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Sample records for methanol feeding strategy

  1. Effect of methanol feeding strategies on production and yield of recombinant mouse endostatin from Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, L B; Phue, J N; Shiloach, Joseph

    2003-05-20

    Pichia pastoris, a methylotrophic yeast, is an efficient producer of recombinant proteins in which the heterologous gene is under the control of the methanol-induced AOX1 promoter. Hence, the accepted production procedure has two phases: In the first phase, the yeast utilizes glycerol and biomass is accumulated; in the second phase, the yeast utilizes methanol which is used both as an inducer for the expression of the recombinant protein and as a carbon source. Since the yeast is sensitive to methanol concentration, the methanol is supplied gradually to the growing culture. Three methanol addition strategies were evaluated for the purpose of optimizing recombinant endostatin production. Two strategies were based on the yeast metabolism; one responding to the methanol consumption using a methanol sensor, and the other responding to the oxygen consumption. In these two strategies, the methanol supply is unlimited. The third strategy was based on a predetermined exponential feeding rate, controling the growth rate at 0.02 h(-1), in this strategy the methanol supply is limited. Throughout the induction phase glycerol, in addition to methanol, was continuously added at a rate of 1 g L h(-1). Total endostatin production was similar in all three strategies, (400 mg was obtained from 3 L initial volume), but the amount of methanol added and the biomass produced were lower in the predetermined rate method. This caused the specific production of endostatin per biomass and per methanol to be 2 times higher in the predetermined rate than in the other two methods, making the growth control strategy not only more efficient but also more convenient for downstream processing. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 82: 438-444, 2003.

  2. [Effects of different methanol feeding strategy on hirudin production in high-density fermentation by recombinant Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Shan; Fan, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Xing

    2002-05-01

    Four different methanol feeding modes were evaluated in the hirudin production in high-density fermentation by Pichia pastoris. It was difficult to avoid methanol excessive in the broth with the feeding strategy only based on DO level. On the other hand, the fluctuation in methanol concentration was observed with methanol feeding strategy by off-line gas chromatography. However, the stable methanol concentration was perfectly achieved by the on-line monitoring with methanol sensor. The supply of energy was improved by feeding glycerol at a limited rate as well as methanol in the induction phase. Therefore, the high cell dry weight (162 g/L) and high hirudin activity (2.4 x 10(4) ATU/mL or 1.7 g/L) was obtained in the fed-batch fermentation of recombinant Pichia pastoris by methanol-glycerol mixed feeding.

  3. Improving Performance and Operational Stability of Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris with Combinational Induction Strategy of Low Temperature and Methanol/Sorbitol Co-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhong-Ping; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Various induction strategies were investigated for effective porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) production by Pichia pastoris in a 10 L fermenter. We found that pIFN-α concentration could be significantly improved with the strategies of low-temperature induction or methanol/sorbitol co-feeding. On this basis, a combinational strategy of induction at lower temperature (20 °C) with methanol/sorbitol co-feeding has been proposed for improvement of pIFN-α production. The results reveal that maximal pIFN-α concentration and antiviral activity reach the highest level of 2.7 g/L and 1.8 × 10(7) IU/mg with the proposed induction strategy, about 1.3-2.1 folds higher than those obtained with other sub-optimal induction strategies. Metabolic analysis and online multi-variable measurement results indicate that energy metabolic enrichment is responsible for the performance enhancement of pIFN-α production, as a large amount of ATP could be simultaneously produced from both formaldehyde oxidation pathway in methanol metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in sorbitol metabolism. In addition, the proposed combinational induction strategy enables P. pastoris to be resistant to high methanol concentration (42 g/L), which conceivably occur associating with the error-prone methanol over-feeding. As a result, the proposed combinational induction strategy simultaneously increased the targeted protein concentration and operational stability leading to significant improvement of pIFN-α production.

  4. Enhanced porcine circovirus Cap protein production by Pichia pastoris with a fuzzy logic DO control based methanol/sorbitol co-feeding induction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Chunling; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue; Li, Chunhua; Ni, Jianping; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhongping

    2014-05-10

    Porcine circovirus Cap protein production by P. pastoris with strong AOX promoter suffered with the problems with traditional pure methanol induction: (1) inefficient methanol metabolism; (2) extensive oxygen supply load; (3) difficulty in stable DO control; (4) low protein titer. In this study, based on the difference of DO change patterns in response to methanol and sorbitol additions, a novel fuzzy control system was proposed to automatically regulate the co-feeding rates of methanol and sorbitol for efficient Cap protein induction. With aid of the proposed control system when setting DO control level at 10%, overall fermentation performance was significantly improved: (1) DO could be stably controlled under mild aeration condition; (2) methanol consumption rate could be restricted at moderate level and the major enzymes involved with methanol metabolism were largely activated; (3) Cap protein concentration reached a highest level of 198mg/L, which was about 64% increase over the best one using the pure methanol induction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fed-batch methanol feeding strategy for recombinant protein production by Pichia pastoris in the presence of co-substrate sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Eda; Calik, Pinar; Oliver, Stephen G

    2009-09-01

    Batch-wise sorbitol addition as a co-substrate at the induction phase of methanol fed-batch fermentation by Pichia pastoris (Mut(+)) was proposed as a beneficial recombinant protein production strategy and the metabolic responses to methanol feeding rate in the presence of sorbitol was systematically investigated. Adding sorbitol batch-wise to the medium provided the following advantages over growth on methanol alone: (a) eliminating the long lag-phase for the cells and reaching 'high cell density production' at t = 24 h of the process (C(X) = 70 g CDW/l); (b) achieving 1.8-fold higher recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) (at t = 18 h); (c) reducing specific protease production 1.2-fold; (d) eliminating the lactic acid build-up period; (e) lowering the oxygen uptake rate two-fold; and (f) obtaining 1.4-fold higher overall yield coefficients. The maximum specific alcohol oxidase activity was not affected in the presence of sorbitol, and it was observed that sorbitol and methanol were utilized simultaneously. Thus, in the presence of sorbitol, 130 mg/l rHuEPO was produced at t = 24 h, compared to 80 mg/l rHuEPO (t = 24 h) on methanol alone. This work demonstrates not only the ease and efficiency of incorporating sorbitol to fermentations by Mut(+) strains of P. pastoris for the production of any bio-product, but also provides new insights into the metabolism of the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris.

  6. Carbon source feeding strategies for recombinant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... protein expression with the influence of the carbon source feeding ... in the culture media, increasing the peroxisomes numbers ...... source, temperature, pH, O2, methanol feeding strategy) ..... Catabolite Inactivation in Yeast.

  7. Comparison between constant methanol feed and on-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methanol feeding methods, namely constant methanol feed and on-line monitoring feed control by methanol sensor were investigated to improve the production of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in high cell density cultivation of Pichia pastoris KM71 in 2 L bioreactor. The yeast utilized glycerol as a carbon ...

  8. The JPL Direct Methanol Liquid-feed PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, there has been a breakthrough in fuel cell technology in the Energy Storage Systems Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with the develpment of a direct methanol, liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell... The methanol liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte (PEM) design has numerous system level advantages over the gas-feed design. These include:...

  9. Liquid-Feed Methanol Fuel Cell With Membrane Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Vamos, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Fuel cell generates electricity from direct liquid feed stream of methanol/water solution circulated in contact with anode, plus direct gaseous feed stream of air or oxygen in contact with cathode. Advantages include relative simplicity and elimination of corrosive electrolytic solutions. Offers potential for reductions in size, weight, and complexity, and for increases in safety of fuel-cell systems.

  10. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  11. Direct methanol feed fuel cell with reduced catalyst loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Improvements to direct feed methanol fuel cells include new protocols for component formation. Catalyst-water repellent material is applied in formation of electrodes and sintered before application of ionomer. A membrane used in formation of an electrode assembly is specially pre-treated to improve bonding between catalyst and membrane. The improved electrode and the pre-treated membrane are assembled into a membrane electrode assembly.

  12. Design of methanol Feed control in Pichia pastoris fermentations based upon a growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Smith, Leonard A; Plantz, Bradley A; Schlegel, Vicki L; Meagher, Michael M

    2002-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is an effective system for recombinant protein productions that utilizes methanol as an inducer, and also as carbon and energy source for a Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strain. Pichia fermentation is conducted in a fed-batch mode to obtain a high cell density for a high productivity. An accurate methanol control is required in the methanol fed-batch phase (induction phase) in the fermentation. A simple "on-off" control strategy is inadequate for precise control of methanol concentrations in the fermentor. In this paper we employed a PID (proportional, integral and derivative) control system for the methanol concentration control and designed the PID controller settings on the basis of a Pichia growth model. The closed-loop system was built with four components: PID controller, methanol feed pump, fermentation process, and methanol sensor. First, modeling and transfer functions for all components were derived, followed by frequency response analysis, a powerful method for calculating the optimal PID parameters K(c) (controller gain), tau(I) (controller integral time constant), and tau(D) (controller derivative time constant). Bode stability criteria were used to develop the stability diagram for evaluating the designed settings during the entire methanol fed-batch phase. Fermentations were conducted using four Pichia strains, each expressing a different protein, to verify the control performance with optimal PID settings. The results showed that the methanol concentration matched the set point very well with only small overshoot when the set point was switched, which indicated that a very good control performance was achieved. The method developed in this paper is robust and can serve as a framework for the design of other PID feedback control systems in biological processes.

  13. Design of a novel automated methanol feed system for pilot-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaker, Kent H; Johnson, Daniel C; Bellucci, Joseph J; Apgar, Kristie R; Soslow, Sherry; Gercke, John C; Menzo, Darrin J; Ton, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale fermentation of Pichia pastoris requires a large volume of methanol feed during the induction phase. However, a large volume of methanol feed is difficult to use in the processing suite because of the inconvenience of constant monitoring, manual manipulation steps, and fire and explosion hazards. To optimize and improve safety of the methanol feed process, a novel automated methanol feed system has been designed and implemented for industrial fermentation of P. pastoris. Details of the design of the methanol feed system are described. The main goals of the design were to automate the methanol feed process and to minimize the hazardous risks associated with storing and handling large quantities of methanol in the processing area. The methanol feed system is composed of two main components: a bulk feed (BF) system and up to three portable process feed (PF) systems. The BF system automatically delivers methanol from a central location to the portable PF system. The PF system provides precise flow control of linear, step, or exponential feed of methanol to the fermenter. Pilot-scale fermentations with linear and exponential methanol feeds were conducted using two Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) strains, one expressing a recombinant therapeutic protein and the other a monoclonal antibody. Results show that the methanol feed system is accurate, safe, and efficient. The feed rates for both linear and exponential feed methods were within ± 5% of the set points, and the total amount of methanol fed was within 1% of the targeted volume. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  14. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  15. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  16. Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

  17. Recent Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed. The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow rate air and high concentrations of methanol. Improvements in cathode structure and operation at low methanol concentration have been shown to result in improved cell performance.

  18. Review on utilization of the pervaporation membrane for passive vapor feed direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, N F I; Hasran, U A; Kamarudin, S K

    2013-01-01

    The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) is a promising portable power source for mobile electronic devices because of its advantages including easy fuel storage, high energy density, low temperature operation and compact structure. In DMFC, methanol is used as a fuel source where it can be fed in liquid or vapor phase. However, the vapor feed DMFC has an advantage over the liquid feed system as it has the potential to have a higher operating temperature to increase the reaction rates and power outputs, to enhance the mass transfers, to reduce methanol crossover, reliable for high methanol concentration and it can increase the fuel cell performance. Methanol vapor can be delivered to the anode by using a pervaporation membrane, heating the liquid methanol or another method that compatible. Therefore, this paper is a review on vapor feed DMFC as a better energy source than liquid feed DMFC, the pervaporation membrane used to vaporize methanol feed from the reservoir and its applications in vapor feed DMFC

  19. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, N. F. I.; Hasran, U. A.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell.

  20. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, N F I; Hasran, U A; Kamarudin, S K

    2015-01-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell. (paper)

  1. The Direct Methanol Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Until the early 1990's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

  2. Biological methanol production by immobilized Methylocella tundrae using simulated biohythane as a feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Singh, Raushan K; Kumar, Ashok; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Jeong, Seong Hun; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-10-01

    Biohythane may be used as an alternative feed for methanol production instead of costly pure methane. In this study, methanol production potential of Methylocella tundrae immobilized through covalent immobilization, adsorption, and encapsulation was evaluated. Cells covalently immobilized on groundnut shells and chitosan showed a relative methanol production potential of 83.9 and 91.6%, respectively, compared to that of free cells. The maximum methanol production by free cells and cells covalently immobilized on groundnut shells and chitosan was 6.73, 6.20, and 7.23mM, respectively, using simulated biohythane as a feed. Under repeated batch conditions of eight cycles, cells covalently immobilized on chitosan and groundnut shells, and cells encapsulated in sodium-alginate resulted in significantly higher cumulative methanol production of 37.76, 31.80, and 25.58mM, respectively, than free cells (18.57mM). This is the first report on immobilization of methanotrophs on groundnut shells and its application in methanol production using biohythane as a feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A vapor feed methanol microfluidic fuel cell with high fuel and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yifei; Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A microfluidic fuel cell with a vapor feed anode is investigated. • Its advantages include simpler design, direct usage of methanol and better performance. • The prototype achieves a peak power density of 55.4 mW cm −2 under room temperature. • The energy efficiency of 9.4% is much higher than its liquid feed counterpart. - Abstract: In this paper, a prototype of methanol microfluidic fuel cell with vapor feed anode configuration is proposed to improve the fuel and energy efficiency of the conventional liquid feed methanol microfluidic fuel cells. Peak power density of 55.4 mW cm −2 can be achieved with this prototype under room temperature, which is 30% higher than its conventional liquid feed counterpart. Moreover, an energy efficiency of 9.4% is achieved, which is 27.5 times higher than its liquid feed counterpart. This superiority on both cell performance and energy efficiency is directly benefitted from its vapor feed anode configuration, which alleviates the fuel crossover, eliminates the fuel depletion boundary layer, and avoids the bulk anolyte wastage. The tradeoff between cell performance and fuel utilization for conventional liquid feed microfluidic fuel cells is also evaded

  4. A quantitative study of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process of a Pichia pastoris Mut⁺/pAOX1-lacZ strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongxing; Jost, Laurent; Pirlot, Nathalie; Sassi, Hosni; Daukandt, Marc; Rodriguez, Christian; Fickers, Patrick

    2013-04-08

    One of the main challenges for heterologous protein production by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris at large-scale is related to its high oxygen demand. A promising solution is a co-feeding strategy based on a methanol/sorbitol mixture during the induction phase. Nonetheless, a deep understanding of the cellular physiology and the regulation of the AOX1 promoter, used to govern heterologous protein production, during this co-feeding strategy is still scarce. Transient continuous cultures with a dilution rate of 0.023 h(-1) at 25°C were performed to quantitatively assess the benefits of a methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process with a Mut+ strain in which the pAOX1-lacZ construct served as a reporter gene. Cell growth and metabolism, including O2 consumption together with CO2 and heat production were analyzed with regard to a linear change of methanol fraction in the mixed feeding media. In addition, the regulation of the promoter AOX1 was investigated by means of β-galactosidase measurements. Our results demonstrated that the cell-specific oxygen consumption (qO2) could be reduced by decreasing the methanol fraction in the feeding media. More interestingly, maximal β-galactosidase cell-specific activity (>7500 Miller unit) and thus, optimal pAOX1 induction, was achieved and maintained in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.75 C-mol/C-mol of methanol fraction. In addition, the qO2 was reduced by 30% at most in those conditions. Based on a simplified metabolic network, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed to quantify intracellular metabolic flux distributions during the transient continuous cultures, which further shed light on the advantages of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process. Finally, our observations were further validated in fed-batch cultures. This study brings quantitative insight into the co-feeding process, which provides valuable data for the control of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding, aiming at enhancing biomass and heterologous protein productivities

  5. A quantitative study of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process of a Pichia pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the main challenges for heterologous protein production by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris at large-scale is related to its high oxygen demand. A promising solution is a co-feeding strategy based on a methanol/sorbitol mixture during the induction phase. Nonetheless, a deep understanding of the cellular physiology and the regulation of the AOX1 promoter, used to govern heterologous protein production, during this co-feeding strategy is still scarce. Results Transient continuous cultures with a dilution rate of 0.023 h-1 at 25°C were performed to quantitatively assess the benefits of a methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process with a Mut+ strain in which the pAOX1-lacZ construct served as a reporter gene. Cell growth and metabolism, including O2 consumption together with CO2 and heat production were analyzed with regard to a linear change of methanol fraction in the mixed feeding media. In addition, the regulation of the promoter AOX1 was investigated by means of β-galactosidase measurements. Our results demonstrated that the cell-specific oxygen consumption (qO2) could be reduced by decreasing the methanol fraction in the feeding media. More interestingly, maximal β-galactosidase cell-specific activity (>7500 Miller unit) and thus, optimal pAOX1 induction, was achieved and maintained in the range of 0.45 ~ 0.75 C-mol/C-mol of methanol fraction. In addition, the qO2 was reduced by 30% at most in those conditions. Based on a simplified metabolic network, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was performed to quantify intracellular metabolic flux distributions during the transient continuous cultures, which further shed light on the advantages of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding process. Finally, our observations were further validated in fed-batch cultures. Conclusion This study brings quantitative insight into the co-feeding process, which provides valuable data for the control of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding, aiming at enhancing biomass and

  6. Co-feeding strategy to enhance phytase production in Pichia pastoris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental designs, the methanol/L-alanine co-feeding strategy and optimization of phytase production by P. pastoris supported by the optimum levels of variables and lower temperature expression produced high level of phytase activity which could be scaled up to produce phytase for food additives at industrial ...

  7. Effects of temperature and feed composition on catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether over {gamma}-alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freshteh Raoof; Majid Taghizadeh; Ali Eliassi; Fereydoon Yaripour [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran). Chemical Engineering Department

    2008-10-15

    Catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) is performed in an adiabatic fixed bed heterogeneous reactor by using acidic {gamma}-alumina. By changing the mean average temperature of the catalyst bed (or operating temperature of the reactor) from 233 up to 303{sup o}C, changes in methanol conversion were monitored. The results showed that the conversion of methanol strongly depended on the reactor operating temperature. Also, conversion of pure methanol and mixture of methanol and water versus time were studied and the effect of water on deactivation of the catalyst was investigated. The results revealed that when pure methanol was used as the process feed, the catalyst deactivation occurred very slowly. But, by adding water to the feed methanol, the deactivation of the {gamma}-alumina was increased very rapidly; so much that, by increasing water content to 20 weight percent by weight, the catalyst lost its activity by about 12.5-fold more than in the process with pure methanol. Finally, a temperature dependent model developed to predict pure methanol conversion to DME correlates reasonably well with experimental data. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anasontzis, George E; Salazar Penã, Margarita; Spadiut, Oliver; Brumer, Harry; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut+ strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:728–735, 2014 PMID:24493559

  9. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-09-01

    than milk yield. This approach requires that not only the amount of feed offered to each cow but also the composition of the feed vary according to the different nutrient needs of the cows. This review discusses the opportunities and pitfalls of milking and feeding cows in an AMS and summarizes different feeding strategies to maximize profits by managing the nutrition of the cows individually. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  11. Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose feed as function of the dilution rate near the critical specific growth rate (ì=0.25) is a bottleneck in industrial production, hence the need for more efficient feeding strategies. In this work novel feeding strategies have been generated and evaluated. For each feeding ...

  12. Antipredator behavior promotes diversification of feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledón-Rettig, Cris C; Pfennig, David W

    2012-07-01

    Animals often facultatively engage in less risky behavior when predators are present. Few studies, however, have investigated whether, or how, such predator-mediated behavior promotes diversification. Here, we ask whether tadpoles of the spadefoot toad Scaphiopus couchii have a diminished ability to utilize a potentially valuable resource--anostracan fairy shrimp--because of behavioral responses to predation risk imposed by carnivorous tadpoles of the genus Spea. Observations of a congener of Sc. couchii that occurs in allopatry with Spea, coupled with an ancestral character state reconstruction, revealed that Sc. couchii's ancestors likely consumed shrimp. By experimentally manipulating the presence of Spea carnivore-morph tadpoles in microcosms, we found that Sc. couchii reduce feeding and avoid areas where both Spea carnivores and shrimp occur. We hypothesize that the recurrent expression of such behaviors in sympatric populations of Sc. couchii led to the evolutionary fixation of a detritivorous feeding strategy, which is associated with a reduced risk of predation from Spea carnivores. Generally, predator-mediated behavior might play a key role in promoting diversification of feeding strategies.

  13. On the effect of operating conditions in liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells: A multiphysics modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Salaberri, Pablo A.; Vera, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    A multiphysics model for liquid-feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells is presented. The model accounts for two-dimensional (2D) across-the-channel anisotropic mass and charge transport in the anode and cathode Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs), including the effect of GDL assembly compression and electrical contact resistances at the Bipolar Plate (BPP) and membrane interfaces. A one-dimensional (1D) across-the-membrane model is used to describe local species diffusion through the microporous layers, methanol/water crossover, proton transport, and electrochemical reactions, thereby coupling both GDL sub-models. The 2D/1D model is extended to the third dimension and supplemented with 1D descriptions of the flow channels to yield a 3D/1D + 1D model that is successfully validated. A parametric study is then conducted on the 2D/1D model to examine the effect of operating conditions on cell performance. The results show that an optimum methanol concentration exists that maximizes power output due to the trade-off between anode polarization and cathode mixed overpotential. For fixed methanol concentration, cell performance is largely affected by the oxygen supply rate, cell temperature, and liquid/gas saturation levels. There is also an optimal GDL compression due to the trade-off between ohmic and concentration losses, which strongly depends on BPP material and, more weakly, on the actual operating conditions. - Highlights: • A multiphysics model for liquid-feed DMFCs is presented. • GDL anisotropic transport, assembly compression, and ohmic contact resistances are considered. • The model is successfully validated against previous experimental data. • Optimum methanol concentrations, GDL compressions, and operating temperatures are reported. • Oxygen-starved conditions with spontaneous hydrogen evolution in the anode are also considered.

  14. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor: Co-feeding with methanol in a multi-zone fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadieraghi, Masoud; Wan Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aromatics yield improved with increasing H/C eff ratio of the feed. • HZSM-5 catalyst was an effective catalyst for in-situ bio-oil upgrading. • Biomass/methanol co-feeding attenuated the coke formation. • Methanol co-feeding enhanced the bio-oil quality. - Abstract: The in-situ catalytic upgrading of the biomass pyrolysis vapor and its mixture with methanol were conducted in a fixed bed multi-zone reactor. The steps were comprised; thermally converting the biomass in the pyrolysis reactor, passing its vapor in contact with the HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst in the presence of methanol vapor, and transformation of the resulting upgraded pyrolysis vapor into the liquid product. The biomass pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis vapor upgrading were performed at 500 °C. The highly valuable chemicals production was a function of the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio (H/C eff ) of the feed. This ratio was regulated by changing the relative amount of biomass and methanol. More aromatic hydrocarbons (50.02 wt.%) and less coke deposition on the catalyst (1.3 wt.%) were yielded from the biomass, when methanol was co-fed to the catalytic pyrolysis process (H/C eff = 1.35). In this contribution, the deposited coke on the catalyst was profoundly investigated. The coke, with high contents of oxo-aromatics and aromatic compounds, was generated by polymerization of biomass lignin derived components activated by catalyst acid sites

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant feeding strategies to prevent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changing feeding practices is beneficial, depending on context. Breastfeeding is dominant (less costly, more effective) in rural settings, whilst formula feeding is a dominant strategy in urban settings. Cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to proportion of women on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant mortality rate ...

  16. Economics of low nitrogen feeding strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Pineiro, C.; Hoek, Van der K.W.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock retains typically between 10 and 40 % of the protein-nitrogen in the animal feed in milk, egg and/or meat, depending also on animal productivity and management. The remaining 60–90 % of the nitrogen (N) is excreted in urine and faeces, and contributes to the emissions of ammonia (NH3) and

  17. Influence of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding rate on pAOX1 induction in a Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in bioreactor with limited oxygen transfer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carly, F; Niu, H; Delvigne, F; Fickers, P

    2016-04-01

    High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen limitation in bioreactor. In the literature, there is lack of report about AOX1 promoter regulation with regard to dissolved oxygen level (DO). Therefore, in this work, chemostat cultures were performed to investigate the cell growth, metabolism and regulation of the AOX1 promoter (pAOX1) regarding co-feeding rate of optimized methanol/sorbitol mixture (methanol fraction 0.60 C-mol/C-mol) using a P. pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain. The oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in bioreactor were kept in the range of typical values of large bioreactor, i.e., 4-8 g/(L h) if DO equals 30 % saturation or 5-10 g/(L h) if DO nears zero. For DO >0, an increase of the carbon fed led to an increase of pAOX1 induction. By contrast, when dissolved oxygen was completely depleted, methanol accumulated, causing a 30 % decrease of pAOX1 induction. However, this decrease is more likely to be lined to methanol accumulation than to low level of dissolved oxygen (sorbitol co-feeding allowed cells to adapt to oxygen transient limitations that often occur at industrial scale with reduced effect on pAOX1 induction. The optimal feeding rate tested here was 6.6 mmol C (DCW h)(-1) at an OTR of 8.28 g O2(L h)(-1) with over fivefold pAOX1 induction (probably directly associated with target protein productivity) compared with previous work.

  18. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  19. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Environmental and economic impacts of feeding strategies in Costa Rican dairy farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Iñamagua-Uyaguari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze feeding practices in Costa Rica’s dairy farms and their influence on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG. Methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and income over feed cost (IOFC were evaluated. This study was carried out at 104 dairy farms, which were distributed within a range of altitude from 1000 to 2400 meters above sea level. Using cluster analysis based on type of feed, grazing period, areas of forage and pastures; four feeding strategies were identified, which included different proportions of feed categories in daily rations. Emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent per kilo of fat and protein corrected milk (CO2eq/FPCM were higher for forage feeding strategies and lower for farms found in higher altitudes. Concentrate feed accounted for the higher cost in all feeding strategies, and represented more than 50% in the intensive concentrate based production system, whereas the costs of fertilizers were higher in pasture based feeding strategies. Income from milk sales was higher for the concentrate based feeding strategy. However, IOFC was the same for all feeding strategies in spite of the large differences in daily milk production. Feeding strategies influenced GHG emissions and feeding costs. Feeding strategies associated with lower GHG emissions within the farm were more dependent from external inputs.

  1. Methanol-Sensing Property Improvement of Meso structured Zinc Oxide Prepared by the Nano casting Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Q.; Zheng, W.T.; Wei, C.D.; Lin, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The specific structure and morphology often play a critical role in governing the excellent intrinsic properties of the compound semiconductor. Herein, meso structured ZnO with excellent methanol-sensing properties was prepared by a structure replication procedure through the incipient wetness technique. The investigation on the crystal structure and morphology of the resultant material shows that the product consists of hexagonally arranged meso pores and crystalline walls, and its structure is an ideal replication of CMK-3 template. Consequently, meso structured ZnO was fabricated as a gas sensor for methanol. The excellent methanol-sensing performance was achieved at a relatively low operating temperature of 120°C. In comparison with the non porous ZnO prepared through conventional coprecipitation approach, meso structured ZnO material shows the higher sensitivity and stability. Furthermore, it shows the discrimination between methanol and ethanol sensitivity, which makes it a good candidate in fabricating selective methanol sensor in practice

  2. Methanol-Sensing Property Improvement of Mesostructured Zinc Oxide Prepared by the Nanocasting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific structure and morphology often play a critical role in governing the excellent intrinsic properties of the compound semiconductor. Herein, mesostructured ZnO with excellent methanol-sensing properties was prepared by a structure replication procedure through the incipient wetness technique. The investigation on the crystal structure and morphology of the resultant material shows that the product consists of hexagonally arranged mesopores and crystalline walls, and its structure is an ideal replication of CMK-3 template. Consequently, mesostructured ZnO was fabricated as a gas sensor for methanol. The excellent methanol-sensing performance was achieved at a relatively low operating temperature of 120°C. In comparison with the nonporous ZnO prepared through conventional coprecipitation approach, mesostructured ZnO material shows the higher sensitivity and stability. Furthermore, it shows the discrimination between methanol and ethanol sensitivity, which makes it a good candidate in fabricating selective methanol sensor in practice.

  3. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  4. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  5. Sensor-less control of the methanol concentration of direct methanol fuel cells at varying ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new algorithm is proposed for the sensor-less control of methanol concentration. • Two different strategies are used depending on the ambient temperatures. • Energy efficiency of the DMFC system has been improved by using the new algorithm. - Abstract: A new version of an algorithm is used to control the methanol concentration in the feed of DMFC systems without using methanol sensors under varying ambient temperatures. The methanol concentration is controlled indirectly by controlling the temperature of the DMFC stack, which correlates well with the methanol concentration. Depending on the ambient temperature relative to a preset reference temperature, two different strategies are used to control the stack temperature: either reducing the cooling rate of the methanol solution passing through an anode-side heat exchanger; or, lowering the pumping rate of the pure methanol to the depleted feed solution. The feasibility of the algorithm is evaluated using a DMFC system that consists of a 200 W stack and the balance of plant (BOP). The DMFC system includes a sensor-less methanol controller that is operated using a LabView system as the central processing unit. The algorithm is experimentally confirmed to precisely control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature at target values under an environment of varying ambient temperatures

  6. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  7. Proposal and analysis of a polygeneration system for power and methanol based on natural gas and biomass as co-feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.Q.; Hong, H.; Jin, H.G.; Cai, R.X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Engineering Thermophysics

    2008-07-01

    Biomass is getting increasing attention as a potential source of renewable energy as a result of global issues such as sustainable energy and reduction of greenhouse gases. Biomass is an abundant feedstock containing mainly carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and volatile matter. The purpose of this paper was to propose a new biomass-natural gas based polygeneration system, with partial recycling unreacted syngas and without the shift process for methanol production and power generation. The paper identified the features of the proposed system and that determine the exergy ratio of chemical production and thermodynamic performance of the system. The paper provided an introduction to individual systems such as the natural gas to methanol system and biomass to methanol system. The paper also presented the suggested polygeneration system based on biomass and natural gas as co-feed. Processes that were described included syngas preparation; distillation process; and power generation. System evaluation criteria and performance were identified. It was concluded that bio-energy made the best utilization and overcame the disadvantages of the polygeneration system, partly taking the place of natural gas which is non-renewable. Bio-energy could reduce carbon dioxide emission for it is carbon neutrality. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. On the effects of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions: A 2D numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Vera, M.

    2015-07-01

    The influence of assembly compression on the performance of liquid-feed DMFCs under methanol-limiting conditions is explored by means of a 2D/1D multiphysics across-the-channel model. The numerical formulation incorporates a comprehensive 2D description of the anode GDL, including two-phase phenomena, non-uniform anisotropic transport properties, and electrical contact resistances at the GDL/BPP interface. GDL effective properties are evaluated using empirical data corresponding to Toray® carbon paper. A simplified but physically sound 1D description, locally coupled to the 2D anode GDL model, is adopted to describe transport processes in the MPLs, membrane and cathode GDL, whereas the catalyst layers are treated as infinitely thin surfaces. Good agreement is found between the numerical results and previous experimental data. The interplay between assembly compression, bipolar plate material, and channel configuration is also investigated. The results show that there is an optimum GDL compression ratio in terms of overall power density, the optimal compression level being strongly dependent on bipolar plate material. Beyond the optimum, the detrimental effect of compression is larger in non-parallel flow fields due to the additional reduction of methanol transported by under-rib convection. The results suggest that, under certain conditions, this transport mechanism could be more important than diffusion in the anode of liquid-feed DMFCs.

  9. In situ synthesis of nanocomposite membranes: comprehensive improvement strategy for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Siyuan; Xiu, Ruijie; Si, Jiangju; Lu, Shanfu; Yang, Meng; Xiang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    In situ synthesis is a powerful approach to control nanoparticle formation and consequently confers extraordinary properties upon composite membranes relative to conventional doping methods. Herein, uniform nanoparticles of cesium hydrogen salts of phosphotungstic acid (CsPW) are controllably synthesized in situ in Nafion to form CsPW–Nafion nanocomposite membranes with both improved proton conductivity and methanol-crossover suppression. A 101.3% increase of maximum power density has been achieved relative to pristine Nafion in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), indicating a potential pathway for large-scale fabrication of DMFC alternative membranes.

  10. Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day

  11. Nattokinase production: Medium components and feeding strategy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenjian Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of nutrients on nattokinase activity during the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis natto was investigated. The highest nattokinase activity of 587 U/mL was obtained in fermenter for a media consisting of yeast extract (6%, w/v, soy peptone (1.2%, w/v and glycerol (6%, w/v. The second order polynomial equation was fitted to the results by using central composite face design. The polynomial model fitted the experimental data well with R2 = 0.939 and R2(Adj = 0.861. In addition, contribution of fed-batch glycerol addition on the nattokinase production pathway was further investigated. Maximum nattokinase activity was resulted when 3% (w/v glycerol was added to the fermentation media during the cell growth phase. Results demonstrate 25 fold increase of nattokinase activity compared to the batch and not optimized culture. This study provides valuable data on the key nutrients and feeding strategy for further investigations and scale up of nattokinase production process.

  12. A review of control strategies for manipulating the feed rate in fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    . This review covers a range of strategies which have been employed to use the feed rate as a manipulated variable in a control strategy. The feed rate is chosen as the focus for this review, as it is seen that this variable may be used towards many different objectives depending on the process of interest...

  13. Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the enteric methane production in cattle. The possibilities are discussed to influence methane production by feeding measures and the use of feed additives, and by management measures. The possibilities are discussed against the background of Dutch cattle

  14. Feeding strategies for improving milk production from milch animals owned by small farmers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last decade the National Dairy Development Board of India has researched and developed feeding strategies for lactating cattle and buffaloes fed on basal forage diets. Depending on the season and climate, these diets are largely mature forage from tropical pastures or crop residues, which are generally low in protein and of relatively low digestibility. Supplementation of the rumen microbial ecosystem with essential nutrients by providing each animal with a urea/molasses block stimulates production by improving feed digestibility, intake and the balance of nutrients available from the feed. Supplementation with a bypass protein to supply the animal directly with additional amino acids stimulates the efficiency of feed utilization by reducing the heat increment of feeding. In hot environments this reduces heat stress and allows feed intake to be maintained. These feeding strategies are now being applied to a large number of milch animals in the herds of small farmers in India. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc.

  16. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  17. Food for rumination : developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary of thesis entitled: “Food for Rumination – Developing novel feeding strategies to improve the welfare of veal calves”, Laura Webb

    Veal calves are typically fed high levels of milk replacer supplemented with solid feed, which tends to contain a relatively small roughage component.

  18. Global asymptotic stability of a passive juggling strategy: A possible parts-feeding method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanson P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that a passive vibration strategy can bring a one-degree-of-freedom ball to a specified periodic trajectory from all initial conditions. We draw motivation from the problem of parts feeding in sensorless assembly. We provide simulation results suggesting the relevance of our analysis to the parts feeding problem.

  19. Use of qualitative feed restriction as a management strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of qualitative feed restriction through the use low-quality diet on finisher broiler performance, and to determine if sufficient compensatory growth can be achieved at that phase of broiler production. Seventytwo (72) 4 weeks old broiler chicks of Anak strain ...

  20. Ontogenetic food resource partitioning and feeding strategy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results revealed that juveniles fed more on immature and adult insects, plant materials, detritus and small crustaceans. Medium size categories fed more on crustaceans, frogs, tadpoles and piscivorous materials. The bigger fishes consumed mostly fish and crustaceans, and showed more specialization in feeding, followed ...

  1. Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... processes. The software also ensured the updating of the feed flow rate every 5 min for 24 h. The ... But, the exact location and amplitude ..... glucose effect in the Yeast Saccharomyces uvarum: involvement of short, and long ...

  2. NEW PROTEIN FEEDS AND STRATEGIES FOR FUTURE ANIF,IAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Key words: Prorein leeds, Animal production strategies) ... It has been suggested that the energy crisis of the seven- ... listic new protein strategy appears to be urgently re. quired. ..... N supervenes (Orskov, Fraser, Mc Donald & Smart, te74).

  3. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Pascale; Fry, Brian; Holyoake, Carly; Coughran, Douglas; Nicol, Steve; Bengtson Nash, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species.

  4. Isotopic Evidence of a Wide Spectrum of Feeding Strategies in Southern Hemisphere Humpback Whale Baleen Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Eisenmann

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Southern hemisphere humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae ecology assumes high-fidelity feeding on Antarctic krill in Antarctic waters during summer, followed by fasting during their annual migration to and from equatorial breeding grounds. An increase in the number of reported departures from this feeding/fasting model suggests that the current model may be oversimplified or, alternatively, undergoing contemporary change. Information about the feeding and fasting cycles of the two Australian breeding populations of humpback whales were obtained through stable isotope analysis of baleen plates from stranded adult individuals. Comparison of isotope profiles showed that individuals from the West Australian breeding population strongly adhered to the classical feeding model. By contrast, East Australian population individuals demonstrated greater heterogeneity in their feeding. On a spectrum from exclusive Antarctic feeding to exclusive feeding in temperate waters, three different strategies were assigned and discussed: classical feeders, supplemental feeders, and temperate zone feeders. Diversity in the inter-annual feeding strategies of humpback whales demonstrates the feeding plasticity of the species, but could also be indicative of changing dynamics within the Antarctic sea-ice ecosystem. This study presents the first investigation of trophodynamics in Southern hemisphere humpback whales derived from baleen plates, and further provides the first estimates of baleen plate elongation rates in the species.

  5. Potentials to differentiate milk composition by different feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slots, Tina; Butler, G.; Leifert, C.

    2009-01-01

    parameters. Production of milk based on feeding a high intake of cereals, pasture, and grass silage resulted in milk with a high concentration of alpha-linolenic acid (9.4 +/- 0.2 mg/kg of fatty acids), polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.66 +/- 0.07 mg/kg of fatty acids), and natural stereoisomer of alpha...... (27.5 +/- 0.3 mg/kg of fatty acids), and a high ratio between LA and alpha-linolenic acid (4.7 +/- 0.2). Comparing these 2 production systems with a very extensive nonorganic milk production system relying on pasture as almost the sole feed (95 +/- 4% dry matter intake), it was found...

  6. Generalist feeding strategies in Arctic freshwater fish: A mechanism for dealing with extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Sarah M.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2018-01-01

    Generalist feeding strategies are favoured in stressful or variable environments where flexibility in ecological traits is beneficial. Species that feed across multiple habitat types and trophic levels may impart stability on food webs through the use of readily available, alternative energy pools. In lakes, generalist fish species may take advantage of spatially and temporally variable prey by consuming both benthic and pelagic prey to meet their energy demands. Using stomach content and stable isotope analyses, we examined the feeding habits of fish species in Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) lakes to determine the prevalence of generalist feeding strategies as a mechanism for persistence in extreme environments (e.g. low productivity, extreme cold and short growing season). Generalist and flexible feeding strategies were evident in five common fish species. Fish fed on benthic and pelagic (or nektonic) prey and across trophic levels. Three species were clearly omnivorous, feeding on fish and their shared invertebrate prey. Dietary differences based on stomach content analysis often exceeded 70%, and overlap in dietary niches based on shared isotopic space varied from zero to 40%. Metrics of community‐wide trophic structure varied with the number and identity of species involved and on the dietary overlap and niche size of individual fishes. Accumulation of energy from shared carbon sources by Arctic fishes creates redundancy in food webs, increasing likely resistance to perturbations or stochastic events. Therefore, the generalist and omnivorous feeding strategies employed by ACP fish may maintain energy flow and food web stability in extreme environments.

  7. Structure-based feeding strategies: A key component of child nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maija B; Emley, Elizabeth; Pratt, Mercedes; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between structure, autonomy promotion, and control feeding strategies and parent-reported child diet. Participants (N = 497) were parents of children ages 2.5 to 7.5 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. This sample was a Caucasian (79%), educated sample (61% college graduates) with most reports from mothers (76%). Online survey including measures of parent feeding strategies and child dietary intake. Use of structure-based feeding strategies explained 21% of the variance in child consumption of added sugar, 12% of the variance in child intake of added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverages, and 16% of the variance in child consumption of fruits and vegetables. Higher unhealthy food availability and permissive feeding uniquely predicted higher child added sugar intake and child consumption of added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverages. Greater healthy food availability uniquely predicted higher child fruit and vegetable intake. and Future Directions: In Caucasian educated families, structure-based feeding strategies appear to be a relatively stronger correlate of parent-reported child intake of added sugar and fruits and vegetables as compared to autonomy promotion and control feeding strategies. Longitudinal research may be needed in order to reveal the relationships between autonomy promotion and control feeding strategies with child diet. If future studies have similar findings to this study's results, researchers may want to focus more heavily on investigating the impact of teaching parents stimulus-control techniques and feeding-related assertiveness skills on child dietary intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth L. Melbye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (unhealthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1 child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2 child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents’ major driving forces behind reducing children’s consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents’ provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  9. Evaluation and Management of Neonatal Dysphagia: Impact of Pharyngoesophageal Motility Studies and Multidisciplinary Feeding Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Stoner, Erin; Gupta, Alankar; Bates, D. Gregory; Fernandez, Soledad; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Linscheid, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Abnormal swallowing (dysphagia) among neonates is commonly evaluated using the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VSS). Radiological findings considered high risk for administration of oral feeding include nasopharyngeal reflux, laryngeal penetration, aspiration, or pooling. Our aims were to determine pharyngoesophageal motility correlates in neonates with dysphagia and the impact of multidisciplinary feeding strategy. Methods Twenty dysphagic neonates (mean gestation ± standard deviation [SD] = 30.9 ± 4.9 weeks; median 31.1 weeks; range = 23.7–38.6 weeks) with abnormal VSS results were evaluated at 49.9 ± 16.5 weeks (median 41.36 weeks) postmenstrual age. The subjects underwent a swallow-integrated pharyngoesophageal motility assessment of basal and adaptive swallowing reflexes using a micromanometry catheter and pneumohydraulic water perfusion system. Based on observations during the motility study, multidisciplinary feeding strategies were applied and included postural adaptation, sensory modification, hunger manipulation, and operant conditioning methods. To discriminate pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates between oral feeders and tube feeders, data were stratified based on the primary feeding method at discharge, oral feeding versus tube feeding. Results At discharge, 15 of 20 dysphagic neonates achieved oral feeding success, and the rest required chronic tube feeding. Pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates were significantly different (P dysphagia or its consequences. Manometry may be a better predictor than VSS in identifying patients who are likely to succeed in vigorous intervention programs. PMID:19179881

  10. Model-Based Nutrient Feeding Strategies for the Increased Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes latus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2017-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers which are considered as an effective alternative for conventional plastics due to their mechanical properties similar to the latter. However, the widespread use of these polymers is still hampered due to their higher cost of production as compared to plastics. The production cost could be overcome by obtaining high yields and productivity. The goal of the present research was to enhance the yield of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) with the help of two simple fed-batch cultivation strategies. In the present study, average batch kinetic and substrate limitation/inhibition study data of Alcaligenes latus was used for the development of PHB model which was then adopted for designing various off-line nutrient feeding strategies to enhance PHB accumulation. The predictive ability of the model was validated by experimental implementation of two fed-batch strategies. One such dynamic strategy of fed-batch cultivation under pseudo-steady state with respect to nitrogen and simultaneous carbon feeding strategy resulted in significantly high biomass and PHB concentration of 39.17 g/L and 29.64 g/L, respectively. This feeding strategy demonstrated a high PHB productivity and PHB content of 0.6 g/L h and 75%, respectively, which were remarkably high in comparison to batch cultivation. The mathematical model can also be employed for designing various other nutrient feeding strategies.

  11. Development of methanol evaporation plate to reduce methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiming

    This research focuses on methanol crossover reduction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) through separating the methanol vapor from its liquid phase and feeding the vapor passively at low temperature range. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by using commercial available membrane with different thickness at different anode catalyst loading levels, and tested under the operating conditions below 100°C in cell temperature and cathode exit open to ambient pressure. Liquid methanol transport from the anode through the membrane into cathode ("methanol crossover") is identified as one of the major efficiency losses in a DMFC. It is known that the methanol crossover rate in the vapor phase is much lower than in liquid phase. Vapor feed can be achieved by heating the liquid methanol to elevated temperatures (>100°C), but other issues limit the performance of the cell when operating above 100°C. High temperature membranes and much more active cathode catalyst structures are required, and a complex temperature control system must be employed. However, methanol vapor feed can also occur at a lower temperature range (evaporation through a porous body. The methanol crossover with this vapor feed mode is lower compared with the direct liquid methanol feed. A new method of using a methanol evaporation plate (MEP) to separate the vapor from its liquid phase to reduce the liquid methanol crossover at low temperature range is developed. A MEP plays the roles of liquid/vapor methanol phase separation and evaporation in a DMFC. The goal of this study is to develop a MEP with the proper properties to achieve high methanol phase separation efficiency and fast methanol evaporation rate over a wide range of temperature, i.e., from room temperature up to near boiling temperature (100°C). MEP materials were selected and characterized. MEPs made from three different types were tested extensively with different MEA and porous back layer configurations. The benefits of

  12. How social factors and behavioural strategies affect feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Iris J M M; de Boer, Imke J M; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Bokkers, Eddie A M

    2018-04-26

    Animals living in groups compete for food resources and face food conflicts. These conflicts are affected by social factors (e.g. competition level) and behavioural strategies (e.g. avoidance). This study aimed to deepen our understanding of the complex interactions between social factors and behavioural strategies affecting feeding and social interaction patterns in animals. We focused on group-housed growing pigs, Sus scrofa, which typically face conflicts around the feeder, and of which patterns in various competitive environments (i.e. pig:feeder ratio) have been documented soundly. An agent-based model was developed to explore how interactions among social factors and behavioural strategies can affect various feeding and social interaction patterns differently under competitive situations. Model results show that pig and diet characteristics interact with group size and affect daily feeding patterns (e.g. feed intake and feeding time) and conflicts around the feeder. The level of competition can cause a turning point in feeding and social interaction patterns. Beyond a certain point of competition, meal-based (e.g. meal frequency) and social interaction patterns (e.g. displacements) are determined mainly by behavioural strategies. The average daily feeding time can be used to predict the group size at which this turning point occurs. Under the model's assumptions, social facilitation was relatively unimportant in the causation of behavioural patterns in pigs. To validate our model, simulated patterns were compared with empirical patterns in conventionally housed pigs. Similarities between empirical and model patterns support the model results. Our model can be used as a tool in further research for studying the effects of social factors and group dynamics on individual variation in feeding and social interaction patterns in pigs, as well as in other animal species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective sampling strategy to detect food and feed contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Yamine; Fels, van der Ine

    2018-01-01

    Sampling plans for food safety hazards are aimed to be used to determine whether a lot of food is contaminated (with microbiological or chemical hazards) or not. One of the components of sampling plans is the sampling strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three

  14. Heat Stress and feeding strategies in meat-type chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syafwan, W.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Heat stress can induce hyperthermia in poultry. A reduction in heat load can be achieved by increasing the possibilities for dissipation, decreasing the level of heat production or by changing the thermal production pattern within a day. Strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress can

  15. Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J. [Group Animal Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bannink, A.; Zom, R. [Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), notably of methane (CH4), by domestic animals and possible ways of abatement have been the subject of many international studies in recent years. From all emission sources of CH4, agriculture is by far the most important source in The Netherlands. Several techniques to measure CH4 losses from farm animals exist. Most widely used among them are respiration calorimetric chambers and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas. Also, there are several ways to express CH4 losses. The most widely used way is to express it as % of GEI. A less popular, but for dairy cows interesting way to express CH4 losses is as gram (or litre) per kg desired product, hence g CH4/kg of milk. Some years ago a series of research projects on the subject of CH4 losses from ruminants in The Netherlands were started, coordinated by the ROB-Agro research programme committee (www.robklimaat.nl). In a 2000 study the role that animal nutrition could play to alleviate the loss of CH4 from ruminant animals, notably from dairy cows, has been reviewed. Several Rob-Agro studies have been performed since and evaluated the effect of nutrition and feed additives on CH4 emission. Simultaneously, a research project, funded by the Dutch Commodity Board of Feedstuffs and the ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV), started at the end of 2002 aiming at the quantification of CH4 emission by dairy cows by applying an integrative modelling approach. The model developed was recently used to deliver estimates for the national emission of CH4 by cows. These estimates were used in the Dutch national inventory of emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture.

  16. Effect of a lucerne feeding strategy in the first week postpartum on feed intake and ketone body profiles in blood plasma, urine, and milk in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of a lucerne feeding strategy to postpartum transition dairy cows on feed intake and ketone body profiles in plasma, urine, and milk. At calving, 13 Holstein cows were assigned to one of two treatments: a control lactation diet or a lucerne haylage l...

  17. Ecomorphological adaptations in Collembola in relation to feeding strategies and microhabitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malcicka, Miriama; Berg, Matty P.; Ellers, Jacintha

    2017-01-01

    Some of the most important functional traits in animals are related to the potentially vast array of feeding strategies and microhabitat use. Correlated evolution of diet and habitat specialization with ecomorphological traits has been described in vertebrates, but such functional trait variation in

  18. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku e0187646. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17019 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diversity * feeding strategies * soil microfauna * Himalayan cold deserts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  20. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  1. Surgical strategy for giant pituitary adenoma based on evaluation of fine feeding system and angioarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ogawa, M.D., Ph.D.

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Major blood supply was different from the normal supply to the anterior pituitary gland and did not necessarily correspond to tumor shape and extension. Surgical strategy should be established based on the tumor feeding systems and hemodynamics in giant pituitary adenomas.

  2. Body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders: impact of feeding strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    Key words: broiler breeder, feeding strategies, body composition, reproduction, behavior

    Nowadays, welfare issues in broiler breeders associated with nutrition and reproductive characteristics, are becoming increasingly challenging. Due to genetic selection

  3. Implementation of Evolution Strategies (ES Algorithm to Optimization Lovebird Feed Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Mustika Rizki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lovebird current society, especially popular among bird lovers. Some people began to try to develop the cultivation of these birds. In the cultivation process to consider the composition of feed to produce a quality bird. Determining the feed is not easy because it must consider the cost and need for vitamin Lovebird. This problem can be solved by the algorithm Evolution Strategies (ES. Based on test results obtained optimal fitness value of 0.3125 using a population size of 100 and optimal fitness value of 0.3267 in the generation of 1400. 

  4. The assessment and the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources and coping strategies with feed scarcity in smallholder dairy farming in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert

    2017-06-01

    Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations. Results showed that 20 main feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into natural pastures, crop residues, green feeds, hay, agro-industrial by-products, concentrate mix, and non-conventional feeds. Overall, natural pasture (mean rank = 0.453), non-conventional feeds (0.307), cut green feeds (0.086), conserved hay (0.076), crop residues (0.049), and concentrate feeds (0.029) were ranked as the main feed resources in decreasing order of importance. Natural pasture grazing (92.2% of the respondents), hay (35.6%), and green feeds (29.4%) were the most important conventional basal feeds used. Wheat bran (11.7% of the respondents) followed by commercial concentrate mix (9.4%), Noug seedcake (8.3%), grain (7.8%), and molasses (6.1%) were the concentrate supplements used. Overall, bulule-flour mill leftovers (67.2% of the farmers), bean and pea hulls (57.2%) and atella-local brew by-product (37.2%), enset (Ensete ventricosum, 34.4%), and sugarcane top (32.2%) were the non-conventional feeds available and used during feed scarcity. Barley and teff (Eragrostis teff) straws and maize and sorghum stovers were the main crop residues used in the dry seasons. Overall, 73.9, 12.2, 12.2, and 1.7% of the respondents practiced free grazing, zero grazing, semi-zero, and a combination of zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Over 84% of the respondents in the dry season and 50% in

  5. An in-situ nano-scale swelling-filling strategy to improve overall performance of Nafion membrane for direct methanol fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Kun; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Liying; Xu, Guoxiao; Xu, Sen; Ma, Liang; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-11-01

    A novel in-situ nano-scale swelling-filling (SF) strategy is proposed to modify commercial Nafion membranes for performance enhancement of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). A Nafion membrane was filled in-situ with proton conductive macromolecules (PCMs) in the swelling process of a Nafion membrane in a PCM solution. As a result, both proton conductivity and methanol-permeation resistivity of the SF-treated Naifion membrane was substantially improved with the selectivity nearly doubled compared to the original Nafion membrane. The mechanical strength of the optimal SF treated Nafion membrane was also enforced due to the strong interaction between the PCM fillers and the Nafion molecular chains. As a result, a DMFC equipped with the SF-treated membrane yielded a 33% higher maximum power density than that offered by the DMFC with the original Nafion membrane.

  6. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  7. Performance of crossbred heifers in different step-down waste milk-feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Juliana Mergh; Lima, Juliana Aparecida Mello; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Saturnino, Helton Mattana; Reis, Ronaldo Braga; Barbosa, Fabiano Alvim; de Azevedo, Rafael Alves; Sá Fortes, Robson Vilela; Coelho, Sandra Gesteira

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consumption, performance, feed efficiency, glucose concentration, and the cost per kilogram of weight gain of crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n = 33) subjected to one of the three waste milk step-down strategies: 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T1), 6L-45d/4L-60d/2L-90d (T2), and 8L-30d/6L-60d/3L-90d (T3). Heifers were weaned at the age of 91 days. Water and starter were provided ad libitum. The average waste milk intake was higher in T3 than in T1 and T2 strategies until 30 days and between 60 and 90 days. The starter intake did not differ among the strategies until 45 days, but it was higher in strategy T1 than in strategy T3 between 60 and 90 days. The waste milk step-down strategy did not influence the total dry matter intake, average daily gain, body weight, and feed efficiency. Glucose concentrations in plasma varied within a range that could be considered normal and were similar among the treatments. The average cost per kilogram of weight gain was the lowest in strategy T1 (US$3.0) compared to that in the other strategies (T2, US$3.2, and T3, US$3.6). The 6L-30d/4L-60d/2L-90d waste milk step-down strategy was the most effective, since it increased the starter intake, led to normal glucose concentrations in plasma, and caused similar weight gain compared with the other strategies; however, it had a lower cost per kilogram.

  8. Improving fermented quality of cider vinegar via rational nutrient feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Dong, Die; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole

    2017-06-01

    This work aimed to find a rational nutrient feeding strategy for cider vinegar fermentation based on adequate information on the nutritional requirement of acetic acid bacteria. Through single nutrient lack experiment assay, necessary nutrient recipe for Acetobacter pasteurianus CICIM B7003 in acetous fermentation was confirmed. Compounds from the essential nutrient recipe were tested further to find out the key substrates significantly influencing cider vinegar fermentation. The findings showed that aspartate, glutamate, proline and tryptophan should be considered in detail for optimizing nutritional composition of cider. Finally, a nutrient feeding strategy that simultaneously adds proline, glutamate, aspartate and tryptophan to form final concentrations of 0.02g/L, 0.03g/L, 0.01g/L and 0.005g/L in cider was achieved by orthogonal experiment design. Comparing to the original fermentation, the yield of acetic acid from alcohol reached 93.3% and the concentration of most volatile flavor compounds increased with the rational nutrient feeding strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eCarrillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Bats with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae.

  10. Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Araujo, Mario; Taş, Neslihan; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J.; Gaona, Osiris; Schondube, Jorge E.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Falcón, Luisa I.

    2015-01-01

    The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Bats with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae. PMID:26042099

  11. Optimization of L: -methionine feeding strategy for improving S-adenosyl-L: -methionine production by methionine adenosyltransferase overexpressed Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Qian, Jiangchao; Chu, Ju; Wang, Yonghong; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2009-07-01

    The recombinant Pichia pastoris harboring an improved methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) shuffled gene was employed to biosynthesize S-adenosyl-L: -methionine (SAM). Two L: -methionine (L: -Met) addition strategies were used to supply the precursor: the batch addition strategy (L: -Met was added separately at three time points) and the continuous feeding strategies (L: -Met was fed continuously at the rate of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 g l(-1) h(-1), respectively). SAM accumulation, L: -Met conversion rate, and SAM productivity with the continuous feeding strategies were all improved over the batch addition strategy, which reached 8.46 +/- 0.31 g l(-1), 41.7 +/- 1.4%, and 0.18 +/- 0.01 g l(-1) h(-1) with the best continuous feeding strategy (0.2 g l(-1) h(-1)), respectively. The bottleneck for SAM production with the low L: -Met feeding rate (0.1 g L(-1) h(-1)) was the insufficient L: -Met supply. The analysis of the key enzyme activities indicated that the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolytic pathway were reduced with the increasing L: -Met feeding rate, which decreased the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. The MAT activity also decreased as the L: -Met feeding rate rose. The reduced ATP synthesis and MAT activity were probably the reason for the low SAM accumulation when the L: -Met feeding rate reached 0.5 g l(-1) h(-1).

  12. A Feeding Strategy in Inner L-Shape Ring Hot Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the inner L-shape ring polling process with a closed die structure (ILRRCDS on the top and bottom of the driven roll stable, at first, this paper established the mathematical model for ILRRCDS. Then, the plastic penetration and biting-in conditions for ILRRCDS were deduced based on plain ring rolling theory. Moreover, a feeding strategy that can realize a constant growth of the ring’s outer radius was proposed and the reasonable value ranges of the feed rate of the mandrel were determined. The numerical simulation model for ILRRCDS is established based on ABAQUS software. Finally, the equivalent plastic strain (PEEQ and temperature distributions of rolled ring were obtained. The results indicated that the proposed feeding strategy can realize a stable ILRRCDS. At the end of ILRRCDS, the PEEQ at the inner radius surface of the ring is maximum, the PEEQ at the outer radius surface of the ring takes the second place, and the PEEQ at the middle part of ring is minimum. With the increase of rolling time, the higher temperature zone of the rolled ring gradually moves from the center part of the ring to the “inner corner zone” of the ring.

  13. Carers' experiences of home enteral feeding: A survey exploring medicines administration challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaeed, D; Furniss, D; Blandford, A; Smith, F; Orlu, M

    2018-06-01

    The use of enteral tube feeding at home is becoming more widespread, with patients ranging in age and diseases. Dysphagia and swallowing difficulties can compromise nutritional intake and the administration of oral medications, affecting therapeutic outcomes negatively. Carers' experiences of medicines administration and medicines optimization have not been explored fully. The objectives of this study were to identify issues carers experience in medicines administration; the strategies they have developed to cope; and suggestions to improve the medicines administration process. An online survey was promoted nationally; 42 carers completed it. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied, as well as thematic analysis of open-ended responses. Results were compared against the 4 principles of medicines optimization. 93% of respondents administered medications with enteral feeding tubes, but only 62% had received advice from healthcare professionals and only 8% had received written information on how to do so. Responses identified 5 medicines administration issues experienced by carers; 4 strategies they developed to cope; and 3 main areas of suggestions to improve medicines administration via enteral feeding at home. The 4 principles of medicines optimization have not previously been applied to enteral feeding. We present a novel account of carers' experiences, for example coping with ill-suited formulations and a lack of training and support, which should inform better practice (Principle 1). Carers sometimes experience suboptimal choice of medicines (Principle 2). Carers' practices are not always well-informed and may affect therapeutic outcomes and safety (Principle 3). There is scope for improvement in carer training, education and support to better support medicines optimization (Principle 4). © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost

  15. Review: Feed demand landscape and implications of food-not feed strategy for food security and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, H P S

    2017-12-04

    The food-feed competition is one of the complex challenges, and so are the ongoing climate change, land degradation and water shortage for realizing sustainable food production systems. By 2050 the global demand for animal products is projected to increase by 60% to 70%, and developing countries will have a lion's share in this increase. Currently, ~800 million tonnes of cereals (one-third of total cereal production) are used in animal feed and by 2050 it is projected to be over 1.1 billion tonnes. Most of the increase in feed demand will be in developing countries, which already face many food security challenges. Additional feed required for the projected increased demand of animal products, if met through food grains, will further exacerbate the food insecurity in these countries. Furthermore, globally, the production, processing and transport of feed account for 45% of the greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. This paper presents approaches for addressing these challenges in quest for making livestock sector more sustainable. The use of novel human-inedible feed resources such as insect meals, leaf meals, protein isolates, single cell protein produced using waste streams, protein hydrolysates, spineless cactus, algae, co-products of the biofuel industry, food wastes among others, has enormous prospects. Efficient use of grasslands also offers possibilities for increasing carbon sequestration, land reclamation and livestock productivity. Opportunities also exist for decreasing feed wastages by simple and well proven practices such as use of appropriate troughs, increase in efficiency of harvesting crop residues and their conversion to complete feeds especially in the form of densified feed blocks or pellets, feeding as per the nutrient requirements, among others. Available evidence have been presented to substantiate arguments that: (a) for successful and sustained adoption of a feed technology, participation of the private sector and a sound

  16. Effects of milk replacer feeding strategies on performance, ruminal development, and metabolism of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Carvalho, A U; Ferreira, C S; Franzoni, A P S; Lima, J A M; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2014-02-01

    Performance, rumen development, and metabolism of male Holstein calves (n=54) were evaluated according to 1 of 3 liquid feeding strategies: 4 L of milk replacer (MR)/d until 60 d old (4 L-60 d), 6L of MR/d until 29 d old and 4 L/d from 30 to 60 d (6L-29 d/4 L-60 d), or 6L of MR/day until 60 d old (60 d-6L). Water and starter were provided ad libitum. Intakes of MR and starter were monitored daily and body weight (BW) weekly. Blood samples for glucose and insulin concentrations and ruminal content samples for volatile fatty acids and ruminal ammonia concentrations were collected at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 d of age. Six calves on each treatment were euthanized at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Empty weights of forestomach and abomasum, papillae length, and mitotic index were measured. Average MR intake/d (expressed as a percent of BW) was greater for calves receiving 6L/d than for those receiving 4 L/d until 30 d of age. Calves on the 6 L-29 d/4 L-60 d had the smallest MR intake from 30 to 60 d old, followed by the 4 L-60 d and 6L-60 d treatments. Starter intake (kg of dry matter/day) did not differ between groups. It increased from 0.065 kg/d in the first month to 0.386 kg/d in the second month, and to 2.065 kg/d after weaning. Weight gain was greater for calves fed more MR in the first month, but no difference was observed during the second month. After weaning, 6L-60 d calves had greater rate of weight gain than others and were heavier at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Weight of empty forestomachs, ruminal pH, and ammoniac nitrogen concentration were not different among groups. Propionate concentration was lower for 6 L-60 d calves, but acetate and butyrate concentrations were not influenced by MR feeding strategy. Calves fed more MR until d 30 had greater ruminal epithelium mitotic index. The different MR feeding strategies did not influence papillae length or ruminal epithelium thickness. Lesions such as ruminal parakeratosis or hyperkeratosis were not observed. The MR

  17. [Research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Sheng; Su, Shu-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zeng, Jian-Guo

    2017-09-01

    The global antimicrobial resistance has been a big challenge to the human health for years. It has to make balance between the safety of animal products and the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry. Any methods that can minimize or even phase out the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry should be encouraged. We herein describe the research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from the side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization. Killing two birds with one stone-besides the major purposes, the rational utilization of non-medicinal parts and wastes of industrialization of Chinese herbal medicines is also achieved under the proposed strategies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Yeast biomass production: a new approach in glucose-limited feeding strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Durão Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to implement experimentally a simple glucose-limited feeding strategy for yeast biomass production in a bubble column reactor based on a spreadsheet simulator suitable for industrial application. In biomass production process using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, one of the constraints is the strong tendency of these species to metabolize sugars anaerobically due to catabolite repression, leading to low values of biomass yield on substrate. The usual strategy to control this metabolic tendency is the use of a fed-batch process in which where the sugar source is fed incrementally and total sugar concentration in broth is maintained below a determined value. The simulator presented in this work was developed to control molasses feeding on the basis of a simple theoretical model in which has taken into account the nutritional growth needs of yeast cell and two input data: the theoretical specific growth rate and initial cell biomass. In experimental assay, a commercial baker's yeast strain and molasses as sugar source were used. Experimental results showed an overall biomass yield on substrate of 0.33, a biomass increase of 6.4 fold and a specific growth rate of 0.165 h-1 in contrast to the predicted value of 0.180 h-1 in the second stage simulation.

  19. Performance of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of central Mexico during the dry season under traditional feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando; Anaya-Ortega, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Prospero-Bernal, Fernando; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, small-scale dairy systems (SSDS) represent over 78 % of dairy farms and contribute with 37 % of national milk production; however, they face high feeding costs. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of SSDS during the dry season in terms of milk yields, milk composition and feeding costs under traditional feeding strategies, to identify areas of opportunity for improving their profitability. The information was collected from 22 SSDS every month during dry season. Feeds were classified in quality forages (QF), supplements (SU) and straws (ST). Two factors were identified: factor 1-a positive relationship among QF, SU, milk yield and ration cost and factor 2-represented straw usage. Four feeding strategies were identified: (1) low-cost feeding strategy; (2) home-grown feeding strategy; (3) high-cost feeding strategy; and (4) straw-based feeding strategy. There were differences (P  0.05) differences among feeding strategies for fat and protein contents in milk. It is concluded that to improve performance and profitability and enhance sustainability in SSDS, farmers should base feeding strategies on home-grown quality forages, as it was the case in group 2 which showed lower feeding cost and better milk yield. It is also recommended to increase the inclusion of quality forages like grazing pastures and maize silages during the dry season and to avoid the inclusion of straws.

  20. Recent Advances in High-Performance Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T. I.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Frank, H.; Surumpudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Kosek, J.; Cropley, C.; La Conti, A. B.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed, direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant.

  1. Effect of SBR feeding strategy and feed composition on the stability of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of a simulated textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, R D G; Ortigueira, J; Pinheiro, H M; Lourenço, N D

    2017-09-01

    Treatment of the highly polluting and variable textile industry wastewater using aerobic granular sludge (AGS) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) has been recently suggested. Aiming to develop this technology application, two feeding strategies were compared regarding the capacity of anaerobic-aerobic SBRs to deal with disturbances in the composition of the simulated textile wastewater feed. Both a statically fed, anaerobic-aerobic SBR and an anaerobic plug-flow fed, anaerobic-aerobic SBR could cope with shocks of high azo dye concentration and organic load, the overall chemical oxygen demand and color removal yields being rapidly restored to 80%. Yet, subsequent azo dye metabolite bioconversion was not observed, along the 315-day run. Moreover, switching from a starch-based substrate to acetate in the feed composition deteriorated AGS stability. Overall, the plug-flow fed SBR recovered more rapidly from the imposed disturbances. Further research is needed towards guaranteeing long-term AGS stability during the treatment of textile wastewater.

  2. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Devetter

    Full Text Available High-elevation cold deserts in Tibet and Himalaya are one of the most extreme environments. One consequence is that the diversity of macrofauna in this environment is often limited, and soil microorganisms have a more influential role in governing key surface and subsurface bioprocesses. High-elevation soil microfauna represent important components of cold ecosystems and dominant consumers of microbial communities. Still little is known about their diversity and distribution on the edge of their reproductive and metabolic abilities. In this study, we disentangle the impact of elevation and soil chemistry on diversity and distribution of rotifers, nematodes and tardigrades and their most frequent feeding strategies (microbial filter-feeders, bacterivores, fungivores, root-fungal feeders, omnivores along two contrasting altitudinal gradients in Indian NW Himalaya (Zanskar transect from 3805 to 4714 m a.s.l. and southwestern Tibet (Tso Moriri transect from 4477 to 6176 m a.s.l., using a combination of multivariate analysis, variation partitioning and generalized additive models. Zanskar transect had higher precipitation, soil moisture, organic matter and available nutrients than dry Tso Moriri transect. In total, 40 species of nematodes, 19 rotifers and 1 tardigrade were discovered. Species richness and total abundance of rotifers and nematodes showed mid-elevation peaks in both investigated transects. The optimum for rotifers was found at higher elevation than for nematodes. Diversity and distribution of soil microfauna was best explained by soil nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. More fertile soils hosted more diverse and abundant faunal communities. In Tso Moriri, bacterivores represented 60% of all nematodes, fungivores 35%, root-fungal feeders 1% and omnivores 3%. For Zanskar the respective proportions were 21%, 13%, 56% and 9%. Elevational optima of different feeding strategies occurred in Zanskar in one elevation zone (4400-4500 m

  3. Influence of dietary component manipulation and feed management strategies on growth and rumen development of weaned dairy heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Tana Shea

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed replacement heifers provide a central foundation for the continued success of the dairy industry. Emphasis on improving pre-weaned calf nutrition has predominated in the industry, but opportunities exist to improve post-weaning heifer nutrition and management. We aimed to evaluate common feed management strategies seen in the industry and their effects on growth, feed efficiency (G:F), and rumen development of calves from birth to 8 mo of age using pen- and individually-fed ani...

  4. Advanced operation strategy for feed-and-bleed operation in an OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Yoon, Ho Joon; Kim, Jaewhan; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced operating strategy covers all necessary conditions for F&B operation. • Advanced operating strategy identifies the urgency of F&B operation. • An advanced operating strategy for F&B operation is developed using a decision tree. • Human error probability is re-estimated based on a thermohydraulic analysis and K-HRA method. • An advanced operation strategy provides indications under various plant situations. - Abstract: When the secondary side is unavailable in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), heat from the core will accumulate in the primary side causing core damage. In this situation a heat removal mechanism called feed-and-bleed operation (F&B operation) must be used, which is a process of directly cooling the primary reactor cooling system (RCS). However, conventional operation strategy in emergency operating procedures (EOPs) does not cover all possible conditions to initiate F&B operation. If the EOP informs on the urgency of F&B operation, operators will be able to more clearly make decisions regarding F&B operation initiation. In order to cover all possible scenarios for F&B operation and systematically inform its urgency, an advanced operating strategy using a decision tree is developed in this study. The plant condition can be classified according to failure of secondary side, RCS pressure condition, injectable inventory to RCS, and remaining core inventory. RCS pressure, core level, and RCS temperature are representative indicators which provide information regarding the initiation of F&B operation. Indicators can be selected based on their detectability and quantification, and a decision tree is developed according to combinations of indicators. To estimate the effects of the advanced operation strategy, human error probability (HEP) of F&B operation is re-estimated based on a thermohydraulic analysis. The available time for operators to initiate F&B operation is also re-estimated to obtain more realistic data. This

  5. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  6. Optimization on cooperative feed strategy for radial–axial ring rolling process of Inco718 alloy by RSM and FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Xinglin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During radial–axial ring rolling process, cooperative strategy of the radial–axial feed is critical for dimensional accuracy and thermo mechanical parameters distribution of the formed ring. In order to improve the comprehensive quality of the ring parts, response surface method (RSM is employed for the first time to optimize the cooperative feed strategy for radial–axial ring rolling process by combining it with an improved and verified 3D coupled thermo-mechanical finite element model. The feed trajectory is put forward to describe cooperative relationship of the radial–axial feed and three variables are designed based on the feed trajectory. In order to achieve multi-objective optimization, four responses including thermo mechanical parameters distribution and rolling force are proposed. Based on the FEM results, RSM is used to establish a response model to depict the function relationship between the objective response and design variables. Through this approximate model, effects of different variables on ring rolling process are analyzed connectedly and optimal feed strategy is obtained by resorting to the optimal chart specific to a constraint condition.

  7. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced......, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected...... of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two...

  8. Investigation of nutrient feeding strategies in a countercurrent mixed-acid multi-staged fermentation: experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron Douglas; Lockman, Nur Ain; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-06-01

    Nutrients are essential for microbial growth and metabolism in mixed-culture acid fermentations. Understanding the influence of nutrient feeding strategies on fermentation performance is necessary for optimization. For a four-bottle fermentation train, five nutrient contacting patterns (single-point nutrient addition to fermentors F1, F2, F3, and F4 and multi-point parallel addition) were investigated. Compared to the traditional nutrient contacting method (all nutrients fed to F1), the near-optimal feeding strategies improved exit yield, culture yield, process yield, exit acetate-equivalent yield, conversion, and total acid productivity by approximately 31%, 39%, 46%, 31%, 100%, and 19%, respectively. There was no statistical improvement in total acid concentration. The traditional nutrient feeding strategy had the highest selectivity and acetate-equivalent selectivity. Total acid productivity depends on carbon-nitrogen ratio.

  9. Feeding strategies and resource partitioning among elasmobranchs and cephalopods in Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Maria; Rueda, Lucía; Quetglas, Antoni

    2017-10-01

    Cephalopods and elasmobranchs are important components of marine ecosystems, whereby knowing the ecological role they play in the structure and dynamics of trophic networks is paramount. With this aim, stomach contents and stable isotopes of the most abundant elasmobranch and cephalopod species (5 and 18 species, respectively) inhabiting deep-sea ecosystems from the western Mediterranean were analyzed. The predators investigated encompassed different taxonomic groups, such as rays and sharks within elasmobranchs, and squids, octopuses and cuttlefishes within cephalopods. Specifically, we investigated ontogenetic shifts in diet, feeding strategies and prey consumption, trophic structure and potential dietary overlap between and within both taxonomical groups. Stable isotope analysis revealed ontogenetic shifts in diet in three elasmobranch (rays and sharks) and two cephalopod (octopuses and squids) species. Isotopic data showed a contrasting food source gradient (δ13C), from pelagic (squids and cuttlefishes) to benthic (octopuses and elasmobranchs). Stomach data highlighted a great variety of trophic guilds which could be further aggregated into three broad categories: benthic, benthopelagic and pelagic feeders. The combination of both stomach content and stable isotope analyses revealed a clear food partitioning among species. Mesopelagic prey were found to be an important food resource for deep-sea elasmobranchs and cephalopods, which could be related to the strong oligotrophic conditions in the area. The observed differences in feeding strategies within cephalopods and elasmobranchs should be taken into account when defining functional groups in trophodynamic models from the western Mediterranean. Our results also revealed that cephalopods play a key role for the benthopelagic coupling, whereas demersal elasmobranchs contribute primarily to a one-way flux accumulating energy resources into deep-sea ecosystems.

  10. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    calanoids. The oldest stages of L. crocodilus and N. elongatus fed mostly on macrozooplankton and micronekton. There was high diet overlap among mesopelagic fish species and strong heterogeneity in diet composition at intraspecific level. Nevertheless, some species showed certain degree of segregation of food resources, determined by the developmental stage or spatial distribution, and positive selection towards particular prey items. The Chesson's electivity index showed that L. dofleini, N. elongatus, L. crocodilus and L. pusillus preyed selectively on euphausiids; B. glaciale was selective on the calanoid genus Pleuromamma, and C. maderensis preferred to feed on larvaceans in autumn. The two congeneric species of Hygophum consumed a high number of food items, but H. hygomii showed positive selection for euphausiids, whilst H. benoiti preferred small corycaeid copepods. Overall, the main trophic difference among mesopelagic fishes in the WM was observed between the small non-migratory species that do not evidence a diel rhythm, feeding during both day- and night-time on small zooplankton, and the largest-sized myctophids, which fed on meso- and macrozooplankton and, more occasionally, on small fishes. Mediterranean midwater fishes can be characterised by the adoption of mixed feeding strategies, with varying degrees of specialisation on different prey types that allow flexibility in a changeable environment.

  11. Evaluating random search strategies in three mammals from distinct feeding guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger-Méthé, Marie; Derocher, Andrew E; DeMars, Craig A; Plank, Michael J; Codling, Edward A; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    Searching allows animals to find food, mates, shelter and other resources essential for survival and reproduction and is thus among the most important activities performed by animals. Theory predicts that animals will use random search strategies in highly variable and unpredictable environments. Two prominent models have been suggested for animals searching in sparse and heterogeneous environments: (i) the Lévy walk and (ii) the composite correlated random walk (CCRW) and its associated area-restricted search behaviour. Until recently, it was difficult to differentiate between the movement patterns of these two strategies. Using a new method that assesses whether movement patterns are consistent with these two strategies and two other common random search strategies, we investigated the movement behaviour of three species inhabiting sparse northern environments: woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), barren-ground grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus). These three species vary widely in their diets and thus allow us to contrast the movement patterns of animals from different feeding guilds. Our results showed that although more traditional methods would have found evidence for the Lévy walk for some individuals, a comparison of the Lévy walk to CCRWs showed stronger support for the latter. While a CCRW was the best model for most individuals, there was a range of support for its absolute fit. A CCRW was sufficient to explain the movement of nearly half of herbivorous caribou and a quarter of omnivorous grizzly bears, but was insufficient to explain the movement of all carnivorous polar bears. Strong evidence for CCRW movement patterns suggests that many individuals may use a multiphasic movement strategy rather than one-behaviour strategies such as the Lévy walk. The fact that the best model was insufficient to describe the movement paths of many individuals suggests that some animals living in sparse environments may use

  12. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  13. METHANOL REMOVAL FROM METHANOL-WATER MIXTURE USING ACTIVATED SLUDGE, AIR STRIPPING AND ADSORPTION PROCESS: COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAM K. AL-DAWERY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research has been carried out in order to examine the removal of methanol from methanol-water mixtures using three different methods; activated sludge; activated carbon and air stripping. The results showed that the methanol was totally consumed by the bacteria as quickly as the feed entered the activated sludge vessel. Air stripping process has a limited ability for removing of methanol due to strong intermolecular forces between methanol and water; however, the results showed that the percentage of methanol removed using air pressure at 0.5 bar was higher than that of using air pressure of 0.25 bar. Removal of methanol from the mixture with a methanol content of 5% using activated carbon was not successful due to the limited capacity of the of the activated carbon. Thus, the activated sludge process can be considered as the most suitable process for the treatment of methanol-water mixtures.

  14. Feeding and management strategies for rural poultry production in Central Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goromela, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Central Tanzania, rural poultry, scavengeable feed resources, nutrient composition, crop
    contents, season, farming system, chemical composition, supplementary feeding, weaning, egg production,
    growth rate, survival rate, laying management, indigenous chickens

    The

  15. 1995 world methanol conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The 20 papers contained in this volume deal with the global markets for methanol, the production of MTBE, integrating methanol production into a coal-to-SNG complex, production of methanol from natural gas, catalysts for methanol production from various synthesis gases, combined cycle power plants using methanol as fuel, and economics of the methanol industry. All papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base

  16. The Advantage and Limitation of Agriculture Byproduct and Feeding Strategy Based on Agriculture Byproduct for Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed supply is getting limited since the use of land for forages has been replaced by building industries big plantation, agriculture. Sustainable integration between animal and food crop and plantation is efficient and gives advantage for both. Rice, cassava soybean, groundnut, palm oil, coconut, coffee, cocoa and sugar cane are food crop and plantation which their byproducts are generally used or modified/processed for ruminant production. This paper describes optimization on the use of these byproducts to decrease feed cost without ignoring the feed quality. These byproducts have special characteristic and limitation with fluctuated price. Their nutritive values vary and they can be grouped into fiber, fiber-energy, fiber-protein, protein or energy sources. Therefore, special strategy for each location and purpose of livestock industry is required to get an efficient and optimal feed composition.

  17. Evolution of risk assessment strategies for food and feed uses of stacked GM events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine; Brune, Phil; McDonald, Justin; Nesbitt, Monique; Sauve, Alaina; Storck-Weyhermueller, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Data requirements are not harmonized globally for the regulation of food and feed derived from stacked genetically modified (GM) events, produced by combining individual GM events through conventional breeding. The data required by some regulatory agencies have increased despite the absence of substantiated adverse effects to animals or humans from the consumption of GM crops. Data from studies conducted over a 15-year period for several stacked GM event maize (Zea mays L.) products (Bt11 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR604, MIR604 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR604 ×  GA21, Bt11 ×  MIR162 ×  GA21 and Bt11 ×  MIR604 ×  MIR162 ×  GA21), together with their component single events, are presented. These data provide evidence that no substantial changes in composition, protein expression or insert stability have occurred after combining the single events through conventional breeding. An alternative food and feed risk assessment strategy for stacked GM events is suggested based on a problem formulation approach that utilizes (i) the outcome of the single event risk assessments, and (ii) the potential for interactions in the stack, based on an understanding of the mode of action of the transgenes and their products. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Productive, economic and environmental effects of optimised feeding strategies in small-scale dairy farms in the Highlands of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Velarde-Guillén

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since most dairy production in developing countries comes from small farms, there is scope to reduce their contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In the highlands of Mexico, the limitations in these systems are high feeding costs. This paper assessed the production, economics and estimated methane emissions from traditional feeding strategies (TFS in 22 small-scale dairy farms compared to optimised feeding strategies (OFS evaluated through on-farm research in eight participating farms in the dry (DS and in the rainy (RS seasons. Results were analysed with a completely randomized design. There were no differences (P>0.05 in milk fat, body condition score (BCS or live weight between TFS and OFS, but there was higher (P

  19. Compensatory growth feeding strategy does not overcome negative effects on growth and carcass composition of low birth weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J G; Bee, G

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of low birth weight pigs. Forty-two Swiss Large White barrows from 21 litters were selected at weaning and categorized into either being light (L; >0.8 and 1.7 kg) birth weight pigs. From 27.8 kg BW, pigs were assigned within birth weight group to one of three feeding groups: AA: ad libitum access to the grower and finisher diet, RR: restricted access to the grower and finisher diet or RA: restricted access to the grower diet and ad libitum access to the finisher diet. At slaughter, the longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (STM) muscles were removed from the right side of the carcass. Weight, girth and length of the STM and the LM area were determined after muscle excision. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were assessed. Using mATPase histochemistry, myofibre size and myofibre type distribution were determined in the LM and STM. Because of longer days on feed, total feed intake was greater (Pgrowth period, RA barrows grew faster (PGrowth efficiency did not differ between RA and RR barrows but was greater (Pgrowth feeding strategy was inadequate in overcoming the disadvantages of low birth weight.

  20. Effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic glucose and amino acid metabolism in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    assigned to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: a glucogenic diet (GLCG) based on sodium hydroxide treated wheat grain (56.5% of diet dry matter); a ketogenic diet (KETO) based on fodder beets (40.5% of diet dry matter); or an alfalfa-glucogenic strategy (ALF-GLCG) supplying 100% alfalfa (Medicago sativa L......Nine periparturient Holstein cows catheterized in major splanchnic vessels were used in a complete randomized design with repeated measurements to investigate effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic metabolism of glucose and amino acids. At parturition, cows were.......) haylage at the day of parturition, followed by a 6-d linear shift to the GLCG diet. Samples were obtained 14 d before expected parturition as well as at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk (DIM). The net portal release of glucose was greatest with GLCG, reflecting the higher intake of ruminal escape starch with GLCG...

  1. A self-supported 40W direct methanol fuel cell system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and maintains a constant methanol-feed concentration with thermal management in the system. ... During the operation, methanol ... catalyst poisoning.5–8 Accordingly, it is necessary to consider the operational characteristics of all the con-.

  2. Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic performance model was integrated with a model that optimised culling and insemination policies in dairy herds using dynamic programming. The performance model estimated daily feed intake, milk yield and body weight change of dairy cows on the basis of availability and quality of feed and

  3. Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A N T R; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L; Wilfart, A; Dourmad, J-Y

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading. Impacts were calculated at the farm gate, and the functional unit considered was 1 kg of BW gain over the fattening period. The performances of pigs were simulated for each scenario using the InraPorc population model (2,000 pigs per scenario considering between-animal variability). The LCA calculations were performed for each pig according to its own performance and excretion, and the results were subjected to variance analysis. The results indicate that for some impacts there are clear interactions between the effects of the feeding program, the origin of soybean, and the location of production. For climate change, interest in phase feeding and incorporation of crystalline AA (CAA) is limited and even counterproductive in Brazil with soybeans from the South (without deforestation), whereas they appear to be efficient strategies with soybeans from the Center West (with deforestation), especially in France. Rather similar effects, as those for climate change, were observed for cumulative energy demand. Conversely, potential eutrophication and acidification impacts were reduced by phase feeding and CAA addition in a rather similar way in all situations. Individual daily feeding, the only strategy that took into account between-animal variability, was the most effective approach for reducing the life cycle impact of pig

  4. Co-feeding strategy to enhance phytase production in Pichia pastoris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... phytase was induced by methanol/L-Alanine (0.5% for first day and 1%, 0.3925 and 0.7185 g/L/h, respectively for subsequent days till 7 days). Due to the heavy glycol- sylation, the expressed phytase was found to have mole- cular sizes of around 120, 116, and 66 kDa and this showed that phytase is a ...

  5. Spring diet and feeding strategy of the European sprat Sprattus sprattus (L., 1758 from the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayhan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the spring diet composition and feeding strategy of the European sprat, Sprattus sprattus. Diet composition of European sprat was investigated for the first time in the central Black Sea coast of Turkey. Examined of the 115 specimens (6 - 9.1 cm total length of stomach, 12 (10.4% had emty. Diet analysis was described based on gravimetric percentages (W%, frequency of abundance (N%, frequency of occurrence (%F and relative importance index (IRI%. Feeding strategy was analyzed and graphically (Costello represented, considering the frequency of abundance (N% and frequency of occurrence (%F indexes and grouping prey into higher taxonomic categories. Twenty species were identified, belonging to four prey groups: Polychaeta, Crustacea, Mollusca and Chaetognatha. Finally copepods proved to be the most important food item considering the above-cited indexes. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. At least seven copepod species were identified, where Calanus euxinus appeared all round with %IRI≥50. Also results of feeding strategy analyses revealed a trophic specialization toward a single prey.

  6. Turbidity-induced changes in feeding strategies of fish in estuaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-11-12

    Nov 12, 1991 ... in hatching success (Rosenthal & Alderdice 1976), egg sur- .... ther turbidity reduces feeding rate and thirdly whether turbi- dity reduces the reactive ...... composition and suspended sediment on insect predation by the torrent ...

  7. Feeding strategies for improving ruminant productivity in areas of fluctuating nutrient supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This publication contains the results of a five-year Coordinated Research Programme aimed at assisting animal nutritionists in tropical and subtropical developing countries in their efforts to develop feeding systems for ruminant livestock. The feeds available have been studied, as have ways in which these may be manipulated to improve the efficiency with which they are used by animals for productive processes. The sixteen papers presented at the final research Coordination Meeting are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) feeding strategies at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar: an indirect sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefczek, Timothy M; Farris, Zach J; Wright, Patricia C

    2012-01-01

    In this research, we focused on aye-aye populations in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. From August to December 2008, we tested how aye-aye feeding was influenced by presence/absence of both fruiting and non-fruiting Canarium trees. Deadwood feeding traces were used as a proxy for evidence of Canarium feeding. We enumerated deadwood feeding traces in 20 locations, 10 with Canarium, 10 without. Each location contained two transects (80 m L × 20 m W) for a total area of 5.6 ha. Feeding trace results for Canarium locations compared to non-Canarium locations were not significant (Z = -1.926, p = 0.083); however, feeding trace results were significant when comparing fruiting and non-fruiting Canarium locations (Z = -2.417, p = 0.016). These results highlight the importance of Canarium in the diet of aye-ayes and demonstrate how the distribution of this resource may influence the foraging behavior of aye-ayes. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Process for obtaining methanol. Verfahren zur Gewinnung von Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, H; Watson, A

    1983-12-08

    Synthetic gas is generated and converted to methanol in a reactor. After the separation of the crude methanol, there is a multi-stage methanol distillation. Condensate occurring during distillation is at least partly fed back before the methanol synthesis.

  10. Improvement of specific growth rate of Pichia pastoris for effective porcine interferon-α production with an on-line model-based glycerol feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Jian-Rong; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Jin, Hu; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2012-02-01

    Effective expression of porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) with recombinant Pichia pastoris was conducted in a bench-scale fermentor. The influence of the glycerol feeding strategy on the specific growth rate and protein production was investigated. The traditional DO-stat feeding strategy led to very low cell growth rate resulting in low dry cell weight (DCW) of about 90 g/L during the subsequent induction phase. The previously reported Artificial Neural Network Pattern Recognition (ANNPR) model-based glycerol feeding strategy improved the cell density to 120 g DCW/L, while the specific growth rate decreased from 0.15 to 0.18 to 0.03-0.08 h(-1) during the last 10 h of the glycerol feeding stage leading to a variation of the porcine interferon-α production, as the glycerol feeding scheme had a significant effect on the induction phase. This problem was resolved by an improved ANNPR model-based feeding strategy to maintain the specific growth rate above 0.11 h(-1). With this feeding strategy, the pIFN-α concentration reached a level of 1.43 g/L, more than 1.5-fold higher than that obtained with the previously adopted feeding strategy. Our results showed that increasing the specific growth rate favored the target protein production and the glycerol feeding methods directly influenced the induction stage. Consequently, higher cell density and specific growth rate as well as effective porcine interferon-α production have been achieved by our novel glycerol feeding strategy.

  11. Effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic glucose and amino acid metabolism in postpartum transition Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-10-01

    Nine periparturient Holstein cows catheterized in major splanchnic vessels were used in a complete randomized design with repeated measurements to investigate effects of glucogenic and ketogenic feeding strategies on splanchnic metabolism of glucose and amino acids. At parturition, cows were assigned to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: a glucogenic diet (GLCG) based on sodium hydroxide treated wheat grain (56.5% of diet dry matter); a ketogenic diet (KETO) based on fodder beets (40.5% of diet dry matter); or an alfalfa-glucogenic strategy (ALF-GLCG) supplying 100% alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) haylage at the day of parturition, followed by a 6-d linear shift to the GLCG diet. Samples were obtained 14 d before expected parturition as well as at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk (DIM). The net portal release of glucose was greatest with GLCG, reflecting the higher intake of ruminal escape starch with GLCG, as compared with a lower starch intake with KETO. Postpartum, the portal recovery of feed starch was greater (28 ± 3%, mean ± SEM) with KETO as compared with GLCG (15 ± 4%). At 4 DIM, the net hepatic release of glucose was greatest with KETO and least with ALF-GLCG, whereafter it increased as lactation progressed with ALF-GLCG and GLCG, but not with KETO. The high alfalfa haylage allowance at 4 DIM with the ALF-GLCG treatment induced the lowest net release of nutrients from the splanchnic tissues at 4 DIM. The hepatic removal of lactate as percent of total influx (mean ± SEM) increased from 27 ± 3% prepartum to 56 ± 3% at 4 DIM. The hepatic removal of lactate as percent of net portal release increased from 144 ± 10% prepartum to 329 ± 17% at 4 DIM with ALF-GLCG and KETO as compared with 242 ± 20% in GLCG. No clear evidence for an amino acid sparing effect in splanchnic tissues from increasing small intestinal glucose absorption was observed. In conclusion, the glucogenic feeding strategy induced the highest glucogenic status among the tested feeding strategies due to

  12. Evaluation of lubricity of methanolic extract of mango (Mangifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extract of mango seed oil (Mangifera Indica) was evaluated for suitability as lubricant for machini-ng mild steel at various speeds, feeds and depths of cut. The coefficient of friction between the tool and chip in- dicated that the methanolic extract reduced friction between the tool and work piece. The oil also ...

  13. Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    In proposed fuel-cell system, methanol converted to hydrogen in two places. External fuel processor converts only part of methanol. Remaining methanol converted in fuel cell itself, in reaction at anode. As result, size of fuel processor reduced, system efficiency increased, and cost lowered.

  14. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  15. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  16. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and MEG of group II (201.90%) was even higher than that of group IV (184.70%). Liver glycogen and blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p < 0.05). The highest level of serum thyroxine (10.07 ng/ml), insulin-like growth factor-I (52.40 ng/ml) and insulin (9.73 μ IU/mL) were observed in group V. However, diet supplemented with Ala-Gln did not affect the levels of serum glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). After fish intraperitoneally injected with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, the fish survival rates were significantly increased in all Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of Ala-Gln in benefaction of the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance in Jian carp breeding. The

  17. Continuity in Primary School Children's Eating Problems and the Influence of Parental Feeding Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Eating problems are highly prevalent and seem to show continuity in children. Nevertheless, the effect of different maternal and paternal feeding practices on changes in these problems is not fully understood yet. This study examines short-term continuity in primary school children's overeating, loss of control (over eating), restraint and…

  18. A novel method of methanol concentration control through feedback of the amplitudes of output voltage fluctuations for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Hwang, Jinyeon; Ha, Heung Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a novel method for controlling the methanol concentration without using methanol sensors for DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) systems that have a recycling methanol-feed loop. This method utilizes the amplitudes of output voltage fluctuations of DMFC as a feedback parameter to control the methanol concentration. The relationship between the methanol concentrations and the amplitudes of output voltage fluctuations is correlated under various operating conditions and, based on the experimental correlations, an algorithm to control the methanol concentration with no sensor is established. Feasibility tests of the algorithm have been conducted under various operating conditions including varying ambient temperature with a 200 W-class DMFC system. It is demonstrated that the sensor-less controller is able to control the methanol-feed concentration precisely and to run the DMFC systems more energy-efficiently as compared with other control systems. - Highlights: • A new sensor-less algorithm is proposed to control the methanol concentration without using a sensor. • The algorithm utilizes the voltage fluctuations of DMFC as a feedback parameter to control the methanol feed concentration. • A 200 W DMFC system is operated to evaluate the validity of the sensor-less algorithm. • The algorithm successfully controls the methanol feed concentration within a small error bound.

  19. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , compared to their lowest recorded weight after calving. Subsequently, the cows were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments until the end of lactation. There was no effect of feeding strategy on DM intake during week 9–40 of lactation. Fat supplemented rations (WCR; RPF) increased yield of milk...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  20. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklaus , Sophie

    2016-01-01

    RevueThis article in open access journal belongs to the collection Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days; International audience; Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to ...

  1. Evolution of risk assessment strategies for food and feed uses of stacked GM events

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Catherine; Brune, Phil; McDonald, Justin; Nesbitt, Monique; Sauve, Alaina; Storck?Weyhermueller, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Data requirements are not harmonized globally for the regulation of food and feed derived from stacked genetically modified (GM) events, produced by combining individual GM events through conventional breeding. The data required by some regulatory agencies have increased despite the absence of substantiated adverse effects to animals or humans from the consumption of GM crops. Data from studies conducted over a 15?year period for several stacked GM event maize (Zea mays L.) products (...

  2. Immune activation markers in peripartum women in Botswana: association with feeding strategy and maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Russell

    Full Text Available Hormone levels shift the immune state in HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women away from Th1 responses and toward regulation to permit fetal tolerance. Limited data exist on inflammation during pregnancy or postpartum in HIV-infected women, though certain inflammatory markers are associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We measured hsCRP, D-dimer, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α at 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum in HIV-infected women from the Botswana Mashi PMTCT trial who were randomized to breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Differences in inflammatory markers between gestation and postpartum periods, and by randomized feeding method, were estimated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for baseline plasma HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count, calendar time, and antiretroviral treatment status. Additionally, we studied the association between marker concentrations at six months postpartum and major adverse clinical events over the following 4.5 years, using case-cohort sampling and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In 86 breastfeeding and 75 formula-feeding women, hsCRP and D-dimer decreased significantly between 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum, while IFN-γ increased. There was no significant association between inflammatory marker change and randomized feeding method after adjusting for multiple comparisons and removing outliers. In univariate analysis, TNF-α, D-dimer, and IFN-γ concentrations at six months postpartum were significant predictors of subsequent clinical events, and TNF-α remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 4.16, p = 0.001. In young HIV-infected women in Botswana inflammatory marker concentrations did not differ significantly between women who breast- vs. formula-fed. However, postpartum TNF-α level was predictive of subsequent adverse clinical event.

  3. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-11-19

    Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake. These learning processes are likely to have a long-term impact. Children's consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) is below recommendations in many countries. Thus, it is crucial to establish preferences for FV early, when infants are learning to eat. The development of food preferences mainly starts when infants discover their first solid foods. This narrative review summarizes the factors that influence FV acceptance at the start of the CF period: previous milk feeding experience; timing of onset of CF; repeated exposures to the food; variety of foods offered as of the start of the CF period; quality and sensory properties of the complementary foods; quality of the meal time context; and parental responsive feeding.

  4. Batch versus continuous feeding strategies for pharmaceutical removal by subsurface flow constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M.; Zhu, Junfei; Hua, Tao; Jinadasa, K.B.S.N.; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of continuous and batch feeding on the removal of 8 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine, salicylic acid, ketoprofen and clofibric acid) from synthetic wastewater in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs). Both loading modes were operated at hydraulic application rates of 5.6 cm day −1 and 2.8 cm day −1 . Except for carbamazepine, clofibric acid and naproxen, removal in CWs was significantly (p ow ) and removal efficiencies of pharmaceutical compounds in the CWs, showed that pharmaceutical removal efficiency was significantly (p ow value, but not with log K ow value. - Highlights: ► Batch feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal. ► K values for the 8 pharmaceuticals were in the range of 0.01–0.1 m day −1 . ► The pharmaceutical removal efficiency was inversely correlated with log D ow value. - Batch (drain and fill) feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal.

  5. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Nicklaus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Complementary feeding (CF, which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN, is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake. These learning processes are likely to have a long-term impact. Children’s consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV is below recommendations in many countries. Thus, it is crucial to establish preferences for FV early, when infants are learning to eat. The development of food preferences mainly starts when infants discover their first solid foods. This narrative review summarizes the factors that influence FV acceptance at the start of the CF period: previous milk feeding experience; timing of onset of CF; repeated exposures to the food; variety of foods offered as of the start of the CF period; quality and sensory properties of the complementary foods; quality of the meal time context; and parental responsive feeding.

  6. Effects of different cutting strategies on G-ratio in through-feed center-less grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rascalha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Grinding is the main manufacturing process used in finishing operations. Center-less grinding is widely used in the production of auto parts e.g. roller bearings, valve stem and stem of shock absorbers. Center-less grinding is used in large-scale production due to shorter time and higher flexibility. However, the set-up of the grinder is complex and slow, and depends on the operators’ ability. The choice of the best parameters in the process is important to define exactly the cutting strategy and to optimize the process. Current study analyzes the input parameters: feed rate and type of materials on the responses G-ratio, surface roughness, and roundness. Thus, stems of shock absorbers were used as work pieces on the shop floor. Cutting speed and grinding wheel type were constant. The input parameters comprised feed rate and type of materials (1025 and 1045. Responses were surface roughness, roundness error and G-ratio. Results demonstrated that the kinds of tested material was the parameter that most influenced G-ratio and surface roughness. Moreover, feed rate had little influence on the quality of the work pieces, mainly on roundness error.

  7. Feed additive strategies for replacement of antimicrobial growth promoters and a responsible use of antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.; Smits, C.H.M.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in human health care urges the need for effective strategies to reduce antibiotic use in animal production. The Netherlands and Denmark have already implemented successful strategies to reduce antibiotic usage in animal production. Part of the

  8. The Methanol Economy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olah, George [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prakash, G. K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO2 capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO2 and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO2 and H2, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields.

  9. Resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does: a review of feeding and genetic strategies for suitable performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pascual

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work is analysed how frequent feeding and selection programmes could be affecting resources allocation in reproductive rabbit does, and the possible consequences resulted from these changes, as well as the central role of body condition for a suitable female performance considering genetic level, health and welfare.  Resources allocation between functions, and consequently body condition, must be genetically driven.  Traditional view of body reserves mobilisation in reproductive rabbit does as a response of feed intake must be moved to an animal view, where feed intake must be considered more as an “output” consequence of the resources allocation in the female to ensure current and future litter viability.  To a great extent, future reproductive potential of reproductive rabbit females is decided before first partum.  There seems to be enough evidence of a possible threshold for the rabbit female birth weight to reach the beginning of reproductive life in a suitable body condition to maximise their future reproductive potential.  The moment of first mating could be identified the last ‘pure’ data of the animal, sign of the animal soma and probably related to their productive potential.  The choice of an adequate feeding system during rearing and first pregnancy also seems to be relevant in the reproductive performance of rabbit females in the short and long term. This should allow young females to reach first mating and late pregnancy with a good maturity level, but over-fattening must be avoided to reduce the risk of pregnancy toxaemia and reduced reproduction.  The body condition of the females changes during the reproductive cycle and throughout their reproductive life according to their genetically determined level.  The problems appear when the animals are forced to differ from this adequate level, increasing susceptibility to disease, other stress factors and eventual failure.  The body condition of young

  10. Metabolic flux profiling of recombinant protein secreting Pichia pastoris growing on glucose:methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Mixed feeds of methanol and a multicarbon source instead of methanol as sole carbon source have been shown to improve product productivities and alleviate metabolic burden derived from protein production. Nevertheless, systematic quantitative studies on the relationships between the central metabolism and recombinant protein production in P. pastoris are still rather limited, particularly when growing this yeast on mixed carbon sources, thus hampering future metabolic network engineering strategies for improved protein production. Results The metabolic flux distribution in the central metabolism of P. pastoris growing on a mixed feed of glucose and methanol was analyzed by Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA) using 13C-NMR-derived constraints. For this purpose, we defined new flux ratios for methanol assimilation pathways in P. pastoris cells growing on glucose:methanol mixtures. By using this experimental approach, the metabolic burden caused by the overexpression and secretion of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol) in P. pastoris was further analyzed. This protein has been previously shown to trigger the unfolded protein response in P. pastoris. A series of 13C-tracer experiments were performed on aerobic chemostat cultivations with a control and two different Rol producing strains growing at a dilution rate of 0.09 h−1 using a glucose:methanol 80:20 (w/w) mix as carbon source. The MFA performed in this study reveals a significant redistristribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism when comparing the two recombinant strains vs the control strain, reflected in increased glycolytic, TCA cycle and NADH regeneration fluxes, as well as higher methanol dissimilation rates. Conclusions Overall, a further 13C-based MFA development to characterise the central metabolism of methylotrophic yeasts when growing on mixed

  11. Metabolic flux profiling of recombinant protein secreting Pichia pastoris growing on glucose:methanol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordà Joel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Mixed feeds of methanol and a multicarbon source instead of methanol as sole carbon source have been shown to improve product productivities and alleviate metabolic burden derived from protein production. Nevertheless, systematic quantitative studies on the relationships between the central metabolism and recombinant protein production in P. pastoris are still rather limited, particularly when growing this yeast on mixed carbon sources, thus hampering future metabolic network engineering strategies for improved protein production. Results The metabolic flux distribution in the central metabolism of P. pastoris growing on a mixed feed of glucose and methanol was analyzed by Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA using 13C-NMR-derived constraints. For this purpose, we defined new flux ratios for methanol assimilation pathways in P. pastoris cells growing on glucose:methanol mixtures. By using this experimental approach, the metabolic burden caused by the overexpression and secretion of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol in P. pastoris was further analyzed. This protein has been previously shown to trigger the unfolded protein response in P. pastoris. A series of 13C-tracer experiments were performed on aerobic chemostat cultivations with a control and two different Rol producing strains growing at a dilution rate of 0.09 h−1 using a glucose:methanol 80:20 (w/w mix as carbon source. The MFA performed in this study reveals a significant redistristribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism when comparing the two recombinant strains vs the control strain, reflected in increased glycolytic, TCA cycle and NADH regeneration fluxes, as well as higher methanol dissimilation rates. Conclusions Overall, a further 13C-based MFA development to characterise the central metabolism of methylotrophic

  12. Sustainability of ruminant agriculture in the new context: feeding strategies and features of animal adaptability into the necessary holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, F; González-García, E

    2010-07-01

    There are numerous recent studies highlighting sustainability problems for the development of ruminant production systems (RPS) while facing increasing human food necessities and global climate change. Despite the complexity of the context, in our view the main objectives of the ruminants' physiologist should be convergent for both industrialized (IC) and developing countries (DC) in a common and global strategy of advancing knowledge. In DC, this means improving the efficiency of RPS, taking into account the unique possibility of using rangelands. For IC settings, RPS should be revisited in terms of autonomy and environment- friendly feeding and managing practices. Assuming that competition for feed/food use is still a crucial criterion, future ruminant feeding systems (FeSyst) should preferably focus on lignocellulosic sources. According to biome distributions, and the recent increases in volumes of crop residues and their by-products, the annually renewed volumes of these biomasses are considerable. Therefore, we need to redesign our strategies for their efficient utilization at the local level. For this purpose, digestion processes and rumen functioning need to be better understood. The renewed vision of ruminal digestion through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is also a key aspect as it is an environmental demand that cannot be ignored. With regard to other ruminants' physiological functions, accumulated knowledge could be mobilized into an integrative approach that puts forward the adaptive capacities of animals to face variability in quantity and quality of supplied feeds. Basically, the reduction of inputs that were traditionally used to ensure FeSyst will need more flexible animals. In that sense, the concepts of homeostasis and teleophorhesis need to be updated and adapted to domestic species and breeds that were until now largely excluded from the dominant productive systems. In conclusion, a more holistic approach of research targets is

  13. Optimizing the co-feeding strategy of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae using Artemia nauplii and formulated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Agh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and labor costs are associated with first-feeding sturgeon culture, particularly during the period of dietary transition from live to formulated feed. Therefore we investigated the effects of various feeding treatments on the survival and growth of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae during a 20-day culture period. Three replicate groups (250 fish/replicate of first-feeding larvae were fed according to four main feeding regimes: (1 live food (live nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia urmiana; (2 indirect transition (5 days live food followed by gradual transition to formulated diet; (3 direct transition (using different combinations of live and formulated diet from the start feeding onwards; (4 formulated feed (FD from the start feeding. Results indicated that growth and survival were higher in the indirect transition feeding regime than in other regimes. Based on our study, co-feeding of A. persicus should start five days after prior feeding with live food.

  14. Bearded saki feeding strategies on an island in Lago Guri, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norconk, Marilyn A; Conklin-Brittain, Nancy L

    2016-05-01

    Free-ranging bearded sakis (Chiropotes spp.) live in relatively large social groups (22-65+), inhabit very large home ranges (200-1,000 ha), and travel long distances (1.8 to >7 km) each day. While these characteristics would seem to reduce their ability to occupy habitat fragments, several studies suggest otherwise. The key to their success may lie in their dietary adaptations. Bearded sakis are strongly frugivorous, but are primarily seed eaters, and are able to ingest both young and mature fruit. We examined feeding activities of a group of bearded sakis over a 19-month period on a 180 ha island in Lago Guri, Venezuela. Given their feeding adaptations, we predicted that they would minimize peaks and troughs in plant species used for food, limit seasonal variation in the mechanical properties of foods ingested, and balance ingestion of energy-rich foods (e.g. lipids, nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC), and/or free simple sugars). We found that bearded sakis on Danto Manchado had a diverse (plant-based) diet, but two resources (Pradosia caracasana, Sapotaceae, and Oryctanthus alveolatus, Loranthaceae) provided a stable dietary base and were present in the diet almost every month. Second, we found little variation in the mechanical-resistance properties of fruits opened seasonally. Third, they alternated months ingesting foods with high TNC content and months of high lipid content. This may be an attempt to balance energy intake from available foods. Finally, their social propensity to split up into subgroups may predispose them to reduce group sizes to accommodate smaller available areas. We suggest that bearded sakis use both ecological and behavioral mechanisms to survive in smaller-than-typical areas. Longer-term studies (beyond a few generations) of bearded sakis in habitat fragments would allow us to estimate minimum survival area and identify critical resources or resource combinations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Catalytic methanol dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcinikov, Y.; Fainberg, V.; Garbar, A.; Gutman, M.; Hetsroni, G.; Shindler, Y.; Tatrtakovsky, L.; Zvirin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the methanol dissociation study on copper/potassium catalyst with alumina support at various temperatures are presented. The following gaseous and liquid products at. The catalytic methanol dissociation is obtained: hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and dimethyl ether. Formation rates of these products are discussed. Activation energies of corresponding reactions are calculated

  16. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  17. Methanol fuel update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colledge, R.; Spacek, J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of methanol fuel developments, with particular reference to infrastructure, supply and marketing. Methanol offers reduced emissions, easy handling, is cost effective, can be produced from natural gas, coal, wood, or municipal waste, is a high performance fuel, is safer than gasoline, and contributes to energy security. Methanol supply, environmental benefits, safety/health issues, economics, passenger car economics, status of passenger car technology, buses, methanol and the prosperity initiative, challenges to implementation, and the role of government and original equipment manufacturers are discussed. Governments must assist in the provision of methanol refuelling infrastructure, and in providing an encouraging regulatory atmosphere. Discriminatory and inequitable taxing methods must be addressed, and an air quality agenda must be defined to allow the alternative fuel industry to respond in a timely manner

  18. Development of a feed-and-bleed operation strategy with hybrid-SIT under low pressure condition of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Seop, E-mail: jeoni@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States); Han, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shhan2@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 70 Daedeok-daero 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang Hee, E-mail: sanghee.kang@khnp.co.kr [NSSS Design Group, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Central Research Institute, 70, 1312-beongil, Yuseongdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The novel F&B operation strategy with H-SIT and LPSI is developed. • The effectiveness of the H-SITs is verified using thermo-hydraulic simulations. • Success criteria considered for the new F&B operation strategy is identified. • A PSA model of APR+ reflecting the new F&B strategy with H-SIT is developed. • A risk analysis of the proposed F&B operation strategy is performed. - Abstract: While safety functions in current nuclear power plants are mainly provided by active safety systems, recently passive safety systems are being combined with the active systems to strengthen accident mitigation capability and therefore enhance overall plant safety. To this end, securing long-term cooling of the core is of particular importance. This study considers the hybrid safety injection tank (H-SIT), a passive injection system, as a target component to develop a long-term cooling strategy using active and passive systems concurrently. In the feed-and-bleed (F&B) operation, one of the important long-term cooling strategies to maintain core safety in pressurized water reactors, low pressure safety injection (LPSI) pumps are typically considered inoperable as depressurization is first required, which leads to core dry-out before reaching LPSI operable pressure. This study investigates whether H-SITs, with the important design feature of passive coolant injection under any pressure condition of the primary coolant system, can make up the core during depressurization thereby allowing LPSI pumps to be used in F&B operation as an additional means of long-term cooling. The effectiveness of the H-SITs is verified using thermal-hydraulic simulations, and based on the results a novel F&B operation strategy with H-SITs and LPSI pumps is developed. A probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model is then developed in order to assess the risk effect of the suggested strategy. PSA results demonstrate that the proposed strategy lowers core damage frequency in the target

  19. Efficient biosynthesis of d-ribose using a novel co-feeding strategy in Bacillus subtilis without acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; Zhuang, W; Li, N N; Tang, C L; Ying, H J

    2017-01-01

    Normally, low d-ribose production was identified as responsible for plenty of acid formation by Bacillus subtilis due to its carbon overflow. An approach of co-feeding glucose and sodium citrate is developed here and had been proved to be useful in d-ribose production. This strategy is critical because it affects the cell concentration, the productivity of d-ribose and, especially, the formation of by-products such as acetoin, lactate and acetate. d-ribose production was increased by 59·6% from 71·06 to 113·41 g l -1 without acid formation by co-feeding 2·22 g l -1  h -1 glucose and 0·036 g l -1  h -1 sodium citrate to a 60 g l -1 glucose reaction system. Actually, the cell density was also enhanced from 11·51 to 13·84 g l -1 . These parameters revealed the importance of optimization and modelling of the d-ribose production process. Not only could zero acid formation was achieved over a wide range of co-feeding rate by reducing glycolytic flux drastically but also the cell density and d-ribose yield were elevated by increasing the hexose monophosphate pathway flux. Bacillus subtilis usually produce d-ribose accompanied by plenty of organic acids when glucose is used as a carbon source, which is considered to be a consequence of mismatched glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle capacities. This is the first study to provide high-efficiency biosynthesis of d-ribose without organic acid formation in B. subtilis, which would be lower than the cost of separation and purification. The strain transketolase-deficient B. subtilis CGMCC 3720 can be potentially applied to the production of d-ribose in industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-04-13

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented.

  1. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented

  2. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  3. Biomechanical reconstructions and selective advantages of neck poses and feeding strategies of Sauropods with the example of Mamenchisaurus youngi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Christian

    Full Text Available A very long neck is a characteristic feature of most sauropod dinosaurs. In the genus Mamenchisaurus, neck length is extreme, greater than 40 percent of total body length. However, the posture, utilization, and selective advantage of very long necks in sauropods are still controversial. An excellently preserved skeleton of Mamenchisaurus youngi, including a complete neck, provides an opportunity for a comprehensive biomechanical analysis of neck posture and mobility. The biomechanical evidence indicates that Mamenchisaurus youngi had a nearly straight, near horizontal neck posture and browsed at low or medium heights. The results differ from the findings for some other sauropod species, like Euhelopus, Diplodocus, and Giraffatitan (Brachiosaurus that had been analyzed in previous studies with similar methods. The selective advantage of extreme neck length in sauropods is likely advantageous for different feeding strategies.

  4. Higher protein intake strategies in human milk fortification for preterms infants feeding. Auxological and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, A; Neri, C; China, M C; Monti, F; Di Nicola, P; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal growth restriction and failure to thrive still remain a major problem in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants . The goal for the nutritional care of these infants is to achieve rate of growth similar to those of the fetus in utero at the equivalent gestational age. Human milk fortified remains the best food for all these preterms. Two groups of preterm of weight 580-1250 g and gestational age 23-32 wk, were fed with different protein intake in the human/maternal milk fortified ( 3,5 g Kg-1 per day and 4,8 g Kg-1 per day in the control and intervention group respectively).The feeding tolerance, intrahospital growth, neurological outcome and anthropometric data until 12 months of corrected age, were evaluated. The protein supplemented group (PSG) showed an intrahospital highter growth rate ( mostly in head circumference, p 0,02, and length growth, p 0,04) only in the preterms with 580-980 g and 23-30 wk. In the same preterms, Griffith Development Mental Score at 3 and 12 months corrected age showed higher score than in the control group in the Performance (p 0,04) and Hearing/Language (p 0,03) items. The auxological evaluation in the postdischarge period showed in the PSG group mean z-score values for length higher than those in the control group at 9 (p 0,04) months of corrected age.

  5. Feeding management strategy for male broiler breeders and its effects on body weight, hatchability and fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the supply of a specific-male diet on rooster body weight, hatchability, and fertility. Two diets were supplied during the egg production period: treatment 1, diet formulated for females and containing, in average, 2,830 kcal ME/kg and 15% CP; and treatment 2, diet specifically formulated for male broiler breeders, containing 2,750 kcal ME/kg and 13.5% CP. In the experiment, 26 flocks, with approximately 7,000 females and 840 males each, belonging to the same broiler breeder commercial strain, were distributed into 26 houses (1200m² on the same farm, and submitted to the same management practices. Body weight was evaluated in 13 flocks per treatment and for five weeks (45, 50, 55, 60, 65, and hatchability and fertility in four incubation lots per treatment and for the same weeks. Data were evaluated by the analysis of mixed models for repeated measurements, using the PROC MIXED of SAS 9.3 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA, and means were compared by the test of Tukey-Kramer at 5% significance level. The specific-male diet allowed body weight control during all analyzed weeks and promoted high hatchability and egg fertility. The increase in the number of chicks hatched demonstrates the economic viability of feeding a specific diet for male broiler breeders.

  6. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-jun Ren

    Full Text Available Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect.The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve were examined.Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD or cesarean delivery (CD for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T(Treg cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated.Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes.CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells.

  7. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-jun; Yu, Zhao; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lv, Dan; Hung, Shi; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Liu, Shi-Xi; Zhang, Nan; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect. The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve) were examined. Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD) or cesarean delivery (CD) for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA) to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T(Treg) cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated. Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes. CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells.

  8. Don't Feed the Trolls: An analysis of strategies for moderating discussions on climate blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    A perennial problem in any online discussion is the tendency for discussions to get swamped with non-constructive (and sometimes abusive) comments. Many bloggers use some form of moderation policy to filter these out, to improve the signal to noise ratio in the discussion, and to encourage constructive participation. Unfortunately, moderation policies have disadvantages too: they are time-consuming to implement, introduce a delay in posting contributions, and can lead to accusations of censorship and anger from people whose comments are removed. In climate blogging, the problem is particularly acute because of the politicization of the discourse. The nature of comments on climate blogs vary widely. For example, on a blog focussed on the physical science of climate, comments on posts might include personal abuse, accusations of misconduct and conspiracy, repetition of political talking points, dogged pursuit of obscure technical points (whether related or not to the original post), naive questions, concern trolling (negative reactions posing as naive questions), polemics, talk of impending doom and catastrophe, as well as some honest and constructive questions about the scientific topic being discussed. How does one decide which of these comments to allow? And if some comments are to be removed, what should be done with them? In this presentation, I will survey a number of different moderation strategies used on climate blogs (along with a few notable examples from other kinds of blogs), and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each. The nature of the moderation strategy has an impact on the size and kind of audience a blog attracts. Hence, the choice of moderation strategy should depend on the overall goals for the blog, the nature of the intended audience, and the resources (particularly time) available to implement the strategy.

  9. Effect of sorbed methanol, current, and temperature on multicomponent transport in nafion-based direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Harry; Lawton, Jamie S; Budil, David E; Smotkin, Eugene S

    2008-07-24

    The CO2 in the cathode exhaust of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has two sources: methanol diffuses through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to the cathode where it is catalytically oxidized to CO2; additionally, a portion of the CO2 produced at the anode diffuses through the MEA to the cathode. The potential-dependent CO2 exhaust from the cathode was monitored by online electrochemical mass spectrometry (ECMS) with air and with H2 at the cathode. The precise determination of the crossover rates of methanol and CO2, enabled by the subtractive normalization of the methanol/air to the methanol/H2 ECMS data, shows that methanol decreases the membrane viscosity and thus increases the diffusion coefficients of sorbed membrane components. The crossover of CO2 initially increases linearly with the Faradaic oxidation of methanol, reaches a temperature-dependent maximum, and then decreases. The membrane viscosity progressively increases as methanol is electrochemically depleted from the anode/electrolyte interface. The crossover maximum occurs when the current dependence of the diffusion coefficients and membrane CO2 solubility dominate over the Faradaic production of CO2. The plasticizing effect of methanol is corroborated by measurements of the rotational diffusion of TEMPONE (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone N-oxide) spin probe by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. A linear inverse relationship between the methanol crossover rate and current density confirms the absence of methanol electro-osmotic drag at concentrations relevant to operating DMFCs. The purely diffusive transport of methanol is explained in terms of current proton solvation and methanol-water incomplete mixing theories.

  10. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of feeding strategies and cropping systems on greenhouse gas emission from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Sun, F; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Hedtcke, J L; Silva, E M

    2017-07-01

    Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets. One was a 20-yr data set from the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping System Trial documenting management inputs, crop and pasture yields, and soil characteristics, used to estimate field-level emissions from land associated with feed production (row crop and pasture), including N 2 O and soil carbon sequestration. The other was a data set summarizing organic farm management in Wisconsin, which was used to estimate replacement heifer emission (CO 2 equivalents), enteric methane (CH 4 ), and manure management (N 2 O and CH 4 ). Three combinations of corn grain (CG) and soybean (SB) as concentrate (all corn = 100% CG; baseline = 75% CG + 25% SB; half corn = 50% CG + 50% SB) were assigned to each of 4 representative management strategies as determined by survey data. Overall, GHG emissions associated with crop production was 1,297 ± 136 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM without accounting for soil carbon changes (ΔSC), and GHG emission with ΔSC was 1,457 ± 111 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM, with greater reliance on pasture resulting in less ΔSC. Higher levels of milk production were a major driver associated with reduction in GHG emission per metric tonne of ECM. Emissions per metric tonne of ECM increased with increasing proportion of SB in the ration; however, including SB in the crop rotation decreased N 2 O emission per metric tonne of ECM from cropland due to lower applications of organically approved N fertility inputs. More SB at the expense of CG

  12. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  13. A Methanol Intoxication Outbreak From Recreational Ingestion of Fracking Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, David; Duff, Graham; Palatnick, Wesley; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Hingwala, Jay

    2017-05-01

    Single-patient methanol intoxications are a common clinical presentation, but outbreaks are rare and usually occur in settings in which there is limited access to ethanol and methanol is consumed as a substitute. In this case report, we describe an outbreak of methanol intoxications that was challenging from a public health perspective and discuss strategies for managing such an outbreak. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological Methanol Production by a Type II Methanotroph Methylocystis bryophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, In-Won

    2016-04-28

    Methane (CH₄) is the most abundant component in natural gas. To reduce its harmful environmental effect as a greenhouse gas, CH₄ can be utilized as a low-cost feed for the synthesis of methanol by methanotrophs. In this study, several methanotrophs were examined for their ability to produce methanol from CH₄; including Methylocella silvestris, Methylocystis bryophila, Methyloferula stellata, and Methylomonas methanica. Among these methanotrophs, M. bryophila exhibited the highest methanol production. The optimum process parameters aided in significant enhancement of methanol production up to 4.63 mM. Maximum methanol production was observed at pH 6.8, 30°C, 175 rpm, 100 mM phosphate buffer, 50 mM MgCl₂ as a methanol dehydrogenase inhibitor, 50% CH₄ concentration, 24 h of incubation, and 9 mg of dry cell mass ml(-1) inoculum load, respectively. Optimization of the process parameters, screening of methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors, and supplementation with formate resulted in significant improvements in methanol production using M. bryophila. This report suggests, for the first time, the potential of using M. bryophila for industrial methanol production from CH₄.

  15. Use of a mathematical model for prediction of optimum feeding strategies for in situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouche, M.; Petersen, J.N.

    1992-05-01

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 40+ years of operations at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. Some of these wastes were discharged to the soil column and many of the waste components, including nitrate, carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 ), and several radionuclides, have been detected in the Hanford groundwater. Current DOE policy prohibits the disposal of the contaminated liquids directly to the environment, and remediation of the existing contaminated groundwaters may be required. In-situ bioremediation is one technology currently being developed at the Hanford to meet the need for cost effective technologies to clean groundwater contaminated with CCL 4 , nitrate, and other organic and inorganic contaminants. This paper focuses on the latest results of an on-going effort to develop effective in-situ remediation strategies through the use of predictive simulations. In particular, strategies for nutrient injection are developed which minimize biomass accumulation within the flow field and thus extend the life of injection wells

  16. Perspectives of key stakeholders and experts in infant feeding on the implementation of the Australian National Breastfeeding Strategy 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Naomi S; Schubert, Lisa C; Smith, Julie P

    2017-03-01

    Breastfeeding is widely accepted as an important public health issue for babies and their mothers. Yet, despite this, Australia continues to struggle with reaching global targets for breastfeeding indicators. In 2007, the Best Start Parliamentary Inquiry Report was released and set the stage for the Australian National Breastfeeding Strategy [2010-2015), which was announced in November 2009, with the vision to increase Australia's breastfeeding rates of infants at 6 months of age and beyond. The aim of this research project was to explore the perspectives of key stakeholders in the field of infant feeding in Australia on the implementation of the strategy, barriers and enablers to its successful implementation and actions that were still needed. Using qualitative research methods of in-depth, semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis, this study identifies main themes of these perceptions about the strategy implementation and some recommendations for future strategies and further research. The main themes identified were initial opinions of the strategy as a blueprint for action, the strategy as a driver for action, lessons learned and recommendations for the future. For success in improving implementation of national breastfeeding strategies, it is recommended that Australia establish an independent breastfeeding/infant feeding committee, increase the political prioritisation of issues surrounding infant feeding and strengthen the regulation of the marketing of breastmilk substitutes.

  17. Using formative research to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve infant and young child feeding practices and nutrition in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Pandey, Pooja R; Osei, Akoto K; Spiro, David S; Adhikari, Debendra P; Haselow, Nancy J; Quinn, Victoria J; Nielsen, Jennifer N

    2015-10-01

    Global recommendations on strategies to improve infant feeding, care and nutrition are clear; however, there is limited literature that explains methods for tailoring these recommendations to the local context where programmes are implemented. This paper aims to: (1) highlight the individual, cultural and environmental factors revealed by formative research to affect infant and young child feeding and care practices in Baitadi district of Far Western Nepal; and (2) outline how both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to design a context-specific behaviour change strategy to improve child nutrition. Quantitative data on 750 children aged 12-23 months and their families were collected via surveys administered to mothers. The participants were selected using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The survey asked about knowledge, attitude and behaviours relating to infant and young child feeding. Qualitative data on breastfeeding and complementary feeding beliefs and practices were also collected from a separate sample via focus group discussions with mothers, and key informant interviews with mothers-in-law and husbands. Key findings revealed gaps in knowledge among many informants resulting in suboptimal infant and young child feeding practices - particularly with relation to duration of exclusive breastfeeding and dietary diversity of complementary foods. The findings from this research were then incorporated into a context-specific nutrition behaviour change communication strategy. © 2013 Helen Keller International © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Asian methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Hideki

    1995-01-01

    For the purpose of this presentation, Asia has been broadly defined as a total of 15 countries, namely Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Myanmar, India, Vietnam, Australia and New Zealand. In 1994 and the first half of 1995, the methanol industry and its derivative industries experienced hard time, because of extraordinarily high methanol prices. In spite of this circumstance, methanol demand in Asian countries has been growing steadily and remarkably, following Asian high economic growth. Most of this growth in demand has been and will continue to be met by outside supply. However, even with increased import of methanol from outside of Asia, as a result of this growth, Asian trade volume will be much larger in the coming years. Asian countries must turn their collective attention to making logistics and transportation for methanol and its derivatives more efficient in the Asian region to make better use of existing supply resources. The author reviews current economic growth as his main topic, and explains the forecast of the growth of methanol demand and supply in Asian countries in the near future

  19. Integrated methanol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention concerns a plant for methanol manufacture from gasified coal, particularly using nuclear power. In order to reduce the cost of the hydrogen circuits, the methanol synthesis is integrated in the coal gasification plant. The coal used is gasified with hydration by means of hydrogen and the crude gas emerging, after cooling and separating the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, is mixed with the synthetic gas leaving the methane cracking furnace. This mixture is taken to the methanol synthesis and more than 90% is converted into methanol in one pass. The gas mixture remaning after condensation and separation of methanol is decomposed into three fractions in low temperature gas decomposition with a high proportion of unconverted carbon monoxide. The flow of methane is taken to the cracking furnace with steam, the flow of hydrogen is taken to the hydrating coal gasifier, and the flow of carbon monoxide is taken to the methanol synthesis. The heat required for cracking the methane can either be provided by a nuclear reactor or by the coke left after hydrating gasification. (orig./RB) [de

  20. Development of a two-stage feeding strategy based on the kind and level of feeding nutrients for improving fed-batch production of L-threonine by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwen; Liang, Yong; Liu, Qian; Tao, Tongtong; Lai, Shujuan; Chen, Ning; Wen, Tingyi

    2013-01-01

    Fed-batch fermentation is the predominant method for industrial production of amino acids. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the effects of four kinds of feeding nutrients and developed an accurate optimization strategy for fed-batch production of L-threonine. The production of L-threonine was severely inhibited when cell growth ceased in the bath culture. Similarly, L-threonine production was also associated with cell growth in the carbon-, phosphate-, and sulfate-limited fed-batch cultures, but the accumulation of L-threonine was markedly increased because of the extended production time in the growth stage. Interestingly, auxotrophic amino acid (L-isoleucine)-limited feeding promoted L-threonine production over the non-growth phase. Metabolite analysis indicates that substantial production of acetate and glutamate and the resulting accumulation of ammonium may lead to the inhibition of L-threonine production. During the growth phase, the levels of L-isoleucine were accurately optimized by balancing cell growth and production with Pontryagin's maximum principle, basing on the relationship between the specific growth rate μ and specific production rate ρ. Furthermore, the depletion of L-isoleucine and phosphate at the end of the growth phase favored the synthesis of L-threonine in the subsequent non-growth phase. Combining the two-stage feeding profiles, the final L-threonine concentration and conversion rate were increased by 5.9- and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared to batch processes without feeding control. The identification of efficient feeding nutrient and the development of accurate feeding strategies provide potential guidelines for microbial production of amino acids.

  1. Free-range pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) – Effect of feeding strategy on growth, feed conversion and animal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Horsted, Klaus; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional contributions from free-range foraging, growth, feed conversion and behaviour were investigated in 36 growing pigs foraging on Jerusalem artichokes (JA) and fed concentrates restrictedly (30% of energy recommendations) or ad libitum. Compared to the ad libitum fed pigs, the pigs fed...

  2. Growth of Candida boidinii on methanol and the activity of methanol-degrading enzymes as affected from formaldehyde and methylformate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggelis, G; Margariti, N; Kralli, C; Flouri, F

    2000-06-23

    Formaldehyde and methylformate affect the growth of Candida boidinii on methanol and the activity of methanol-degrading enzymes. The presence of both intermediates in the feeding medium caused an increase in biomass yield and productivity and a decrease in the specific rate of methanol consumption. In the presence of formaldehyde, the activity of formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase was essentially increased, whereas the activity of methanol oxidase was decreased. On the contrary, the presence of methylformate caused an increase of the activity of methanol oxidase and a decrease of the activity of formaldehyde dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase. Interpretations concerning the yeast behavior in the presence of intermediate oxidation products were considered and discussed.

  3. DMFC performance and methanol cross-over: Experimental analysis and model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R. [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    A combined experimental and modelling approach is proposed to analyze methanol cross-over and its effect on DMFC performance. The experimental analysis is performed in order to allow an accurate investigation of methanol cross-over influence on DMFC performance, hence measurements were characterized in terms of uncertainty and reproducibility. The findings suggest that methanol cross-over is mainly determined by diffusion transport and affects cell performance partly via methanol electro-oxidation at the cathode. The modelling analysis is carried out to further investigate methanol cross-over phenomenon. A simple model evaluates the effectiveness of two proposed interpretations regarding methanol cross-over and its effects. The model is validated using the experimental data gathered. Both the experimental analysis and the proposed and validated model allow a substantial step forward in the understanding of the main phenomena associated with methanol cross-over. The findings confirm the possibility to reduce methanol cross-over by optimizing anode feeding. (author)

  4. Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäntysaari Esa A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32. This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10, indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection.

  5. Assessing an effective feeding strategy to optimize crude glycerol utilization as sustainable carbon source for lipid accumulation in oleaginous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Lorenzo; Ami, Diletta; Posteri, Riccardo; Giuzzi, Andrea; Mereghetti, Paolo; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-05-05

    Microbial lipids can represent a valuable alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in the context of a viable bio-based economy. This production can be driven by cultivating some oleaginous microorganisms on crude-glycerol, a 10% (w/w) by-product produced during the transesterification process from oils into biodiesel. Despite attractive, the perspective is still economically unsustainable, mainly because impurities in crude glycerol can negatively affect microbial performances. In this view, the selection of the best cell factory, together with the development of a robust and effective production process are primary requirements. The present work compared crude versus pure glycerol as carbon sources for lipid production by three different oleaginous yeasts: Rhodosporidium toruloides (DSM 4444), Lipomyces starkeyi (DSM 70295) and Cryptococcus curvatus (DSM 70022). An efficient yet simple feeding strategy for avoiding the lag phase caused by growth on crude glycerol was developed, leading to high biomass and lipid production for all the tested yeasts. Flow-cytometry and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, supported by principal component analysis (PCA), were used as non-invasive and quick techniques to monitor, compare and analyze the lipid production over time. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis completed the quali-quantitative description. Under these operative conditions, the highest lipid content (up to 60.9% wt/wt) was measured in R. toruloides, while L. starkeyi showed the fastest glycerol consumption rate (1.05 g L(-1) h(-1)). Being productivity the most industrially relevant feature to be pursued, under the presented optimized conditions R. toruloides showed the best lipid productivity (0.13 and 0.15 g L(-1) h(-1) on pure and crude glycerol, respectively). Here we demonstrated that the development of an efficient feeding strategy is sufficient in preventing the inhibitory effect of crude glycerol, and robust enough to ensure high lipid

  6. A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Myung-Gi; Mehmood, Asad; Ha, Heung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new sensor-less methanol control algorithm based on feedback from the stack temperature is developed. • Feasibility of the algorithm is tested using a DMFC system with a recirculating fuel loop. • The algorithm precisely controls the methanol concentration without the use of methanol sensors. • The sensor-less controller shortens the time that the DMFC system requires to go from start-up to steady-state. • This controller is effective in handling unexpected changes in the methanol concentration and stack temperature. - Abstract: A sensor-less methanol concentration control system based on feedback from the stack temperature (SLCCF) has been developed. The SLCCF algorithm is embedded into an in-house LabVIEW program that has been developed to control the methanol concentration in the feed of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This control method utilizes the close correlation between the stack temperature and the methanol concentration in the feed. Basically, the amounts of methanol to be supplied to the re-circulating feed stream are determined by estimating the methanol consumption rates under given operating conditions, which are then adjusted by a proportional–integral controller and supplied into the feed stream to maintain the stack temperature at a set value. The algorithm is designed to control the methanol concentration and the stack temperature for both start-up and normal operation processes. Feasibility tests with a 200 W-class DMFC system under various operating conditions confirm that the algorithm successfully maintains the methanol concentration in the feed as well as the stack temperature at set values, and the start-up time required for the DMFC system to reach steady-state operating conditions is reduced significantly compared with conventional sensor-less methods

  7. The response of various muscle types to a restriction -re-alimentation feeding strategy in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, B; Heyer, A; Gondret, F; Louveau, I

    2007-07-01

    Muscle lipid concentration is known to influence pork eating quality. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of a restriction-re-alimentation feeding strategy on intramuscular fat deposition in pigs. A total of 70 Duroc × (Large White × Landrace) pigs (castrated males and females) were used. Ten pigs were first slaughtered at 30 kg live weight (LW) to determine initial body and muscle composition. From 30 to 80 kg LW (growing period), pigs were either fed ad libitum (AL) or restricted to 70% of the ad libitum intake of AL pigs (RA). From 80 to 110 kg LW (finishing period), both AL and RA pigs were fed ad libitum. In each group, pigs were slaughtered at 80 kg (n = 10) and at 110 kg (n = 20) LW. During the growing period, the growth rate of RA pigs was reduced by 30% (P alimentation up to the level observed in AL pigs (P alimentation of RA pigs increased fat tissue deposition (+160% for females, P alimentation increased lipid (+62%, P alimentation. Therefore, an increased muscle lipid concentration at 110 kg LW could not be reached in RA pigs. Modifications of onset and/or duration of restriction and re-alimentation periods should be tested to optimise effects on muscle lipid deposition and thereby achieve improved pork quality.

  8. Effect of breeding strategy and feeding system on the within-herd variation of lean meat percents in Danish slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Bagger, J; Nielsen, J P; Ersbøll, A K

    2011-08-01

    In several countries slaughter pigs are paid for individually, according to slaughter weight and lean meat percent (LMP). Production of uniform batches of pigs within the optimal weight and LMP limits will obtain the best price. Therefore, all pigs should have a similar growth rate (average daily gain, ADG) and reach an appropriate slaughter weight within the same time period. LMP may serve as a proxy for ADG since pigs with low LMP have significantly higher ADG than pigs with high LMP and vice versa. Both breeding strategy and feeding system may influence the range of variation among pigs. The aim of this study was to test the two following hypotheses: (1) Herds purchasing breeding gilts have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds producing their own breeding gilts and (2) Herds using restricted feeding of finishers have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds with ad libitum feeding of finishers. The study included 72 herds and a total of 345,132 pigs slaughtered during one year. Among the 72 herds, 40 were home-breeders and 32 purchased breeding gilts from a breeding company. Nineteen herds used restricted feeding, of which 8 (42%) were home-breeders. Fifty-three herds used ad libitum feeding, of which 32 (60%) were home-breeders. Breeding strategy had a significant effect on SDLMP (p=0.003), where purchase of breeding gilts resulted in a significantly lower standard deviation of the monthly LMP compared to home-bred gilts (a difference in median SDLMP of 0.2 percentage points or 8% difference between groups). Feeding system had a significant effect on the meanLMP (p<0.001), with a significantly higher meanLMP in herds using restrictive feeding compared to ad libitum feeding (60.7% versus 60.0%). Restrictive feeding also resulted in a significantly lower SDLMP (p<0.001) compared to ad libitum feeding (2.2% versus 2.5% or a 12% difference between groups). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  9. Meat quality of rabbits reared with two different feeding strategies: with or without fresh alfalfa ad libitum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Capra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate production performance, carcass characteristics and nutritive value of meat of rabbits reared under the 2 prevailing feeding strategies in Uruguay. One week after weaning, 96 purebred V line rabbits were randomly distributed between 2 treatments: (T1 commercial pelleted food ad libitum and (T2 commercial pelleted food ad libitum plus fresh alfalfa ad libitum. Each treatment included 12 cages containing 4 individuals each (2 males and 2 females. Growth performance characteristics (live weight evolution, commercial food consumption and food/gain ratio were evaluated. The consumption of alfalfa was not measured. Rabbits were slaughtered at a live weight of 2500 g and carcass characteristics were evaluated. Samples of meat and dissectible fat were analysed to determine intramuscular fat content at muscle L. dorsi, dissectible fat and intramuscular fat composition, minerals (Zn, Fe, Mg and Na, vitamin E and purines. Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess the effect of treatments on the consumer’s perception of differences and the existence of attributes determining preferences. Differences between treatments were significant for total commercial food intake (23 356 vs. 20 930 g/cage; P<0.001 and feed conversion ratio (3.82 vs. 3.41; P<0.01 for T1 and T2 respectively. No significant differences were found in average daily gain, age at slaughter and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in the intramuscular fat content. The fatty acid composition of dissectible and intramuscular fat was affected the inclusion of alfalfa in the diet increasing the linolenic acid content (1.82 vs. 3.28% and 2.29 vs. 5.15% for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001, and improving the n-6/n-3 relationship (8.60 vs. 5.82 and 11.58 vs. 5.64 for T1 and T2 at intramuscular and dissectible fat, respectively; P<0.001. There were no significant differences in vitamin E

  10. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  11. Kinetic and reaction pathways of methanol oxidation on platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, R.W.; McCready, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    Methanol oxidation kinetics were measured on Pt wires in a flow reactor at pressures between 30 and 130 Pa. The kinetics were measured as a function of oxygen-to-methanol equivalence ratio phi and wire temperature. In methanol-lean feeds (phi 2 CO, CO 2 , and H 2 O were the only products; in methanol-rich feeds (phi > 1), CO, H 2 , H 2 CO, CO 2 , and H 2 O were observed. Experiments with 18 O 2 showed that the principal methanol oxidation pathway does not involve C-O bond dissociation. However, the 18 O 2 experiments, together with other features of the methanol oxidation data, also provided evidence for a minor oxidation pathway (accounting for less than 1% of the product CO 2 ) which proceeds through a carbon intermediate. A mathematical model is presented which describes the principal CH 3 OH oxidation pathway as a series reaction involving adsorbed H 2 CO and CO intermediates. Consistent with experimental results, the model predicts that inhibition by adsorbed CO should be weaker for CH 3 OH and H 2 CO oxidation than for CO oxidation. 34 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  12. Methanol from biomass and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    For Hawaii in the near term, the only liquid fuels indigenous sources will be those that can be made from biomass, and of these, methanol is the most promising. In addition, hydrogen produced by electrolysis can be used to markedly increase the yield of biomass methanol. This paper calculates cost of producing methanol by an integrated system including a geothermal electricity facility plus a plant producing methanol by gasifying biomass and adding hydrogen produced by electrolysis. Other studies cover methanol from biomass without added hydrogen and methanol from biomass by steam and carbon dioxide reforming. Methanol is made in a two-step process: the first is the gasification of biomass by partial oxidation with pure oxygen to produce carbon oxides and hydrogen, and the second is the reaction of gases to form methanol. Geothermal steam is used to generate the electricity used for the electrolysis to produce the added hydrogen

  13. Offspring Hg exposure relates to parental feeding strategies in a generalist bird with strong individual foraging specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cátia S A; Blondel, Léa; Sotillo, Alejandro; Müller, Wendt; Stienen, Eric W M; Boeckx, Pascal; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Monteiro, Marta S; Loureiro, Susana; de Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2017-12-01

    Generalist species can potentially exploit a wide variety of resources, but at the individual level they often show a certain degree of foraging specialization. Specific foraging strategies, however, may increase exposure to environmental contaminants that can alter the cost-benefit balance of consuming particular food items. The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is known to opportunistically feed on a wide range of marine and terrestrial prey that differ in contaminant load, such as mercury (Hg) that strongly biomagnifies through the aquatic food web. The hypothesis tested in this study were: i) a predominant use of marine prey by females during egg-formation and by both parents during chick rearing increases the exposure to Hg during embryonic development and chick growth, and ii) this affects parental investment in clutch volume, chick growth and body condition. Total Hg burden and isotopic signatures of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) were determined for eggs, down feathers, and primary feathers of L. fuscus chicks collected at a coastal colony in Belgium. As expected, eggs and feathers of chicks from parents with a stable isotope signature that suggested a predominantly marine diet had higher levels of Hg. The use of marine resources by females during the egg-formation period positively correlated to maternal investment in egg size, though entailing the cost of increased Hg-concentrations which in turn negatively affected clutch volume. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of chick down feathers is a suitable matrix to non-lethally estimate Hg concentrations in eggs. Contrary to our expectations, no relationship between Hg exposure and chick growth or chick body condition was found, which may be due the low concentrations found. We conclude that currently Hg contamination does not constitute a risk for development and condition of L. fuscus offspring at the levels currently observed at the Belgian coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Amino acid-based formula as a rescue strategy in feeding very-low-birth-weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Francesco; Spera, Anna Maria; Sellitto, Maria; Landolfo, Francesca; Capasso, Letizia

    2012-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates may develop severe intolerance to standard preterm formula especially if they are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We tested the hypothesis that these infants may tolerate an elemental, amino acid-based formula as a rescue feeding strategy. In a prospective, case-control pilot study, we enrolled VLBW IUGR infants enterally fed with standard preterm formula (SPF) at daily increments of 16 mL/kg. If gastric residuals accounted for >70% of milk feed in the previous 24 hours, then feedings were temporarily withheld and then resumed with amino acid formula (AAF) increased at the same speed. Cases on AAF were compared to controls on SPF and with cases themselves while on SPF. Primary outcome was the time to reach full enteral feedings. Secondary outcomes were time on parenteral nutrition, time on central venous catheter, and formula tolerability based on the amount of gastric residual volume. Sixty-four infants (22 cases) were enrolled. Although during the total duration of nutrition, cases had worse primary and secondary outcomes, when on AAF, cases were comparable to controls in time to full enteral feeding (14.4 vs 14 days), time on parenteral nutrition, and time on central venous catheter. Cases on AAF and controls had similar gastric residual volumes. At day 3 after AAF introduction, cases had a significantly reduced number (%) of gastric residual volume >5 mL/kg over total number of feedings (5.6 vs 1.5%; P Growth at 12 months of corrected age was also comparable. In our population of VLBW IUGR newborns with severe feeding intolerance, a short course on AAF was a safe and effective means of nutritional rescue.

  15. A fast approach to determine a fed batch feeding profile for recombinant Pichia pastoris strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microorganism Pichia pastoris is a commonly used microbial host for the expression of recombinant proteins in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industry. To speed up process development, a fast methodology to determine strain characteristic parameters, which are needed to subsequently set up fed batch feeding profiles, is required. Results Here, we show the general applicability of a novel approach to quantify a certain minimal set of bioprocess-relevant parameters, i.e. the adaptation time of the culture to methanol, the specific substrate uptake rate during the adaptation phase and the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, based on fast and easy-to-do batch cultivations with repeated methanol pulses in a batch culture. A detailed analysis of the adaptation of different P. pastoris strains to methanol was conducted and revealed that each strain showed very different characteristics during adaptation, illustrating the need of individual screenings for an optimal parameter definition during this phase. Based on the results obtained in batch cultivations, dynamic feeding profiles based on the specific substrate uptake rate were employed for different P. pastoris strains. In these experiments the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, which had been defined in batch experiments, also represented the upper limit of methanol uptake, underlining the validity of the determined process-relevant parameters and the overall experimental strategy. Conclusion In this study, we show that a fast approach to determine a minimal set of strain characteristic parameters based on easy-to-do batch cultivations with methanol pulses is generally applicable for different P. pastoris strains and that dynamic fed batch strategies can be designed on the specific substrate uptake rate without running the risk of methanol accumulation.

  16. Impact of carbon and nitrogen feeding strategy on high production of biomass and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by Schizochytrium sp. LU310.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xueping; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Nan; Lu, Yinghua; Ng, I-Son

    2015-05-01

    A new isolated Schizochytrium sp. LU310 from the mangrove forest of Wenzhou, China, was found as a high producing microalga of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this study, the significant improvements for DHA fermentation by the batch mode in the baffled flasks (i.e. higher oxygen supply) were achieved. By applied the nitrogen-feeding strategy in 1000 mL baffled flasks, the biomass, DHA concentration and DHA productivity were increased by 110.4%, 117.9% and 110.4%, respectively. Moreover, DHA concentration of 21.06 g/L was obtained by feeding 15 g/L of glucose intermittently, which was an increase of 41.25% over that of the batch mode. Finally, an innovative strategy was carried out by intermittent feeding carbon and simultaneously feeding nitrogen. The maximum DHA concentration and DHA productivity in the fed-batch cultivation reached to 24.74 g/L and 241.5 mg/L/h, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards a methanol economy: Zeolite catalyzed production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    The main focus of this thesis is zeolite catalyzed conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Furthermore, conversion of ethane to higher hydrocarbons has also been studied. After a brief introduction to the concept of “the methanol economy” in the first chapter, the second...... a commercial H-ZSM-5 zeolite impregnated with gallium and/or molybdenum is described. The object was to investigate if the presence of methanol in the feed could enhance the conversion of ethane, but in all cases the opposite is observed; the presence of methanol actually suppresses the conversion of ethane...... various zeolite catalysts is studied in Chapter 4. When 2-propanol or 1-butanol is converted over H-ZSM-5, the total conversion capacities of the catalyst are more than 25 times higher than for conversion of methanol and ethanol. Furthermore, for conversion of C3+ alcohols, the selectivity shifts during...

  18. Methanol production by Mycobacterium smegmatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, L.S.; Ballou, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Mycobacterium smegmatis cells produce [ 3 H]methanol when incubated with [methyl- 3 H]methionine. The methanol is derived from S-adenosylmethionine rather than methyltetrahydrofolate. M. smegmatis cells carboxymethylate several proteins, and some of the methanol probably results from their demethylation, but most of the methanol may come from an unidentified component with a high gel mobility. Although methanol in the medium reached 19 μM, it was not incorporated into the methylated mannose polysaccharide, a lipid carrier in this organism

  19. Hot new gamble on methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, J.

    1981-10-01

    Methanol from coal, wood, or natural gas is being considered as an extender or an alternative source of gasoline. Firms such as Nova and Celanese are gambling millions on the proposition that methanol is a crucial steppingstone to the fuels and chemicals of the future. With a new process developed by Mobil Oil, methanol from coal could be converted into gasoline. By the 1990s Imperial Oil Ltd. expects there will be at least one methanol plant using Alberta coal. These and other plans by the Alberta and British Columbia governments and by Canadian industry to produce methanol are reported.

  20. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  1. Methanol and carbonylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, J.; Perron, R.

    1987-01-01

    The overall focus of the book is on homogeneous catalysed processes which were seen to offer the most promising routes to C/sub 2/ oxygenates. The first three chapters review the industrial synthesis and applications of carbon monoxide such as in the manufacture of gasoline (e.g. Fischer-Tropsch, Mobil processes), organic chemicals (e.g. ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), industrial importance of C/sub 2/ oxygenates, and use of methanol as a future feedstock are discussed. The next six chapters are each concerned with the production of a particular C/sub 2/ oxygenate and a detailed analysis of the methods and catalysts used. The hydrocarbonylation of methanol occupies a large chapter (136 references) with a comparative examination of the catalysts available, and their modification to increase selectivity to either acetylaldehyde or ethanol. Following chapters examine the synthesis of ethyl acetate, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, vinyl acetate, ethylene glycol and oxalic acid.

  2. Nitrofurantoin methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venu R. Vangala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic nitrofurantoin {systematic name: (E-1-[(5-nitro-2-furylmethylideneamino]imidazolidine-2,4-dione} crystallizes as a methanol monosolvate, C8H6N4O5·CH4O. The nitrofurantoin molecule adopts a nearly planar conformation (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0344 Å. Hydrogen bonds involve the co-operative N—H...O—H...O heterosynthons between the cyclic imide of nitrofurantoin and methanol O—H groups. There are also C—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the nitrofurantoin molecules which support the key hydrogen-bonding synthon. The overall crystal packing is further assisted by weak C—H...O interactions, giving a herringbone pattern.

  3. Integrative CO2 Capture and Hydrogenation to Methanol with Reusable Catalyst and Amine: Toward a Carbon Neutral Methanol Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sayan; Sen, Raktim; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2018-02-07

    Herein we report an efficient and recyclable system for tandem CO 2 capture and hydrogenation to methanol. After capture in an aqueous amine solution, CO 2 is hydrogenated in high yield to CH 3 OH (>90%) in a biphasic 2-MTHF/water system, which also allows for easy separation and recycling of the amine and catalyst for multiple reaction cycles. Between cycles, the produced methanol can be conveniently removed in vacuo. Employing this strategy, catalyst Ru-MACHO-BH and polyamine PEHA were recycled three times with 87% of the methanol producibility of the first cycle retained, along with 95% of catalyst activity after four cycles. CO 2 from dilute sources such as air can also be converted to CH 3 OH using this route. We postulate that the CO 2 capture and hydrogenation to methanol system presented here could be an important step toward the implementation of the carbon neutral methanol economy concept.

  4. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  5. Methanol Synthesis: Optimal Solution for a Better Efficiency of the Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Leonzio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an ANOVA analysis and a response surface methodology are applied to analyze the equilibrium of methanol reaction from pure carbon dioxide and hydrogen. In the ANOVA analysis, carbon monoxide composition in the feed, reaction temperature, recycle and water removal through a zeolite membrane are the analyzed factors. Carbon conversion, methanol yield, methanol productivity and methanol selectivity are the analyzed responses. Results show that main factors have the same effect on responses and a common significant interaction is not present. Carbon monoxide composition and water removal have a positive effect, while temperature and recycle have a negative effect on the system. From central composite design, an optimal solution is found in order to overcome thermodynamic limit: the reactor works with a membrane at lower temperature with carbon monoxide composition in the feed equal to 10 mol % and without recycle. In these conditions, carbon conversion, methanol yield, methanol selectivity, and methanol production are, respectively, higher than 60%, higher than 60%, between 90% and 95% and higher than 0.15 mol/h when considering a feed flow rate of 1 mol/h. A comparison with a traditional reactor is also developed: the membrane reactor ensures to have a carbon conversion higher of the 29% and a methanol yield higher of the 34%. Future researches should evaluate an economic analysis about the optimal solution.

  6. The (p, ρ, T) of (methanol + benzene) and (methanol + ethylbenzene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naziev, Yashar M.; Shahverdiyev, Astan N.; Hasanov, Vaqif H.

    2005-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) of methanol, ethylbenzene and (methanol + benzene) and (methanol + ethylbenzene) at temperatures between (290 and 500) K and pressures in the range (0.1 to 60) MPa have been measured with a magnetic suspension densimeter with an uncertainty of ±0.1%. Our measurements with methanol deviate from the literature values by less than 0.2%. The (p, ρ, T) measurements were fitted with experimental uncertainties by an empirical equation. The temperature and mole fraction dependence of the coefficients of the equation of state are presented

  7. Formaldehyde, methanol and hydrocarbon emissions from methanol-fueled cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Lipari, F.; Potter, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Exhaust and evaporative emissions tests were conducted on several methanol- and gasoline-fueled vehicles. Separate samples for chromatographic analysis of formaldehyde, methanol, and individual hydrocarbons were collected in each of the three phases of the driving cycle and in each of the two portions of the evaporative emissions test. One vehicle, equipped with an experimental variable-fuel engine, was tested using methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures of 100, 85, 50, 15, and 0 percent methanol. Combustion-generated hydrocarbons were lowest using methanol fuel, and increased several-fold as the gasoline fraction was increased. Gasoline components in the exhaust increased from zero as the gasoline fraction of the fuel was increased. On the other hand, formaldehyde emissions were several times higher using methanol fuel than they were using gasoline. A dedicated methanol car and the variable-fuel car gave similar emissions patterns when they both were tested using methanol fuel. The organic-carbon composition of the exhaust was 85-90 percent methanol, 5-7 percent formaldehyde, and 3-9 percent hydrocarbons. Several cars that were tested using gasoline emitted similar distributions of hydrocarbons, even through the vehicles represented a broad range of current and developmental engine families and emissions control systems

  8. Fillet texture of Rainbow trout as affected by feeding strategy, slaughtering procedure and storage post-mortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgemand, J.; Rønsholdt, B.; Alsted, N.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the enactment of environmental legislation in Denmark, feed expenditure by commercial aquaculture operations has been limited. This development has created a demand for high energy diets, which presently dominate the market place. Such diets limit waste load to the surrounding environment...

  9. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  10. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  11. Identifying cost-minimizing strategies for guaranteeing target dairy income over feed cost via use of the Livestock Gross Margin dairy insurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvekar, M; Cabrera, V E; Gould, B W

    2010-07-01

    Milk and feed price volatility are the major source of dairy farm risk. Since August 2008 a new federally reinsured insurance program has been available to many US dairy farmers to help minimize the negative effects of adverse price movements. This insurance program is referred to as Livestock Gross Margin Insurance for Dairy Cattle. Given the flexibility in contract design, the dairy farmer has to make 3 critical decisions when purchasing this insurance: 1) the percentage of monthly milk production to be covered, 3) declared feed equivalents used to produce this milk, and 3) the level of gross margin not covered by insurance (i.e., deductible). The objective of this analysis was to provide an optimal strategy of how a dairy farmer could incorporate this insurance program to help manage the variability in net farm income. In this analysis we assumed that a risk-neutral dairy farmer wants to design an insurance contract such that a target guaranteed income over feed cost is obtained at least cost. We undertook this analysis for a representative Wisconsin dairy farm (herd size: 120 cows) producing 8,873 kg (19,545 lb) of milk/cow per year. Wisconsin statistical data indicates that dairy farms of similar size must require an income over feed cost of at least $110/Mg ($5/cwt) of milk to be profitable during the coverage period. Therefore, using data for the July 2009 insurance contract to insure $110/Mg of milk, the least cost contract was found to have a premium of $1.22/Mg ($0.055/cwt) of milk produced insuring approximately 52% of the production with variable monthly production covered during the period of September 2009 to June 2010. This premium represented 1.10% of the desired IOFC. We compared the above optimal strategy with an alternative nonoptimal strategy, defined as a contract insuring the same proportion of milk as the optimal (52%) but with a constant amount insured across all contract months. The premium was found to be almost twice the level obtained

  12. Modeling and Simulation of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohr, M.; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    From intro.: The direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell uses aqueous solutions of methanol as fuel and oxygen or air as the oxidant and uses an ionically conducting polymer membrane such as Nafion(sup r)117 and the electrolyte. This type of direct oxidation cell is fuel versatile and offers significant advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operation...The present study focuses on the results of a phenomenological model based on current understanding of the various processed operating in these cells.

  13. Effect of feed strategy and cod/sulfate ratio on the removal of sulfate in an AnSBBR with recirculation of the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archilha, N. C.; Canto, C. S. A.; Ratusznei, S. M.; Rodrigues, J. A.D.; Zaiat, M.; Foresti, E.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of the interaction between feed strategy and COD/[SO 4 2 ] ratio on the efficiency of sulfate removal from a synthetic wastewater. To this end, an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, with recirculation of the liquid phase, containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam (AnSBBR) was used. The reactor, with a working volume of 2.7 L, treated 2.0 L synthetic wastewater in 8-h cycles. The system was inoculated with anaerobic biomass from a UASB reactor and was maintained at 30± 1 degree centigrade in a chamber with temperature control. (Author)

  14. Effect of feed strategy and cod/sulfate ratio on the removal of sulfate in an AnSBBR with recirculation of the liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archilha, N. C.; Canto, C. S. A.; Ratusznei, S. M.; Rodrigues, J. A.D.; Zaiat, M.; Foresti, E.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to analyze the effect of the interaction between feed strategy and COD/[SO{sub 4}{sup 2}] ratio on the efficiency of sulfate removal from a synthetic wastewater. To this end, an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, with recirculation of the liquid phase, containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam (AnSBBR) was used. The reactor, with a working volume of 2.7 L, treated 2.0 L synthetic wastewater in 8-h cycles. The system was inoculated with anaerobic biomass from a UASB reactor and was maintained at 30{+-} 1 degree centigrade in a chamber with temperature control. (Author)

  15. Eating difficulties and parental feeding strategies during and after childhood cancer treatment: The experiences of parents. : A systematic literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer is a life-threatening disease with a profound impact on the family. Treatment side-effects and accompanied dietary difficulties are for example severe stressors, as appropriate nutrition is important for the treatment success and quality of life. In addition, (unhealthy) dietary patterns established in childhood tend to maintain in survivors. Parents are key players in feeding and establishing these pat-terns, though, systematic research on how parents experience these dietar...

  16. Attitudes and perceptions of three groups of family farmers in Brazil on problems they perceive in raising broilers and alternative feeding strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Horsted, Klaus; Figueiredo, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    With the purpose to identify alternatives to the use of oil seed crops and cereals in broiler feeding, we interviewed 21 family farmers raising broilers in alternative systems located in three relevant sites for the poultry industry in Brazil. Two groups in the south (Parana and Rio Grande do Sul......) were organized in cooperatives raising slow-growing broilers in free-range systems. The third group was linked to a broiler company in the state of Sao Paulo producing antibiotic-free (AF) broilers in intensive systems. Individual assessments were performed through surveys with semi......-structured questions. Nutrient supply was heavily dependent on maize and soy. Free-range broilers were normally raised with access to outdoor areas in permanent paddocks with very little vegetation available. In the three sites, the finishing period of broilers was the production stage with higher feed supplementation....... In addition, farmers producing AF broilers highlighted subclinical coccidiosis as of high economic importance. Production of slow-growing broilers in free-range systems would benefit from local resources for the finishing period. Novel feeding strategies for broilers are suggested based on the farmers’ report...

  17. Methanol as an energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermann, P.; Grube, T.; Hoehlein, B. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    For the future, a strongly growing energy demand is expected in the transport sector worldwide. Economically efficient oil production will run through a maximum in the next decade. Higher fuel prices and an environmentally desirable reduction of emissions will increase the pressure for reducing fuel consumption and emissions in road traffic. These criteria show the urgent necessity of structural changes in the fuel market. Due to its advantages concerning industrial-scale production, storage and global availability, methanol has the short- to medium-term potential for gaining increased significance as a substitution product in the energy market. Methanol can be produced both from fossil energy sources and from biomass or waste materials through the process steps of synthesis gas generation with subsequent methanol synthesis. Methanol has the potential to be used in an environmentally friendly manner in gasoline/methanol mixtures for flexible fuel vehicles with internal combustion engines and in diesel engines with pure methanol. Furthermore, it can be used in fuel cell vehicles with on-board hydrogen production in direct methanol fuel cell drives, and in stationary systems for electricity and heat generation as well as for hydrogen production. Finally, in portable applications it serves as an energy carrier for electric power generation. In this book, the processes for the production and use of methanol are presented and evaluated, markets and future options are discussed and issues of safety and environmental impacts are addressed by a team of well-known authors. (orig.)

  18. Methanol synthesis beyond chemical equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Wilbers, E.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    In commercial methanol production from syngas, the conversion is thermodynamically limited to 0.3-0.7 leading to large recycles of non-converted syngas. This problem can be overcome to a significant extent by in situ condensation of methanol during its synthesis which is possible nowadays due to the

  19. [Fermentation behaviors of recombinant Pichia pastoris under inhibited methanol concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Shan; Fan, Wei-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Xing

    2003-09-01

    ), respectively, while the specific methanol consumption rate is low only at 0.04 g/(g x h), showing the potential for the strategy of getting high Hir65 production rate at the low consumption of methanol.

  20. Methylnaltrexone bromide methanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [systematic name: (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS-3-cyclopropylmethyl-4a,9-hydroxy-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octahydro-1H-4,12-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium bromide methanol monosolvate], C21H26NO4+·Br−·CH3OH, two of the three six-membered rings adopt chair conformations while the third, which contains a C=C double bond, adopts an approximate half-boat conformation. The 2,3-dihydrofuran ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from one of the starting materials.

  1. Experimental workflow for developing a feed forward strategy to control biomass growth and exploit maximum specific methane productivity of Methanothermobacter marburgensis in a biological methane production process (BMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krajete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interests for new biofuel generations allowing conversion of gaseous substrate(s to gaseous product(s arose for power to gas and waste to value applications. An example is biological methane production process (BMPP with Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The latter, can convert carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen (H2, having different origins and purities, to methane (CH4, water and biomass. However, these gas converting bioprocesses are tendentiously gas limited processes and the specific methane productivity per biomass amount (qCH4 tends to be low. Therefore, this contribution proposes a workflow for the development of a feed forward strategy to control biomass, growth (rx and qCH4 in a continuous gas limited BMPP. The proposed workflow starts with a design of experiment (DoE to optimize media composition and search for a liquid based limitation to control selectively growth. From the DoE it came out that controlling biomass growth was possible independently of the dilution and gassing rate applied while not affecting methane evolution rates (MERs. This was done by shifting the process from a natural gas limited state to a controlled liquid limited growth. The latter allowed exploiting the maximum biocatalytic activity for methane formation of Methanothermobacter marburgensis. An increase of qCH4 from 42 to 129 mmolCH4 g−1 h−1 was achieved by applying a liquid limitation compare with the reference state. Finally, a verification experiment was done to verify the feeding strategy transferability to a different process configuration. This evidenced the ratio of the fed KH2PO4 to rx (R(FKH2PO4/rx has an appropriate parameter for scaling feeds in a continuous gas limited BMPP. In the verification experiment CH4 was produced in a single bioreactor step at a methane evolution rate (MER of   132 mmolCH4*L−1*h−1 at a CH4 purity of 93 [Vol.%].

  2. Ontogenetic dietary shift and feeding strategy of Raja undulata Lacepède, 1802 (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae on the Portuguese continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Moura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the scope of an ecosystem approach to fisheries, the understanding of trophic interactions is important for the assessment and consequently the proposal of suitable management measures. Raja undulata, like other rajids, is an important demersal predator in the Portuguese coastal community for which the biological and ecological information is still scarce. The ontogenetic dietary shift was investigated. Major length groups were defined through cluster analysis of the mean abundance of prey items. Prey diversity and feeding strategy were evaluated by length group. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the influence of the factors sex, season and maturity on the diet of this species. It was concluded that R. undulata has a dietary ontogenetic shift within the definition of three major length groups (MLGs: 200-550 mm; 550-750 mm and 750-1000 mm. Diet varied from small and semi-pelagic to large and benthic prey. The feeding strategy of the species also changed from a generalised to a specialised diet. The decapod Polybius henslowi was the main prey item, especially for larger predators. Differences were found between sexes, maturity stages and seasons in each MLG.

  3. Asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone using a strictly (R)-stereoselective carbonyl reductase through efficient NADPH regeneration and the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Man; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Li; Bai, Yanbin; Chen, Liang; Yu, Meilan; Cheng, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhao; Ying, Xiangxian

    2017-11-01

    To characterize a recombinant carbonyl reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceCPR1) and explore its use in asymmetric synthesis of (R)-pantolactone [(R)-PL]. The NADPH-dependent SceCPR1 exhibited strict (R)-enantioselectivity and high activity in the asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone (KPL) to (R)-PL. Escherichia coli, coexpressing SceCPR1 and glucose dehydrogenase from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (EsGDH), was constructed to fulfill efficient NADPH regeneration. During the whole-cell catalyzed asymmetric reduction of KPL, the spontaneous hydrolysis of KPL significantly affected the yield of (R)-PL, which was effectively alleviated by the employment of the substrate constant-feeding strategy. The established whole-cell bioreduction for 6 h afforded 458 mM (R)-PL with the enantiomeric excess value of >99.9% and the yield of 91.6%. Escherichia coli coexpressing SceCPR1 and EsGDH efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric synthesis of (R)-PL through the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

  4. Sulfur Rich Coal Gasification and Low Impact Methanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bassani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the methanol was employed in numerous innovative applications and is a key compound widely used as a building block or intermediate for producing synthetic hydrocarbons, solvents, energy storage medium and fuel. It is a source of clean, sustainable energy that can be produced from traditional and renewable sources: natural gas, coal, biomass, landfill gas and power plant or industrial emissions. An innovative methanol production process from coal gasification is proposed in this work. A suitable comparison between the traditional coal to methanol process and the novel one is provided and deeply discussed. The most important features, with respect to the traditional ones, are the lower carbon dioxide emissions (about 0.3% and the higher methanol production (about 0.5% without any addition of primary sources. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a coal feed/fuel with a high sulfur content allows higher reductions of carbon dioxide emissions. The key idea is to convert hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide into syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide by means of a regenerative thermal reactor. This is the Acid Gas to Syngas technology, a completely new and effective route of processing acid gases. The main concept is to feed an optimal ratio of hydrogen sulphide and carbon monoxide and to preheat the inlet acid gas before the combustion. The reactor is simulated using a detailed kinetic scheme.

  5. Methanol Oxidation on Pt3Sn(111) for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Methanol Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Deng, Zhigang; Guo, Chen; Wang, Weili; Wei, Shuxian; Ng, Siu-Pang; Chen, Xiangfeng; Ding, Ning; Guo, Wenyue; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence

    2016-05-18

    PtSn alloy, which is a potential material for use in direct methanol fuel cells, can efficiently promote methanol oxidation and alleviate the CO poisoning problem. Herein, methanol decomposition on Pt3Sn(111) was systematically investigated using periodic density functional theory and microkinetic modeling. The geometries and energies of all of the involved species were analyzed, and the decomposition network was mapped out to elaborate the reaction mechanisms. Our results indicated that methanol and formaldehyde were weakly adsorbed, and the other derivatives (CHxOHy, x = 1-3, y = 0-1) were strongly adsorbed and preferred decomposition rather than desorption on Pt3Sn(111). The competitive methanol decomposition started with the initial O-H bond scission followed by successive C-H bond scissions, (i.e., CH3OH → CH3O → CH2O → CHO → CO). The Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relations and energy barrier decomposition analyses identified the C-H and O-H bond scissions as being more competitive than the C-O bond scission. Microkinetic modeling confirmed that the vast majority of the intermediates and products from methanol decomposition would escape from the Pt3Sn(111) surface at a relatively low temperature, and the coverage of the CO residue decreased with an increase in the temperature and decrease in partial methanol pressure.

  6. Bio-methanol: Fuel of choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, D.R.; Yu, C.; Ho, T.; Tang, D.; Lee, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is working on four programs related to methanol: Biomass production, hydrogen, biomass conversion and transportation fuel demonstration. The biomass production program started eight years ago when the first Pacific Basin Biomass Workshop set forth a plan of action. Since then, much progress had been made toward implementing this plan. With support from the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through SERI, HNEI has been implementing a biomass production program that includes a resource assessment and computerized mapping of all agricultural lands, various field trials of promising species and research of harvesting and conversion technologies. Five to six percent of Hawaii's land area could yield sufficient feed-stock to replace all of the state's gasoline and diesel fuel from imported oil

  7. Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Grigoras, Ionela; Zhou, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) at varying temperatures, ranging from 140 °C to 180 °C. For the study, a H3PO4 – doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) – based membrane electrode assembly (MEA......) of 45 cm2 active surface area from BASF was employed. The study showed overall negligible effects of methanol-water vapor mixture slips on performance, even at relatively low simulated steam methanol reforming conversion of 90%, which corresponds to 3% methanol vapor by volume in the anode gas feed....... Temperature on the other hand has significant impact on the performance of an HT-PEMFC. To assess the effects of methanol-water vapor mixture alone, CO2 and CO are not considered in these tests. The analysis is based on polarization curves and impedance spectra registered for all the test points. After...

  8. Life cycle, feeding and adaptive strategy implications on the co-occurrence of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus and Notodiaptomus iheringi in Lobo-Broa Reservoir (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIETZLER A. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics, life cycle and feeding of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus and Notodiaptomus iheringi, were studied in Broa reservoir from August 1988 to August 1989, period when a replacement of A. furcatus by N. iheringi was observed. Some abiotic factors such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were measured to characterize the limnological conditions of the reservoir. Also, phytoplankton composition was analyzed and related to the feeding of the two species. Experimental data on developmental time and reproduction of A. furcatus and N. iheringi under different temperatures showed that lower temperatures were responsible for density decreasing of both populations in the reservoir during the dry season. Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta smaller than 20 mum were the most abundant phytoplankton groups in the reservoir as well as in the gut content of A. furcatus and N. iheringi, representing an important food source for both species. The temporary disappearance of Argyrodiaptomus furcatus, observed between 1988 and 1989 and its replacement by Notodiaptomus iheringi was related to mining activities upstream, modifying the water turbidity, pH and conductivity. However, the reappearance and maintenance of A. furcatus for another ten years and a recent replacement re-incidence indicates that these two calanoids do not coexist in this environment. Adaptive strategies of both species, related to changes in environmental conditions, are discussed. Probably, Argyrodiaptomus furcatus is an indicator of less eutrophic environments, while Notodiaptomus iheringi of more eutrophic systems.

  9. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.

  10. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  11. Investigating the effects of methanol-water vapor mixture on a PBI-based high temperature PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Nielsen, Heidi Venstrup

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of methanol and water vapor on the performance of a high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). A H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Celtec P2100 of 45 cm2 of active surface area from BASF was employed....... A long-term durability test of around 1250 h was performed, in which the concentrations of methanol-water vapor mixture in the anode feed gas were varied. The fuel cell showed a continuous performance decay in the presence of vapor mixtures of methanol and water of 5% and 8% by volume in anode feed...

  12. Development and characterisation of a portable direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, A.

    2005-11-21

    This thesis deals with the development and characterisation of a portable direct methanol fuel cell stack. In addition, calculations of the transport of methanol and water in the membrane are compared with experimentally determined values. It also includes investigations of the behaviour of single-cells and some of its components, as the anode gas diffusion layer and the anode flow-field. For the addition of methanol to the anode feed loop, a passive concept based on a permeable tube was developed and verified by both experiments and simulations. (orig.)

  13. Improvement in methanol production by regulating the composition of synthetic gas mixture and raw biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Mardina, Primata; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Sang-Yong; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2016-10-01

    Raw biogas can be an alternative feedstock to pure methane (CH4) for methanol production. In this investigation, we evaluated the methanol production potential of Methylosinus sporium from raw biogas originated from an anaerobic digester. Furthermore, the roles of different gases in methanol production were investigated using synthetic gas mixtures of CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen (H2). Maximum methanol production was 5.13, 4.35, 6.28, 7.16, 0.38, and 0.36mM from raw biogas, CH4:CO2, CH4:H2, CH4:CO2:H2, CO2, and CO2:H2, respectively. Supplementation of H2 into raw biogas increased methanol production up to 3.5-fold. Additionally, covalent immobilization of M. sporium on chitosan resulted in higher methanol production from raw biogas. This study provides a suitable approach to improve methanol production using low cost raw biogas as a feed containing high concentrations of H2S (0.13%). To our knowledge, this is the first report on methanol production from raw biogas, using immobilized cells of methanotrophs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Power generation in fuel cells using liquid methanol and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is directed to an encapsulated fuel cell including a methanol source that feeds liquid methanol (CH.sub.3 OH) to an anode. The anode is electrical communication with a load that provides electrical power. The fuel cell also includes a hydrogen peroxide source that feeds liquid hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2 O.sub.2) to the cathode. The cathode is also in communication with the electrical load. The anode and cathode are in contact with and separated by a proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane.

  15. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  16. Methanol adsorption on Pt(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, A.V.; Chottiner, G.S.; Hoffman, R.W.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1984-12-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy has been used to study the decomposition of methanol on a Pt(111) surface. Several intermediate states in the decomposition are identified by quenching the sample when reactions occur. At 100 K a set of peaks at 800, 1040, 1350, and 2890 cm -1 indicates the presence of a multilayer molecularly adsorbed methanol. As the sample is warmed to 130 K peaks develop at 1700 and 2780 cm -1 , suggesting the formation of formaldehyde on the surface. With further heating, peaks grow at 1820 and 2560 cm -1 due to the formation of a formyl species during the decomposition of methanol over Pt(111). Further heating leads to the final conversion of the surface species to adsorbed CO and carbonaceous residues

  17. The opportunistic feeding and reproduction strategies of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae inhabiting ephemeral habitats on southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina da Silva Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Most Rivulidae fishes are popularly known as annual fishes which live in ephemeral environments such as pools, that obligatorily dry out seasonally causing the death of adult individuals. They have unique biological characteristics such as small body size, early sexual maturation, continuous reproduction, an elaborated courtship behavior, and a great reproductive capacity among fishes. The rivulids are widely distributed in North, Central and South America. In this study, the diet and reproductive biology of Cynopoecilus melanotaenia was analyzed. A total of 263 specimens were collected and the analysis of 233 gastrointestinal contents revealed an invertivorous diet composed mainly of small crustaceans (Cladocera, Amphipoda, and Ostracoda and immature insects (Chaoboridae, Culicidae, Syrphidae, but mainly Chironomidae larvae. Lepidophagy on male's diet was also registered. Fecundity was estimated by analyzing 59 pairs of mature ovaries and ranged from 2 to 157 oocytes (mean, 19 ± 26[SD]. The species has fractional spawning, a strategy to increase the chance of survival to prolonged depletions. This study is the first to investigate the reproductive biology of C. melanotaenia. The results confirmed the opportunistic character of the rivulid C. melanotaenia and provided unreported reproductive information that may aid conservation of the species.

  18. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Nutritional strategies for ruminants fed on local feed supplemented with molasses multi-nutrient blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a three-week mission from 18 June 1989 to 7 July 1989 at the Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation (PAIR/BATAN), National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta, within the framework of a project entitled: ''Assessment of molasses/multi-nutrient blocks for ruminants in Indonesia (with emphasis on small-farm holders)'' (INS/88/013 - 11.66 - Agricultural Production). The project involves field evaluations of supplementation strategies at a number of provinces and is backed by controlled laboratory studies at PAIR/BATAN. Recent field studies confirm the potential for improved production from goats, sheep, dairy cattle and buffaloes in response to supplementation. The increased production is justified by cost/benefit analysis but further improvements should be possible when least cost supplements are devised for local conditions. The Expert worked closely with the leader of the group in the Animal Nutrition and Production Section, Dr. C. Hendratno, and her staff to interpret, summarize and report on results of recently completed, existing field studies; to initiate new field studies in different provinces of Java; to develop nuclear and other techniques for use in planned intensive laboratory studies aimed at identifying the ingredients in urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks that are responsible for their success as supplements for goats, dairy cattle and buffaloes in a number of locations in Java. (author)

  19. Membrane fouling and anti-fouling strategies using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant as the feed for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Si Cong; Amy, Gary L.; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant is considered as a potential feed stream for osmotic power generation in this paper. The feasibility of using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant was examined from two aspects: (a) the membrane fouling propensity of RO retentate, and (b) the efficacy of anti-fouling strategies. The membranes used in this study were the inner selective thin film composite polyethersulfone (TFC/PES) hollow fiber membranes, which possessed a high water permeability and good mechanical strength. Scaling by phosphate salts was found to be one possible inorganic fouling on the innermost layer of the PES membrane, whereas silica fouling was observed to be the governing fouling on the outmost surface of the PES membrane. Two anti-fouling pretreatments, i.e., pH adjustment and anti-scalant pre-treatment for the feed stream, were studied and found to be straightforward and effective. Using RO retentate at pH 7.2 as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution, the average power density was 7.3 W/m at 20 bar. The average power density increased to 12.6 W/m by modifying RO retentate with an initial pH value of 5.5 using HCl and to 13.4 W/m by adding 1.1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Moreover, the flux recovery of the fouled membranes, without the indicated pretreatments, reached 84.9% using deionized (DI) water flushing and 95.0% using air bubbling under a high crossflow velocity of 23.3 cm/s (Re = 2497) for 30 min. After pretreatment by pH adjustment, the flux recovery increased to 94.6% by DI water flushing and 100.0% by air bubbling. After pretreatment by adding 1.1 mM EDTA into RO retentate, flux was almost fully restored by physical cleaning by DI water flushing and air bubbling. These results provide insight into developing an effective pretreatment by either pH adjustment or EDTA addition before PRO and physical cleaning methods by DI water flushing and air bubbling for membrane used in osmotic power

  20. Membrane fouling and anti-fouling strategies using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant as the feed for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Si Cong

    2015-10-25

    RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant is considered as a potential feed stream for osmotic power generation in this paper. The feasibility of using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant was examined from two aspects: (a) the membrane fouling propensity of RO retentate, and (b) the efficacy of anti-fouling strategies. The membranes used in this study were the inner selective thin film composite polyethersulfone (TFC/PES) hollow fiber membranes, which possessed a high water permeability and good mechanical strength. Scaling by phosphate salts was found to be one possible inorganic fouling on the innermost layer of the PES membrane, whereas silica fouling was observed to be the governing fouling on the outmost surface of the PES membrane. Two anti-fouling pretreatments, i.e., pH adjustment and anti-scalant pre-treatment for the feed stream, were studied and found to be straightforward and effective. Using RO retentate at pH 7.2 as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution, the average power density was 7.3 W/m at 20 bar. The average power density increased to 12.6 W/m by modifying RO retentate with an initial pH value of 5.5 using HCl and to 13.4 W/m by adding 1.1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Moreover, the flux recovery of the fouled membranes, without the indicated pretreatments, reached 84.9% using deionized (DI) water flushing and 95.0% using air bubbling under a high crossflow velocity of 23.3 cm/s (Re = 2497) for 30 min. After pretreatment by pH adjustment, the flux recovery increased to 94.6% by DI water flushing and 100.0% by air bubbling. After pretreatment by adding 1.1 mM EDTA into RO retentate, flux was almost fully restored by physical cleaning by DI water flushing and air bubbling. These results provide insight into developing an effective pretreatment by either pH adjustment or EDTA addition before PRO and physical cleaning methods by DI water flushing and air bubbling for membrane used in osmotic power

  1. Membrane fouling and anti-fouling strategies using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant as the feed for osmotic power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si Cong; Amy, Gary L; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant is considered as a potential feed stream for osmotic power generation in this paper. The feasibility of using RO retentate from a municipal water recycling plant was examined from two aspects: (a) the membrane fouling propensity of RO retentate, and (b) the efficacy of anti-fouling strategies. The membranes used in this study were the inner selective thin film composite polyethersulfone (TFC/PES) hollow fiber membranes, which possessed a high water permeability and good mechanical strength. Scaling by phosphate salts was found to be one possible inorganic fouling on the innermost layer of the PES membrane, whereas silica fouling was observed to be the governing fouling on the outmost surface of the PES membrane. Two anti-fouling pretreatments, i.e., pH adjustment and anti-scalant pre-treatment for the feed stream, were studied and found to be straightforward and effective. Using RO retentate at pH 7.2 as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution, the average power density was 7.3 W/m(2) at 20 bar. The average power density increased to 12.6 W/m(2) by modifying RO retentate with an initial pH value of 5.5 using HCl and to 13.4 W/m(2) by adding 1.1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Moreover, the flux recovery of the fouled membranes, without the indicated pretreatments, reached 84.9% using deionized (DI) water flushing and 95.0% using air bubbling under a high crossflow velocity of 23.3 cm/s (Re = 2497) for 30 min. After pretreatment by pH adjustment, the flux recovery increased to 94.6% by DI water flushing and 100.0% by air bubbling. After pretreatment by adding 1.1 mM EDTA into RO retentate, flux was almost fully restored by physical cleaning by DI water flushing and air bubbling. These results provide insight into developing an effective pretreatment by either pH adjustment or EDTA addition before PRO and physical cleaning methods by DI water flushing and air bubbling for membrane used in

  2. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriyana [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jenderal Achmad Yani Univerity (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Susanto, Herri, E-mail: herri@che.itb.ac.id; Subagjo [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H{sub 2} to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H{sub 2} for increasing H{sub 2}/CO ratio. CO{sub 2} removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy

  3. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriyana; Susanto, Herri; Subagjo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource and has the potential to make a significant impact on domestic fuel supplies. Biomass can be converted to fuel like methanol via several step process. The process can be split into following main steps: biomass preparation, gasification, gas cooling and cleaning, gas shift and methanol synthesis. Untill now these configuration still has a problem like high production cost, catalyst deactivation, economy of scale and a huge energy requirements. These problems become the leading inhibition for biomass conversion to methanol, which should be resolved to move towards the economical. To address these issues, we developed various process and new configurations for methanol synthesis via methyl formate. This configuration combining two reactors: the one reactor for the carbonylation of methanol and CO to form methyl formate, and the second for the hydrogenolysis of methyl formate and H 2 to form two molecule of methanol. Four plant process configurations were compared with the biomass basis is 300 ton/day. The first configuration (A) is equipped with a steam reforming process for converting methane to CO and H 2 for increasing H 2 /CO ratio. CO 2 removal is necessary to avoid poisoning the catalyst. COSORB process used for the purpose of increasing the partial pressure of CO in the feed gas. The steam reforming process in B configuration is not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. For C configuration, the steam reforming process and COSORB are not used with the aim of reducing the number of process equipment, so expect lower investment costs. D configuration is almost similar to the configuration A. This configuration difference is in the synthesis of methanol which was held in a single reactor. Carbonylation and hydrogenolysis reactions carried out in the same reactor one. These processes were analyzed in term of technical process, material and energy balance and economic

  4. Towards a methanol economy based on homogeneous catalysis: methanol to H2 and CO2 to methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberico, E.; Nielsen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to implement both the exhaustive dehydrogenation of aqueous methanol to hydrogen and CO2 and the reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and water, may pave the way to a methanol based economy as part of a promising renewable energy system. Recently, homogeneous...

  5. Novel electrode structure for DMFC operated with liquid methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Z.-G.; Lin, W.; Christensen, P.A.; Zhu, F.; Slowinski, G.; Amini, M.K.; Scott, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Up to now, the electrodes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were developed mostly on the basis of the gas diffusion electrodes employed in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Typically, the structure of such electrodes comprises a catalyst layer and a diffusion layer, the latter being carbon cloth or carbon paper. However, unlike other fuel cells, the liquid feed DMFC suffers from mass transport limitations predominantly at the anode due to the low diffusion coefficient of methanol in water. In addition, carbon paper is fragile and expensive and carbon cloth is soft compared with metal material, such materials are not as versatile as metals. In our present work, new structures of the anode and cathode have been developed. The preparation procedures and the main characteristics of the anodes and cathodes have been studied and will be reported. (author)

  6. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...

  7. Integrating feeding behavior, ecological data, and DNA barcoding to identify developmental differences in invertebrate foraging strategies in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Elizabeth K; Garber, Paul A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-02-01

    Invertebrate foraging strategies in nonhuman primates often require complex extractive foraging or prey detection techniques. As these skills take time to master, juveniles may have reduced foraging efficiency or concentrate their foraging efforts on easier to acquire prey than adults. We use DNA barcoding, behavioral observations, and ecological data to assess age-based differences in invertebrate prey foraging strategies in a group of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in northeastern Costa Rica. Invertebrate availability was monitored using canopy traps and sweep netting. Fecal samples were collected from adult female, adult male, and juvenile white-faced capuchins (n = 225). COI mtDNA sequences were compared with known sequences in GenBank and the Barcode of Life Database. Frequencies of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera consumption were higher in juveniles than in adults. A significantly smaller proportion of juvenile fecal samples contained Gryllidae and Cercopidae sequences, compared with adults (0% and 4.2% vs. 4.6% and 12.5%), and a significantly larger proportion contained Tenthredinidae, Culicidae, and Crambidae (5.6%, 9.7%, and 5.6% vs. 1.3%, 0.7%, and 1.3%). Juveniles spent significantly more time feeding and foraging than adults, and focused their foraging efforts on prey that require different skills to capture or extract. Arthropod availability was not correlated with foraging efficiency, and the rate of consumption of specific orders of invertebrates was not correlated with the availability of those same taxa. Our data support the hypothesis that juveniles are concentrating their foraging efforts on different prey than adults, potentially focusing their foraging efforts on more easily acquired types of prey. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of Feeding Strategy, Sediment Characteristics, and Chemical Properties on Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Bioaccumulation from Marine Sediments in Two Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, H; Jackman, P; Dangerfield, N D; Ross, P S

    2017-08-01

    Shellfish and sediment invertebrates have been widely used to assess pollution trends over space and time in coastal environments around the world. However, few studies have compared the bioaccumulation potential of different test species over a range of sediment-contaminant concentrations and profiles. The bioavailability of sediment-related contaminants was evaluated using sediments collected from sites (n = 12) throughout the Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada. Two benthic marine invertebrates-the Baltic clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata-were exposed for 28 days in a controlled environment to these field-collected coastal sediments. The congener-specific uptake of legacy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and emergent polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in sediments and in invertebrates after the experimental exposure. The polychaete Neanthes accumulated lower concentrations of PCBs but higher concentrations of PBDEs. The present study indicates that differences in bioaccumulation between these two invertebrates shape the accumulation of PCB and PBDE congeners, reflect differences in feeding strategies, and reveal the physicochemical properties of the contaminants and sediment properties. Because biota-sediment accumulation factor values are often calculated for environmental monitoring or site-specific impact assessments, our results provide insight into potentially confounding factors and the need for caution when selecting indicator species for coastal marine pollution.

  9. Simultaneous determination of eight cyclopolypeptide antibiotics in feed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporation light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuqin; Xie, Jingmeng; Zhang, Meiyu; Zhang, Yingxia; Li, Jiufeng; Huang, Qiwen; He, Limin

    2018-02-15

    A high throughput, reliable and reproducible analysis strategy based on high performance liquid chromatography combined to evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for simultaneous determination of eight cyclopolypeptide antibiotics including vancomycin, polymyxin B (polymyxin B1 and polymyxin B2), polymyxin E (colistin A and colistin B), teicoplanin, bacitracin A, daptomycin and virginiamycin M1 in animal Feed. Feed samples were extracted with methanol-2% formic acid aqueous solution, followed by a solid-phase extraction step using a HLB cartridge. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions and ELSD parameters, target compounds were separated well on a short column filled with biphenyl stationary phase. The method was developed in accordance with pig complete feed and then extended to detect polypeptide antibiotics in piglet premix, pig feed additive, poultry complete feed and fattening pig premix. The results showed that logarithmic calibration curves of eight analytes were linear (r 2  > 0.99) within the concentration range of 5-200 mg mL -1 . The developed method provided good accuracy and precision for quantification of eight polypeptides in five kinds of feeds with recoveries ranging from 72.0% to 105.4% with relative standard deviations antibiotics in commercial feed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR studies on graphite-methanol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Akkad, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic relaxation times for protons of methanol on graphite have been studied. The perpendicular and the transversal magnetization as a function of temperature were measured. The results show that the presence of graphite slowed down the methanol movement compared with that in the pure alcohol, and that the methanol molecules are attached to the graphite surface via methyl groups. (author)

  11. Sorption of methanol in alkali exchange zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, M.; Rep, M.; Corma, Avelino; Palomares, A.E.; Palomares gimeno, A.E.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Lercher, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Metal cation methanol sorption complexes in MFI (ZSM5), MOR and X have been studied by in situ i.r. spectroscopy in order to understand the nature of interactions of methanol in the molecular sieve pores. The results show that (a) a freely vibrating hydroxy and methyl group of methanol exist on

  12. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical

  13. Methanol decomposition and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Ludwig, W.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption, decompn., and oxidn. of methanol (CH3OH) has been studied on Ir(111) using temp.-programmed desorption and high-energy resoln. fast XPS. Mol. methanol desorption from a methanol-satd. surface at low temp. shows three desorption peaks, around 150 K (alpha ), around 170 K (beta 1), and

  14. Heat and mass transfer effects in a direct methanol fuel cell: A 1D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, V.B.; Falcao, D.S.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, C.M. [INETI - Unidade de Electroquimica e Materiais, Paco do Lumiar, 22,1649-038 (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    Models are a fundamental tool for the design process of fuel cells and fuel cell systems. In this work, a steady-state, one-dimensional model accounting for coupled heat and mass transfer, along with the electrochemical reactions occurring in the DMFC, is presented. The model output is the temperature profile through the cell and the water balance and methanol crossover between the anode and the cathode. The model predicts the correct trends for the influence of current density and methanol feed concentration on both methanol and water crossover. The model estimates the net water transfer coefficient through the membrane, {alpha}, a very important parameter to describe water management in the DMFC. Suitable operating ranges can be set up for different MEA structures maintaining the crossover of methanol and water within acceptable levels. The model is rapidly implemented and is therefore suitable for inclusion in real-time system level DMFC calculations. (author)

  15. Esterification kinetics of free fatty acids with supercritical methanol for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenezi, R.; Leeke, G.A.; Winterbottom, J.M.; Santos, R.C.D.; Khan, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Non-catalytic esterification of Free Fatty Acids (FFA) with supercritical methanol was studied under reaction conditions of (250-320 deg. C) at 10 MPa. A detailed experimental programme was implemented to investigate the influence of temperature, stirring rate and the molar ratio of methanol to FFA in the feed in a batch-type reaction vessel. The esterification products of FFA with supercritical methanol are Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAME; biodiesel) and water. The yield of FAME was found to increase with an increase in temperature, and with an increase in the molar ratio of methanol to FFA. At >850 rpm the yield of FAME was not affected by stirring rate. The rate constants and energy of activation have been numerically evaluated by solving an ordinary differential equation that describes the reaction kinetics. The proposed kinetic model shows a reversible second order reaction and represents all the experimental data satisfactorily, providing deeper insight into the kinetics of the reaction.

  16. High-Performance Direct Methanol Fuel Cells with Precious-Metal-Free Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Wang, Tanyuan; Havas, Dana; Zhang, Hanguang; Xu, Ping; Han, Jiantao; Cho, Jaephil; Wu, Gang

    2016-11-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) hold great promise for applications ranging from portable power for electronics to transportation. However, apart from the high costs, current Pt-based cathodes in DMFCs suffer significantly from performance loss due to severe methanol crossover from anode to cathode. The migrated methanol in cathodes tends to contaminate Pt active sites through yielding a mixed potential region resulting from oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction. Therefore, highly methanol-tolerant cathodes must be developed before DMFC technologies become viable. The newly developed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based Fe-N-C cathode exhibits high methanol tolerance and exceeds the performance of current Pt cathodes, as evidenced by both rotating disk electrode and DMFC tests. While the morphology of 2D rGO is largely preserved, the resulting Fe-N-rGO catalyst provides a more unique porous structure. DMFC tests with various methanol concentrations are systematically studied using the best performing Fe-N-rGO catalyst. At feed concentrations greater than 2.0 m, the obtained DMFC performance from the Fe-N-rGO cathode is found to start exceeding that of a Pt/C cathode. This work will open a new avenue to use nonprecious metal cathode for advanced DMFC technologies with increased performance and at significantly reduced cost.

  17. A Mock UF6 Feed and Withdrawal System for Testing Safeguards Monitoring Systems and Strategies Intended for Nuclear Fuel Enrichment and Processing Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, Alan M.; Bates, Bruce E.; Chesser, Joel B.; Koo, Sinsze; Whitaker, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    This report describes an engineering-scale, mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F and W) system, its operation, and its intended uses. This system has been assembled to provide a test bed for evaluating and demonstrating new methodologies that can be used in remote, unattended, continuous monitoring of nuclear material process operations. These measures are being investigated to provide independent inspectors improved assurance that operations are being conducted within declared parameters, and to increase the overall effectiveness of safeguarding nuclear material. Testing applicable technologies on a mock F and W system, which uses water as a surrogate for UF6, enables thorough and cost-effective investigation of hardware, software, and operational strategies before their direct installation in an industrial nuclear material processing environment. Electronic scales used for continuous load-cell monitoring also are described as part of the basic mock F and W system description. Continuous monitoring components on the mock F and W system are linked to a data aggregation computer by a local network, which also is depicted. Data collection and storage systems are described only briefly in this report. The mock UF 6 F and W system is economical to operate. It uses a simple process involving only a surge tank between feed tanks and product and withdrawal (or waste) tanks. The system uses water as the transfer fluid, thereby avoiding the use of hazardous UF 6 . The system is not tethered to an operating industrial process involving nuclear materials, thereby allowing scenarios (e.g., material diversion) that cannot be conducted otherwise. These features facilitate conducting experiments that yield meaningful results with a minimum of expenditure and quick turnaround time. Technologies demonstrated on the engineering-scale system lead to field trials (described briefly in this report) for determining implementation issues and performance of the monitoring technologies under

  18. The kinetics of the methanol synthesis on a copper catalyst: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.N.R.; Borman, P.C.; Kuczynski, M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetics of the low pressure of methanol from feed gases containing solely CO and H2 were studied in an internally recycled gradientless reactor. As experimental accuracy impeded the application of high CO contents, the experimental range of mole fraction of CO was limited to 0.04 to 0.22. The

  19. The industrial production of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Frank F T; Lammerink, Roy R G J; Heidemann, Casper; Van Der Werff, Michiel P M; Garcia, Taiga Cafiero; Van Der Ham, Louis A G J; Van Den Berg, Henk

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the design of a dimethyl carbonate (DMC) production plant based on methanol and CO2 as feed materials, which are a cheap and environment-friendly feedstock. DMC is a good alternative for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel oxygenating agent, due to its low toxicity and fast

  20. Experimental study on methanol recovery through flashing vaporation in continuous production of biodiesel via supercritical methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cunwen; Chen Wen; Wang Weiguo; Wu Yuanxin; Chi Ruan; Tang Zhengjiao

    2011-01-01

    To improve the oil conversion, high methanol/oil molar ratio is required in the continuous production of biodiesel via supercritical methanol transesterification in tubular reactor. And thus the subsequent excess methanol recovery needs high energy consumption. Based on the feature of high temperature and high pressure in supercritical methanol transesterification, excess methanol recovery in reaction system by flashing vaporation is conducted and the effect of reaction temperature, reaction pressure and flashing pressure on methanol recovery and methanol concentration in gas phase is discussed in detail in this article. Results show that at the reaction pressure of 9-15 MPa and the reaction temperature of 240-300 o C, flashing pressure has significant influence on methanol recovery and methanol content in gas phase, which can be effectively improved by reducing flashing pressure. At the same time, reaction temperature and reaction pressure also have an important effect on methanol recovery and methanol content in gas phase. At volume flow of biodiesel and methanol 1:2, tubular reactor pressure 15 MPa, tubular reactor temperature 300 o C and the flashing pressure 0.4 MPa, methanol recovery is more than 85% and methanol concentration of gas phase (mass fraction) is close to 99% after adiabatic braising; therefore, the condensate liquid of gas phase can be injected directly into methanol feedstock tank to be recycled. Research abstracts: Biodiesel is an important alternative energy, and supercritical methanol transesterification is a new and green technology to prepare biodiesel with some obvious advantages. But it also exists some problems: high reaction temperature, high reaction pressure and large molar ratio of methanol/oil will cause large energy consumption which restricts supercritical methanol for the industrial application of biodiesel. So a set of tubular reactor-coupled flashing apparatus is established for continuous preparing biodiesel in supercritical

  1. Feeding strategies of Rattus norvegicus: a review / Una sintesi di alcuni aspetti della strategia alimentare del ratto Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cagnin

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some of the most relevant aspects of the feeding behaviour of the rat (Rattus norvegicus, Berkenhout, 1769 were examined with particular interest in the data collected on wild rats and in natural environments. The rat is considered as an omnivore and generalist species, but both in the wild and in the laboratory marked individual differences were recorded in food preferences and diet spectrum, which probably allow the natural populations to exploit a great number of habitat resources. A number of causes were identified as responsible of these differences: early pup differentiation; mother's and conspecifics' influences, etc. The importance of animal food in the rat diet is also variable. The diet of non-commensal rat colonies was examined with special reference to the predatory behaviour, which is a common habit in natural populations; furthermore the insorgence of "local traditions" such as the Mollusc predation was considered. The hypothesis of social transmission of this feeding habit, widespread in the Po river Basin and Delta, was discussed and confirmed. The hoarding behaviour, well studied under laboratory conditions, was rarely recorded in the wild. It is supposed to be a useful mechanism that the rat uses to cope with particular conditions (e.g. surplus of food, lactating females but this species cannot be defined as a "natural hoarder". The degree of neophobia is variable in populations that interact with man and it is practically absent in non-commensal populations. This confirms that it is a defensive strategy resulting from the commensal habit of the rat and not a fixed behavioural characteristic of this rodent species. The stealing of food between animals, kleptoparasitism, was frequently observed in confined rat groups in laboratory but rarely described in the wild. It is compared with the "worker-parasite" relationship supposed to be a kind of division of labour. The most important components of

  2. Research Progress on the Indirect Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xian-Long; Jiang, Zheng; Su, Dang Sheng; Wang, Jian-Qiang

    2016-02-19

    Methanol is a sustainable source of liquid fuels and one of the most useful organic chemicals. To date, most of the work in this area has focused on the direct hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. However, this process requires high operating temperatures (200-250 °C), which limits the theoretical yield of methanol. Thus, it is desirable to find a new strategy for the efficient conversion of CO2 to methanol at relatively low reaction temperatures. This Minireview seeks to outline the recent advances on the indirect hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. Much emphasis is placed on discussing specific systems, including hydrogenation of CO2 derivatives (organic carbonates, carbamates, formates, cyclic carbonates, etc.) and cascade reactions, with the aim of critically highlighting both the achievements and remaining challenges associated with this field. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Metabolism of methanol in acetogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivey, D.K.W.

    1987-01-01

    Acetogens can grown on methanol in the presence of a cosubstrate that is more oxidized than methanol. Three mol of acetate is formed from 4 mol methanol and 2 mol CO 2 . One mol of methanol is oxidized to CO 2 . The levels of the tetrahydrofolate enzymes, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, and corrinoids indicate the presence of the acetyl CoA pathway when growing on methanol. The acetyl-CoA pathway of acetate synthesis as presently understood does not include methanol as a substrate. It is demonstrated that methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formate by a methanol dehydrogenase. It is also possible that the methyl group of methanol is transferred directly to either a corrinoid-type enzyme, or tetrahydrofolate. When cells of C. thermoautotrophicum are grown on 14 CO 2 , acetate becomes labeled in both carbons with a ratio 14 CH 3 / 14 COOH of 0.7. In addition, methanol gets labeled. When cells are grown on 14 CH 3 OH, label appears in both acetate carbons with a ratio of 3.3, and also appears in CO 2 . Thus methanol is preferentially incorporated into the methyl group of acetate, whereas CO 2 is the preferred source of the carboxyl carbon

  4. Triboluminescence and associated decomposition of solid methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, G.J.; Moore, D.E.; Hawke, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The decomposition is initiated by the cooling of solid methanol through the β → α transiRon at 157.8K, producing the gases hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane. The passage through this lambda transition causes the breakup of large crystals of β-methanol into crystallites of α-methanol and is accompanied by light emission as well as decomposition. This triboluminescence is accompanied by, and apparently produced by, electrical discharges through methanol vapor in the vicinity of the solid. The potential differences needed to produce the electrical breakdown of the methanol vapor apparently arise from the disruption of the long hydrogen bonded chains of methanol molecules present in crystalline methanol. Charge separation following crystal deformation is a characteristic of substances which exhibit gas discharge triboluminescence; solid methanol has been found to emit such luminescence when mechanically deformed in the absence of the β → α transition The decomposition products are not produced directly by the breaking up of the solid methanol but from the vapor phase methanol by the electrical discharges. That gas phase decomposition does occur was confirmed by observing that the vapors of C 2 H 5 OH, CH 3 OD, and CD 3 OD decompose on being admitted to a vessel containing methanol undergoing the β → α phase transition. (U.S.)

  5. The methanol industry's missed opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout its history the methanol industry has been backward in research and development and in industry cooperation on public image and regulatory matters. It has been extremely reticent as to the virtue of its product for new uses, especially for motor fuel. While this is perhaps understandable looking back, it is inexcusable looking forward. The industry needs to cooperate on a worldwide basis in research and market development, on the one hand, and in image-building and political influence, on the other, staying, of course, within the US and European and other regional antitrust regulations. Unless the industry develops the motor fuel market, and especially the exciting new approach through fuel cell operated EVs, to siphon off incremental capacity and keep plants running at 90% or more of capacity, it will continue to live in a price roller-coaster climate. A few low-cost producers will do reasonably well and the rest will just get along or drop out here and there along the way, as in the past. Having come so far from such a humble beginning, it is a shame not to realize the full potential that is clearly there: a potential to nearly double sales dollars without new plants and to produce from a plentiful resource, at least for the next half-century, all the methanol that can be imagined to be needed. Beyond that the industry can turn to renewable energy--the sun--via biomass growth, to make their product. In so doing, it can perhaps apply methanol as a plant growth stimulant, in effect making the product fully self-sustainable. The world needs to know what methanol can do to provide--economically and reliably--the things upon which a better life rests

  6. Methanol from biomass: A technoeconomic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Biomass-derived methanol offers significant potential as an alternative transportation fuel. Methanol is cleaner burning and has a lower flame temperature than gasoline. These characteristics can result in lower carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide emissions when methanol is used as a fuel. Methanol produced from biomass offers potential advantages over that from other sources. When produced from biomass which is subsequently regrown, methanol does not contribute net emissions of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. The introduction of alternative fuels will likely be driven by a number of political and economic decisions. The ability of biomass to compete with other resources will be determined in part by the economics of the production systems. In this paper, recent technoeconomic analyses of biomass-methanol systems are presented. The results are compared with methanol production from coal and natural gas

  7. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  8. Methanol to propylene. From development to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, S.; Rothaemel, M. [Air Liquide Forschung und Entwicklung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pohl, S.; Gorny, M. [Lurgie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions

    2012-07-01

    In the late 1990s the development of the so-called MTP {sup registered} (methanol-to-propylene) process, a Lurgi Technology (by Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions) started. This constitutes a novel route to a valuable product that would not rely on crude oil as feedstock (as conventional propylene production does), but instead utilizes coal or natural gas and potentially biomass. These alternative feedstocks are first converted to synthesis gas, cleaned, and then converted to methanol. The development of the methanol-to-propylene conversion was achieved in a close collaboration between R and D and engineering. Two pilot plants at the R and D center in Frankfurt and a demonstration plant in Norway have been used to demonstrate the yields, catalyst lifetime and product quality and to support the engineering team in plant design and scale-up. Especially the last item is important as it was clear from the very beginning that the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant would already be world-scale, actually one of the largest propylene producing plants in the world. This required a safe and diligent scale-up as the MTP {sup registered} reactors in the commercial plant receive about 7,000 times the feed of the demo unit and as much as 100,000 times the feed of the pilot plant. The catalyst used is a zeolite ZSM-5 that was developed by our long-term cooperation partner Sued-Chemie (now Clariant). At the end of 2010, the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant in Ningdong in the Chinese province of Ningxia was started up as part of a coal-to-chemicals complex owned by the Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group. In this complex the complete chain starting from coal through to the final polypropylene product is realized. The customer successful started the polymer-grade propylene production in April 2011 and then announced in May 2011 that he sold the first 1000 tons of polypropylene made with propylene coming from the MTP {sup registered} unit. Following this

  9. Toxicity of methanol to fish, crustacean, oligochaete worm, and aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviraj, A; Bhunia, F; Saha, N C

    2004-01-01

    Static renewal bioassays were conducted in the laboratory and in outdoor artificial enclosures to evaluate toxic effects of methanol to one teleost fish and two aquatic invertebrates and to limnological variables of aquatic ecosystem. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed cladoceran crustacea Moina micrura as the most sensitive to methanol (LC50, 4.82 g/L), followed by freshwater teleost Oreochromis mossambicus (LC50, 15.32 g/L) and oligochaete worm Branchiura sowerbyi (LC50, 54.89 g/L). The fish, when exposed to lethal concentrations of methanol, showed difficulties in respiration and swimming. The oligochaete body wrinkled and fragmented under lethal exposure of methanol. Effects of five sublethal concentrations of methanol (0, 23.75, 47.49, 736.10, and 1527.60 mg/L) on the feeding rate of the fish and on its growth and reproduction were evaluated by separate bioassays. Ninety-six-hour bioassays in the laboratory showed significant reduction in the appetite of fish when exposed to 736.10 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Chronic toxicity bioassays (90 days) in outdoor enclosures showed a reduction in growth, maturity index and fecundity of fish at 47.49 mg/L or higher concentrations of methanol. Primary productivity, phytoplankton population, and alkalinity of water were also reduced at these concentrations. Chronic exposure to 1527.60 mg/L methanol resulted in damages of the epithelium of primary and secondary gill lamellae of the fish. The results revealed 23.75 mg/L as the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of methanol to freshwater aquatic ecosystem.

  10. THE ROLE OF METHANOL IN THE CRYSTALLIZATION OF TITAN'S PRIMORDIAL OCEAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Frederic; Mousis, Olivier; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2010-01-01

    A key parameter that controls the crystallization of primordial oceans in large icy moons is the presence of anti-freeze compounds, which may have maintained primordial oceans over the age of the solar system. Here we investigate the influence of methanol, a possible anti-freeze candidate, on the crystallization of Titan's primordial ocean. Using a thermodynamic model of the solar nebula and assuming a plausible composition of its initial gas phase, we first calculate the condensation sequence of ices in Saturn's feeding zone, and show that in Titan's building blocks methanol can have a mass fraction of ∼4 wt% relative to water, i.e., methanol can be up to four times more abundant than ammonia. We then combine available data on the phase diagram of the water-methanol system and scaling laws derived from thermal convection to estimate the influence of methanol on the dynamics of the outer ice I shell and on the heat transfer through this layer. For a fraction of methanol consistent with the building blocks composition we determined, the vigor of convection in the ice I shell is strongly reduced. The effect of 5 wt% methanol is equivalent to that of 3 wt% ammonia. Thus, if methanol is present in the primordial ocean of Titan, the crystallization may stop, and a sub-surface ocean may be maintained between the ice I and high-pressure ice layers. A preliminary estimate indicates that the presence of 4 wt% methanol and 1 wt% ammonia may result in an ocean of thickness at least 90 km.

  11. Performance of direct methanol fuel cell with a palladium–silica nanofibre/Nafion composite membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiam, H.S.; Daud, W.R.W.; Kamarudin, S.K.; Mohamad, A.B.; Kadhum, A.A.H.; Loh, K.S.; Majlan, E.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This study introduces Pd–SiO 2 Carbon Nano Fibre as an additive to Nafion membrane. • It investigates the effects of membrane annealing temperature and casting solvent. • Results show that Pd–SiO 2 fibre/Nafion performs lower methanol permeability. • This could effectively reduces methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cell. - Abstract: Palladium–silica nanofibres (Pd–SiO 2 fibre) were adopted as an additive to Nafion recast membranes in order to reduce methanol crossover and improve the cell performance. The performance of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with fabricated composite membrane was evaluated through a passive air-breathing single cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The limiting crossover current density was measured to determine the methanol permeation in the DMFC. The effects of membrane annealing temperature and casting solvent of composite membrane on the cell performance were investigated and are discussed here. Compared to recast Nafion with the same thickness (150 μm), the Pd–SiO 2 fibre/Nafion composite membrane exhibited higher performance and lower methanol permeability. A maximum power density of 10.4 mW cm −2 was obtained with a 2 M methanol feed, outperforming the much thicker commercial Nafion 117 with a power density of 7.95 mW cm −2 under the same operating conditions. The experimental results showed that the Pd–SiO 2 fibre as inorganic fillers for Nafion could effectively reduce methanol crossover and improve the membrane performance in DMFC applications

  12. Autonomous Voltage Oscillations in a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jéssica A.; Peña Arias, Ivonne K.; Hanke-Rauschenbach, Richard; Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Varela, Hamilton; Sundmacher, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells fed with H_2/CO mixtures at the anode have a considerably lower performance than fuel cells fed with pure hydrogen. However, when operated in an autonomous oscillatory regime, the overall voltage loss decreases due to a self-cleaning mechanism. Another molecule, also widely used as feed in the fuel cell and susceptible to kinetic instabilities, is methanol. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on autonomous voltage oscillations in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The purpose of this work was to explore if such instabilities also occur in the DMFC system. Initially, half-cell experiments with a gas diffusion electrode were performed. Then, a DMFC was operated under current control and studied by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The half-cell measurements revealed that the induction period for oscillations depends on the mass transfer conditions, where on stagnant electrode the induction time was shorter than in the case of forced convection. The DMFC showed also autonomous voltage oscillations above a certain threshold current. The results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy give evidence of a negative differential resistance in the fuel cell, hitherto not described in the literature, which can be related to the appearance of oscillations during galvanostatic methanol electro-oxidation. These results open the possibility to evaluate the performance of low-temperature fuel cells fed with carbon-containing fuels under oscillatory operating conditions.

  13. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  14. Endogenous methanol regulates mammalian gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.

  15. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, L J; Hayes, J; Rosen, J; Knight, P

    1999-01-01

    A method was developed to quantitate emamectin benzoate in fish feed at levels between 5 and 15 ppm. The active ingredient is extracted from 20 g medicated feed into aqueous-methanolic solvent by overnight shaking. A solid-phase extraction procedure using a 2 g C18 cartridge is then used to concentrate the active residue and remove interfering matrix components. The extracted drug and internal standard are eluted from the cartridge, evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted in methanol. A control feed sample and fortified control working standard are simultaneously prepared. Remaining interferences and sample analysis are further separated on a gradient liquid chromatographic system. Recovery of emamectin benzoate from fortified feeds ranged from 97 to 100%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2%. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated feeds resulted in CVs ranging from 2.3 to 4.2% and recoveries of 88 to 98% of label claim.

  16. Enhancing the methanol tolerance of platinum nanoparticles for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells through a geometric design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Ye, Feng; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-18

    Mastery over the structure of nanoparticles might be an effective way to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design of cage-bell nanostructures to enhance the methanol tolerance of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles while remaining their catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. This strategy starts with the synthesis of core-shell-shell nanoparticles with Pt and silver (Ag) residing respectively in the core and inner shell regions, which are then agitated with saturated sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to eliminate the Ag component from the inner shell region, leading to the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles with a cage-bell structure, defined as a movable Pt core enclosed by a metal shell with nano-channels, which exhibit superior methanol-tolerant property in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction due to the different diffusion behaviour of methanol and oxygen in the porous metal shell of cage-bell structured nanoparticles. In particular, the use of remarkably inexpensive chemical agent (NaCl) to promote the formation of cage-bell structured particles containing a wide spectrum of metal shells highlights its engineering merit to produce highly selective electrocatalysts on a large scale for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells.

  17. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  18. UO2 production process with methanol washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondermann, T.

    1978-01-01

    The invention refers to a process for the recovery of methanol used for washing the ammonium uranyl carbonate obtained during UO 2 production. The methanol contains about 50% H 2 O, about 10% (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 , and is radioactive. According to the invention the methanol is purified at reduced pressure in a distillation unit and then led back to the washing unit. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MBE [de

  19. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, whereas with the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) little COD removal is achieved. Moreover, the accumulation of VFA can lead to reactor instability due to pH drops...

  20. Generation of gaseous methanol reference standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geib, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Methanol has been proposed as an automotive fuel component. Reliable, accurate methanol standards are essential to support widespread monitoring programs. The monitoring programs may include quantification of methanol from tailpipe emissions, evaporative emissions, plus ambient air methanol measurements. This paper will present approaches and results in the author's investigation to develop high accuracy methanol standards. The variables upon which the authors will report results are as follows: (1) stability of methanol gas standards, the studies will focus on preparation requirements and stability results from 10 to 1,000 ppmv; (2) cylinder to instrument delivery system components and purge technique, these studies have dealt with materials in contact with the sample stream plus static versus flow injection; (3) optimization of gas chromatographic analytical system will be discussed; (4) gas chromatography and process analyzer results and utility for methanol analysis will be presented; (5) the accuracy of the methanol standards will be qualified using data from multiple studies including: (a) gravimetric preparation; (b) linearity studies; (c) independent standards sources such as low pressure containers and diffusion tubes. The accuracy will be provided as a propagation of error from multiple sources. The methanol target concentrations will be 10 to 500 ppmv

  1. Methanol Extract of Myelophycus caespitosus Inhibits the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol Extract of Myelophycus caespitosus Inhibits the Inflammatory Response in Lipopolysaccharidestimulated BV2 Microglial Cells by Downregulating NF-kB via Inhibition of the Akt Signaling Pathway.

  2. Developments in the European methanol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speed, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the late eighties/early nineties the World Methanol Market was basically divided into three regional markets--America, Asia Pacific and Europe. These markets were interrelated but each had its own specific characteristics and traditional suppliers. Now the situation has changed; in the mid nineties there is a Global Methanol Market with global players and effective global pricing and the European market is governed by events world-wide. Europe is however a specific market with specific characteristics which are different from those of other markets although it is also part of the Global Market. Hence before the author focuses on Europe he looks at the World Market. The paper discusses world methanol production and consumption by region, world methanol consumption by end use, world methanol supply demand balance, the west European market, western European methanol production, methanol imports to W. Europe, the Former Soviet Union supplies, W. European methanol consumption by end use, MTBE in Europe, duties on methanol imports into W. Europe, investment in Europe, the effect of the 1994/95 price spike, and key issues for the future of the industry

  3. Methanol in the L1551 Circumbinary Torus

    OpenAIRE

    White, Glenn J.; Fridlund, C. W. M.; Bergman, P.; Beardsmore, A.; Liseau, Rene; Phillips, R. R.

    2006-01-01

    We report observations of gaseous methanol in an edge-on torus surrounding the young stellar object L1551 IRS5. The peaks in the torus are separated by ~ 10,000 AU from L1551 IRS5, and contain ~ 0.03 earth masses of cold methanol. We infer that the methanol abundance increases in the outer part of the torus, probably as a result of methanol evaporation from dust grain surfaces heated by the shock luminosity associated with the shocks associated with the jets of an externally located x-ray sou...

  4. Soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    Methanol is used by oil and gas operators to inhibit hydrate formation in the recovery of heavy oils, in natural gas production and transport, as well as in various other production applications. Emissions from methanol primary occur from miscellaneous solvent usage, methanol production, end-product manufacturing, and storage and handling losses. This document provided soil and groundwater remediation guidelines for methanol releases into the environment. The guidelines were consistent with the Alberta Environment tier 1 soil and groundwater framework. The chemical and physical properties of methanol were reviewed. The environmental fate and behavior of methanol releases was discussed, and the behaviour and effects of methanol in terrestrial and aquatic biota were evaluated. The toxicity of methanol and its effects in humans and mammalian species were reviewed. Soil quality and ground water quality guidelines were presented. Surface water and soil guideline calculation methods were provided, and ecological exposure and ground water pathways were discussed. Management limits for methanol concentrations were also provided. 162 refs., 18 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

  6. Improvement of biodiesel methanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Datta Bharadwaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to improve the performance of biodiesel–methanol blends in a VCR engine by using optimized engine parameters. For optimization of the engine, operational parameters such as compression ratio, fuel blend, and load are taken as factors, whereas performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (Bth and brake specific fuel consumption (Bsfc and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide (CO, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC, Nitric oxides (NOx and smoke are taken as responses. Experimentation is carried out as per the design of experiments of the response surface methodology. Optimization of engine operational parameters is carried out using Derringers Desirability approach. From the results obtained it is inferred that the VCR engine has maximum performance and minimum emissions at 18 compression ratio, 5% fuel blend and at 9.03 kg of load. At this optimized operating conditions of the engine the responses such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, and smoke are found to be 31.95%, 0.37 kg/kW h, 0.036%, 5 ppm, 531.23 ppm and 15.35% respectively. It is finally observed from the mathematical models and experimental data that biodiesel methanol blends have maximum efficiency and minimum emissions at optimized engine parameters.

  7. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  8. A single-phase model for liquid-feed DMFCs with non-Tafel kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2007-09-27

    An isothermal single-phase 3D/1D model for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) is presented. Three-dimensional (3D) mass, momentum and species transport in the anode channels and gas diffusion layer is modeled using a commercial, finite-volume based, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software complemented with user supplied subroutines. The 3D model is locally coupled to a one-dimensional (1D) model accounting for the electrochemical reactions in both the anode and the cathode, which provides a physically sound boundary condition for the velocity and methanol concentration fields at the anode gas diffusion layer/catalyst interface. The 1D model - comprising the membrane-electrode assembly, cathode gas diffusion layer, and cathode channel - assumes non-Tafel kinetics to describe the complex kinetics of the multi-step methanol oxidation reaction at the anode, and accounts for the mixed potential associated with methanol crossover, induced both by diffusion and electro-osmotic drag. Polarization curves computed for various methanol feed concentrations, temperatures, and methanol feed velocities show good agreement with recent experimental results. The spatial distribution of methanol in the anode channels, together with the distributions of current density, methanol crossover and fuel utilization at the anode catalyst layer, are also presented for different opperating conditions. (author)

  9. ( Asteraceae ) methanol extracts against Helicobacter pylori

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol vehicle did not affect H. pylori growth. Conclusion: The observed antibacterial effect of G. glutinosum extracts may be of benefit as an adjuvant treatment of diseases caused by H. pylori. Key words: Gymnosperma glutinosum, Helicobacter pylori, methanol extract, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC).

  10. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methanol is a high production volume chemical used as a feedstock for chemical syntheses and as a solvent and fuel additive. Methanol is acutely toxic to humans, causing acidosis, blindness in death at high dosages, but its developmental and reproductive toxicity in humans is poo...

  11. Methanol as fuel: evaluation of atmosphere contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.D.; Romano, J.; Guardani, M.L.G.

    1991-01-01

    With the beginning of methanol use as automotive fuel in Sao Paulo city, 1990, were realized special measurements of methanol, formaldehyde, ethanol and acetaldehyde in atmosphere. Other indicators of air quality as carbon and ozone monoxide were also observed in this study. (C.M.)

  12. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Münster-Swendsen, Janus

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier...... cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51...... gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic...

  13. Investigations into low pressure methanol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafutdinov, Irek

    The central topic of this work has been synthesis, characterization and optimization of novel Ni-Ga based catalysts for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The overall goal was to search for materials that could be used as a low temperature (and low pressure) methanol synthesis catalyst....... This is required for small scale delocalized methanol production sites, where installation of energy demanding compression units should be avoided. The work was triggered by DFT calculations, which showed that certain bimetallic systems are active towards methanol synthesis from CO2 and H2 at ambient pressure...... containing 5:3 molar ratio of Ni:Ga, the intrinsic activity (methanol production rate per active surface area) is comparable to that of highly optimised Cu/ZnO/Al2O3. Formation of the catalyst was investigated with the aid of in-situ XRD and in-situ XAS techniques. The mechanism of alloying was proposed...

  14. Recycling of greenhouse gases via methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Eliasson, B; Kogelschatz, U [ABB Corporate Research Center, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere can be mitigated by using direct control technologies (capture, disposal or chemical recycling). We report on carbon dioxide and methane recycling with other chemicals, especially with hydrogen and oxygen, to methanol. Methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} is investigated on various catalysts at moderate pressures ({<=}30 bar) and temperatures ({<=}300{sup o}C). The catalysts show good methanol activities and selectivities. The conversion of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} to methanol is also studied in a silent electrical discharge at pressures of 1 to 4 bar and temperatures close to room temperature. Methanol yields are given for mixtures of CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} and also for CH{sub 4} and air mixtures. (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  15. Temperature oscillations in methanol partial oxidation reactor for the production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinsu; Byeon, Jeonguk; Seo, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jietae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Methanol partial oxidation (POX) is a well-known reforming reaction for the production of hydrogen from methanol. Since POX is relatively fast and highly exothermic, this reforming method will be efficient for the fast start-up and load-following operation. However, POX generates hot spots around catalyst and even oscillations in the reactor temperature. These should be relieved for longer operations of the reactor without catalyst degradations. For this, temperature oscillations in a POX reactor are investigated experimentally. Various patterns of temperature oscillations according to feed flow rates of reactants and reactor temperatures are obtained. The bifurcation phenomena from regular oscillations to chaotic oscillations are found as the methanol flow rate increases. These experimental results can be used for theoretical analyses of oscillations and for designing safe reforming reactors.

  16. Temperature oscillations in methanol partial oxidation reactor for the production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinsu; Byeon, Jeonguk; Seo, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jietae

    2013-01-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (POX) is a well-known reforming reaction for the production of hydrogen from methanol. Since POX is relatively fast and highly exothermic, this reforming method will be efficient for the fast start-up and load-following operation. However, POX generates hot spots around catalyst and even oscillations in the reactor temperature. These should be relieved for longer operations of the reactor without catalyst degradations. For this, temperature oscillations in a POX reactor are investigated experimentally. Various patterns of temperature oscillations according to feed flow rates of reactants and reactor temperatures are obtained. The bifurcation phenomena from regular oscillations to chaotic oscillations are found as the methanol flow rate increases. These experimental results can be used for theoretical analyses of oscillations and for designing safe reforming reactors

  17. Development of sustainable CO2 conversion processes for the methanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roh, Kosan; Nguyen, Tuan B.H.; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    2015-01-01

    reforming process has to be integrated with the existing conventional methanol plant to obtain a reduced CO2 emission as well as lowered production costs. On the other hand, the CO2 hydrogenation based methanol plant could achieve a reduction of net CO2 emission at a reasonable production cost only......Utilization of CO2 feedstock through CO2 conversion for producing valuable chemicals as an alternative to sequestration of the captured CO2 is attracting increasing attention in recent studies. Indeed, the methanol production process via thermochemical CO2 conversion reactions is considered a prime...... candidate for commercialization. The aim of this study is to examine two different options for a sustainable methanol plant employing the combined reforming and CO2 hydrogenation reactions, respectively. In addition, process improvement strategies for the implementation of the developed processes are also...

  18. Methanol Reformer System Modeling and Control using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Ehmsen, Mikkel Præstholm; Andersen, John

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the experimental study and modelling of a methanol reformer system for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell stack. The analyzed system is a fully integrated HTPEM fuel cell system with a DC/DC control output able to be used as e.g. a mobile battery...... charger. The advantages of using a HTPEM methanol reformer is that the high quality waste heat can be used as a system heat input to heat and evaporate the input methanol/water mixture which afterwards is catalytically converted into a hydrogen rich gas usable in the high CO tolerant HTPEM fuel cells....... Creating a fuel cell system able to use a well known and easily distributable liquid fuel such as methanol is a good choice in some applications such as range extenders for electric vehicles as an alternative to compressed hydrogen. This work presents a control strategy called Current Correction...

  19. Conversion of methane to methanol in an ac dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghamir, F M; Matin, N S; Jalili, A H; Esfarayeni, M H; Khodagholi, M A; Ahmadi, R

    2004-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been used to investigate the conversion of methane to methanol and higher hydrocarbons in ac non-equilibrium plasmas. Experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. A non-equilibrium plasma was generated in a DBD reactor by applying a high voltage to the reactor electrodes. Activation of methane molecules led to the production of C 2 hydrocarbons and methanol. The effect of the applied voltage, residence time and feed mixture such as helium and oxygen on the methane conversion and product selectivity was studied. Helium appears to have no effect on the conversion and selectivity at our applied voltages. The methane conversion increases significantly on introduction of oxygen in the feed stream. Inclusion of oxygen leads to the formation of methanol. Our results show that production of methanol is initiated around an applied voltage of 12 kV and the conversion of methane increases with increasing voltage and residence time, while the product selectivity is independent of the applied voltage

  20. Performance evaluation of a proof-of-concept 70 W internal reforming methanol fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgouropoulos, G.; Schlicker, S.; Schelhaas, K.-P.; Papavasiliou, J.; Papadimitriou, K. D.; Theodorakopoulou, E.; Gourdoupi, N.; Machocki, A.; Ioannides, T.; Kallitsis, J. K.; Kolb, G.; Neophytides, S.

    2016-03-01

    A proof-of-concept 70 W Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC) stack including Balance-of-Plant (BoP) was designed, assembled and tested. Advent TPS® high-temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane electrode assemblies were employed for fuel cell operation at 200 °C. In order to avoid phosphoric acid poisoning of the reformer, the anode electrocatalyst of each cell was indirectly adjoined, via a separation plate, to a highly active CuMnAlOx catalyst coated onto copper foam, which served as methanol reforming layer. The reformer was in-situ converting the methanol/steam feed to the required hydrogen (internal reforming concept) at 200 °C, which was readily oxidized at the anode electrodes. The operation of the IRMFC was supported through a number of BoP components consisting of a start-up subsystem (air blower, evaporator and monolithic burner), a combined afterburner/evaporator device, methanol/water supply and data acquisition units (reactants/products analysis, temperature control, flow control, system load/output control). Depending on the composition of the liquid MeOH/H2O feed streams, current densities up to 0.18 A cm-2 and power output up to 70 W could be obtained with remarkable repeatability. Specific targets for improvement of the efficiency were identified.

  1. On the impact of olefins and aromatics in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion over H-ZSM-5 catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.; Mueller, S.; Veen, A.C. van; Lercher, J.A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Methanol-to-hydrocarbons processes using HZSM-5 archetype acidic zeolites or zeotype SAPO-34 catalysts are regarded as a vital suite of conversion technologies to bypass petroleum-based routes for the production of specific fuels and petrochemical commodities. Special significance of the methanol chemistry originates from its versatility enabling selective transformations towards various products. Industry demonstrated successfully implementations of Methanol-To-Gasoline, Methanol-To-Olefin, and Methanol-To-Propylene processes, although the typical single-pass selectivity remained limited and recycling is necessary. Considerable fundamental research efforts both from experimental and computational sides contributed to unravel the underlying complex reaction mechanism. The indirect hydrocarbon pool mechanism, in which Broensted acid sites combined with adsorbed light olefins or lower methylbenzenes act as active centers, is generally accepted to explain the formation of light olefins. As olefin and aromatics populated catalytic sites show different reactivity in terms of activity and selectivity to ethylene or propylene, one could envision optimizing the product distribution by suitable co-feeding of specific hydrocarbons. The present work addresses three questions with an experimental study conducted under realistic MTP operation conditions: (1) How are ethylene and propylene formed at molecular level? (2) Which reaction pathway leads to the formation of undesired hydrogen transfer products? (3) Does olefin or aromatics co-feeding change the selectivity to ethylene or propylene? Xylenes and various olefins were co-fed with methanol to achieve a detailed understanding of the reaction mechanism over acidic HZSM-5 zeolites. Results suggest, that an olefin homologation/cracking route (olefin cycle) accounts for the autocatalytic (-like) nature and the majority of methanol consumption rather than the route involving aromatic intermediates (aromatics cycle). Co-feeding

  2. Modeling of the Transport Phenomena in Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Using a Two-Phase Anisotropic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Miao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport phenomena in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC were numerically simulated by the proposed two-dimensional two-phase nonisothermal mass transport model. The anisotropic transport characteristic and deformation of the gas diffusion layer (GDL were considered in this model. The natural convection boundary conditions were adopted for the transport of methanol, oxygen, and heat at the GDL outer surface. The effect of methanol concentration in the reservoir on cell performance was examined. The distribution of multiphysical fields in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA, especially in the catalyst layers (CLs, was obtained and analyzed. The results indicated that transport resistance for the methanol mainly existed in the MEA while that for oxygen and heat was primarily due to natural convection at the GDL outer surface. Because of the relatively high methanol concentration, the local reaction rate in CLs was mainly determined by the overpotential. Methanol concentration between 3 M and 4 M was recommended for passive liquid feed DMFC in order to achieve a balance between the cell performance and the methanol crossover.

  3. Engineering Escherichia coli for methanol conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jonas E N; Meyer, Fabian; Litsanov, Boris; Kiefer, Patrick; Potthoff, Eva; Heux, Stéphanie; Quax, Wim J; Wendisch, Volker F; Brautaset, Trygve; Portais, Jean-Charles; Vorholt, Julia A

    2015-03-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria utilize methanol and other reduced one-carbon compounds as their sole source of carbon and energy. For this purpose, these bacteria evolved a number of specialized enzymes and pathways. Here, we used a synthetic biology approach to select and introduce a set of "methylotrophy genes" into Escherichia coli based on in silico considerations and flux balance analysis to enable methanol dissimilation and assimilation. We determined that the most promising approach allowing the utilization of methanol was the implementation of NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase and the establishment of the ribulose monophosphate cycle by expressing the genes for hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase (Phi). To test for the best-performing enzymes in the heterologous host, a number of enzyme candidates from different donor organisms were selected and systematically analyzed for their in vitro and in vivo activities in E. coli. Among these, Mdh2, Hps and Phi originating from Bacillus methanolicus were found to be the most effective. Labeling experiments using (13)C methanol with E. coli producing these enzymes showed up to 40% incorporation of methanol into central metabolites. The presence of the endogenous glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation pathway of E. coli did not adversely affect the methanol conversion rate. Taken together, the results of this study represent a major advancement towards establishing synthetic methylotrophs by gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sorption phenomena of methanol on heat treated coal; Netsushori wo hodokoshita sekitan no methanol kyuchaku tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, H.; Kaiho, M.; Yamada, O.; Soneda, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Makino, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Experiments were carried out to learn methanol sorption characteristics of heat-treated coal. When Taiheiyo coal is heat-treated at 125{degree}C, performed with a first methanol adsorption at 25{degree}C, and then desorption at 25{degree}C, a site with strong interaction with methanol and a site with relatively weak interaction are generated in test samples. A small amount of methanol remains in both sites. Then, when the methanol is desorbed at as low temperature as 70{degree}C, the methanol in the site with strong interaction remains as it has existed therein, but the methanol in the site with relatively weak interaction desorbs partially, hence the adsorption amount in a second adsorption at 25{degree}C increases. However, when desorption is performed at as high temperature as 125{degree}C, the methanol in the site with strong interaction also desorbs, resulting in increased adsorption heat in the second adsorption. The adsorption velocity drops, however. Existence of methanol in a site with strong interaction affects the adsorption velocity, but no effect is given by methanol in a site with weak interaction. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Effects of methanol on lipases: molecular, kinetic and process issues in the production of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Marina; Pleiss, Jürgen; Valero, Francisco; Ferrer, Pau

    2015-01-01

    The biotechnological production of biodiesel is based on transesterification/esterification reactions between a source of fatty acids and a short-chain alcohol, usually methanol, catalysed by enzymes belonging to the class known as lipases. Several lipases used in industrial processes, although stable in the presence of other organic solvents, are inactivated by methanol at or below the concentration optimal for biodiesel production, making it necessary to use stepwise methanol feeding or pre-treatment of the enzyme. In this review article we focus on what is currently know about methanol inactivation of lipases, a phenomenon which is not common to all lipase enzymes, with the goal of improving the biocatalytic process. We suggest that different mechanisms can lead to inactivation of different lipases, in particular substrate inhibition and protein unfolding. Attempts to improve the performances of methanol sensitive lipases by mutagenesis as well as process engineering approaches are also summarized. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Comparative LCA of methanol-fuelled SOFCs as auxiliary power systems on-board ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazza, C.; Del Borghi, A.; Costamagna, P.; Traverso, A.; Santin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells own the potential for significant environmental improvements both in terms of air quality and climate protection. Through the use of renewable primary energies, local pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions can be significantly minimized over the full life cycle of the electricity generation process, so that marine industry accounts renewable energy as its future energy source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of methanol in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), as auxiliary power systems for commercial vessels, through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The LCA methodology allows the assessment of the potential environmental impact along the whole life cycle of the process. The unit considered is a 20 kWel fuel cell system. In a first part of the study different fuel options have been compared (methanol, bio-methanol, natural gas, hydrogen from cracking, electrolysis and reforming), then the operation of the cell fed with methanol has been compared with the traditional auxiliary power system, i.e. a diesel engine. The environmental benefits of the use of fuel cells have been assessed considering different impact categories. The results of the analysis show that fuel production phase has a strong influence on the life cycle impacts and highlight that feeding with bio-methanol represents a highly attractive solution from a life cycle point of view. The comparison with the conventional auxiliary power system shows extremely lower impacts for SOFCs.

  7. Stability studies of oxytetracycline in methanol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Nan; Yang, Jinghui; Zeng, Ming; Xu, Chenshan; Li, Lun; Zhang, Meng; Li, Liting

    2018-02-01

    As one kind of typical tetracycline antibiotics, antibiotic residues of oxytetracycline have been frequently detected in many environmental media. In this study, the stability of oxytetracycline in methanol solution was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with UV-vis (HPLC-UV). The results show that the stability of oxytetracycline in methanol solution is highly related to its initial concentration and the preserved temperature. Under low temperature condition, the solution was more stable than under room temperature preservation. Under the same temperature preservation condition, high concentrations of stock solutions are more stable than low concentrations. The study provides a foundation for preserving the oxytetracycline-methanol solution.

  8. A rare presentation of methanol toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is a highly toxic alcohol resembling ethanol in smell and taste. Methanol poisoning is a lethal form of poisoning that can cause severe metabolic acidosis, visual disturbances, and neurological deficit. Brain lesions typically described in methanol toxicity are in the form of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic necrosis of the basal ganglia and sub-cortical white matter. To our knowledge, lesions in the parietal, temporal, or frontal areas of cerebrum and cerebellar hemispheres have been rarely reported so far. We herewith report this rare presentation.

  9. Lanthanide-Dependent Regulation of Methanol Oxidation Systems in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Their Contribution to Methanol Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong N; Subuyuj, Gabriel A; Vijayakumar, Srividhya; Good, Nathan M; Martinez-Gomez, N Cecilia; Skovran, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 has two distinct types of methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH) enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. MxaFI-MeDH requires pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and Ca in its active site, while XoxF-MeDH requires PQQ and lanthanides, such as Ce and La. Using MeDH mutant strains to conduct growth analysis and MeDH activity assays, we demonstrate that M. extorquens AM1 has at least one additional lanthanide-dependent methanol oxidation system contributing to methanol growth. Additionally, the abilities of different lanthanides to support growth were tested and strongly suggest that both XoxF and the unknown methanol oxidation system are able to use La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and, to some extent, Sm. Further, growth analysis using increasing La concentrations showed that maximum growth rate and yield were achieved at and above 1 μM La, while concentrations as low as 2.5 nM allowed growth at a reduced rate. Contrary to published data, we show that addition of exogenous lanthanides results in differential expression from the xox1 and mxa promoters, upregulating genes in the xox1 operon and repressing genes in the mxa operon. Using transcriptional reporter fusions, intermediate expression from both the mxa and xox1 promoters was detected when 50 to 100 nM La was added to the growth medium, suggesting that a condition may exist under which M. extorquens AM1 is able to utilize both enzymes simultaneously. Together, these results suggest that M. extorquens AM1 actively senses and responds to lanthanide availability, preferentially utilizing the lanthanide-dependent MeDHs when possible. The biological role of lanthanides is a nascent field of study with tremendous potential to impact many areas in biology. Our studies demonstrate that there is at least one additional lanthanide-dependent methanol oxidation system, distinct from the MxaFI and XoxF MeDHs, that may aid in classifying additional environmental organisms as methylotrophs. Further

  10. Energy conservation in methanol plant using CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadi, Marjan; Tahouni, Nassim; Panjeshahi, M. Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of turbo expander integration with an industrial plant was studied. • Combined pinch-exergy analysis was used to achieve optimum performance of process. • Generation of power led to profitability of gas turbine integrated plant. - Abstract: Today, the efficient use of energy is a significant critical issue in various industries such as petrochemical industries. Hence, it seems essential to apply proper strategies to reduce energy consumption in such processes. A methanol production plant at a live Petrochemical Complex was selected as the case study in this research. The plant was first evaluated with combined pinch and exergy analysis from exergetic dissipation point of view. Owing to high temperature and pressure of reactor outlet stream, methanol synthesis reactor products contain considerable content of exergy. For the purpose of the present survey, the available content of exergy was used for power production by integrating a turbine expander with methanol reactor product. Utilization of reactor product’s high pressure in turbine reduces the temperature of turbine outlet stream to levels lower than those required for heating demands of existing streams in methanol synthesis cycle. Therefore, to keep the stream thermally balanced, the required hot utility of the process is increased and to compensate this increase, the heat exchanger network of the process was retrofitted based on pinch analysis concepts. The results showed that in gas turbine integrated scheme, approximately a net power of 7.5 MW is produced. Also, the total investment of turbine, compressor and heat exchangers area equals to 18.2 × 10 6 US$, and the annual saving value is about 6.1 × 10 6 US$/y. Based on economic data, payback period is estimated to be 3 years.

  11. Graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells: Effects of the methanol concentration and ionomer content on cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Cheol; Choi, Chang Hyuck

    2017-08-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts (typically Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts) have been widely investigated for use as cost-effective cathode materials in low temperature fuel cells. Despite the high oxygen reduction activity and methanol-tolerance of graphene-based Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts in an acidic medium, their use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) has not yet been successfully implemented, and only a few studies have investigated this topic. Herein, we synthesized a nano-sized graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst by physical ball-milling and a subsequent chemical modification of the graphene oxide. Twelve membrane-electrode-assemblies are fabricated with various cathode compositions to determine the effects of the methanol concentration, ionomer (i.e. Nafion) content, and catalyst loading on the DMFC performance. The results show that a graphene-based catalyst is capable of tolerating a highly-concentrated methanol feed up to 10.0 M. The optimized electrode composition has an ionomer content and catalyst loading of 66.7 wt% and 5.0 mg cm-2, respectively. The highest maximum power density is ca. 32 mW cm-2 with a relatively low PtRu content (2 mgPtRu cm-2). This study overcomes the drawbacks of conventional graphene-based electrodes using a nano-sized graphene-based catalyst and further shows the feasibility of their potential applications in DMFC systems.

  12. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998 Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

  14. World scale fuel methanol facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapor, M.C.; Hederman, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Since the Administration announced a clean alternative fuels initiative, industry and government agencies' analyses of the economics of methanol as an alternative motor vehicle fuel have accelerated. In the short run, methanol appears attractive because excess production capacity currently has depressed methanol prices and marginal costs of production are lower than other fuels (current excess capacity). In the long run, however, full costs are the more relevant. To lower average production costs, U.S. policy interest has focused on production from a world-scale, 10,000 tons per day (tpd) methanol plant facility on a foreign site. This paper reviews several important site and financial considerations in a framework to evaluate large scale plant development. These considerations include: risks associated with a large process plant; supply economics of foreign sites; and investment climates and financial incentives for foreign investment at foreign sites

  15. Regulatory aspects of methanol metabolism in yeasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotsenko, Y.A.; Bystrykh, L.V.; Ubiyvovk, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Formaldehyde is the first and key intermediate in the metabolism of methylotrophic yeasts since it stands at a branch point of pathways for methanol oxidation and assimilation. Methanol and, formaldehyde are toxic compounds which severely affect the growth rate, yield coefficient, etc., of yeasts. Two questions arise when considering regulation of methanol metabolism in yeasts how a nontoxic level of formaldehyde is maintained in the cell and how the formaldehyde flow is distributed into oxidation and assimilation. To answer these questions we studied the role of GSH, which spontaneously binds formaldehyde, yielding S-hydroxymethylglutathione; in vivo rates of formaldehyde dissimilation and assimilation by using [ 14 C]methanol; profiles of enzymes responsible for production and utilization of formaldehyde; and levels of metabolites affecting dissimilation and assimilation of formaldehyde. All of the experiments were carried out with the methylotrophic yeast Candida boidinii KD1. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Phytochemical screening and antiproliferative effects of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Phytochemical screening. Thin layer chromatographic profile (TLC) of methanol crude extract and antiproliferative studies were carried out in this research. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, anthraquinone, steroid, triterpenes, saponin, tannins, flavonoids and alkaloid.

  17. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  18. Methanol plant ship: Appendix. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The document is an appendix to the final report on a proposed methanol plant ship off of the coast of Trinidad. The document incorporates the results of the redetermination of capital required to implement the project. It also presents a revised cost analysis, with better accuracy, for the project. The projected operating revenues and revised expenses are also given. As a continuation of the information presented in the final report, the methanol market and proposed products are discussed in the report

  19. Comparative Neuropharmacological Activities Methanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative neuropharmacological efficacy of the leaf and root 70 % methanol extract of Cissus cornifolia was studied in mice. The extractive values of the leaf and root methanol extract was found to be 31.5 g with yield of 12.6 %(w/w) and 37.8 g with the yield of 15.12 %(w/w) respectively. The acute toxicity (LD50) values ...

  20. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations

  1. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yimin; Zelenay, Piotr

    2006-03-21

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  2. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  3. Integrated anode structure for passive direct methanol fuel cells with neat methanol operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huijuan; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Peng; Guo, Jing; Yuan, Ting; Zheng, Junwei; Yang, Hui

    2014-02-01

    A microporous titanium plate based integrated anode structure (Ti-IAS) suitable for passive direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) fueled with neat methanol is reported. This anode structure incorporates a porous titanium plate as a methanol mass transfer barrier and current collector, pervaporation film for passively vaporizing methanol, vaporous methanol cavity for evenly distributing fuel, and channels for carbon dioxide venting. With the effective control of methanol delivery rate, the Ti-IAS based DMFC allows the direct use of neat methanol as the fuel source. In the meantime, the required water for methanol-oxidation reaction at the anode can also be fully recovered from the cathode with the help of the highly hydrophobic microporous layer in the cathode. DMFCs incorporating this new anode structure exhibit a power density as high as 40 mW cm-2 and a high volumetric energy density of 489 Wh L-1 operating with neat methanol and at 25 °C. Importantly, no obvious performance degradation of the passive DMFC system is observed after more than 90 h of continuous operation. The experimental results reveal that the compact DMFC based on the Ti-IAS exhibits a substantial potential as power sources for portable applications.

  4. Combinatorial discovery of new methanol-tolerant non-noble metal cathode electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jong-Sung; Kim, Min-Sik; Kim, Jung Ho

    2010-12-14

    Combinatorial synthesis and screening were used to identify methanol-tolerant non-platinum cathode electrocatalysts for use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Oxygen reduction consumes protons at the surface of DMFC cathode catalysts. In combinatorial screening, this pH change allows one to differentiate active catalysts using fluorescent acid-base indicators. Combinatorial libraries of carbon-supported catalyst compositions containing Ru, Mo, W, Sn, and Se were screened. Ternary and quaternary compositions containing Ru, Sn, Mo, Se were more active than the "standard" Alonso-Vante catalyst, Ru(3)Mo(0.08)Se(2), when tested in liquid-feed DMFCs. Physical characterization of the most active catalysts by powder X-ray diffraction, gas adsorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the predominant crystalline phase was hexagonal close-packed (hcp) ruthenium, and showed a surface mostly covered with oxide. The best new catalyst, Ru(7.0)Sn(1.0)Se(1.0), was significantly more active than Ru(3)Se(2)Mo(0.08), even though the latter contained smaller particles.

  5. Modelling and experimental studies on a direct methanol fuel cell working under low methanol crossover and high methanol concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, V.B.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Eng. Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Rangel, C.M. [Instituto Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    A number of issues need to be resolved before DMFC can be commercially viable such as the methanol crossover and water crossover which must be minimised in portable DMFCs. The main gain of this work is to systematically vary commercial MEA materials and check their influence on the cell performance of a direct methanol fuel cell operating at close to room temperature. A detailed experimental study on the performance of an <> developed DMFC with 25 cm{sup 2} of active membrane area, working near the ambient conditions is described. Tailored MEAs (membrane-electrode assemblies), with different structures and combinations of gas diffusion layers (GDLs), were designed and tested in order to select optimal working conditions at high methanol concentration levels without sacrificing performance. The experimental polarization and power density curves were successfully compared with the predictions of a steady state, one-dimensional model accounting for coupled heat and mass transfer, along with the electrochemical reactions occurring in the DMFC recently developed by the same authors. The influence of the anode gas diffusion layer media, the membrane thickness and the MEA properties on the cell performance are explained under the light of the predicted methanol crossover rate across the membrane. A tailored MEA build-up with the common available commercial materials was proposed to achieve relatively low methanol crossover, operating at high methanol concentrations. The use of adequate materials for the gas diffusion layers (carbon paper at the anode GDL and carbon cloth at the cathode GDL) enables the use of thinner membranes enhancing the water back diffusion which is essential to work at high methanol concentrations. (author)

  6. Production of methanol/DME from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrenfeldt, J.; Birk Henriksen, U.; Muenster-Swendsen, J.; Fink, A.; Roengaard Clausen, L.; Munkholt Christensen, J.; Qin, K.; Lin, W.; Arendt Jensen, P.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    In this project the production of DME/methanol from biomass has been investigated. Production of DME/methanol from biomass requires the use of a gasifier to transform the solid fuel to a synthesis gas (syngas) - this syngas can then be catalytically converted to DME/methanol. Two different gasifier types have been investigated in this project: 1) The Two-Stage Gasifier (Viking Gasifier), designed to produce a very clean gas to be used in a gas engine, has been connected to a lab-scale methanol plant, to prove that the gas from the gasifier could be used for methanol production with a minimum of gas cleaning. This was proved by experiments. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using the Two-Stage Gasification concept were created to show the potential of such plants. The models showed that the potential biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 51-58% (LHV). By using waste heat from the plants for district heating, the total energy efficiencies could reach 87-88% (LHV). 2) A lab-scale electrically heated entrained flow gasifier has been used to gasify wood and straw. Entrained flow gasifiers are today the preferred gasifier type for commercial coal gasification, but little information exists on using these types of gasifiers for biomass gasification. The experiments performed provided quantitative data on product and gas composition as a function of operation conditions. Biomass can be gasified with less oxygen consumption compared to coal. The organic fraction of the biomass that is not converted to gas appears as soot. Thermodynamic computer models of DME and methanol plants based on using entrained flow gasification were created to show the potential of such plants. These models showed that the potential torrefied biomass to DME/methanol + net electricity energy efficiency was 65-71% (LHV). Different routes to produce liquid transport fuels from biomass are possible. They include production of RME (rapeseed oil

  7. Short-term inhalation toxicity of methanol, gasoline, and methanol/gasoline in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, R; Chu, I; Bjarnason, S; Vincent, R; Potvin, M; Miller, R B; Valli, V E

    1995-01-01

    Four- to five-week-old male and female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to vapors of methanol (2500 ppm), gasoline (3200 ppm), and methanol/gasoline (2500/3200 ppm, 570/3200 ppm) six hours per day, five days per week for four weeks. Control animals were exposed to filtered room air only. Depression in body weight gain and reduced food consumption were observed in male rats, and increased relative liver weight was detected in rats of both sexes exposed to gasoline or methanol/gasoline mixtures. Rats of both sexes exposed to methanol/gasoline mixtures had increased relative kidney weight and females exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures had increased kidney weight. Decreased serum glucose and cholesterol were detected in male rats exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures. Decreased hemoglobin was observed in females inhaling vapors of gasoline and methanol/gasoline at 570/3200 ppm. Urine from rats inhaling gasoline or methanol/gasoline mixtures had up to a fourfold increase in hippuric acid, a biomarker of exposure to the toluene constituent of gasoline, and up to a sixfold elevation in ascorbic acid, a noninvasive biomarker of hepatic response. Hepatic mixed-function oxidase (aniline hydroxylase, aminopyrine N-demethylase and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase) activities and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity were elevated in rats exposed to gasoline and methanol/gasoline mixtures. Histopathological changes were confined to very mild changes in the nasal passages and in the uterus, where decreased incidence or absence of mucosal and myometrial eosinophilia was observed in females inhaling gasoline and methanol/gasoline at 570/3200 ppm. It was concluded that gasoline was largely responsible for the adverse effects, the most significant of which included depression in weight gain in the males, increased liver weight and hepatic microsomal enzyme activities in both sexes, and suppression of uterine eosinophilia. No apparent interactive effects

  8. Towards neat methanol operation of direct methanol fuel cells: a novel self-assembled proton exchange membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Liying; Zhang, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhangxian; Cheng, Hansong

    2015-04-18

    We report here a novel proton exchange membrane with remarkably high methanol-permeation resistivity and excellent proton conductivity enabled by carefully designed self-assembled ionic conductive channels. A direct methanol fuel cell utilizing the membrane performs well with a 20 M methanol solution, very close to the concentration of neat methanol.

  9. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-07-07

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants' homes. We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Waste Oils pre-Esterification for Biodiesel Synthesis: Effect of Feed Moisture Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Kalala Jalama

    2012-01-01

    A process flowsheet was developed in ChemCad 6.4 to study the effect of feed moisture contents on the pre-esterification of waste oils. Waste oils were modelled as a mixture of triolein (90%), oleic acid (5%) and water (5%). The process mainly consisted of feed drying, pre-esterification reaction and methanol recovery. The results showed that the process energy requirements would be minimized when higher degrees of feed drying and higher preesterification reaction tempera...

  11. Methanol utilizing Desulfotomaculum species utilizes hydrogen in a methanol-fed sulfate-reducing bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Weijma, J.; Goorissen, H.P.; Ronteltap, M.; Hansen, T.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain WW1, was isolated from a thermophilic bioreactor operated at 65 degrees C with methanol as sole energy source in the presence of sulfate. Growth of strain WW1 on methanol or acetate was inhibited at a sulfide concentration of 200 mg l(-1), while on H-2/CO2, no

  12. Control of a methanol reformer system using an Adaptive Neuro‐Fuzzy Inference System approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Andersen, John; Ehmsen, Mikkel Præstholm

    This work presents a stoichiometry control strategy for a reformed methanol fuel cell system, which uses a reformer to produce hydrogen for an HTPEM fuel cell. One such system is the Serenus H3-350 battery charger developed by the Danish company Serenegy® which this work is based on. The poster...

  13. Characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell system with the time shared fuel supplying approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Youngseung; Kwon, Jungmin; Kim, Hyun; Cho, Hyejung; Song, Inseob

    2013-01-01

    DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) systems usually employ two pumps for supplying the methanol solution. The conventional system configuration, however, may bring about free flow from the methanol reservoir and malfunctions in the self-priming of the pumps. When instruments such as check valves and pressure regulators are applied, they result in excessive weight and control system malfunctions. In this paper, a light and robust DMFC system is proposed. By using the time sharing approach to supply fuel with a 3-way valve, free flow does not occur because only one inlet is opened at one time which means that both the circulation flow from gas liquid separator and the fuel flow from the methanol cartridge are not allowed to be opened at same time. As a result, back flow and self-priming problems do not occur. This makes the system stable and robust due to the removal of both the check valves and the fluctuation from unstable back pressure. Stabilized system doesn't need excessive battery buffering and recycling water any more, which are responsible for the heavy system. The proposed system performs the same level of power and efficiency with the conventional system. Adaptability is also carried out in various environmental temperature conditions. - Highlights: ►A light and robust DMFC system is proposed. ► The circulation pump is able to self-prime by itself after long term storage. ► The time sharing approach to supply fuel enables to control the methanol concentration precisely. ► The methanol concentration is controlled without free flow and the back flow from the fuel feeding pump. ► The excessive buffer of the batteries and the recycling water level are reduced

  14. Methanol from biomass by partial oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of methanol should grow when petroleum again becomes scarce and expensive. An active program should be continued to develop technology and resolve outstanding questions. Some of the elements of this program included in this paper are: Make design studies and more accurate cost estimates for the largest plant. The increased size of this plant over the small plant studied by S and W should result in improved methanol yield and better energy efficiency. Continue development of the SERI biomass gasifier for a better understanding of design and operating parameters, for design of larger units, for higher operating pressures, and for gasification of Hawaiian woods and agricultural wastes. An earlier gasifier test bed in Hawaii is very desirable. Develop a plan to build successfully larger methanol plants in Hawaii to provide the basis for a large plant. Develop a plan for large-scale production of biomass in the islands. Elements of the plan might include technical (types of trees, maximizing wood per acre, and harvesting processes), economic (price to be paid for the biomass), social, cultural, and political factors. Develop a plan to convert liquid fuel users to methanol and begin implementing the plan as the initial small plants supply methanol. Develop an overall plant to integrate the various parts of the program covered above

  15. Mitigation of carbon dioxide by oleaginous microalgae for lipids and pigments production: Effect of light illumination and carbon dioxide feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawechai, Tipawan; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Louhasakul, Yasmi; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2016-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. was selected as potential strain for CO2 mitigation into lipids and pigments. The synergistic effects of light intensity and photoperiod were evaluated to provide the adequate light energy for this strain. The saturation light intensity was 60μmol·photon·m(-2)s(-1). With full illumination, the biomass obtained was 0.850±0.16g·L(-1) with a lipid content of 44.7±1.2%. The pigments content increased with increasing light energy supply. Three main operating factors including initial cell concentration, CO2 content and gas flow rate were optimized through Response Surface Methodology. The feedings with low CO2 content at high gas flow rate gave the maximum biomass but with low lipid content. After optimization, the biomass and lipid production were increased up to 1.30±0.103g·L(-1) and 0.515±0.010g·L(-1), respectively. The CO2 fixation rate was as high as 0.729±0.04g·L(-1)d(-1). The fatty acids of Nannochloropsis sp. lipids were mainly C16-C18 indicating its potential use as biodiesel feedstocks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Methanol sensor operated in a passive mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2002-01-01

    A sensor outputs a signal related to a concentration of methanol in an aqueous solution adjacent the sensor. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is included with an anode side and a cathode side. An anode current collector supports the anode side of the MEA and has a flow channel therethrough for flowing a stream of the aqueous solution and forms a physical barrier to control access of the methanol to the anode side of the MEA. A cathode current collector supports the cathode side of the MEA and is configured for air access to the cathode side of the MEA. A current sensor is connected to measure the current in a short circuit across the sensor electrodes to provide an output signal functionally related to the concentration of methanol in the aqueous solution.

  18. Dynamic signature of molecular association in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, C. E.; Copley, J. R. D.; Faraone, A.; Self, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements and molecular dynamics simulations were combined to investigate the collective dynamics of deuterated methanol, CD 3 OD. In the experimentally determined dynamic structure factor, a slow, non-Fickian mode was observed in addition to the standard density-fluctuation heat mode. The simulation results indicate that the slow dynamical process originates from the hydrogen bonding of methanol molecules. The qualitative behavior of this mode is similar to the previously observed α-relaxation in supercooled water [M. C. Bellissent-Funel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3644 (2000)] which also originates from the formation and dissolution of hydrogen-bonded associates (supramolecular clusters). In methanol, however, this mode is distinguishable well above the freezing transition. This finding indicates that an emergent slow mode is not unique to supercooled water, but may instead be a general feature of hydrogen-bonding liquids and associating molecular liquids.

  19. Methanol as a cryoprotectant for equine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, L D; Denniston, D J; Maclellan, L J; McCue, P M; Seidel, G E; Squires, E L

    2004-09-15

    Equine embryos (n=43) were recovered nonsurgically 7-8 days after ovulation and randomly assigned to be cryopreserved in one of two cryoprotectants: 48% (15M) methanol (n=22) or 10% (136 M) glycerol (n=21). Embryos (300-1000 microm) were measured at five intervals after exposure to glycerol (0, 2, 5, 10 and 15 min) or methanol (0, 15, 35, 75 and 10 min) to determine changes (%) in diameter over time (+/-S.D.). Embryos were loaded into 0.25-ml plastic straws, sealed, placed in a programmable cell freezer and cooled from room temperature (22 degrees C) to -6 degrees C. Straws were then seeded, held at -6 degrees C for 10 min and then cooled to -33 degrees C before being plunged into liquid nitrogen. Two or three embryos within a treatment group were thawed and assigned to be either cultured for 12 h prior to transfer or immediately nonsurgically transferred to a single mare. Embryo diameter decreased in all embryos upon initial exposure to cryoprotectant. Embryos in methanol shrank and recovered slightly to 76+/-8 % of their original diameter; however, embryos in glycerol continued to shrink, reaching 57+/-6 % of their original diameter prior to cryopreservation. Survival rates of embryos through Day 16 of pregnancy were 38 and 23%, respectively (P>0.05) for embryos cryopreserved in the presence of glycerol or methanol. There was no difference in pregnancy rates of mares receiving embryos that were cultured prior to transfer or not cultured (P>0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated that 48% methanol was not toxic to fresh equine embryos but methanol provided no advantage over glycerol as a cryoprotectant for equine blastocysts.

  20. Optical coherence tomography findings in methanol toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kendra A; Warren, Alexis K; Baumal, Caroline R; Hedges, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Methanol toxicity poses a significant public health problem in developing countries, and in Southeast Asia, where the most common source of poisoning is via adulterated liquor in local drinks. Methanol toxicity can have devastating visual consequences and retinal specialists should be aware of the features of this toxic optic neuropathy. The authors report a case of severe systemic methanol toxicity and relatively mild optic neuropathy demonstrating unique retinal changes on optical coherence tomography (OCT). A previously healthy student developed ataxia, difficulty breathing and loss of consciousness hours after drinking homemade alcohol while traveling in Indonesia. She was found to have a serum pH of 6.79 and elevated methanol levels. She was treated with intravenous ethanol, methylprednisolone and sodium bicarbonate. When she awoke she had bilateral central scotomas. At presentation, she had central depression on visual field testing. OCT of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) was normal but ganglion cell layer analysis (GCL) showed highly selective loss of the nasal fibers in both eyes. Further, OCT of the macula demonstrated inner nuclear layer (INL) microcysts in the corresponding area of selective GCL loss in both eyes. The selective involvement of the papillomacular bundle fibers is common in toxic optic neuropathies and represents damage to the small caliber axons rich in mitochondria. Despite severe systemic toxicity, the relative sparing of the optic nerve in this case enabled characterization of the evolution of methanol toxicity with segmental GCL involvement and preservation of the RNFL, corresponding to the papillomacular bundle. This is the first reported case of INL microcysts in methanol optic neuropathy and supports that they are a non-specific finding, and may represent preferential damage to the papillomacular bundle.

  1. Photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.; D`Este, J.R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A long-term goal of our research group is the exploration of novel pathways for the direct oxidation of methane to liquid fuels, chemicals, and intermediates. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol is attractive. The products of reaction, methanol and hydrogen, are both commercially desirable, methanol being used as is or converted to a variety of other chemicals, and the hydrogen could be utilized in petroleum and/or chemical manufacturing. Methane is produced as a by-product of coal gasification. Depending upon reactor design and operating conditions, up to 18% of total gasifier product may be methane. In addition, there are vast proven reserves of geologic methane in the world. Unfortunately, a large fraction of these reserves are in regions where there is little local demand for methane and it is not economically feasible to transport it to a market. There is a global research effort under way in academia, industry, and government to find methods to convert methane to useful, more readily transportable and storable materials. Methanol, the initial product of methane oxidation, is a desirable product of conversion because it retains much of the original energy of the methane while satisfying transportation and storage requirements. Investigation of direct conversion of methane to transportation fuels has been an ongoing effort at PETC for over 10 years. One of the current areas of research is the conversion of methane to methanol, under mild conditions, using light, water, and a semiconductor photocatalyst. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol, is attractive. Research in the laboratory is directed toward applying the techniques developed for the photocatalytic splitting of the water and the photochemical conversion of methane.

  2. Experimental Characterization of the Poisoning Effects of Methanol-Based Reformate Impurities on a PBI-Based High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Simon Araya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of reformate gas impurities on a H3PO4-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI membrane-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC are studied. A unit cell assembly with a BASF Celtec®-P2100 high temperature membrane electrode assembly (MEA of 45 cm2 active surface area is investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy. The concentrations in the anode feed gas of all impurities, unconverted methanol-water vapor mixture, CO and CO2 were varied along with current density according to a multilevel factorial design of experiments. Results show that all the impurities degrade the performance, with CO being the most degrading agent and CO2 the least. The factorial analysis shows that there is interdependence among the effects of the different factors considered. This interdependence suggests, for example, that tolerances to concentrations of CO above 2% may be compromised by the presence in the anode feed of CO2. Methanol has a poisoning effect on the fuel cell at all the tested feed ratios, and the performance drop is found to be proportional to the amount of methanol in feed gas. The effects are more pronounced when other impurities are also present in the feed gas, especially at higher methanol concentrations.

  3. Immune responses to methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Bilen, Soner; Ulu, Ferhat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2017-08-01

    The immune stimulating effects of the methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated. Variable concentrations of black cumin methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg -1 of feed] were individually added to the basal diet and rainbow trout was fed for 30 days to assess the innate immune responses and growth performance. Feed conversion ratio significantly decreased in the group fed with 0.5 g kg -1 black cumin extract. Respiratory burst activity was observed to be the highest in the 0.5 g kg -1 black cumin extract fed group. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly increased in fish of experimental groups compared to control (P  0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicate that the methanolic extract of black cumin is a stimulator of some innate humoral immune responses, but it is ineffective for cytokine-related gene trancriptions in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Grace announces coal-to-methanol project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, R

    1980-02-15

    WR Grace and Co. are planning a feasibility study for a plant to produce 5000 tons/day of methanol and 6000 tons/day of carbon dioxide from captive coal reserves in Colorado. The study will be performed by Energy Transition Co. (ETCo). The producers would be used for pipeline transmission of pulverised coal, probably to California. At the destination the coal would go to a power station, the methanol to a gas turbine and the carbon dioxide to an oil producer for tertiary recovery.

  5. Absolute entropy of ions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data

  6. Abacavir methanol 2.5-solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong-Truc T. Pham

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure of abacavir (systematic name: {(1S,4R-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino-9H-purin-9-yl]cyclopent-2-en-1-yl}methanol, C14H18N6O·2.5CH3OH, consists of hydrogen-bonded ribbons which are further held together by additional hydrogen bonds involving the hydroxyl group and two N atoms on an adjacent purine. The asymmetric unit also contains 2.5 molecules of methanol solvate which were grossly disordered and were excluded using SQUEEZE subroutine in PLATON [Spek, (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155].

  7. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  8. Sensing methanol concentration in direct methanol fuel cell with total harmonic distortion: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Krewer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear frequency response of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is studied by analyzing the total harmonic distortion (THD) spectra. The dependence of the THD spectra on methanol concentration and methanol oxidation kinetics is investigated by means of both simulation and experiment. Simulation using a continuous stirred tank reactor network model suggests that the methanol concentration profile in the anode has a strong impact on the THD spectra. The experimentally observed nonlinear behavior of the DMFC anode can be qualitatively reproduced with a model containing a three-step methanol oxidation mechanism with Kauranen–Frumkin/Temkin kinetics. Both experiment and simulation results show that THD value has a monotonic correlation with methanol concentration at certain frequencies and its sensitivity to concentration is improved with increased current amplitude. The monotonic relationship enables the THD to sense the methanol concentration level by the DMFC itself, which is of mayor interest for the portable application as an external sensor for the system can be omitted.

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  11. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  12. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  13. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  14. Synthesis of acetic acid via methanol hydrocarboxylation with CO2 and H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qingli; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Meng; Han, Buxing

    2016-05-11

    Acetic acid is an important bulk chemical that is currently produced via methanol carbonylation using fossil based CO. Synthesis of acetic acid from the renewable and cheap CO2 is of great importance, but state of the art routes encounter difficulties, especially in reaction selectivity and activity. Here we report a route to produce acetic acid from CO2, methanol and H2. The reaction can be efficiently catalysed by Ru-Rh bimetallic catalyst using imidazole as the ligand and LiI as the promoter in 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) solvent. It is confirmed that methanol is hydrocarboxylated into acetic acid by CO2 and H2, which accounts for the outstanding reaction results. The reaction mechanism is proposed based on the control experiments. The strategy opens a new way for acetic acid production and CO2 transformation, and represents a significant progress in synthetic chemistry.

  15. Surface tailored single walled carbon nanotubes as catalyst support for direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeti, Kota V. M. K.; Jha, Neetu

    2017-10-01

    A strategy for tuning the surface property of Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) for enhanced methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) along with methanol tolerance is presented. The surface functionality is tailored using controlled acid and base treatment. Acid treatment leads to the attachment of carboxylic carbon (CC) fragments to SWNT making it hydrophilic (P3-SWNT). Base treatment of P3-SWNT with 0.05 M NaOH reduces the CCs and makes it hydrophobic (P33-SWNT). Pt catalyst supported on the P3-SWNT possesses enhanced MOR whereas that supported on P33-SWNT not only enhances ORR kinetics but also possess good tolerance towards methanol oxidation as verified by the electrochemical technique.

  16. Methanol mass poisoning in Iran: role of case finding in outbreak management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Nikfarjam, Ali; Mirafzal, Amirhossein; Saberinia, Amin; Nasehi, Abbas Ali; Masoumi Asl, Hossein; Memaryan, Nadereh

    2015-06-01

    There are no guidelines addressing the public health aspects of methanol poisoning during larger outbreaks. The current study was done to discuss the role of active case finding and a national guideline that organizes all available resources according to a triage strategy in the successful management of a methanol mass poisoning in Rafsanjan, Iran, in May 2013. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed reviewing the outbreak Emergency Operation Center files. The objectives were to describe the characteristics, management and outcome of a methanol outbreak using Active Case Finding to trace the victims. A total of 694 patients presented to emergency departments in Rafsanjan after public announcement of the outbreak between 29th May and 3rd June 2013. The announcement was mainly performed via short message service (SMS) and local radio broadcasting. A total of 361 cases were observed and managed in Rafsanjan and 333 were transferred to other cities. Seventy-five and 100 patients underwent hemodialysis (HD), retrospectively. The main indication for HD was refractory metabolic acidosis. Eight patients expired due to the intoxication. Except for the deceased cases, no serum methanol level was available. In developing countries, where diagnostic resources are limited, use of active case finding and developing national guidelines can help in the management of large outbreaks of methanol poisonings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Electro-oxidation of methanol diffused through proton exchange membrane on Pt surface: crossover rate of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Inhwa; Kim, Doyeon; Yun, Yongsik; Chung, Suengyoung; Lee, Jaeyoung; Tak, Yongsug

    2004-01-01

    Methanol crossover rate through proton exchange membrane (Nafion 117) was investigated with a newly designed electrochemical stripping cell. Nanosize Pt electrode was prepared by the electroless deposition. Distinct electrocatalytic oxidation behaviors of methanol inside membrane were similar to the methanol oxidation in aqueous electrolyte, except adsorption/desorption of hydrogen. The amount of methanol diffused through membrane was calculated from the charge of methanol oxidation during repetitive cyclic voltammetry (CV) and methanol crossover rate was estimated to be 0.69 nmol/s

  18. Feeding strategies for groundwater enhanced biodenitrification in an alluvial aquifer: Chemical, microbial and isotope assessment of a 1D flow-through experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal-Gavilan, G., E-mail: georginavidal@biorem.cat [D D' ENGINY BIOREM S.L., Madrazo 68, bxs., 08006 Barcelona (Spain); Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carrey, R., E-mail: rcarrey@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Solanas, A., E-mail: asolanas@ub.edu [Departament de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avgda. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Soler, A., E-mail: albertsolergil@ub.edu [Grup de Mineralogia Aplicada i Medi Ambient, Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits MInerals, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    Nitrate-removal through enhanced in situ biodenitrification (EISB) is an existing alternative for the recovery of groundwater quality, and is often suggested for use in exploitation wells pumping at small flow-rates. Innovative approaches focus on wider-scale applications, coupling EISB with water-management practices and new monitoring tools. However, before this approach can be used, some water-quality issues such as the accumulation of denitrification intermediates and/or of reduced compounds from other anaerobic processes must be addressed. With such a goal, a flow-through experiment using 100 mg-nitrate/L groundwater was built to simulate an EISB for an alluvial aquifer. Heterotrophic denitrification was induced through the periodic addition of a C source (ethanol), with four different C addition strategies being evaluated to improve the quality of the denitrified water. Chemical, microbial and isotope analyses of the water were performed. Biodenitrification was successfully stimulated by the daily addition of ethanol, easily achieving drinking water standards for both nitrate and nitrite, and showing an expected linear trend for nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation, with a εN/εO value of 1.1. Nitrate reduction to ammonium was never detected. Water quality in terms of remaining C, microbial counts, and denitrification intermediates was found to vary with the experimental time, and some secondary microbial respiration processes, mainly manganese reduction, were suspected to occur. Carbon isotope composition from the remaining ethanol also changed, from an initial enrichment in {sup 13}C-ethanol compared to the value of the injected ethanol (− 30.6‰), to a later depletion, achieving δ{sup 13}C values well below the initial isotope composition (to a minimum of − 46.7‰). This depletion in the heavy C isotope follows the trend of an inverse fractionation. Overall, our results indicated that most undesired effects on water quality may be controlled

  19. Pentagonal dodecahedron methane hydrate cage and methanol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methane hydrate in sea bed near continental margin and underneath of permafrost ... clathrate structure,6,7 IR spectroscopy analysis of vibra- tional form of guest .... Hydrogen (H71) of the hydroxyl group of methanol is found to have formed ...

  20. Parameters affecting methanol utilization by yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, M.S.; El-Masry, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    Screening of 28 yeast cultures, representing 22 species of various yeasts, with respect to their capabilities to assimilate methanol, has shown that this property was mostly found in certain species of the two genera Hansenula and Candida. When methanol was used as a sole carbon source for a methanol-adapted strain of Hansenula polymorpha, a linear yield response could be obtained with increasing alcohol up to 2% concentration. The amount of inoculum proved to be the decisive factor in determining a priori the ability of the organism to grow at 6% methanol as final concentration. The optimum pH values for growth ranged between 4.5-5.5 with no growth at pH 6.5 or higher. A marked growth stimulation was obtained when the medium was supplied with phosphate up to 0.08 M as final concentration. Within the nitrogen sources tested, corn steep liquor concentrate gave the highest yield of cells. The significance of the obtained results are discussed with reference to feasibilities of application.

  1. Metacridamide B methanol-d4 monosolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The title compound was extracted from conidia of the fungus Metarhizium acridum. Crystals were obtained as a methanol-d4 solvate. The tail part of the 4-methylhexan-2-yl group exhibits disorder over two positions, with an occupancy ratio of 0.682 (9):0.318 (9). The crystal structure confirms the abs...

  2. Methanol fractionations of Catha edulis frosk (Celastraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of methanol extract and its fractionations obtained from Yemeni khat on the smooth muscle isometric tension in Lewis rat aortal ring preparations and compared the effects of the crimson and green leaves. Khat leaves were sorted into green (khat Light; KL) and crimson (khat Dark; KD) leaves ...

  3. Methanex, Hoechst Celanese dissolve methanol partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1993-01-01

    One of the many joint venture alliances recently announced in the petrochemical sector is ending in divorce. Hoechst Celanese Chemical (Dallas) and Methanex Corp. (Vancouver) are in the process of dissolving the partnership they had formed to restart Hoechst Celanese's methanol plant at Clear Lake, TX. Hoechst Celanese says it is actively seeking replacement partners and has several likely prospects, while Methanex is concentrating on its other ventures. Those include its just-completed acquisition of Fletcher Challenge's (Auckland, NZ) methanol business and a joint venture with American Cyanamid to convert an ammonia plant at Fortier, LA to methanol. Methanex will still be the world's largest producer of methanol. Officially, the negotiations between Methanex and Hoechst Celanese 'just broke down over the last month or so,' says Steve Yurich, operations manager for the Clear Lake plant. Market sources, however, say that Methanex found itself 'with too many irons in the fire' and pulled out before it ran into financial or perhaps even antitrust difficulties

  4. Conversion of methanol and isobutanol to MTBE

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nicolaides, CP

    1993-09-24

    Full Text Available Over the resin catalyst Amberlyst 15, and under our reaction conditions, the yield of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether), from the reaction of methanol and isobutene, is at a maximum in the temperature rang of 40-60-degrees-C. Slightly higher...

  5. Comparative antitrypanosomal screening of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vitro and in vivo activities of methanolic extracts of defatted leaves and stems of Khaya senegalensis and Moringa oleifera on Trypanosoma brucei brucei were investigated and compared. The in vitro assessment involved incubating the parasite (in triplicate) in the presence of various extract concentrations in a ...

  6. Cancer chemopreventive property of Bidens pilosa methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer chemopreventive property of Bidens pilosa methanolic extract on two stage in vivo skin carcinogenesis model. ... In the forestomach, kidney and lung, glutathione S-transferase and DT-diaphorase levels were significantly reduced. Chemopreventive response was calculated by the mean number of papillomas ...

  7. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.

    1999-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  8. Preliminary antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securinega virosa is used as remedy for diarrhoea in tropical Africa, but has not been investigated for its antidiarrhoeal activity. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the methanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark and root bark for antidirrhoeal activity, using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in mice. The effects ...

  9. Antifungal evaluation and phytochemical screening of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to further examine the medicinal value of Boswellia dalzielii plant by evaluating the antifungal activity and carrying out phytochemical screening of methanolic extract, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions and the sub-fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Standard methods were used for ...

  10. Numerical simulation of direct methanol fuel cells using lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavar, Mojtaba Aghajani; Farhadi, Mousa; Sedighi, Kurosh [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, P.O. Box 484 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    In this study Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) as an alternative of conventional computational fluid dynamics method is used to simulate Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). A two dimensional lattice Boltzmann model with 9 velocities, D2Q9, is used to solve the problem. The computational domain includes all seven parts of DMFC: anode channel, catalyst and diffusion layers, membrane and cathode channel, catalyst and diffusion layers. The model has been used to predict the flow pattern and concentration fields of different species in both clear and porous channels to investigate cell performance. The results have been compared well with results in literature for flow in porous and clear channels and cell polarization curves of the DMFC at different flow speeds and feed methanol concentrations. (author)

  11. Development of a model for dimethyl ether non-adiabatic reactors to improve methanol conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrollahi, Fatemeh [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bakeri, Gholamreza; Rahimnejad, Mostafa [Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia); Imanian, Mahdi [Mohajer Technical University, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The modeling of adiabatic and non-adiabatic reactors, using three cooling mediums in the shell side of a shell and tube reactor in cocurrent and countercurrent flow regimes has been conducted. The cooling mediums used in this research are saturated water and methanol feed gas to a reactor which is preheated in the shell side and a special type of oil. The results of adiabatic reactor modeling show good compatibility with the data received from a commercial plant. The results of non-adiabatic reactor modeling showed that more methanol conversion can be achieved in a lower length of reactor, even though in some cases the maximum temperature in the tube side of the reactor is more than the deactivation temperature of the catalyst.

  12. A direct methanol fuel cell system to power a humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Han-Ik; Ha, Tae Jung; Hwang, Sang Youp; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chae, Seung-Hoon; Cho, Jae Hyung; Prabhuram, Joghee; Kim, Soo-Kil; Lim, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Baek-Kyu; Oh, Jun-Ho; Moon, Sang Heup; Ha, Heung Yong

    In this study, a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) system, which is the first of its kind, has been developed to power a humanoid robot. The DMFC system consists of a stack, a balance of plant (BOP), a power management unit (PMU), and a back-up battery. The stack has 42 unit cells and is able to produce about 400 W at 19.3 V. The robot is 125 cm tall, weighs 56 kg, and consumes 210 W during normal operation. The robot is integrated with the DMFC system that powers the robot in a stable manner for more than 2 h. The power consumption by the robot during various motions is studied, and load sharing between the fuel cell and the back-up battery is also observed. The loss of methanol feed due to crossover and evaporation amounts to 32.0% and the efficiency of the DMFC system in terms of net electric power is 22.0%.

  13. Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350 W high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2013-01-01

    is the water and methanol mixture fuel flow and the burner fuel/air ratio and combined flow. An experimental setup is presented capable of testing the methanol reformer used in the Serenergy H3 350 Mobile Battery Charger; a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell system......This work presents a control strategy for controlling the methanol reformer temperature of a 350 W high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system, by using a cascade control structure for reliable system operation. The primary states affecting the methanol catalyst bed temperature....... The experimental system consists of a fuel evaporator utilizing the high temperature waste gas from the cathode air cooled 45 cell HTPEM fuel cell stack. The fuel cells used are BASF P1000 MEAs which use phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes. The resulting reformate gas output of the reformer system...

  14. On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On-line methanol sensor system development for recombinant human serum ... of the methanol sensor system was done in a medium environment with yeast cells ... induction at a low temperature and a pH where protease does not function.

  15. Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of the Ramazzini Foundation Study of Methanol in Rats: A Comparison of Diagnoses by the RF Study Pathologist and a Recent NTP Review Team, summarized by George Cruzan and submitted to the Methanol Institute

  16. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial interaction studies between methanol extract of lichen (Ramalina farinacea (I) ach. (Fam: Ramalinacea) and tetracycline, against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Preliminary antimicrobial properties of the extract were evaluated. Antimicrobial interaction studies between the methanol ...

  17. The possible mechanisms for the antifertility action of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible mechanisms for the antifertility action of methanolic root extract of Rumex steudelii. ... African Health Sciences ... Objectives: The present study focused further on the possible mechanisms of the antifertility effect of the methanolic ...

  18. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  19. Erythropoietin in Treatment of Methanol Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Farzad; Sanjari, Mostafa S; Naderi, Asieh; Pirmarzdashti, Niloofar; Haghighi, Anousheh; Kashkouli, Mohsen B

    2018-06-01

    Methanol poisoning can cause an optic neuropathy that is usually severe and irreversible and often occurs after ingestion of illicit or homemade alcoholic beverages. In this study, we evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on visual acuity (VA) in patients with methanol optic neuropathy. In a prospective, noncomparative interventional case series, consecutive patients with methanol optic neuropathy after alcoholic beverage ingestion were included. All patients initially received systemic therapy including metabolic stabilization and detoxification. Treatment with intravenous recombinant human EPO consisted of 20,000 units/day for 3 successive days. Depending on clinical response, some patients received a second course of EPO. VA, funduscopy, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography were assessed during the study. Main outcome measure was VA. Thirty-two eyes of 16 patients with methanol optic neuropathy were included. Mean age was 34.2 years (±13.3 years). The mean time interval between methanol ingestion and treatment with intravenous EPO was 9.1 days (±5.56 days). Mean follow-up after treatment was 7.5 months (±5.88 months). Median VA in the better eye of each patient before treatment was light perception (range: 3.90-0.60 logMAR). Median last acuity after treatment in the best eye was 1.00 logMAR (range: 3.90-0.00 logMAR). VA significantly increased in the last follow-up examination (P optic neuropathy and may represent a promising treatment for this disorder.

  20. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D'Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion(®) were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate-PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion(®) 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm(-2) vs. 64 mW·cm(-2)). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm(-2) equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm(-2) for Nafion(®) 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm² for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm² for Nafion(®) 115).

  1. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  2. Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, Andrea [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.casalegno@polimi.it; Grassini, Paolo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: PGrassini@seal.it; Marchesi, Renzo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: renzo.marchesi@polimi.it

    2007-03-15

    Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances. It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty. In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization. The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature.

  3. Experimental analysis of methanol cross-over in a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalegno, Andrea; Grassini, Paolo; Marchesi, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    Methanol cross-over through the polymeric membrane is one of the main causes limiting direct methanol fuel cell performances. It causes fuel wasting and enhances cathode overpotential. A repeatable and reproducible measurement system, that assures the traceability of the measurement to international reference standards, is necessary to compare different fuel cell construction materials. In this work a method to evaluate methanol cross-over rate and operating condition influence is presented and qualified in term of measurement uncertainty. In the investigated range, the methanol cross-over rate results mainly due to diffusion through the membrane, in fact it is strongly affected by temperature. Moreover the cross-over influence on fuel utilization and fuel cell efficiency is investigated. The methanol cross-over rate appears linearly proportional to electrochemical fuel utilization and values, obtained by measurements at different anode flow rate but constant electrochemical fuel utilization, are roughly equal; methanol wasting, due to cross-over, is considerable and can still be higher than electrochemical utilization. The fuel recirculation effect on energy efficiency has been investigated and it was found that fuel recirculation gives more advantage at low temperature, but fuel cell energy efficiency results are in any event higher at high temperature

  4. Recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris strains with an engineered methanol utilization pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Βackground The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become an important host organism for recombinant protein production and is able to use methanol as a sole carbon source. The methanol utilization pathway describes all the catalytic reactions, which happen during methanol metabolism. Despite the importance of certain key enzymes in this pathway, so far very little is known about possible effects of overexpressing either of these key enzymes on the overall energetic behavior, the productivity and the substrate uptake rate in P. pastoris strains. Results A fast and easy-to-do approach based on batch cultivations with methanol pulses was used to characterize different P. pastoris strains. A strain with MutS phenotype was found to be superior over a strain with Mut+ phenotype in both the volumetric productivity and the efficiency in expressing recombinant horseradish peroxidase C1A. Consequently, either of the enzymes dihydroxyacetone synthase, transketolase or formaldehyde dehydrogenase, which play key roles in the methanol utilization pathway, was co-overexpressed in MutS strains harboring either of the reporter enzymes horseradish peroxidase or Candida antarctica lipase B. Although the co-overexpression of these enzymes did not change the stoichiometric yields of the recombinant MutS strains, significant changes in the specific growth rate, the specific substrate uptake rate and the specific productivity were observed. Co-overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase yielded a 2- to 3-fold more efficient conversion of the substrate methanol into product, but also resulted in a reduced volumetric productivity. Co-overexpression of formaldehyde dehydrogenase resulted in a 2-fold more efficient conversion of the substrate into product and at least similar volumetric productivities compared to strains without an engineered methanol utilization pathway, and thus turned out to be a valuable strategy to improve recombinant protein production. Conclusions Co

  5. Recombinant protein expression in Pichia pastoris strains with an engineered methanol utilization pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krainer Florian W

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Βackground The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has become an important host organism for recombinant protein production and is able to use methanol as a sole carbon source. The methanol utilization pathway describes all the catalytic reactions, which happen during methanol metabolism. Despite the importance of certain key enzymes in this pathway, so far very little is known about possible effects of overexpressing either of these key enzymes on the overall energetic behavior, the productivity and the substrate uptake rate in P. pastoris strains. Results A fast and easy-to-do approach based on batch cultivations with methanol pulses was used to characterize different P. pastoris strains. A strain with MutS phenotype was found to be superior over a strain with Mut+ phenotype in both the volumetric productivity and the efficiency in expressing recombinant horseradish peroxidase C1A. Consequently, either of the enzymes dihydroxyacetone synthase, transketolase or formaldehyde dehydrogenase, which play key roles in the methanol utilization pathway, was co-overexpressed in MutS strains harboring either of the reporter enzymes horseradish peroxidase or Candida antarctica lipase B. Although the co-overexpression of these enzymes did not change the stoichiometric yields of the recombinant MutS strains, significant changes in the specific growth rate, the specific substrate uptake rate and the specific productivity were observed. Co-overexpression of dihydroxyacetone synthase yielded a 2- to 3-fold more efficient conversion of the substrate methanol into product, but also resulted in a reduced volumetric productivity. Co-overexpression of formaldehyde dehydrogenase resulted in a 2-fold more efficient conversion of the substrate into product and at least similar volumetric productivities compared to strains without an engineered methanol utilization pathway, and thus turned out to be a valuable strategy to improve recombinant protein

  6. Process and catalysts for the gasification of methanol. [German Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.; Dennis, A.J.; Shevels, T.F.

    1975-02-13

    The invention concerns catalysts and catalytic processes for the gasification of methanol which is used to manufacture methane from methanol. Mixtures of iron and chromium oxide, phosphate, phosphoric acid, tungstate, tungstic acid, aluminium phosphate, aluminium oxide are suitable as dehydrating catalysts. Gasification takes place together with steam and dehydrogenating catalysts at high temperature. The molar ratios steam: methanol are described.

  7. FORMALDEHYDE DISMUTASE ACTIVITIES IN GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA OXIDIZING METHANOL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BYSTRYKH, LV; GOVORUKHINA, NI; VANOPHEM, PW; HEKTOR, HJ; DIJKHUIZEN, L; DUINE, JA; Govorukhina, Natalya; Ophem, Peter W. van; Duine, Johannis A.

    Extracts of methanol-grown cells of Amycolatopsis methanolica and Mycobacterium gastri oxidized methanol and ethanol with concomitant reduction of N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline (NDMA). Anion-exchange chromatography revealed the presence of a single enzyme able to catalyse this activity in methanol-

  8. Acidities of Water and Methanol in Aqueous Solution and DMSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Daqing

    2009-01-01

    The relative acidities of water and methanol have been a nagging issue. In gas phase, methanol is more acidic than water by 36.0 kJ/mol; however, in aqueous solution, the acidities of methanol and water are almost identical. The acidity of an acid in solution is determined by both the intrinsic gas-phase ionization Gibbs energy and the solvent…

  9. Biological activities of Rumex dentatus L: Evaluation of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extracts of leaf and stem inhibited radish seed germination (70 and 61% respectively) and root length more than the hexane extracts. The R. dentatus methanol extract showed presence of alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones and tannins while flavonoids were also found in both methanol as well as hexane ...

  10. The deep-subsurface sulfate reducer Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii employs two methanol-degrading pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, Diana Z.; Visser, Michael; Gelder, Van Antonie H.; Boeren, Sjef; Pieterse, Mervin M.; Pinkse, Martijn W.H.; Verhaert, Peter D.E.M.; Vogt, Carsten; Franke, Steffi; Kümmel, Steffen; Stams, Alfons J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Methanol is generally metabolized through a pathway initiated by a cobalamine-containing methanol methyltransferase by anaerobic methylotrophs (such as methanogens and acetogens), or through oxidation to formaldehyde using a methanol dehydrogenase by aerobes. Methanol is an important substrate in

  11. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselia A P; Costa, Karla A O; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.

  13. Pig feeding strategy coupled with effluent management - fresh or stored slurry, solid phase separation - on methane potential and methane conversion factors during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves

    2011-11-01

    In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P storage from FaW, FSl and SSl samples representing 77%, 58% and 64% of the B0 value. The dynamic of CH 4 production during BMP tests was rather similar for all dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine being much higher than for slurry.

  14. Feeding Strategies Derived from Behavioral Economics and Psychology Can Increase Vegetable Intake in Children as Part of a Home-Based Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravener, Terri L; Schlechter, Haley; Loeb, Katharine L; Radnitz, Cynthia; Schwartz, Marlene; Zucker, Nancy; Finkelstein, Stacey; Wang, Y Claire; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral economics and psychology have been applied to altering food choice, but most studies have not measured food intake under free-living conditions. To test the effects of a strategy that pairs positive stimuli (ie, stickers and cartoon packaging) with vegetables and presents them as the default snack. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with children who reported consumption of fewer than two servings of vegetables daily. Children (aged 3 to 5 years) in both control (n=12) and treatment (n=12) groups received a week's supply of plainly packaged (ie, generic) vegetables, presented by parents as a free choice with an alternative snack (granola bar), during baseline (Week 1) and follow-up (Week 4). During Weeks 2 and 3, the control group continued to receive generic packages of vegetables presented as a free choice, but the treatment group received vegetables packaged in containers with favorite cartoon characters and stickers inside, presented by parents as the default choice. Children in the treatment group were allowed to opt out of the vegetables and request the granola bar after an imposed 5-minute wait. General Linear Model repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare vegetable and granola bar intake between control and treatment groups across the 4-week study. Both within- and between-subjects models were tested. A time×treatment interaction on vegetable intake was significant. The treatment group increased vegetable intake from baseline to Week 2 relative to control (Ppsychology in the home to increase children's vegetable intake and decrease intake of a high-energy-density snack. Additional studies are needed to test the long-term sustainability of these practices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow of CO2 ethanol and of CO2 methanol in a non-adiabatic microfluidic T-junction at high pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanch Ojea, R.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Pallares, J.; Grau, F.X.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an experimental investigation of the single- and multiphase flows of two sets of fluids, CO2–ethanol and CO2–methanol, in a non-adiabatic microfluidic T-junction is presented. The operating conditions ranged from 7 to 18 MPa, and from 294 to 474 K. The feed mass fraction of CO2 in the

  16. Preparation and properties of hybrid direct methanol fuel cell membranes by embedding organophosphorylated titania submicrospheres into a chitosan polymer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hou, Weiqiang; Wang, Jingtao; Xiao, Lulu; Jiang, Zhongyi [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-07-01

    Organophosphorylated titania submicrospheres (OPTi) are prepared and incorporated into a chitosan (CS) matrix to fabricate hybrid membranes with enhanced methanol resistance and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The pristine monodispersed titania submicrospheres (TiO{sub 2}) of controllable particle size are synthesized through a modified sol-gel method and then phosphorylated by amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) via chemical adsorption, which is confirmed by XPS, FTIR and TGA. The morphology and thermal property of the hybrid membranes are explored by SEM and TGA. The ionic cross-linking between the -PO{sub 3}H{sub 2} groups on OPTi and the -NH{sub 2} groups on CS lead to better compatibility between the inorganic fillers and the polymer matrix, as well as a decreased fractional free volume (FFV), which is verified by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The effects of particle size and content on the methanol permeability, proton conductivity, swelling and FFV of the membranes are investigated. Compared to pure CS membrane, the hybrid membranes exhibit an increased proton conductivity to an acceptable level of 0.01 S cm{sup -1} for DMFC application and a reduced methanol permeability of 5 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at a 2 M methanol feed. (author)

  17. Preparation and properties of hybrid direct methanol fuel cell membranes by embedding organophosphorylated titania submicrospheres into a chitosan polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Hou, Weiqiang; Wang, Jingtao; Xiao, Lulu; Jiang, Zhongyi

    Organophosphorylated titania submicrospheres (OPTi) are prepared and incorporated into a chitosan (CS) matrix to fabricate hybrid membranes with enhanced methanol resistance and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The pristine monodispersed titania submicrospheres (TiO 2) of controllable particle size are synthesized through a modified sol-gel method and then phosphorylated by amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) via chemical adsorption, which is confirmed by XPS, FTIR and TGA. The morphology and thermal property of the hybrid membranes are explored by SEM and TGA. The ionic cross-linking between the -PO 3H 2 groups on OPTi and the -NH 2 groups on CS lead to better compatibility between the inorganic fillers and the polymer matrix, as well as a decreased fractional free volume (FFV), which is verified by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The effects of particle size and content on the methanol permeability, proton conductivity, swelling and FFV of the membranes are investigated. Compared to pure CS membrane, the hybrid membranes exhibit an increased proton conductivity to an acceptable level of 0.01 S cm -1 for DMFC application and a reduced methanol permeability of 5 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 at a 2 M methanol feed.

  18. Compact Fuel-Cell System Would Consume Neat Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Kindler, Andrew; Valdez, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed direct methanol fuel-cell electric-power-generating system, the fuel cells would consume neat methanol, in contradistinction to the dilute aqueous methanol solutions consumed in prior direct methanol fuel-cell systems. The design concept of the proposed fuel-cell system takes advantage of (1) electro-osmotic drag and diffusion processes to manage the flows of hydrogen and water between the anode and the cathode and (2) evaporative cooling for regulating temperature. The design concept provides for supplying enough water to the anodes to enable the use of neat methanol while ensuring conservation of water for the whole fuel-cell system.

  19. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... such as lithium-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density. Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density and ease of refueling compared to charging batteries, making μDMFC a suitable replacement energy source. In this Ph.D. dissertation, silicon micro fabrication...... techniques where utilized to build μDMFCs with the purpose of engineering the structures, both on the micro and nano scales in order to realize a high level of control over the membrane and catalyst components. The work presents four different monolithic fuel cell designs. The primary design is based...

  20. Self regulation in the methanol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hymas, R.; Wilkes, P.

    1995-01-01

    The methanol industry is not known for a high degree of self-regulation, as one can see from a glance at historic price volatility, and historic demand/supply curves. Industry enthusiasts spend considerable effort attempting to improve their understanding of the industry by analyzing the abundance of data produced within the industry about these topics, usually without resulting in any definitive correlations. Rational planning within the industry is hindered by these factors as well as the large number of new production facilities continuously being announced. Against this background however demand has significantly increased, supply has kept up with demand, methanol plants structured on a rational basis have continued to be built, and in spite of wildly fluctuating product prices all established members of the industry apparently flourish. Historic trends, new entrants, and industry achievements are discussed

  1. Thermal stability of biodiesel in supercritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroaki Imahara; Eiji Minami; Shusaku Hari; Shiro Saka [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science

    2008-01-15

    Non-catalytic biodiesel production technologies from oils/fats in plants and animals have been developed in our laboratory employing supercritical methanol. Due to conditions in high temperature and high pressure of the supercritical fluid, thermal stability of fatty acid methyl esters and actual biodiesel prepared from various plant oils was studied in supercritical methanol over a range of its condition between 270{sup o}C/17 MPa and 380{sup o}C/56 MPa. In addition, the effect of thermal degradation on cold flow properties was studied. As a result, it was found that all fatty acid methyl esters including poly-unsaturated ones were stable at 270{sup o}C/17 MPa, but at 350{sup o}C/43 MPa, they were partly decomposed to reduce the yield with isomerization from cis-type to trans-type. These behaviors were also observed for actual biodiesel prepared from linseed oil, safflower oil, which are high in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Cold flow properties of actual biodiesel, however, remained almost unchanged after supercritical methanol exposure at 270{sup o}C/17 MPa and 350{sup o}C/43 MPa. For the latter condition, however, poly-unsaturated fatty acids were sacrificed to be decomposed and reduced in yield. From these results, it was clarified that reaction temperature in supercritical methanol process should be lower than 300{sup o}C, preferably 270{sup o}C with a supercritical pressure higher than 8.09 MPa, in terms of thermal stabilization for high-quality biodiesel production. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Notes on HTR applications in methanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.; Barnert, H.

    1997-01-01

    Notes on the study of HTR applications are presented. The study in particular should be directed toward the most feasible applications of HTR for process heat generation. A prospective study is the conversion of CO 2 gas from Natuna to methanol or formic acid. Further studies needs to be deepened under the auspices of IAEA and countries that have similar interest. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs

  3. A New 95 GHz Methanol Maser Catalog. I. Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wenjin; Xu, Ye; Lu, Dengrong; Ju, Binggang; Li, Yingjie [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China); Chen, Xi [Center for Astrophysics, GuangZhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ellingsen, Simon P., E-mail: wjyang@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuye@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: chenxi@shao.ac.cn [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia)

    2017-08-01

    The Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope has been used to search for 95 GHz (8{sub 0}–7{sub 1}A{sup +}) class I methanol masers toward 1020 Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) sources, leading to 213 detections. We have compared the line width of the methanol and HCO{sup +} thermal emission in all of the methanol detections, and on that basis, we find that 205 of the 213 detections are very likely to be masers. This corresponds to an overall detection rate of 95 GHz methanol masers toward our BGPS sample of 20%. Of the 205 detected masers, 144 (70%) are new discoveries. Combining our results with those of previous 95 GHz methanol maser searches, a total of 481 95 GHz methanol masers are now known. We have compiled a catalog listing the locations and properties of all known 95 GHz methanol masers.

  4. Study on fuel supplying method and methanol concentration sensor for the high efficient operation of methanol fuel cells. Methanol nenryo denchi no unten ni okeru nenryo kyokyu hoho no kento to methanol nodo sensor no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukui, Tsutomu; Doi, Ryota; Yasukawa, Saburo; Kuroda, Osamu [Hirachi, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1990-01-20

    A fuel supplying method was studied and demonstrated, essential to the high efficient operation of methanol fuel cells. Methanol and water were supplied independently from each tank to an anordic electrolyte tank in a circulating system, detecting a methanol concentration and liquid level of anordic electrolyte by each sensor, respectively. A methanol sensor was also developed to detect accurately the concentration based on electrochemical reaction under a constant voltage. A detection control circuit was insulated from a constant-voltage power supply to prevent external noises. The methanol sensor output was compensated for temperature, and a new level sensing method was adopted to send out a command comparing different responses to electrolyte shortage. As the methanol fuel cell was operated with this fuel supplying system, the stable characteristics of the cell were obtained within the variation of {plus minus} 0.1mol/l from the specified methanol concentration. 6 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Feeding Difficulties in Children with Esophageal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    The current available literature evaluating feeding difficulties in children with esophageal atresia was reviewed. The published literature was searched through PubMed using a pre-defined search strategy. Feeding difficulties are commonly encountered in children and adults with repaired esophageal atresia [EA]. The mechanism for abnormal feeding includes both esophageal and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly reported in patients with EA and causes include dysmotility, anatomic lesions, esophageal outlet obstruction and esophageal inflammation. Endoscopic evaluation, esophageal manometry and esophograms can be useful studies to evaluate for causes of esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysfunction and aspiration are also important mechanisms for feeding difficulties in patients with EA. These patients often present with respiratory symptoms. Videofluoroscopic swallow study, salivagram, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and high-resolution manometry can all be helpful tools to identify aspiration. Once diagnosed, management goals include reduction of aspiration during swallowing, reducing full column reflux into the oropharynx and continuation of oral feeding to maintain skills. We review specific strategies which can be used to reduce aspiration of gastric contents, including thickening feeds, changing feeding schedule, switching formula, trialing transpyloric feeds and fundoplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  7. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  8. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen in aqueous methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhasish K; Chakraborty, Savitri; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2013-01-01

    Photolysis of oxyfluorfen, an herbicide of the nitrodiphenyl ether class, was studied in aqueous methanol under UV and sunlight. UV irradiation was carried out in a borosilicate glass photoreactor (containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol) equipped with a quartz filter and 125 watt mercury lamp (maximum output 254 nm) at 25 ± 1°C. Sunlight irradiation was conducted at 28 ± 1°C in borosilicate Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol. The samples from both the irradiated conditions were withdrawn at a definite time interval and extracted to measure oxyfluorfen content by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for rate study. The half-life values were 20 hours and 2.7 days under UV and sunlight exposure, respectively. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen yielded 13 photoproducts of which three were characterized by infrared spectrophotometer and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The rest of the photoproducts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). An ionization potential 70 eV was used for electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) and methane was used as reagent gas for chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Two of the photoproducts were also synthesized for comparison. The main phototransformation pathways of oxyfluorfen involved nitro reduction, dechlorination, and hydrolysis as well as nucleophiles displacement reaction.

  9. Methanol utilizing Desulfotomaculum species utilizes hydrogen in a methanol-fed sulfate-reducing bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Melike; Weijma, Jan; Goorissen, Heleen P; Ronteltap, Mariska; Hansen, Theo A; Stams, Alfons J M

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain WW1, was isolated from a thermophilic bioreactor operated at 65 degrees C with methanol as sole energy source in the presence of sulfate. Growth of strain WW1 on methanol or acetate was inhibited at a sulfide concentration of 200 mg l(-1), while on H2/CO2, no apparent inhibition occurred up to a concentration of 500 mg l(-1). When strain WW1 was co-cultured under the same conditions with the methanol-utilizing, non-sulfate-reducing bacteria, Thermotoga lettingae and Moorella mulderi, both originating from the same bioreactor, growth and sulfide formation were observed up to 430 mg l(-1). These results indicated that in the co-cultures, a major part of the electron flow was directed from methanol via H2/CO2 to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Besides methanol, acetate, and hydrogen, strain WW1 was also able to use formate, malate, fumarate, propionate, succinate, butyrate, ethanol, propanol, butanol, isobutanol, with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide. In the absence of sulfate, strain WW1 grew only on pyruvate and lactate. On the basis of 16S rRNA analysis, strain WW1 was most closely related to Desulfotomaculum thermocisternum and Desulfotomaculum australicum. However, physiological properties of strain WW1 differed in some aspects from those of the two related bacteria.

  10. [Isolation of a methanol-utilizing strain and its application for determining methanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Fei; Lu, Dongtao; Zheng, Jun; Pang, Jinmei; Yang, Yujing

    2013-08-04

    To isolate and characterize bacteria that can be used todevelop microbial biosensor for methanol (MeOH) determination. We used selective medium and streak plate to isolate bacteria. Morphological, physiological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were used to identify the strain. An MeOH biosensor was then developed by immobilizing M211 along with dissolved oxygen (O2) sensor. An MeOH utilizing bacterium was isolated from biogas-producing tank using methanol as the sole carbon source, and identified as Methylobacteriumorganophilium. Decrease of O2 concentration is linearly related to the MeOH concentration in the range from 0.02% to 1%, with the MeOH detection limit of 0.27 mg/L. The response time of the biosensor is within 20 min. Furthermore, the result of interference test and the detection of methanol sample are both satisfactory. Good results are obtained in interference test and the detection of methanol sample. The proposed method seems very attractive in monitoring methanol.

  11. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING TIME ON FEED UTILIZATION BY SIAMESE CATFISH, Pangasius hypophthalmus JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus at juvenile stage is used as ornamental fish by fish hobbies because of their beautiful shape and movement. Feeding time is a part of feeding management to get the best and effective strategy on feed input. This study aimed to determine the growth of Siamese catfish juvenile by looking at the influence of feeding time on feed utilization. The average individual weight of juveniles used was ± 3.2 g stocked 15 fish per aquarium equipped with recirculation system. Two level factors in the factorial design consisted of 4 feeding times (at 8:00, at 12:00, at 16:00, and as control (8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and feeding level (45 g feed kg-1 fish, 90 g feed kg-1 fish. Interaction between feeding time and feeding level resulting eight types of treatments research, namely A (8/45, B (12/45, C (16/45, D (8:12:16/45, E (8:12:16/90, F (8/90, G (12/90, and H (16/90. The results showed that feeding time had significant effect on the specific growth rate, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratio and were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05. Besides feeding time control (treatments D and E, treatment C also showed the highest of specific growth rate (2.03%, protein efficiency ratio (1.46, and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.85.

  12. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The result of a CRP completed in 1989 and entitled ''Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Milk, Meat and Fibre Producing Livestock with the Use of Radioimmunoassay Techniques'' clearly indicated that nutritional inadequacies and livestock management deficiencies were the major factors affecting livestock productivity in Latin America. Based on these conclusions a CRP entitled ''Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques'' was initiated late in the same year. The primary aim of the Programme was to improve the productivity of indigenous ruminant livestock species maintained on typical small-holder farms in the region. Central to the approach was to first identify the nutritional and management constraints which affect reproductive and productive efficiency, and subsequently to devise and test corrective measures which would be practical, sustainable and economically viable. Important related goals of the Programme were to enhance the level of expertise and the educational quality within animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact between scientists and institutions in developing and developed countries and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving ruminant productivity on small-holder farms in Latin America through the use of immunoassay techniques. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The result of a CRP completed in 1989 and entitled ``Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Milk, Meat and Fibre Producing Livestock with the Use of Radioimmunoassay Techniques`` clearly indicated that nutritional inadequacies and livestock management deficiencies were the major factors affecting livestock productivity in Latin America. Based on these conclusions a CRP entitled ``Development of Feed Supplementation Strategies for Improving Ruminant Productivity on Small-holder Farms in Latin America through the Use of Immunoassay Techniques`` was initiated late in the same year. The primary aim of the Programme was to improve the productivity of indigenous ruminant livestock species maintained on typical small-holder farms in the region. Central to the approach was to first identify the nutritional and management constraints which affect reproductive and productive efficiency, and subsequently to devise and test corrective measures which would be practical, sustainable and economically viable. Important related goals of the Programme were to enhance the level of expertise and the educational quality within animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact between scientists and institutions in developing and developed countries and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Refs, figs, tabs.

  14. Effect of time interval between the second Improvest® dose and slaughter and corn dried distillers grains with solubles feeding strategies on carcass composition, primal cutout, and pork quality of immunologically castrated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E K; Mellencamp, M A; Johnston, L J; Cox, R B; Shurson, G C

    2017-05-01

    Effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies on carcass composition, primal cutout, and lean quality of immunologically castrated (IC; n=863) pigs were evaluated, and consisted of: 1) corn-soybean meal (CS) diet (PCon); 2) CS+40% DDGS (NCon); 3) CS+40, 30, 20, or 10% DDGS fed in phases 1 to 4, respectively (SD); or 4) CS+40% DDGS fed in phase 1 to 3 and CS in phase 4 (WD). All pigs received the first dose of Improvest® at 11weeks. of age, and the second dose was administered at either 9, 7, or 5weeks. before slaughter at 24weeks. of age. The SD and WD improved carcass dressing percentage and resulted in intermediate primal cut yields and pork loin quality compared with pigs fed PCon and NCon. Increasing the time interval between second dose of Improvest® and slaughter increased adipose tissue accretion but did not affect lean quality of pork. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can a small change in the tilapia’s on-going feeding strategy impair its growth? - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18290

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vinícius do Carmo e Sá

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to answer the following question: can a small change in the tilapia’s on-going feeding strategy impair its growth? In the initial phase of the study, fish were evenly distributed and maintained for two weeks in four tanks. In tanks 1 and 2, the ration was given in three equal meals at 8, 12 and 16h or at 9, 13 and 17h, respectively. In tanks 3 and 4, there was only one daily meal at 9 or 10 o’clock, respectively. In the second 8-week phase, fish from tank 1 were distributed into two groups in ten 100-L tanks: the 8-12-16 group, in which fish were always fed at 8, 12 and 16h; and the 8-12-16/9-13-17 group, in which fish were fed at 8, 12 and 16h in the first four weeks and at 9, 13 and 17h in the last four weeks. Fish from tank 2 were allocated into five 100-L tanks and their mealtimes were maintained unchanged. The same procedures were used in tanks 3 and 4. The delay of one hour in the allowance of the artificial diet has significantly reduced fish survival.   

  16. Structural Study of Reduced Graphene Oxide/ Polypyrrole Composite as Methanol Sensor in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtazah Atiqah Hassan; Siti Kartom Kamarudin; Siti Kartom Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) computations were performed on the optimized geometric and electronic properties of reduced graphene oxide/polypyrole (rGO/ PPy) composite in comparison with pure graphene and graphene oxide structures. Incorporation of both reduced GO (rGO) and PPy will form a good composite which have advantages from both materials such as good mechanical strength and excellent electrical conductivity. These composite would be very suitable in fabrication of methanol sensor in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The HOMO-LUMO energy (eV) was also calculated. These computations provide a theoretical explanation for the good performance of rGO/ PPy composite as electrode materials in methanol sensor. (author)

  17. Catalytic performance of heterogeneous Rh/C3N4 for the carbonylation of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, Anatta Wahyu; Choi, Myoung Jae; Nur, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    The excess of water in homogeneous the carbonylation of methanol system could increase the amount of by-products formed through water-gas shift reaction and could accelerate the rusting of equipment. Many scientists tried to decrease the content of water in the carbonylation of methanol system by using lithium and iodide promoter that results a moderate catalytic activity in the water content at 2wt%. The heterogenized catalyst offers several distinct advantages such as it was enables increased catalyst concentration in the reaction mixture, which is directly proportional to acetic acid production rate, without the addition of an alkali iodide salt promoter. The heterogeneous catalyst also results in reduced by-product formation. This study is aimed to produce a novel catalyst (Rh/C3N4) with a high selectivity of acetic acid in a relatively lower water and halide content. This novel catalyst performs high conversion and selectivity of acetic acid as the result of the strong ionic bonding of melamine and rhodium complex species that was caused by the presence of methyl iodide species. The CO2 in feed gas significantly decreases the catalytic activity of Rh-melamine because of its inert characteristics. The kinetic test was performed as that the first order kinetic equation. The kinetic tests revealed the reaction route of the the carbonylation of methanol in this system was performed trough the methyl acetate.

  18. CFD Simulation of Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Methanol in an Adiabatic Fixed-bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golshadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A computational fluid dynamic (CFD study of methanol (MeOH to dimethyl ether (DME process in an adiabatic fixed-bed reactor is presented. One of the methods of industrial DME production is the catalytic dehydration of MeOH. Kinetic model was derived based on Bercic rate. The parameters of this equation for a specific catalyst were tuned by solving a one-dimensional homogenous model using MATLAB optimization module. A two-dimensional CFD simulation of the reaction is demonstrated and considered as numerical experiments. A sensitivity analysis was run in order to find the effect of temperature, pressure, and WHSV on the reactor performance. Good agreement was achieved between bench experimental data and the model. The results show that the maximum conversion of reaction (about 85.03% is obtained at WHSV=10 h-1 and T=563.15 K, whereas the inlet temperature has a greater effect on methanol conversion. Moreover, the effect of water in inlet feed on methanol conversion is quantitatively studied. It was concluded that the results obtained from CFD analysis give precise guidelines for further studies on the optimization of reactor performance.

  19. A transient multi-scale model for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, T.; Zago, M.; Casalegno, A.; Bessler, W.G.; Latz, A.

    2017-01-01

    The DMFC is a promising option for backup power systems and for the power supply of portable devices. However, from the modeling point of view liquid-feed DMFC are challenging systems due to the complex electrochemistry, the inherent two-phase transport and the effect of methanol crossover. In this paper we present a physical 1D cell model to describe the relevant processes for DMFC performance ranging from electrochemistry on the surface of the catalyst up to transport on the cell level. A two-phase flow model is implemented describing the transport in gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer at the anode side. Electrochemistry is described by elementary steps for the reactions occurring at anode and cathode, including adsorbed intermediate species on the platinum and ruthenium surfaces. Furthermore, a detailed membrane model including methanol crossover is employed. The model is validated using polarization curves, methanol crossover measurements and impedance spectra. It permits to analyze both steady-state and transient behavior with a high level of predictive capabilities. Steady-state simulations are used to investigate the open circuit voltage as well as the overpotentials of anode, cathode and electrolyte. Finally, the transient behavior after current interruption is studied in detail.

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  4. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  5. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  8. The cost-effectiveness of methanol for reducing motor vehicle emissions and urban ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Walls, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article analyzes the costs and emissions characteristics of methanol vehicles. The cost-effectiveness of methanol - the cost per ton of reactive hydrocarbon emissions reduced - is calculated and compared to the cost-effectiveness of other hydrocarbon reduction strategies. Methanol is found to cost from $33,000 to nearly $60,000 per ton, while several other options are available for under $10,000 per ton. The cost per part-per-million reduction in peak ambient ozone levels is also computed for two cities, Houston and Philadelphia. Despite the greater improvement in ozone in Philadelphia than Houston, methanol is found to be more cost-effective in Houston. This result occurs because Houston's distribution and marketing costs are lower than Philadelphia's. The costs in both cities, however, are far higher than estimates of the benefits from acute health improvements. Finally, the reduction in ozone exposure in Los Angeles is estimated and the costs of the reduction compared with an estimate of acute health benefits. Again, the benefits fall far short of the costs. 51 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Specific bioanalytical optical and photoelectrochemical assays for detection of methanol in alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Javier; Díez-Buitrago, Beatriz; Saa, Laura; Möller, Marco; Briz, Nerea; Pavlov, Valeri

    2018-03-15

    Methanol is a poison which is frequently discovered in alcoholic beverages. Innovative methods to detect methanol in alcoholic beverages are being constantly developed. We report for the first time a new strategy for the detection of methanol using fluorescence spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical (PEC) analysis. The analytical system is based on the oxidation of cysteine (CSH) with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically generated by alcohol oxidase (AOx). H 2 O 2 oxidizes capping agent CSH, modulating the growth of CSH-stabilized cadmium sulphide quantum dots (CdS QDs). Disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with a conductive osmium polymer (Os-PVP) complex were employed to quantify resulting CdS QDs. This polymer facilitates the "wiring" of in situ enzymatically generated CdS QDs, which photocatalyze oxidation of 1-thioglycerol (TG), generating photocurrent as the readout signal. Likewise, we proved that our systems did not suffer from interference by ethanol. The PEC assays showed better sensitivity than conventional methods, covering a wide range of potential applications for methanol quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic Search for Chemical Reactions in Gas Phase Contributing to Methanol Formation in Interstellar Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez-Garcia, Victoria G; Galano, Annia

    2017-10-05

    A massive search for chemical routes leading to methanol formation in gas phase has been conducted using computational chemistry, at the CBS-QB3 level of theory. The calculations were performed at five different temperatures (100, 80, 50, 20, and 10 K) and at three pressures (0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 atm) for each temperature. The search was focused on identifying reactions with the necessary features to be viable in the interstellar medium (ISM). A searching strategy was applied to that purpose, which allowed to reduce an initial set of 678 possible reactions to a subset of 11 chemical routes that are recommended, for the first time, as potential candidates for contributing to methanol formation in the gas phase of the ISM. They are all barrier-less, and thus they are expected to take place at collision rates. Hopefully, including these reactions in the currently available models, for the gas-phase methanol formation in the ISM, would help improving the predicted fractional abundance of this molecule in dark clouds. Further investigations, especially those dealing with grain chemistry and electronic excited states, would be crucial to get a complete picture of the methanol formation in the ISM.

  11. Methanol May Function as a Cross-Kingdom Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Yuri L.; Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Kosorukov, Vyacheslav S.; Zinovkin, Roman A.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Frolova, Olga Y.; Gleba, Yuri Y.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that leaf wounding results in the synthesis of pectin methylesterase (PME), which causes the plant to release methanol into the air. Methanol emitted by a wounded plant increases the accumulation of methanol-inducible gene mRNA and enhances antibacterial resistance as well as cell-to-cell communication, which facilitates virus spreading in neighboring plants. We concluded that methanol is a signaling molecule involved in within-plant and plant-to-plant communication. Methanol is considered to be a poison in humans because of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-mediated conversion of methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, recent data showed that methanol is a natural compound in normal, healthy humans. These data call into question whether human methanol is a metabolic waste product or whether methanol has specific function in humans. Here, to reveal human methanol-responsive genes (MRGs), we used suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries of HeLa cells lacking ADH and exposed to methanol. This design allowed us to exclude genes involved in formaldehyde and formic acid detoxification from our analysis. We identified MRGs and revealed a correlation between increases in methanol content in the plasma and changes in human leukocyte MRG mRNA levels after fresh salad consumption by volunteers. Subsequently, we showed that the methanol generated by the pectin/PME complex in the gastrointestinal tract of mice induces the up- and downregulation of brain MRG mRNA. We used an adapted Y-maze to measure the locomotor behavior of the mice while breathing wounded plant vapors in two-choice assays. We showed that mice prefer the odor of methanol to other plant volatiles and that methanol changed MRG mRNA accumulation in the mouse brain. We hypothesize that the methanol emitted by wounded plants may have a role in plant-animal signaling. The known positive effect of plant food intake on human health suggests a role for physiological methanol in

  12. Study of SI engine fueled with methanol vapor and dissociation gas based on exhaust heat dissociating methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Deng, Banglin; Liu, Jingping; Wang, Linjun; Xu, Zhengxin; Yang, Jing; Shu, Gequn

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The full load power decreases successively from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine. • Both power and thermal efficiency of dissociated methanol engine can be improved by boosting pressure. • The conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is largely influenced by the BMEP. • At the same BMEP, dissociated methanol engine has higher thermal efficiency than methanol vapor engine and gasoline engine. - Abstract: To improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engine and also achieve the goal of direct usage of methanol fuel on IC engine, an approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol was investigated, which is a kind of method for IC engine exhaust heat recovery (EHR). A bottom cycle system is coupled with the IC engine exhaust system, which uses the exhaust heat to evaporate and dissociate methanol in its catalytic cracker. The methanol dissociation gas (including methanol vapor) is used as the fuel for IC engine. This approach was applied to both naturally aspirated (NA) engine and turbocharged engine, and the engine performance parameters were predicted by the software GT-power under various kinds of operating conditions. The improvement to IC engine performance and the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy can be evaluated by comparing the performances of IC engine fueled with various kinds of fuels (or their compositions). Results show that, from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine, the full load power decreases successively in the entire speed area due to the declining of volumetric efficiency, while it is contrary in the thermal efficiency at the same brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) level because of the improving of fuel heating value. With the increase of BMEP, the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is promoted. All those results indicate that the approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol has large

  13. Groundwater issues relating to an Alaskan methanol spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a Dec. 1989 methanol spill which resulted from sabotage to three railroad tank cars. Samples taken from nearby drinking-water wells and groundwater-monitoring wells were below the analytical detection limit. Monitoring well data demonstrated that groundwater flow was not toward local residential wells. Dilution by snow and subsequent freezing in the soil limited the downward spread of the methanol, an advantage not found in milder, more temperate conditions. Contaminated material was removed and processed to reclaim the methanol. Volatilization and biodegradation should remove any remaining methanol. Cleanup options were limited by the possible hazardous waste classification of the contaminated soil. The regulatory status of spilled methanol waste should be re-evaluated, especially if use of methanol as a motor fuel increases

  14. Methanol as an alternative fuel: Economic and health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Switching from gasoline to methanol fuels has important economic and health effects. Replacing gasoline with methanol will affect oil markets by lowering the demand for oil and thus lowering oil prices. Increased demand for the natural gas feedstock will increase natural gas prices. Because methanol is more costly than gasoline, fuel prices will also increase. On the other hand, methanol use will reduce ozone pollution and some of the health risks associated with gasoline. Considering all three markets affected by the phasing-out of gasoline, the switch to methanol results in net gains. The health benefits from lower pollution and the lives saved from the switch from gasoline to methanol are in addition to these gains. Overall, the benefits of the policy far outweigh the costs. However, the gains in the oil market, arising from the US monopsony power in the world oil market, can be captured by other, more efficient policies. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  16. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  17. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  18. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  19. Low methanol-permeable polyaniline/Nafion composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, C. H.; Chen, C. C.; Hsu, H. C.; Du, H. Y.; Chen, C. P.; Hwang, J. Y.; Chen, L. C.; Shih, H. C.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Chen, K. H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 2 (2009), s. 279-284 ISSN 0378-7753 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050313 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : DMFC * methanol crossover * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.792, year: 2009

  20. Caribbean mangroves and seagrass beds as daytime feeding habitats for juvenile French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.C.; Nagelkerken, I.; Wartenbergh, S.L.J.; Pen, I.R.; Van der Velde, G.

    Caribbean seagrass beds are important feeding habitats for so-called nocturnally active zoobenthivorous fish, but the extent to which these fishes use mangroves and seagrass beds as feeding habitats during daytime remains unclear. We hypothesised three feeding strategies: (1) fishes feed

  1. Caribbean mangroves and seagrass beds as diurnal feeding habitats for juvenile French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, M.C.; Nagelkerken, I.; Wartenbergh, S.L.J.; Pen, I.R.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Caribbean seagrass beds are important feeding habitats for so-called nocturnally active zoobenthivorous fish, but the extent to which these fishes use mangroves and seagrass beds as feeding habitats during daytime remains unclear. We hypothesised three feeding strategies: (1) fishes feed

  2. Electron transport in ethanol & methanol absorbed defected graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandeliya, Sushmita; Srivastava, Anurag

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the sensitivity of ethanol and methanol molecules on surface of single vacancy defected graphene has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The changes in structural and electronic properties before and after adsorption of ethanol and methanol were analyzed and the obtained results show high adsorption energy and charge transfer. High adsorption happens at the active site with monovacancy defect on graphene surface. Present work confirms that the defected graphene increases the surface reactivity towards ethanol and methanol molecules. The presence of molecules near the active site affects the electronic and transport properties of defected graphene which makes it a promising choice for designing methanol and ethanol sensor.

  3. Hydration of ammonia, methylamine, and methanol in amorphous solid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2016-02-01

    Interactions of polar protic molecules with amorphous solid water (ASW) have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The ammonia and methylamine are incorporated into the interior of porous ASW films. They are caged by water molecules and are released during water crystallization. In contrast, the methanol-water interaction is not influenced by pores of ASW. The methanol additives tend to survive water crystallization and are released during ASW film evaporation. The hydration of n-hexane in ASW is influenced significantly by methanol additives because n-hexane is accommodated in a methanol-induced hydration shell.

  4. An Electrochemical Investigation of Methanol Oxidation on Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Cyclic voltammetry, electrooxidation, glassy carbon electrode, methanol, nickel hydroxide nanoparticles. 1. ... substrate at room temperature without templates. Recently, we ... placed in ethanol and sonicated to remove adsorbed particles.

  5. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  6. Experimental Validation of Methanol Crossover in a Three-dimensional, Two-Fluid Model of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled three-dimensional, steady-state, two-fluid, multi-component and non-isothermal DMFC model has been developed in the commercial CFD package CFX 13 (ANSYS inc.). It accounts for the presence of micro porous layers, non-equilibrium phase change, and methanol and water uptake...... in the ionomer phase of the catalytic layer, and detailed membrane transport of methanol and water. In order to verify the models ability to predict methanol crossover, simulation results are compared with experimental measurements under different current densities along with air and methanol stoichiometries....... Methanol crossover is indirectly measured based on the combined anode and cathode exhaust CO2 mole fraction and by accounting for the CO2 production at the anode as a function of current density. This approach is simple and assumes that all crossed over methanol is oxidized. Moreover, it takes CO2...

  7. Identification of marine methanol-utilizing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M; Iwaki, H; Kouno, K; Inui, T

    1980-01-01

    A taxonomical study of 65 marine methanol-utilizing bacteria is described. They were Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rods with a polar flagellum and had marine bacterial properties and required vitamin B/sub 12/ for growth. All of them assimilated fructose in addition to C/sub 1/-compounds and produced acid oxidatively from fructose. Twenty-four strains assimilated only C/sub 1/-compounds. They were resistant to penicillin, oxytetracycline and 0/129 substance (Vibrio stat), and tolerant to 12% NaCl. Guanine-cytosine contents of deoxyribonucleic acid in typical strains fell in the range of 43.8 to 47.6%. Other morphological and physiological properties were almost the same as those of terrestrial methanol-utilizers. Bacteria in the first group (41 strains) were facultative methylotrophs and were divided into three subgroups by the assimilation of methylated amines, that is, subgroup I (30 strains) assimilated mono-, di- and tri-methylamine, subgroup II (9 strains) assimilated only mono-methylamine, the bacteria of subgroups I and II were named Alteromonas thalassomethanolica sp. nov. and subgroup III (2 strains) did not assimilate methylated amines, and was tentatively assigned as Alteromonas sp. The second group of bacteria (24 strains) was obligate methylotrophs, named Methylomonas thalassica sp. nov. and was divided into subgroup IV (15 strains) which assimilated mono-, di and tri-methylamine and subgroup V (9 strains) which assimilated mono-methylamine.

  8. Toxicological Evaluation of Tetrameles nudiflora Methanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofna DS Banjarnahor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of Mekongga national park resulted in novel finding of anticancer property from Tetrameles nudiflora. The investigation of toxic features of T. nudiflora is vital for further studies of its pharmacological activities. Acute toxicity test was done on methanolic extracts of T. nudiflora in DDY mice. Animal models were ordered into five groups. Group 1 was given 1 ml solution of 2.5% Tween 80 in a sole oral dose. The remaining groups were appointed a sole dose of 1, 2, 4 and 8 g/kg body weight T. nudiflora, respectively. Toxic effects of the extract were evaluated on the basis of behavioral observations in the form of locomotor activity; curiosity; defecation; urination and also animal mortality. Observations were carried out for 14 days. No significant changes in body weight and behavioral activities were recorded. Mortality was recorded up to 22% of the male group, and 11% of the female group. The T. nudiflora extracts tested for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of 46.67 μg/ml. It can be concluded that methanol extracts of T. nudiflora are potential to be explored as anticancer (LC50= 46.67 μg/ml. The extract is slightly toxic in male mice with Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 12.6 g/kg body weight, and practically nontoxic for female (LD50>15 g/kg body weight

  9. Methanol from TES global observations: retrieval algorithm and seasonal and spatial variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Cady-Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of the TES methanol (CH3OH retrieval algorithm, along with initial global results showing the seasonal and spatial distribution of methanol in the lower troposphere. The full development of the TES methanol retrieval is described, including microwindow selection, error analysis, and the utilization of a priori and initial guess information provided by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Retrieval simulations and a sensitivity analysis using the developed retrieval strategy show that TES: (i generally provides less than 1.0 piece of information, (ii is sensitive in the lower troposphere with peak sensitivity typically occurring between ~900–700 hPa (~1–3 km at a vertical resolution of ~5 km, (iii has a limit of detectability between 0.5 and 1.0 ppbv Representative Volume Mixing Ratio (RVMR depending on the atmospheric conditions, corresponding roughly to a profile with a maximum concentration of at least 1 to 2 ppbv, and (iv in a simulation environment has a mean bias of 0.16 ppbv with a standard deviation of 0.34 ppbv. Applying the newly derived TES retrieval globally and comparing the results with corresponding GEOS-Chem output, we find generally consistent large-scale patterns between the two. However, TES often reveals higher methanol concentrations than simulated in the Northern Hemisphere spring, summer and fall. In the Southern Hemisphere, the TES methanol observations indicate a model overestimate over the bulk of South America from December through July, and a model underestimate during the biomass burning season.

  10. Temperature dependence on mutual solubility of binary (methanol + limonene) mixture and (liquid + liquid) equilibria of ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuhiro; Li Xiaoli; Li Hengde

    2009-01-01

    Mutual solubility data of the binary (methanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures ranging from 288.15 K close to upper critical solution temperature, and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (tie-lines) of the (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K have been obtained. The experimental results have been represented accurately in terms of the extended and modified UNIQUAC models with binary parameters, compared with the UNIQUAC model. The temperature dependence of binary and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for the binary (methanol + limonene) and ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixtures could be calculated successfully using the extended and modified UNIQUAC model

  11. Metabolic Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for Methanol Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoff, Sabrina; Schmitz, Katja; Niedenführ, Sebastian; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Methanol is already an important carbon feedstock in the chemical industry, but it has found only limited application in biotechnological production processes. This can be mostly attributed to the inability of most microbial platform organisms to utilize methanol as a carbon and energy source. With the aim to turn methanol into a suitable feedstock for microbial production processes, we engineered the industrially important but nonmethylotrophic bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum toward the utilization of methanol as an auxiliary carbon source in a sugar-based medium. Initial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde was achieved by heterologous expression of a methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus, whereas assimilation of formaldehyde was realized by implementing the two key enzymes of the ribulose monophosphate pathway of Bacillus subtilis: 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase and 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase. The recombinant C. glutamicum strain showed an average methanol consumption rate of 1.7 ± 0.3 mM/h (mean ± standard deviation) in a glucose-methanol medium, and the culture grew to a higher cell density than in medium without methanol. In addition, [13C]methanol-labeling experiments revealed labeling fractions of 3 to 10% in the m + 1 mass isotopomers of various intracellular metabolites. In the background of a C. glutamicum Δald ΔadhE mutant being strongly impaired in its ability to oxidize formaldehyde to CO2, the m + 1 labeling of these intermediates was increased (8 to 25%), pointing toward higher formaldehyde assimilation capabilities of this strain. The engineered C. glutamicum strains represent a promising starting point for the development of sugar-based biotechnological production processes using methanol as an auxiliary substrate. PMID:25595770

  12. Increasing Fuel Efficiency of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems with Feedforward Control of the Operating Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseung Na

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the R&D on fuel cells for portable applications concentrates on increasing efficiencies and energy densities to compete with other energy storage devices, especially batteries. To improve the efficiency of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC systems, several modifications to system layouts and operating strategies are considered in this paper, rather than modifications to the fuel cell itself. Two modified DMFC systems are presented, one with an additional inline mixer and a further modification of it with a separate tank to recover condensed water. The set point for methanol concentration control in the solution is determined by fuel efficiency and varies with the current and other process variables. Feedforward concentration control enables variable concentration for dynamic loads. Simulation results were validated experimentally with fuel cell systems.

  13. We only talk about breast feeding: a discourse analysis of infant feeding messages in antenatal group-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, Fenwick; Elaine, Burns; Athena, Sheehan; Virginia, Schmied

    2013-05-01

    the aim of the study was to examine the dominant discourses that midwives draw on to present information on breast feeding in group-based antenatal education sessions. breast-feeding initiation rates are high among Australian women however, duration rates are low. Antenatal breast-feeding education is considered a key strategy in promoting breast feeding to childbearing women. The efficacy and effectiveness of such a strategy is equivocal and there is little qualitative work examining group-based antenatal breast-feeding education. discourse analysis was used to explore the language and practises of midwives facilitating group antenatal breast-feeding education sessions at two Australian maternity facilities. Nine sessions were observed and tape recorded over a 12 month period. Each session lasted between 60 and 140 mins. the analysis revealed four dominate discourses midwives used to promote breast feeding during group-based antenatal education session. The predominant discourses 'There is only one feeding option': breast feeding' and 'Selling the 'breast is best' reflected how midwives used their personal and professional commitment to breast feeding, within supportive and protective policy frameworks, to convince as many pregnant women as possible to commit to breast feeding. Sessions were organised to ensure women and their partners were 'armed' with as much information as possible about the value of breastmilk, successful positioning and attachment and practical strategies to deal with early breast-feeding problems. Antenatal commitment to breast feeding was deemed necessary if women were to overcome potential hurdles and maintain a commitment to the supply of breast milk. The latter two discourses, drawn upon to promote the breast-feeding message, presented infants as 'hard wired' to breast feed and male partners as 'protectors' of breast feeding. midwives clearly demonstrated a passion and enthusiasm for breast-feeding education. Examining the dominant

  14. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  15. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  16. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  17. Picosecond infrared activation of methanol in acid zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, Miacha; van Santen, Rutger A.; Lercher, J.A.; Kleyn, Aart W.; Bakker, H.J.; Bakker, Huib J.

    1997-01-01

    Highly porous, crystalline zeolite catalysts are used industrially to catalyze the conversion of methanol to gasoline. We have performed a picosecond spectroscopic study providing insights into both the structure and the dynamics of methanol adsorbed to acid zeolites. We reveal the adsorption

  18. Antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of methanol extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic potential of the methanol extracts of leaf, stem and root of Ageratum conyzoides in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: The extract of each of the plant part was obtained by extraction in methanol. A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats (30 ...

  19. Immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the immune-modulatory activities of various plant parts Adansonia digitata L. using delayed-type hypersensitivity rat model. Methods: Defatted leaf, root bark and fruit pulp of A. digitata were extracted with methanol. Immunomodulatory activity of the methanol extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg) were ...

  20. Methanol Oxidation Using Ozone on Titania-Supported Vanadium Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-enhanced catalytic oxidation of methanol has been conducted at mild temperatures of 100 to 250NC using V2O5/TiO2 catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, surface area measurements, and temperature-programmed desorption of methanol. ...

  1. Evaluation of the antidiarrhoeal activity of 80% methanol extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lantana camara L. is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity of the 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions using mice model of diarrhoea. The 80% methanol extract was prepared by maceration and the fractions ...

  2. Some behavioural studies on methanol root bark extract of Burkea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted to evaluate some central nervous system properties of the root bark methanol extractof B. africana in mice. It involved the following animal models: diazepam-induced sleep, hole-board and walking beam assay. Results: The methanol extract showed a significant decrease in the onset of sleep ...

  3. Antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids in both the methanol and aqueous extracts. The antimicrobial activity result showed that the methanol extract significantly (P < 0.01) demonstrated antibacterial action against B. subtilis ...

  4. In vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of D. edulis and F. capensis leaves were evaluated. Each plant leaves were extracted in methanol using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of the resulting extracts showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, ...

  5. Relaxant Activity of the Methanol Extract of Acanthus Montanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus on guinea pig trachealis muscle. Methods: Guinea pig tracheae were set up in 10 ml organ baths. The effect of the methanol extract of Acanthus montanus (0.5 - 8 mg/ml) on the spontaneous tone of the trachea and carbacholprecontracted ...

  6. Phytotoxic activity of the methanol leaves extract of Paullinia pinnata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the extract against the growth of Lemna minor was used to investigate the phytotoxic activity. The activity of the methanol extract of P. pinnata leaves against Lemna minor increased in a dose- dependent manner and was significant at 1000 μg/ml. Therefore, the methanol leaves extract of P. pinnata exhibited ...

  7. The fate of methanol in thermophilic-anaerobic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Methanol is a simple C1-compound, which sustains a complex web of possible degradation routes under anaerobic conditions. Methanol can be the main pollutant in some specific wastewaters, but it is also a compound that may be formed under natural conditions, as intermediate in the decomposition of

  8. Four new depsides in Origanum dictamnus methanol extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Takis, P.G.; Malouta, M.; Vervoort, J.; Karali, E.; Troganis, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    We herein describe the identification of four new depsides present in methanol extract of Origanum dictamnus. O. dictamnus’ (dittany) aerial parts methanol extract was subjected to semi-preparative RP-HPLC fractionation followed by identification of individual compounds in each fraction using 1D/2D

  9. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes.

  10. Novel efficient process for methanol synthesis by CO2 hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, Anton Alexandru; Pragt, J.J.; Vos, H.J.; Bargeman, Gerrald; de Groot, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Methanol is an alternative fuel that offers a convenient solution for efficient energy storage. Complementary to carbon capture activities, significant effort is devoted to the development of technologies for methanol synthesis by hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. While CO2 is available from plenty

  11. Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Development of new membrane materials for direct methanol fuel cells Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) can convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. DMFCs can be used as the power sources to portable electronic devices

  12. Anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant effects of methanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 67.05μg/ml (ABTS). Methanol extract was able to inhibit inflammation by in vitro about 85-90% (HRBC stabilization method) and in vivo about 40-45% (Paw oedema method) anti-inflammatory assays compared to standard produced 50.04% at 6h period. In cytotoxicity assay (MTT assay) methanolic extract exhibited IC50 ...

  13. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  14. Economic optimization of heat pump-assisted distillation columns in methanol-water separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahandeh, Hossein; Jafari, Mina; Kasiri, Norollah; Ivakpour, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Finding efficient alternative to CDiC (Conventional Distillation Column) for methanol-water separation has been an attractive field of study in literature. In this work, five heat pump-assisted schemes are proposed and compared to each other to find the optimal one; (1) VRC (Vapor Recompression Column), (2) external HIDiC (Heat-Integrated Distillation Column), (3) intensified HIDiC with feed preheater, (4) double compressor intensified HIDiC-1, and (5) double compressor intensified HIDiC-2. GA (Genetic Algorithm) is then implemented for optimization of the schemes when TAC (Total Annual Cost) is its objective function. During optimization, two new variables are added for using only appropriate amount of the overhead stream in VRC and double compressor intensified HIDiCs, and another new binary variable is also used for considering feed preheating. Although TAC of the intensified HIDiC with feed preheater is found higher than CDiC by 25.0%, all optimal VRC, external HIDiC, double compressor intensified HIDiCs schemes are reached lower optimal TAC by 3.1%, 27.2%, 24.4%, and 34.2%. Introduced for the first time, the optimal scheme is the double compressor intensified HIDiC-2 with 34.2% TAC saving, 70.4% TEC (Total Energy Consumption) reduction with payback period of 3.30 years. - Highlights: • Study of an industrial distillation unit in methanol-water separation. • Optimization of different heat pump-assisted distillation columns. • Implementation of genetic algorithm during optimization. • Economic and thermodynamic comparisons of optimal results with the industrial case

  15. Critical firing and misfiring boundary in a spark ignition methanol engine during cold start based on single cycle fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhaohui; Gong, Changming; Qu, Xiang; Liu, Fenghua; Sun, Jingzhen; Wang, Kang; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the mass of methanol injected per cycle, ambient temperature, injection and ignition timing, preheating methods, and supplying additional liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) injection into the intake manifold on the critical firing and misfiring boundary of an electronically injection controlled spark ignition (SI) methanol engine during cold start were investigated experimentally based on a single cycle fuel injection with cycle-by-cycle control strategy. The critical firing and misfiring boundary was restricted by all parameters. For ambient temperatures below 16 °C, methanol engines must use auxiliary start-aids during cold start. Optimal control of the methanol injection and ignition timing can realize ideal next cycle firing combustion after injection. Resistance wire and glow plug preheating can provide critical firing down to ambient temperatures of 5 °C and 0 °C, respectively. Using an additional LPG injection into the intake manifold can provide critical firing down to an ambient temperature of −13 °C during cold start. As the ambient temperature decreases, the optimal angle difference between methanol injection timing and LPG injection timing for critical firing of a methanol engine increases rapidly during cold start. - Highlights: • A single cycle fuel injection and cycle-by-cycle control strategy are used to study. • In-cylinder pressure and instantaneous speed were used to determine firing boundary. • For the ambient temperatures below 16 °C, an auxiliary start-aids must be used. • A preheating and additional LPG were used to expand critical firing boundary. • Additional LPG can result in critical firing down to ambient temperature of −13 °C

  16. Electrode and interconnect for miniature fuel cells using direct methanol feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Clara, Filiberto (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An improved system for interconnects in a fuel cell. In one embodiment, the membranes are located in parallel with one another, and current flow between them is facilitated by interconnects. In another embodiment, all of the current flow is through the interconnects which are located on the membranes. The interconnects are located between two electrodes.

  17. Tread-water feeding of Bryde's whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takashi; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Thongsukdee, Surasak; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Sato, Katsufumi

    2017-11-06

    Many previous studies have shown that rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae), including the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whale (B. physalus), sei whale (B. borealis), Bryde's whale (B. edeni), minke whale (B. acutorostrata), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), employ a strategy called lunge feeding to capture a large amount of krill and/or fish for nourishment [1]. Lunge feeding entails a high energetic cost due to the drag created by an open mouth at high speeds [1,2]. In the upper Gulf of Thailand, Bryde's whales, which feed on small fish species [3], predominantly anchovies, demonstrated a range of feeding behaviors such as oblique, vertical, and lateral lunging. Moreover, they displayed a novel head-lifting feeding behavior characterized by holding the vertical posture for several seconds with an open mouth at the water surface. This study describes the head-lifting feeding by Bryde's whales, which is distinct from the typical lunge feeding of rorqual whales. Whales showing this behavior were observed on 58 occasions, involving 31 whales and including eight adult-calf pairs. Whales caught their prey using a series of coordinated movements: (i) lifting the head above the water with a closed mouth, (ii) opening the mouth until the lower jaw contacted the sea surface, which created a current of water flowing into the mouth, (iii) holding their position for several seconds, (iv) waiting for the prey to enter the mouth, and (v) closing the mouth and engulfing the prey underwater (Figure 1A-F, Movie S1 in Supplemental Information published with this article online). When a whale kept its upper jaw above the sea surface, many anchovies in the targeted shoal appeared to lose orientation and flowed passively into the mouth of the whale by the current created by the lower mandible breaking the surface of the water. We measured the duration of feeding events when the whales had a wide-open mouth mostly above the sea surface. The mean and maximum feeding

  18. Oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel as prepared by supercritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayu Xin; Hiroaki Imahara; Shiro Saka [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science

    2008-08-15

    A non-catalytic supercritical methanol method is an attractive process to convert various oils/fats efficiently into biodiesel. To evaluate oxidation stability of biodiesel, biodiesel produced by alkali-catalyzed method was exposed to supercritical methanol at several temperatures for 30 min. As a result, it was found that the tocopherol in biodiesel is not stable at a temperature higher than 300{sup o}C. After the supercritical methanol treatment, hydroperoxides were greatly reduced for biodiesel with initially high in peroxide value, while the tocopherol slightly decreased in its content. As a result, the biodiesel prepared by the supercritical methanol method was enhanced for oxidation stability when compared with that prepared by alkali-catalyzed method from waste oil. Therefore, supercritical methanol method is useful especially for oils/fats having higher peroxide values. 32 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Fate of methanol spills into rivers of varying geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, M.; Lawrence, G.A.; Maloney, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study of potential environmental impacts of methanol releases into rivers. A number of hypothetical scenarios are defined, and dispersion of methanol in the selected rivers is investigated using a riverine dispersion-biodegradation model. The downstream variability of river flow and hydraulic geometry due to merging tributaries are included in the model. The model results are presented, and comparison is made with proposed allowable concentrations. An interesting finding is that the river variation has considerable effect on concentration distribution of methanol in the most critical scenario. A sensitivity analysis is made on the key modeling parameters such as the dispersion coefficient and the biodegradation rate. An analysis illustrating when water intake systems should potentially be shutdown in the event of a methanol release is also presented. In general, it is found the human health risks associated with the accidental release of methanol into riverine environments are low. (author)

  20. High performance direct methanol fuel cell with thin electrolyte membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nianfang

    2017-06-01

    A high performance direct methanol fuel cell is achieved with thin electrolyte membrane. 320 mW cm-2 of peak power density and over 260 mW cm-2 at 0.4 V are obtained when working at 90 °C with normal pressure air supply. It is revealed that the increased anode half-cell performance with temperature contributes primarily to the enhanced performance at elevated temperature. From the comparison of iR-compensated cathode potential of methanol/air with that of H2/air fuel cell, the impact of methanol crossover on cathode performance decreases with current density and becomes negligible at high current density. Current density is found to influence fuel efficiency and methanol crossover significantly from the measurement of fuel efficiency at different current density. At high current density, high fuel efficiency can be achieved even at high temperature, indicating decreased methanol crossover.

  1. Biodiesel Production from Acidified Oils via Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In biodiesel production, the vegetable oil used as raw material for transesterification should be free of water and free fatty acids (FFAs, which may consume catalyst and reduce catalyst efficiency. In this work biodiesel was prepared from acidified oils (AO through a supercritical methanol route, in which the esterification of FFAs and transesterification of glyceride with methanol occurred simultaneously. The effects of the mass ratio of methanol to AO, the operation temperature as well as the water content on the FFAs conversion and glycerol yield were investigated. The results indicated that the FFAs conversion for esterification under the condition of 1:1 methanol/oil ratio, 310 °C and 15 min reaction time reached 98.7%, and the glycerol yield for transesterification under 0.25:1 methanol/oil ratio, 290 °C and 20 min reaction time reached 63.5% respectively.

  2. Bifunctional anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Ferrin, Peter; Tritsaris, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed surfaces as reactivity descriptors, we screen bulk and surface alloy catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation activity. Using these two descriptors, we illustrate that a good methanol electro-oxidation catalyst must have three key properties......: (1) the ability to activate methanol, (2) the ability to activate water, and (3) the ability to react off surface intermediates (such as CO* and OH*). Based on this analysis, an alloy catalyst made up of Cu and Pt should have a synergistic effect facilitating the activity towards methanol electro-oxidation....... Adding Cu to a Pt(111) surface increases the methanol oxidation current by more than a factor of three, supporting our theoretical predictions for improved electrocatalysts....

  3. Thermal unimolecular decomposition of methanol. Zum thermischen unimolekularen Zerfall von Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, K

    1979-01-01

    The thermal unimolecular decomposition of methanol and that of acetone (1B) were investigated experimentally after reflected shockwaves, by following up the OH and CH/sub 3/ absorption or the CH/sub 3/ and acetone absorption respectively. A computer simulation of the decomposition of methanol and the subsequent reactions was done. This gave velocity constants for some reactions, which are different from those that are found in the literature. The experimental investigation of the decomposition of acetone, from comparison of the results with the data in the literature, shows that the observations of CH/sub 3/ absorption are very suitable for obtaining velocity constants for decomposition reactions, where CH/sub 3/ radicals are formed in the first stage.

  4. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  6. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  7. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  8. Information draft on the development of air standards for methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Methanol is a clear, colourless. very mobile liquid with a slightly alcoholic odour in pure form, but a repulsive pungent odour in crude form. Methanol is the raw material in the production of many gasoline additives, is used as a solvent or antifreeze in paint strippers, aerosol spray paints, wall paints, carburetor cleaners, and car windshield washer compounds. Methanol is one of the top pollutants by release quantities in Ontario, the highest release being generated by the pulp and paper industry. Other large emissions come from the plastics and synthetic resin industry. Total release to the air in Canada was 3,668 tonnes in 1996 and the top ten methanol emitting facilities were in Ontario. Methanol is readily absorbed through inhalation, ingestion and skin exposures. Once absorbed, it is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to formic acid. Common symptoms of exposure are visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, vertigo, pain in the extremities, and headaches. No information was found as to the carcinogenicity of methanol to humans or animals. Current Ontario half-hour POI standard for methanol is 84,000 microgram/cubic meter and the 24-hour AAQC is 28,000 microgram/cubic meter. Both values were established more than 20 years ago. Review of relevant literature, summarized in this report, indicates that five US states have promulgated air quality guidelines or reference exposure levels for methanol, based on occupational exposure limits. The US Environmental Protection Agency is currently reviewing its reference concentration value for methanol. The World Health Organization and the Canadian federal government have not set air quality guidelines for methanol. 37 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  9. Protection against methanol-induced retinal toxicity by LED photostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Harry T.; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.; Eells, Janis T.

    2002-06-01

    We have initiated experiments designed to test the hypothesis that 670-nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) exposure will attenuate formate-induced retinal dysfunction in a rodent model of methanol toxicity. Methanol intoxication produces toxic injury to the retina. The toxic metabolite formed in methanol intoxication is formic acid, a mitochondrial toxin known to inhibit cytochrome oxidase activity. 670-nm LED light has been hypothesized to act by stimulating cytochrome oxidase activity. To test this hypothesis, one group of animals was intoxicated with methanol, a second group was intoxicated with methanol and LED-treated and a third group was untreated. LED treatment (670 nm for 1 min 45 seconds equals 50 mW/cm2, 4 joules/cm2) was administered at 5, 25, and 50 hours after the initial dose of methanol. At 72 hours of methanol intoxication, retinal function was assessed by measurement of ERG responses and retinas were prepared for histologic analysis. ERG responses recorded in methanol-intoxicated animals revealed profound attenuation of both rod-dominated and UV-cone mediated responses. In contrast, methanol- intoxicated animals exposed to LED treatment exhibited a nearly complete recovery of rod-dominated ERG responses and a slight improvement of UV-cone mediated ERG responses. LED treatment also protected the retina against the histopathologic changes produced by formate in methanol intoxication. These data provide evidence that LED phototherapy protects the retina against the cytotoxic actions of formate and are consistent with the hypothesis that LED photostimulation improves mitochondrial respiratory chain function.

  10. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  11. A Nafion-Ceria Composite Membrane Electrolyte for Reduced Methanol Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban Velayutham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An alternative Nafion composite membrane was prepared by incorporating various loadings of CeO2 nanoparticles into the Nafion matrix and evaluated its potential application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. The effects of CeO2 in the Nafion matrix were systematically studied in terms of surface morphology, thermal and mechanical stability, proton conductivity and methanol permeability. The composite membrane with optimum filler content (1 wt. % CeO2 exhibits a proton conductivity of 176 mS·cm−1 at 70 °C, which is about 30% higher than that of the unmodified membrane. Moreover, all the composite membranes possess a much lower methanol crossover compared to pristine Nafion membrane. In a single cell DMFC test, MEA fabricated with the optimized composite membrane delivered a peak power density of 120 mW·cm−2 at 70 °C, which is about two times higher in comparison with the pristine Nafion membrane under identical operating conditions.

  12. Modifications for use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends in automotive vehicles, September 1976-January 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, D.J.; Bolt, J.A.; Cole, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Methanol or blends of methanol and gasoline as automotive fuels may be attractive means for extending the nation's petroleum reserves. The present study was aimed at identifying potential problems and solutions for this use of methanol. Retrofitting of existing vehicles as well as future vehicle design have been considered. The use of ethanol or higher alcohols was not addressed in this study but will be included at a later date. Several potentially serious problems have been identified with methanol use. The most attractive solutions depend upon an integrated combination of vehicle modifications and fuel design. No vehicle problems were found which could not be solved with relatively minor developments of existing technology providing the methanol or blend fuel was itself engineered to ameliorate the solution. Research needs have been identified in the areas of lubrication and materials. These, while apparently solvable, must precede use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends as motor fuels. Because of the substantial costs and complexities of a retrofitting program, use of methanol must be evaluated in relation to other petroleum-saving alternatives. Future vehicles can be designed initially to operate satisfactorily on these alternate fuels. However a specific fuel composition must be specified around which the future engines and vehicles can be designed.

  13. Operation characteristic analysis of a direct methanol fuel cell system using the methanol sensor-less control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y.; Chang, C.L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Longtan Township, Taoyuan County (China); Sung, C.C. [National Taiwan University (China)

    2012-10-15

    The application of methanol sensor-less control in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) system eliminates most of the problems encountered when using a methanol sensor and is one of the major solutions currently used in commercial DMFCs. This study focuses on analyzing the effect of the operating characteristics of a DMFC system on its performance under the methanol sensor-less control as developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). Notably, the influence of the dispersion of the methanol injected on the behavior of the system is investigated systematically. In addition, the mechanism of the methanol sensor-less control is investigated by varying factors such as the timing of the injection of methanol, the cathode flow rate, and the anode inlet temperature. These results not only provide insight into the mechanism of methanol sensor-less control but can also aid in the improvement and application of DMFC systems in portable and low-power transportation. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  15. Thermodynamics of R-(+)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic Acid Dissolution in Methanol, Ethanol, and Methanol-Ethanol Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Jinju; Yao, Xinding; Fang, Ruina; Cheng, Liang

    2018-05-01

    The solubilities of R-(+)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (D-HPPA) in methanol, ethanol and various methanol-ethanol mixtures are determined in the temperature range from 273.15 to 323.15 K at atmospheric pressure using a laser detecting system. The solubilities of D-HPPA increase with increasing mole fraction of ethanol in the methanol-ethanol mixtures. Experimental data were correlated with Buchowski-Ksiazczak λ h equation and modified Apelblat equation; the first one gives better approximation for the experimental results. The enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of D-HPPA dissolution in methanol, ethanol and methanol-ethanol mixtures were also calculated from the solubility data.

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  19. Characterization and fuel cell performance analysis of polyvinylalcohol-mordenite mixed-matrix membranes for direct methanol fuel cell use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uctug, Fehmi Goerkem, E-mail: gorkem.uctug@bahcesehir.edu.t [University of Manchester, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Holmes, Stuart M. [University of Manchester, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > We investigated the availability of PVA-mordenite membranes for DMFC use. > We measured the methanol permeability of PVA-mordenite membranes via pervaporation. > We did the fuel cell testing of these membranes, which had not been done before. > We showed that PVA-mordenite membranes have poorer DMFC performance than Nafion. > Membrane performance can be improved by increasing the proton conductivity of PVA. - Abstract: Polyvinylalcohol-mordenite (PVA-MOR) mixed matrix membranes were synthesized for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) use. For the structural and the morphological characterization, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis methods were used. Zeolite distribution within the polymer matrix was found to be homogeneous. An impedance spectroscope was used to measure the proton conductivity. In order to obtain information about methanol permeation characteristics, swelling tests and a series of pervaporation experiments were carried out. 60-40 wt% PVA-MOR membranes were found to give the optimum transport properties. Proton conductivity of these membranes was found to be slightly lower than that of Nafion117{sup TM} whereas their methanol permeability was at least two orders of magnitude lower than Nafion117{sup TM}. DMFC performance of the PVA-MOR membranes was also measured. The inferior DMFC performance of PVA-MOR membranes was linked to drying in the fuel cell medium and the consequent proton conductivity loss. Their performance was improved by adding a dilute solution of sulfuric acid into the feed methanol solution. Future studies on the improvement of the proton conductivity of PVA-MOR membranes, especially via sulfonation of the polymer matrix, can overcome the low-performance problem associated with insufficient proton conductivity.

  20. Characterization and fuel cell performance analysis of polyvinylalcohol-mordenite mixed-matrix membranes for direct methanol fuel cell use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uctug, Fehmi Goerkem; Holmes, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the availability of PVA-mordenite membranes for DMFC use. → We measured the methanol permeability of PVA-mordenite membranes via pervaporation. → We did the fuel cell testing of these membranes, which had not been done before. → We showed that PVA-mordenite membranes have poorer DMFC performance than Nafion. → Membrane performance can be improved by increasing the proton conductivity of PVA. - Abstract: Polyvinylalcohol-mordenite (PVA-MOR) mixed matrix membranes were synthesized for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) use. For the structural and the morphological characterization, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis methods were used. Zeolite distribution within the polymer matrix was found to be homogeneous. An impedance spectroscope was used to measure the proton conductivity. In order to obtain information about methanol permeation characteristics, swelling tests and a series of pervaporation experiments were carried out. 60-40 wt% PVA-MOR membranes were found to give the optimum transport properties. Proton conductivity of these membranes was found to be slightly lower than that of Nafion117 TM whereas their methanol permeability was at least two orders of magnitude lower than Nafion117 TM . DMFC performance of the PVA-MOR membranes was also measured. The inferior DMFC performance of PVA-MOR membranes was linked to drying in the fuel cell medium and the consequent proton conductivity loss. Their performance was improved by adding a dilute solution of sulfuric acid into the feed methanol solution. Future studies on the improvement of the proton conductivity of PVA-MOR membranes, especially via sulfonation of the polymer matrix, can overcome the low-performance problem associated with insufficient proton conductivity.