ksenia V., E-mail: zaitseva.ksenia@gmail.com [Chemical Institute, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlevskaya 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Varfolomeev, Mikhail A., E-mail: vma.ksu@gmail.com [Chemical Institute, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlevskaya 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@ksu.ru [Chemical Institute, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlevskaya 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution enthalpies and activity coefficients of amines in methanol were measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic functions of H-bonding of amines with methanol were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific interaction entropy of amines in methanol can be about zero or positive. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cooperativity of H-bonds in methanol media is smaller than in water solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new view on analysis of specific interaction of solute with methanol is presented. - Abstract: Reactivity and equilibrium properties of organic molecules in self-associated liquids greatly depend on the hydrogen bonding with solvent. This work contains comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen bonding of aliphatic and aromatic amines in self-associated solvent methanol. Enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution and limiting activity coefficients for the studied systems were measured experimentally. Enthalpies and Gibbs energies of hydrogen bonding of amines with neat methanol were determined. These values were found to be decreased compared with hydrogen bond energy in equimolar complexes 'methanol-amine' determined in inert solvent or base media. A linear dependence between enthalpies and Gibbs energies of hydrogen bonding of amines with neat methanol was observed. It was firstly revealed that the entropy of specific interactions of amines with neat methanol can be about zero or positive. Disruption of solvent-solvent hydrogen bonds can be regarded as the most important step during dissolution of amine in methanol. It was found that the cooperative effect influences on the Gibbs energies of hydrogen bonding of amines in methanol, but in a lesser extent than in aqueous solutions. The new results show that the hydrogen bonding process in the self-associated solvents differs significantly from equimolar complexation in aprotic media.

  12. Methanol plant ship: Appendix. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The document is an appendix to the final report on a proposed methanol plant ship off of the coast of Trinidad. The document incorporates the results of the redetermination of capital required to implement the project. It also presents a revised cost analysis, with better accuracy, for the project. The projected operating revenues and revised expenses are also given. As a continuation of the information presented in the final report, the methanol market and proposed products are discussed in the report

  13. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative neuropharmacological efficacy of the leaf and root 70 % methanol extract of Cissus cornifolia was studied in mice. The extractive values of the leaf and root methanol extract was found to be 31.5 g with yield of 12.6 %(w/w) and 37.8 g with the yield of 15.12 %(w/w) respectively. The acute toxicity (LD50) values ...

  14. Structural insights into methanol-stable variants of lipase T6 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Adi; Kanteev, Margarita; Kagan, Irit; Gihaz, Shalev; Shahar, Anat; Fishman, Ayelet

    2015-11-01

    Enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of triglycerides and alcohol, catalyzed by lipases, offers an environmentally friendly and efficient alternative to the chemically catalyzed process while using low-grade feedstocks. Methanol is utilized frequently as the alcohol in the reaction due to its reactivity and low cost. However, one of the major drawbacks of the enzymatic system is the presence of high methanol concentrations which leads to methanol-induced unfolding and inactivation of the biocatalyst. Therefore, a methanol-stable lipase is of great interest for the biodiesel industry. In this study, protein engineering was applied to substitute charged surface residues with hydrophobic ones to enhance the stability in methanol of a lipase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T6. We identified a methanol-stable variant, R374W, and combined it with a variant found previously, H86Y/A269T. The triple mutant, H86Y/A269T/R374W, had a half-life value at 70 % methanol of 324 min which reflects an 87-fold enhanced stability compared to the wild type together with elevated thermostability in buffer and in 50 % methanol. This variant also exhibited an improved biodiesel yield from waste chicken oil compared to commercial Lipolase 100L® and Novozyme® CALB. Crystal structures of the wild type and the methanol-stable variants provided insights regarding structure-stability correlations. The most prominent features were the extensive formation of new hydrogen bonds between surface residues directly or mediated by structural water molecules and the stabilization of Zn and Ca binding sites. Mutation sites were also characterized by lower B-factor values calculated from the X-ray structures indicating improved rigidity.

  15. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations

  16. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yimin; Zelenay, Piotr

    2006-03-21

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  17. Integrated anode structure for passive direct methanol fuel cells with neat methanol operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huijuan; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Peng; Guo, Jing; Yuan, Ting; Zheng, Junwei; Yang, Hui

    2014-02-01

    A microporous titanium plate based integrated anode structure (Ti-IAS) suitable for passive direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) fueled with neat methanol is reported. This anode structure incorporates a porous titanium plate as a methanol mass transfer barrier and current collector, pervaporation film for passively vaporizing methanol, vaporous methanol cavity for evenly distributing fuel, and channels for carbon dioxide venting. With the effective control of methanol delivery rate, the Ti-IAS based DMFC allows the direct use of neat methanol as the fuel source. In the meantime, the required water for methanol-oxidation reaction at the anode can also be fully recovered from the cathode with the help of the highly hydrophobic microporous layer in the cathode. DMFCs incorporating this new anode structure exhibit a power density as high as 40 mW cm-2 and a high volumetric energy density of 489 Wh L-1 operating with neat methanol and at 25 °C. Importantly, no obvious performance degradation of the passive DMFC system is observed after more than 90 h of continuous operation. The experimental results reveal that the compact DMFC based on the Ti-IAS exhibits a substantial potential as power sources for portable applications.

  18. Electro-oxidation of methanol on copper in alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heli, H.; Jafarian, M.; Mahjani, M.G.; Gobal, F.

    2004-01-01

    The electro-oxidation of methanol on copper in alkaline solutions has been studied by the methods of cyclic voltammetry, quasi-steady state polarization and chronoamperometry. It has been found that in the course of an anodic potential sweep the electro-oxidation of methanol follows the formation of Cu III and is catalysed by this species through a mediated electron transfer mechanism. The reaction also continues in the early stages of the reversed cycle until it is stopped by the prohibitively negative potentials. The process is diffusion controlled and the current-time responses follow Cottrellian behavior. The rate constants, turnover frequency, anodic transfer coefficient and the apparent activation energy of the electro-oxidation reaction are reported

  19. Sulfur induced selectivity changes for methanol decomposition on Ni(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S.; Madix, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of structured overlayers as selective poisons were demonstrated by the adsorption of methanol on Ni(100), Ni(100)p(2 x 2)S, Ni(100)c(2 x 2)S at a crystal temperature of 137/sup 0/K and temperature programed reaction in an ultra-high vacuum. On the clean surface, mixed isotopes of dihydrogen and carbon monoxide were formed in desorption-limited processes above 300/sup 0/K. Evidence for the existence of an absorbed (COD) intermediate was obtained. The p(2 x 2)S surface gave similar results. The sulfur decreased the amount of absorbed methanol which reacted and interacted significantly with the (COD) intermediate. On the c(2 x 2)S structure, the primary reaction intermediate was methoxy. Formaldehyde was formed with an activation energy of 26 kcal/g-mole. No desorption-limited carbon monoxide was observed.

  20. Solar photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Prairie, M.R.; Assink, R.A.

    1997-02-01

    This report summarizes the three-year LDRD program directed at developing catalysts based on metalloporphyrins to reduce carbon dioxide. Ultimately it was envisioned that such catalysts could be made part of a solar-driven photoredox cycle by coupling metalloporphyrins with semiconductor systems. Such a system would provide the energy required for CO{sub 2} reduction to methanol, which is an uphill 6-electron reduction. Molecular modeling and design capabilities were used to engineer metalloporphyrin catalysts for converting CO{sub 2} to CO and higher carbon reduction products like formaldehyde, formate, and methanol. Gas-diffusion electrochemical cells were developed to carry out these reactions. A tin-porphyrin/alumina photocatalyst system was partially developed to couple solar energy to this reduction process.

  1. A gradient activation method for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guicheng; Yang, Zhaoyi; Halim, Martin; Li, Xinyang; Wang, Manxiang; Kim, Ji Young; Mei, Qiwen; Wang, Xindong; Lee, Joong Kee

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A gradient activation method was reported firstly for direct methanol fuel cells. • The activity recovery of Pt-based catalyst was introduced into the novel activation process. • The new activation method led to prominent enhancement of DMFC performance. • DMFC performance was improved with the novel activation step by step within 7.5 h. - Abstract: To realize gradient activation effect and recover catalytic activity of catalyst in a short time, a gradient activation method has firstly been proposed for enhancing discharge performance and perfecting activation mechanism of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). This method includes four steps, i.e. proton activation, activity recovery activation, H_2-O_2 mode activation and forced discharging activation. The results prove that the proposed method has gradually realized replenishment of water and protons, recovery of catalytic activity of catalyst, establishment of transfer channels for electrons, protons, and oxygen, and optimization of anode catalyst layer for methanol transfer in turn. Along with the novel activation process going on, the DMFC discharge performance has been improved, step by step, to more than 1.9 times higher than that of the original one within 7.5 h. This method provides a practicable activation way for the real application of single DMFCs and stacks.

  2. Modelling and experimental studies on a direct methanol fuel cell working under low methanol crossover and high methanol concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, V.B.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, C.M. [Instituto Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    A number of issues need to be resolved before DMFC can be commercially viable such as the methanol crossover and water crossover which must be minimised in portable DMFCs. The main gain of this work is to systematically vary commercial MEA materials and check their influence on the cell performance of a direct methanol fuel cell operating at close to room temperature. A detailed experimental study on the performance of an <> developed DMFC with 25 cm{sup 2} of active membrane area, working near the ambient conditions is described. Tailored MEAs (membrane-electrode assemblies), with different structures and combinations of gas diffusion layers (GDLs), were designed and tested in order to select optimal working conditions at high methanol concentration levels without sacrificing performance. The experimental polarization and power density curves were successfully compared with the predictions of a steady state, one-dimensional model accounting for coupled heat and mass transfer, along with the electrochemical reactions occurring in the DMFC recently developed by the same authors. The influence of the anode gas diffusion layer media, the membrane thickness and the MEA properties on the cell performance are explained under the light of the predicted methanol crossover rate across the membrane. A tailored MEA build-up with the common available commercial materials was proposed to achieve relatively low methanol crossover, operating at high methanol concentrations. The use of adequate materials for the gas diffusion layers (carbon paper at the anode GDL and carbon cloth at the cathode GDL) enables the use of thinner membranes enhancing the water back diffusion which is essential to work at high methanol concentrations. (author)

  3. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Birk Henriksen, U.; Muenster-Swendsen, J.; Fink, A.; Roengaard Clausen, L.; Munkholt Christensen, J.; Qin, K.; Lin, W.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier types have been investigated in this project: 1) The Two-Stage Gasifier (Viking Gasifier), designed to produce a very clean gas to be used in a gas engine, has been connected to a lab-scale methanol plant, to prove that the gas from the gasifier could be used for methanol production with a minimum of gas cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). 2) A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 65-71% (LHV). Different routes to produce liquid transport fuels from biomass are possible. They include production of RME (rapeseed oil

  4. Short-term inhalation toxicity of methanol, gasoline, and methanol/gasoline in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, R; Chu, I; Bjarnason, S; Vincent, R; Potvin, M; Miller, R B; Valli, V E

    1995-01-01

    Four- to five-week-old male and female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to vapors of methanol (2500 ppm), gasoline (3200 ppm), and methanol/gasoline (2500/3200 ppm, 570/3200 ppm) six hours per day, five days per week for four weeks. Control animals were exposed to filtered room air only. Depression in body weight gain and reduced food consumption were observed in male rats, and increased relative liver weight was detected in rats of both sexes exposed to gasoline or methanol/gasoline mixtures. Rats of both sexes exposed to methanol/gasoline mixtures had increased relative kidney weight and females exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures had increased kidney weight. Decreased serum glucose and cholesterol were detected in male rats exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures. Decreased hemoglobin was observed in females inhaling vapors of gasoline and methanol/gasoline at 570/3200 ppm. Urine from rats inhaling gasoline or methanol/gasoline mixtures had up to a fourfold increase in hippuric acid, a biomarker of exposure to the toluene constituent of gasoline, and up to a sixfold elevation in ascorbic acid, a noninvasive biomarker of hepatic response. Hepatic mixed-function oxidase (aniline hydroxylase, aminopyrine N-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) activities and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity were elevated in rats exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures. Histopathological changes were confined to very mild changes in the nasal passages and in the uterus, where decreased incidence or absence of mucosal and myometrial eosinophilia was observed in females inhaling gasoline and methanol/gasoline at 570/3200 ppm. It was concluded that gasoline was largely responsible for the adverse effects, the most significant of which included depression in weight gain in the males, increased liver weight and hepatic microsomal enzyme activities in both sexes, and suppression of uterine eosinophilia. No apparent interactive effects

  5. Towards neat methanol operation of direct methanol fuel cells: a novel self-assembled proton exchange membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Liying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhangxian; Cheng, Hansong

    2015-04-18

    We report here a novel proton exchange membrane with remarkably high methanol-permeation resistivity and excellent proton conductivity enabled by carefully designed self-assembled ionic conductive channels. A direct methanol fuel cell utilizing the membrane performs well with a 20 M methanol solution, very close to the concentration of neat methanol.

  6. Discovery of a Ni-Ga catalyst for carbon dioxide reduction to methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studt, Felix; Sharafutdinov, Irek; Abild-Pedersen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of methanol as a fuel and chemical feedstock could become very important in the development of a more sustainable society if methanol could be efficiently obtained from the direct reduction of CO 2 using solar-generated hydrogen. If hydrogen production is to be decentralized, small-scale CO...... 2 reduction devices are required that operate at low pressures. Here, we report the discovery of a Ni-Ga catalyst that reduces CO 2 to methanol at ambient pressure. The catalyst was identified through a descriptor-based analysis of the process and the use of computational methods to identify Ni......-Ga intermetallic compounds as stable candidates with good activity. We synthesized and tested a series of catalysts and found that Ni 5 Ga 3 is particularly active and selective. Comparison with conventional Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalysts revealed the same or better methanol synthesis activity, as well as considerably...

  7. Heat and mass transfer effects in a direct methanol fuel cell: A 1D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, V.B.; Falcao, D.S.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, C.M. [INETI - Unidade de Electroquimica e Materiais, Paco do Lumiar, 22,1649-038 (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    Models are a fundamental tool for the design process of fuel cells and fuel cell systems. In this work, a steady-state, one-dimensional model accounting for coupled heat and mass transfer, along with the electrochemical reactions occurring in the DMFC, is presented. The model output is the temperature profile through the cell and the water balance and methanol crossover between the anode and the cathode. The model predicts the correct trends for the influence of current density and methanol feed concentration on both methanol and water crossover. The model estimates the net water transfer coefficient through the membrane, {alpha}, a very important parameter to describe water management in the DMFC. Suitable operating ranges can be set up for different MEA structures maintaining the crossover of methanol and water within acceptable levels. The model is rapidly implemented and is therefore suitable for inclusion in real-time system level DMFC calculations. (author)

  8. Improving the monitoring of methanol concentration during high cell density fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, R; Feliu, J X; Cos, O; Montesinos, J L; Berthet, F X; Valero, F

    2004-09-01

    The Pichia pastoris expression system is widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. A simple and efficient experimental set-up allowing on-line monitoring of the methanol concentration during the fermentation of P. pastoris based on the detection of the methanol vapor concentration in the exhaust air from fermenter by a tin dioxide (SnO2) semiconductor sensor is described. An experimental procedure to allow precise calibration of the system and to reduce methanol sensor's interferences (>95% reduction) are also presented and discussed. Accuracy and measurement error were estimated about 0.05 g x l(-1) and 6%, respectively. The efficient monitoring of methanol will help to advanced control of recombinant protein production and process optimization.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of a Micro Methanol Sensor Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Fu Fong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A methanol microsensor integrated with a micro heater manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS-microelectromechanical system (MEMS technique was presented. The sensor has a capability of detecting low concentration methanol gas. Structure of the sensor is composed of interdigitated electrodes, a sensitive film and a heater. The heater located under the interdigitated electrodes is utilized to provide a working temperature to the sensitive film. The sensitive film prepared by the sol-gel method is tin dioxide doped cadmium sulfide, which is deposited on the interdigitated electrodes. To obtain the suspended structure and deposit the sensitive film, the sensor needs a post-CMOS process to etch the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer and silicon substrate. The methanol senor is a resistive type. A readout circuit converts the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experimental results show that the methanol sensor has a sensitivity of 0.18 V/ppm.

  10. High activity of novel Pd/TiO2 nanotube catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Guo Daojun; Li Hulin

    2005-01-01

    Electro-oxidation of methanol in sulfuric acid solution was studied using palladium well-dispersed on titanium nanotubes, in relation to methanol oxidation processes in the direct oxidation methanol fuel cell. Pd dispersed on titania nanotubes, which leads to high surface area substrates, showed excellent catalytic activities compared to those of pure Pd and Pd-TiO 2 nanoparticles. TEM results show a narrow distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles whose particle size is about 10nm, and uniform nano-sized TiO 2 nanotubes with 10nm in diameters are seen from HRTEM . A homogeneous structure in the composite nanomaterials is indicated by XRD analysis. The composite electrode activities were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and at 25 deg. C it was found that 3wt% Pd in titania nanotubes had the best activity for methanol oxidation

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of a Micro Methanol Sensor Using the CMOS-MEMS Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Chien-Fu; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2015-10-23

    A methanol microsensor integrated with a micro heater manufactured using the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technique was presented. The sensor has a capability of detecting low concentration methanol gas. Structure of the sensor is composed of interdigitated electrodes, a sensitive film and a heater. The heater located under the interdigitated electrodes is utilized to provide a working temperature to the sensitive film. The sensitive film prepared by the sol-gel method is tin dioxide doped cadmium sulfide, which is deposited on the interdigitated electrodes. To obtain the suspended structure and deposit the sensitive film, the sensor needs a post-CMOS process to etch the sacrificial silicon dioxide layer and silicon substrate. The methanol senor is a resistive type. A readout circuit converts the resistance variation of the sensor into the output voltage. The experimental results show that the methanol sensor has a sensitivity of 0.18 V/ppm.

  12. Evaluation of the use of UCG gas to produce 4000 BPD and 12,000 BPD of methanol with conversion to M-gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, Donald

    1981-01-01

    This study involves an examination of the technical and economic feasibility of using raw gas from an underground coal gasification facility as feedstock for methanol synthesis, and producing M-gasoline from the methanol. It differs from previous studies in considering facilities smaller than those previously studied. Addressed also is the economic and technical feasibility of using equipment from existing ammonia plants for the production of methanol. Ammonia and methanol plants are very similar in type of equipment used and plant layout. Consequently, it is possible to convert an existing ammonia plant into a methanol facility. Existing ammonia and methanol plants which contain equipment that might be utilized with UCG all use natural gas for feedstock. The processing steps in these plants can be divided into unit operations which are described. The product price analysis shows that significant economies of scale exist for the larger of the two facility sizes considered in this study. The economies of scale are evident for both the methanol/M-gasoline and methanol-only facilities. Compared to current market prices, the calculated product prices for the 4000 BPD and 12,000 BPD methanol-only facilities are within the range of competitiveness with the prices of conventionally produced methanol. The product prices calculated for the 12,000 BPD methanol/4910 BPD M-gasoline facility are, under the most optimistic assumptions, 50% higher than the current market price for unleaded gasoline.

  13. Production of synthetic methanol from air and water using controlled thermonuclear reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1977-01-01

    Energy requirement and process development of methanol production from air and water using controlled thermonuclear fusion power was discussed in Part 1 (Steinberg et al., Energy conversion;17:97(1977)). This second part presents an economic analysis of the nine processes presented for obtaining carbon dioxide recovery from the atmosphere or the sea for methanol production. It is found that the most economical process of obtaining carbon dioxide is by stripping from sea water. The process of absorption/stripping by dilute potassium carbonate solution is found to be the most economical for the extraction of carbon dioxide from air at atmospheric pressure. The total energy required for methanol synthesis from these sources of carbon dioxide is 3.90 kWh(e)/lb methanol of which 90% is used for generation of hydrogen. The process which consumes the greatest amount of energy is the absorption/stripping of air by water at high pressure and amounts to 13.2 kWh(e)/lb methanol. With nuclear fusion power plants of 1000to 9000 MW(e), it is found that the cost of methanol using the extraction of carbon dioxide from air with dilute potassium carbonate solution is estimated to be in the range between Pound1.73 and Pound2.90/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent - 1974 cost) for plant capacities of 21 400 to 193 000 bbl/day methanol. This methanol cost is competitive with gasoline in the range of 19 approximately equal to 33c/gallon. For the process of stripping of carbon dioxide from sea water, the cost is found to lie in the range of Pound1.65 to Pound2.71/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent) for plant capacities of 21 700 to 195 000 bbl/day methanol which is competitive with gasoline in the range of 18 approximately equal to 30 c/gallon. Projection of methanol demand in the year 2020 is presented based on both its conventional use as chemicals and as a liquid fuel substituting for oil and gas. (author)

  14. Comparison between two methods of methanol production from carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicic, B.; Trop, P.; Goricanec, D.

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years there has been a significant increase in the amount of technology contributing to lower emissions of carbon dioxide. The aim of this paper is to provide a comparison between two technologies for methanol production, both of which use carbon dioxide and hydrogen as initial raw materials. The first methanol production technology includes direct synthesis of methanol from CO 2 , and the second has two steps. During the first step CO 2 is converted into CO via RWGS (reverse water gas shift) reaction, and methanol is produced during the second step. A comparison between these two methods was achieved in terms of economical and energy-efficiency bases. The price of electricity had the greatest impact from the economical point of view as hydrogen is produced via the electrolysis of water. Furthermore, both the cost of CO 2 capture and the amounts of carbon taxes were taken into consideration. Energy-efficiency comparison is based on cold gas efficiency, while economic feasibility is compared using net present value. Even though the mentioned processes are similar, it was shown that direct methanol synthesis has higher energy and economic efficiency. - Highlights: • We compared two methods for methanol production. • Process schemes for both, direct synthesis and two-step synthesis, are described. • Direct synthesis has higher economical and energy efficiency

  15. Potential of Immobilized Whole-Cell Methylocella tundrae as a Biocatalyst for Methanol Production from Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardina, Primata; Li, Jinglin; Patel, Sanjay K S; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul; Selvaraj, Chandrabose

    2016-07-28

    Methanol is a versatile compound that can be biologically synthesized from methane (CH4) by methanotrophs using a low energy-consuming and environment-friendly process. Methylocella tundrae is a type II methanotroph that can utilize CH4 as a carbon and energy source. Methanol is produced in the first step of the metabolic pathway of methanotrophs and is further oxidized into formaldehyde. Several parameters must be optimized to achieve high methanol production. In this study, we optimized the production conditions and process parameters for methanol production. The optimum incubation time, substrate, pH, agitation rate, temperature, phosphate buffer and sodium formate concentration, and cell concentration were determined to be 24 h, 50% CH4, pH 7, 150 rpm, 30°C, 100 mM and 50 mM, and 18 mg/ml, respectively. The optimization of these parameters significantly improved methanol production from 0.66 to 5.18 mM. The use of alginate-encapsulated cells resulted in enhanced methanol production stability and reusability of cells after five cycles of reuse under batch culture conditions.

  16. Neues Verfahren zur Methanol- und Ammoniak-Synthese. Der Gas/Feststoff/Feststoff-Rieselströmungsreaktor - ein neuer Reaktortyp zur Führung chemischer Gleichgewichtsprozesse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Kuczynski, Michal

    1986-01-01

    New process for the production of methanol and ammonia. The gas/solids/solids thrickle flow reactor - a new kind of reactor for chemical equilibrium processes. A new process for the production of ammonia or methanol has been developed in the high pressure laboratory of Twente Technical University.

  17. The enhancement of methanol oxidation electrocatalysis at low and high overpotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teliz, E.; Díaz, V.; Zinola, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • EIS results depicted two time constants. • Between 0.40 and 0.55 V methanol dehydrogenation was the rds. • Above 0.55 V CO-type and formiate adsorbed intermediates oxidation was the rds. • PtRuMo/C showed the highest tolerance to methanol intermediates. - Abstract: The preparation of new surfaces for anodic processes in methanol/air fuel cells has gained major attention due to the efficiency loss in the course of long-time operations. This paper proposes the use of electrochemical activated Pt/C, PtMo/C, PtRu/C, PtRuMo/C electrodes to study changes in the electrocatalytic behaviour of methanol oxidation under the potential ranges of interest for fuel cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with polarization curves are applied to typify the interfacial behaviour of methanol electrooxidation on these activated electrodes. Impedance information discloses that these catalysts allow two distinct responses, i.e. methanol dehydrogenation as rate determining step in the low potential region (0.400-0.550 V), whereas a surface oxidation of adsorbed intermediates determining the process at high potentials (larger than 0.550 V). Moreover, we found new effects caused by molybdenum or ruthenium inclusions that are explained using the true Tafel slopes, that is, those corrected for mass transport. Thus, Tafel slopes of 0.060 V decade −1 are found for all carbon supported electrodes except for PtRu/C where the first electrochemical step as rate determining explained the experimental 0.120 V decade −1 value. The catalytic performance of carbon supported PtRuMo/C towards methanol electrooxidation showed the highest tolerance upon methanol intermediates formation

  18. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  19. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  20. Methanol utilizing Desulfotomaculum species utilizes hydrogen in a methanol-fed sulfate-reducing bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Weijma, J.; Goorissen, H.P.; Ronteltap, M.; Hansen, T.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain WW1, was isolated from a thermophilic bioreactor operated at 65 degrees C with methanol as sole energy source in the presence of sulfate. Growth of strain WW1 on methanol or acetate was inhibited at a sulfide concentration of 200 mg l(-1), while on H-2/CO2, no

  1. Thermodynamic functions of hydrogen bonding of amines in methanol derived from solution calorimetry data and headspace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Varfolomeev, Mikhail A.; Solomonov, Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solution enthalpies and activity coefficients of amines in methanol were measured. ► Thermodynamic functions of H-bonding of amines with methanol were determined. ► Specific interaction entropy of amines in methanol can be about zero or positive. ► Cooperativity of H-bonds in methanol media is smaller than in water solutions. ► A new view on analysis of specific interaction of solute with methanol is presented. - Abstract: Reactivity and equilibrium properties of organic molecules in self-associated liquids greatly depend on the hydrogen bonding with solvent. This work contains comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen bonding of aliphatic and aromatic amines in self-associated solvent methanol. Enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution and limiting activity coefficients for the studied systems were measured experimentally. Enthalpies and Gibbs energies of hydrogen bonding of amines with neat methanol were determined. These values were found to be decreased compared with hydrogen bond energy in equimolar complexes “methanol–amine” determined in inert solvent or base media. A linear dependence between enthalpies and Gibbs energies of hydrogen bonding of amines with neat methanol was observed. It was firstly revealed that the entropy of specific interactions of amines with neat methanol can be about zero or positive. Disruption of solvent–solvent hydrogen bonds can be regarded as the most important step during dissolution of amine in methanol. It was found that the cooperative effect influences on the Gibbs energies of hydrogen bonding of amines in methanol, but in a lesser extent than in aqueous solutions. The new results show that the hydrogen bonding process in the self-associated solvents differs significantly from equimolar complexation in aprotic media.

  2. Solution thermodynamics and preferential solvation of sulfamethazine in (methanol + water) mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Daniel R.; Almanza, Ovidio A.; Martínez, Fleming; Peña, María A.; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Acree, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of sulfamethazine (SMT) was measured in (methanol + water) mixtures. • SMT solubility was correlated with Jouyban–Acree model. • Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of dissolution of SMT were calculated. • Non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was observed for SMT. • Preferential solvation of SMT by methanol was analyzed by using the IKBI method. - Abstract: The solubility of sulfamethazine (SMT) in {methanol (1) + water (2)} co-solvent mixtures was determined at five different temperatures from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The sulfonamide exhibited its highest mole fraction solubility in pure methanol (δ 1 = 29.6 MPa 1/2 ) and its lowest mole fraction solubility in water (δ 2 = 47.8 MPa 1/2 ) at each of the five temperatures studied. The Jouyban–Acree model was used to correlate/predict the solubility values. The respective apparent thermodynamic functions Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy of solution were obtained from the solubility data through the van’t Hoff and Gibbs equations. Apparent thermodynamic quantities of mixing were also calculated for this drug using values of the ideal solubility reported in the literature. A non-linear enthalpy–entropy relationship was noted for SMT in plots of both the enthalpy vs. Gibbs energy of mixing and the enthalpy vs. entropy of mixing. These plots suggest two different trends according to the slopes obtained when the composition of the mixtures changes. Accordingly, the mechanism for SMT transfer processes in water-rich mixtures from water to the mixture with 0.70 in mass fraction of methanol is entropy driven. Conversely, the mechanism is enthalpy driven in mixtures whenever the methanol composition exceeds 0.70 mol fraction. An inverse Kirkwood–Buff integral analysis of the preferential solvation of SMT indicated that the drug is preferentially solvated by water in water-rich mixtures but is preferentially solvated by methanol in methanol-rich mixtures.

  3. Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

  4. The analysis on energy and environmental impacts of microalgae-based fuel methanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jing; Ma Xiaoqian

    2009-01-01

    The whole life of methanol fuel, produced by microalgae biomass which is a kind of renewable energy, is evaluated by using a method of life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA has been used to identify and quantify the environment emissions and energy efficiency of the system throughout the whole life cycle, including microalgae cultivation, methanol conversion, transport, and end-use. Energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the energy of methanol produced to the total required energy, is 1.24, the results indicate that it is plausible as an energy producing process. The environmental impact loading of microalgae-based fuel methanol is 0.187mPET 2000 in contrast to 0.828mPET 2000 for gasoline. The effect of photochemical ozone formation is the highest of all the calculated categorization impacts of the two fuels. Utilization of microalgae an raw material of producing methanol fuel is beneficial to both production of renewable fuels and improvement of the ecological environment. This Fuel methanol is friendly to the environment, which should take an important role in automobile industry development and gasoline fuel substitute

  5. Production of FAME by palm oil transesterification via supercritical methanol technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2009-01-01

    The present study employed non-catalytic supercritical methanol technology to produce biodiesel from palm oil. The research was carried out in a batch-type tube reactor and heated beyond supercritical temperature and pressure of methanol, which are at 239 o C and 8.1 MPa respectively. The effects of temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to palm oil on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel were investigated. The results obtained showed that non-catalytic supercritical methanol technology only required a mere 20 min reaction time to produce more than 70% yield of FAME. Compared to conventional catalytic methods, which required at least 1 h reaction time to obtain similar yield, supercritical methanol technology has been shown to be superior in terms of time and energy consumption. Apart from the shorter reaction time, it was found that separation and purification of the products were simpler since no catalyst is involved in the process. Hence, formation of side products such as soap in catalytic reactions does not occur in the supercritical methanol method.

  6. Kinetics of methanol decomposition on Cu/ZnO/ZrO2 catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, R.; Kozlowska, A.

    2004-01-01

    Interaction of methanol with Cu/ZnO/ZrO 2 (with different copper content) has been investigated by gravimetric and TPD methods. The TPD measurements of methanol adsorption on these catalysis show that it forms the complexes of two types. The first complex (I) decomposes at low temperature (453 K) yielding H 2 and CO 2 and second (II) decomposes at temperature (573 K) giving CO and H 2 . In the process of decomposition of the complex (I) takes part water which is adsorbed on the surface of the catalyst and the decomposition of the complex (II) occurs without participation of adsorbed water. Gravimetric measurements of methanol and that an increase of copper content leads to the changes in the kinetics of methanol adsorption and its decomposition. On the basis of gravimetric measurements a model of methanol adsorption and decomposition on Cu/ZnO/ZrO 2 catalyst has been proposed and the rate constants of methanol adsorption (k a ) and decomposition with and without participation of water (k 1 and k 2 ) have been determined. (author)

  7. Ejection of solvated ions from electrosprayed methanol/water nanodroplets studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Elias; Konermann, Lars

    2011-06-22

    The ejection of solvated small ions from nanometer-sized droplets plays a central role during electrospray ionization (ESI). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can provide insights into the nanodroplet behavior. Earlier MD studies have largely focused on aqueous systems, whereas most practical ESI applications involve the use of organic cosolvents. We conduct simulations on mixed water/methanol droplets that carry excess NH(4)(+) ions. Methanol is found to compromise the H-bonding network, resulting in greatly increased rates of ion ejection and solvent evaporation. Considerable differences in the water and methanol escape rates cause time-dependent changes in droplet composition. Segregation occurs at low methanol concentration, such that layered droplets with a methanol-enriched periphery are formed. This phenomenon will enhance the partitioning of analyte molecules, with possible implications for their ESI efficiencies. Solvated ions are ejected from the tip of surface protrusions. Solvent bridging prior to ion secession is more extensive for methanol/water droplets than for purely aqueous systems. The ejection of solvated NH(4)(+) is visualized as diffusion-mediated escape from a metastable basin. The process involves thermally activated crossing of a ~30 kJ mol(-1) free energy barrier, in close agreement with the predictions of the classical ion evaporation model.

  8. Methanol as a cryoprotectant for equine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, L D; Denniston, D J; Maclellan, L J; McCue, P M; Seidel, G E; Squires, E L

    2004-09-15

    Equine embryos (n=43) were recovered nonsurgically 7-8 days after ovulation and randomly assigned to be cryopreserved in one of two cryoprotectants: 48% (15M) methanol (n=22) or 10% (136 M) glycerol (n=21). Embryos (300-1000 microm) were measured at five intervals after exposure to glycerol (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15 min) or methanol (0, 15, 35, 75 and 10 min) to determine changes (%) in diameter over time (+/-S.D.). Embryos were loaded into 0.25-ml plastic straws, sealed, placed in a programmable cell freezer and cooled from room temperature (22 degrees C) to -6 degrees C. Straws were then seeded, held at -6 degrees C for 10 min and then cooled to -33 degrees C before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Two or three embryos within a treatment group were thawed and assigned to be either cultured for 12 h prior to transfer or immediately nonsurgically transferred to a single mare. Embryo diameter decreased in all embryos upon initial exposure to cryoprotectant. Embryos in methanol shrank and recovered slightly to 76+/-8 % of their original diameter; however, embryos in glycerol continued to shrink, reaching 57+/-6 % of their original diameter prior to cryopreservation. Survival rates of embryos through Day 16 of pregnancy were 38 and 23%, respectively (P>0.05) for embryos cryopreserved in the presence of glycerol or methanol. There was no difference in pregnancy rates of mares receiving embryos that were cultured prior to transfer or not cultured (P>0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated that 48% methanol was not toxic to fresh equine embryos but methanol provided no advantage over glycerol as a cryoprotectant for equine blastocysts.

  9. Optical coherence tomography findings in methanol toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kendra A; Warren, Alexis K; Baumal, Caroline R; Hedges, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Methanol toxicity poses a significant public health problem in developing countries, and in Southeast Asia, where the most common source of poisoning is via adulterated liquor in local drinks. Methanol toxicity can have devastating visual consequences and retinal specialists should be aware of the features of this toxic optic neuropathy. The authors report a case of severe systemic methanol toxicity and relatively mild optic neuropathy demonstrating unique retinal changes on optical coherence tomography (OCT). A previously healthy student developed ataxia, difficulty breathing and loss of consciousness hours after drinking homemade alcohol while traveling in Indonesia. She was found to have a serum pH of 6.79 and elevated methanol levels. She was treated with intravenous ethanol, methylprednisolone and sodium bicarbonate. When she awoke she had bilateral central scotomas. At presentation, she had central depression on visual field testing. OCT of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) was normal but ganglion cell layer analysis (GCL) showed highly selective loss of the nasal fibers in both eyes. Further, OCT of the macula demonstrated inner nuclear layer (INL) microcysts in the corresponding area of selective GCL loss in both eyes. The selective involvement of the papillomacular bundle fibers is common in toxic optic neuropathies and represents damage to the small caliber axons rich in mitochondria. Despite severe systemic toxicity, the relative sparing of the optic nerve in this case enabled characterization of the evolution of methanol toxicity with segmental GCL involvement and preservation of the RNFL, corresponding to the papillomacular bundle. This is the first reported case of INL microcysts in methanol optic neuropathy and supports that they are a non-specific finding, and may represent preferential damage to the papillomacular bundle.

  10. Photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.; D`Este, J.R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A long-term goal of our research group is the exploration of novel pathways for the direct oxidation of methane to liquid fuels, chemicals, and intermediates. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol is attractive. The products of reaction, methanol and hydrogen, are both commercially desirable, methanol being used as is or converted to a variety of other chemicals, and the hydrogen could be utilized in petroleum and/or chemical manufacturing. Methane is produced as a by-product of coal gasification. Depending upon reactor design and operating conditions, up to 18% of total gasifier product may be methane. In addition, there are vast proven reserves of geologic methane in the world. Unfortunately, a large fraction of these reserves are in regions where there is little local demand for methane and it is not economically feasible to transport it to a market. There is a global research effort under way in academia, industry, and government to find methods to convert methane to useful, more readily transportable and storable materials. Methanol, the initial product of methane oxidation, is a desirable product of conversion because it retains much of the original energy of the methane while satisfying transportation and storage requirements. Investigation of direct conversion of methane to transportation fuels has been an ongoing effort at PETC for over 10 years. One of the current areas of research is the conversion of methane to methanol, under mild conditions, using light, water, and a semiconductor photocatalyst. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol, is attractive. Research in the laboratory is directed toward applying the techniques developed for the photocatalytic splitting of the water and the photochemical conversion of methane.

  11. Effect of fumigation methanol and ethanol on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. H.; Tsang, K. S.; Cheung, C. S.; Chan, T. L.; Yao, C. D.

    2011-02-01

    Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with methanol or ethanol injected into the air intake of each cylinder, to compare their effect on the engine performance, gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque speed of 1800 rev/min. The methanol or ethanol was injected to top up 10% and 20% of the engine loads under different engine operating conditions. The experimental results show that both fumigation methanol and fumigation ethanol decrease the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at low engine load but improves it at high engine load; however the fumigation methanol has higher influence on the BTE. Compared with Euro V diesel fuel, fumigation methanol or ethanol could lead to reduction of both NOx and particulate mass and number emissions of the diesel engine, with fumigation methanol being more effective than fumigation ethanol in particulate reduction. The NOx and particulate reduction is more effective with increasing level of fumigation. However, in general, fumigation fuels increase the HC, CO and NO 2 emissions, with fumigation methanol leading to higher increase of these pollutants. Compared with ethanol, the fumigation methanol has stronger influence on the in-cylinder gas temperature, the air/fuel ratio, the combustion processes and hence the emissions of the engine.

  12. Grace announces coal-to-methanol project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, R

    1980-02-15

    WR Grace and Co. are planning a feasibility study for a plant to produce 5000 tons/day of methanol and 6000 tons/day of carbon dioxide from captive coal reserves in Colorado. The study will be performed by Energy Transition Co. (ETCo). The producers would be used for pipeline transmission of pulverised coal, probably to California. At the destination the coal would go to a power station, the methanol to a gas turbine and the carbon dioxide to an oil producer for tertiary recovery.

  13. Absolute entropy of ions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data

  14. Abacavir methanol 2.5-solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong-Truc T. Pham

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure of abacavir (systematic name: {(1S,4R-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino-9H-purin-9-yl]cyclopent-2-en-1-yl}methanol, C14H18N6O·2.5CH3OH, consists of hydrogen-bonded ribbons which are further held together by additional hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl group and two N atoms on an adjacent purine. The asymmetric unit also contains 2.5 molecules of methanol solvate which were grossly disordered and were excluded using SQUEEZE subroutine in PLATON [Spek, (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155].

  15. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  16. Sensing methanol concentration in direct methanol fuel cell with total harmonic distortion: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Krewer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear frequency response of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is studied by analyzing the total harmonic distortion (THD) spectra. The dependence of the THD spectra on methanol concentration and methanol oxidation kinetics is investigated by means of both simulation and experiment. Simulation using a continuous stirred tank reactor network model suggests that the methanol concentration profile in the anode has a strong impact on the THD spectra. The experimentally observed nonlinear behavior of the DMFC anode can be qualitatively reproduced with a model containing a three-step methanol oxidation mechanism with Kauranen–Frumkin/Temkin kinetics. Both experiment and simulation results show that THD value has a monotonic correlation with methanol concentration at certain frequencies and its sensitivity to concentration is improved with increased current amplitude. The monotonic relationship enables the THD to sense the methanol concentration level by the DMFC itself, which is of mayor interest for the portable application as an external sensor for the system can be omitted.

  17. The effects of methanol on the trapping of volatile ice components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Daren J.; Brown, Wendy A.

    2015-04-01

    The evaporation of icy mantles, which have been formed on the surface of dust grains, is acknowledged to give rise to the rich chemistry that has been observed in the vicinity of hot cores and corinos. It has long been established that water ice is the dominant species within many astrophysical ices. However, other molecules found within astrophysical ices, particularly methanol, can influence the desorption of volatile species from the ice. Here we present a detailed investigation of the adsorption and desorption of methanol-containing ices, showing the effect that methanol has on the trapping and release of volatiles from model interstellar ices. OCS and CO2 have been used as probe molecules since they have been suggested to reside in water-rich and methanol-rich environments. Experiments show that methanol fundamentally changes the desorption characteristics of both OCS and CO2, leading to the observation of mainly codesorption of both species with bulk water ice for the tertiary ices and causing a lowering of the temperature of the volcano component of the desorption. In contrast, binary ices are dominated by standard volcano desorption. This observation clearly shows that codepositing astrophysically relevant impurities with water ice, such as methanol, can alter the desorption dynamics of volatiles that become trapped in the pores of the amorphous water ice during the sublimation process. Incorporating experimental data into a simple model to simulate these processes on astrophysical timescales shows that the additional methanol component releases larger amounts of OCS from the ice mantle at lower temperatures and earlier times. These results are of interest to astronomers as they can be used to model the star formation process, hence giving information about the evolution of our Universe.

  18. Modeling methanol transfer in the mesoporous catalyst for the methanol-to-olefins reaction by the time-fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhokh, Alexey A.; Strizhak, Peter E.

    2018-04-01

    The solutions of the time-fractional diffusion equation for the short and long times are obtained via an application of the asymptotic Green's functions. The derived solutions are applied to analysis of the methanol mass transfer through H-ZSM-5/alumina catalyst grain. It is demonstrated that the methanol transport in the catalysts pores may be described by the obtained solutions in a fairly good manner. The measured fractional exponent is equal to 1.20 ± 0.02 and reveals the super-diffusive regime of the methanol mass transfer. The presence of the anomalous transport may be caused by geometrical restrictions and the adsorption process on the internal surface of the catalyst grain's pores.

  19. Experimental and simulation analysis of hydrogen production by partial oxidation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, U. [National Univ. of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    Partial oxidation of methanol is the only self-sustaining process for onboard production of hydrogen. For this a fixed bed catalytic reactor is designed, based on heterogeneous catalytic reaction. To develop an optimized process, simulation is carried out using ASPEN HYSYS v 7.1. Reaction kinetics is developed on the basis of Langmuir Hinshel wood model. 45:55:5 of CuO: ZnO: Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is used as a catalyst. Simulation results are studied in detail to understand the phenomenon of partial oxidation of methanol inside the reactor. An experimental rig is developed for hydrogen production through partial oxidation of methanol. Results obtained from process simulation and experimental work; are compared with each other. (author)

  20. Electro-oxidation of methanol diffused through proton exchange membrane on Pt surface: crossover rate of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Inhwa; Kim, Doyeon; Yun, Yongsik; Chung, Suengyoung; Lee, Jaeyoung; Tak, Yongsug

    2004-01-01

    Methanol crossover rate through proton exchange membrane (Nafion 117) was investigated with a newly designed electrochemical stripping cell. Nanosize Pt electrode was prepared by the electroless deposition. Distinct electrocatalytic oxidation behaviors of methanol inside membrane were similar to the methanol oxidation in aqueous electrolyte, except adsorption/desorption of hydrogen. The amount of methanol diffused through membrane was calculated from the charge of methanol oxidation during repetitive cyclic voltammetry (CV) and methanol crossover rate was estimated to be 0.69 nmol/s

  1. Methanol steam-reforming in a catalytic fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duesterwald, H G; Hoehlein, B; Kraut, H; Meusinger, J; Peters, R [Research Centre Juelich (KFA) (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering; Stimming, U [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik und Techn. Phys.

    1997-12-01

    Designing an appropriate methanol steam reformer requires detailed knowledge about the processes within such a reactor. Thus, the axial temperature and concentration gradients and catalyst ageing were investigated. It was found that for a fresh catalyst load, the catalyst located in the reactor entrance was most active during the experiment. The activity of this part of the catalyst bed decreased after some time of operation due to ageing. With further operation, the most active zone moved through the catalyst bed. From the results concerning hydrogen production and catalyst degradation, the necessary amount of catalyst for a mobile PEMFC-system can be estimated. (orig.)

  2. Evaporation and condensation at a liquid surface. II. Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Kataoka, Yosuke

    1994-11-01

    The rates of evaporation and condensation of methanol under the vapor-liquid equilibrium condition at the temperature of 300 and 350 K are investigated with a molecular dynamics computer simulation. Compared with the argon system (reported in part I), the ratio of self-reflection is similar (˜10%), but the ratio of molecule exchange is several times larger than the argon, which suggests that the conventional assumption of condensation as a unimolecular process completely fails for associating fluids. The resulting total condensation coefficient is 20%-25%, and has a quantitative agreement with a recent experiment. The temperature dependence of the evaporation-condensation behavior is not significant.

  3. Radioisotope tracer study of co-reactions of methanol with ethanol using 11C-labelled methanol over alumina and H-ZSM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi-Priboczki, E.; Kovacs, Z.; Kumar, N.; Salmi, T.; Murzin, D.Yu

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The transformation of methanol has been investigated over alumina and H-ZSM-5 in our previous experiments by 11 C-radioisotope tracing. The main product in methanol conversion over alumina was dimethyl ether due to Lewis acid sites while over H-ZSM-5 mostly hydrocarbons were formed due to both Lewis and Brrnsted acid sites. With increasing temperature first the ethanol was dehydrated to diethyl ether followed by ethene formation over alumina and H-ZSM-5. In this work, 11 C-labelled methanol as radioisotope tracer was added to non-radioactive methanol for investigation of co-reaction with non-radioactive ethanol over alumina and H- ZSM-5. The 11 C-methanol tracer was used to distinguish the methanol derivates and co-reaction derivates of methanol with ethanol against non-radioactive ethanol derivates. The yield of methyl ethyl ether as mixed ether and the influence of ethanol for the yields of C 1 -C 5 hydrocarbons were studied as a function of reaction temperature and contact time. The 11 C-methanol was formed by a radiochemical process from 11 CO 2 produced at cyclotron. The mixture of methanol and ethanol was added to 11 C-methanol and injected to the catalyst. The catalysis was carried out in a glass tube fixed-bed reactor after its pretreatment. The derivates were analyzed by radio-gas chromatography (gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector coupled on-line with a radioactivity detector). The comparative analysis of yields of radioactive and non-radioactive products as a function of reaction temperature gives information about the reaction pathways. Over alumina the yields of dimethyl ether and methyl ethyl ether (co-product) as radioactive and diethyl ether with ethene as non-radioactive main products were monitored as a function of reaction temperature and reaction time in the range of 513-593 K. Alongside ethanol derivates the ethene turns into main product in contrast with methyl ethyl ether and diethyl

  4. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methane hydrate in sea bed near continental margin and underneath of permafrost ... clathrate structure,6,7 IR spectroscopy analysis of vibra- tional form of guest .... Hydrogen (H71) of the hydroxyl group of methanol is found to have formed ...

  5. Parameters affecting methanol utilization by yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, M.S.; El-Masry, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    Screening of 28 yeast cultures, representing 22 species of various yeasts, with respect to their capabilities to assimilate methanol, has shown that this property was mostly found in certain species of the two genera Hansenula and Candida. When methanol was used as a sole carbon source for a methanol-adapted strain of Hansenula polymorpha, a linear yield response could be obtained with increasing alcohol up to 2% concentration. The amount of inoculum proved to be the decisive factor in determining a priori the ability of the organism to grow at 6% methanol as final concentration. The optimum pH values for growth ranged between 4.5-5.5 with no growth at pH 6.5 or higher. A marked growth stimulation was obtained when the medium was supplied with phosphate up to 0.08 M as final concentration. Within the nitrogen sources tested, corn steep liquor concentrate gave the highest yield of cells. The significance of the obtained results are discussed with reference to feasibilities of application.

  6. Metacridamide B methanol-d4 monosolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The title compound was extracted from conidia of the fungus Metarhizium acridum. Crystals were obtained as a methanol-d4 solvate. The tail part of the 4-methylhexan-2-yl group exhibits disorder over two positions, with an occupancy ratio of 0.682 (9):0.318 (9). The crystal structure confirms the abs...

  7. Methanol fractionations of Catha edulis frosk (Celastraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of methanol extract and its fractionations obtained from Yemeni khat on the smooth muscle isometric tension in Lewis rat aortal ring preparations and compared the effects of the crimson and green leaves. Khat leaves were sorted into green (khat Light; KL) and crimson (khat Dark; KD) leaves ...

  8. Conversion of methanol and isobutanol to MTBE

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nicolaides, CP

    1993-09-24

    Full Text Available Over the resin catalyst Amberlyst 15, and under our reaction conditions, the yield of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), from the reaction of methanol and isobutene, is at a maximum in the temperature rang of 40-60-degrees-C. Slightly higher...

  9. Comparative antitrypanosomal screening of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo activities of methanolic extracts of defatted leaves and stems of Khaya senegalensis and Moringa oleifera on Trypanosoma brucei brucei were investigated and compared. The in vitro assessment involved incubating the parasite (in triplicate) in the presence of various extract concentrations in a ...

  10. Cancer chemopreventive property of Bidens pilosa methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer chemopreventive property of Bidens pilosa methanolic extract on two stage in vivo skin carcinogenesis model. ... In the forestomach, kidney and lung, glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase levels were significantly reduced. Chemopreventive response was calculated by the mean number of papillomas ...

  11. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.

    1999-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  12. Preliminary antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securinega virosa is used as remedy for diarrhoea in tropical Africa, but has not been investigated for its antidiarrhoeal activity. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the methanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark and root bark for antidirrhoeal activity, using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in mice. The effects ...

  13. Antifungal evaluation and phytochemical screening of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to further examine the medicinal value of Boswellia dalzielii plant by evaluating the antifungal activity and carrying out phytochemical screening of methanolic extract, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions and the sub-fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Standard methods were used for ...

  14. Mild oxidation of methane to methanol or acetic acid on supported isolated rhodium catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Junjun; Li, Mengwei; Allard, Lawrence F.; Lee, Sungsik; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    2017-11-01

    An efficient and direct method of catalytic conversion of methane to liquid methanol and other oxygenates would be of considerable practical value. However, it remains an unsolved problem in catalysis, as typically it involves expensive or corrosive oxidants or reaction media that are not amenable to commercialization. Although methane can be directly converted to methanol using molecular oxygen under mild conditions in the gas phase, the process is either stoichiometric (and therefore requires a water extraction step) or is too slow and low-yielding to be practical. Methane could, in principle, also be transformed through direct oxidative carbonylation to acetic acid, which is commercially obtained through methane steam reforming, methanol synthesis, and subsequent methanol carbonylation on homogeneous catalysts. However, an effective catalyst for the direct carbonylation of methane to acetic acid, which might enable the economical small-scale utilization of natural gas that is currently flared or stranded, has not yet been reported. Here we show that mononuclear rhodium species, anchored on a zeolite or titanium dioxide support suspended in aqueous solution, catalyse the direct conversion of methane to methanol and acetic acid, using oxygen and carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We find that the two products form through independent pathways, which allows us to tune the conversion: three-hour-long batch-reactor tests conducted at 150 degrees Celsius, using either the zeolite-supported or the titanium-dioxide-supported catalyst, yield around 22,000 micromoles of acetic acid per gram of catalyst, or around 230 micromoles of methanol per gram of catalyst, respectively, with selectivities of 60-100 per cent. We anticipate that these unusually high activities, despite still being too low for commercial application, may guide the development of optimized catalysts and practical processes for the direct conversion of methane to methanol, acetic acid and other useful

  15. On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant human serum ... of the methanol sensor system was done in a medium environment with yeast cells ... induction at a low temperature and a pH where protease does not function.

  16. Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats: A Comparison of Diagnoses by the RF Study Pathologist and a Recent NTP Review Team, summarized by George Cruzan and submitted to the Methanol Institute

  17. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial interaction studies between methanol extract of lichen (Ramalina farinacea (I) ach. (Fam: Ramalinacea) and tetracycline, against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Preliminary antimicrobial properties of the extract were evaluated. Antimicrobial interaction studies between the methanol ...

  18. The possible mechanisms for the antifertility action of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible mechanisms for the antifertility action of methanolic root extract of Rumex steudelii. ... African Health Sciences ... Objectives: The present study focused further on the possible mechanisms of the antifertility effect of the methanolic ...

  19. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  20. Erythropoietin in Treatment of Methanol Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Farzad; Sanjari, Mostafa S; Naderi, Asieh; Pirmarzdashti, Niloofar; Haghighi, Anousheh; Kashkouli, Mohsen B

    2018-06-01

    Methanol poisoning can cause an optic neuropathy that is usually severe and irreversible and often occurs after ingestion of illicit or homemade alcoholic beverages. In this study, we evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on visual acuity (VA) in patients with methanol optic neuropathy. In a prospective, noncomparative interventional case series, consecutive patients with methanol optic neuropathy after alcoholic beverage ingestion were included. All patients initially received systemic therapy including metabolic stabilization and detoxification. Treatment with intravenous recombinant human EPO consisted of 20,000 units/day for 3 successive days. Depending on clinical response, some patients received a second course of EPO. VA, funduscopy, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography were assessed during the study. Main outcome measure was VA. Thirty-two eyes of 16 patients with methanol optic neuropathy were included. Mean age was 34.2 years (±13.3 years). The mean time interval between methanol ingestion and treatment with intravenous EPO was 9.1 days (±5.56 days). Mean follow-up after treatment was 7.5 months (±5.88 months). Median VA in the better eye of each patient before treatment was light perception (range: 3.90-0.60 logMAR). Median last acuity after treatment in the best eye was 1.00 logMAR (range: 3.90-0.00 logMAR). VA significantly increased in the last follow-up examination (P optic neuropathy and may represent a promising treatment for this disorder.

  1. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D'Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion(®) were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate-PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion(®) 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm(-2) vs. 64 mW·cm(-2)). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm(-2) equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm(-2) for Nafion(®) 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm² for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm² for Nafion(®) 115).

  2. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  3. Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, Andrea [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.casalegno@polimi.it; Grassini, Paolo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: PGrassini@seal.it; Marchesi, Renzo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: renzo.marchesi@polimi.it

    2007-03-15

    Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances. It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty. In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization. The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature.

  4. Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalegno, Andrea; Grassini, Paolo; Marchesi, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances. It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty. In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization. The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature

  5. FORMALDEHYDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITIES IN GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA OXIDIZING METHANOL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BYSTRYKH, LV; GOVORUKHINA, NI; VANOPHEM, PW; HEKTOR, HJ; DIJKHUIZEN, L; DUINE, JA; Govorukhina, Natalya; Ophem, Peter W. van; Duine, Johannis A.

    Extracts of methanol-grown cells of Amycolatopsis methanolica and Mycobacterium gastri oxidized methanol and ethanol with concomitant reduction of N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (NDMA). Anion-exchange chromatography revealed the presence of a single enzyme able to catalyse this activity in methanol-

  6. Acidities of Water and Methanol in Aqueous Solution and DMSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    The relative acidities of water and methanol have been a nagging issue. In gas phase, methanol is more acidic than water by 36.0 kJ/mol; however, in aqueous solution, the acidities of methanol and water are almost identical. The acidity of an acid in solution is determined by both the intrinsic gas-phase ionization Gibbs energy and the solvent…

  7. Comparison between constant methanol feed and on-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methanol feeding methods, namely constant methanol feed and on-line monitoring feed control by methanol sensor were investigated to improve the production of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in high cell density cultivation of Pichia pastoris KM71 in 2 L bioreactor. The yeast utilized glycerol as a carbon ...

  8. Recent Advances in High-Performance Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T. I.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Frank, H.; Surumpudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Kosek, J.; Cropley, C.; La Conti, A. B.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed, direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant.

  9. Biological activities of Rumex dentatus L: Evaluation of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extracts of leaf and stem inhibited radish seed germination (70 and 61% respectively) and root length more than the hexane extracts. The R. dentatus methanol extract showed presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones and tannins while flavonoids were also found in both methanol as well as hexane ...

  10. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.; Costamagna, P.; Traverso, A.; Santin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs.

  11. Thermo-economic evaluation and optimization of the thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peduzzi, Emanuela; Tock, Laurence; Boissonnet, Guillaume; Maréchal, François

    2013-01-01

    In a carbon and resources constrained world, thermo-chemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals is regarded as a promising alternative to fossil resources derived products. Methanol is one potential product which can be used for the synthesis of various chemicals or as a fuel in fuel cells and internal combustion engines. This study focuses on the evaluation and optimization of the thermodynamic and economic performance of methanol production from biomass by applying process integration and optimization techniques. Results reveal the importance of the energy integration and in particular of the cogeneration of electricity for the efficient use of biomass. - Highlights: • A thermo-economic model for biomass conversion into methanol is developed. • Process integration and multi-objective optimization techniques are applied. • Results reveal the importance of energy integration for electricity co-generation

  12. The deep-subsurface sulfate reducer Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii employs two methanol-degrading pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, Diana Z.; Visser, Michael; Gelder, Van Antonie H.; Boeren, Sjef; Pieterse, Mervin M.; Pinkse, Martijn W.H.; Verhaert, Peter D.E.M.; Vogt, Carsten; Franke, Steffi; Kümmel, Steffen; Stams, Alfons J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Methanol is generally metabolized through a pathway initiated by a cobalamine-containing methanol methyltransferase by anaerobic methylotrophs (such as methanogens and acetogens), or through oxidation to formaldehyde using a methanol dehydrogenase by aerobes. Methanol is an important substrate in

  13. Control and Experimental Characterization of a Methanol Reformer for a 350 W High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker

    , i.e. cathode and anode gas flows and temperature by using mass flow controllers and controlled heaters. Using this system the methanol reformer is characterized in its different operating points, both steady-state but also dynamically. Methanol steam reforming is a well known process, and provides...... and burner and the behaviour of the CO concentration of the reformate gas....... the high temperature waste gas from a cathode air cooled 45 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack. The MEAs used are BASF P2100 which use phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole type membranes; an MEA with high CO tolerance and no complex humidity requirements. The methanol reformer used is integrated into a compact...

  14. Synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil by coupling catalysis with subcritical methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Jianzhong; Xiao Min; Wang Aiqin; Xiu Zhilong

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and methanol was investigated under supercritical and subcritical conditions. Under the supercritical conditions, the maximum methyl ester yield exceeded 98% when the molar ratio of methanol to oil was 42:1 and the reaction temperature ranged from 260 deg. C to 350 deg. C. In order to decrease the operational temperature and pressures and to increase the conversion efficiency of methanol, first co-solvent was added to the reaction mixture to improve the reaction process, and then a novel idea was presented in which catalysis and supercritical effect were coupled together. Thus, with 2.5 wt% hexane, temperature of 300 deg. C, methanol to oil ratio of 42, a 85.5% conversion is observed in 30 min, while a 62.2% conversion is observed without hexane in the same condition; with less carbon dioxide, temperature of 300 deg. C, methanol to oil ratio of 42, a 91.6% conversion is observed in 20 min, while a 51.4% conversion is observed without carbon dioxide in the same condition; With only a little amount of potassium hydroxide as the catalyst (KOH/oil = 0.1 wt%), a 98% yield of methyl esters was obtained in 10 min at a reaction temperature of 160 deg. C and the molar ratio (methanol/oil) of 24:1. In contrast, above 1 wt% of catalyst is required in the conventional alkali-catalyzed method; while only 6% yield of methyl ester was obtained at 260 deg. C (corresponding to subcritical conditions) without the catalyst. This result demonstrated that by coupling the catalysis and subcritical operation, the amount of catalyst could be largely reduced and the methanol utilization could be significantly enhanced. Thus, the present method offers some advantages over both the conventional alkali-catalyst method and the expensive supercritical method

  15. Unified modeling and feasibility study of novel green pathway of biomass to methanol/dimethylether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravaghi-Ardebili, Zohreh; Manenti, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Biomass-to-methanol/DME synthesis process layout. - Highlights: • Design, simulation, and control of the direct-storage concentrating solar plant. • Feasibility study of the low-temperature biomass gasification. • First-principles model of biomass gasifier. • First-principles model of one-step methanol/dimethylether synthesis reactor. • Integrated numerical platform for total plant simulation. - Abstract: A novel, integrated and unified process is proposed, modeled and studied for converting biomass to methanol (MeOH)/dimethylether (DME) to demonstrate its feasibility and applicability for the global industrial sector. The unified process consists of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant, which supplies the produced steam to the biomass gasification process as well as to the downstream conversions to chemical commodities and energy carriers. To preserve the effectiveness of the biomass gasification with low-temperature solar-powered generated steam (approximately 400–410 °C), the gasification process is studied by means of a multi-complex (multi-scale, multi-phase, and multi-component) model and adapted to the novel proposed conditions. The syngas generated in the biomass gasification unit is then converted into MeOH/DME by means of one-step synthesis technology to improve the overall yield of the biomass-to-methanol process

  16. Biotechnological conversion of methane to methanol: evaluation of progress and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Bjorck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of methane are numerous, and vary greatly in their use and sustainable credentials. A Jekyll and Hyde character, it is a valuable energy source present as geological deposits of natural gas, however it is also potent greenhouse gas, released during many waste management processes. Gas-to-liquid technologies are being investigated as a means to exploit and monetise non-traditional and unutilised methane sources. The product identified as having the greatest potential is methanol due to it being a robust, commercially mature conversion process from methane and its beneficial fuel characteristics. Commercial methane to methanol conversion requires high temperatures and pressures, in an energy intensive and costly process. In contrast methanotrophic bacteria perform the desired transformation under ambient conditions, using methane monooxygenase (MMO enzymes. Despite the great potential of these bacteria a number of biotechnical difficulties are hindering progress towards an industrially suitable process. We have identified five major challenges that exist as barriers to a viable conversion process that, to our knowledge, have not previously been examined as distinct process challenges. Although biotechnological applications of methanotrophic bacteria have been reviewed in part, no review has comprehensively covered progress and challenges for a methane to methanol process from an industrial perspective. All published examples to date of methanotroph catalysed conversion of methane to methanol are collated, and standardised to allow direct comparison. The focus will be on conversion of methane to methanol by whole-cell, wild type, methanotroph cultures, and the potential for their application in an industrially relevant process. A recent shift in the research community focus from a mainly biological angle to an overall engineering approach, offers potential to exploit methanotrophs in an industrially relevant biotechnological gas

  17. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Co3(PO42 Nanospheres for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methanol in Alkaline Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakarn Arunachalam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost and high-performance advanced electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells are of key significance for the improvement of environmentally-pleasant energy technologies. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of cobalt phosphate (Co3(PO42 nanospheres by a microwave-assisted process and utilized as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. The phase formation, morphological surface structure, elemental composition, and textural properties of the synthesized (Co3(PO42 nanospheres have been examined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm investigations. The performance of an electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol over a Co3(PO42 nanosphere-modified electrode was evaluated in an alkaline solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV and chronopotentiometry (CP techniques. Detailed studies were made for the methanol oxidation by varying the experimental parameters, such as catalyst loading, methanol concentration, and long-term stability for the electro-oxidation of methanol. The good electrocatalytic performances of Co3(PO42 should be related to its good surface morphological structure and high number of active surface sites. The present investigation illustrates the promising application of Co3(PO42 nanospheres as a low-cost and more abundant electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

  18. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... such as lithium-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density. Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density and ease of refueling compared to charging batteries, making μDMFC a suitable replacement energy source. In this Ph.D. dissertation, silicon micro fabrication...... techniques where utilized to build μDMFCs with the purpose of engineering the structures, both on the micro and nano scales in order to realize a high level of control over the membrane and catalyst components. The work presents four different monolithic fuel cell designs. The primary design is based...

  19. Self regulation in the methanol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hymas, R.; Wilkes, P.

    1995-01-01

    The methanol industry is not known for a high degree of self-regulation, as one can see from a glance at historic price volatility, and historic demand/supply curves. Industry enthusiasts spend considerable effort attempting to improve their understanding of the industry by analyzing the abundance of data produced within the industry about these topics, usually without resulting in any definitive correlations. Rational planning within the industry is hindered by these factors as well as the large number of new production facilities continuously being announced. Against this background however demand has significantly increased, supply has kept up with demand, methanol plants structured on a rational basis have continued to be built, and in spite of wildly fluctuating product prices all established members of the industry apparently flourish. Historic trends, new entrants, and industry achievements are discussed

  20. A New 95 GHz Methanol Maser Catalog. I. Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenjin; Xu, Ye; Lu, Dengrong; Ju, Binggang; Li, Yingjie [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Chen, Xi [Center for Astrophysics, GuangZhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P., E-mail: wjyang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2017-08-01

    The Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope has been used to search for 95 GHz (8{sub 0}–7{sub 1}A{sup +}) class I methanol masers toward 1020 Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) sources, leading to 213 detections. We have compared the line width of the methanol and HCO{sup +} thermal emission in all of the methanol detections, and on that basis, we find that 205 of the 213 detections are very likely to be masers. This corresponds to an overall detection rate of 95 GHz methanol masers toward our BGPS sample of 20%. Of the 205 detected masers, 144 (70%) are new discoveries. Combining our results with those of previous 95 GHz methanol maser searches, a total of 481 95 GHz methanol masers are now known. We have compiled a catalog listing the locations and properties of all known 95 GHz methanol masers.

  1. Study on fuel supplying method and methanol concentration sensor for the high efficient operation of methanol fuel cells. Methanol nenryo denchi no unten ni okeru nenryo kyokyu hoho no kento to methanol nodo sensor no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukui, Tsutomu; Doi, Ryota; Yasukawa, Saburo; Kuroda, Osamu [Hirachi, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1990-01-20

    A fuel supplying method was studied and demonstrated, essential to the high efficient operation of methanol fuel cells. Methanol and water were supplied independently from each tank to an anordic electrolyte tank in a circulating system, detecting a methanol concentration and liquid level of anordic electrolyte by each sensor, respectively. A methanol sensor was also developed to detect accurately the concentration based on electrochemical reaction under a constant voltage. A detection control circuit was insulated from a constant-voltage power supply to prevent external noises. The methanol sensor output was compensated for temperature, and a new level sensing method was adopted to send out a command comparing different responses to electrolyte shortage. As the methanol fuel cell was operated with this fuel supplying system, the stable characteristics of the cell were obtained within the variation of {plus minus} 0.1mol/l from the specified methanol concentration. 6 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Quantification of methanol in the presence of ethanol by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers-Bédard, Catherine; Ross, Brian M

    The quantification of trace compounds in alcoholic beverages is a useful means to both investigate the chemical basis of beverage flavor and to facilitate quality control during the production process. One compound of interest is methanol which, due to it being toxic, must not exceed regulatory limits. The analysis of headspace gases is a desirable means to do this since it does not require direct sampling of the liquid material. One established means to conduct headspace analysis is selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). The high concentration of ethanol present in the headspace of alcoholic drinks complicates the analysis, however, via reacting with the precursor ions central to this technique. We therefore investigated whether methanol could be quantified in the presence of a large excess of ethanol using SIFT-MS. We found that methanol reacted with ionized ethanol to generate product ions that could be used to quantify methanol concentrations and used this technique to quantify methanol in beverages containing different quantities of ethanol. We conclude that SIFT-MS can be used to quantify trace compounds in alcoholic beverages by determining the relevant reaction chemistry.

  3. In vivo screening antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis against Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Rashki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Lichens are the result of the symbiosis of fungi and algae or a cyanobacterium. Various biological activities of some lichen and their components such as: antifungal, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal substances are known. In the present study, antifungal activity of methanolic extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis against Aspergillus flavus is investigated on rats. Materials & Methods: 500 g of Protoparmeliopsis muralis was collected from KaneGonbad mountains in Ilam province, the methanol extract was prepared by soxhle. In order to determine the antifungal activity in in vivo conditions, a wound was created and infected with Aspergillus flavus. Having infected the wound, the researchers divided the rats into 4 subgroups: negative control group, treated with Kotrimoksazol, %5 ointment extract methanolic P. muralis, and with %10 ointment extract methanolic P. muralis. Treatment continued until complete healing of the wound. Finally, the percentage of wound healing was calculated. Results: The result of the present study demonstrated that methanolic extract of P. muralis decreased the area of wound in the treatment group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The antifungal and antioxidant activity of the extract of Protoparmeliopsis muralis accelerated the wound healing process.

  4. The Role of Solvent Polarity on Low-Temperature Methanol Synthesis Catalyzed by Cu Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahoba-Sam, Christian [Department of Process, Energy and Environmental Technology, University College of Southeast Norway, Porsgrunn (Norway); Olsbye, Unni [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Jens, Klaus-Joachim, E-mail: Klaus.J.Jens@usn.no [Department of Process, Energy and Environmental Technology, University College of Southeast Norway, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2017-07-14

    Methanol syntheses at low temperature in a liquid medium present an opportunity for full syngas conversion per pass. The aim of this work was to study the role of solvents polarity on low-temperature methanol synthesis reaction using eight different aprotic polar solvents. A “once through” catalytic system, which is composed of Cu nanoparticles and sodium methoxide, was used for methanol synthesis at 100°C and 20 bar syngas pressure. Solvent polarity rather than the 7–10 nm Cu (and 30 nm Cu on SiO{sub 2}) catalyst used dictated trend of syngas conversion. Diglyme with a dielectric constant (ε) = 7.2 gave the highest syngas conversion among the eight different solvents used. Methanol formation decreased with either increasing or decreasing solvent ε value of diglyme (ε = 7.2). To probe the observed trend, possible side reactions of methyl formate (MF), the main intermediate in the process, were studied. MF was observed to undergo two main reactions; (i) decarbonylation to form CO and MeOH and (ii) a nucleophilic substitution to form dimethyl ether and sodium formate. Decreasing polarity favored the decarbonylation side reaction while increasing polarity favored the nucleophilic substitution reaction. In conclusion, our results show that moderate polarity solvents, e.g., diglyme, favor MF hydrogenolysis and, hence, methanol formation, by retarding the other two possible side reactions.

  5. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  6. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen in aqueous methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhasish K; Chakraborty, Savitri; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2013-01-01

    Photolysis of oxyfluorfen, an herbicide of the nitrodiphenyl ether class, was studied in aqueous methanol under UV and sunlight. UV irradiation was carried out in a borosilicate glass photoreactor (containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol) equipped with a quartz filter and 125 watt mercury lamp (maximum output 254 nm) at 25 ± 1°C. Sunlight irradiation was conducted at 28 ± 1°C in borosilicate Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol. The samples from both the irradiated conditions were withdrawn at a definite time interval and extracted to measure oxyfluorfen content by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for rate study. The half-life values were 20 hours and 2.7 days under UV and sunlight exposure, respectively. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen yielded 13 photoproducts of which three were characterized by infrared spectrophotometer and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The rest of the photoproducts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). An ionization potential 70 eV was used for electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) and methane was used as reagent gas for chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Two of the photoproducts were also synthesized for comparison. The main phototransformation pathways of oxyfluorfen involved nitro reduction, dechlorination, and hydrolysis as well as nucleophiles displacement reaction.

  7. Methanol utilizing Desulfotomaculum species utilizes hydrogen in a methanol-fed sulfate-reducing bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Melike; Weijma, Jan; Goorissen, Heleen P; Ronteltap, Mariska; Hansen, Theo A; Stams, Alfons J M

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain WW1, was isolated from a thermophilic bioreactor operated at 65 degrees C with methanol as sole energy source in the presence of sulfate. Growth of strain WW1 on methanol or acetate was inhibited at a sulfide concentration of 200 mg l(-1), while on H2/CO2, no apparent inhibition occurred up to a concentration of 500 mg l(-1). When strain WW1 was co-cultured under the same conditions with the methanol-utilizing, non-sulfate-reducing bacteria, Thermotoga lettingae and Moorella mulderi, both originating from the same bioreactor, growth and sulfide formation were observed up to 430 mg l(-1). These results indicated that in the co-cultures, a major part of the electron flow was directed from methanol via H2/CO2 to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Besides methanol, acetate, and hydrogen, strain WW1 was also able to use formate, malate, fumarate, propionate, succinate, butyrate, ethanol, propanol, butanol, isobutanol, with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide. In the absence of sulfate, strain WW1 grew only on pyruvate and lactate. On the basis of 16S rRNA analysis, strain WW1 was most closely related to Desulfotomaculum thermocisternum and Desulfotomaculum australicum. However, physiological properties of strain WW1 differed in some aspects from those of the two related bacteria.

  8. [Isolation of a methanol-utilizing strain and its application for determining methanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Fei; Lu, Dongtao; Zheng, Jun; Pang, Jinmei; Yang, Yujing

    2013-08-04

    To isolate and characterize bacteria that can be used todevelop microbial biosensor for methanol (MeOH) determination. We used selective medium and streak plate to isolate bacteria. Morphological, physiological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were used to identify the strain. An MeOH biosensor was then developed by immobilizing M211 along with dissolved oxygen (O2) sensor. An MeOH utilizing bacterium was isolated from biogas-producing tank using methanol as the sole carbon source, and identified as Methylobacteriumorganophilium. Decrease of O2 concentration is linearly related to the MeOH concentration in the range from 0.02% to 1%, with the MeOH detection limit of 0.27 mg/L. The response time of the biosensor is within 20 min. Furthermore, the result of interference test and the detection of methanol sample are both satisfactory. Good results are obtained in interference test and the detection of methanol sample. The proposed method seems very attractive in monitoring methanol.

  9. Sulfate reduction with methanol by a thermophilic consortium obtained from a methanogenic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidova, I.A. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Microbiology; Stams, A.J.M. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Microbiology

    1996-12-31

    An enrichment culture obtained from anaerobic granular sludge of a bench-scale anarobic reactor degraded methanol at 65 C via sulfate reduction and acetogenesis. Sulfate reduction was the dominant process (S{sup 2-}/acetate=2.5). No methane formation was observed. Approximately 30% of the methanol was converted by acetogenic bacteria to acetate, while the remainder was degraded by these bacteria to H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in syntrophy with hydrogen-consuming sulfate-reducing bacteria. Pure cultures of sulfate-reducing and acetogenic bacteria were isolated and characterized. (orig.)

  10. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...... for the production of containers with different venting area and location of the venting holes and the use of different membrane thicknesses by using the same mould. Mould design and material selection are presented....

  11. Coupling of subcritical methanol with acidic ionic liquids for the acidity reduction of naphthenic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Faisal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of naphthenic acids (NAs in crude oil is the major cause of corrosion in the refineries and its processing equipment. The goal of this study is to reduce the total acid number (TAN of NAs by treating them with subcritical methanol in the presence of acidic ionic liquid (AIL catalysts. Experiments were carried out in an autoclave batch reactor and the effect of different reaction parameters was investigated. It was observed that TAN reduction was positively dependent on the temperature and concentration of the AIL whereas excess of methanol has a negative effect. Approximately 90% TAN reduction was achieved under the optimized reaction conditions using [BMIM]HSO4 as catalyst. It was also perceived from the experimental results that the AILs with longer alkyl chain exhibited higher catalytic activity. The activity and stability of AIL showed that they can be promising catalyst to esterify NAs under subcritical methanol.

  12. Recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris strains with an engineered methanol utilization pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    -overexpressing enzymes of the methanol utilization pathway significantly affected the specific growth rate, the methanol uptake and the specific productivity of recombinant P. pastoris MutS strains. A recently developed methodology to determine strain specific parameters based on dynamic batch cultivations proved to be a valuable tool for fast strain characterization and thus early process development. PMID:22330134

  13. Characterization and methanol electrooxidation studies of Pt(111)/Os surfaces prepared by spontaneous deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christina M; Strbac, Svetlana; Lewera, Adam; Sibert, Eric; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-09-12

    oxygen-containing species, at least below 0.5 V vs RHE. Both higher coverage of Os than Ru and the higher potentials are required to provide a sufficient number of active oxygen-containing species for the effective removal of the site-blocking CO from the catalyst surface when the methanol electrooxidation process occurs.

  14. A Review of Study on Thermal Energy Transport System by Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiusheng; Yabe, Akira; Kajiyama, Shiro; Fukuda, Katsuya

    The study on thermal energy transport system by synthesis and decomposition reactions of methanol was reviewed. To promote energy conservation and global environment protection, a two-step liquid-phase methanol synthesis process, which starts with carbonylation of methanol to methyl formate, then followed by the hydrogenolysis of the formate, was studied to recover wasted or unused discharged heat from industrial sources for the thermal energy demands of residential and commercial areas by chemical reactions. The research and development of the system were focused on the following three points. (1) Development of low-temperature decomposition and synthetic catalysts, (2) Development of liquid phase reactor (heat exchanger accompanying chemical reaction), (3) Simulation of the energy transport efficiency of entire system which contains heat recovery and supply sections. As the result of the development of catalyst, promising catalysts which agree with the development purposes for the methyl formate decomposition reaction and the synthetic reaction are being developed though some studies remain for the methanol decomposition and synthetic reactions. In the fundamental development of liquid phase reactor, the solubilities of CO and H2 gases in methanol and methyl formate were measured by the method of total pressure decrease due to absorption under pressures up to 1500kPa and temperatures up to 140°C. The diffusivity of CO gas in methanol was determined by measuring the diameter and solution time of single CO bubbles in methanol. The chemical reaction rate of methanol synthesis by hydrogenolysis of methyl formate was measured using a plate-type of Raney copper catalyst in a reactor with rectangular channel and in an autoclave reactor. The reaction characteristics were investigated by carrying out the experiments at various temperatures, flow rates and at various catalyst development conditions. We focused on the effect of Raney copper catalyst thickness on the liquid

  15. Recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris strains with an engineered methanol utilization pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainer Florian W

    2012-02-01

    production. Conclusions Co-overexpressing enzymes of the methanol utilization pathway significantly affected the specific growth rate, the methanol uptake and the specific productivity of recombinant P. pastoris MutS strains. A recently developed methodology to determine strain specific parameters based on dynamic batch cultivations proved to be a valuable tool for fast strain characterization and thus early process development.

  16. Zircon Supported Copper Catalysts for the Steam Reforming of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastri, M.; Fendy, Marsih, I. N.

    2008-03-01

    Steam reforming of methanol (SRM) is known as one of the most favorable catalytic processes for producing hydrogen. Current research on zirconia, ZrO2 supported copper catalyst revealed that CuO/ZrO2 as an active catalyst for the SRM. Zircon, ZrSiO4 is available from the by-product of tin mining. In the work presented here, the catalytic properties of CuO/ZrSiO4 with various copper oxide compositions ranging from 2.70% (catalyst I), 4.12% (catalyst II), and 7.12%-mass (catalyst III), synthesized by an incipient wetness impregnation technique, were investigated to methanol conversion, selectivity towards CO formation, and effect of ZnO addition (7.83%CuO/8.01%ZnO/ZrSiO4 = catalyst V). The catalytic activity was obtained using a fixed bed reactor and the zircon supported catalyst activity was compared to those of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (catalyst IV) and commercial Kujang LTSC catalyst. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the abundant phases of the catalysts. The catalysts topography and particle diameter were measured with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and composition of the catalysts was measured by SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive using X-ray analysis. The results of this research provide information on the possibility of using zircon (ZrSiO4) as solid support for SRM catalysts.

  17. Using Photocatalytic Oxidation and Analytic Techniques to Remediate Lab Wastewater Containing Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Luo, Mingliang; Bao, Xiaoming; Deng, Yurong; Qin, Song; Pu, Xuemei

    2018-01-01

    This experiment is dedicated to second-year and above undergraduates who are in their experimental session of the analytical chemistry course. Grouped students are required to use a TiO[subscript 2] photocatalytic oxidation process to treat the methanol-containing wastewater that resulted from their previous HPLC experiments. Students learn to…

  18. Methanol and ethanol modulate responses to danger- and microbe-associated molecular patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methanol is a byproduct of cell wall modification, released through the action of pectin methylesterases (PMEs), which demethylesterify cell wall pectins. Plant PMEs play not only a role in developmental processes but also in responses to herbivory and infection by fungal or bacterial pathogens. Mol...

  19. Study on photocatalysis of TiO2 nanotubes prepared by methanol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by the solvothermal process at low temperature in a highly alkaline water–methanol mixed solution. Their characteristics were identified by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) ...

  20. N-formylation of amines via the aerobic oxidation of methanol over supported gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tamao; Haruta, Masatake

    2009-01-01

    Dress code: formyl. Gold nanoparticles supported on NiO catalyze the one-pot N-formylation of amines with methanol and molecular oxygen to produce formamide at a selectivity of 90 %. This process generates methyl formate in situ, followed by reaction with amines.

  1. Structural Study of Reduced Graphene Oxide/ Polypyrrole Composite as Methanol Sensor in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtazah Atiqah Hassan; Siti Kartom Kamarudin; Siti Kartom Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed on the optimized geometric and electronic properties of reduced graphene oxide/polypyrole (rGO/ PPy) composite in comparison with pure graphene and graphene oxide structures. Incorporation of both reduced GO (rGO) and PPy will form a good composite which have advantages from both materials such as good mechanical strength and excellent electrical conductivity. These composite would be very suitable in fabrication of methanol sensor in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The HOMO-LUMO energy (eV) was also calculated. These computations provide a theoretical explanation for the good performance of rGO/ PPy composite as electrode materials in methanol sensor. (author)

  2. Cobalt catalysts, and use thereof for the conversion of methanol and for fischer-tropsch synthesis, to produce hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauldin, C.H.; Davis, S.M.; Arcuri, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a process useful for the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons which comprises contacting the methanol at reaction conditions with a catalyst which comprises from about 2 percent to about 25 percent cobalt, based on the weight of the catalyst composition, composited with titania, or a titania-containing support, to which is added a zirconium, hafnium, cerium, or uranium promoter, the weight ratio of the zirconium, hafnium, cerium, or uranium metal:cobalt being greater than about 0.010:1; the reaction conditions being defined within ranges as follows: Methanol:H/sub 2/ ratio: greater than about 4:1, Space Velocities, Hr/sup -1/:about 0.1 to 10, Temperatures, 0 C.:about 150 to 350, Methanol Partial Pressure, psia: about 100 to 1000

  3. Production of synthetic methanol from air and water using controlled thermonuclear reactor power. 2. Capital investment and production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, V D; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, N.Y. (USA)

    1977-01-01

    Energy requirement and process development of methanol production from air and water using controlled thermonuclear fusion power was discussed in Part 1 (Steinberg et al., Energy conversion;17:97(1977)). This second part presents an economic analysis of the nine processes presented for obtaining carbon dioxide recovery from the atmosphere or the sea for methanol production. It is found that the most economical process of obtaining carbon dioxide is by stripping from sea water. The process of absorption/stripping by dilute potassium carbonate solution is found to be the most economical for the extraction of carbon dioxide from air at atmospheric pressure. The total energy required for methanol synthesis from these sources of carbon dioxide is 3.90 kWh(e)/lb methanol of which 90% is used for generation of hydrogen. The process which consumes the greatest amount of energy is the absorption/stripping of air by water at high pressure and amounts to 13.2 kWh(e)/lb methanol. With nuclear fusion power plants of 1000to 9000 MW(e), it is found that the cost of methanol using the extraction of carbon dioxide from air with dilute potassium carbonate solution is estimated to be in the range between Pound1.73 and Pound2.90/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent - 1974 cost) for plant capacities of 21 400 to 193 000 bbl/day methanol. This methanol cost is competitive with gasoline in the range of 19 approximately equal to 33c/gallon. For the process of stripping of carbon dioxide from sea water, the cost is found to lie in the range of Pound1.65 to Pound2.71/MMB.t.u. (energy equivalent) for plant capacities of 21 700 to 195 000 bbl/day methanol which is competitive with gasoline in the range of 18 approximately equal to 30 c/gallon. Projection of methanol demand in the year 2020 is presented based on both its conventional use as chemicals and as a liquid fuel substituting for oil and gas.

  4. Methanol May Function as a Cross-Kingdom Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Yuri L.; Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Zinovkin, Roman A.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Frolova, Olga Y.; Gleba, Yuri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that leaf wounding results in the synthesis of pectin methylesterase (PME), which causes the plant to release methanol into the air. Methanol emitted by a wounded plant increases the accumulation of methanol-inducible gene mRNA and enhances antibacterial resistance as well as cell-to-cell communication, which facilitates virus spreading in neighboring plants. We concluded that methanol is a signaling molecule involved in within-plant and plant-to-plant communication. Methanol is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-mediated conversion of methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, recent data showed that methanol is a natural compound in normal, healthy humans. These data call into question whether human methanol is a metabolic waste product or whether methanol has specific function in humans. Here, to reveal human methanol-responsive genes (MRGs), we used suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries of HeLa cells lacking ADH and exposed to methanol. This design allowed us to exclude genes involved in formaldehyde and formic acid detoxification from our analysis. We identified MRGs and revealed a correlation between increases in methanol content in the plasma and changes in human leukocyte MRG mRNA levels after fresh salad consumption by volunteers. Subsequently, we showed that the methanol generated by the pectin/PME complex in the gastrointestinal tract of mice induces the up- and downregulation of brain MRG mRNA. We used an adapted Y-maze to measure the locomotor behavior of the mice while breathing wounded plant vapors in two-choice assays. We showed that mice prefer the odor of methanol to other plant volatiles and that methanol changed MRG mRNA accumulation in the mouse brain. We hypothesize that the methanol emitted by wounded plants may have a role in plant-animal signaling. The known positive effect of plant food intake on human health suggests a role for physiological methanol in

  5. Effect of sorbed methanol, current, and temperature on multicomponent transport in nafion-based direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Harry; Lawton, Jamie S; Budil, David E; Smotkin, Eugene S

    2008-07-24

    The CO2 in the cathode exhaust of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has two sources: methanol diffuses through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to the cathode where it is catalytically oxidized to CO2; additionally, a portion of the CO2 produced at the anode diffuses through the MEA to the cathode. The potential-dependent CO2 exhaust from the cathode was monitored by online electrochemical mass spectrometry (ECMS) with air and with H2 at the cathode. The precise determination of the crossover rates of methanol and CO2, enabled by the subtractive normalization of the methanol/air to the methanol/H2 ECMS data, shows that methanol decreases the membrane viscosity and thus increases the diffusion coefficients of sorbed membrane components. The crossover of CO2 initially increases linearly with the Faradaic oxidation of methanol, reaches a temperature-dependent maximum, and then decreases. The membrane viscosity progressively increases as methanol is electrochemically depleted from the anode/electrolyte interface. The crossover maximum occurs when the current dependence of the diffusion coefficients and membrane CO2 solubility dominate over the Faradaic production of CO2. The plasticizing effect of methanol is corroborated by measurements of the rotational diffusion of TEMPONE (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone N-oxide) spin probe by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. A linear inverse relationship between the methanol crossover rate and current density confirms the absence of methanol electro-osmotic drag at concentrations relevant to operating DMFCs. The purely diffusive transport of methanol is explained in terms of current proton solvation and methanol-water incomplete mixing theories.

  6. Study of SI engine fueled with methanol vapor and dissociation gas based on exhaust heat dissociating methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Deng, Banglin; Liu, Jingping; Wang, Linjun; Xu, Zhengxin; Yang, Jing; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The full load power decreases successively from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine. • Both power and thermal efficiency of dissociated methanol engine can be improved by boosting pressure. • The conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is largely influenced by the BMEP. • At the same BMEP, dissociated methanol engine has higher thermal efficiency than methanol vapor engine and gasoline engine. - Abstract: To improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engine and also achieve the goal of direct usage of methanol fuel on IC engine, an approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol was investigated, which is a kind of method for IC engine exhaust heat recovery (EHR). A bottom cycle system is coupled with the IC engine exhaust system, which uses the exhaust heat to evaporate and dissociate methanol in its catalytic cracker. The methanol dissociation gas (including methanol vapor) is used as the fuel for IC engine. This approach was applied to both naturally aspirated (NA) engine and turbocharged engine, and the engine performance parameters were predicted by the software GT-power under various kinds of operating conditions. The improvement to IC engine performance and the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy can be evaluated by comparing the performances of IC engine fueled with various kinds of fuels (or their compositions). Results show that, from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine, the full load power decreases successively in the entire speed area due to the declining of volumetric efficiency, while it is contrary in the thermal efficiency at the same brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) level because of the improving of fuel heating value. With the increase of BMEP, the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is promoted. All those results indicate that the approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol has large

  7. Methanol as an alternative fuel: Economic and health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Switching from gasoline to methanol fuels has important economic and health effects. Replacing gasoline with methanol will affect oil markets by lowering the demand for oil and thus lowering oil prices. Increased demand for the natural gas feedstock will increase natural gas prices. Because methanol is more costly than gasoline, fuel prices will also increase. On the other hand, methanol use will reduce ozone pollution and some of the health risks associated with gasoline. Considering all three markets affected by the phasing-out of gasoline, the switch to methanol results in net gains. The health benefits from lower pollution and the lives saved from the switch from gasoline to methanol are in addition to these gains. Overall, the benefits of the policy far outweigh the costs. However, the gains in the oil market, arising from the US monopsony power in the world oil market, can be captured by other, more efficient policies. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  9. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  10. A Methanol Intoxication Outbreak From Recreational Ingestion of Fracking Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, David; Duff, Graham; Palatnick, Wesley; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Hingwala, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Single-patient methanol intoxications are a common clinical presentation, but outbreaks are rare and usually occur in settings in which there is limited access to ethanol and methanol is consumed as a substitute. In this case report, we describe an outbreak of methanol intoxications that was challenging from a public health perspective and discuss strategies for managing such an outbreak. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  12. Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

  13. Low methanol-permeable polyaniline/Nafion composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, C. H.; Chen, C. C.; Hsu, H. C.; Du, H. Y.; Chen, C. P.; Hwang, J. Y.; Chen, L. C.; Shih, H. C.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Chen, K. H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 2 (2009), s. 279-284 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : DMFC * methanol crossover * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2009

  14. Electron transport in ethanol & methanol absorbed defected graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandeliya, Sushmita; Srivastava, Anurag

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the sensitivity of ethanol and methanol molecules on surface of single vacancy defected graphene has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The changes in structural and electronic properties before and after adsorption of ethanol and methanol were analyzed and the obtained results show high adsorption energy and charge transfer. High adsorption happens at the active site with monovacancy defect on graphene surface. Present work confirms that the defected graphene increases the surface reactivity towards ethanol and methanol molecules. The presence of molecules near the active site affects the electronic and transport properties of defected graphene which makes it a promising choice for designing methanol and ethanol sensor.

  15. Hydration of ammonia, methylamine, and methanol in amorphous solid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2016-02-01

    Interactions of polar protic molecules with amorphous solid water (ASW) have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The ammonia and methylamine are incorporated into the interior of porous ASW films. They are caged by water molecules and are released during water crystallization. In contrast, the methanol-water interaction is not influenced by pores of ASW. The methanol additives tend to survive water crystallization and are released during ASW film evaporation. The hydration of n-hexane in ASW is influenced significantly by methanol additives because n-hexane is accommodated in a methanol-induced hydration shell.

  16. An Electrochemical Investigation of Methanol Oxidation on Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Cyclic voltammetry, electrooxidation, glassy carbon electrode, methanol, nickel hydroxide nanoparticles. 1. ... substrate at room temperature without templates. Recently, we ... placed in ethanol and sonicated to remove adsorbed particles.

  17. Modeling and simulation of an isothermal reactor for methanol steam reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Menechini Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to growing electricity demand, cheap renewable energy sources are needed. Fuel cells are an interesting alternative for generating electricity since they use hydrogen as their main fuel and release only water and heat to the environment. Although fuel cells show great flexibility in size and operating temperature (some models even operate at low temperatures, the technology has the drawback for hydrogen transportation and storage. However, hydrogen may be produced from methanol steam reforming obtained from renewable sources such as biomass. The use of methanol as raw material in hydrogen production process by steam reforming is highly interesting owing to the fact that alcohol has the best hydrogen carbon-1 ratio (4:1 and may be processed at low temperatures and atmospheric pressures. They are features which are desirable for its use in autonomous fuel cells. Current research develops a mathematical model of an isothermal methanol steam reforming reactor and validates it against experimental data from the literature. The mathematical model was solved numerically by MATLAB® and the comparison of its predictions for different experimental conditions indicated that the developed model and the methodology for its numerical solution were adequate. Further, a preliminary analysis was undertaken on methanol steam reforming reactor project for autonomous fuel cell.

  18. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  19. Experimental Validation of Methanol Crossover in a Three-dimensional, Two-Fluid Model of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled three-dimensional, steady-state, two-fluid, multi-component and non-isothermal DMFC model has been developed in the commercial CFD package CFX 13 (ANSYS inc.). It accounts for the presence of micro porous layers, non-equilibrium phase change, and methanol and water uptake...... in the ionomer phase of the catalytic layer, and detailed membrane transport of methanol and water. In order to verify the models ability to predict methanol crossover, simulation results are compared with experimental measurements under different current densities along with air and methanol stoichiometries....... Methanol crossover is indirectly measured based on the combined anode and cathode exhaust CO2 mole fraction and by accounting for the CO2 production at the anode as a function of current density. This approach is simple and assumes that all crossed over methanol is oxidized. Moreover, it takes CO2...

  20. Zeolite-Catalyzed Hydrocarbon Formation from Methanol: Density Functional Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fitzgerald

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We report detailed density functional theory (DFT calculations of important mechanisms in the methanol to gasoline (MTG process in a zeolite catalyst. Various reaction paths and energy barriers involving C-O bond cleavage and the first C-C bond formation are investigated in detail using all-electron periodic supercell calculations and recently developed geometry optimization and transition state search algorithms. We have further investigated the formation of ethanol and have identified a different mechanism than previously reported [1], a reaction where water does not play any visible role. Contrary to recent cluster calculations, we were not able to find a stable surface ylide structure. However, a stable ylide structure built into the zeolite framework was found to be possible, albeit a very high reaction barrier.

  1. Evaporation and condensation at a liquid methanol surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Kataoka, Yosuke

    1994-07-01

    The dynamics of evaporation and condensation at a flat liquid surface of methanol were studied under the liquidvapor equilibrium condition at room temperature with molecular dynamics computer simulation techniques. Analysis of molecular trajectories shows that the condensation coefficient is 89%. It suggests that only a tenth of incident vapor molecules are reflected at the liquid surface, contrary to a prediction of a classical transition state theory. To investigate the potential barrier of the evaporation-condensation process, a particle insertion method was applied and the local chemical potential near the surface was evaluated. The calculated chemical potential is constant in the whole region including the surface layer and no potential barrier is observed in the vincinity of the surface, which casts strong doubt on the explanation of a transition state theory.

  2. Thin Film Catalyst Layers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, C. K.; Chun, W.; Ruiz, R.; Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of the catalyst. Therefore, reducing the catalyst loading well below the current level of 8-12 mg/cm 2 would be important to commercialization. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode.

  3. A systematization of spectral data on the methanol molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlyostin, A. Yu.; Voronina, S. S.; Lavrentiev, N. A.; Privezentsev, A. I.; Rodimova, O. B.; Fazliev, A. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Problems underlying a systematization of spectral data on the methanol molecule are formulated. Data on the energy levels and vacuum wavenumbers acquired from the published literature are presented in the form of information sources imported into the W@DIS information system. Sets of quantum numbers and labels used to describe the CH3OH molecular states are analyzed. The set of labels is different from universally accepted sets. A system of importing the data sources into W@DIS is outlined. The structure of databases characterizing transitions in an isolated CH3OH molecule is introduced and a digital library of the relevant published literature is discussed. A brief description is given of an imported data quality analysis and representation of the results obtained in the form of ontologies for subsequent computer processing.

  4. Identification of marine methanol-utilizing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M; Iwaki, H; Kouno, K; Inui, T

    1980-01-01

    A taxonomical study of 65 marine methanol-utilizing bacteria is described. They were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rods with a polar flagellum and had marine bacterial properties and required vitamin B/sub 12/ for growth. All of them assimilated fructose in addition to C/sub 1/-compounds and produced acid oxidatively from fructose. Twenty-four strains assimilated only C/sub 1/-compounds. They were resistant to penicillin, oxytetracycline and 0/129 substance (Vibrio stat), and tolerant to 12% NaCl. Guanine-cytosine contents of deoxyribonucleic acid in typical strains fell in the range of 43.8 to 47.6%. Other morphological and physiological properties were almost the same as those of terrestrial methanol-utilizers. Bacteria in the first group (41 strains) were facultative methylotrophs and were divided into three subgroups by the assimilation of methylated amines, that is, subgroup I (30 strains) assimilated mono-, di- and tri-methylamine, subgroup II (9 strains) assimilated only mono-methylamine, the bacteria of subgroups I and II were named Alteromonas thalassomethanolica sp. nov. and subgroup III (2 strains) did not assimilate methylated amines, and was tentatively assigned as Alteromonas sp. The second group of bacteria (24 strains) was obligate methylotrophs, named Methylomonas thalassica sp. nov. and was divided into subgroup IV (15 strains) which assimilated mono-, di and tri-methylamine and subgroup V (9 strains) which assimilated mono-methylamine.

  5. Toxicological Evaluation of Tetrameles nudiflora Methanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofna DS Banjarnahor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of Mekongga national park resulted in novel finding of anticancer property from Tetrameles nudiflora. The investigation of toxic features of T. nudiflora is vital for further studies of its pharmacological activities. Acute toxicity test was done on methanolic extracts of T. nudiflora in DDY mice. Animal models were ordered into five groups. Group 1 was given 1 ml solution of 2.5% Tween 80 in a sole oral dose. The remaining groups were appointed a sole dose of 1, 2, 4 and 8 g/kg body weight T. nudiflora, respectively. Toxic effects of the extract were evaluated on the basis of behavioral observations in the form of locomotor activity; curiosity; defecation; urination and also animal mortality. Observations were carried out for 14 days. No significant changes in body weight and behavioral activities were recorded. Mortality was recorded up to 22% of the male group, and 11% of the female group. The T. nudiflora extracts tested for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of 46.67 μg/ml. It can be concluded that methanol extracts of T. nudiflora are potential to be explored as anticancer (LC50= 46.67 μg/ml. The extract is slightly toxic in male mice with Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 12.6 g/kg body weight, and practically nontoxic for female (LD50>15 g/kg body weight

  6. Environmental effects of using Methanol as a biofuel into the combustion chamber of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kianoosh shojae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol as a biofuel is an environmentally friendly substitute for pure diesel and can be obtained from biomasses. The use of biofuels such as methanol for the combustion process is associated with positive impacts on the environment. Using pure methanol or a blend of diesel/methanol fuel in motorized vehicles has been proposed by researchers. In this paper, pure methanol was injected into the combustion chamber of a ISM 370 HD diesel engine and the exhaust emissions were evaluated by using AVL FIRE CFD code software at four engine speeds (1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800 rpm. Additionally, the influences of EGR mass fraction and various injection timings were investigated. In order to validate the simulation results, in-cylinder mean pressure and rate of heat release (RHR were compared with experimental data, and the results gave an acceptable agreement. The obtained results from the conducted simulation showed that the use of methanol fuel in the combustion chamber dramatically reduced the amount of exhaust emissions such as NO, soot, CO, and CO2 to 90%, 75%, 40%, and 26%, respectively. In addition, a mass fraction of EGR (20% caused a reduction in the amount of exhaust NO to about 12%. It was determined that when a system is equipped with a fueling system at 3 deg before top dead center (BTDC, the exhaust NO and soot are reduced by 5.8% and 3%.

  7. Metagenomic analyses reveal the involvement of syntrophic consortia in methanol/electricity conversion in microbial fuel cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Yamamuro

    Full Text Available Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m(-2 (based on the projected area of the anode. In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors.

  8. Metagenomic analyses reveal the involvement of syntrophic consortia in methanol/electricity conversion in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Ayaka; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m(-2) (based on the projected area of the anode). In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors.

  9. Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Luwen; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhao, Youran; An, Zijiang; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) with a compound anode flow field structure (composed of the parallel flow field and the perforated flow field) is designed, fabricated and tested. To better analyze the effect of the compound anode flow field on the mass transfer of methanol, the compound flow field with different open ratios (ratio of exposure area to total area) and thicknesses of current collectors is modeled and simulated. Micro process technologies are employed to fabricate the end plates and current collectors. The performances of the μDMFC with a compound anode flow field are measured under various operating parameters. Both the modeled and the experimental results show that, comparing the conventional parallel flow field, the compound one can enhance the mass transfer resistance of methanol from the flow field to the anode diffusion layer. The results also indicate that the μDMFC with an anode open ratio of 40% and a thickness of 300 µm has the optimal performance under the 7 M methanol which is three to four times higher than conventional flow fields. Finally, a 2 h stability test of the μDMFC is performed with a methanol concentration of 7 M and a flow velocity of 0.1 ml min −1 . The results indicate that the μDMFC can work steadily with high methanol concentration.

  10. Temperature dependence on mutual solubility of binary (methanol + limonene) mixture and (liquid + liquid) equilibria of ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuhiro; Li Xiaoli; Li Hengde

    2009-01-01

    Mutual solubility data of the binary (methanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures ranging from 288.15 K close to upper critical solution temperature, and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (tie-lines) of the (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K have been obtained. The experimental results have been represented accurately in terms of the extended and modified UNIQUAC models with binary parameters, compared with the UNIQUAC model. The temperature dependence of binary and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for the binary (methanol + limonene) and ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixtures could be calculated successfully using the extended and modified UNIQUAC model

  11. Methanol as electron donor for thermophilic biological sulfate and sulfite reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Weijma, J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfur oxyanions (e.g. sulfate, sulfite) can be removed from aqueous waste- and process streams by biological reduction with a suitable electron donor to sulfide, followed by partial chemical or biological oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur. The aim of the research described in this thesis was to make this biological process more broadly applicable for desulfurization of flue-gases and ground- and wastewaters by using the cheap chemical methanol as electron donor for the reduct...

  12. Improved Cathode Structure for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas; Narayanan, Sekharipuram

    2005-01-01

    An improved cathode structure on a membrane/electrode assembly has been developed for a direct methanol fuel cell, in a continuing effort to realize practical power systems containing such fuel cells. This cathode structure is intended particularly to afford better cell performance at a low airflow rate. A membrane/electrode assembly of the type for which the improved cathode structure was developed (see Figure 1) is fabricated in a process that includes brush painting and spray coating of catalyst layers onto a polymer-electrolyte membrane and onto gas-diffusion backings that also act as current collectors. The aforementioned layers are then dried and hot-pressed together. When completed, the membrane/electrode assembly contains (1) an anode containing a fine metal black of Pt/Ru alloy, (2) a membrane made of Nafion 117 or equivalent (a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, proton-conducting ion-exchange polymer), (3) a cathode structure (in the present case, the improved cathode structure described below), and (4) the electrically conductive gas-diffusion backing layers, which are made of Toray 060(TradeMark)(or equivalent) carbon paper containing between 5 and 6 weight percent of poly(tetrafluoroethylene). The need for an improved cathode structure arises for the following reasons: In the design and operation of a fuel-cell power system, the airflow rate is a critical parameter that determines the overall efficiency, cell voltage, and power density. It is desirable to operate at a low airflow rate in order to obtain thermal and water balance and to minimize the size and mass of the system. The performances of membrane/electrode assemblies of prior design are limited at low airflow rates. Methanol crossover increases the required airflow rate. Hence, one way to reduce the required airflow rate is to reduce the effect of methanol crossover. Improvement of the cathode structure - in particular, addition of hydrophobic particles to the cathode - has been

  13. TRANSESTERIFICATION OF VEGETABLES OIL USING SUBAND SUPERCRITICAL METHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Puspa Asri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A benign process, non catalytic transesterification in sub and supercritical methanol method was usedto prepare biodiesel from vegetables oil. The experiment was carried out in batch type reactor (8.8 mlcapacity, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN by changing the reaction condition such as reactiontemperature (from 210°C in subcritical condition to 290°C in supercritical state with of 20°Cinterval, molar ratio oil to methanol (1:12-1:42 and time of reaction (10-90 min. The fatty acidmethyl esters (FAMEs content was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GCFID.Such analysis can be used to determine the biodiesel yield of the transesterification. The resultsshowed that the yield of biodiesel increases gradually with the increasing of reaction time atsubcritical state (210-230oC. However, it was drastically increased at the supercritical state (270-290oC. Similarly, the yield of biodiesel sharply increased with increasing the ratio molar of soy oilmethanolup to 1:24. The maximum yield 86 and 88% were achieved at 290oC, 90 min of reaction timeand molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:24, for soybean oil and palm oil, respectively.Proses transesterifikasi non katalitik dengan metanol sub dan superkritis,merupakan proses yang ramah lingkungan digunakan untuk pembuatan biodiesel dari minyak nabati.Percobaan dilakukan dalam sebuah reaktor batch (kapasitas 8,8 ml, stainless steel, AKICO, JAPAN,dengan variabel kondisi reaksi seperti temperatur reaksi (dari kondisi subkritis 210°C-kondisisuperkritis 290°C dengan interval 20°C, rasio molar minyak-metanol (1:12-1:42 dan waktu reaksi(10-90 menit. Kandungan metil ester asam lemak (FAME dianalisis dengan kromatografi gasdengan detektor FID (GC-FID. Hasil Analisis tersebut dapat digunakan untuk menentukan yieldbiodiesel dari proses transesterifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa yield biodiesel meningkatsecara perlahan dengan meningkatnya waktu reaksi pada keadaan subkritis (210-230oC. Namun

  14. Picosecond infrared activation of methanol in acid zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, Miacha; van Santen, Rutger A.; Lercher, J.A.; Kleyn, Aart W.; Bakker, H.J.; Bakker, Huib J.

    1997-01-01

    Highly porous, crystalline zeolite catalysts are used industrially to catalyze the conversion of methanol to gasoline. We have performed a picosecond spectroscopic study providing insights into both the structure and the dynamics of methanol adsorbed to acid zeolites. We reveal the adsorption

  15. Evaluation of lubricity of methanolic extract of mango (Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extract of mango seed oil (Mangifera Indica) was evaluated for suitability as lubricant for machini-ng mild steel at various speeds, feeds and depths of cut. The coefficient of friction between the tool and chip in- dicated that the methanolic extract reduced friction between the tool and work piece. The oil also ...

  16. Antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of methanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic potential of the methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of Ageratum conyzoides in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: The extract of each of the plant part was obtained by extraction in methanol. A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats (30 ...

  17. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the immune-modulatory activities of various plant parts Adansonia digitata L. using delayed-type hypersensitivity rat model. Methods: Defatted leaf, root bark and fruit pulp of A. digitata were extracted with methanol. Immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) were ...

  18. Methanol Oxidation Using Ozone on Titania-Supported Vanadium Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-enhanced catalytic oxidation of methanol has been conducted at mild temperatures of 100 to 250NC using V2O5/TiO2 catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, surface area measurements, and temperature-programmed desorption of methanol. ...

  19. Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of 80% methanol extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lantana camara L. is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity of the 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions using mice model of diarrhoea. The 80% methanol extract was prepared by maceration and the fractions ...

  20. Some behavioural studies on methanol root bark extract of Burkea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted to evaluate some central nervous system properties of the root bark methanol extractof B. africana in mice. It involved the following animal models: diazepam-induced sleep, hole-board and walking beam assay. Results: The methanol extract showed a significant decrease in the onset of sleep ...

  1. Antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in both the methanol and aqueous extracts. The antimicrobial activity result showed that the methanol extract significantly (P < 0.01) demonstrated antibacterial action against B. subtilis ...

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of D. edulis and F. capensis leaves were evaluated. Each plant leaves were extracted in methanol using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of the resulting extracts showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, ...

  3. Relaxant Activity of the Methanol Extract of Acanthus Montanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus on guinea pig trachealis muscle. Methods: Guinea pig tracheae were set up in 10 ml organ baths. The effect of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus (0.5 - 8 mg/ml) on the spontaneous tone of the trachea and carbacholprecontracted ...

  4. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  5. The fate of methanol in thermophilic-anaerobic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Methanol is a simple C1-compound, which sustains a complex web of possible degradation routes under anaerobic conditions. Methanol can be the main pollutant in some specific wastewaters, but it is also a compound that may be formed under natural conditions, as intermediate in the decomposition of

  6. Four new depsides in Origanum dictamnus methanol extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Takis, P.G.; Malouta, M.; Vervoort, J.; Karali, E.; Troganis, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    We herein describe the identification of four new depsides present in methanol extract of Origanum dictamnus. O. dictamnus’ (dittany) aerial parts methanol extract was subjected to semi-preparative RP-HPLC fractionation followed by identification of individual compounds in each fraction using 1D/2D

  7. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes.

  8. The JPL Direct Methanol Liquid-feed PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, there has been a breakthrough in fuel cell technology in the Energy Storage Systems Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with the develpment of a direct methanol, liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell... The methanol liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte (PEM) design has numerous system level advantages over the gas-feed design. These include:...

  9. Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. DMFCs can be used as the power sources to portable electronic devices

  10. Anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant effects of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 67.05μg/ml (ABTS). Methanol extract was able to inhibit inflammation by in vitro about 85-90% (HRBC stabilization method) and in vivo about 40-45% (Paw oedema method) anti-inflammatory assays compared to standard produced 50.04% at 6h period. In cytotoxicity assay (MTT assay) methanolic extract exhibited IC50 ...

  11. First space-based derivation of the global atmospheric methanol emission fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stavrakou

    2011-05-01

    is unaccounted for in the MEGANv2.1 inventory. The most significant error reductions achieved by the optimization concern the derived biogenic emissions over the Amazon and over the Former Soviet Union. The robustness of the derived fluxes to changes in convective updraft fluxes, in methanol removal processes, and in the choice of the biogenic a priori inventory is assessed through sensitivity inversions. Detailed comparisons of the model with a number of aircraft and surface observations of methanol, as well as new methanol measurements in Europe and in the Reunion Island show that the satellite-derived methanol emissions improve significantly the agreement with the independent data, giving thus credence to the IASI dataset.

  12. Characterization of an anionic-exchange membranes for direct methanol alkaline fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuin, Graciela C. [Centro de Procesos Superficiales, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial (INTI), Av. Gral. Paz 5445, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nonjola, Patrick; Mathe, Mkhulu K. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Material Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Brumeria, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Franceschini, Esteban A.; Izraelevitch, Federico H.; Corti, Horacio R. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    Ammonium quaternized polymers such as poly (arylene ether sulfones) are being developed and studied as candidates of ionomeric materials for application in alkaline fuel cells, due to their low cost and promising electrochemical properties. In this work, a quaternary ammonium polymer was synthesized by chloromethylation of a commercial polysulfone followed by amination process. Quaternized polysulfone membrane properties such us water and water-methanol uptake, electrical conductivity and Young's modulus were evaluated and compared to Nafion 117, commonly employed in direct methanol fuel cells. The anionic polysulfone membrane sorbs more water than Nafion all over the whole range of water activities, but it uptakes much less methanol as compared to Nafion. The specific conductivity of the fully hydrated polysulfone membrane equilibrated with KOH solutions at ambient temperature increases with the KOH concentration, reaching a maximum of 0.083 S cm{sup -1} for 2 M KOH, slightly less conductive than Nafion 117. The elastic modulus of the polysulfone membranes inmersed in water is similar to that reported for Nafion membranes under the same conditions. We concluded that quaternized polysulfone membrane are good candidates as electrolytes in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  13. Utilization of methanol for polymer electrolyte fuel cells in mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, V M [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Broeckerhoff, P [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Menzer, R [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Stimming, U [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The constantly growing volume of road traffic requires the introduction of new vehicle propulsion systems with higher efficiency and drastically reduced emission rates. As part of the fuel cell programme of the Research Centre Juelich a vehicle propulsion system with methanol as secondary energy carrier and a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main component for energy conversion is developed. The fuel gas is produced by a heterogeneously catalyzed steam reforming reaction in which methanol is converted to H[sub 2], CO and CO[sub 2]. The required energy is provided by the catalytic conversion of methanol for both heating up the system and reforming methanol. The high CO content of the fuel gas requires further processing of the gas or the development of new electrocatalysts for the anode. Various Pt-Ru alloys show promising behaviour as CO-tolerant anodes. The entire fuel cell system is discussed in terms of energy and emission balances. The development of important components is described and experimental results are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Alchris Woo; Sutanto, Sylviana; NguyenThi, Bich Thuyen; Cabatingan, Luis K.; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  15. Modelling bidirectional fluxes of methanol and acetaldehyde with the FORCAsT canopy exchange model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashworth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The FORCAsT canopy exchange model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms governing foliage emissions of methanol and acetaldehyde, two short chain oxygenated volatile organic compounds ubiquitous in the troposphere and known to have strong biogenic sources, at a northern mid-latitude forest site. The explicit representation of the vegetation canopy within the model allowed us to test the hypothesis that stomatal conductance regulates emissions of these compounds to an extent that its influence is observable at the ecosystem scale, a process not currently considered in regional- or global-scale atmospheric chemistry models.We found that FORCAsT could only reproduce the magnitude and diurnal profiles of methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes measured at the top of the forest canopy at Harvard Forest if light-dependent emissions were introduced to the model. With the inclusion of such emissions, FORCAsT was able to successfully simulate the observed bidirectional exchange of methanol and acetaldehyde. Although we found evidence that stomatal conductance influences methanol fluxes and concentrations at scales beyond the leaf level, particularly at dawn and dusk, we were able to adequately capture ecosystem exchange without the addition of stomatal control to the standard parameterisations of foliage emissions, suggesting that ecosystem fluxes can be well enough represented by the emissions models currently used.

  16. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from methanol by a new methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium sp. GW2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezza, A; Fournier, D; Halasz, A; Hawari, J

    2006-11-01

    A new bacterial strain, isolated from groundwater contaminated with explosives, was characterized as a pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph, affiliated to the genus Methylobacterium. The bacterial isolate designated as strain GW2 was found capable of producing the homopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from various carbon sources such as methanol, ethanol, and succinate. Methanol acted as the best substrate for the production of PHB reaching 40 % w/w dry biomass. PHB accumulation was observed to be a growth-associated process, so that there was no need for two-step fermentation. Optimal growth occurred at 0.5 % (v/v) methanol concentration, and growth was strongly inhibited at alpha concentration above 2 % (v/v). Methylobacterium sp. strain GW2 was also able to accumulate the copolyester poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-poly-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHB/HV) when valeric acid was supplied as an auxiliary carbon source to methanol. After 66 h, a copolymer content of 30 % (w/w) was achieved with a PHB to PHV ratio of 1:2. Biopolymers produced by strain GW2 had an average molecular weight ranging from 229,350 to 233,050 Da for homopolymer PHB and from 362,430 to 411,300 Da for the copolymer PHB/HV.

  17. Thermally driven refrigeration by methanol adsorption on coatings of HKUST-1 and MIL-101(Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, Harry; Baumgartner, Max; Hügenell, Philipp; Fröhlich, Dominik; Henninger, Stefan K.; Gläser, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach of shaping MOFs as coatings on Al-substrates used as HX materials. • The efficiency of HKUST-1 and MIL-101(Cr) for refrigeration via Methanol sorption. • The thermal stability of the MOF coatings under application relevant conditions. • Focus on early implementation by use of commercially and pre-industrially MOFs. • Modelling of sorption uptakes under application conditions for apparatus design. - Abstract: A new and versatile binder-based metal organic framework-(MOF-) coating enables efficient use in fast-cycle adsorption chillers for cooling and refrigeration applications. Two different adsorbents were presented, HKUST-1 and Mil-101(Cr), with promising methanol adsorption characteristics and high loading capacities up to 1.22 g g"−"1. Polysiloxane-based coatings containing 65 and 80 wt% of the MOF adsorbents were produced and the adsorption characteristics were studied before and after extensive thermal treatment over 1000 cycles between 20 °C and 130 °C under methanol atmosphere by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffractometry. Using the Dubinin-Astakhov approach, possible methanol loading lifts in a refrigeration process under different application conditions were quantified.

  18. A novel back-up control structure to manage nonroutine steam upsets in industrial methanol distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udugama, Isuru A.; Zander, Cornina; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    2017-01-01

    Industrial methanol production plants have extensive heat integration to achieve energy efficient operations where steam generated from these heat integration operations are used to provide reboiler duty for methanol distillation columns that purify crude methanol produced into industrial AA grade...... supervisory layer to control the column during these non-routine process upsets. These control schemes were tested against realistic reboiler duty disturbances that can occur in an industrial process. The tests revealed that both the MPC and supervisory systems control structures are able to regulate...... the process, even during sudden drops in reboiler duty. However, the cost of implementation and the relative simplicity will likely favour the implementation of the supervisory control structure in an industrial environment....

  19. Bio-methanol: Fuel of choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, D.R.; Yu, C.; Ho, T.; Tang, D.; Lee, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is working on four programs related to methanol: Biomass production, hydrogen, biomass conversion and transportation fuel demonstration. The biomass production program started eight years ago when the first Pacific Basin Biomass Workshop set forth a plan of action. Since then, much progress had been made toward implementing this plan. With support from the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through SERI, HNEI has been implementing a biomass production program that includes a resource assessment and computerized mapping of all agricultural lands, various field trials of promising species and research of harvesting and conversion technologies. Five to six percent of Hawaii's land area could yield sufficient feed-stock to replace all of the state's gasoline and diesel fuel from imported oil

  20. Fate of methanol spills into rivers of varying geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, M.; Lawrence, G.A.; Maloney, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study of potential environmental impacts of methanol releases into rivers. A number of hypothetical scenarios are defined, and dispersion of methanol in the selected rivers is investigated using a riverine dispersion-biodegradation model. The downstream variability of river flow and hydraulic geometry due to merging tributaries are included in the model. The model results are presented, and comparison is made with proposed allowable concentrations. An interesting finding is that the river variation has considerable effect on concentration distribution of methanol in the most critical scenario. A sensitivity analysis is made on the key modeling parameters such as the dispersion coefficient and the biodegradation rate. An analysis illustrating when water intake systems should potentially be shutdown in the event of a methanol release is also presented. In general, it is found the human health risks associated with the accidental release of methanol into riverine environments are low. (author)

  1. High performance direct methanol fuel cell with thin electrolyte membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nianfang

    2017-06-01

    A high performance direct methanol fuel cell is achieved with thin electrolyte membrane. 320 mW cm-2 of peak power density and over 260 mW cm-2 at 0.4 V are obtained when working at 90 °C with normal pressure air supply. It is revealed that the increased anode half-cell performance with temperature contributes primarily to the enhanced performance at elevated temperature. From the comparison of iR-compensated cathode potential of methanol/air with that of H2/air fuel cell, the impact of methanol crossover on cathode performance decreases with current density and becomes negligible at high current density. Current density is found to influence fuel efficiency and methanol crossover significantly from the measurement of fuel efficiency at different current density. At high current density, high fuel efficiency can be achieved even at high temperature, indicating decreased methanol crossover.

  2. Biodiesel Production from Acidified Oils via Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In biodiesel production, the vegetable oil used as raw material for transesterification should be free of water and free fatty acids (FFAs, which may consume catalyst and reduce catalyst efficiency. In this work biodiesel was prepared from acidified oils (AO through a supercritical methanol route, in which the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of glyceride with methanol occurred simultaneously. The effects of the mass ratio of methanol to AO, the operation temperature as well as the water content on the FFAs conversion and glycerol yield were investigated. The results indicated that the FFAs conversion for esterification under the condition of 1:1 methanol/oil ratio, 310 °C and 15 min reaction time reached 98.7%, and the glycerol yield for transesterification under 0.25:1 methanol/oil ratio, 290 °C and 20 min reaction time reached 63.5% respectively.

  3. Bifunctional anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter; Tritsaris, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties......: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation....... Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts....

  4. Thermal unimolecular decomposition of methanol. Zum thermischen unimolekularen Zerfall von Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, K

    1979-01-01

    The thermal unimolecular decomposition of methanol and that of acetone (1B) were investigated experimentally after reflected shockwaves, by following up the OH and CH/sub 3/ absorption or the CH/sub 3/ and acetone absorption respectively. A computer simulation of the decomposition of methanol and the subsequent reactions was done. This gave velocity constants for some reactions, which are different from those that are found in the literature. The experimental investigation of the decomposition of acetone, from comparison of the results with the data in the literature, shows that the observations of CH/sub 3/ absorption are very suitable for obtaining velocity constants for decomposition reactions, where CH/sub 3/ radicals are formed in the first stage.

  5. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  6. Manufacturing technologies for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesen, Andreas; Mueller, Martin; Kimiaie, Nicola; Konradi, Irene; Mergel, Juergen; Stolten, Detlef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research - IEF-3: Fuel Cells

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell research is focussing on increasing power density and lifetime and reducing costs of the whole fuel cell system. In order to reach these aims, it is necessary to develop appropriately designed components outgoing from high quality materials, a suitable manufacturing process and a well balanced system. To make use of the advantages that can be obtained by developing production technology, we are mainly improving the coating and assembling techniques for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, especially Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs). Coating is used for making fuel cell electrodes as well as highly conductive contacts. Assembling is used to join larger components like membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and bipolar units consisting of flow fields and the separator plate, as well as entire stacks. On the one hand a reproducible manufacturing process is required to study fine differences in fuel cell performance affected by new materials or new designs. On the other hand a change in each parameter of the manufacturing process itself can change product properties and therefore affect fuel cell performance. As a result, gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) are now produced automatically in square-meter batches, the hot-pressing of MEAs is a fully automated process and by pre-assembling the number of parts that have to be assembled in a stack was reduced by a factor of 10. These achievements make DMFC manufacturing more reproducible and less error-prone. All these and further developments of manufacturing technology are necessary to make DMFCs ready for the market. (orig.)

  7. Information draft on the development of air standards for methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless. very mobile liquid with a slightly alcoholic odour in pure form, but a repulsive pungent odour in crude form. Methanol is the raw material in the production of many gasoline additives, is used as a solvent or antifreeze in paint strippers, aerosol spray paints, wall paints, carburetor cleaners, and car windshield washer compounds. Methanol is one of the top pollutants by release quantities in Ontario, the highest release being generated by the pulp and paper industry. Other large emissions come from the plastics and synthetic resin industry. Total release to the air in Canada was 3,668 tonnes in 1996 and the top ten methanol emitting facilities were in Ontario. Methanol is readily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion and skin exposures. Once absorbed, it is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Common symptoms of exposure are visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, vertigo, pain in the extremities, and headaches. No information was found as to the carcinogenicity of methanol to humans or animals. Current Ontario half-hour POI standard for methanol is 84,000 microgram/cubic meter and the 24-hour AAQC is 28,000 microgram/cubic meter. Both values were established more than 20 years ago. Review of relevant literature, summarized in this report, indicates that five US states have promulgated air quality guidelines or reference exposure levels for methanol, based on occupational exposure limits. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently reviewing its reference concentration value for methanol. The World Health Organization and the Canadian federal government have not set air quality guidelines for methanol. 37 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  8. Protection against methanol-induced retinal toxicity by LED photostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.; Eells, Janis T.

    2002-06-01

    We have initiated experiments designed to test the hypothesis that 670-nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) exposure will attenuate formate-induced retinal dysfunction in a rodent model of methanol toxicity. Methanol intoxication produces toxic injury to the retina. The toxic metabolite formed in methanol intoxication is formic acid, a mitochondrial toxin known to inhibit cytochrome oxidase activity. 670-nm LED light has been hypothesized to act by stimulating cytochrome oxidase activity. To test this hypothesis, one group of animals was intoxicated with methanol, a second group was intoxicated with methanol and LED-treated and a third group was untreated. LED treatment (670 nm for 1 min 45 seconds equals 50 mW/cm2, 4 joules/cm2) was administered at 5, 25, and 50 hours after the initial dose of methanol. At 72 hours of methanol intoxication, retinal function was assessed by measurement of ERG responses and retinas were prepared for histologic analysis. ERG responses recorded in methanol-intoxicated animals revealed profound attenuation of both rod-dominated and UV-cone mediated responses. In contrast, methanol- intoxicated animals exposed to LED treatment exhibited a nearly complete recovery of rod-dominated ERG responses and a slight improvement of UV-cone mediated ERG responses. LED treatment also protected the retina against the histopathologic changes produced by formate in methanol intoxication. These data provide evidence that LED phototherapy protects the retina against the cytotoxic actions of formate and are consistent with the hypothesis that LED photostimulation improves mitochondrial respiratory chain function.

  9. Cyclic voltammetric study of electro-oxidation of methanol on platinum electrode in acidic and neutral media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.A.; Ahmed, R.; Mirza, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    The electro-oxidation of methanol on electrochemically treated platinum foil was investigated in acidic and neutral media for comparison of cyclic voltammetric characteristics and elucidation of mechanism of electro-oxidation of methanol. The surface area and roughness factor of platinum electrode was calculated. The electro-oxidation of mathanol is an irreversible process giving. anodic peaks in both anodic and cathodic sweep. The characteristic peaks of electrooxidation of methanol appeared at almost the same potential region in both acidic and neutral media. In neutral medium, certain additional cathodic/anodic peaks appeared which were confirmed to arise by the reduction/oxidation of hydrogen ions. The exchange current density and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was higher in neutral medium as. compared with acidic medium. The thermodynamic parameters delta H, delta S, and delta G/sub 298/ were calculated. The values of delta H and delta G/sub 298/were positive which indicated that the process of electro-oxidation of methanol is an endothermic and nonspontaneous. The mechanism of electro-oxidation of methanol was same in both acidic and neutral media involving the formation of various adsorbed intermediate species through dissociative adsorption steps leading to the formation of Co adsorbed radicals, which are removed. during interaction with adsorbed hydrous oxides provided by the oxidation of adsorbed water molecules. The higher rate of electro-oxidation of methanol in neutral medium was interpreted in the tight of electrochemical mechanism and was attributed to the presence of comparatively small amount of hydrogen ions only along the surface of working electrode, which are produced during electro-oxidation of methanol. (author)

  10. Thermo-economic analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell fuelled with methanol and methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, B.; Abdulkareem, A.S.; Musa, U.; Mohammed, I.A.; Olutoye, M.A.; Abdullahi, Y.I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified proton exchange membrane fuel cell was reported. • Thermolib software was used for the simulation of PEM fuel cell configurations. • Optimal operating parameters at 50 kW output of each process were determined. • Thermo-economic analysis is the most efficient way of process selection. • Methane system configuration has been identified as the best preferred PEM fuel cell. - Abstract: Exergy and economic analysis is often used to find and identify the most efficient process configuration for proton exchange membrane fuel cell from the thermo-economic point of view. This work gives an explicit account of the synergetic effect of exergetic and economic analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using methanol and methane as fuel sources. This was carried out through computer simulation using Thermolib simulation toolbox. Data generated from the simulated model were subsequently used for the thermodynamic and economic analysis. Analysis of energy requirement for the two selected processes revealed that the methane fuelled system requires the lower amount of energy (4.578 kJ/s) in comparison to the methanol fuelled configuration which requires 180.719 J/s. Energy analysis of both configurations showed that the principle of energy conservation was satisfied while the result of the exergy analysis showed high exergetic efficiency around major equipment (heat exchangers, compressors and pumps) of methane fuelled configuration. Higher irreversibility rate were observed around the burner, stack, and steam reformer. These trends of exergetic efficiency and irreversibility rate were observed around equipment in the methanol fuelled system but with lower performance when compared with the methane fuelled process configuration. On the basis of overall exergetic efficiency and lost work, the methanol system was more efficient with lower irreversibility rate of 547.27 kJ/s and exergetic efficiency of 34.44% in comparison with the methane

  11. A Nafion-Ceria Composite Membrane Electrolyte for Reduced Methanol Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban Velayutham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An alternative Nafion composite membrane was prepared by incorporating various loadings of CeO2 nanoparticles into the Nafion matrix and evaluated its potential application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. The effects of CeO2 in the Nafion matrix were systematically studied in terms of surface morphology, thermal and mechanical stability, proton conductivity and methanol permeability. The composite membrane with optimum filler content (1 wt. % CeO2 exhibits a proton conductivity of 176 mS·cm−1 at 70 °C, which is about 30% higher than that of the unmodified membrane. Moreover, all the composite membranes possess a much lower methanol crossover compared to pristine Nafion membrane. In a single cell DMFC test, MEA fabricated with the optimized composite membrane delivered a peak power density of 120 mW·cm−2 at 70 °C, which is about two times higher in comparison with the pristine Nafion membrane under identical operating conditions.

  12. The effect of coadsorbed oxygen on the reaction of methanol on Rh(111) and on a rhodium/vanadium surface alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schennach, R.; Krenn, G.; Rendulic, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Molecular adsorption of methanol can be observed on all transition metal surfaces at low temperatures. Methanol is adsorbed on Rh (111) at 98 K. With increasing methanol exposure first a mono-layer and then multi-layers of methanol are formed at this surface temperature. During heating, desorption of the methanol from physisorbed multi-layers is detected at about 120 K, followed by desorption of methanol from a chemisorbed mono-layer at 170 K. About 50 % of the adsorbed methanol undergoes a dehydrogenation reaction to form hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorbed on the surface. These reaction products desorb at 300 K and 480 K, respectively. Less than 0.05 monolayers of coadsorbed oxygen increases the amount of methanol that reacts on the surface to about 80 %. Experiments using a Rh/V surface alloy were performed, in order to distinguish between steric and electronic effects in the adsorption and reaction processes. Deposition of 0.3 monolayers of V on the Rh (111) surface leads to the formation of a subsurface alloy, with V atoms in the second atomic layer only. The initial reaction probability was measured as a function of surface temperature and molecular beam energy. A marked difference was found between the two surfaces. On the clean surface methanol adsorption and reaction stops above 198 K, whereas on the alloy surface adsorption and subsequent reaction occurs up to 473 K. The effects of coadsorbed oxygen are similar on both surfaces. The results are discussed in terms of the possible reactions of the adsorbed methanol on the surface. (author)

  13. Modifications for use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends in automotive vehicles, September 1976-January 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, D.J.; Bolt, J.A.; Cole, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Methanol or blends of methanol and gasoline as automotive fuels may be attractive means for extending the nation's petroleum reserves. The present study was aimed at identifying potential problems and solutions for this use of methanol. Retrofitting of existing vehicles as well as future vehicle design have been considered. The use of ethanol or higher alcohols was not addressed in this study but will be included at a later date. Several potentially serious problems have been identified with methanol use. The most attractive solutions depend upon an integrated combination of vehicle modifications and fuel design. No vehicle problems were found which could not be solved with relatively minor developments of existing technology providing the methanol or blend fuel was itself engineered to ameliorate the solution. Research needs have been identified in the areas of lubrication and materials. These, while apparently solvable, must precede use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends as motor fuels. Because of the substantial costs and complexities of a retrofitting program, use of methanol must be evaluated in relation to other petroleum-saving alternatives. Future vehicles can be designed initially to operate satisfactorily on these alternate fuels. However a specific fuel composition must be specified around which the future engines and vehicles can be designed.

  14. Operation characteristic analysis of a direct methanol fuel cell system using the methanol sensor-less control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y.; Chang, C.L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Longtan Township, Taoyuan County (China); Sung, C.C. [National Taiwan University (China)

    2012-10-15

    The application of methanol sensor-less control in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) system eliminates most of the problems encountered when using a methanol sensor and is one of the major solutions currently used in commercial DMFCs. This study focuses on analyzing the effect of the operating characteristics of a DMFC system on its performance under the methanol sensor-less control as developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). Notably, the influence of the dispersion of the methanol injected on the behavior of the system is investigated systematically. In addition, the mechanism of the methanol sensor-less control is investigated by varying factors such as the timing of the injection of methanol, the cathode flow rate, and the anode inlet temperature. These results not only provide insight into the mechanism of methanol sensor-less control but can also aid in the improvement and application of DMFC systems in portable and low-power transportation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Growth of Candida boidinii on methanol and the activity of methanol-degrading enzymes as affected from formaldehyde and methylformate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelis, G; Margariti, N; Kralli, C; Flouri, F

    2000-06-23

    Formaldehyde and methylformate affect the growth of Candida boidinii on methanol and the activity of methanol-degrading enzymes. The presence of both intermediates in the feeding medium caused an increase in biomass yield and productivity and a decrease in the specific rate of methanol consumption. In the presence of formaldehyde, the activity of formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase was essentially increased, whereas the activity of methanol oxidase was decreased. On the contrary, the presence of methylformate caused an increase of the activity of methanol oxidase and a decrease of the activity of formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase. Interpretations concerning the yeast behavior in the presence of intermediate oxidation products were considered and discussed.

  16. Integrative CO2 Capture and Hydrogenation to Methanol with Reusable Catalyst and Amine: Toward a Carbon Neutral Methanol Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sayan; Sen, Raktim; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2018-02-07

    Herein we report an efficient and recyclable system for tandem CO 2 capture and hydrogenation to methanol. After capture in an aqueous amine solution, CO 2 is hydrogenated in high yield to CH 3 OH (>90%) in a biphasic 2-MTHF/water system, which also allows for easy separation and recycling of the amine and catalyst for multiple reaction cycles. Between cycles, the produced methanol can be conveniently removed in vacuo. Employing this strategy, catalyst Ru-MACHO-BH and polyamine PEHA were recycled three times with 87% of the methanol producibility of the first cycle retained, along with 95% of catalyst activity after four cycles. CO 2 from dilute sources such as air can also be converted to CH 3 OH using this route. We postulate that the CO 2 capture and hydrogenation to methanol system presented here could be an important step toward the implementation of the carbon neutral methanol economy concept.

  17. Thermodynamics of R-(+)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic Acid Dissolution in Methanol, Ethanol, and Methanol-Ethanol Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Jinju; Yao, Xinding; Fang, Ruina; Cheng, Liang

    2018-05-01

    The solubilities of R-(+)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (D-HPPA) in methanol, ethanol and various methanol-ethanol mixtures are determined in the temperature range from 273.15 to 323.15 K at atmospheric pressure using a laser detecting system. The solubilities of D-HPPA increase with increasing mole fraction of ethanol in the methanol-ethanol mixtures. Experimental data were correlated with Buchowski-Ksiazczak λ h equation and modified Apelblat equation; the first one gives better approximation for the experimental results. The enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of D-HPPA dissolution in methanol, ethanol and methanol-ethanol mixtures were also calculated from the solubility data.

  18. Study of ignition in a high compression ratio SI (spark ignition) methanol engine using LES (large eddy simulation) with detailed chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xudong; Wang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Methanol has been recently used as an alternative to conventional fuels for internal combustion engines in order to satisfy some environmental and economical concerns. In this paper, the ignition in a high compression ratio SI (spark ignition) methanol engine was studied by using LES (large eddy simulation) with detailed chemical kinetics. A 21-species, 84-reaction methanol mechanism was adopted to simulate the auto-ignition process of the methanol/air mixture. The MIT (minimum ignition temperature) and MIE (minimum ignition energy) are two important properties for designing safety standards and understanding the ignition process of combustible mixtures. The effects of the flame kernel size, flame kernel temperature and equivalence ratio were also examined on MIT, MIE and IDP (ignition delay period). The methanol mechanism was validated by experimental test. The simulated results showed that the flame kernel size, temperature and energy dramatically affected the values of the MIT, MIE and IDP for a methanol/air mixture, the value of the ignition delay period was not only related to the flame kernel energy, but also to the flame kernel temperature. - Highlights: • We used LES (large eddy simulation) coupled with detailed chemical kinetics to simulate methanol ignition. • The flame kernel size and temperature affected the minimum ignition temperature. • The flame kernel temperature and energy affected the ignition delay period. • The equivalence ratio of methanol–air mixture affected the ignition delay period

  19. [Fermentation behaviors of recombinant Pichia pastoris under inhibited methanol concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Shan; Fan, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Xing

    2003-09-01

    Chemostat culture was performed to characterize the growth, substrate consumption and the hirudin production, and to disclose their interrelations in the fermentation of recombinant Pichia pastoris. The Andrew substrate-inhibited growth model is more suitable than Monod model to simulate the growth of Pichia pastoris on methanol. Therefore, two stationary states can be obtained in the continuous culture at a certain dilution rate because of the substrate inhibition on cell growth. The stationary state could be obtained if only the dilution rate not more than 0.048 h(-1) in the continuous fermentation. The concentrations of cell, methanol and hirudin were constant after 50 h continuous culture with dilution rate at 0.04 h(-1). However, it could not be obtained when the dilution rate more than 0.048 h(-1) because the other stationary point at S > 0.048 h(-1) is unstable. Therefore, it was found that the cell concentration declined and the methanol concentration increased from 2.9 g/L to 18.1 g/L within 18h at dilution rate 0.06 h(-1). Thus, the fed-batch culture with a constant specific growth rate was carried out to disclose the fermentation behavior at high and constant methanol concentration in aid of a methanol sensor. The theoretical maximum specific growth rate, microm = 0.0464 h(-1), was found under critical methanol concentration, Scrit = 3.1 g/L. The growth of P. pastoris was typically methanol-limited at the methanol concentration S Scrit. The maximum specific Hir65 production rate qp was obtained at 0.2 mg/(g x h) when methanol concentration and mu were 0.5 g/L and 0.02 h(-1), respectively. The specific Hir65 production rate qp increased with the increase of mu and S at mu 0.02 h(-1). The specific methanol consumption rate increased with the increase of S when S 5 g/L. At last, the high Hir65 production rate 0.2 mg/(g x h) was obtained in the fermentation conducted under methanol-limited concentration and mu controlled at 0.5 g/L and 0.02 h(-1

  20. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity toward methanol oxidation of electrocatalyst Pt4+-NH2-MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Huajun; Chen Zuo; Wang Limin; Ma Chun’an

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It was first confirmed that the Pt 4+ exhibited a good electro-catalytic property for methanol oxidation. ► The Pt 4+ perfectly distributed on a mesoporous molecular sieve matrix synthesis by a facile method. ► The good performance of catalyst resistance to poisoning because of a homogeneous distribution of Pt 4+ and large specific surface area. - Abstract: Mesoporous material with functional group (Pt 4+ -NH 2 -MCM-41) was prepared by grafting aminopropyl group and adsorbing platinum ions on the surface of the commercial molecular sieve (MCM-41). The characterization carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N 2 adsorption–desorption measurement pointed out that Pt was adsorbed on the NH 2 -MCM-41 surface as the oxidation state (Pt 4+ ) and the surface area of Pt 4+ -NH 2 -MCM-41 was up to 564 m 2 /g. Transmission electron microscopy and elemental mapping indicated a homogeneous distribution of Pt 4+ throughout all surface of the mesoporous materials. Electro-catalytic properties of methanol oxidation on the Pt 4+ -NH 2 -MCM-41 electrode were investigated with electrochemical methods. The results showed that the Pt 4+ -NH 2 -MCM-41 electrode exhibited catalytic activity in the methanol electro-oxidation with the apparent activation energy being 49.29 kJ/mol, and the control step of methanol electro-oxidation was the mass transfer process. It is first proved that platinum ions had good electro-catalytic property for methanol oxidation and provided a new idea for developing electrode materials in future.

  1. A study of structure and properties of molecularly thin methanol film using the modified surface forces apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gutian; Cai, Di; Wu, Gensheng; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Yin; Xiang, Nan

    2014-11-01

    A novel approach for studying the adsorption and evaporation processes of molecularly thin methanol film by the modified surface forces apparatus (M-SFA) is reported. This method can be used precisely to measure the thickness, morphology, and mechanical properties of the film confined between two mica surfaces in a real-time manner at gas atmosphere. By observing the adsorption and evaporation processes of the methanol molecule, it is found that the first adsorbed layer of the methanol film on the mica surface behaves as a solid-like structure. The thickness of this layer is measured to be about 3.2 Å, approximately equal to the diameter of a methanol molecule. Besides, this first adsorbed layer can carry normalized loads of more than 5.6 atm due to the carrying capacity conserved by the bond of mica-OH. The outer layers of the methanol film are further adsorbed with the increase of the exposure time, which are liquid-like and can be easily eliminated out from the substrate. The present study suggests that the interacting mode between hydroxy and mica is of great potential in material science and biomedical systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Use of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion power for the production of synthetic methanol fuel from air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Vi Duong Dang.

    1975-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from carbon dioxide, water and nuclear fusion energy is extensively investigated. The entire system is analyzed from the point of view of process design and economic evaluation of various processes. The main potential advantage of a fusion reactor (CTR) for this purpose is that it provides a large source of low cost environmentally acceptable electric power based on an abundant fuel source. Carbon dioxide is obtained by extraction from the atomsphere or from sea water. Hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of water. Methanol is synthesized by the catalytic reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The water electrolysis and methanol synthesis units are considered to be technically and commercially available. The benefit of using air or sea water as a source of carbon dioxide is to provide an essentially unlimited renewable and environmentally acceptabe source of hydrocarbon fuel. Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also allows a high degree of freedom in plant siting. (U.S.)

  3. Synthesis of Pt–Pd Bimetallic Porous Nanostructures as Electrocatalysts for the Methanol Oxidation Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pt-based bimetallic nanostructures have attracted a great deal of attention due to their unique nanostructures and excellent catalytic properties. In this study, we prepared porous Pt–Pd nanoparticles using an efficient, one-pot co-reduction process without using any templates or toxic reactants. In this process, Pt–Pd nanoparticles with different nanostructures were obtained by adjusting the temperature and ratio of the two precursors; and their catalytic properties for the oxidation of methanol were studied. The porous Pt–Pd nanostructures showed better electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of methanol with a higher current density (0.67 mA/cm2, compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.31 mA/cm2. This method provides one easy pathway to economically prepare different alloy nanostructures for various applications.

  4. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy J Mincer

    Full Text Available Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus, and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans.

  5. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Tracy J; Aicher, Athena C

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8-13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09-0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world's oceans.

  6. Methanol toxicity secondary to inhalant abuse in adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Erik A; Green, Adam S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of adults with methanol toxicity from inhalation of carburetor cleaning fluid fumes. Retrospective chart review of adults with positive serum volatile screen for methanol and history of carburetor cleaning fluid fume inhalation. Sixteen patients were admitted 68 times. Eleven Native American patients accounted for 90% of admissions. Sixty-five cases presented with nausea/vomiting; 27 with intoxication or altered mental status; 21 with specific visual complaints. About 93% had a pH or=10 mOsm/L, and 69% had anion gap >16. Ten had an initial serum methanol level or=50 mg/dL. Six patients had a measurable serum ethanol level. Of the 29 patients with a methanol level of 20-49 mg/dL, 20 received intravenous antidote (ethanol or fomepizole); three received an antidote and hemodialysis. All who presented with a serum methanol level >or=50 mg/dL received intravenous ethanol or fomepizole. All visual symptoms resolved before discharge and all patients survived without sequelae. Discussion. This is the largest reported number of cases of methanol toxicity from the inhalation of carburetor cleaning fluid fumes and demonstrates a problem with recurrent abuse among some older Native American men. Intentional inhalation of methanol fumes may produce toxicity. Clinicians need to question patients, especially older Native American men, regarding the possible inhalation of carburetor cleaning fluid fumes in those who present with an unexplained metabolic anion gap acidosis.

  7. Kinetics of Photoelectrochemical Oxidation of Methanol on Hematite Photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The kinetics of photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation of methanol, as a model organic substrate, on α-Fe2O3 photoanodes are studied using photoinduced absorption spectroscopy and transient photocurrent measurements. Methanol is oxidized on α-Fe2O3 to formaldehyde with near unity Faradaic efficiency. A rate law analysis under quasi-steady-state conditions of PEC methanol oxidation indicates that rate of reaction is second order in the density of surface holes on hematite and independent of the applied potential. Analogous data on anatase TiO2 photoanodes indicate similar second-order kinetics for methanol oxidation with a second-order rate constant 2 orders of magnitude higher than that on α-Fe2O3. Kinetic isotope effect studies determine that the rate constant for methanol oxidation on α-Fe2O3 is retarded ∼20-fold by H/D substitution. Employing these data, we propose a mechanism for methanol oxidation under 1 sun irradiation on these metal oxide surfaces and discuss the implications for the efficient PEC methanol oxidation to formaldehyde and concomitant hydrogen evolution. PMID:28735533

  8. Carbon nanotubes based methanol sensor for fuel cells application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D W; Lee, J S; Lee, G S; Overzet, L; Kozlov, M; Aliev, A E; Park, Y W; Yang, D J

    2006-11-01

    An electrochemical sensor is built using vertically grown multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) micro-array to detect methanol concentration in water. This study is done for the potential use of the array as methanol sensor for portable units of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Platinum (Pt) nanoparticles electro-deposited CNTs (Pt/CNTs) electrode shows high sensitivity in the measurement of methanol concentration in water with cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement at room temperature. Further investigation has also been undertaken to measure the concentration by changing the amount of the mixture of methanol and formic acid in water. We compared the performance of our micro array sensor built with Pt/CNTs electrodes versus that of Pt wire electrode using CV measurement. We found that our Pt/CNTs array sensor shows high sensitivity and detects methanol concentrations in the range of 0.04 M to 0.10 M. In addition, we found that co-use of formic acid as electrolyte enables us to measure up to 1.0 M methanol concentration.

  9. Methanol Production by a Broad Phylogenetic Array of Marine Phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Tracy J.; Aicher, Athena C.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is a major volatile organic compound on Earth and serves as an important carbon and energy substrate for abundant methylotrophic microbes. Previous geochemical surveys coupled with predictive models suggest that the marine contributions are exceedingly large, rivaling terrestrial sources. Although well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, methanol sources are poorly understood in the marine environment and warrant further investigation. To this end, we adapted a Purge and Trap Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (P&T-GC/MS) method which allowed reliable measurements of methanol in seawater and marine phytoplankton cultures with a method detection limit of 120 nanomolar. All phytoplankton tested (cyanobacteria: Synechococcus spp. 8102 and 8103, Trichodesmium erythraeum, and Prochlorococcus marinus), and Eukarya (heterokont diatom: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, coccolithophore: Emiliania huxleyi, cryptophyte: Rhodomonas salina, and non-diatom heterokont: Nannochloropsis oculata) produced methanol, ranging from 0.8–13.7 micromolar in culture and methanol per total cellular carbon were measured in the ranges of 0.09–0.3%. Phytoplankton culture time-course measurements displayed a punctuated production pattern with maxima near early stationary phase. Stabile isotope labeled bicarbonate incorporation experiments confirmed that methanol was produced from phytoplankton biomass. Overall, our findings suggest that phytoplankton are a major source of methanol in the upper water column of the world’s oceans. PMID:26963515

  10. Recovery Act: Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, James H. [University of North Florida; Cox, Philip [University of North Florida; Harrington, William J [University of North Florida; Campbell, Joseph L [University of North Florida

    2013-09-03

    containment. PROJECT OVERVIEW The University of North Florida (UNF), with project partner the University of Florida, recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile Computing”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell system technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a 20-watt, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), portable power supply based on the UNF innovative “passive water recovery” MEA. Extensive component, sub-system, and system development and testing was undertaken to meet the rigorous demands of the consumer electronic application. Numerous brassboard (nonpackaged) systems were developed to optimize the integration process and facilitating control algorithm development. The culmination of the development effort was a fully-integrated, DMFC, power supply (referred to as DP4). The project goals were 40 W/kg for specific power, 55 W/l for power density, and 575 Whr/l for energy density. It should be noted that the specific power and power density were for the power section only, and did not include the hybrid battery. The energy density is based on three, 200 ml, fuel cartridges, and also did not include the hybrid battery. The results show that the DP4 system configured without the methanol concentration sensor exceeded all performance goals, achieving 41.5 W/kg for specific power, 55.3 W/l for power density, and 623 Whr/l for energy density. During the project, the DOE revised its technical targets, and the definition of many of these targets, for the portable power application. With this revision, specific power, power density, specific energy (Whr/kg), and energy density are based on the total system, including fuel tank, fuel, and hybridization battery. Fuel capacity is not defined, but the same value is required for all calculations. Test data showed that the DP4 exceeded all 2011 Technical Status values; for example

  11. Methanol suppression of trichloroethylene degradation by M. trichosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, A.V.; Eng, W.

    1990-01-01

    Biodegradation by methylotrophs has been considered a potential method for in situ remediation, but delivery of sufficient methane could be a problem. Since methanol could be delivered more readily into soil, the authors examined TCE degradation under methane (0.89 M), methanol (1.187 mM), and combined methane (0.89 mM) methanol (1.187 mM) stimulated treatments using M. trichosporium and mixed cultures JS and DT. Degradation of TCE was determined by the summation of radiolabeled CO 2 , water-soluble intermediates, and biomass transformed from 14 C TCE. M. trichosporium degraded 0.36 ± 2.08% (mean ± std dev) of the initial TCe (0.3 mg/l) with methanol stimulation, compared to 9.07 ± 1.04% with methane stimulation. JS and DT cultures degraded 4.34 ± 0.11% on methanol compared to 24.3 ± 1.38% and 34.3 ± 3.0% on methane, respectively. If methanol was added to methane-stimualted cultures, TCE degradation was reduced to 1.08 ± 1.74% for M. trichosporium, and 5.08 ± 0.56% for JS culture. Methanol retarded the rates of methane and oxygen utilization as well. However, methanol-stimulated cultures grew to a greater extent than methane-stimulated cultures with 14 mg/l TCE. Previous workers have shown that methanol suppresses methane monooxygenase, and they suggest this may explain the reduced amount of TCE degraded

  12. Short Review: Mitigation of Current Environmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol has become a widely used and globally distributed product. Methanol is very important due to the current depletion of fossil fuels. Industrially, methanol produced from the catalytic reaction of synthetic gas composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Methanol production has brought great attention due to carbon dioxide as the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Combined of reducing CO2 emissions and supplying an alternative fuel source has created the idea of a carbon neutral cycle called “the methanol economy”. The best catalyst for the methanol economy would show a high CO2 conversion and high selectivity for methanol production. This paper investigates research focused on catalyst development for efficient methanol synthesis from hydrogenation of carbon dioxide through added various supports and additives such as silica, zirconium, and palladium. Catalysts that displayed the highest activity included a zirconia and silicon-titanium oxide promoted Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. Alternative method of catalyst preparation, include the oxalate-gel, solid-state reaction, co-precipitation and combustion method also investigated.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th October 2012; Revised: 7th February 2012; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Young, A., Lesmana, D., Dai, D.J., Wu, H.S. (2013. Short Review: Mitigation of Current En-vironmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 1-13. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13] | View in  |

  13. New constraints on terrestrial and oceanic sources of atmospheric methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Millet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to interpret new aircraft, surface, and oceanic observations of methanol in terms of the constraints that they place on the atmospheric methanol budget. Recent measurements of methanol concentrations in the ocean mixed layer (OML imply that in situ biological production must be the main methanol source in the OML, dominating over uptake from the atmosphere. It follows that oceanic emission and uptake must be viewed as independent terms in the atmospheric methanol budget. We deduce that the marine biosphere is a large primary source (85 Tg a−1 of methanol to the atmosphere and is also a large sink (101 Tg a−1, comparable in magnitude to atmospheric oxidation by OH (88 Tg a−1. The resulting atmospheric lifetime of methanol in the model is 4.7 days. Aircraft measurements in the North American boundary layer imply that terrestrial plants are a much weaker source than presently thought, likely reflecting an overestimate of broadleaf tree emissions, and this is also generally consistent with surface measurements. We deduce a terrestrial plant source of 80 Tg a−1, comparable in magnitude to the ocean source. The aircraft measurements show a strong correlation with CO (R2=0.51−0.61 over North America during summer. We reproduce this correlation and slope in the model with the reduced plant source, which also confirms that the anthropogenic source of methanol must be small. Our reduced plant source also provides a better simulation of methanol observations over tropical South America.

  14. Experimental evaluation of a Pt based heat exchanger methanol reformer for a HTPEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen in hydrogen consuming applications is often inconvenient because of the very low density of hydrogen even at high pressures (0.014 kg/L @ 300 bar) or cryogenically (0.043 kg/L). Much higher volumetric energy densities can be achieved using liquid hydrocarbons as e.g. metha...... (up to 1-2%). This work examines the possibility of using a catalyst coated plate heat exchanger for the reforming process of methanol....

  15. Predicting the concentration of residual methanol in industrial formalin using machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Heidkamp, William

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, a machine learning approach was used to develop a predictive model for residual methanol concentration in industrial formalin produced at the Akzo Nobel factory in Kristinehamn, Sweden. The MATLABTM computational environment supplemented with the Statistics and Machine LearningTM toolbox from the MathWorks were used to test various machine learning algorithms on the formalin production data from Akzo Nobel. As a result, the Gaussian Process Regression algorithm was found to pr...

  16. Investigation of bifunctional ester additives for methanol-gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, C.; Tang, Y.; Du, Q.; Song, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To explore new and multifunctional additives for methanol-gasoline, tartaric ester were synthesized and screened as phase stabilizer and saturation vapor pressure depressor for methanol-gasoline. The effect of the esters structure on the efficiency was discussed. The results show that the stabilities of the blends depend on the length of the glycolic esters alkoxy group. In addition, the tartaric esters also can depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline effectively in M15. Effect of the structure on the efficiency was also discussed. (author)

  17. Methanol poisoning: brain computed tomography scan findings in four patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, T.; Prasad, S.; Rathod, K.; Bichile, L.; Karnad, D.

    1999-01-01

    Methanol, through its chief metabolite, formate, causes irreversible neurological damage. Methanol intoxication produces classic neuropathological changes and characteristic imaging findings. Computed tomography was performed on four patients who presented with a history of methanol poisoning. Prominent, hypodense lesions in the lentilform nuclei and peripheral white matter, sometimes with haemorrhage, were the characteristic imaging findings in the present patients. It was noted that the severity and extent of necrosis of the lentilform nuclei do not necessarily correlate with the clinical outcome. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Nano-Engineered Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Nosang; Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Wiberg, Dean

    2008-01-01

    Nano-engineered catalysts, and a method of fabricating them, have been developed in a continuing effort to improve the performances of direct methanol fuel cells as candidate power sources to supplant primary and secondary batteries in a variety of portable electronic products. In order to realize the potential for high energy densities (as much as 1.5 W h/g) of direct methanol fuel cells, it will be necessary to optimize the chemical compositions and geometric configurations of catalyst layers and electrode structures. High performance can be achieved when catalyst particles and electrode structures have the necessary small feature sizes (typically of the order of nanometers), large surface areas, optimal metal compositions, high porosity, and hydrophobicity. The present method involves electrodeposition of one or more catalytic metal(s) or a catalytic-metal/polytetrafluoroethylene nanocomposite on an alumina nanotemplate. The alumina nanotemplate is then dissolved, leaving the desired metal or metal/polytetrafluoroethylene-composite catalyst layer. Unlike some prior methods of making fine metal catalysts, this method does not involve processing at elevated temperature; all processing can be done at room temperature. In addition, this method involves fewer steps and is more amenable to scaling up for mass production. Alumina nanotemplates are porous alumina membranes that have been fabricated, variously, by anodizing either pure aluminum or aluminum that has been deposited on silicon by electronbeam evaporation. The diameters of the pores (7 to 300 nm), areal densities of pores (as much as 7 x 10(exp 10)sq cm), and lengths of pores (up to about 100 nm) can be tailored by selection of fabrication conditions. In a given case, the catalytic metal, catalytic metal alloy, or catalytic metal/ polytetrafluoroethylene composite is electrodeposited in the pores of the alumina nanotemplate. The dimensions of the pores, together with the electrodeposition conditions

  19. A High-Sensitivity Gas Sensor Toward Methanol Using ZnO Microrods: Effect of Operating Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Mondal, B.; Ghosh, R.

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) microrods with the average diameter of 350 nm have been synthesized on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a hydrothermal reaction process at a low temperature of 90°C. The methanol gas sensing behaviour of as-synthesized ZnO microrods have been studied at different operating temperatures (100-300°C). The gas sensing results show that the ZnO microrods exhibit excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and stability toward methanol gas at 300°C. The as-grown ZnO microrods sensor also shows the good sensitivity for methanol even at a low operating temperature of 100°C. The ultra-high sensitivity of 4.41 × 104% [gas sensitivity, S g = ( I g - I a)/ I a × 100%] and 5.11 × 102% to 100 ppm methanol gas at a temperature of 300°C and 100°C, respectively, has been observed. A fast response time of 200 ms and 270 ms as well as a recovery time of 120 ms and 1330 ms to methanol gas have also been found at an operating temperature of 300°C and 100°C, respectively. The response and recovery time decreases with increasing operation temperature of the sensor.

  20. Towards a methanol economy: Zeolite catalyzed production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    The main focus of this thesis is zeolite catalyzed conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Furthermore, conversion of ethane to higher hydrocarbons has also been studied. After a brief introduction to the concept of “the methanol economy” in the first chapter, the second...... a commercial H-ZSM-5 zeolite impregnated with gallium and/or molybdenum is described. The object was to investigate if the presence of methanol in the feed could enhance the conversion of ethane, but in all cases the opposite is observed; the presence of methanol actually suppresses the conversion of ethane...... various zeolite catalysts is studied in Chapter 4. When 2-propanol or 1-butanol is converted over H-ZSM-5, the total conversion capacities of the catalyst are more than 25 times higher than for conversion of methanol and ethanol. Furthermore, for conversion of C3+ alcohols, the selectivity shifts during...

  1. In vitro antifungal activity of methanol extracts of some Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-03

    Dec 3, 2008 ... vitro antifungal activity against some yeasts including Candida albicans (1) ATCC2091, ... Key words: medicinal plants, antifungal activity, methanol extracts, yeast, mould, Saussurea lappa. ... Caesalpinia pulcherrima.

  2. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... surpasses batteries in important areas, fundamental research is still required to improve durability and performance. Particularly the transport of methanol and water within the cell structure is difficult to study in-situ. A demand therefore exist for the fundamental development of mathematical models...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...

  3. [Spectroscopic study of photocatalytic mechanism of methanol and CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Feng; Zhang, Qian-cheng; Bai, Feng-rong; Wang, A-nan; Wang, Zhi-wei; Jian, Li

    2011-12-01

    Ni-Ti-O/SiO2 catalyst was prepared by impregnation method, and its photocatalytic performance for carbonylation of methanol with CO2 was investigated under UV light. The in-situ IR, XPS and MS were carried out to analyze the possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism. Results indicated that the Ni-Ti-O/SiO2 exhibited good photocatalytic performance for carbonylation of methanol with CO2, the methanol conversion reached up to 24.9%, and the selectivity for the carbonylated products was more than 60% within 180 min reaction time. The catalyst characterization results showed that the O==C .--O- and CH3OC(O)* might be important intermediate in the carbonylation of methanol with CO2.

  4. Effect of Interaction of Methanol Leaf Extract of Spondias mombin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effect of interaction between methanol leaf extract of Spondias mombin and ... Keywords: Diarrheagenic E. coli, Drug interaction, Spondias mombin, Amoxicillin, ..... coli isolated from cattle, food, and children during a one-.

  5. Methanol plant ship: implementation study. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The study compiled the economic, commercial and financing requirements of a floating plant ship with a production capacity of 3,000 tons of methanol a day. The raw material for the methanol production would be supplied from a natural gas reserve off the coast of Trinidad. The report has a separate section for each aspect of the plant ship project, such as methanol storage; logistics of transporting methanol to the United States; the required sub-sea installation to bring natural gas to the plant ship; and plant ship design and equipment. It gives a detailed description of a proposed organizational structure and its tax consequences. The project's financial requirements and economic impact are examined. The environmental consequences and other operator issues are analyzed. Tables and figures accompany the report

  6. Effect of aqueous methanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aqueous methanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius fruit on carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in albino rats. Hassan B. Yesufu, Garba T. Mohammed, Salamat Amshi, Abdul L. Siyaka, Safiya Umar ...

  7. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Revised External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is seeking additional public comment and external peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of methanol (noncancer). Teleconference Details: The public may participate in th...

  8. Glass transition and intermixing of amorphous water and methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2004-01-01

    The diffusion of molecules in amorphous water and methanol films has been investigated on the basis of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as a function of temperature. The glass-liquid transition of the amorphous water film occurs at 130-145 K as confirmed from the surface segregation of embedded methanol molecules. The morphology of the pure amorphous water film changes drastically at 160 K as a consequence of dewetting induced by the surface tension and the strongly decreased viscosity of the film. The morphology of the amorphous methanol film changes at 115 K following the self-diffusion onset at 80 K. The binary films of water and heavy methanol are intermixed completely at 136 K as evidenced by the occurrence of the H/D exchange

  9. Toxicological evaluation of methanol leaves extract of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment with 800mg/kg body weight of methanol leaf extract significantly decreased body .... active ingredient (Dichloromethane/DCM) in metha- nol leaf .... formalin over night at room temperature after blood ..... Ehrlich`s tumor cells in mice.

  10. The Phytochemical constituents and the effects of methanol extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The effects of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus on the ... use of the aerial part of this plant by traditional medicine practitioners to increase/improve libido and reproductive ... The crude drug was extracted.

  11. Acute methanol poisonings: Folates administration and visual sequelae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Nurieva, O.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Diblik, P.; Kuthan, P.; Pelclová, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2014), s. 309-316 ISSN 1214-021X Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Methanol poisoning * Treatment outcome * Folinic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2014

  12. Antibacterial activity of Methanol and Chloroform extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty OF Basic Medical Sciences, University ... crude methanol extracts of S. oleracea flowers produced average zones of inhibition of 28mm and 25mm (in ... aureus could be destroyed by the mold, Penicillium.

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of methanol on Pt3Co bulk alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LJ. GOJKOVIC

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of methanol was investigated on a Pt3Co bulk alloy in acid solutions. Kinetic parameters such as transfer coefficient, reaction orders with respect to methanol and H+ ions and energy of activation were determined. It was found that the rate of methanol oxidation is significantly diminished by rotation of the electrode. This effect was attributed to the diffusion of formaldehyde and formic acid from the electrode surface. Stirring of the electrolyte also influenced the kinetic parameters of the reaction. It was speculated that the predominant reaction pathway and rate determining step are different in the quiescent and in the stirred electrolyte. Cobalt did not show a promoting effect on the rate of methanol oxidation on the Pt3Co bulk alloy with respect to a pure Pt surface.

  14. crude methanolic extracts of ageratum conyzoides and cutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy

    wound in the experimental group was dressed with crude methanolic extract of Ageratum conyzoides at a five daily interval while the animals in the control group were dressed with normal saline at ... in Africa (Almagboul et al, 1985), Asia, and.

  15. The Direct Methanol Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Until the early 1990's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

  16. Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical and analgesic evaluation of methanol leaf extract of ... Thirty minutes prior to intraperitoneal injection with 2 ml of 0.1% acetic acid, animals in groups ... (acetaminophen), aspirin and indomethacin while VII received saline water.

  17. Factors affecting methanol content of fermented plant beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TrueFasterUser

    2013-07-03

    ANZFA) permitted the maximum concentration of methanol in spirit beverages at 8 g/L of ..... German Federal Republic Patent. DE 43 (13)549. Frenkel C, Peters JS, Tieman DM, Tiznado ME, Handa AK (1998). Pectin Methylesterase ...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Methanol (Noncancer) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA conducted a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Methanol (noncancer) , this is finalized and posted on the IRIS Web site.

  19. Environmental impact of ethanol-methanol-gasoline fuel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwarc, A.

    1990-01-01

    The main information of Environmental impact study - The use of methanol as fuel are described, including the emissions, comparative evaluations with others fuels, the danger for the health and the toxicity. (C.G.C.)

  20. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu, PtSn, PtRh, PtRuRh e PtSnRh para oxidacao direta de alcoois em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM utilizando a metodologia da reducao por alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O (Aldrich), SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (Aldrich),and RhCl{sub 2}.XH{sub 2}O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2{theta} =40 deg, 47 deg, 67 deg and 82 deg, which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2-3 nm. For Pt Sn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2 = 34 deg and 52 deg that were identified as a SnO{sub 2} phase. Pt Sn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electro catalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature Pt Ru/C, Pt Sn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  1. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu, PtSn, PtRh, PtRuRh e PtSnRh para oxidacao direta de alcoois em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM utilizando a metodologia da reducao por alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O (Aldrich), SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (Aldrich),and RhCl{sub 2}.XH{sub 2}O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2θ = 40{sup 0}, 47{sup 0}, 67{sup 0} and 82{sup 0}, which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2–3 nm. For PtSn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2θ = 34{sup 0} and 52{sup 0} that were identified as a SnO{sub 2} phase. PtSn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electrocatalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature PtRu/C, PtSn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  2. Antidiarrhoeal activity of leaf methanolic extract of Rauwolfia serpentina

    OpenAIRE

    II Ezeigbo; MI Ezeja; KG Madubuike; DC Ifenkwe; IA Ukweni; NE Udeh; SC Akomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiarrhoeal property of methanol extract of the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (R. serpentina) in experimental diarrhoea induced by castor oil in mice. Methods: Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg R. serpentina leaf methanol extracts were administered to castor oil induced diarrhoea mice to determine its antidiarrhoeal activity. Results: All doses of the extract and the reference drug atropine sulphate (3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-dependent reduction in inte...

  3. Electrochemical energy conversion: methanol fuel cell as example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielstich Wolf

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic and kinetic limitations of the electrochemical energy conversion are presented for the case of a methanol/oxygen fuel cell. The detection of intermediates and products is demonstrated using insitu FTIR spectroscopy and online mass spectrometry. The bifunctional catalysis of methanol oxydation by PtRu model surfaces is explained. The formation of HCOOH and HCHO via parallel reaction pathways is discussed. An example of DMFC system technology is presented.

  4. Pt-Fe catalyst nanoparticles supported on single-wall carbon nanotubes: Direct synthesis and electrochemical performance for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohui; Luo, Liqiang; Zhu, Limei; Yu, Liming; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Ando, Yoshinori; Zhao, Xinluo

    2013-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) supported Pt-Fe nanoparticles have been prepared by one-step hydrogen arc discharge evaporation of carbon electrode containing both Pt and Fe metal elements. The formation of SWCNTs and Pt-Fe nanoparticles occur simultaneously during the evaporation process. High-temperature hydrogen treatment and hydrochloric acid soaking have been carried out to purify and activate those materials in order to obtain a new type of Pt-Fe/SWCNTs catalyst for methanol oxidation. The Pt-Fe/SWCNTs catalyst performs much higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation, better stability and better durability than a commercial Pt/C catalyst according to the electrochemical measurements, indicating that it has a great potential for applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  5. The Effect of Acetone Amount Ratio as Co-Solvent to Methanol in Transesterification Reaction of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianto, T. S.; Nurlestari, R.

    2018-04-01

    The production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by transesterification reaction using acetone as co-solvent has been carried out. This research studied the optimal amount ratio of acetone as co-solvent to methanol in the transesterification process using homogeneous alkaline catalyst KOH 1% (w/w) of waste cooking oil at room temperature for 15 minutes of reaction time. Mole ratio of waste cooking oil to methanol is 1:12. Acetone was added as co-solvent in varied amount ratio to methanol are 1:4, 1:2, and 1:1, respectively. The results of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were analysed using GC-MS instrument. The results showed that the optimal ratio is 1:4 with 99.93% of FAME yield.

  6. TREATMENT OF METHANOLIC WASTEWATER BY ANAEROBIC DOWN-FLOW HANGING SPONGE (ANDHS) REACTOR AND UASB REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, Haruhiko; Wada, Keiji; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    Anaerobic down-flow hanging sponge (AnDHS) reactor and UASB reactor were operated at 30℃ for over 400 days in order to investigate the process performance and the sludge characteristics of treating methanolic wastewater (2 gCOD/L). The settings OLR of AnDHS reactor and of UASB reactor were 5.0 -10.0 kgCOD/m3/d and 5.0 kgCOD/m3/d. The average of the COD removal demonstrated by both reactors were over 90% throughout the experiment. From the results of methane producing activities and the PCR-DGGE method, most methanol was directly converted to methane in both reactors. The conversion was carried out by different methanogens: one closely related to Methanomethylovorans hollandica in the AnDHS retainted sludge and the other closely related to Methanosarcinaceae and Metanosarciales in the UASB retainted sludge.

  7. Development of an air-breathing direct methanol fuel cell with the cathode shutter current collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Xiaowei [Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); MEMS Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Bo; Li, Jianmin; Deng, Huichao [MEMS Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-06-15

    An air-breathing direct methanol fuel cell with a novel cathode shutter current collector is fabricated to develop the power sources for consumer electronic devices. Compared with the conventional circular cathode current collector, the shutter one improves the oxygen consumption and mass transport. The anode and cathode current collectors are made of stainless steel using thermal stamping die process. Moreover, an encapsulation method using the tailor-made clamps is designed to assemble the current collectors and MEA for distributing the stress of the edges and inside uniformly. It is observed that the maximum power density of the air-breathing DMFC operating with 1 M methanol solution achieves 19.7 mW/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Based on the individual DMFCs, the air-breathing stack consisting of 36 DMFC units is achieved and applied to power a notebook computer. (author)

  8. Increasing Fuel Efficiency of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems with Feedforward Control of the Operating Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseung Na

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the R&D on fuel cells for portable applications concentrates on increasing efficiencies and energy densities to compete with other energy storage devices, especially batteries. To improve the efficiency of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC systems, several modifications to system layouts and operating strategies are considered in this paper, rather than modifications to the fuel cell itself. Two modified DMFC systems are presented, one with an additional inline mixer and a further modification of it with a separate tank to recover condensed water. The set point for methanol concentration control in the solution is determined by fuel efficiency and varies with the current and other process variables. Feedforward concentration control enables variable concentration for dynamic loads. Simulation results were validated experimentally with fuel cell systems.

  9. In-situ Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biodiesel Production using Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ supercritical methanol transesterification for production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL seeds was successfully being carried out via batch-wise reactor system, under varying temperatures of 180 - 300 °C, pressures of 6 - 18 MPa, reaction time of 5 - 35 min and seeds-to-methanol ratio of 1:15 - 1:45 (w/v. In this study, the extracted oil obtained showed the presence of FAME referring as biodiesel, indicating that transesterification reaction had occurred during the extraction process. The results showed that the biodiesel yield was obtained at optimum conditions of 280 °C, 12 MPa, 30 min and 1:40 (w/v were 97.9%.

  10. The performance analysis of direct methanol fuel cells with different hydrophobic anode channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Chun; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Luo, Win-Jet; Jiang, Jia-You; Kuan, Yean-Der; Lin, Xin-Quan

    In order to enhance the performance of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), the product of CO 2 bubble has to be efficiently removed from the anode channel during the electrochemical reaction. In this study, the materials of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) with hydrophilic property and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with hydrophobic property are used to form the anode cannel. The channel is fabricated through a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) manufacture process of the DMFCs. In addition, some particles with high hydrophobic properties are added into the PDMS materials in order to further reduce the hydro-resistance in the anode channel. The performance of the DMFCs is investigated under the influence of operation conditions, including operation temperature, flow rate, and methanol concentration. It is found that the performance of the DMFC, which is made of PDMS with high hydrophobic particles, can be greatly enhanced and the hydrophobic property of the particles can be unaffected by different operation conditions.

  11. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  12. Methanol sensor for integration with GaP nanowire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, J.; Laurenčíková, A.; Hasenohrl, S.; Eliáš, P.; Kováč, J.

    2017-05-01

    We proposed a new type of the methanol concentration sensor that may be integrated directly to the GaP nanostructured photocathode. Necessary attribute for this design is the possibility to make it compatible with p-type of semiconductor. This condition follows from the fact that photocathodes for the CO2 splitting are exclusively prepared from p-type of semiconductors. Design of methanol sensor emanates from this principle. On the GaP substrate is deposited thin Pt supporting layer (100-200 nm thick).This layer is covered by 500 nm thick Nafion membrane that serves as proton filter. On the top of Nafion layer is deposited top Pt contact layer covered by thin nanostructured Pt layer layer with various thickness (0.5 -5 nm). This nanostructured Pt is formed into small islands. It serves as an absorption layer for methanol. Sensor detection properties were estimated from monitoring of I-V characteristics. They were measured in dark and under various methanol concentrations. Dark current values are in order 10-9 A, and this current increases up to order of microamps for methanol of concentration more than 95%.These measurements proved high sensitivity of the GaP compatible sensor structure. Methanol sensors were realized in form of narrow stripe on the side of the photocathode.

  13. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  14. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurau, Bogdan [Nuvant Systems Inc., Crown Point, IN (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  15. Millimetre wavelength methanol masers survey towards massive star forming regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, T.; Mochizuki, N.; Shibata, K. M.; Roh, D.-G.; Chung, H.-S.

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of a mm wavelength methanol maser survey towards massive star forming regions. We have carried out Class II methanol maser observations at 86.6 GHz, 86.9 GHz and 107.0 GHz, simultaneously, using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We selected 108 6.7 GHz methanol maser sources with declinations above -25 degrees and fluxes above 20 Jy. The detection limit of maser observations was ~3 Jy. Of the 93 sources surveyed so far, we detected methanol emission in 25 sources (27%) and “maser” emission in nine sources (10%), of which thre “maser” sources are new detections. The detection rate for maser emission is about half that of a survey of the southern sky (Caswell et al. 2000). There is a correlation between the maser flux of 107 GHz and 6.7 GHz/12 GHz emission, but no correlation with the “thermal” (non maser) emission. From results of other molecular line observations, we found that the sources with methanol emission show higher gas temperatures and twice the detection rate of SiO emission. This may suggest that dust evaporation and destruction by shock are responsible for the high abundance of methanol molecules, one of the required physical conditions for maser emission.

  16. Phase behavior of (CO2 + methanol + lauric acid) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Franciele M.; Ramos, Luiz P.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured SVL, LLE and VLE for the binary system {lauric acid + methanol + CO 2 }. → Bubble point and dew point were measured at high pressures. → The experimental data were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals mixing rule. - Abstract: In this study the phase equilibrium behaviors of the binary system (CO 2 + lauric acid) and the ternary system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) were determined. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed to obtain the experimental data in the temperature range of (293 to 343) K and pressures up to 24 MPa. The mole fractions of carbon dioxide were varied according to the systems as follows: (0.7524 to 0.9955) for the binary system (CO 2 + lauric acid); (0.4616 to 0.9895) for the ternary system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) with a methanol to lauric acid molar ratio of (2:1); and (0.3414 to 0.9182) for the system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) with a methanol to lauric acid molar ratio of (6:1). For these systems (vapor + liquid), (liquid + liquid), (vapor + liquid + liquid), and (solid + fluid) transitions were observed. The phase equilibrium data obtained for the systems were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals mixing rule with a satisfactory correlation between experimental and calculated values.

  17. Regional environmental impacts of methanol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belian, T.; Morris, R.E.; Ligocki, M.P.; Whitten, G.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to obtain, through simulation modeling, preliminary estimates of the regional environmental impacts methanol-fueled vehicles and to estimate the sensitivity of the model to important parameters and assumptions that affect the calculation of the impacts. The regional environmental effects of the use of M85 fuel (85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline) and M100 (neat methanol) relative to gasoline (an indoline blend) were estimated using a Lagrangian (trajectory) acid deposition model. The Comprehensive Chemistry Acid Deposition Model (CCADM), contains a detailed treatment of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry and associated mass transfer, but provides for a less comprehensive representation of advection and diffusion. Two different meteorological regimes were analyzed: clear sky conditions and cloudy skies with a rain event. The study also included a review of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, with particular emphasis on methanol. The CCADM chemical mechanism was updated to include state-of-the-science (as of 1990) gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry including methanol chemistry. The CCADM was then used to analyze the regional environmental impacts from the use of methanol fuels. In performing such an analysis it was necessary to make several assumptions. The sensitivity of the analysis was examined through a series of simulations that varied key input parameters within their ranges of uncertainty

  18. Imaging study of brain damage from methanol intoxication of wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chengfu; Liu Yimin; Yang Yi; Shi Jing; Wu Yihang; Zhang Weisen; Mao Xiaofen; Luo Jing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the imaging of CT and MRI in brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine, and to study the relations between imaging manifestation and different degrees of the methanol intoxication. Method: Thirty nine cases with methanol intoxication from false wine were retrospectively reported, The latent period of these patients was 0-4 days, and the average latent period of these patients was 0.5 days, All cases were performed by serology examination, brain CT scan, and four cases performed by MRI scan after average 2.5 days (range, 1-6 days) the onset of methanol intoxication. Results: Six cases showed hyperintense signals in bilateral putamen, two cases also showed hyperintense signals in biolateral subcortex white substance regions. Four cases showed hyperintense signals in unilateral internal capsule. One case showed hyperintense changess in subcortex white substance regions. Our study showed the positive correlation between CT features and the amount of methanol and stage of clinic manifestation(χ 2 =4.232, P 2 =0.001, P>0.05). Conclusions: MRI was better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication from false wine. The characteristic finding changes of the patients was showed mainly in in bilateral putamen, Prognosis for the patients combined with subcortex white substance lesion wasn't hopeful. (authors)

  19. Kinetic and reaction pathways of methanol oxidation on platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, R.W.; McCready, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Methanol oxidation kinetics were measured on Pt wires in a flow reactor at pressures between 30 and 130 Pa. The kinetics were measured as a function of oxygen-to-methanol equivalence ratio phi and wire temperature. In methanol-lean feeds (phi 2 CO, CO 2 , and H 2 O were the only products; in methanol-rich feeds (phi > 1), CO, H 2 , H 2 CO, CO 2 , and H 2 O were observed. Experiments with 18 O 2 showed that the principal methanol oxidation pathway does not involve C-O bond dissociation. However, the 18 O 2 experiments, together with other features of the methanol oxidation data, also provided evidence for a minor oxidation pathway (accounting for less than 1% of the product CO 2 ) which proceeds through a carbon intermediate. A mathematical model is presented which describes the principal CH 3 OH oxidation pathway as a series reaction involving adsorbed H 2 CO and CO intermediates. Consistent with experimental results, the model predicts that inhibition by adsorbed CO should be weaker for CH 3 OH and H 2 CO oxidation than for CO oxidation. 34 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  20. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian; Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad; Nahvi, Vahideh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  1. Oxo-exchange of gas-phase uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl with water and methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Ana F; Odoh, Samuel O; Zhao, Jing; Marçalo, Joaquim; Schreckenbach, Georg; Gibson, John K

    2014-02-17

    A challenge in actinide chemistry is activation of the strong bonds in the actinyl ions, AnO2(+) and AnO2(2+), where An = U, Np, or Pu. Actinyl activation in oxo-exchange with water in solution is well established, but the exchange mechanisms are unknown. Gas-phase actinyl oxo-exchange is a means to probe these processes in detail for simple systems, which are amenable to computational modeling. Gas-phase exchange reactions of UO2(+), NpO2(+), PuO2(+), and UO2(2+) with water and methanol were studied by experiment and density functional theory (DFT); reported for the first time are experimental results for UO2(2+) and for methanol exchange, as well as exchange rate constants. Key findings are faster exchange of UO2(2+) versus UO2(+) and faster exchange with methanol versus water; faster exchange of UO2(+) versus PuO2(+) was quantified. Computed potential energy profiles (PEPs) are in accord with the observed kinetics, validating the utility of DFT to model these exchange processes. The seemingly enigmatic result of faster exchange for uranyl, which has the strongest oxo-bonds, may reflect reduced covalency in uranyl as compared with plutonyl.

  2. Dry reforming of coke oven gases over activated carbon to produce syngas for methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Bermudez; B. Fidalgo; A. Arenillas; J.A. Menendez [Instituto Nacional del Carbn, Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The dry reforming of coke oven gases (COG) over an activated carbon used as catalyst has been studied in order to produce a syngas suitable for methanol synthesis. The primary aim of this work was to study the influence of the high amount of hydrogen present in the COG on the process of dry reforming, as well as the influence of other operation conditions, such us temperature and volumetric hourly space velocity (VHSV). It was found that the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction takes place due to the hydrogen present in the COG, and that its influence on the process increases as the temperature decreases. This situation may give rise to the consumption of the hydrogen present in the COG, and the consequent formation of a syngas which is inappropriate for the synthesis of methanol. This reaction can be avoided by working at high temperatures (about 1000{sup o}C) in order to produce a syngas that is suitable for methanol synthesis. It was also found that the RWGS reaction is favoured by an increase in the VHSV. In addition, the active carbon FY5 was proven to be an adequate catalyst for the production of syngas from COG. 25 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Model-based analysis of water management in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, C.; Krewer, U.

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical modelling is used to analyse water management in Alkaline Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (ADMFCs) with an anion exchange membrane as electrolyte. Cathodic water supply is identified as one of the main challenges and investigated at different operation conditions. Two extreme case scenarios are modelled to study the feasible conditions for sufficient water supply. Scenario 1 reveals that water supply by cathodic inlet is insufficient and, thus, water transport through membrane is essential for ADMFC operation. The second scenario is used to analyse requirements on water transport through the membrane for different operation conditions. These requirements are influenced by current density, evaporation rate, methanol cross-over and electro-osmotic drag of water. Simulations indicate that water supply is mainly challenging for high current densities and demands on high water diffusion are intensified by water drag. Thus, current density might be limited by water transport through membrane. The presented results help to identify important effects and processes in ADMFCs with a polymer electrolyte membrane and to understand these processes. Furthermore, the requirements identified by modelling show the importance of considering water transport through membrane besides conductivity and methanol cross-over especially for designing new membrane materials.

  4. Wet in situ transesterification of spent coffee grounds with supercritical methanol for the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jeesung; Kim, Bora; Park, Jeongseok; Yang, Jeongwoo; Lee, Jae W

    2018-07-01

    This work introduces biodiesel production from wet spent coffee grounds (SCGs) with supercritical methanol without any pre-drying process. Supercritical methanol and subcritical water effectively produced biodiesel via in situ transesterification by inducing more porous SCG and enhancing the efficiency of lipid extraction and conversion. It was also found that space loading was one of the critical factors for biodiesel production. An optimal biodiesel yield of 10.17 wt% of dry SCG mass (86.33 w/w% of esterifiable lipids in SCG) was obtained at reaction conditions of 270 °C, 90 bars, methanol to wet SCG ratio 5:1, space loading 58.4 ml/g and reaction time 20 min. Direct use of wet SCG waste as feedstock for supercritical biodiesel production eliminates the conventional dying process and the need of catalyst and also reduces environmental problems caused by landfill accumulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-19 - Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol....4041-19 Exemption for qualified methanol and ethanol fuel. (a) In general. Under section 4041(b)(2... or use of qualified methanol or ethanol fuel. (b) Qualified methanol or ethanol fuel defined. For...

  6. Dietary methanol regulates human gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Shindyapina

    Full Text Available Methanol (MeOH is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-mediated conversion of MeOH to formaldehyde (FA, which is toxic. Our recent genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain demonstrated that an increase in endogenous MeOH after ADH inhibition led to a significant increase in the plasma MeOH concentration and a modification of mRNA synthesis. These findings suggest endogenous MeOH involvement in homeostasis regulation by controlling mRNA levels. Here, we demonstrate directly that study volunteers displayed increasing concentrations of MeOH and FA in their blood plasma when consuming citrus pectin, ethanol and red wine. A microarray analysis of white blood cells (WBC from volunteers after pectin intake showed various responses for 30 significantly differentially regulated mRNAs, most of which were somehow involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. There was also a decreased synthesis of hemoglobin mRNA, HBA and HBB, the presence of which in WBC RNA was not a result of red blood cells contamination because erythrocyte-specific marker genes were not significantly expressed. A qRT-PCR analysis of volunteer WBCs after pectin and red wine intake confirmed the complicated relationship between the plasma MeOH content and the mRNA accumulation of both genes that were previously identified, namely, GAPDH and SNX27, and genes revealed in this study, including MME, SORL1, DDIT4, HBA and HBB. We hypothesized that human plasma MeOH has an impact on the WBC mRNA levels of genes involved in cell signaling.

  7. H-ZSM-5 Zeolite Model Crystals: Structure-Diffusion-Activity Relationship in Methanol-to-Olefins Catalysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Losch, P.; Pinar, A.B.; Willinger, M.G.; Soukup, Karel; Chavan, S.; Vincent, B.; Pale, P.; Louis, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 345, JAN 1 (2017), s. 11-23 ISSN 0021-9517 Grant - others:NRFL(LU) 5898454 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : zeolite * methanol-to-olefins (MTO) * model catalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 6.844, year: 2016

  8. H-ZSM-5 Zeolite Model Crystals: Structure-Diffusion-Activity Relationship in Methanol-to-Olefins Catalysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Losch, P.; Pinar, A.B.; Willinger, M.G.; Soukup, Karel; Chavan, S.; Vincent, B.; Pale, P.; Louis, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 345, JAN 1 (2017), s. 11-23 ISSN 0021-9517 Grant - others:NRFL(LU) 5898454 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : zeolite * methanol -to-olefins (MTO) * model catalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 6.844, year: 2016

  9. Spatial Distribution of Zeolite ZSM-5 within Catalyst Bodies Affects Selectivity and Stability of Methanol-to-Hydrocarbons Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, P.; Ruiz-Martinez, J.; Epelde, E.; Gayubo, A.G.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Solid acids, such as zeolites, are used as catalyst materials in a wide variety of important crude oil refinery, bulk chemical synthesis, and green processes. Examples include fluid catalytic cracking (FCC),[1] methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) conversion,[ 2] plastic waste valorization,[3] and biomass

  10. Fomepizole in the treatment of acute methanol poisonings: experience from the Czech mass methanol outbreak 2012-2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 4 (2014), s. 641-649 ISSN 1213-8118 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : methanol poisoning * fomepizole * treatment outcome Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2014

  11. Bio-methanol. How energy choices in the western United States can help mitigate global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Kristiina A.; Vogt, Daniel J.; Edmonds, Robert L.; Suntana, Asep S.; Patel-Weynand, Toral; Upadhye, Ravi; Edlund, David; Gordon, John C.; Sigurdardottir, Ragnhildur; Miller, Michael; Roads, Patricia A.; Andreu, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Converting available biomass from municipal, agricultural and forest wastes to bio-methanol can result in significant environmental and economic benefits. Keeping these benefits in mind, one plausible scenario discussed here is the potential to produce energy using bio-methanol in five states of the western United States. In this scenario, the bio-methanol produced is from different biomass sources and used as a substitute for fossil fuels in energy production. In the U.S. West, forest materials are the dominant biomass waste source in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, while in California, the greatest amount of available biomass is from municipal wastes. Using a 100% rate of substitution, bio-methanol produced from these sources can replace an amount equivalent to most or all of the gasoline consumed by motor vehicles in each state. In contrast, when bio-methanol powered fuel cells are used to produce electricity, it is possible to generate 12-25% of the total electricity consumed annually in these five states. As a gasoline substitute, bio-methanol can optimally reduce vehicle C emissions by 2-29 Tg of C (23-81% of the total emitted by each state). Alternatively, if bio-methanol supported fuel cells are used to generate electricity, from 2 to 32 Tg of C emissions can be avoided. The emissions avoided, in this case, could equate to 25-32% of the total emissions produced by these particular western states when fossil fuels are used to generate electricity. The actual C emissions avoided will be lower than the estimates here because C emissions from the methanol production processes are not included; however, such emissions are expected to be relatively low. In general, there is less carbon emitted when bio-methanol is used to generate electricity with fuel cells than when it is used as a motor vehicle fuel. In the state of Washington, thinning 'high-fire-risk' small stems, namely 5.1-22.9 cm diameter trees, from wildfire-prone forests and using them to produce

  12. The deep-subsurface sulfate reducer Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii employs two methanol-degrading pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Diana Z; Visser, Michael; van Gelder, Antonie H; Boeren, Sjef; Pieterse, Mervin M; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Vogt, Carsten; Franke, Steffi; Kümmel, Steffen; Stams, Alfons J M

    2018-01-16

    Methanol is generally metabolized through a pathway initiated by a cobalamine-containing methanol methyltransferase by anaerobic methylotrophs (such as methanogens and acetogens), or through oxidation to formaldehyde using a methanol dehydrogenase by aerobes. Methanol is an important substrate in deep-subsurface environments, where thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfotomaculum have key roles. Here, we study the methanol metabolism of Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii strain 17 T , isolated from a 3000-m deep geothermal water reservoir. We use proteomics to analyze cells grown with methanol and sulfate in the presence and absence of cobalt and vitamin B12. The results indicate the presence of two methanol-degrading pathways in D. kuznetsovii, a cobalt-dependent methanol methyltransferase and a cobalt-independent methanol dehydrogenase, which is further confirmed by stable isotope fractionation. This is the first report of a microorganism utilizing two distinct methanol conversion pathways. We hypothesize that this gives D. kuznetsovii a competitive advantage in its natural environment.

  13. Study on methanol synthesis from coal-based syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-fang Ma; Wei-yong Ying; Ding-ye Fang [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering

    2009-03-15

    The intrinsic kinetic models of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood type were investigated in terms of the reaction rates of CO hydrogenation and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation in the form of reactant fugacity. The parameters were estimated by the Universal Global Optimization using the Marquardt method. Residual error distribution and statistic tests show that the intrinsic kinetic models are reliable and acceptable. The mathematic model of a combined converter formed by gas-cooled and water-cooled reactor was developed and the gas-cooled reactor and the water-cooled reactor were characterized with one-dimensional mathematic model. The distributions of temperature and concentration in the catalytic bed of the gas-cooled reactor and the water-cooled reactor in a combined converter with a yield of 1.2 Mt/a were simulated. The parallel cross linking pore model was used to describe the transfer process of multi-component diffusion system in the catalyst. The calculated value computed by the internal diffusion efficiency factor calculation model established for methanol synthesis catalyst fit the experimental value very well. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Platinum nanocube catalysts for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang-Beom; Song, You-Jung; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jy-Yeon; Park, Kyung-Won [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea)

    2008-07-15

    We prepared Pt nanocube catalyst with about 3.6 nm in size by a polyol process in the presence of PVP as a stabilizer and Fe ion as a kinetic controller. The crystal structure of Pt nanocube with {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} faces was confirmed by field-emission transmission electron microscopy. In a cyclic voltammogram, we found that the Pt nanocube catalyst showed relatively high ratio of the forward anodic peak current to the reverse anodic peak current resulting in less accumulation of residues on the catalyst. The Pt nanocube catalyst with the edge of stepped {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} faces was preferable to breakage of CH{sub 3}OH and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH compared to polycrystalline Pt nanocatalyst. In an electrochemical measurement for methanol and ethanol electrooxidation, the Pt nanocube catalyst showed an excellent catalytic activity, i.e., lower onset potential and higher current density, compared to the polycrystalline Pt nanocatalyst. (author)

  15. Price dynamics of natural gas and the regional methanol markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masih, A. Mansur M.; Albinali, Khaled; DeMello, Lurion

    2010-01-01

    A 'methanol economy' based mainly on natural gas as a feedstock has a lot of potential to cope with the current and ongoing concerns for energy security along with the reduction of CO-2 emissions. It is, therefore, important to examine the price dynamics of methanol in order to ascertain whether the price of methanol is mainly natural-gas-cost driven or demand driven in the context of different regions. This paper is the first attempt to investigate the following: (1) is the natural gas price significantly related to the regional methanol prices in the Far East, United States and Europe? (2) who drives the regional methanol prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between natural gas and methanol prices. Our findings, based on the most recently developed 'long-run structural modelling' and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) natural gas price is cointegrated with the regional methanol prices, (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that natural gas was driving the methanol prices in Europe and the United States but not in the Far East. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (1998.5-2007.3), with the surge in demand for methanol throughout the Far East, particularly in China, Taiwan and South Korea, which appears to have played a relatively more dominant role in the Far East compared to that in Europe and the United States within the framework of the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of natural gas as the main driver of methanol prices in all three continents is consistent with the recent surge in natural gas price fueled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the natural gas futures/options as well as refining tightness (similar to those that were happening in the crude oil markets

  16. Sustainable process design with process intensification - Development and implementation of a framework for sustainable carbon dioxide capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca

    . The developed framework adopts a 3-stage approach for sustainable design, which is comprised of: (1) synthesis, (2) design, and (3) innovation. In the first stage, the optimal processing route is obtained from a network via a superstructure-based approach. This stage incorporates a structured database...... and are designed and simulated in detail: 1. Dimethyl ether from methanol via combined reforming 2. Dimethyl ether from methanol via direct hydrogenation 3. Dimethyl carbonate via ethylene carbonate and methanol from combined reforming 4. Dimethyl carbonate via ethylene carbonate and methanol from direct...... hydrogenation. Through the analysis of the processes, it can be seen that the methanol distillation and the dimethyl carbonate downstream separation contribute to largeamounts of the utility consumption and therefore costs. Therefore, the reductionof the utility consumption of the methanol distillation...

  17. Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa J. Leo; Miguel A. Raso; Emilio Navarro; Eleuterio Mora

    2013-01-01

    The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent opera...

  18. Prediction and validation of hemodialysis duration in acute methanol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Philippe; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Desmeules, Simon; De Serres, Sacha A; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Douville, Pierre; Ghannoum, Marc; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2015-11-01

    The duration of hemodialysis (HD) in methanol poisoning (MP) is dependent on the methanol concentration, the operational parameters used during HD, and the presence and severity of metabolic acidosis. However, methanol assays are not easily available, potentially leading to undue extension or premature termination of treatment. Here we provide a prediction model for the duration of high-efficiency HD in MP. In a retrospective cohort study, we identified 71 episodes of MP in 55 individuals who were treated with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition and HD. Four patients had residual visual abnormality at discharge and only one patient died. In 46 unique episodes of MP with high-efficiency HD the mean methanol elimination half-life (T1/2) during HD was 108 min in women, significantly different from the 129 min in men. In a training set of 28 patients with MP, using the 90th percentile of gender-specific elimination T1/2 (147 min in men and 141 min in women) and a target methanol concentration of 4 mmol/l allowed all cases to reach a safe methanol of under 6 mmol/l. The prediction model was confirmed in a validation set of 18 patients with MP. High-efficiency HD time in hours can be estimated using 3.390 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for women and 3.534 × (Ln (MCi/4)) for men, where MCi is the initial methanol concentration in mmol/l, provided that metabolic acidosis is corrected.

  19. The Methanol Poisoning Outbreaks in Libya 2013 and Kenya 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostrup, Morten; Edwards, Jeffrey K; Abukalish, Mohamed; Ezzabi, Masoud; Some, David; Ritter, Helga; Menge, Tom; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Rootwelt, Rebecca; Janssens, Bart; Lind, Kyrre; Paasma, Raido; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of methanol poisoning occur frequently on a global basis, affecting poor and vulnerable populations. Knowledge regarding methanol is limited, likely many cases and even outbreaks go unnoticed, with patients dying unnecessarily. We describe findings from the first three large outbreaks of methanol poisoning where Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) responded, and evaluate the benefits of a possible future collaboration between local health authorities, a Non-Governmental Organisation and international expertise. Retrospective study of three major methanol outbreaks in Libya (2013) and Kenya (May and July 2014). Data were collected from MSF field personnel, local health personnel, hospital files, and media reports. In Tripoli, Libya, over 1,000 patients were poisoned with a reported case fatality rate of 10% (101/1,066). In Kenya, two outbreaks resulted in approximately 341 and 126 patients, with case fatality rates of 29% (100/341) and 21% (26/126), respectively. MSF launched an emergency team with international experts, medications and equipment, however, the outbreaks were resolving by the time of arrival. Recognition of an outbreak of methanol poisoning and diagnosis seem to be the most challenging tasks, with significant delay from time of first presentations to public health warnings being issued. In spite of the rapid response from an emergency team, the outbreaks were nearly concluded by the time of arrival. A major impact on the outcome was not seen, but large educational trainings were conducted to increase awareness and knowledge about methanol poisoning. Based on this training, MSF was able to send a local emergency team during the second outbreak, supporting that such an approach could improve outcomes. Basic training, simplified treatment protocols, point-of-care diagnostic tools, and early support when needed, are likely the most important components to impact the consequences of methanol poisoning outbreaks in these challenging contexts.

  20. Model studies of methanol synthesis on copper catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, J.; Nakamura, I.; Uchijima, T. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Fujitani, T. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis of methanol by the hydrogenation of CO{sub 2} over Zn-deposited and Zn-free copper surfaces has been studied using an XPS apparatus combined with a high-pressure flow reactor (18 atm). It was shown that the Zn deposited on Cu(111) and poly-Cu acted as a promoter for methanol synthesis, while the Zn on Cu(110) and Cu(100) had no such a promotional effect. The turnover frequency (TOF) for Zn/Cu(111) linearly increased with Zn coverage below {Theta}Zn--0.19, and then decreased above {Theta}Zn=0.20. The optimum TOF obtained at {Theta}Zn--0-19 was thirteen-fold larger than TOF for the Zn-free Cu(111) surface. On the other hand, no promotional effect of Zn was observed for the reverse water-gas shift reaction on all the surfaces. The results indicate the formation of special sites for methanol synthesis on Zn/Cu(111). The Zn-deposited Cu(111) can be regarded as a model of Cu/ZnO catalysts because the TOF and the activation energy for methanol formation over the Zn-deposited Cu(111) were in fairly good agreement with those for the Cu/ZnO powder catalysts. The post-reaction surface analysis by XPS showed the formation of formate species (HCOOa). The formate coverage was proportional to the activity for methanol formation below {Theta}Zn=0.20, suggesting that the hydrogenation of the formate species is the rate-determining step of methanol formation. The formate species was stabilized by Zn species on Cu(111) in the absence of ZnO species. STM results on the Zn-deposited Cu(111) suggested the formation of a Cu-Zn surface alloy. The presence of special sites for methanol synthesis was also indicated in the results of powder catalysts.

  1. On the impact of olefins and aromatics in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion over H-ZSM-5 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.; Mueller, S.; Veen, A.C. van; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Methanol-to-hydrocarbons processes using HZSM-5 archetype acidic zeolites or zeotype SAPO-34 catalysts are regarded as a vital suite of conversion technologies to bypass petroleum-based routes for the production of specific fuels and petrochemical commodities. Special significance of the methanol chemistry originates from its versatility enabling selective transformations towards various products. Industry demonstrated successfully implementations of Methanol-To-Gasoline, Methanol-To-Olefin, and Methanol-To-Propylene processes, although the typical single-pass selectivity remained limited and recycling is necessary. Considerable fundamental research efforts both from experimental and computational sides contributed to unravel the underlying complex reaction mechanism. The indirect hydrocarbon pool mechanism, in which Broensted acid sites combined with adsorbed light olefins or lower methylbenzenes act as active centers, is generally accepted to explain the formation of light olefins. As olefin and aromatics populated catalytic sites show different reactivity in terms of activity and selectivity to ethylene or propylene, one could envision optimizing the product distribution by suitable co-feeding of specific hydrocarbons. The present work addresses three questions with an experimental study conducted under realistic MTP operation conditions: (1) How are ethylene and propylene formed at molecular level? (2) Which reaction pathway leads to the formation of undesired hydrogen transfer products? (3) Does olefin or aromatics co-feeding change the selectivity to ethylene or propylene? Xylenes and various olefins were co-fed with methanol to achieve a detailed understanding of the reaction mechanism over acidic HZSM-5 zeolites. Results suggest, that an olefin homologation/cracking route (olefin cycle) accounts for the autocatalytic (-like) nature and the majority of methanol consumption rather than the route involving aromatic intermediates (aromatics cycle). Co

  2. Final environmental assessment for the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH trademark) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The proposed project is to demonstrate on a commercial scale the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas using the LPMEOH trademark process. The methanol produced during this demonstration will be used as a chemical feedstock (on-site) and/or as an alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications (off-site). In addition, the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed co-product with methanol may be demonstrated for a six month period under the proposed project pending the results of laboratory/pilot-scale research on scale-up. The DME would be used as fuel in on-site boilers. The proposed LPMEOH facility would occupy approximately 0.6 acres of the 3,890-acre Eastman Chemical facility in Kingsport, TN. The effects of the proposed project include changes in air emissions, wastewater discharge, cooling water discharge, liquid waste quantities, transportation activities, socioeconomic effects, and quantity of solids for disposal. No substantive negative impacts or environmental concerns were identified

  3. CFD Simulation of Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Methanol in an Adiabatic Fixed-bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golshadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A computational fluid dynamic (CFD study of methanol (MeOH to dimethyl ether (DME process in an adiabatic fixed-bed reactor is presented. One of the methods of industrial DME production is the catalytic dehydration of MeOH. Kinetic model was derived based on Bercic rate. The parameters of this equation for a specific catalyst were tuned by solving a one-dimensional homogenous model using MATLAB optimization module. A two-dimensional CFD simulation of the reaction is demonstrated and considered as numerical experiments. A sensitivity analysis was run in order to find the effect of temperature, pressure, and WHSV on the reactor performance. Good agreement was achieved between bench experimental data and the model. The results show that the maximum conversion of reaction (about 85.03% is obtained at WHSV=10 h-1 and T=563.15 K, whereas the inlet temperature has a greater effect on methanol conversion. Moreover, the effect of water in inlet feed on methanol conversion is quantitatively studied. It was concluded that the results obtained from CFD analysis give precise guidelines for further studies on the optimization of reactor performance.

  4. Electrochemical catalytic activities of nanoporous palladium rods for methanol electro-oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Weimin; Qi, Zhen; Zhao, Changchun; Ji, Hong; Zhang, Zhonghua [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (MOE), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jingshi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel electrocatalyst, nanoporous palladium (npPd) rods can be facilely fabricated by dealloying a binary Al{sub 80}Pd{sub 20} alloy in a 5 wt.% HCl aqueous solution under free corrosion conditions. The microstructure of these nanoporous palladium rods has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that each Pd rod is several microns in length and several hundred nanometers in diameter. Moreover, all the rods exhibit a typical three-dimensional bicontinuous interpenetrating ligament-channel structure with length scale of 15-20 nm. The electrochemical experiments demonstrate that these peculiar nanoporous palladium rods (mixed with Vulcan XC-72 carbon powders to form a npPd/C catalyst) reveal a superior electrocatalytic performance toward methanol oxidation in the alkaline media. In addition, the electrocatalytic activity obviously depends on the metal loading on the electrode and will reach to the highest level (223.52 mA mg{sup -1}) when applying 0.4 mg cm{sup -2} metal loading on the electrode. Moreover, a competing adsorption mechanism should exist when performing methanol oxidation on the surface of npPd rods, and the electro-oxidation reaction is a diffusion-controlled electrochemical process. Due to the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency in the mass production, the npPd rods can act as a promising candidate for the anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). (author)

  5. Chemical Evolution of Interstellar Methanol Ice Analogs upon Ultraviolet Irradiation: The Role of the Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaravella, A.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Cosentino, G.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Peres, G.; Candia, R.; Collura, A.; Barbera, M.; Di Cicca, G.; Varisco, S.; Venezia, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    An important issue in the chemistry of interstellar ices is the role of dust materials. In this work, we study the effect of an amorphous water-rich magnesium silicate deposited onto ZnSe windows on the chemical evolution of ultraviolet-irradiated methanol ices. For comparison, we also irradiate similar ices deposited onto bare ZnSe windows. Silicates are produced at relatively low temperatures exploiting a sol–gel technique. The chemical composition of the synthesized material reflects the forsterite stoichiometry. Si–OH groups and magnesium carbonates are incorporated during the process. The results show that the substrate material does affect the chemical evolution of the ice. In particular, the CO2/CO ratio within the ice is larger for methanol ices deposited onto the silicate substrate as a result of concurrent effects: the photolysis of carbonates present in the adopted substrate as a source of CO2, CO, and carbon and oxygen atoms; reactions of water molecules and hydroxyl radicals released from the substrate with the CO formed in the ice by the photolysis of the methanol ice; and changes in the structure and energy of the silicate surface by ultraviolet irradiation, leading to more favorable conditions for chemical reactions or catalysis at the grain surface. The results of our experiments allow such chemical effects contributed by the various substrate material components to be disentangled.

  6. Selective Sensing of Methanol by Poly( m-aminophenol)/Copper Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Madhusmita; Samanta, Siddhartha; Kar, Pradip

    2018-03-01

    The nanocomposite film of conducting poly( m-aminophenol) with copper nanoparticles (PmAP/Cu) prepared by a single-step process has been demonstrated as the sensor material for selective detection of methanol vapor. Different techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the interfacial interactions between PmAP and Cu nanoparticles within their conducting nanocomposites. The induced doping interaction through fluctuating electrostatic charge transfer between free -OH groups of the PmAP and Cu nanoparticles was confirmed from the spectral characterizations. About 3 wt% of Cu nanoparticles having average size of around 30-50 nm confirmed by the SEM and TEM analysis, was optimized inside the PmAP matrix in terms of better dispersion as well as achieving the highest conductivity (1.05 × 10-6 S/cm). The sensing performances, viz., % response, response time, recovery time, selectivity and reproducibility of the nanocomposites were studied towards methanol vapor at different concentrations. The mechanism of selective methanol vapor sensing by PmAP/Cu nanocomposite film has been explained on the basis of selective dipole interaction characterized by zeta potential measurement.

  7. Compact methanol reformer test for fuel-cell powered light-duty vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emonts, B; Hoehlein, B; Peters, R [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik (IEV); Hansen, J B; Joergensen, S L [Haldor Topsoe A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1998-03-15

    On-board production of hydrogen from methanol based on a steam reformer in connection with the use of low-temperature fuel-cells (PEMFC) is an attractive option as energy conversion unit for light-duty vehicles. A steam reforming process at higher pressures with an external burner offers advantages in comparison to a steam reformer with integrated partial oxidation in terms of total efficiency for electricity production. The main aim of a common project carried out by the Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), Haldor Topsoee A/S (HTAS) and Siemens AG is to design, to construct and to test a steam reformer reactor concept (HTAS) with external catalytic burner (FZJ) as heat source as well as catalysts for heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen production (HTAS), concepts for gas treatment (HTAS, FZJ) and a low-temperature fuel cell (Siemens). Based on the experimental results obtained so far concerning methanol reformers, catalytic burners and gas conditioning units, our report describes the total system, a test unit and preliminary test results related to a hydrogen production capacity of 50 kW (LHV) and dynamic operating conditions. This hydrogen production system is aimed at reducing the specific weight (<2 kg/kW{sub th} or 4 kg/kW{sub el}) combined with high efficiency for net electricity generation from methanol (about 50%) and low specific emissions. The application of Pd-membranes as gas cleaning unit fulfill the requirements with high hydrogen permeability and low cost of the noble metal. (orig.)

  8. Simultaneous hydrogen and methanol enhancement through a recuperative two-zone thermally coupled membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, M. [Shiraz University, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimpour, M.R. [Shiraz University, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Gas Center of Excellence, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    In this work, a novel configuration with two zones instead of one single integrated catalytic bed in thermally coupled membrane reactor (TCMR) is developed for enhancement of simultaneous methanol, benzene and hydrogen production. In the first zone, the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol in a conventional water-cooled reactor. In the second zone, the reaction heat is used to drive the endothermic dehydrogenation of cyclohexane reaction in second tube side. Selective permeation of hydrogen through the Pd-Ag membrane is achieved by co-current flow of sweep gas through the permeation side. The length of first zone is chosen equal 35 cm which the optimization procedure obtained this value. The proposed model has been used to compare the performance of a two-zone thermally coupled membrane reactor (TZTCMR) with conventional reactor (CR) and TCMR at identical process conditions. The simulation results represent 13.14 % enhancement in the production of pure hydrogen in comparison with TCMR. Moreover, 2.96 and 4.54 % enhancement of the methanol productivity relative to TCMR and CR were seen, respectively, owing to utilizing higher temperature at the first parts of reactor for higher reaction rate and then reducing temperature gradually at the end parts of reactor for increasing thermodynamics equilibrium conversion in TZTCMR. (orig.)

  9. Esterification of Palmitic Acid with Methanol in the Presence of Macroporous Ion Exchange Resin as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Qarina Yaakob and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied in a batch reactor using macro porous ion exchange resin Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. Methyl palmitate was produced from the reaction between palmitic acid and methanol in the presence of catalyst. The effects of processing parameters, molar ratio of alcohol to acid M, (4-10, catalyst loading (0-10 g cat/liter, water inhibition (0-2 mol/liter, agitator speed (200-800 rpm and reaction temperature (343-373K were studied. The experimental kinetic data were correlated using homogenous as well as heterogeneous models (based on single as well as dual site mechanisms. The activation energy of the reaction was 11.552 kJ/mol for forward reaction whilst 5.464 kJ/mol for backward reaction. The experimental data fitted well with the simulated data obtained from the kinetic models. Keywords: Palmitic Acid, Methanol, Esterification, Ion Exchange Resin, Kinetics.

  10. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based micro-scale direct methanol fuel cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S.-C.; Tang Xudong; Hsieh, C.-C.; Alyousef, Yousef; Vladimer, Michael; Fedder, Gary K.; Amon, Cristina H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a high-power density, silicon-based micro-scale direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), under development at Carnegie Mellon. Major issues in the DMFC design include the water management and energy-efficient micro fluidic sub-systems. The air flow and the methanol circulation are both at a natural draft, while a passive liquid-gas separator removes CO 2 from the methanol chamber. An effective approach for maximizing the DMFC energy density, pumping the excess water back to the anode, is illustrated. The proposed DMFC contains several unique features: a silicon wafer with arrays of etched holes selectively coated with a non-wetting agent for collecting water at the cathode; a silicon membrane micro pump for pumping the collected water back to the anode; and a passive liquid-gas separator for CO 2 removal. All of these silicon-based components are fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based processes on the same silicon wafer, so that interconnections are eliminated, and integration efforts as well as post-fabrication costs are both minimized. The resulting fuel cell has an overall size of one cubic inch, produces a net output of 10 mW, and has an energy density three to five times higher than that of current lithium-ion batteries

  11. Short Review: Cu Catalyst for Autothermal Reforming Methanol for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Shing Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising alternative energy sources, hydrogen can be used in fuel cell applications to pro-ducing electrical energy and water as byproduct. Therefore, fuel cell is a simple application and environ-mentally friendly oriented technology. Recent years various methods have been conducted to produce hy-drogen. Those methods are derived from various sources such as methanol, ethanol, gasoline, hydrocarbons. This article presents a brief review a parameter process of that affects in autothermal reforming methanol use Cu-based catalysts for production of hydrogen. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 3rd January 2012; Revised: 23rd February 2012; Accepted: 28th February 2012[How to Cite: H.S. Wu, and D. Lesmana. (2012. Short Review: Cu Catalyst for Autothermal Reforming Methanol for Hydrogen Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 27-42. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1284.27-42][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1284.27-42 ] | View in 

  12. Methanol and ethanol electroxidation using Pt electrodes prepared by the polymeric precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R.G.; Santos, M.C.; Oliveira, R.T.S.; Bulhoes, L.O.S.; Pereira, E.C. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Centro Multidisciplinar para o Desenvolvimento de Materiais Ceramicos, Departamento de Quimica. Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C.P. 676, CEP 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-14

    The results of methanol and ethanol oxidation in acidic medium on Pt electrodes deposited on Ti substrate using the Pechini method are presented. In this route the metallic salts were dissolved in a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and citric acid (CA) forming a polyester network, which is painted onto a Ti substrate and then heat treated at 600{sup o}C in order to obtain the metallic Pt thin films. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of Pt pattern peaks. The presence of the (420) plane in a higher amount compared to bulk Pt was observed and the peak position of the planes (200) and (420) were displaced by approximately -0.3{sup o}. The roughness data presented almost the same values for Ti and Ti/Pt. The electrochemical characterization of the electrodes in 0.1M HClO{sub 4} showed a typical Pt voltammetric profile. Although the voltammetric profiles of Ti/Pt and bulk Pt were the same, the electrocatalytical behavior for methanol oxidation showed an enhancement of the oxidation current density peak, which increased by 170% compared to bulk platinum. Although, the current density peak for ethanol oxidation on Ti/Pt is smaller than for Pt, it began at 0.11V less positive than the same process on bulk Pt. The chronoamperometric experiments for methanol and ethanol oxidation on Ti/Pt increased by almost 934% and 440%, respectively, compared with Pt bulk. (author)

  13. Methanol and ethanol electroxidation using Pt electrodes prepared by the polymeric precursor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R. G.; Santos, M. C.; Oliveira, R. T. S.; Bulhões, L. O. S.; Pereira, E. C.

    The results of methanol and ethanol oxidation in acidic medium on Pt electrodes deposited on Ti substrate using the Pechini method are presented. In this route the metallic salts were dissolved in a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and citric acid (CA) forming a polyester network, which is painted onto a Ti substrate and then heat treated at 600 °C in order to obtain the metallic Pt thin films. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of Pt pattern peaks. The presence of the (4 2 0) plane in a higher amount compared to bulk Pt was observed and the peak position of the planes (2 0 0) and (4 2 0) were displaced by approximately -0.3°. The roughness data presented almost the same values for Ti and Ti/Pt. The electrochemical characterization of the electrodes in 0.1 M HClO 4 showed a typical Pt voltammetric profile. Although the voltammetric profiles of Ti/Pt and bulk Pt were the same, the electrocatalytical behavior for methanol oxidation showed an enhancement of the oxidation current density peak, which increased by 170% compared to bulk platinum. Although, the current density peak for ethanol oxidation on Ti/Pt is smaller than for Pt, it began at 0.11 V less positive than the same process on bulk Pt. The chronoamperometric experiments for methanol and ethanol oxidation on Ti/Pt increased by almost 934% and 440%, respectively, compared with Pt bulk.

  14. Te/Pt nanonetwork modified carbon fiber microelectrodes for methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hsiang-Yu; Shih, Zih-Yu; Lin, Zong-Hong; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-01-01

    Te/Pt nanonetwork-decorated carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) have been fabricated and employed as anodic catalysts in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Te nanowires were prepared from tellurite ions (TeO 3 2− ) through a seed-mediated growth process and were deposited onto CFMEs to form three-dimensional Te nanonetworks. The Te nanonetworks then acted as a framework and reducing agent to reduce PtCl 6 2− ions to form Te/Pt through a galvanic replacement reaction, leading to the formation of Te/PtCFMEs. By controlling the reaction time, the amount of Pt and morphology of Te/Pt nanonetworks were controlled, leading to various degrees of electrocatalytic activity. The Te/PtCFMEs provide a high electrochemical active surface area (129.2 m 2 g −1 ), good catalytic activity (1.2 A mg −1 ), high current density (20.0 mA cm −2 ), long durability, and tolerance toward the poisoning species for methanol oxidation in 0.5 M sulfuric acid containing 1 M methanol. We have further demonstrated an enhanced current density by separately using 3 and 5 Te/PtCFMEs. Our results show that the low-cost, stable, and effective Te/PtCFMEs have great potential in the fabrication of cost-effective fuel cells. (paper)

  15. A transient multi-scale model for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Zago, M.; Casalegno, A.; Bessler, W.G.; Latz, A.

    2017-01-01

    The DMFC is a promising option for backup power systems and for the power supply of portable devices. However, from the modeling point of view liquid-feed DMFC are challenging systems due to the complex electrochemistry, the inherent two-phase transport and the effect of methanol crossover. In this paper we present a physical 1D cell model to describe the relevant processes for DMFC performance ranging from electrochemistry on the surface of the catalyst up to transport on the cell level. A two-phase flow model is implemented describing the transport in gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer at the anode side. Electrochemistry is described by elementary steps for the reactions occurring at anode and cathode, including adsorbed intermediate species on the platinum and ruthenium surfaces. Furthermore, a detailed membrane model including methanol crossover is employed. The model is validated using polarization curves, methanol crossover measurements and impedance spectra. It permits to analyze both steady-state and transient behavior with a high level of predictive capabilities. Steady-state simulations are used to investigate the open circuit voltage as well as the overpotentials of anode, cathode and electrolyte. Finally, the transient behavior after current interruption is studied in detail.

  16. A combined thermodynamic cycle based on methanol dissociation for IC (internal combustion) engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Xu, Zhengxin; Ren, Chengqin; Deng, Banglin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for exhaust heat recovery was proposed to improve IC (internal combustion) engine fuel efficiency and also to achieve the goal for direct usage of methanol as IC engine fuel. An open organic Rankine cycle system using methanol as working medium is coupled to IC engine exhaust pipe for exhaust heat recovery. In the bottom cycle, the working medium first undergoes dissociation and expansion processes, and is then directed back to IC engine as fuel. As the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle are combined together, this scheme forms a combined thermodynamic cycle. Then, this concept was applied to a turbocharged engine, and the corresponding simulation models were built for both of the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle. On this basis, the energy saving potential of this combined cycle was estimated by parametric analyses. Compared to the methanol vapor engine, IC engine in-cylinder efficiency has an increase of 1.4–2.1 percentage points under full load conditions, while the external bottom cycle can increase the fuel efficiency by 3.9–5.2 percentage points at the working pressure of 30 bar. The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points. - Highlights: • A combined thermodynamic cycle using methanol as working medium for IC engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • The external bottom cycle of exhaust heat recovery and IC engine working cycle are combined together. • IC engine fuel efficiency could be improved from both in-cylinder working cycle and external bottom cycle. • The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points at full load

  17. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Mei; Wang, Zhang-Qian; Shu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Wen-Juan; Xu, Hai-Jie; Ahn, Young-Joon; Wang, Mo; Hu, Xuebo

    2013-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment) coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  18. Ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine A production from endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Mei Zhao

    Full Text Available Huperzine A (HupA is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5-2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi.

  19. Methane and methanol as energy carriers. Economy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deipenau, H

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the study was to develop economic and technical means of supplying LNG and methanol to the industrial centers of Germany using natural gas from the Iranian area as the raw material. The available possibilities for the preparation, transport, and storage of LNG and methanol were clarified and examined. Cost estimates were made of transport from Kangan to Wilhelmshaven. Alternatives were compared from economic and technical viewpoints. Ways in which LNG and methanol could be used in Germany (motor cars, power plants, gas utilities) were evaluated. The evaluations showed that energy costs for LNG in Wilhelmshaven are lower than those for methanol. Large quantities of LNG and methanol from the Persian Gulf can be sold in the various branches of the German energy market on the condition that the crude gas price of the Iranian Gulf does not exceed 1.- to 3.-DM/Gcal. At present the natural gas exporting countries demand crude natural gas prices of about 5.-DM/Gcal.

  20. An autopsy case of methanol induced intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jeong; Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Young-Jik; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The major component of car washer fluid is a methanol. Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare but lethal complication in methanol poisoning. We report a case of massive bilateral basal ganglia hematoma in a 32-year-old man with methanol poisoning. He drank car washer solution twice time (about 500 ml), and was admitted to a territorial hospital 10 hours post-ingestion for depressed mental status, lower blood pressure, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan showed lesions in both putamen and cerebral deep white matter. Twenty-one days after methanol exposure, he suddenly developed cardiorespiratory arrest. In autopsy, external examination revealed moderate cerebral edema, but no evidence of herniation. Coronal sections of the brain showed softening and about 34 g hematoma in the bilateral putamen and 3rd ventricles. The toxic effect of methanol on the visual system has been noted in the absence of neurologic manifestations; however, there have also been a report of concomitant brain in Korea.