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Sample records for methane potential bmp

  1. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  2. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of artichoke waste: the inoculum effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate anaerobic digestibility of artichoke waste resulting from industrial transformation. A series of batch anaerobic digestion tests was performed in order to evaluate the biochemical methane potential of the matrix in respect of the process. A comparison of the different performances of the laboratory-scale reactors operating in mesophilic conditions and utilizing three different values of the inoculum/substrate ratio was carried out. The best performance was achieved with an inoculum/substrate ratio of 2. Artichoke-processing byproducts showed a classical organic waste decomposition behaviour: a fast start-up phase, an acclimation stage, and a final stabilization phase. Following this approach, artichoke waste reached chemical oxygen demand removal of about 90% in 40 days. The high methane yield (average 408.62 mL CH4 gvs (-1) voltatile solids), makes artichoke waste a good product to be utilized in anaerobic digestion plants for biogas production.

  3. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strömberg, Sten; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2 4 full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world

  4. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strömberg, Sten, E-mail: sten.stromberg@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nistor, Mihaela, E-mail: mn@bioprocesscontrol.com [Bioprocess Control, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jing.liu@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bioprocess Control, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2{sup 4} full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world.

  5. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...... scale landfill reactors. The initial methane potential of solid wastes filled to the reactors was around 0.347 L/CH(4)/g dry waste, which decreased with operational time of landfill reactors to values of 0.117 and 0.154 L/CH(4)/g dry waste for leachate recirculated (R1) and non-recirculated (R2...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using bio-methane potential (BMP) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nur Izzah Hamna A.; Hanafiah, Marlia M.

    2018-04-01

    Biogas is a promising sustainable and renewable energy alternative to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. In Malaysia, the conversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to bioenergy has recently been expanded due to its high potential in generating energy. However, without a proper treatment and management, POME could be harmful to environment because it emits greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and could also pollutes the watercourses if discharge directly due to the high acidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content. Many initiatives have been taken by the government towards sustainable development. Therefore, more efforts need to be practiced to improve and upscale the technology for a better waste management. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of POME was carried out using Bio-methane potential (BMP) test in batch and laboratory scales. Physicochemical characteristics and the biogas production of POME were measured. The BMP test under mesophilic condition was conducted for 23 consecutive days to measure the biogas production. The POME produced 721.3 cm3 of biogas by using anaerobic sludge as inoculum. The results also found that the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases produced with 360.65 cm3 and 288.52 cm3, respectively.

  7. Characterizing food waste substrates for co-digestion through biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Maria Sol; Lansing, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure is increasingly utilized to increase energy production and make anaerobic digestion more affordable; however, there is a lack of information on appropriate co-digestion substrates. In this study, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the suitability of four food waste substrates (meatball, chicken, cranberry and ice cream processing wastes) for co-digestion with flushed dairy manure at a ratio of 3.2% food waste and 96.8% manure (by volume), which equated to 14.7% (ice-cream) to 80.7% (chicken) of the VS being attributed to the food waste. All treatments led to increases in methane production, ranging from a 67.0% increase (ice cream waste) to a 2940% increase (chicken processing waste) compared to digesting manure alone, demonstrating the large potential methane production of food waste additions compared to relatively low methane production potential of the flushed dairy manure, even if the overall quantity of food waste added was minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated...... and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties......) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition...

  10. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55 C...

  11. Biochemicalmethane potential (BMP) of solid organic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, F.; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; de la Rubia, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper describes results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, all experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experim...... significantly according to the experimental approaches....

  12. Comparison on batch anaerobic digestion of five different livestock manures and prediction of biochemical methane potential (BMP) using different statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Chen, Lide

    2016-02-01

    There is a lack of literature reporting the methane potential of several livestock manures under the same anaerobic digestion conditions (same inoculum, temperature, time, and size of the digester). To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported biochemical methane potential (BMP) predicting models developed and evaluated by solely using at least five different livestock manure tests results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the BMP of five different livestock manures (dairy manure (DM), horse manure (HM), goat manure (GM), chicken manure (CM) and swine manure (SM)) and to predict the BMP using different statistical models. Nutrients of the digested different manures were also monitored. The BMP tests were conducted under mesophilic temperatures with a manure loading factor of 3.5g volatile solids (VS)/L and a feed to inoculum ratio (F/I) of 0.5. Single variable and multiple variable regression models were developed using manure total carbohydrate (TC), crude protein (CP), total fat (TF), lignin (LIG) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), and measured BMP data. Three different kinetic models (first order kinetic model, modified Gompertz model and Chen and Hashimoto model) were evaluated for BMP predictions. The BMPs of DM, HM, GM, CM and SM were measured to be 204, 155, 159, 259, and 323mL/g VS, respectively and the VS removals were calculated to be 58.6%, 52.9%, 46.4%, 81.4%, 81.4%, respectively. The technical digestion time (T80-90, time required to produce 80-90% of total biogas production) for DM, HM, GM, CM and SM was calculated to be in the ranges of 19-28, 27-37, 31-44, 13-18, 12-17days, respectively. The effluents from the HM showed the lowest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations. The effluents from the CM digesters showed highest nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and digested SM showed highest potassium concentration. Based on the results of the regression analysis, the model using the variable of LIG showed the best (R(2

  13. Ensiling of fish industry waste for biogas production: a lab scale evaluation of biochemical methane potential (BMP) and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun; Sung, Kyung Ill

    2013-01-01

    Fish waste (FW) obtained from a fish processor was ensiled for biogas production. The FW silages were prepared by mixing FW with bread waste (BW) and brewery grain waste (BGW), and the quality of the prepared silages were evaluated. The biogas potentials of BW, BGW, three different types of FW, and FW silages were measured. A first-order kinetic model and the modified Gompertz model were also used to predict methane yield. The biogas and methane yield for FW silages after 96 days was calculated to be 671-763 mL/g VS and 441-482 mL/g VS, respectively. There were smaller differences between measured and predicted methane yield for FW silages when using a modified Gompertz model (1.1-4.3%) than when using a first-order kinetic model (22.5-32.4%). The critical HRTs and technical digestion times (T(80-90)) for the FW silages were calculated to be 21.0-23.8 days and 40.5-52.8 days, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Handbook methane potential; Handbok metanpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB (Sweden)); Schnurer, Anna (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    Before using a organic material for biogas production it is essential to evaluate the methane production potential. The methane potential is one important tool possible to use during planning of new plants but also when new materials are considered for already running biogas plants. The chemical composition of different organic material varies extensively and this will have an impact on both the degradability and the methane potential. Information about the methane potential of a specific material can sometimes be found in the literature or can be calculated after a chemical/ physical or biological characterization. Here, the BMP test (Biochemical Methane Potential) is a commonly used method. Today the BMP test is a commonly used method to determine the methane potential. Many national and international research groups, consultants as well as personal at biogas plants are using this method and there is a lot of data available in the literature from such tests. In addition there are several protocols giving guidelines on how to execute a BMP-test. The BMP-test is performed in many different ways, not always under optimized conditions, and there is a lack of information on how to interpret the obtained data. This report summarizes knowledge from the literature and the experience from a Swedish referee group, consisting of persons being active performers of BMP-tests. The report does not include a standardized protocol as the procedure can be performed in different ways depending on available equipment and on the type of material to be tested. Instead the report discusses different factors of great importance for a successful test giving reliable results. The report also summarizes important information concerning the interpretation and how to present results in order to allow comparison of data from different test.

  15. Factors controlling headspace pressure in a manual manometric BMP method can be used to produce a methane output comparable to AMPTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanshu, H; Voelklein, M A; Murphy, J D; Grant, J; O'Kiely, P

    2017-08-01

    The manual manometric biochemical methane potential (mBMP) test uses the increase in pressure to calculate the gas produced. This gas production may be affected by the headspace volume in the incubation bottle and by the overhead pressure measurement and release (OHPMR) frequency. The biogas and methane yields of cellulose, barley, silage and slurry were compared with three incubation bottle headspace volumes (50, 90 and 180ml; constant 70ml total medium) and four OHPMR frequencies (daily, each third day, weekly and solely at the end of experiment). The methane yields of barley, silage and slurry were compared with those from an automated volumetric method (AMPTS). Headspace volume and OHPMR frequency effects on biogas yield were mediated mainly through headspace pressure, with the latter having a negative effect on the biogas yield measured and relatively little effect on methane yield. Two mBMP treatments produced methane yields equivalent to AMPTS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of solid waste in RAS: Effect of reactor type on the biochemical acidogenic potential (BAP) and assessment of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) by a batch assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Lund, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    the biochemical acidogenic potential of solid waste from juvenile rainbow trout was evaluated by measuring the yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion by batch or fed-batch reactor operation at hydrolysis time (HT) / hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1, 5, or 10 days (and for batch......Anaerobic digestion is a way to utilize the potential energy contained in solid waste produced in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs), either by providing acidogenic products for driving heterotrophic denitrification on site or by directly producing combustive methane. In this study...

  17. Biochemical methane potential and anaerobic biodegradability of non-herbaceous and herbaceous phytomass in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, Jin Mi; Pedersen, Lene; Qu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of municipal plant waste for anaerobic digestion was examined using 57 different herbaceous and non-herbaceous samples. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability were related to the degree of lignification and crystallinity of cellulose. The BMP of herbace...

  18. Renewable Biochemical Methane Potential through Anaerobic Co-digestion from Selective Feed Stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thara, K.; Navis Karthika, Ignatius; Dheenadayalan, M. S., Dr

    2017-08-01

    Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) analysis provides a measure of the anaerobic biodegradability of a given substrate. BMP test is also used to evaluate the potential biogas (methane) production between various Co-digestion substrates. This test is also used to determine the amount of organic carbon in a given material that can be an aerobically converted to methane-Biogas. Studies were carried out for the production of biogas from the leather solid waste. Co-digestion (simultaneous digestion of two or more substrates) studies were carried out in batch reactor using the fleshing (a solid waste generated during the processing of raw hides or skins into finished leather) along with the fruit and vegetable waste at mesophilic condition 35° C). The anaerobic methanogenic seed sludge prepared separately followed by standard BMP test, which was used as the seed inoculums. Recent research on this topic is reviewed in this current paper.

  19. Effect of quantity and composition of waste on the prediction of annual methane potential from landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han Sang; Moon, Hee Sun; Kim, Jae Young

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of waste composition change on the methane production in landfills. An empirical equation for the methane potential of the mixed waste is derived based on the methane potential values of individual waste components and the compositional ratio of waste components. A correction factor was introduced in the equation and was determined from the BMP and lysimeter tests. The equation and LandGEM were applied for a full size landfill and the annual methane potential was estimated. Results showed that the changes in quantity of waste affected the annual methane potential from the landfill more than the changes of waste composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of substrate to inoculum ratio on the biochemical methane potential of piggery slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Man; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Shin, Kook-Sik; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substrate to inoculum ratio (S/I ratio) on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability (Ddeg) of different piggery slaughterhouse wastes, such as piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content. These wastes were sampled from a piggery slaughterhouse located in Kimje, South Korea. Cumulative methane production curves for the wastes were obtained from the anaerobic batch fermentation having different S/I ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. BMP and anaerobic biodegradabilities (Ddeg) of the wastes were calculated from cumulative methane production data for the tested conditions. At the lowest S/I ration of 0.1, BMPs of piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content were determined to be 0.799, 0.848, and 1.076 Nm(3) kg(-1)-VSadded, respectively, which were above the theoretical methane potentials of 0.539, 0.644, and 0.517 Nm(3) kg(-1)-VSadded for blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content, respectively. However, BMPs obtained from the higher S/I ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 were within the theoretical range for all three types of waste and were not significantly different for the different S/I ratios tested. Anaerobic biodegradabilities calculated from BMP data showed a similar tendency. These results imply that, for BMP assay in an anaerobic reactor, the S/I ratio of anaerobic reactor should be above 0.1 and the inoculum should be sufficiently stabilized to avoid further degradation during the assay.

  1. Effects of Substrate to Inoculum Ratio on the Biochemical Methane Potential of Piggery Slaughterhouse Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Man Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substrate to inoculum ratio (S/I ratio on the biochemical methane potential (BMP and anaerobic biodegradability (Ddeg of different piggery slaughterhouse wastes, such as piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content. These wastes were sampled from a piggery slaughterhouse located in Kimje, South Korea. Cumulative methane production curves for the wastes were obtained from the anaerobic batch fermentation having different S/I ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. BMP and anaerobic biodegradabilities (Ddeg of the wastes were calculated from cumulative methane production data for the tested conditions. At the lowest S/I ration of 0.1, BMPs of piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content were determined to be 0.799, 0.848, and 1.076 Nm3 kg−1-VSadded, respectively, which were above the theoretical methane potentials of 0.539, 0.644, and 0.517 Nm3 kg−1-VSadded for blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content, respectively. However, BMPs obtained from the higher S/I ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 were within the theoretical range for all three types of waste and were not significantly different for the different S/I ratios tested. Anaerobic biodegradabilities calculated from BMP data showed a similar tendency. These results imply that, for BMP assay in an anaerobic reactor, the S/I ratio of anaerobic reactor should be above 0.1 and the inoculum should be sufficiently stabilized to avoid further degradation during the assay.

  2. Anaerobic biodegradability and methane potential of crop residue co-digested with buffalo dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability) and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential) of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System). The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids), ultimate analysis (CHONS), pH and TA (Total Alkalinity). The BMP/sub observed/ during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37+-0.2+-degree C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVS/sub add/ for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane. (author)

  3. Biochemical methane potential prediction of plant biomasses: Comparing chemical composition versus near infrared methods and linear versus non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Mayer, Frédéric; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of different models to predict the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of various plant biomasses using a multispecies dataset was compared. The most reliable prediction models of the BMP were those based on the near infrared (NIR) spectrum compared to those based on the chemical composition. The NIR predictions of local (specific regression and non-linear) models were able to estimate quantitatively, rapidly, cheaply and easily the BMP. Such a model could be further used for biomethanation plant management and optimization. The predictions of non-linear models were more reliable compared to those of linear models. The presentation form (green-dried, silage-dried and silage-wet form) of biomasses to the NIR spectrometer did not influence the performances of the NIR prediction models. The accuracy of the BMP method should be improved to enhance further the BMP prediction models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anaerobic Biodegradability and Methane Potential of Crop Residue Co-Digested with Buffalo Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System. The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids and VS (Volatile Solids, ultimate analysis (CHONS, pH and TA (Total Alkalinity. The BMPobserved during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37±0.2°C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVSadd for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH4/gVSadd for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH4/gVSadd for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane

  5. Rapid estimation of the biochemical methane potential of plant biomasses using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Triolo, Jin M; Peltre, Clément; Pedersen, Lene; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) is a very important characteristic of a given feedstock for optimisation of its use in biogas production. However, the long digestion time needed to determine BMP is the main limitation for the use of this assay during the operation of anaerobic digesters to produce biogas. Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to predict the BMP of 87 plant biomasses. The developed calibration model was able to explain 81% of the variance in the measured BMP of a selected test set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 40NLCH4kg(-1) of volatile solids (VS) and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) of 2.38. The interpretation of the regression coefficients used in the calibration revealed a positive correlation of BMP with easily degradable compounds (amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose and aliphatic compounds) and a negative correlation with inhibitors of cellulose hydrolysis (lignin, hemicellulose). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biomass estimates, characteristics, biochemical methane potential, kinetics and energy flow from Jatropha curcus on dry lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallathambi Gunaseelan, V. [Department of Zoology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 014 (India)

    2009-04-15

    In this study, we examined the production of Jatropha curcus plants on 1 ha of rain fed dry lands. All of the plant components that would result from plantation tending, fruit harvesting and processing were sampled for their yield and chemical composition, and then subjected to the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in BMP which was reflected in their ultimate methane yield which ranged from 0.08 to 0.97 L g{sup -1} VS added, and their first order kinetics which ranged from 0.07 to 0.14 d{sup -1}. We examined two integrated utilization schemes: the first which converted plant prunings, fruit hulls and de-oiled seed cake to methane, and the oil to fatty acid methyl-ester (FAME); the second was to convert the seeds, plant prunings and fruit hulls entirely to methane. The basis for the plantation was, a density of 4444 plant ha{sup -1} (1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing), with a seed yield of 0.911 kg TS plant{sup -1} (1 kg total weight) with an oil content of 35% providing an annual oil yield of 1.42 t y{sup -1}. The corresponding yields of pruned leaves, fruit hulls and de-oiled cake are 0.97, 1.0, and 2.35 t VS ha y{sup -1}, respectively. An integrated scheme of producing biogas by means of anaerobic digestion of the latter components and oil for biodiesel would produce 90 GJ ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in total with the oil being 54 GJ. The alternative biogas only option which would convert the seed oil into methane instead of biodiesel would produce 97 GJ ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. (author)

  7. Characteristics and stimulation potential with BMP-2 and BMP-7 of tenocyte-like cells isolated from the rotator cuff of female donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Klatte-Schulz

    Full Text Available Tendon bone healing of the rotator cuff is often associated with non-healing or recurrent defects, which seems to be influenced by the patient's age and sex. The present study aims to examine cellular biological characteristics of tenocyte-like cells that may contribute to this impaired rotator cuff healing. Moreover, a therapeutic approach using growth factors could possibly stimulate tendon bone healing. Therefore, our second aim was to identify patient groups who would particularly benefit from growth factor stimulation. Tenocyte-like cells isolated from supraspinatus tendons of female donors younger and older than 65 years of age were characterized with respect to different cellular biological parameters, such as cell density, cell count, marker expression, collagen-I protein synthesis, and stem cell potential. Furthermore, cells of the donor groups were stimulated with BMP-2 and BMP-7 (200 and 1000 ng/ml in 3D-culture and analyzed for cell count, marker expression and collagen-I protein synthesis. Female donors older than 65 years of age showed significantly decreased cell count and collagen-I protein synthesis compared to cells from donors younger than 65 years. Cellular biological parameters including cell count, collagen-I and -III expression, and collagen-I protein synthesis of cells from both donor groups were stimulated with BMP-2 and BMP-7. The cells from donors older than 65 years revealed a decreased stimulation potential for cell count compared to the younger group. Cells from female donors older than 65 years of age showed inferior cellular biological characteristics. This may be one reason for a weaker healing potential observed in older female patients and should be taken into consideration for tendon bone healing of the rotator cuff.

  8. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in composition, cellulose degradability and biochemical methane potential of Miscanthus species during the growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Li, Chao; Liu, Jing; Yi, Zili; Han, Yejun

    2017-07-01

    The composition, cellulose degradability and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of M. sinensis, M. floridulus, Miscanthus×giganteus and M. lutarioriparius were investigated concomitantly at different growth/harvest times during their growing season. For all the four species, there was only a slight change in the compositional content. Meanwhile there was a huge change in the BMP values. At the growth time of 60days the BMPs ranged from 247.1 to 266.5mlg -1 VS. As growth time was prolonged, the BMPs decreased by 11-35%. For each species, the BMP was positively correlated to the cellulose degradability with the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) ranging from 0.8055 to 0.9925. This suggests that besides the biomass yield, it is justifiable to consider cellulose degradability when selecting the suitable harvest time for biofuels production from Miscanthus, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where Miscanthus can be harvested twice or more within a year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a gas cows naturally produce in the rumen. However, it is also a potential greenhouse gas. Therefore, there is a certain interest from an environmental point of view to reduce methane emissions from dairy cows. Estimates from earlier studies indicate that there is a potential to reduce...... methane production by 10 to 25% by changing the feeding strategies. Several feedstuffs influence methane production, such as additional fat. The increase of the concentrate proportion can potentially decrease methane by decreasing the rumen degradability of the diet or by changing the rumen fermentation......, while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...

  11. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  12. Determination of as-discarded methane potential in residential and commercial municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickering, Giles W; Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-06-01

    Methane generation potential, L 0 , is a primary parameter of the first-order decay (FOD) model used for prediction and regulation of landfill gas (LFG) generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The current US EPA AP-42 default value for L 0 , which has been in place for almost 20 years, is 100 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW as-discarded. Recent research suggests the yield of landfilled waste could be less than 60 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW. This study aimed to measure the L 0 of present-day residential and commercial as-discarded MSW. In doing so, 39 waste collection vehicles were sorted for composition before samples of each biodegradable fraction were analyzed for methane generation potential. Methane yields were determined for over 450 samples of 14 different biodegradable MSW fractions, later to be combined with moisture content and volatile solids data to calculate L 0 values for each waste load. An average value of 80 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW was determined for all samples with 95% of values in the interval 74-86 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW as-discarded. While no statistically significant difference was observed, commercial MSW yields (mean 85, median 88 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW) showed a higher average L 0 than residential MSW (mean 75, median 71 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW). Many methane potential values for individual fractions described in previous work were found within the range of values determined by BMP in this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defining the biomethane potential (BMP) of solid organic wastes and energy crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Alves, M.; Bolzonella, D.

    2009-01-01

    The application of anaerobic digestion technology is growing worldwide because of its economic and environmental benefits. As a consequence, a number of studies and research activities dealing with the determination of the biogas potential of solid organic substrates have been carrying out...... in the recent years. Therefore, it is of particular importance to define a protocol for the determination of the ultimate methane potential for a given solid substrates. In fact, this parameter determines, to a certain extent, both design and economic details of a biogas plant. Furthermore, the definition...

  14. Status and potential of bio-methane fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document first indicates and describes the various bio-methane production processes which can be implemented on a short term (use of organic wastes or effluents), on a medium term (from energetic crops) and on a longer term (gasification). It discusses and assesses the potential production of bio-methane fuel from different sources and processes. It describes the steps of the production of bio-methane fuel from biogas, with notably biogas refinement to produce bio-methane through three processes (de-carbonation, desulfurization, dehydration). Cost productions are assessed. Expected technology advances are evoked. Finally, the authors outline the contribution of bio-methane in the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector

  15. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B.; Jimenez, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 deg. C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y M,ult ) decreased considerably from 227±23 to 107±11 ml CH 4 at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g -1 VS added when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g -1 VS added was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates

  16. Case study on prediction of remaining methane potential of landfilled municipal solid waste by statistical analysis of waste composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, İlker; Çakmakcı, Mehmet; Özkaya, Bestamin; Suphi Altan, H

    2016-10-01

    Main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model for easier and faster Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) prediction of landfilled municipal solid waste by analyzing waste composition of excavated samples from 12 sampling points and three waste depths representing different landfilling ages of closed and active sections of a sanitary landfill site located in İstanbul, Turkey. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used as a decision support tool to evaluation and describe the waste composition variables. Four principal component were extracted describing 76% of data set variance. The most effective components were determined as PCB, PO, T, D, W, FM, moisture and BMP for the data set. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were built by original compositional data and transformed data to determine differences. It was observed that even residual plots were better for transformed data the R(2) and Adjusted R(2) values were not improved significantly. The best preliminary BMP prediction models consisted of D, W, T and FM waste fractions for both versions of regressions. Adjusted R(2) values of the raw and transformed models were determined as 0.69 and 0.57, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pig feeding strategy coupled with effluent management - fresh or stored slurry, solid phase separation - on methane potential and methane conversion factors during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves

    2011-11-01

    In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P storage from FaW, FSl and SSl samples representing 77%, 58% and 64% of the B0 value. The dynamic of CH 4 production during BMP tests was rather similar for all dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine being much higher than for slurry.

  18. The indirect global warming potential and global temperature change potential due to methane oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Olivier; Collins, Bill; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Shine, Keith P

    2009-01-01

    Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere next to carbon dioxide. Its global warming potential (GWP) for a time horizon of 100 years is 25, which makes it an attractive target for climate mitigation policies. Although the methane GWP traditionally includes the methane indirect effects on the concentrations of ozone and stratospheric water vapour, it does not take into account the production of carbon dioxide from methane oxidation. We argue here that this CO 2 -induced effect should be included for fossil sources of methane, which results in slightly larger GWP values for all time horizons. If the global temperature change potential is used as an alternative climate metric, then the impact of the CO 2 -induced effect is proportionally much larger. We also discuss what the correction term should be for methane from anthropogenic biogenic sources.

  19. The Potential for Methane Isotopologue Channels in GOSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Edward; Yoshida, Yukio; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2017-04-01

    Of the major Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) currently considered as having a major impact on atmospheric chemistry, Methane is amongst the most important (IPCC, 2014). Methane concentration in the atmosphere has been documented to be rising steadily over the past century, aside from an unexplained short period in the middle of the last decade (Heimann., 2011), leading to renewed efforts to understand global atmospheric Methane. Atmospheric Methane is primarily composed of two key isotopologues, 12CH4 and 13CH4, which have a natural abundance of about 98% and 1.1% respectively. It is a well-established fact that different sources of Methane (i.e. biogenic sources such as methanogens, or non-biogenic such as industrial hydrocarbon burning) vary in the abundance of these isotopologues (Etiope, 2009). The global identification of the ratios of these isotopologues could vastly increase knowledge of global Methane sources, and shed some light on global Methane growth. GOSAT-2 due to be launched in 2018 is a follow on from the original GOSAT mission launched in 2009. GOSAT-2 aims to continue the legacy of GOSAT by providing global measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide on a global basis in order to monitor GHG emissions. GOSAT-2 in the context of this study has a significant advantage over GOSAT, which is the extension of the sensitivity of band 3 to 2330nm from 2080nm where significant numbers of Methane spectral lines are located. In this study we apply the well-established Information Content (IC) analysis techniques originally proposed by Rodgers (2000) to determine the potential benefit of retrieving total column Methane isotopologue concentrations assuming bands 2 and 3 of the GOSAT-2/TANSO-FTS-2 instrument. The value of such studies has been proven on multiple occasions and can provide guidance on appropriate potential retrieval setups. Due to the fact that there has been limited research in this area, no 'a priori' state vectors or Variance Covariance Matrices (VCMs

  20. Methanization potential of anaerobic biodigestion of solid food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís R. G. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion of solid and semi-solid wastes has been widely used for the treatment of these residues and methane production; however, during the process (more specifically in the acidogenic phase, there is a tendency of pH reduction, an unfavorable condition to methanogenic bacteria. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate the methanization potential of an agroindustrial anaerobic granular sludge (AIS from UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor, individually and biodigested with food waste (FW from the University Restaurant of the Federal University of Pernambuco with buffering agent (AIS + FW + b and without it (AIS + FW. After the laboratory tests, the AIS + FW + b configuration obtained a cumulative methane production approximately six times greater than that of AIS + FW, and approximately twice that of the inoculum alone (AIS.

  1. Biochemical composition and methane production correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Moscoviz, Roman; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Substrates for anaerobic digestion are composed of heterogeneous and complex organic matter. General parameters of the organic matter can be used to describe its composition such as sugar, protein and lipid contents, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and kinetic of methane production. These parameters are required for the monitoring of digesters but their characterization are time consuming and expensive; thus, these parameters are rarely assessed all together....

  2. Biogenic methane potential of marine sediments. Application of chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arning, E.T.; Schulz, H.M. [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany). Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2013-08-01

    Accumulations of biogenic methane-dominated gas are widespread and occur in a variety of depositional settings and rock types. However, the potential of biogenic methane remains underexplored. This is mainly due to the fact that quantitative assessments applying numerical modeling techniques for exploration purposes are generally lacking to date. Biogenic methane formation starts in relatively shallow marine sediments below the sulfate reduction zone. When sulfate is exhausted, methanogenesis via the CO{sub 2} reduction pathway is often the dominant biogenic methane formation process in marine sediments (Claypool and Kaplan, 1974). The process can be simplified by the reaction: 2CH{sub 2}O + Ca{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} CH{sub 4} + CaCO{sub 3} + 2H{sup +}. The products of early diagenetic reactions initiate coupled equilibrium reactions that induce a new state of chemical equilibrium among minerals, pore water and gas. The driving force of the complex biogeochemical reactions in sedimentary environments during early diagenesis is the irreversible redox-conversion of organic matter. Early diagenetic formation of biogenic methane shortly after deposition ('early diagenesis') was retraced using PHREEQC computer code that is applied to calculate homogenous and heterogeneous mass-action equations in combination with one-dimensional diffusion driven transport (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). Our modeling approach incorporates interdependent diagenetic reactions evolving into a diffusive multi-component and multiphase system by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of species distribution (Arning et al., 2011, 2012, 2013). Reaction kinetics of organic carbon conversion is integrated into the set of equilibrium reactions by defining type and amount of converted organic matter in a certain time step. It is the aim (1) to calculate quantitatively thermodynamic equilibrium conditions (composition of pore water, mineral phase and gas phase assemblage) in

  3. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced Soluble Protein and Biochemical Methane Potential of Apple Biowaste by Different Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulun, Şevket; Bilgin, Melayib

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic digestion of apple pomace waste in terms of pretreatment. In this study, the main pretreatment strategies for apple pomace include: ultrasound (35 and 53 kHz), thermal and chemical (pH 5 and 10). For each pretreatment method four different temperatures are selected as 25, 40, 50, and 60 °C, and operation times are selected as 5th, 15th, 30th, and 45th minutes. The effects on pretreatment were investigated by measuring changes in the soluble protein concentrations of pretreated wastes and the enhanced anaerobic digestion was investigated by using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. The soluble proteins of ultrasonic (35 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), ultrasonic (53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), chemical (pH 5 at 60 °C, 5th min), chemical (pH 10 at 60 °C, 30th min) and thermal chemical (40 °C, 15th min) pretreatment apple pomace were 74.3, 75.6, 48.7, 85.5 and 58.6% higher, respectively. The results indicated that apple pomace treated with 53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min had the highest biogas yield of 1519 mL CH4/g VSS.day after anaerobic digestion, which was on average 40.9% higher than raw pomace.

  5. Enhanced Soluble Protein and Biochemical Methane Potential of Apple Biowaste by Different Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulun, Şevket; Bilgin, Melayib

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic digestion of apple pomace waste in terms of pretreatment. In this study, the main pretreatment strategies for apple pomace include: ultrasound (35 and 53 kHz), thermal and chemical (pH 5 and 10). For each pretreatment method four different temperatures are selected as 25, 40, 50, and 60 °C, and operation times are selected as 5th, 15th, 30th, and 45th minutes. The effects on pretreatment were investigated by measuring changes in the soluble protein concentrations of pretreated wastes and the enhanced anaerobic digestion was investigated by using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. The soluble proteins of ultrasonic (35 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), ultrasonic (53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), chemical (pH 5 at 60 °C, 5th min), chemical (pH 10 at 60 °C, 30th min) and thermal chemical (40 °C, 15th min) pretreatment apple pomace were 74.3, 75.6, 48.7, 85.5 and 58.6% higher, respectively. The results indicated that apple pomace treated with 53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min had the highest biogas yield of 1519 mL CH4/g VSS.day after anaerobic digestion, which was on average 40.9% higher than raw pomace.

  6. Impact of Peat Mining and Restoration on Methane Turnover Potential and Methane-Cycling Microorganisms in a Northern Bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumer, Max; Harnisz, Monika; Lee, Hyo Jung; Reim, Andreas; Grunert, Oliver; Putkinen, Anuliina; Fritze, Hannu; Bodelier, Paul L E; Ho, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands are a recognized global carbon reservoir. Without restoration and peat regrowth, harvested peatlands are dramatically altered, impairing their carbon sink function, with consequences for methane turnover. Previous studies determined the impact of commercial mining on the physicochemical properties of peat and the effects on methane turnover. However, the response of the underlying microbial communities catalyzing methane production and oxidation have so far received little attention. We hypothesize that with the return of Sphagnum spp. postharvest, methane turnover potential and the corresponding microbial communities will converge in a natural and restored peatland. To address our hypothesis, we determined the potential methane production and oxidation rates in natural (as a reference), actively mined, abandoned, and restored peatlands over two consecutive years. In all sites, the methanogenic and methanotrophic population sizes were enumerated using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the mcrA and pmoA genes, respectively. Shifts in the community composition were determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the mcrA gene and a pmoA -based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) analysis, complemented by cloning and sequence analysis of the mmoX gene. Peat mining adversely affected methane turnover potential, but the rates recovered in the restored site. The recovery in potential activity was reflected in the methanogenic and methanotrophic abundances. However, the microbial community composition was altered, being more pronounced for the methanotrophs. Overall, we observed a lag between the recovery of the methanogenic/methanotrophic activity and the return of the corresponding microbial communities, suggesting that a longer duration (>15 years) is needed to reverse mining-induced effects on the methane-cycling microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Ombrotrophic peatlands are a crucial carbon sink, but this environment

  7. Methane Production of Full-Scale Anaerobic Digestion Plants Calculated from Substrate’s Biomethane Potentials Compares Well with the One Measured On-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliger, Christof; Fruteau de Laclos, Hélène; Hack, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    Biomethane potential (BMP) tests are used to determine the amount of methane that can be produced from organic materials in order to design different components of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants such as size of the digesters and units exploiting the produced biogas. However, little is known on how well BMPs compare with biogas production from the same organic materials in full-scale installations. In this study, two AD plants were chosen to carry out such comparisons, a dry AD plant treating green waste from urban areas and food waste from restaurants and supermarkets, and a liquid AD plant treating waste sludge from wastewater treatment and seven additional organic wastes. The BMPs of multiple samples of the individual organic materials collected during a period of 7–9 months were determined. Separate tests of mixtures of organic materials confirmed that the BMP of the mixtures can be calculated by adding the BMPs of the individual materials. The weekly methane production during the investigated periods was calculated from the full-scale installation data on the feeding of the digesters and the BMPs of each substrate fed into the digesters and compared with the weekly methane production measured on-site. The latter was calculated from the most accurately measured entity, either the electricity or the volume of purified biomethane injected into the grid. The weekly methane production rates calculated from BMPs and the one measured on-site were very similar and followed the same pattern. Some exceptions could be explained by, e.g., an overload of the full-scale installation. The measured weekly methane production accounted for 94.0 ± 6.8 and 89.3 ± 5.7% of the calculated weekly methane production for the wet and dry AD plant, respectively. For 26 out of 29 weeks, the calculated weekly methane production overestimated the measured one in the case of the wet AD plant and for 37 out of 39 weeks for the dry AD plant. Based on these results, it is

  8. Methane Production of Full-Scale Anaerobic Digestion Plants Calculated from Substrate’s Biomethane Potentials Compares Well with the One Measured On-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliger, Christof, E-mail: christof.holliger@epfl.ch [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, School for Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Fruteau de Laclos, Hélène [Methaconsult, Préverenges (Switzerland); Hack, Gabrielle [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, School for Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-06-09

    Biomethane potential (BMP) tests are used to determine the amount of methane that can be produced from organic materials in order to design different components of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants such as size of the digesters and units exploiting the produced biogas. However, little is known on how well BMPs compare with biogas production from the same organic materials in full-scale installations. In this study, two AD plants were chosen to carry out such comparisons, a dry AD plant treating green waste from urban areas and food waste from restaurants and supermarkets, and a liquid AD plant treating waste sludge from wastewater treatment and seven additional organic wastes. The BMPs of multiple samples of the individual organic materials collected during a period of 7–9 months were determined. Separate tests of mixtures of organic materials confirmed that the BMP of the mixtures can be calculated by adding the BMPs of the individual materials. The weekly methane production during the investigated periods was calculated from the full-scale installation data on the feeding of the digesters and the BMPs of each substrate fed into the digesters and compared with the weekly methane production measured on-site. The latter was calculated from the most accurately measured entity, either the electricity or the volume of purified biomethane injected into the grid. The weekly methane production rates calculated from BMPs and the one measured on-site were very similar and followed the same pattern. Some exceptions could be explained by, e.g., an overload of the full-scale installation. The measured weekly methane production accounted for 94.0 ± 6.8 and 89.3 ± 5.7% of the calculated weekly methane production for the wet and dry AD plant, respectively. For 26 out of 29 weeks, the calculated weekly methane production overestimated the measured one in the case of the wet AD plant and for 37 out of 39 weeks for the dry AD plant. Based on these results, it is

  9. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  10. The potential for coalbed methane (CBM) development in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents fiscal and regulatory recommendations of the coalbed methane (CBM) Advisory Committee which consists of representatives from Alberta's oil and gas industry who participated in a study to determine the potential for coalbed methane development in the province. CBM is a natural gas produced as a by-product of the coal formation process. This study examined the CBM reserve base in Alberta along with the necessary steps and strategies required to develop it. There is increased interest in natural gas from Alberta's coal resources because of the forecast for reasonable natural gas prices coupled with an increase in energy demand. The remaining established natural gas reserves are estimated at 43 trillion cubic feet and unconventional supplies of natural gas will be needed by 2008 to meet this increasing demand. The recoverable reserves of CBM are estimated to be between 0 and 135 trillion cubic feet. This report discussed the following mitigation strategies suggested by industry that may applicable to CBM development in Alberta: (1) potential technical mitigation strategies, (2) potential land access and tenure strategies, (3) potential water disposal and diversion mitigation strategies, (4) potential non-technical mitigation strategies, and (5) potential economic mitigation strategies. The study concluded that since no two CBM basins are the same, it is necessary to have good baseline resource inventory data. It was also noted that evolving management, drilling and completion techniques will continue to enhance the economic understanding of Alberta's extensive coal beds. It was suggested that lessons from CBM development in the United States can be useful for development in Alberta since there are currently no publicly recognized commercial production of CBM in Alberta. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 25 figs

  11. Serum Proteases Potentiate BMP-Induced Cell Cycle Re-entry of Dedifferentiating Muscle Cells during Newt Limb Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ines; Wang, Heng; Weissert, Philipp M; Straube, Werner L; Shevchenko, Anna; Gentzel, Marc; Brito, Goncalo; Tazaki, Akira; Oliveira, Catarina; Sugiura, Takuji; Shevchenko, Andrej; Simon, András; Drechsel, David N; Tanaka, Elly M

    2017-03-27

    Limb amputation in the newt induces myofibers to dedifferentiate and re-enter the cell cycle to generate proliferative myogenic precursors in the regeneration blastema. Here we show that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and mature BMPs that have been further cleaved by serum proteases induce cell cycle entry by dedifferentiating newt muscle cells. Protease-activated BMP4/7 heterodimers that are present in serum strongly induced myotube cell cycle re-entry with protease cleavage yielding a 30-fold potency increase of BMP4/7 compared with canonical BMP4/7. Inhibition of BMP signaling via muscle-specific dominant-negative receptor expression reduced cell cycle entry in vitro and in vivo. In vivo inhibition of serine protease activity depressed cell cycle re-entry, which in turn was rescued by cleaved-mimic BMP. This work identifies a mechanism of BMP activation that generates blastema cells from differentiated muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Methane production, recovery and emission from two Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan

    (TC), total organic carbon (TOC) and biogenic carbon (BioC). SW samples were incubated to measure their first-order decay kinetic constant (k-value), under different operating conditions (temperature and moisture), and their biochemical methane potential (BMP). In addition, four main metals present...

  13. Methods for determination of biomethane potential of feedstocks: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Muzondiwa Jingura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogas produced during anaerobic digestion (AD of biodegradable organic materials. AD is a series of biochemical reactions in which microorganisms degrade organic matter under anaerobic conditions. There are many biomass resources that can be degraded by AD to produce biogas. Biogas consists of methane, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. The gamut of feedstocks used in AD includes animal manure, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and various crops. Several factors affect the potential of feedstocks for biomethane production. The factors include nutrient content, total and volatile solids (VS content, chemical and biological oxygen demand, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and presence of inhibitory substances. The biochemical methane potential (BMP, often defined as the maximum volume of methane produced per g of VS substrate provides an indication of the biodegradability of a substrate and its potential to produce methane via AD. The BMP test is a method of establishing a baseline for performance of AD. BMP data are useful for designing AD parameters in order to optimise methane production. Several methods which include experimental and theoretical methods can be used to determine BMP. The objective of this paper is to review several methods with a special focus on their advantages and disadvantages. The review shows that experimental methods, mainly the BMP test are widely used. The BMP test is credited for its reliability and validity. There are variants of BMP assays as well. Theoretical models are alternative methods to estimate BMP. They are credited for being fast and easy to use. Spectroscopy has emerged as a new experimental tool to determine BMP. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages with reference to efficacy, time, and ease of use. Choosing a method to use depends on various exigencies. More work needs to be continuously done in order to improve the various methods used to determine BMP.

  14. Manipulation of Fgf and Bmp signaling in teleost fishes suggests potential pathways for the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, William R; Davies, Shelby H; Lyons, David B; Stauder, Caitlin K; Denton-Schneider, Benjamin R; Jowdry, Andrea; Aigler, Sharon R; Vogel, Scott A; Stock, David W

    2013-01-01

    Teeth with two or more cusps have arisen independently from an ancestral unicuspid condition in a variety of vertebrate lineages, including sharks, teleost fishes, amphibians, lizards, and mammals. One potential explanation for the repeated origins of multicuspid teeth is the existence of multiple adaptive pathways leading to them, as suggested by their different uses in these lineages. Another is that the addition of cusps required only minor changes in genetic pathways regulating tooth development. Here we provide support for the latter hypothesis by demonstrating that manipulation of the levels of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) or Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling produces bicuspid teeth in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a species lacking multicuspid teeth in its ancestry. The generality of these results for teleosts is suggested by the conversion of unicuspid pharyngeal teeth into bicuspid teeth by similar manipulations of the Mexican Tetra (Astyanax mexicanus). That these manipulations also produced supernumerary teeth in both species supports previous suggestions of similarities in the molecular control of tooth and cusp number. We conclude that despite their apparent complexity, the evolutionary origin of multicuspid teeth is positively constrained, likely requiring only slight modifications of a pre-existing mechanism for patterning the number and spacing of individual teeth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Methane clumped isotopes: Progress and potential for a new isotopic tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Stolper, Daniel A.; Eiler, John M.; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Shuai, Yanhua; Bishop, Andrew; Podlaha, Olaf G.; Ferreira, Alexandre A.; Santos Neto, Eugenio V.; Niemann, Martin; Steen, Arne S.; Huang, Ling; Chimiak, Laura; Valentine, David L.; Fiebig, Jens; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Seyfried, William E.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Inskeep, William P.; Moran, James J.; Kitchen, Nami

    2017-11-01

    The isotopic composition of methane is of longstanding geochemical interest, with important implications for understanding hydrocarbon systems, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the global carbon cycle, and life in extreme environments. Recent analytical developments focusing on multiply substituted isotopologues (‘clumped isotopes’) are opening a potentially valuable new window into methane geochemistry. When methane forms in internal isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotopes can provide a direct record of formation temperature, making this property particularly valuable for identifying different methane origins. However, it has also become clear that in certain settings methane clumped isotope measurements record kinetic rather than equilibrium isotope effects. Here we present a substantially expanded dataset of methane clumped isotope analyses, and provide a synthesis of the current interpretive framework for this parameter. We review different processes affecting methane clumped isotope compositions, describe the relationships between conventional isotope and clumped isotope data, and summarize the types of information that this measurement can provide in different Earth and planetary environments.

  16. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    different temperatures (20-25°C, 37°C, and 55°C), moisture contents (35% and 75% w/w) and amounts of inoculum (5% and 30% of the samples wet weight). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) from different types of SW (fresh, old and sieved) was determined and compared. The ability of metals (iron, aluminum...

  17. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane. For every two molecules of CO2 injected, roughly one molecule of methane is produced. The work included an investigation of the potential CBM reserves in the Dutch underground and the related CO2 s...

  18. Experimental methods for screening parameters influencing the growth to product yield (Y(x/CH4 of a biological methane production (BMP process performed with Methanothermobacter marburgensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bernacchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Specht M, Brellochs J, Frick V, et al. (2010 Storage of renewable energy in the natural gas grid. Erdoel, Erdgas, Kohle 126: 342-345.2. Thauer RK, Kaster AK, Goenrich M, et al. (2010 Hydrogenases from methanogenic archaea, nickel, a novel cofactor, and H2 storage. Annu Rev Biochem 79: 507-536.3. Liu Y, Whitman WB (2008 Metabolic, phylogenetic, and ecological diversity of the methanogenic archaea. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1125: 171-189.4. Kaster AK, Goenrich M, Seedorf H, et al. (2011 More than 200 genes required for methane formation from H2 and CO2 and energy conservation are present in Methanothermobacter marburgensis and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Archaea ID 973848: 1-23.5. Seifert AH, Rittmann S, Herwig C (2014 Analysis of process related factors to increase volumetric productivity and quality of biomethane with Methanothermobacter marburgensis Appl Energ 132: 155-162.6. Bernacchi S, Weissgram M, Wukovits W, et al. (2014 Process efficiency simulation for key process parameters in biological methanogenesis. AIMS bioengineering 1: 53-71.7. Thauer RK, Kaster AK, Seedorf H, et al. (2008 Methanogenic archaea: ecologically relevant differences in energy conservation. Nat Rev Microbiol 6: 579-591.8. Schill N, van Gulik WM, Voisard D, et al. (1996 Continuous cultures limited by a gaseous substrate: development of a simple, unstructure mathematical model and experimental verification with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Biotechnol Bioeng 51: 645-658.9. Jud G, Schneider K, Bachofen R (1997 The role of hydrogen mass transfer for the growth kinetics of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum in batch and chemostat cultures. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 19: 246-251.10. Tsao JH, Kaneshiro SM, Yu SS, et al. (1994 Continuous culture of Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic methanogen. Biotechnol Bioeng 43: 258-261.11. Schill N, van Gulik WM, Voisard D, et al. (1996 Continuous cultures limited by a gaseous substrate: development of a

  19. Biotechnological conversion of methane to methanol: evaluation of progress and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Bjorck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of methane are numerous, and vary greatly in their use and sustainable credentials. A Jekyll and Hyde character, it is a valuable energy source present as geological deposits of natural gas, however it is also potent greenhouse gas, released during many waste management processes. Gas-to-liquid technologies are being investigated as a means to exploit and monetise non-traditional and unutilised methane sources. The product identified as having the greatest potential is methanol due to it being a robust, commercially mature conversion process from methane and its beneficial fuel characteristics. Commercial methane to methanol conversion requires high temperatures and pressures, in an energy intensive and costly process. In contrast methanotrophic bacteria perform the desired transformation under ambient conditions, using methane monooxygenase (MMO enzymes. Despite the great potential of these bacteria a number of biotechnical difficulties are hindering progress towards an industrially suitable process. We have identified five major challenges that exist as barriers to a viable conversion process that, to our knowledge, have not previously been examined as distinct process challenges. Although biotechnological applications of methanotrophic bacteria have been reviewed in part, no review has comprehensively covered progress and challenges for a methane to methanol process from an industrial perspective. All published examples to date of methanotroph catalysed conversion of methane to methanol are collated, and standardised to allow direct comparison. The focus will be on conversion of methane to methanol by whole-cell, wild type, methanotroph cultures, and the potential for their application in an industrially relevant process. A recent shift in the research community focus from a mainly biological angle to an overall engineering approach, offers potential to exploit methanotrophs in an industrially relevant biotechnological gas

  20. Systematic Quantification of Biogas Potential in Urban Organic Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos

    incubation tests, and monitoring of production in laboratory reactors, for example, is considerably time-consuming and lasts from 30 up to 90 days, or sometimes even longer. Analytical and modelling methods were combined to develop a rapid, reliable and robust method for the BMP prediction of urban organic...... waste sources. In total, the methane potentials of 87 urban organic waste samples were determined. In addition, 88 plant biomass samples were included in the dataset used for building a combined methane prediction model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). The model was moderately...... successful in predicting the BMP of urban organic waste sources and could potentially replace traditional techniques currently employed for BMP measurement. The model provides firsthand estimations of BMP and biochemical transformation in fewer than 72 hours, and it could provide support to biogas plant...

  1. Potential for methane production from typical Mediterranean agro-industrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Drakopoulou, S.; Terzakis, S.; Georgaki, E.; Manios, T. [Laboratory of Solid Waste and Wastewater Management, School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, GR-71004 Iraklio, Crete (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    This work examines the potential for methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater and wine-grape residues with slaughterhouse wastewater. Continuous (mesophilic) and batch (mesophilic and thermophilic) experiments were studied, both with the separate types of by-products and with mixtures. Methane yields from olive oil wastewater, winery residues and slaughterhouse wastewater were 108, 147 and 297 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD fed respectively. Co-digestion with 50% olive oil wastewater and 50% slaughterhouse wastewater or 50% winery residues gave a methane yield of 184 and 214 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD, respectively. Furthermore, the methane yield was 188 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD added, co-digesting a mixture of 50% winery residues and slaughterhouse wastewater. Finally, the same mixtures under thermophilic conditions gave methane yields of 282, 301 and 219 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD, respectively. These results suggest that methane can be produced very efficiently by co-digesting olive oil wastewater, wine-grape residues and slaughterhouse wastewater. (author)

  2. Study of the methanization development potential in the Mayenne district (53)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Valentin; Lemarie, Christophe; Geneau De Lamarliere, Laurent; Hubert, Cecile; Le Guen, Gaelle

    2011-06-01

    The first objective of this study is to determine the quantity of fermentable wastes produced by agricultural exploitations, agri-food industries and communities at the district scale, and to identify the main agricultural, industrial and community-based consumers of agricultural heat in order to ensure project profitability. A second objective, based on previous assessments, is to highlight possible methanization projects on the whole district territory, and to determine needed surfaces in relationship with the spreading of the digestate produced by these methanization projects. As far as the second objective is concerned, the report propose some generalities (project typologies, development criteria, produced energy, other potential wastes), presents different types of liquid phase or dry methanization (methodology, technology, costs), alternative scenarios, spreading potentials, and an environmental assessment (greenhouse emissions, impact on the natural and human environment). Several appendices are provided which contain data tables, maps of production assessments and of location distributions of installations

  3. Application of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking for enhancement of methane potential of swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    . No inhibition was observed for the digested fibers at the loadings tested while raw fibers exhibited slight inhibition only at very high loadings. Main conclusions: In the present study, AAS was successfully applied as a pretreatment method to increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. Batch anaerobic......Purpose: Increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants is challenging because the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to biodegrade and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. Therefore, pretreatment...... of the solid fraction is a prerequisite for increasing its digestibility. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal as a pretreatment method for increasing methane potential and biogas productivity of raw and digested manure fibers. Methods...

  4. The potential for methane hydrate formation in deep repositories of spent nuclear fuel in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohidi, Bahman; Chapoy, Antonin; Smellie, John; Puigdomenech, Ignasi

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to establish whether the pertaining pressure and temperature conditions and dissolved gas concentration in groundwater is conducive to gas hydrate formation using a modelling approach. The hydrate stability pressure-temperature zone of dissolved methane in the presence of salt has been obtained through calculations which show that a decrease in the system pressure and/or an increase in salt concentration favours hydrate formation, as both factors reduce equilibrium gas solubility in the aqueous phase. This behaviour is unlike that of the system including a gas phase, where the water phase is always saturated with methane, and hence the methane solubility in water is not a limiting factor. The main conclusion is that hydrate formation is not possible at the reported methane concentrations and water salinities for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. At the highest salinities and methane concentrations encountered, namely ∼0.00073 mole fraction methane and ∼10 mass % NaCl at a depth of 1,000 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, hydrates could form if the system temperatures and pressures are below 2.5 deg C and 60 bar, respectively, i.e. values that are much lower than those prevailing at that depth (∼20 deg C and ∼100 bar, respectively). Furthermore, the calculated results provide the necessary data to estimate the effect of increase in dissolved methane concentration on potential hydrate formation, as well as two phase flow. The available depth dependency of methane concentration at the sites studied in Sweden and Finland was used in another study to estimate the diffusive flow of methane in the rock volumes. These diffusion rates, which are highest at Olkiluoto, indicate that even if the conditions were to become favourable to methane hydrate formation, then it would take several millions of years before a thin layer of hydrates could be formed, a condition which is outside the required period of satisfactory

  5. The potential for methane hydrate formation in deep repositories of spent nuclear fuel in granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohidi, Bahman; Chapoy, Antonin (Hydrafact Ltd, Inst. of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Puigdomenech, Ignasi (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The main aim of this work was to establish whether the pertaining pressure and temperature conditions and dissolved gas concentration in groundwater is conducive to gas hydrate formation using a modelling approach. The hydrate stability pressure-temperature zone of dissolved methane in the presence of salt has been obtained through calculations which show that a decrease in the system pressure and/or an increase in salt concentration favours hydrate formation, as both factors reduce equilibrium gas solubility in the aqueous phase. This behaviour is unlike that of the system including a gas phase, where the water phase is always saturated with methane, and hence the methane solubility in water is not a limiting factor. The main conclusion is that hydrate formation is not possible at the reported methane concentrations and water salinities for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. At the highest salinities and methane concentrations encountered, namely approx0.00073 mole fraction methane and approx10 mass % NaCl at a depth of 1,000 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, hydrates could form if the system temperatures and pressures are below 2.5 deg C and 60 bar, respectively, i.e. values that are much lower than those prevailing at that depth (approx20 deg C and approx100 bar, respectively). Furthermore, the calculated results provide the necessary data to estimate the effect of increase in dissolved methane concentration on potential hydrate formation, as well as two phase flow. The available depth dependency of methane concentration at the sites studied in Sweden and Finland was used in another study to estimate the diffusive flow of methane in the rock volumes. These diffusion rates, which are highest at Olkiluoto, indicate that even if the conditions were to become favourable to methane hydrate formation, then it would take several millions of years before a thin layer of hydrates could be formed, a condition which is outside the required period of

  6. Potential of biogas and methane production from anaerobic digestion of poultry slaughterhouse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva Sunada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of anaerobic digestion on the treatment of effluent from poultry slaughterhouse. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Waste Recycling from Animal Production/FCA/UFGD. During four weeks, eight experimental digesters, semi-continuous models, were loaded and set according to the hydraulic retention time (HRT of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and according to the solid fraction treatment, separated with 1 mm sieve or without separation. The average weekly production of biogas and methane as well as the methane concentrations, the potential production per amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD added and reduced, the concentrations of N, P and K at the beginning and end of process, and the most likely numbers of total and thermotolerant coliforms were evaluated. For data analysis, a completely randomized design was performed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 HRT: 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and separation with 1 mm sieve or without separation, with repetition over time. The highest production of biogas and methane was statistically significant for the HRT of 7 and 14 days (5.29 and 2.38 L of biogas and 4.28 and 1.73 L of methane, respectively. There was an interaction between HRT and the separation of the solid with sieve and the highest production was obtained in the treatment without separation. Similar behavior was observed for the potential production with a maximum of 0.41 m³ methane.kg-1 COD added with an HRT of 7 days without separation of the solid fraction. The separation of the solid fraction is not recommended in the pretreatment of liquid effluent from poultry slaughterhouse, once the potential for production and production of methane and biogas were reduced with this treatment.

  7. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  8. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Heiske, S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species--harvested in Denmark--for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 degrees C) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids(-1) (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 mi gVS(-1) for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS(-1) for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS(-1) for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5-2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during 'green tides' in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor. A 48% increase in methane production rate of the reactor was observed when the concentration of U. lactuca in the feedstock was 40% (VS basis). Increasing the concentration to 50% had no further effect on the methane production, which limits the application of this algae at Danish centralized biogas plant.

  9. Potential for methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure with winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño, B; Molinuevo, B; García-González, M C

    2011-03-01

    This work examines the methane production potential for the anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure (SM) with winery wastewater (WW). Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific methane yield was 348 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added, obtained at 85.4% of WW and 0.7 g COD g(-1)VS. Specific methane yield from SM alone was 27 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added d(-1). Furthermore, specific methane yields were 49, 87 and 107 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10% WW, 25% WW and 40% WW, respectively. Co-digestion with 40% WW improved the removal efficiencies up to 52% (TCOD), 132% (SCOD) and 61% (VSS) compared to SM alone. These results suggest that methane can be produced very efficiently by the co-digestion of swine manure with winery wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Potential Role of Seaweeds in the Natural Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.; Mendonça, Carla; Cabrita, Ana R. J.

    2016-08-01

    This study is the first to evaluate the effects of five seaweeds (Ulva sp., Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccharina latissima, Gigartina sp., and Gracilaria vermiculophylla) on gas and methane production and ruminal fermentation parameters when incubated in vitro with two substrates (meadow hay and corn silage) for 24 h. Seaweeds led to lower gas production, with Gigartina sp. presenting the lowest value. When incubated with meadow hay, Ulva sp., Gigartina sp. and G. vermiculophylla decreased methane production, but with corn silage, methane production was only decreased by G. vermiculophylla. With meadow hay, L. ochroleuca and S. latissima promoted similar methane production as the control, but with corn silage, L. ochroleuca increased it. With the exception of S. latissima, all seaweeds promoted similar levels of total volatile fatty acid production. The highest proportion of acetic acid was produced with Ulva sp., G. vermiculophylla, and S. latissima; the highest proportion of butyric acid with the control and L. ochroleuca; and the highest proportion of iso-valeric acid with Gigartina sp. These results reveal the potential of seaweeds to mitigate ruminal methane production and the importance of the basal diet. To efficiently use seaweeds as feed ingredients with nutritional and environmental benefits, more research is required to determine the mechanisms underlying seaweed and substrate interactions.

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of perennials: Methane potential and digestate nitrogen fertilizer value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Stover, Dorette Sophie; Sun, Guotao; Kroff, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Co-digestion of crop biomass improves the traditional manure-based biogas yield due to an increased content of easily degradable carbon compounds. In this study, the methane potential of three perennials (grass, legumes, and grass+legume) was determined using various amounts together with animal ...

  12. Injectable perlecan domain 1-hyaluronan microgels potentiate the cartilage repair effect of BMP2 in a murine model of early osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Padma P; McCoy, Sarah Y; Yang Weidong; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Kirn-Safran, Catherine B; Jha, Amit K; Jia Xinqiao

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to use bioengineered injectable microgels to enhance the action of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and stimulate cartilage matrix repair in a reversible animal model of osteoarthritis (OA). A module of perlecan (PlnD1) bearing heparan sulfate (HS) chains was covalently immobilized to hyaluronic acid (HA) microgels for the controlled release of BMP2 in vivo. Articular cartilage damage was induced in mice using a reversible model of experimental OA and was treated by intra-articular injection of PlnD1-HA particles with BMP2 bound to HS. Control injections consisted of BMP2-free PlnD1-HA particles, HA particles, free BMP2 or saline. Knees dissected following these injections were analyzed using histological, immunostaining and gene expression approaches. Our results show that knees treated with PlnD1-HA/BMP2 had lesser OA-like damage compared to control knees. In addition, the PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees had higher mRNA levels encoding for type II collagen, proteoglycans and xylosyltransferase 1, a rate-limiting anabolic enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains, relative to control knees (PlnD1-HA). This finding was paralleled by enhanced levels of aggrecan in the articular cartilage of PlnD1-HA/BMP2-treated knees. Additionally, decreases in the mRNA levels encoding for cartilage-degrading enzymes and type X collagen were seen relative to controls. In conclusion, PlnD1-HA microgels constitute a formulation improvement compared to HA for efficient in vivo delivery and stimulation of proteoglycan and cartilage matrix synthesis in mouse articular cartilage. Ultimately, PlnD1-HA/BMP2 may serve as an injectable therapeutic agent for slowing or inhibiting the onset of OA after knee injury.

  13. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  14. French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The potential of methane-oxidizing bacteria for applications in environmental biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendlandt, Karin-Dagmar; Stottmeister, Ulrich; Jechorek, Mirko [Helmholtz-Center for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Helm, Jana [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Soltmann, Bettina [Institute for Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Beck, Matthias [Oncotec, Pharma Production GmbH, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Methanotrophic bacteria possess a unique set of enzymes enabling them to oxidize, degrade and transform organic molecules and synthesize new compounds. Therefore, they have great potential in environmental biotechnology. The application of these unique properties was demonstrated in three case studies: (i) Methane escaping from leaky gas pipes may lead to massive mortality of trees in urban areas. Lack of oxygen within the soil surrounding tree roots caused by methanotrophic activity was identified as one of the reasons for this phenomenon. The similarity between metabolic reactions performed by the key enzymes of methanotrophs (methane monooxygenase) and ammonium oxidizers (ammonium monooxygenase) might offer a solution to this problem by applying commercially available nitrification and urease inhibitors. (ii) Methanotrophs are able to co-metabolically degrade contaminants such as low-molecular-weight-chlorinated hydrocarbons in soil and water in the presence of methane. Batch and continuous trichloroethylene degradation experiments in laboratory-scale reactors using Methylocystis sp. GB 14 were performed, partly with cells entrapped in a polymer matrix. (iii) Using a short, two-stage pilot-scale process, the intracellular polymer accumulation of poly-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in methanotrophs reached a maximum of 52%. Interestingly, an ultra-high-molecular-weight PHB of 3.1 MDa was accumulated under potassium deficiency. Under strictly controlled conditions (temperature, pH and methane supply) this process can be nonsterile because of the establishment of a stable microbial community (dominant species Methylocystis sp. GB 25 {>=}86% by biomass). The possibility to substitute methane with biogas from renewable sources facilitates the development of a methane-based PHB production process that yields a high-quality biopolymer at competitive costs. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste through biochemical methane potential assays at different substrate: inoculum ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Shakira R; Landis, Amy E; Rittmann, Bruce E; Young, Michelle N; Parameswaran, Prathap

    2018-01-01

    Food waste has a high energy potential that can be converted into useful energy in the form of methane via anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential assays (BMPs) were conducted to quantify the impacts on methane production of different ratios of food waste. Anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) was used as the inoculum, and BMPs were performed at food waste:inoculum ratios of 0.42, 1.42, and 3.0g chemical oxygen demand/g volatile solids (VS). The 1.42 ratio had the highest CH 4 -COD recovery: 90% of the initial total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was from food waste, followed by ratios 0.42 and 3.0 at 69% and 57%, respectively. Addition of food waste above 0.42 caused a lag time for CH 4 production that increased with higher ratios, which highlighted the negative impacts of overloading with food waste. The Gompertz equation was able to represent the results well, and it gave lag times of 0, 3.6 and 30days and maximum methane productions of 370, 910, and 1950mL for ratios 0.42, 1.42 and 3.0, respectively. While ratio 3.0 endured a long lag phase and low VSS destruction, ratio 1.42 achieved satisfactory results for all performance criteria. These results provide practical guidance on food-waste-to-inoculum ratios that can lead to optimizing methanogenic yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the implantation potential for methanizers at the scale of the Pays-de-Bocage (61). Diagnosis of the situation of the methanization sector and of its development potential - Detailed analysis of scenarios. Study report, November 2016. Action study for the development of territorial methanization - Orne Pays-de-Bocage. Projected methanization units in the Orne district. An opportunity for local companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonnel, Claire; Priarollo, Jeremie; Deborde, Isabelle; Quere, Jean-Jacques; Goasdoue, Yves; Nury, Jerome; Borney, Eric; Bisson, Stephane; Lhomer, Regis

    2016-11-01

    This study aims at characterising territories of the Orne district in terms of potential of development of individual, collective and territorial methanization units. A first phase aimed at providing a situational analysis of the methanization sector in the district. During a second phase, different resources of mobilisable organic wastes have been quantified, characterised and mapped at the district level in combination with energy outlets (gas and heat) and digestate outlets. A third phase aimed identifying and characterising district areas displaying a methanization potential. The report thus presents the territory, the methanization as an opportunity for territories, and an assessment of the present situation of the methanization sector. It gives an assessment of the methanizable matter resource from various origins, an identification of the different energetic outlets, and of potential areas. Four scenarios are then presented and are characterised by specific hypotheses, energy flows, investments, exploitation assessment, and a financial analysis. Agronomic, environmental and regulatory challenges are commented, as well as legal aspects related to project implementation. Power Point presentations are then provided which present results of this study in a synthetic and illustrated way. A second set of Power Point presentations proposes an analysis of the methanization potential in the district, and a description of a typical business model for a methanization unit

  18. The potential for biologically catalyzed anaerobic methane oxidation on ancient Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Jeffrey J; Larowe, Douglas E; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Amend, Jan P; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the potential for the biologically mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction on ancient Mars. Seven distinct fluids representative of putative martian groundwater were used to calculate Gibbs energy values in the presence of dissolved methane under a range of atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. In all scenarios, AOM is exergonic, ranging from -31 to -135 kJ/mol CH4. A reaction transport model was constructed to examine how environmentally relevant parameters such as advection velocity, reactant concentrations, and biomass production rate affect the spatial and temporal dependences of AOM reaction rates. Two geologically supported models for ancient martian AOM are presented: a sulfate-rich groundwater with methane produced from serpentinization by-products, and acid-sulfate fluids with methane from basalt alteration. The simulations presented in this study indicate that AOM could have been a feasible metabolism on ancient Mars, and fossil or isotopic evidence of this metabolic pathway may persist beneath the surface and in surface exposures of eroded ancient terrains.

  19. Biogenic Methane Generation Potential in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan: Effect of Reaction Temperature and Total Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Amo, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding potential of methane flux from the Pleistocene fore-arc basin filled turbiditic sedimentary formation along the eastern Nankai Trough is important in the quantitative assessment of gas hydrate resources. We considered generated methane could exist in sedimentary basin in the forms of three major components, and those are methane in methane hydrate, free gas and methane dissolved in water. Generation of biomethane strongly depends on microbe activity and microbes in turn survive in diverse range of temperature, salinity and pH. This study aims to understand effect of reaction temperature and total organic carbon on generation of biomethane and its components. Biomarker analysis and cultural experiment results of the core samples from the eastern Nankai Trough reveal that methane generation rate gets peak at various temperature ranging12.5°to 35°. Simulation study of biomethane generation was made using commercial basin scale simulator, PetroMod, with different reaction temperature and total organic carbon to predict how these effect on generation of biomethane. Reaction model is set by Gaussian distribution with constant hydrogen index and standard deviation of 1. Series of simulation cases with peak reaction temperature ranging 12.5°to 35° and total organic carbon of 0.6% to 3% were conducted and analyzed. Simulation results show that linear decrease in generation potential while increasing reaction temperature. But decreasing amount becomes larger in the model with higher total organic carbon. At higher reaction temperatures, >30°, extremely low generation potential was found. This is due to the fact that the source formation modeled is less than 1 km in thickness and most of formation do not reach temperature more than 30°. In terms of the components, methane in methane hydrate and free methane increase with increasing TOC. Drastic increase in free methane was observed in the model with 3% of TOC. Methane amount dissolved in water shows almost

  20. Impact of peat mining, and restoration on methane turnover potentials and methane-cycling microorganisms in a northern bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, Max; Harnisz, M.; Lee, H.J.; Reim, A.; Grunert, O.; Putkinen, A.; Fritze, H.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Ho, A.

    2018-01-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands are a recognized global carbon reservoir. Without restoration and peat regrowth, harvested peatlands are dramatically altered, impairing its carbon sink function, with consequences for methane turnover. Previous studies determined the impact of commercial mining on the peat

  1. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial Insights into Shifting Methane Production Potential in Thawing Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, K.; Wilson, R.; Raab, N.; Neumann, R.; Chanton, J.; Saleska, S. R.; Rich, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost, which stores 50% of global soil carbon, is thawing rapidly due to climate change, and resident microbes are contributing to changing carbon gas emissions. Predictions of the fate of carbon in these regions is poorly constrained; however, improved, careful mapping of microbial community members influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions will help clarify the system response to continued change. In order to more fully understand connections between the microbial communities, major geochemical transformations, and CO2 and CH4 emissions, peat cores were collected from the active layers of three permafrost habitats spanning a thaw gradient (collapsed palsa, bog, and fen) at Stordalen Mire, Abisko, Sweden. Anaerobic incubations of shallow and deep subsamples from these sites were performed, with time-course characterization of the changes in microbial communities, peat geochemistry, and carbon gas production. The latter were profiled with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and targeted metagenomes. The communities within each habitat and depth were statistically distinct, and changed significantly over the course of the incubations. Acidobacteria was consistently the dominant bacterial phylum in all three habitat types. With increased thaw, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria tended to decrease, while Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes increased with thaw. The relative abundance of methanogens increased with thaw and with depth within each habitat. Over time in the incubations, the richness of the communities tended to decrease. Homoacetogenesis (CO2 + H2 -> CH3COOH) has been documented in other peatlands, and homoacetogens can influence CH4 production by interacting with methanogens, competing with hydrogenotrophs while providing substrate for acetoclasts. Modelling of microbial reaction networks suggests potential for highest homoacetogenesis rates in the collapsed palsa, which also contains the highest relative abundances of lineages taxonomically affiliated with known

  3. The global warming potential of methane reassessed with combined stratosphere and troposphere chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. D.; Archibald, A. T.; Eastham, S. D.; Søvde, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is a direct and indirect greenhouse gas. The direct greenhouse effect comes from the radiation absorbed and emitted by methane itself. The indirect greenhouse effect comes from radiatively active gases that are produced during methane oxidation: principally O3, H2O, and CO2. Methane also suppresses tropospheric OH, which indirectly affects numerous greenhouses gases and aerosols. Traditionally, the methane global warming potential (GWP) has included the indirect effects on tropospheric O3 and OH and stratospheric H2O, with these effects estimated independently from unrelated tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry models and observations. Using this approach the CH4 is about 28 over 100 yr (without carbon cycle feedbacks, IPCC, 2013). Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the CH4 GWP in several 3-D global atmospheric models capable of simulating both tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem, Oslo CTM3, UKCA). This enables us to include, for the first time, the indirect effects of CH4 on stratospheric O3 and stratosphere-troposphere coupling. We diagnose the GWP from paired simulations with and without a 5% perturbation to tropospheric CH4 concentrations. Including stratospheric chemistry nearly doubles the O3 contribution to CH4 GWP because of O3 production in the lower stratosphere and because CH4 inhibits Cl-catalyzed O3 loss in the upper stratosphere. In addition, stratosphere-troposphere coupling strengthens the chemical feedback on its own lifetime. In the stratosphere, this feedback operates by a CH4 perturbation thickening the stratospheric O3 layer, which impedes UV-driven OH production in the troposphere and prolongs the CH4 lifetime. We also quantify the impact of CH4-derived H2O on the stratospheric HOx cycles but these effects are small. Combining all of the above, these models suggest that the 100-yr GWP of CH4 is over 33.5, a 20% increase over the latest IPCC assessment.

  4. Potential impact on climate of the exploitation of methane hydrate deposits offshore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glasby, G.P.

    . Brewer (2000) has identified two examples, one in the Eel River Basin off the coast of northern California (Brooks, Field, & Kennicutt, 1991) and the other in the Gulf of Mexico (MacDonald et al., 1994), where the methane hydrate deposits lie almost... of Mexico (an example of the structural type of deposit) are potentially the most attractive deposits economically. In particular, it was considered that devel- opment costs for these deposits would be low because the accumulations are located at relatively...

  5. Effect of Substrate-Inoculum Ratio on the Biochemical Methane Potential of Municipal Biowastes

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Orobio Brayan Alexis; Torres-Lozada Patricia; Marmolejo-Rebellón Luis Fernando; Cárdenas-Cleves Lina Marcela; Vásquez-Franco Carlos; Torres-López Wilmar Alexander; Ordoñez-Andrade José Abdón

    2015-01-01

    Biowastes are the predominant fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) of developing countries. Biowastes are characterized by a high content of organic matter; characteristics which facilitates its transformation through biological processes such as anaerobic digestion (AD). Using biochemical methane potential (PBM) assays, in this study we evaluated the influence of substrate-inoculum (S/I) ratio on the AD of biowaste from MSW. The S/I ranged between 0.25 to 9 gSVsubstrate * ...

  6. BmpR1A is a major type 1 BMP receptor for BMP-Smad signaling during skull development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Haichun; Zhang, Honghao; Abraham, Ponnu; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Lyons, Karen; Kaartinen, Vesa; Mishina, Yuji

    2017-09-01

    Craniosynostosis is caused by premature fusion of one or more sutures in an infant skull, resulting in abnormal facial features. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which genetic mutations cause craniosynostosis are incompletely characterized, and many of the causative genes for diverse types of syndromic craniosynostosis have not yet been identified. We previously demonstrated that augmentation of BMP signaling mediated by a constitutively active BMP type IA receptor (ca-BmpR1A) in neural crest cells (ca1A hereafter) causes craniosynostosis and superimposition of heterozygous null mutation of Bmpr1a rescues premature suture fusion (ca1A;1aH hereafter). In this study, we superimposed heterozygous null mutations of the other two BMP type I receptors, Bmpr1b and Acvr1 (ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH respectively hereafter) to further dissect involvement of BMP-Smad signaling. Unlike caA1;1aH, ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH did not restore the craniosynostosis phenotypes. In our in vivo study, Smad-dependent BMP signaling was decreased to normal levels in mut;1aH mice. However, BMP receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads; pSmad1/5/9 hereafter) levels were comparable between ca1A, ca1A;1bH and ca1A;AcH mice, and elevated compared to control mice. Bmpr1a, Bmpr1b and Acvr1 null cells were used to examine potential mechanisms underlying the differences in ability of heterozygosity for Bmpr1a vs. Bmpr1b or Acvr1 to rescue the mut phenotype. pSmad1/5/9 level was undetectable in Bmpr1a homozygous null cells while pSmad1/5/9 levels did not decrease in Bmpr1b or Acvr1 homozygous null cells. Taken together, our study indicates that different levels of expression and subsequent activation of Smad signaling differentially contribute each BMP type I receptor to BMP-Smad signaling and craniofacial development. These results also suggest differential involvement of each type 1 receptor in pathogenesis of syndromic craniosynostoses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intermolecular interaction potentials of the methane dimer from the local density approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangrong; Bai Yulin; Zhu Jun; Yang Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    The intermolecular interaction potentials of methane (CH 4 ) dimer are calculated within the density functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA). It is found that the calculated potentials have minima when the intermolecular distance of CH 4 dimer is about 7.0 a.u., which is in good agreement with the experiment. The depth of the potential is 0.017 eV. The results obtained by our LDA calculations seem to agree well with those obtained by MP2, MP3, and CCSD from the Moeller-Plesset and coupled cluster methods by Tsuzuki et al. and with the experimental data

  8. Study of Monte Carlo Simulation Method for Methane Phase Diagram Prediction using Two Different Potential Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad

    2011-06-06

    Lennard‐Jones (L‐J) and Buckingham exponential‐6 (exp‐6) potential models were used to produce isotherms for methane at temperatures below and above critical one. Molecular simulation approach, particularly Monte Carlo simulations, were employed to create these isotherms working with both canonical and Gibbs ensembles. Experiments in canonical ensemble with each model were conducted to estimate pressures at a range of temperatures above methane critical temperature. Results were collected and compared to experimental data existing in literature; both models showed an elegant agreement with the experimental data. In parallel, experiments below critical temperature were run in Gibbs ensemble using L‐J model only. Upon comparing results with experimental ones, a good fit was obtained with small deviations. The work was further developed by adding some statistical studies in order to achieve better understanding and interpretation to the estimated quantities by the simulation. Methane phase diagrams were successfully reproduced by an efficient molecular simulation technique with different potential models. This relatively simple demonstration shows how powerful molecular simulation methods could be, hence further applications on more complicated systems are considered. Prediction of phase behavior of elemental sulfur in sour natural gases has been an interesting and challenging field in oil and gas industry. Determination of elemental sulfur solubility conditions helps avoiding all kinds of problems caused by its dissolution in gas production and transportation processes. For this purpose, further enhancement to the methods used is to be considered in order to successfully simulate elemental sulfur phase behavior in sour natural gases mixtures.

  9. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curley, Christina [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-04-23

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that is released from the natural gas supply chain into the atmosphere as a result of fugitive emissions1 and venting2 . We assess five potential CH4 reduction scenarios from transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) using published literature on the costs and the estimated quantity of CH4 reduced. We utilize cost and methane inventory data from ICF (2014) and Warner et al. (forthcoming) as well as data from Barrett and McCulloch (2014) and the American Gas Association (AGA) (2013) to estimate that the implementation of these measures could support approximately 85,000 jobs annually from 2015 to 2019 and reduce CH4 emissions from natural gas TS&D by over 40%. Based on standard input/output analysis methodology, measures are estimated to support over $8 billion in GDP annually over the same time period and allow producers to recover approximately $912 million annually in captured gas.

  10. Influence of lignin on biochemical methane potential of biomass for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, Jin Mi; Sommer, Sven G.; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    model for these two biomass groups. Validation of the combined model was carried out using datasets from the literature. This study showed that lignin was not degraded during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, lignin concentration in organic materials was the strongest predictor of BMP for all...... the biomass groups. The square of the sample correlation coefficient (R2) from the BMP versus lignin was 0.908 (P lignin concentration could be used to predict...

  11. BMP suppresses PTEN expression via RAS/ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stayce E; Carethers, John M

    2007-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects,and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effect on a potential target gene, PTEN, and how its expression might be regulated. Initial treatment of the SMAD4-null cells with BMP resulted in mild growth suppression, but with prolonged exposure to BMP, the cells become growth stimulatory, which coincided with observed decreases in transcription and translation of PTEN, and with corresponding increases in phospho-AKT protein levels. BMP-induced PTEN suppression was mediated via the RAS/ERK pathway, as pharmacologic inhibition of RAS/ERK, or interference with protein function in the cytosol by DN-RAS prevented BMP-induced growth promotion and changes in PTEN levels, as did treatment with noggin, a BMP ligand inhibitor. Thus, BMP downregulates PTEN via RAS/ERK in a SMAD4-null environment that contributes to cell growth, and constitutes a SMAD4-independent but BMP-responsive signaling pathway.

  12. Evaluation of feeds from tropical origin for in vitro methane production potential and rumen fermentation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane arising due to fermentation of feeds in the rumen contributes substantially to the greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, like evaluation of chemical composition and nutritive values of feeds, methane production potential of each feed should be determined. This experiment was conducted to evaluate several feeds for methane production potential and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production technique so that low methane producing feeds could be utilized to feed ruminants. Protein- and energy-rich concentrates (n=11, cereal and grass forages (n=11, and different straws and shrubs (n=12, which are commonly fed to ruminants in India, were collected from a number of locations. Gas production kinetics, methane production, degradability and rumen fermentation greatly varied (p<0.01 among feeds depending upon the chemical composition. Methane production (mL/g of degraded organic matter was lower (p<0.01 for concentrate than forages, and straws and shrubs. Among shrubs and straws, methane production was lower (p<0.01 for shrubs than straws. Methane production was correlated (p<0.05 with concentrations of crude protein (CP, ether extract and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC negatively, and with neutral detergent (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF positively. Potential gas production was negatively correlated (p=0.04 with ADF, but positively (p<0.01 with NFC content. Rate of gas production and ammonia concentration were influenced by CP content positively (p<0.05, but by NDF and ADF negatively (p<0.05. Total volatile fatty acid concentration and organic matter degradability were correlated (p<0.05 positively with CP and NFC content, but negatively with NDF and ADF content. The results suggest that incorporation of concentrates and shrubs replacing straws and forages in the diets of ruminants may decrease methane production.

  13. Study of methanization resource and potential development in Aquitaine - Technical report. To keep on developing the methanization sector in the Dordogne district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priarollo, Jeremie; Michels, Julie; Jimenez, Julien

    2015-05-01

    This study aims at characterising territories of the Aquitaine region in terms of potential of development of individual, collective and territorial methanization units. The territory organic resource potential has first been assessed, and then combined with energetic outlets for biogas and outlets for digestates. A first phase aimed at providing a situational analysis of the methanization sector in the region. During a second phase, different resources of mobilisable organic wastes have been quantified, characterised and mapped at the district level in combination with energetic outlets (gas and heat) and digestate outlets. A third phase aimed at identifying and characterising areas of the different districts of the region displaying a methanization potential. After this report, a set of Power Point presentations is proposed which present this study under another form. Thus, these presentations contain graphs and data which illustrate these different aspects and issues: presentation of the different methanizable resources (quantitative results and maps), energy valorisation potential (co-generation and thermal outlets, injection into natural gas networks, definition and characterisation of areas displaying an interesting potential), presentation of a regional support arrangement (Methaqtion)

  14. Screening method to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of old landfills, based on downwind methane concentration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Mønster, J.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide effort is taking place in Denmark to mitigate methane emissions from landfills, by using biocovers. A large number of older landfills were found to be potential candidates for biocover implementation, but very little information was available for these sites to help evaluate if signi......A nationwide effort is taking place in Denmark to mitigate methane emissions from landfills, by using biocovers. A large number of older landfills were found to be potential candidates for biocover implementation, but very little information was available for these sites to help evaluate...... if significant methane emissions occur. To assess these sites, we developed a low-cost and quick remote sensing methodology, whereby downwind methane concentrations from 91 landfills were measured using a mobile analytical platform, and emission rates were calculated using an inverse dispersion model. The method...

  15. Differentiating TOC sources, preservation, and potential methane emissions in sub-Arctic lakes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Wik, M.; Chanton, J.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic carbon-rich sediments from high latitude, shallow lakes and ponds are significant sources of methane throughout the Arctic. The origin and evolution of these lakes and ponds, however, is often not the same. Several lake types have been identified based on (1) hydrological conditions (melt-water fed, rain water fed, groundwater influenced, evaporation dominated, drained) (2) permafrost condition (thermokarst), and (3) time of origin (glacial or post-glacial). Given sufficient time (100's to 1000's years) many of these lake types may morph into others. In sub-Arctic Sweden, near Abisko and within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the elongate glacial lake Torneträsk is fed by several streams draining the surrounding highlands. Lake Tornetrask is one of several NW-SE trending glacial lakes common in the landscape throughout northern and western Sweden. Between and alongside these glacial lakes, several small (ponds exist in low-lying mires. Sediment cores from the lakes in the Stordalen Mire are characterized by high total organic carbon (TOC) content (10-50 wt. %) in the uppermost ~50 cm and commonly underlain by glaciofluvial derived sediments with lower TOC (emissions from several of these lakes has also been measured and is driven by heat input. Coincident young ages of carbon in the sediments and in methane indicate in situ production. A published record from Lake Torneträsk shows sediments there contain significantly less TOC (1-2.5 wt. %) that is derived primarily from old, terrestrial organic carbon delivered via rivers to the lake. Although the larger and deeper glacial lakes currently occupy much of the landscape it is becoming clear that as the Arctic warms TOC preservation and methane production in the smaller lakes and ponds play a more significant, immediate role in emission of methane to the atmosphere. With continued warming in the Arctic, terrestrial TOC will be relinquished from highland watersheds to glacial lakes, but the methane

  16. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2013-01-01

    and accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  17. Effect of pre-treatments on methane production potential of energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaki, A.; Ronkainen; Rintala, J.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences; Viinikainen, T.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Energy crops, that is, crops grown specifically for energy purposes are an alternative to food production in areas with sufficient agricultural land. Crop residues are also a potential source of energy. The anaerobic digestion of solid materials is limited by hydrolysis of complex polymeric substances such as lignocellulose. The methane producing potential of ligno cellulosic material is to pretreat the substrate in order to break up the polymer chains to more easily accessible soluble compounds. In this study, three different substrates were used: sugar beet tops, grass hay, and straw of oats. Biological pretreatments were the following: enzyme treatment, composting, white-rot fungi treatment. Also, pretreatment in water was tried. Chemical pretreatments included peracetic acid treatment, and treatment with two different alkalis. Alkaline pretreatments of hay and sugar beet tops have the potential to improve the methane yield. For instance, the yield of grass hay was increased 15 per cent by one particular alkaline treatment. Straw did not respond to any of the treatments tried. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Potential for CO2 sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane production in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, D.; Pagnier, H.; Van Bergen, F.; Wolf, K.H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.; Schreurs, H.

    2001-03-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane) in the Netherlands are explored. The potential and the economic performance are worked out for several ECBM recovery concepts and technological issues are outlined. The research includes the following main activities: Inventory of CO2 sources in the Netherlands and techno-economic analysis of CO2 removal and transport. Several scenarios for CO2 transport of different capacities and distances will be assessed. ECBM production locations are determined by analysis of coal reserves and their characteristics. Four potential areas are assessed: one in eastern Gelderland, two in Limburg and one in Zeeland. Description of ECBM theory and production technology resulting in a time dependent model for ECBM production and CO2 injection. Selection and description of various ECBM production/CO2 sequestration systems. Systems considered include direct delivery of methane to the natural gas grid, production of power (on various scales) and hydrogen. Information from the location assessment is combined with modelling results. Costs of CO2 sequestration are calculated for various scales and configurations. Evaluation of main uncertainties, environmental impacts and sensitivity analyses. Comparison of CBM production systems with reference systems and exploration of potential implementation schemes in the Dutch context. 72 refs

  19. Evaluation of feeds from tropical origin for in vitro methane production potential and rumen fermentation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, K.; Patra, A. K.; Sahoo, K.

    2015-07-01

    Enteric methane arising due to fermentation of feeds in the rumen contributes substantially to the greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, like evaluation of chemical composition and nutritive values of feeds, methane production potential of each feed should be determined. This experiment was conducted to evaluate several feeds for methane production potential and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production technique so that low methane producing feeds could be utilized to feed ruminants. Protein- and energy-rich concentrates (n=11), cereal and grass forages (n=11), and different straws and shrubs (n=12), which are commonly fed to ruminants in India, were collected from a number of locations. Gas production kinetics, methane production, degradability and rumen fermentation greatly varied (p<0.01) among feeds depending upon the chemical composition. Methane production (mL/g of degraded organic matter) was lower (p<0.01) for concentrate than forages, and straws and shrubs. Among shrubs and straws, methane production was lower (p<0.01) for shrubs than straws. Methane production was correlated (p<0.05) with concentrations of crude protein (CP), ether extract and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) negatively, and with neutral detergent (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) positively. Potential gas production was negatively correlated (p=0.04) with ADF, but positively (p<0.01) with NFC content. Rate of gas production and ammonia concentration were influenced by CP content positively (p<0.05), but by NDF and ADF negatively (p<0.05). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and organic matter degradability were correlated (p<0.05) positively with CP and NFC content, but negatively with NDF and ADF content. The results suggest that incorporation of concentrates and shrubs replacing straws and forages in the diets of ruminants may decrease. (Author)

  20. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  1. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of different pre-treatment methods for the removal of limonene in citrus waste and their effect on methane potential and methane production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Begoña; de Benito, Amparo; Rivera, José Daniel; Flotats, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the limonene removal efficiency of three pre-treatment methods when applied to citrus waste and to evaluate their effects on the biochemical methane potential and the methane production rate using batch anaerobic tests. The methods tested were based on removal (biological pretreatment by fungi) or recovery (steam distillation and ethanol extraction) of limonene. All the treatments decreased the concentration of limonene in orange peel, with average efficiencies of 22%, 44% and 100% for the biological treatment, steam distillation and ethanol extraction, respectively. By-products from limonene biodegradation by fungi exhibited an inhibitory effect also, not making interesting the biological pretreatment. The methane potential and production rate of the treated orange peel increased significantly after applying the recovery strategies, which separated and recovered simultaneously other inhibitory components of the citrus essential oil. Apart from the high recovery efficiency of the ethanol extraction process, it presented a favourable energy balance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Using global warming potential to compare methane and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gases affect the planetary heat budget. Any change of their concentration affects this budget and therefore the global mean surface temperature of the Earth. These gases have different radiative properties and different lifetimes in the atmosphere, which prevents any direct comparison of the consequences of their emissions on global warming. Almost twenty years ago, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) proposed the global warming potential (GWP) as an index to compare the emissions of the various greenhouse gases. In a recent paper, it has been stated that the use of GWP leads to strongly underestimating the global warming due to constant methane emissions compared to that of constant CO 2 emissions. Here we show that it is not really the case. The GWP enables comparisons of global warming due to constant emissions for any prescribed period, 100 years being often used. But this comparison is not universal. For instance, the impact of methane is underestimated at the beginning of the chosen period while the impact of CO 2 is underestimated after this period

  4. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  5. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Vaswani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM] varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro. Materials and Methods: Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold, and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Results: Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM] was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22. Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM] and methane (% were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (p<0.05 highest for HM 5 (14.22 and 26.62 and lowest for DHM 117 variety (7.47 and 14.13. The in vitro DM digestibility (% and in vitro organic matter digestibility (% varied from 47.48 (HQPM 5 to 52.05 (HQPM 9 and 50.03 (HQPM 7 to 54.22 (HM 5, respectively. Conclusion: The present study concluded that DHM 117 maize variety fodder has lowest methane generation potential and incorporating it in the dietary regime of ruminants may contribute to lower methane production.

  6. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...... composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials....

  7. Characterization and BMP Tests of Liquid Substrates for High-rate Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mainardis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was focused on the physicochemical characterization and biochemical methane potential (BMP tests of some liquid organic substrates, to verify if they were suitable for undergoing a process of high-velocity anaerobic digestion. The selected substrates were: first and second cheese whey, organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW leachate, condensate water and slaughterhouse liquid waste. Firstly, a physicochemical characterization was performed, using traditional and macromolecular parameters; then, batch anaerobic tests were carried out, and some continuous tests were planned. The results revealed that all the analyzed substrates have a potential to be anaerobically treated. Valuable information about treatment rate for a high-velocity anaerobic digestion process was obtained. Start-up of a lab-scale UASB reactor, treating diluted cheese whey, was successfully achieved with good COD removal efficiency. These preliminary results are expected to be further investigated in a successive phase, where continuous tests will be conducted on condensate water and OFMSW leachate.

  8. Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge – Implications for toxicity and methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects on the methane potential and the overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 °C). In general both treatments gave an increased methane potential. The thermal t...... treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. The sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre...

  9. Assessment of substrate potential resources which can be used in methanization - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a method to elaborate a detailed and precise assessment of potential resources of substrates which can be used for methanization. It aims at obtaining global results at the national level while proposing figures at the district level which can be integrated into regional documents. Four types of resources have been addressed: the production raw resource, the available raw resource, the available net resource, and the mobilisable resource by 2030. These resources have different origins: agriculture (breeding effluents, crop residues, energetic intermediate crops), various agri-food industries, sanitation systems, green wastes, and bio-wastes from different origins (restaurants, small shops, retail trade, markets). Some other sources (green algae, micro-algae, roadside grass, meadows, farming fruits and vegetables) have only been identified but are considered as experiments or difficult to be assessed

  10. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Shalini; Kumar, Ravindra; Kumar, Vinod; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM]) varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro . Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold), and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek) were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM]) was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22). Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM]) and methane (%) were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (pproduction.

  11. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Triolo, Jin Mi; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    . The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting...... BMP. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) of the UOW model were 0.88 and 44 mL CH4/g VS, while the combined model was 0.89 and 50 mL CH4/g VS. Improved model performance was obtained for the two individual models compared to the combined version...

  12. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in

  13. Potential impact of salinity on methane production from food waste anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) inhibited the production of methane from food waste anaerobic digestion. However, the details of how NaCl affects methane production from food waste remain unknown by now and the efficient approach to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was seldom reported. In this paper, the details of how NaCl affects methane production was first investigated via a series of batch experiments. Experimental results showed the effect of NaCl on methane production was dosage dependent. Low level of NaCl improved the hydrolysis and acidification but inhibited the process of methanogenesis whereas high level of NaCl inhibit both steps of acidification and methanogenesis. Then an efficient approach, i.e. co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge, to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was reported. Finally, the mechanisms of how co-digestion mitigates the effect on methane production caused by NaCl in co-digestion system were revealed. These findings obtained in this work might be of great importance for the operation of methane recovery from food waste in the presence of NaCl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species – harvested in Denmark – for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 WC) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids1 (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 ml g VS1 for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS1...

  16. DMH1, a small molecule inhibitor of BMP type i receptors, suppresses growth and invasion of lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Hao

    Full Text Available The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling cascade is aberrantly activated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC but not in normal lung epithelial cells, suggesting that blocking BMP signaling may be an effective therapeutic approach for lung cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that some BMP antagonists, which bind to extracellular BMP ligands and prevent their association with BMP receptors, dramatically reduced lung tumor growth. However, clinical application of protein-based BMP antagonists is limited by short half-lives, poor intra-tumor delivery as well as resistance caused by potential gain-of-function mutations in the downstream of the BMP pathway. Small molecule BMP inhibitors which target the intracellular BMP cascades would be ideal for anticancer drug development. In a zebrafish embryo-based structure and activity study, we previously identified a group of highly selective small molecule inhibitors specifically antagonizing the intracellular kinase domain of BMP type I receptors. In the present study, we demonstrated that DMH1, one of such inhibitors, potently reduced lung cell proliferation, promoted cell death, and decreased cell migration and invasion in NSCLC cells by blocking BMP signaling, as indicated by suppression of Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation and gene expression of Id1, Id2 and Id3. Additionally, DMH1 treatment significantly reduced the tumor growth in human lung cancer xenograft model. In conclusion, our study indicates that small molecule inhibitors of BMP type I receptors may offer a promising novel strategy for lung cancer treatment.

  17. Bone regeneration by implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells expressing BMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiwu; Dai Kerong; Tang Tingting; Zhang Xiaoling; Yan Mengning; Lou Jueren

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we reported that the adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) genetically modified by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) healed critical-sized canine ulnar bone defects. First, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of the ADSCs derived from canine adipose tissue were demonstrated. And then the cells were modified by the BMP-2 gene and the expression and bone-induction ability of BMP-2 were identified. Finally, the cells modified by BMP-2 gene were applied to a β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model. After 16 weeks, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometry analysis showed that ADSCs modified by BMP-2 gene produced a significant increase of newly formed bone area and healed or partly healed all of the bone defects. We conclude that ADSCs modified by the BMP-2 gene can enhance the repair of critical-sized bone defects in large animals

  18. Synergistic impact of sonic-tenside on biomass disintegration potential: Acidogenic and methane potential studies, kinetics and cost analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilarasan, K; Arulazhagan, P; Rani, R Uma; Kaliappan, S; Banu, J Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    An exploration into the symbiotic impact of sonic-tenside (SDBS - sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) on biomass disintegration potential and to reduce the energy consumption was studied. At optimized condition (specific energy input 9600 kJ/kg TS; SDBS dosage 0.07 g/g SS), higher percentage of biomass lysis and solids reduction (23.9% and 19.8%) was obtained in blended sonic-tenside disintegration (STD), than sonic disintegration (SD) (17.6% and 9.8%). The bioacidogenic potential (BAP) assay in terms of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production (722 mg/L) was found to be higher for STD, in comparison to SD (350 mg/L). The impact of STD on anaerobic digestion was evident from its methane yield (0.239 g/g COD), higher than SD (0.182 g/g COD). A monetary evaluation of the present study provides a net gain of 2 USD/ton for STD, indicating the profitability of the technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  20. Exploring the potential of fungi for methane abatement: Performance evaluation of a fungal-bacterial biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Lehtinen, Iiro; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    Despite several fungal strains have been retrieved from methane-containing environments, the actual capacity and role of fungi on methane abatement is still unclear. The batch biodegradation tests here performed demonstrated the capacity of Graphium sp. to co-metabolically biodegrade methane and methanol. Moreover, the performance and microbiology of a fungal-bacterial compost biofilter treating methane at concentrations of ∼2% was evaluated at empty bed residence times of 40 and 20 min under different irrigation rates. The daily addition of 200 mL of mineral medium resulted in elimination capacities of 36.6 ± 0.7 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of ≈90% at the lowest residence time. The indigenous fungal community of the compost was predominant in the final microbial population and outcompeted the inoculated Graphium sp. during biofilter operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Information content analysis: the potential for methane isotopologue retrieval from GOSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Edward; Yoshida, Yukio; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric methane is comprised of multiple isotopic molecules, with the most abundant being 12CH4 and 13CH4, making up 98 and 1.1 % of atmospheric methane respectively. It has been shown that is it possible to distinguish between sources of methane (biogenic methane, e.g. marshland, or abiogenic methane, e.g. fracking) via a ratio of these main methane isotopologues, otherwise known as the δ13C value. δ13C values typically range between -10 and -80 ‰, with abiogenic sources closer to zero and biogenic sources showing more negative values. Initially, we suggest that a δ13C difference of 10 ‰ is sufficient, in order to differentiate between methane source types, based on this we derive that a precision of 0.2 ppbv on 13CH4 retrievals may achieve the target δ13C variance. Using an application of the well-established information content analysis (ICA) technique for assumed clear-sky conditions, this paper shows that using a combination of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands on the planned Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT-2) mission, 13CH4 can be measured with sufficient information content to a precision of between 0.7 and 1.2 ppbv from a single sounding (assuming a total column average value of 19.14 ppbv), which can then be reduced to the target precision through spatial and temporal averaging techniques. We therefore suggest that GOSAT-2 can be used to differentiate between methane source types. We find that large unconstrained covariance matrices are required in order to achieve sufficient information content, while the solar zenith angle has limited impact on the information content.

  2. Information content analysis: the potential for methane isotopologue retrieval from GOSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Malina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric methane is comprised of multiple isotopic molecules, with the most abundant being 12CH4 and 13CH4, making up 98 and 1.1 % of atmospheric methane respectively. It has been shown that is it possible to distinguish between sources of methane (biogenic methane, e.g. marshland, or abiogenic methane, e.g. fracking via a ratio of these main methane isotopologues, otherwise known as the δ13C value. δ13C values typically range between −10 and −80 ‰, with abiogenic sources closer to zero and biogenic sources showing more negative values. Initially, we suggest that a δ13C difference of 10 ‰ is sufficient, in order to differentiate between methane source types, based on this we derive that a precision of 0.2 ppbv on 13CH4 retrievals may achieve the target δ13C variance. Using an application of the well-established information content analysis (ICA technique for assumed clear-sky conditions, this paper shows that using a combination of the shortwave infrared (SWIR bands on the planned Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT-2 mission, 13CH4 can be measured with sufficient information content to a precision of between 0.7 and 1.2 ppbv from a single sounding (assuming a total column average value of 19.14 ppbv, which can then be reduced to the target precision through spatial and temporal averaging techniques. We therefore suggest that GOSAT-2 can be used to differentiate between methane source types. We find that large unconstrained covariance matrices are required in order to achieve sufficient information content, while the solar zenith angle has limited impact on the information content.

  3. Potential roles of anaerobic ammonium and methane oxidation in the nitrogen cycle of wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guibing; Jetten, Mike S M; Kuschk, Peter; Ettwig, Katharina F; Yin, Chengqing

    2010-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and anaerobic methane oxidation (ANME coupled to denitrification) with nitrite as electron acceptor are two of the most recent discoveries in the microbial nitrogen cycle. Currently the anammox process has been relatively well investigated in a number of natural and man-made ecosystems, while ANME coupled to denitrification has only been observed in a limited number of freshwater ecosystems. The ubiquitous presence of anammox bacteria in marine ecosystems has changed our knowledge of the global nitrogen cycle. Up to 50% of N(2) production in marine sediments and oxygen-depleted zones may be attributed to anammox bacteria. However, there are only few indications of anammox in natural and constructed freshwater wetlands. In this paper, the potential role of anammox and denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria in natural and artificial wetlands is discussed in relation to global warming. The focus of the review is to explore and analyze if suitable environmental conditions exist for anammox and denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria in nitrogen-rich freshwater wetlands.

  4. Magnesium carbide synthesis from methane and magnesium oxide - a potential methodology for natural gas conversion to premium fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Diversification of the raw materials base for manufacturing premium fuels and chemicals offers U.S. and international consumers economic and strategic benefits. Extensive reserves of natural gas in the world provide a valuable source of clean gaseous fuel and chemical feedstock. Assuming the availability of suitable conversion processes, natural gas offers the prospect of improving flexibility in liquid fuels and chemicals manufacture, and thus, the opportunity to complement, supplement, or displace petroleum-based production as economic and strategic considerations require. The composition of natural gas varies from reservoir to reservoir but the principal hydrocarbon constituent is always methane (CH{sub 4}). With its high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, methane has the potential to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich products. However, methane is a very chemically stable molecule and, thus, is not readily transformed to other molecules or easily reformed to its elements (H{sub 2} and carbon). In many cases, further research is needed to augment selectivity to desired product(s), increase single-pass conversions, or improve economics (e.g. there have been estimates of $50/bbl or more for liquid products) before the full potential of these methodologies can be realized on a commercial scale. With the trade-off between gas conversion and product selectivity, a major challenge common to many of these technologies is to simultaneously achieve high methane single-pass conversions and high selectivity to desired products. Based on the results of the scoping runs, there appears to be strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved in that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated.

  5. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. BMP9 inhibits the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by downregulating CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor, CTGF) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Ke; Feng, Honglei; Liu, Yuehong; Fei, Chang; Wan, Shaoheng; Wang, Wei; Luo, Jinyong; Shi, Qiong; Tang, Min; Zuo, Guowei; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which belong to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, regulate a wide range of cellular responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. BMP9, the latest BMP to be discovered, is reportedly expressed in a variety of human carcinoma cell lines, but the role of BMP9 in breast cancer has not been fully clarified. In a previous study, BMP9 was found to inhibit the growth, migration, and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of BMP9 on the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells was investigated. After absent or low expression of BMP9 was detected in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and breast non-tumor adjacent tissues using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, In our previous study, BMP9 could inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in vitro and in vivo. This paper shows that BMP9 inhibit the bone metastasis of breast cancer cells by activating the BMP/Smad signaling pathway and downregulating connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); however, when CTGF expression was maintained, the inhibitory effect of BMP9 on the MDA-MB-231 cells was abolished. Together, these observations indicate that BMP9 is an important mediator of breast cancer bone metastasis and a potential therapeutic target for treating this deadly disease.

  7. Potential for cometabolic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in aquifers with methane or ethane as primary substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Paul B; Banerjee, Rahul; Rezes, Rachael; Streger, Sheryl H; McClay, Kevin; Schaefer, Charles E

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential for two gases, methane and ethane, to stimulate the biological degradation of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) in groundwater aquifers via aerobic cometabolism. Experiments with aquifer microcosms, enrichment cultures from aquifers, mesophilic pure cultures, and purified enzyme (soluble methane monooxygenase; sMMO) were conducted. During an aquifer microcosm study, ethane was observed to stimulate the aerobic biodegradation of 1,4-D. An ethane-oxidizing enrichment culture from these samples, and a pure culture capable of growing on ethane (Mycobacterium sphagni ENV482) that was isolated from a different aquifer also biodegraded 1,4-D. Unlike ethane, methane was not observed to appreciably stimulate the biodegradation of 1,4-D in aquifer microcosms or in methane-oxidizing mixed cultures enriched from two different aquifers. Three different pure cultures of mesophilic methanotrophs also did not degrade 1,4-D, although each rapidly oxidized 1,1,2-trichloroethene (TCE). Subsequent studies showed that 1,4-D is not a substrate for purified sMMO enzyme from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, at least not at the concentrations evaluated, which significantly exceeded those typically observed at contaminated sites. Thus, our data indicate that ethane, which is a common daughter product of the biotic or abiotic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethanes and ethenes, may serve as a substrate to enhance 1,4-D degradation in aquifers, particularly in zones where these products mix with aerobic groundwater. It may also be possible to stimulate 1,4-D biodegradation in an aerobic aquifer through addition of ethane gas. Conversely, our results suggest that methane may have limited importance in natural attenuation or for enhancing biodegradation of 1,4-D in groundwater environments.

  8. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical surface composition by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR) showed that no delignification of the lignocellulose took place during ...

  9. BMP9-Induced Osteogenetic Differentiation and Bone Formation of Muscle-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient osteogenetic differentiation and bone formation from muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs should have potential clinical applications in treating nonunion fracture healing or bone defects. Here, we investigate osteogenetic differentiation ability of MDSCs induced by bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9 in vitro and bone formation ability in rabbit radius defects repairing model. Rabbit's MDSCs were extracted by type I collagenase and trypsin methods, and BMP9 was introduced into MDSCs by infection with recombinant adenovirus. Effects of BMP9-induced osteogenetic differentiation of MDSCs were identified with alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and expression of later marker. In stem-cell implantation assay, MDSCs have also shown valuable potential bone formation ability induced by BMP9 in rabbit radius defects repairing test. Taken together, our findings suggest that MDSCs are potentiated osteogenetic stem cells which can be induced by BMP9 to treat large segmental bone defects, nonunion fracture, and/or osteoporotic fracture.

  10. Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Baun, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    ) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence of their physico-chemical characteristics. The analytical method applied to quantify the wastewaters’ organic content proved to influence the estimation...... of their theoretical yields. The substrate:inoculum ratio as well as the dilution factor of the wastewaters influenced the ultimate practical methane yields differently in each of the wastewaters assessed. Substrate chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations did not present any influence on ultimate practical methane...... yields; on the other hand, it was found that they were affected positively by concentrations of total inorganic carbon when wastewaters were 25% and 50% diluted and affected negatively by concentrations of total acetate when wastewaters were undiluted. Carbohydrate and protein concentrations affected...

  11. Studies on potential effects of fumaric acid on rumen microbial fermentation, methane production and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Susanne; Boguhn, Jeannette; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) contributes substantially to global climate change. As a potential approach to decrease ruminal methanogenesis, the effects of different dosages of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal microbial metabolism and on the microbial community (archaea, bacteria) were studied using a rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). FA acts as alternative hydrogen acceptor diverting 2H from methanogenesis of archaea towards propionate formation of bacteria. Three identical trials were conducted with 12 fermentation vessels over a period of 14 days. In each trial, four fermentation vessels were assigned to one of the three treatment groups differing in FA dosage: low fumaric acid (LFA), high fumaric acid (HFA) and without FA (control). FA was continuously infused with the buffer. Grass silage and concentrate served as substrate. FA led to decreases in pH and to higher production rates of total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) mediated by increases in propionate for LFA of 1.69 mmol d(-1) and in propionate and acetate production for HFA of 4.49 and 1.10 mmol d(-1), respectively. Concentrations of NH3-N, microbial crude protein synthesis, their efficiency, degradation of crude nutrients and detergent fibre fraction were unchanged. Total gas and CH4 production were not affected by FA. Effects of FA on structure of microbial community by means of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses could not be detected. Given the observed increase in propionate production and the unaffected CH4 production it can be supposed that the availability of reduction equivalents like 2H was not limited by the addition of FA in this study. It has to be concluded from the present study that the application of FA is not an appropriate approach to decrease the ruminal CH4 production.

  12. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. T. Cu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4 production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  13. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam.

  14. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methane production potential and microbial community structure for different forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Kominami, Y.; Endo, R.; Tokumoto, H.; Hirano, T.; Takagi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwata, H.; Harazono, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Forest soils are often considered as a methane (CH4) sink, but anaerobic microsites potentially decrease the sink at the ecosystem scale. In this study, we measured biological CH4 production potential of soils at various ecosystems, including upland forests, a lowland forest, and a bog, and analyzed microbial community structure using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Three different types of soil samples (upland, bank of the stream, and center of the stream) were collected from Yamashiro forest meteorology research site (YMS) at Kyoto, Japan, on 11 May 2017. The soils were incubated at dark and anaerobic conditions under three different temperatures (37°C, 25°C, and 10°C) from 9 June 2017. The upland soils emitted CH4 with largest yields among the three soils at 37°C and 25°C, although no CH4 emission was observed at 10°C. For all temperature ranges, the emission started to increase with a 14- to 20-days lag after the start of the incubation. The lag indicates a slow transition to anaerobic conditions; as dissolved oxygen in water decreased, the number and/or activity of anaerobic bacteria like methanogens increased. The soils at the bank and center of the stream emitted CH4 with smaller yields than the upland soils in the three temperature ranges. The microbial community analyses indicate that methanogenic archaea presented at the three soils including the aerobic upland soil, but compositions of methanogenic archaea were different among the soils. In upland soils, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermobacter, consisted almost all of the total methanogen detected. In the bank and center of the stream, soils contained approximately 10-25% of acetoclastic methanogens, such as Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta, among the total methanogen detected. Methanotrophs, a genus of Methanobacteriaceae, was appeared in the all types of soils. We will present results from same incubation and 16S rRNA analyses for other ecosystems, including

  16. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 (BMP15) Acts as a BMP and Wnt Inhibitor during Early Embryogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) belongs to an unusual subgroup of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of signaling ligands as it lacks a key cysteine residue in the mature region required for proper intermolecular dimerization. Naturally occurring BMP15 mutation leads to early ovarian failure in humans, and BMP15 has been shown to activate the Smad1/5/8 pathway in that context. Despite its important role in germ cell specification, the embryological function of BMP15 remains unknown. Surprisingly, we find that during early Xenopus embryogenesis BMP15 acts solely as an inhibitor of the Smad1/5/8 pathway and the Wnt pathway. BMP15 gain-of-function leads to embryos with secondary ectopic heads and to direct neural induction in intact explants. BMP15 inhibits BMP4-mediated epidermal induction in dissociated explants. BMP15 strongly inhibits BRE response induced by BMP4 and blocks phosphorylation and activation of Smad1/5/8 MH2-domain. Mechanistically, BMP15 protein specifically interacts with BMP4 protein, suggesting inhibition upstream of receptor binding. Loss-of-function experiments using morpholinos or a naturally occurring human BMP15 dominant-negative mutant (BMP15-Y235C) leads to embryos lacking head. BMP15-Y235C also eliminates the inhibitory activity of BMP15 on BRE (BMP-responsive element). Finally, we show that BMP15 inhibits the canonical branch of the Wnt pathway, upstream of β-catenin. We, thus, demonstrate that BMP15 is necessary and sufficient for the specification of dorso-anterior structures and highlight novel mechanisms of BMP15 function that strongly suggest a reinterpretation of its function in ovaries specially for ovarian failure. PMID:19553676

  17. Evaluation of the biological methane potential of various feedstock for the production of biogas to supply agricultural tractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewska, Anna; Owczuk, Marlena; Zamojska-Jaroszewicz, Anna; Jakubiak-Lasocka, Joanna; Lasocki, Jakub; Orliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochemical methane potential for mixtures of whey, manures and silages was tested. • High impact of feedstock type on composition and yield of biogas was observed. • Simple mathematical model of methanogenic fermentation was proposed. • Exhaust emissions from dual fuel (biogas and diesel oil) engine were investigated. • Using biogas in engine reduces particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions. - Abstract: This work is divided into three parts. The first one presents results of biological methane potential of agriculture raw materials available in Poland. In the second part the simple mathematical model of methanogenic fermentation is proposed. The data for this model were obtained from experimental digestion process of chosen mixtures. Last part includes the results of research of exhaust emissions generated by dual dual-fuel engine of agricultural tractor powered by mixture of model biogas (60% and 70% of methane) and diesel oil. The obtained results revealed that there was a significant difference in chemical composition and yield of biogas between considered feedstock types. The highest biogas and methane production was obtained for mixtures in ratio of 6:4 for swine manure/maize silage and whey/grass silage. Due to agriculture conditions in Poland and obtain results, the maize silage and swine manure were chosen to development of mathematical model of fermentation process. It showed a satisfactory match to the experimental results. Results of emission tests on dual-fuel tractor engine supplied with biogas and diesel oil showed the higher concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon oxide and lower concentrations of particulate matter in exhaust gases. Level of emission of particular components depends on the biogas composition.

  18. Differential solubilities of CO[2] and methane and the potential for coupling in TFA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2003-01-01

    We wish to add to the recent insightful comments of Wilcox et al. [1] regarding the thermodynamics of light alkane carboxylation. This process is particularly of industrial interest when it comes to methane which is vented at oil production sites where there are significant quantities of

  19. Evaluation of coal bed methane potential of coal seams of Sawang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This analysis shows that the maximum methane gas adsorbed in the coal sample CG-81 is 17 m3/t (Std. daf), at maximum pressure of 5.92 MPa ... vast coal reserves are ideal reservoirs for the gen- eration and accumulation of CBM. ... of gases in coal seams, such as, compression as free gas in the pore spaces, condensed ...

  20. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  1. Risk variants in BMP4 promoters for nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate in a Chilean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suazo José

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (BMP4 plays a key role during maxillofacial development, since orofacial clefts are observed in animals when this gene is conditionally inactivated. We recently reported the existence of association between nonsyndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCLP and BMP4 polymorphisms by detecting transmission deviations for haplotypes that include a region containing a BMP4 promoter in case-parent trios. The aim of the present study was to search for possible causal mutations within BMP4 promoters (BMP4.1 and BMP4.2. Methods We analyzed the sequence of BMP4.1 and BMP4.2 in 167 Chilean NSCLP cases and 336 controls. Results We detected three novel variants in BMP4.1 (c.-5514G > A, c.-5365C > T and c.-5049C > T which could be considered as cleft risk factors due to their absence in controls. Additionally, rs2855530 G allele (BMP4.2 carriers showed an increased risk for NSCLP restricted to males (OR = 1.52; 95% C.I. = 1.07-2.15; p = 0.019. For this same SNP the dominant genotype model showed a higher frequency of G/G+G/C and a lower frequency of C/C in cases than controls in the total sample (p = 0.03 and in the male sample (p = 0.003. Bioinformatic prediction analysis showed that all the risk variants detected in this study could create new transcription factor binding motifs. Conclusions The sex-dependent association between rs2855530 and NSCLP could indirectly be related to the differential gene expression observed between sexes in animal models. We concluded that risk variants detected herein could potentially alter BMP4 promoter activity in NSCLP. Further functional and developmental studies are necessary to support this hypothesis.

  2. Simple Fabrication Process for 2D ZnO Nanowalls and Their Potential Application as a Methane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Shuo Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D ZnO nanowalls were prepared on a glass substrate by a low-temperature thermal evaporation method, in which the fabrication process did not use a metal catalyst or the pre-deposition of a ZnO seed layer on the substrate. The nanowalls were characterized for their surface morphology, and the structural and optical properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL. The fabricated ZnO nanowalls have many advantages, such as low growth temperature and good crystal quality, while being fast, low cost, and easy to fabricate. Methane sensor measurements of the ZnO nanowalls show a high sensitivity to methane gas, and rapid response and recovery times. These unique characteristics are attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the ZnO nanowalls. Thus, the ZnO nanowall methane sensor is a potential gas sensor candidate owing to its good performance.

  3. Carbon potential measurement on the Mo-MoC0.47 system by methane - hydrogen equilibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthasivan, K.; Kaliappan, I.; Chandramouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Mathews, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium plutonium mixed carbides are potential candidate fuel materials for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. The carbon potential of the fuel is an important thermochemical property which strongly influences the carbon transport between the clad and the fuel. The carbon potential of the fuel is altered during irradiation of the fuel in the reactor. This is due to the formation of various fission products and their binary and ternary carbides. Molybdenum is a fission product with a high yield which can alter the carbon potential of the fuel. The present work forms part of our studies on the carbon potential measurements in the U - Mo - C ternary system. The carbon potential of the Mo-Mo 2 C couple measured by the methane hydrogen gas equilibration technique is presented here and the results are compared with the values cited in the literature. (author)

  4. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of BMP4 by endothelial cells is crucial for endogenous thymic regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Tobias; Velardi, Enrico; Tsai, Jennifer; Cooper, Kirsten; Xiao, Shiyun; Kloss, Christopher C.; Ottmüller, Katja J.; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Brede, Christian; deRoos, Paul; Kinsella, Sinéad; Palikuqi, Brisa; Ginsberg, Michael; Young, Lauren F.; Kreines, Fabiana; Lieberman, Sophia R.; Lazrak, Amina; Guo, Peipei; Malard, Florent; Smith, Odette M.; Shono, Yusuke; Jenq, Robert R.; Hanash, Alan M.; Nolan, Daniel J.; Butler, Jason M.; Beilhack, Andreas; Manley, Nancy R.; Rafii, Shahin; Dudakov, Jarrod A; van den Brink, Marcel RM

    2018-01-01

    The thymus is extremely sensitive to damage but also has a remarkable ability to repair itself. However, the mechanisms underlying this endogenous regeneration remain poorly understood and this capacity diminishes considerably with age. Here we show that thymic endothelial cells (ECs) comprise a critical pathway of regeneration, via their production of BMP4. ECs increased their production of BMP4 after thymic damage, and abrogating BMP4 signalling or production by either pharmacologic or genetic inhibition impaired thymic repair. EC-derived BMP4 acted on thymic epithelial cells (TECs) to increase their expression of Foxn1, a key transcription factor involved in TEC development, maintenance and regeneration; and its downstream targets such as Dll4, itself a key mediator of thymocyte development and regeneration. These studies demonstrate the importance of the BMP4 pathway in endogenous tissue regeneration and offer a potential clinical approach to enhance T cell immunity. PMID:29330161

  6. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances the osteogenic activity of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in vitro and in vivo, and together have a stronger osteogenic effect than when IGF-1 is combined with BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Llanos, Gustavo A; Becerra, Jose; Visser, Rick

    2017-07-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is widely used in orthopedic surgery and bone tissue engineering because of its strong osteogenic activity. However, BMP-2 treatments have several drawbacks and many groups are actively exploring alternatives. Since BMP-6 has been demonstrated to be more osteoinductive, its use, either alone or together with other growth factors, might be an interesting option. In this work, we have compared the effect of BMP-2, BMP-6, or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), either alone or in combination. Murine preosteoblasts were treated with 15 nM IGF-1 and/or 6 nM BMP-2 or -6 and the expression of osteogenic marker genes, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in vitro were analyzed. The results showed that IGF-1 greatly enhanced the BMP-induced osteogenic differentiation of these cells in general and that the ALP activity in the cultures was higher when the combination was made with BMP-6 than with BMP-2. Furthermore, we tested the osteogenic potential of these treatments in vivo by loading 25 pmoles of IGF-1 and/or 10 pmoles of BMP-2 or -6 onto absorbable collagen sponges and implanting them into an ectopic bone formation model in rats. This study revealed that only BMP-6 was able to induce bone formation at the used dose and that the addition of IGF-1 contributed to an increase of the mineralization in the implants. Hence, the combination of BMP-6 with IGF-1 might be a better alternative than BMP-2 for orthopedic surgery or bone tissue engineering approaches. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1867-1875, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Submarine methane hydrates - Potential fuel resource of the 21st century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    of these countries to initiate harvesting methane hydrates as soon as scientists and technologists come forward with dependable, safe and cost effective mechanisms to explore and exploit this resource. Technological factors : Lack of suitable production technology... reduction in deep-water development costs. All these are positive factors for hydrate exploration and development. Much of the engineering required to exploit these deposits can be achieved by suitably adopting proven technology currently used...

  8. Effect of the properties of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin on their methane sorption potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana; René, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 203, SEP 1 (2017), s. 68-81 ISSN 0016-2361 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : methane sorption capacity * Silurian shales * Barrandian Basin * thermal maturity * TOC * clays * porous structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2016

  9. Production of H2 from aluminium/water reaction and its potential for CO2 methanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai Phung, Khor; Sethupathi, Sumathi; Siang Piao, Chai

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural gas that presents in excess in the atmosphere. Owing to its ability to cause global warming, capturing and conversion of CO2 have attracted much attention worldwide. CO2 methanation using hydrogen (H2) is believed to be a promising route for CO2 removal. In the present work, H2 is produced using aluminum-water reaction and tested for its ability to convert CO2 to methane (CH4). Different type of water i.e. tap water, distilled water, deionized water and ultrapure water, concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.2 M to 1.0 M) and particle size of aluminum (45 m to 500 μm) were varied as parameter study. It was found that the highest yield of H2 was obtained using distilled water, 1.0 M of NaOH and 45μm particle size of aluminium. However, the highest yield of methane was achieved using a moderate and progressive H2 production (distilled water, 0.6 M of NaOH and 45 μm particle size of aluminium) which allowed sufficient time for H2 to react with CO2. It was concluded that 1130 ml of H2 can produce about 560 ppm of CH4 within 25 min of batch reaction using nickel catalyst.

  10. Site-Directed Immobilization of BMP-2: Two Approaches for the Production of Innovative Osteoinductive Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabisz, Barbara; Schmitz, Werner; Schmitz, Michael; Luehmann, Tessa; Heusler, Eva; Rybak, Jens-Christoph; Meinel, Lorenz; Fiebig, Juliane E; Mueller, Thomas D; Nickel, Joachim

    2017-03-13

    The regenerative potential of bone is strongly impaired in pathological conditions, such as nonunion fractures. To support bone regeneration various scaffolds have been developed in the past, which have been functionalized with osteogenic growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, most of them required supra-physiological levels of these proteins leading to burst releases, thereby causing severe side effects. Site-specific, covalent coupling of BMP2 to implant materials might be an optimal strategy in order to overcome these problems. Therefore, we created a BMP-2 variant (BMP2-K3Plk) containing a noncanonical amino acid (propargyl-l-lysine) substitution introduced by genetic code expansion that allows for site-specific and covalent immobilization onto polymeric scaffold materials. To directly compare different coupling strategies, we also produced a BMP2 variant containing an additional cysteine residue (BMP2-A2C) allowing covalent coupling by thioether formation. The BMP2-K3Plk mutant was coupled to functionalized beads by a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) either directly or via a short biotin-PEG linker both with high specificity. After exposing the BMP-coated beads to C2C12 cells, ALP expression appeared locally restricted in close proximity to these beads, showing that both coupled BMP2 variants trigger cell differentiation. The advantage of our approach over non-site-directed immobilization techniques is the ability to produce fully defined osteogenic surfaces, allowing for lower BMP2 loads and concomitant higher bioactivities, for example, due to controlled orientation toward BMP2 receptors. Such products might provide superior bone healing capabilities with potential safety advantages as of homogeneous product outcome.

  11. Composition variability of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and effects on hydrogen and methane production potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-02-01

    The composition of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) strongly depends on the place and time of collection for a specific municipality or area. Moreover synthetic food waste or organic waste from cafeterias and restaurants may not be representative of the overall OFMSW received at treatment facilities for source-separated waste. This work is aimed at evaluating the composition variability of OFMSW, the potential productions of hydrogen and methane from specific organic waste fractions typically present in MSW and the effects of waste composition on overall hydrogen and methane yields. The organic waste fractions considered in the study were: bread-pasta, vegetables, fruits, meat-fish-cheese and undersieve 20mm. Composition analyses were conducted on samples of OFMSW that were source segregated at household level. Batch tests for hydrogen and methane productions were carried out under mesophilic conditions on selected fractions and OFMSW samples. Results indicated that the highest production of hydrogen was achieved by the bread-pasta fraction while the lowest productions were measured for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The results indicated that the content of these two fractions in organic waste had a direct influence on the hydrogen production potentials of OFMSW. The higher the content of bread-pasta fraction, the higher the hydrogen yields were while the contrary was observed for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The definition of waste composition therefore represents fundamental information to be reported in scientific literature to allow data comparison. The variability of OFMSW and its effects on hydrogen potentials might also represents a problematic issue in the management of pilot or full-scale plants for the production of hydrogen by dark fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the energetic potential of methanization sources in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This publication reports a study of assessment of the potential production of methanization sources in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region. Different organic materials have been considered: agri-industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, and wastes from local communities. In order to perform the assessment, various technical, financial, social and environmental parameters and criteria have been taken into account. After a synthetic presentation of results, and a description of the adopted methodology, the document reports the detailed assessments for the three addressed sources with distinctions of the different origins for each of them

  13. BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minina, E; Wenzel, H M; Kreschel, C; Karp, S; Gaffield, W; McMahon, A P; Vortkamp, A

    2001-11-01

    During endochondral ossification, two secreted signals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), have been shown to form a negative feedback loop regulating the onset of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), another family of secreted factors regulating bone formation, have been implicated as potential interactors of the Ihh/PTHrP feedback loop. To analyze the relationship between the two signaling pathways, we used an organ culture system for limb explants of mouse and chick embryos. We manipulated chondrocyte differentiation by supplementing these cultures either with BMP2, PTHrP and Sonic hedgehog as activators or with Noggin and cyclopamine as inhibitors of the BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling systems. Overexpression of Ihh in the cartilage elements of transgenic mice results in an upregulation of PTHrP expression and a delayed onset of hypertrophic differentiation. Noggin treatment of limbs from these mice did not antagonize the effects of Ihh overexpression. Conversely, the promotion of chondrocyte maturation induced by cyclopamine, which blocks Ihh signaling, could not be rescued with BMP2. Thus BMP signaling does not act as a secondary signal of Ihh to induce PTHrP expression or to delay the onset of hypertrophic differentiation. Similar results were obtained using cultures of chick limbs. We further investigated the role of BMP signaling in regulating proliferation and hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and identified three functions of BMP signaling in this process. First we found that maintaining a normal proliferation rate requires BMP and Ihh signaling acting in parallel. We further identified a role for BMP signaling in modulating the expression of IHH: Finally, the application of Noggin to mouse limb explants resulted in advanced differentiation of terminally hypertrophic cells, implicating BMP signaling in delaying the process of hypertrophic differentiation itself. This

  14. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  15. Improving anaerobic digestion of sugarcane straw for methane production: Combined benefits of mechanical and sodium hydroxide pretreatment for process designing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, Leandro; Weinrich, Sören; Leite, Athaydes F.; Terzariol, Filippi K.; Nikolausz, Marcell; Nelles, Michael; Stinner, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NaOH pretreatment was tested to improve degradation of SCS for methane production. • Low NaOH concentration accelerated AD of SCS but not increased the methane yield. • Mild and high NaOH concentrations accelerated and increased methane yield of SCS. • NaOH use increased OPEX but provided a higher profitability than the untreated SCS. • Anaerobic reactor price showed a high influence on sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkaline pretreatment method to enhance the degradation kinetics of sugarcane straw (SCS) for methane production was investigated with a special focus on the benefits for designing the anaerobic digestion process. For that, SCS was previously homogenized by milling in 2 mm particle size and pretreated in NaOH solutions at various concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 12 g NaOH/100 g SCS) and the methane yields were determined in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The obtained experimental data were used to simulate a large-scale semi-continuous process (100 ton SCS day"−"1) according to a first-order reaction model and the main economic indicators were calculated based on cash flows of each pretreatment condition. The BMP tests showed that by increasing the NaOH concentration the conversion of the fibrous fraction of the substrate to methane was not only accelerated (higher α value), but also increased by 11.9% (from 260 to 291 mL CH_4 gVS"−"1). By using the experimental data to simulate the large-scale process these benefits were translated to a reduction of up to 58% in the size of the anaerobic reactor (and consequently in electricity consumption for stirring), while the methane yield increased up to 28%, if the liquid fraction derived from the pretreatment process is also used for methane production. Although the use of NaOH for substrate pretreatment has considerably increased the operational expenditures (from 0.97 up to 1.97 € × 10"6 year"−"1), the pretreatment method was able to

  16. Timing is everything: Reiterative Wnt, BMP and RA signaling regulate developmental competence during endoderm organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Scott A; McCracken, Kyle W; Luedeke, David M; Han, Lu; Wells, James M; Shannon, John M; Zorn, Aaron M

    2018-02-01

    A small number of signaling pathways are used repeatedly during organogenesis, and they can have drastically different effects on the same population of cells depending on the embryonic stage. How cellular competence changes over developmental time is not well understood. Here we used Xenopus, mouse, and human pluripotent stem cells to investigate how the temporal sequence of Wnt, BMP, and retinoic acid (RA) signals regulates endoderm developmental competence and organ induction, focusing on respiratory fate. While Nkx2-1+ lung fate is not induced until late somitogenesis stages, here we show that lung competence is restricted by the gastrula stage as a result of Wnt and BMP-dependent anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning. These early Wnt and BMP signals make posterior endoderm refractory to subsequent RA/Wnt/BMP-dependent lung induction. We further mapped how RA modulates the response to Wnt and BMP in a temporal specific manner. In the gastrula RA promotes posterior identity, however in early somite stages of development RA regulates respiratory versus pharyngeal potential in anterior endoderm and midgut versus hindgut potential in posterior endoderm. Together our data suggest a dynamic and conserved response of vertebrate endoderm during organogenesis, wherein early Wnt/BMP/RA impacts how cells respond to later Wnt/BMP/RA signals, illustrating how reiterative combinatorial signaling can regulate both developmental competence and subsequent fate specification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bmp 2 and bmp 7 induce odonto- and osteogenesis of human tooth germ stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşlı, P Neslihan; Aydın, Safa; Yalvaç, Mehmet Emir; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2014-03-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) initiate, promote, and maintain odontogenesis and osteogenesis. In this study, we studied the effect of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP 2) and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP 7) as differentiation inducers in tooth and bone regeneration. We compared the effect of BMP 2 and BMP 7 on odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs). Third molar-derived hTGSCs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cell surface markers by flow cytometry. BMP 2 and BMP 7 were transfected into hTGSCs and the cells were seeded onto six-well plates. One day after the transfection, hTGSCs were treated with odontogenic and osteogenic mediums for 14 days. For confirmation of odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation, mRNA levels of BMP2, BMP 7, collagen type 1 (COL1A), osteocalsin (OCN), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In addition to this, immunocytochemistry was performed by odontogenic and osteogenic antibodies and mineralization obtained by von Kossa staining. Our results showed that the BMP 2 and BMP 7 both promoted odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hTGSCs. Data indicated that BMP 2 treatment and BMP 7 treatment induce odontogenic differentiation without affecting each other, whereas they induce osteogenic differentiation by triggering expression of each other. These findings provide a feasible tool for tooth and bone tissue engineering.

  18. Basolateral BMP signaling in polarized epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Saitoh

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER, counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-β or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors.

  19. Nutrient content, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of tropical tannin-containing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Raghavendra; Saravanan, Mani; Baruah, Luna; Sampath, Koratekere T

    2012-12-01

    Plant tannins as rumen modifiers are better than chemicals or antibiotic-based modifiers since these compounds are natural products which are environmentally friendly and therefore have a better acceptance with regard to feed safety issues. Tropical plants containing phenols such as tannins were found to suppress or eliminate protozoa from the rumen and reduce methane and ammonia production. The screening of these plants is an important step in the identification of new compounds and feed additives which might contribute to mitigate rumen methanogenesis. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of tannins from tropical tree leaves for their methane reduction properties. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 as a tannin binder (tannin bioassay) was highest in Ficus bengalensis (555%), followed by Azardirachta indica (78.5%). PEG addition did not alter (P > 0.05) methane percentage in Ficus racemosa, Glyricidia maculata, Leucena leucocephala, Morus alba and Semaroba glauca, confirming that tannins in these samples did not affect methanogenesis. The increase (P 0.05) in the protozoa population in Autocarpus integrifolia, Ficus bengalensis, Jatropha curcus, Morus alba and Sesbania grandiflora, demonstrating that methane reduction observed in these samples per se was not due to defaunation effect of the tannin. The increase in total volatile fatty acid concentration in samples with PEG ranged from 0.6% to > 70%. The highest increase (%) in NH(3)-N was recorded in Azardirachta indica (67.4), followed by Ficus mysoriensis (35.7) and Semaroba glauca (32.6) leaves, reflecting strong protein binding properties of tannin. The results of our study established that in vitro methanogenesis was not essentially related to the density of protozoa population. Tropical tree leaves containing tannins such as Autocarpus integrifolia, Jatropha curcus and Sesbania grandiflora have the

  20. Bone Morphogenic Protein-2 (rhBMP2)-Loaded Silk Fibroin Scaffolds to Enhance the Osteoinductivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guang-Yu; He, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Chuan-Xiu; Mi, Li-Dong

    2017-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for formulations of silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds in biomedical applications. SF was crosslinked via glutaraldehyde with osteoinductive recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (rhBMP2) of different ratios viz. (i) 3% SF with no rhBMP2 (SF), (ii) 3% SF with equal amount of rhBMP2 (SF+BMP2), and (iii) 12% SF with 3% of rhBMP2 (4SF+BMP2), and these solutions were used in electrospinning-based fabrication of nanoscaffolds for evaluating increased osteoinductive potential of SF scaffolds with rhBMP2. Stress-strain relationship suggested there is no loss in mechanical strength of fibers with addition of rhBMP2, and mechanical strength of scaffold was improved with increase in concentration of SF. rhBMP2 association increased the water retention capacity of scaffold as evident from swelling studies. Viability of hMSCs was found to be higher in conjugated scaffolds, and scaffolds do not exhibit any cytotoxicity towards guest cells. Cells were found to have higher alkaline phosphatase activity in conjugated scaffolds under in vitro and in vivo conditions which establishes the increased osteoinductivity of the novel construct. The scaffolds were found to be effective for in vivo bone formation as well.

  1. BMP-6 inhibits growth of mature human B cells; induction of Smad phosphorylation and upregulation of Id1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kersten Christian

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to the TGF-β superfamily and are secreted proteins with pleiotropic roles in many different cell types. A potential role of BMP-6 in the immune system has been implied by various studies of malignant and rheumatoid diseases. In the present study, we explored the role of BMP-6 in normal human peripheral blood B cells. Results The B cells were found to express BMP type I and type II receptors and BMP-6 rapidly induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. Furthermore, Smad-phosphorylation was followed by upregulation of Id1 mRNA and Id1 protein, whereas Id2 and Id3 expression was not affected. Furthermore, we found that BMP-6 had an antiproliferative effect both in naïve (CD19+CD27- and memory B cells (CD19+CD27+ stimulated with anti-IgM alone or the combined action of anti-IgM and CD40L. Additionally, BMP-6 induced cell death in activated memory B cells. Importantly, the antiproliferative effect of BMP-6 in B-cells was completely neutralized by the natural antagonist, noggin. Furthermore, B cells were demonstrated to upregulate BMP-6 mRNA upon stimulation with anti-IgM. Conclusion In mature human B cells, BMP-6 inhibited cell growth, and rapidly induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 followed by an upregulation of Id1.

  2. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  3. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thermal and chemical treatments, mechanical maceration and freezing and thawing on recovering the remaining methane potential of the > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure - which accounted for 30% of the original potential of digested cow manure - were studied in laboratory...

  4. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  5. Immobilization of Murine Anti-BMP-2 Monoclonal Antibody on Various Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials are widely used as scaffolds for tissue engineering. We have developed a strategy for bone tissue engineering that entails application of immobilized anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to capture endogenous BMPs in vivo and promote antibody-mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR. The purpose of the current study was to compare the efficacy of immobilization of a specific murine anti-BMP-2 mAb on three different types of biomaterials and to evaluate their suitability as scaffolds for AMOR. Anti-BMP-2 mAb or isotype control mAb was immobilized on titanium (Ti microbeads, alginate hydrogel, and ACS. The treated biomaterials were surgically implanted in rat critical-sized calvarial defects. After 8 weeks, de novo bone formation was assessed using micro-CT and histomorphometric analyses. Results showed de novo bone regeneration with all three scaffolds with immobilized anti-BMP-2 mAb, but not isotype control mAb. Ti microbeads showed the highest volume of bone regeneration, followed by ACS. Alginate showed the lowest volume of bone. Localization of BMP-2, -4, and -7 antigens was detected on all 3 scaffolds with immobilized anti-BMP-2 mAb implanted in calvarial defects. Altogether, these data suggested a potential mechanism for bone regeneration through entrapment of endogenous BMP-2, -4, and -7 proteins leading to bone formation using different types of scaffolds via AMOR.

  6. Enhanced osteogenesis of adipose derived stem cells with Noggin suppression and delivery of BMP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabing Fan

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are believed to be the most potent osteoinductive factors. However, BMPs are highly pleiotropic molecules and their supra-physiological high dose requirement leads to adverse side effects and inefficient bone formation. Thus, there is a need to develop alternative osteoinductive growth factor strategies that can effectively complement BMP activity. In this study, we intrinsically stimulated BMP signaling in adipose derived stem cells (ASCs by downregulating noggin, a potent BMP antagonist, using an RNAi strategy. ASCs transduced with noggin shRNA significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of cells. The potency of endogenous BMPs was subsequently enhanced by stimulating ASCs with exogenous BMPs at a significantly reduced dose. The level of mineralization in noggin shRNA treated ASCs when treated with BMP-2 was comparable to that of control shRNA treated cell treated with 10-fold more BMP-2. The complementary strategy of noggin suppression + BMP-2 to enhance osteogenesis was further confirmed in 3D in vitro environments using scaffolds consisting of chitosan (CH, chondroitin sulfate (CS, and apatite layer on their surfaces designed to slowly release BMP-2. This finding supports the novel therapeutic potential of this complementary strategy in bone regeneration.

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) induces growth suppression and enhances chemosensitivity of human colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Yue, Shijun; Alfayez, Musaad

    2016-01-01

    expression were assessed using qRT-PCR. AlamarBlue assay was used to assess cell viability in vitro. In vivo experiments were conducted using SCID mice. RESULTS: Our data revealed frequent downregulation of BMP2 in primary CRC tissues. Additionally, interrogation of publically available gene expression......, suggesting that restoration of BMP2 expression could be a potential therapeutic strategy for CRC....

  8. Enhancing methane production from U. lactuca using combined anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) and rumen fluid pre-treatment and the effect on the solubilization of microbial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu; Xu, Xiaochen; Li, Liang; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen

    2018-04-01

    Methane production by the anaerobic digestion of seaweed is restricted by the slow degradation caused by the influence of the rigid algal cell wall. At the present time, there has been no study focusing on the anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca by co-fermentation and pre-treatment with rumen fluid. Rumen fluid can favor methane production from algal biomass by utilizing the diversity and quantity of bacterial and archaeal communities in the rumen fluid. This research presents a novel method based on combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment to improve the production of methane from seaweed. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed to investigate the biogas production using combined ADS and rumen fluid pre-treatment at varied inoculum ratios on the performance of methane production from U. lactuca biomass. Compared to the control (no rumen fluid pre-treatment), the highest BMP yields of U. lactuca increased from 3%, 27.5% and 39.5% to 31.1%, 73% and 85.6%, respectively, for three different types of treatment. Microbial community analysis revealed that the Methanobrevibacter species, known to accept electrons to form methane, were only detected when rumen fluid was added. Together with the significant increase in species of Methanoculleus, Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta, rumen fluid improved the fermentation and degradation of the microalgae biomass not only by pre-treatment to foster cell-wall degradation but also by relying on methane production within itself during anaerobic processes. Batch experiments further indicated that rumen fluid applied to the co-fermentation and pre-treatment could increase the economic value and hold promise for enhancing biogas production from different seaweed species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  10. Methane mitigation potential of phyto-sources from Northeast India and their effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Baruah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the anti-methanogenic potential of phyto-sources from Northeast region of the country and assess the effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa for their likely inclusion in animal diet to reduce methane emission. Materials and Methods: Twenty phyto-sources were collected from Northeast state, Assam, during March to April 2014. Phyto-sources were analyzed for their tannin content followed by screening for methane mitigation potential using in vitro system. The effect of tannin on methane production and other fermentation parameters was confirmed by attenuating the effect of tannin with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 addition. About 200 mg dried phyto-source samples were incubated for 24 h in vitro, and volume of gas produced was recorded. The gas sample was analyzed on gas chromatograph for the proportion of methane in the sample. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population was determined using standard methodologies. Results: Results from studies demonstrated that Litchi chinensis, Melastoma malabathricum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia chebula, and Syzygium cumini produced comparatively less methane, while Christella parasitica, Leucas linifolia, Citrus grandis, and Aquilaria malaccensis produced relatively more methane during in vitro incubation. An increase (p<0.05 in gas and methane production from the phyto-sources was observed when incubated with PEG-6000. Entodinimorphs were prominent ciliates irrespective of the phyto-sources, while holotrichs represented only small fraction of protozoa. An increase (p<0.05 in total protozoa, entodinimorphs, and holotrichs was noted when PEG-6000 added to the basal substrate. Our study confirmed variable impact of phyto-sources on total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N. Conclusion: It may be concluded that L. chinensis, M. malabathricum, L. speciosa, S. cumini, and T. chebula are having

  11. Uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, I.; Cibin, R.; Sudheer, K.; Her, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Use of computer simulation models have increased substantially to make watershed management decisions and to develop strategies for water quality improvements. These models are often used to evaluate potential benefits of various best management practices (BMPs) for reducing losses of pollutants from sources areas into receiving waterbodies. Similarly, use of simulation models in optimizing selection and placement of best management practices under single (maximization of crop production or minimization of pollutant transport) and multiple objective functions has increased recently. One of the limitations of the currently available assessment and optimization approaches is that the BMP strategies are considered deterministic. Uncertainties in input data (e.g. precipitation, streamflow, sediment, nutrient and pesticide losses measured, land use) and model parameters may result in considerable uncertainty in watershed response under various BMP options. We have developed and evaluated options to include uncertainty in BMP evaluation and optimization for watershed management. We have also applied these methods to evaluate uncertainty in ecosystem services from mixed land use watersheds. In this presentation, we will discuss methods to to quantify uncertainties in BMP assessment and optimization solutions due to uncertainties in model inputs and parameters. We have used a watershed model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool or SWAT) to simulate the hydrology and water quality in mixed land use watershed located in Midwest USA. The SWAT model was also used to represent various BMPs in the watershed needed to improve water quality. SWAT model parameters, land use change parameters, and climate change parameters were considered uncertain. It was observed that model parameters, land use and climate changes resulted in considerable uncertainties in BMP performance in reducing P, N, and sediment loads. In addition, climate change scenarios also affected uncertainties in SWAT

  12. Ab initio calculation of the interaction potentials of helium, neon, and methane as well as theoretical studies on their thermophysical properties and those of water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of the pure gases helium, neon, methane and water vapor were calculated for low densities over wide temperature ranges. Statistical thermodynamics was used for the determination of the pressure virial coefficients. The kinetic theory of gases was utilized for the calculation of the transport and relaxation properties. So far kinetic theory was limited to linear molecules and has now been extended to molecules of arbitrary geometry to enable calculations on methane and water vapor. The interaction potentials, which are needed for all computations, were determined for helium, neon and methane from the supermolecular approach using quantum chemical ab initio methods. For water the interaction potentials were taken from the literature. The calculated values of the thermophysical properties for the four gases show very good agreement with the best experimental data. At very low and very high temperatures the theoretical values are more accurate than experimental data. (orig.)

  13. Potential of Immobilized Whole-Cell Methylocella tundrae as a Biocatalyst for Methanol Production from Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardina, Primata; Li, Jinglin; Patel, Sanjay K S; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul; Selvaraj, Chandrabose

    2016-07-28

    Methanol is a versatile compound that can be biologically synthesized from methane (CH4) by methanotrophs using a low energy-consuming and environment-friendly process. Methylocella tundrae is a type II methanotroph that can utilize CH4 as a carbon and energy source. Methanol is produced in the first step of the metabolic pathway of methanotrophs and is further oxidized into formaldehyde. Several parameters must be optimized to achieve high methanol production. In this study, we optimized the production conditions and process parameters for methanol production. The optimum incubation time, substrate, pH, agitation rate, temperature, phosphate buffer and sodium formate concentration, and cell concentration were determined to be 24 h, 50% CH4, pH 7, 150 rpm, 30°C, 100 mM and 50 mM, and 18 mg/ml, respectively. The optimization of these parameters significantly improved methanol production from 0.66 to 5.18 mM. The use of alginate-encapsulated cells resulted in enhanced methanol production stability and reusability of cells after five cycles of reuse under batch culture conditions.

  14. Retrieval of Methane Source Strengths in Europe Using a Simple Modeling Approach to Assess the Potential of Spaceborne Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C.; Kiemle, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Aalto, T.; Necki, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Arduini, J.; Apadula, F.; Berkhout, H.; Hatakka, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of future spaceborne lidar measurements to changes in surface methane emissions. We use surface methane observations from nine European ground stations and a Lagrangian transport model to infer surface methane emissions for 2010. Our inversion shows the strongest emissions from the Netherlands, the coal mines in Upper Silesia, Poland, and wetlands in southern Finland. The simulated methane surface concentrations capture at least half of the daily variability in the observations, suggesting that the transport model is correctly simulating the regional transport pathways over Europe. With this tool we can test whether proposed methane lidar instruments will be sensitive to changes in surface emissions. We show that future lidar instruments should be able to detect a 50% reduction in methane emissions from the Netherlands and Germany, at least during summer.

  15. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  16. Enhanced CO2 uptake at a shallow Arctic Ocean seep field overwhelms the positive warming potential of emitted methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, John W; Greinert, Jens; Ruppel, Carolyn; Silyakova, Anna; Vielstädte, Lisa; Casso, Michael; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan

    2017-05-23

    Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 10 6 tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (shallow ebullitive methane seep field on the Svalbard margin reveal atmospheric CO 2 uptake rates (-33,300 ± 7,900 μmol m -2 ⋅d -1 ) twice that of surrounding waters and ∼1,900 times greater than the diffusive sea-air methane efflux (17.3 ± 4.8 μmol m -2 ⋅d -1 ). The negative radiative forcing expected from this CO 2 uptake is up to 231 times greater than the positive radiative forcing from the methane emissions. Surface water characteristics (e.g., high dissolved oxygen, high pH, and enrichment of 13 C in CO 2 ) indicate that upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water from near the seafloor accompanies methane emissions and stimulates CO 2 consumption by photosynthesizing phytoplankton. These findings challenge the widely held perception that areas characterized by shallow-water methane seeps and/or strongly elevated sea-air methane flux always increase the global atmospheric greenhouse gas burden.

  17. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work

  18. Modified batch anaerobic digestion assay for testing efficiencies of trace metal additives to enhance methane production of energy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulé, Mathieu; Bolduan, Rainer; Seidelt, Stephan; Schlagermann, Pascal; Bott, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays to evaluate the methane yield of biogas substrates such as energy crops are usually carried out with undiluted inoculum. A BMP assay was performed on two energy crops (green cuttings and grass silage). Anaerobic digestion was performed both with and without supplementation of three commercial additives containing trace metals in liquid, solid or adsorbed form (on clay particles). In order to reveal positive effects of trace metal supplementation on the methane yield, besides undiluted inoculum, 3-fold and 10-fold dilutions of the inoculum were applied for substrate digestion. Diluted inoculum variants were supplemented with both mineral nutrients and pH-buffering substances to prevent a collapse of the digestion process. As expected, commercial additives had no effect on the digestion process performed with undiluted inoculum, while significant increases of methane production through trace element supplementation could be observed on the diluted variants. The effect of inoculum dilution may be twofold: (1) decrease in trace metal supplementation from the inoculum and (2) reduction in the initial number of bacterial cells. Bacteria require higher growth rates for substrate degradation and hence have higher trace element consumption. According to common knowledge of the biogas process, periods with volatile fatty acids accumulation and decreased pH may have occurred in the course ofanaerobic digestion. These effects may have led to inhibition, not only ofmethanogenes and acetogenes involved in the final phases of methane production, but also offibre-degrading bacterial strains involved in polymer hydrolysis. Further research is required to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. Biomethane potential of industrial paper wastes and investigation of the methanogenic communities involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Andreas; Silberberger, Sandra; Juárez, Marina Fernández-Delgado; Insam, Heribert; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose-containing waste products from the agricultural or industrial sector are potentially one of the largest sources of renewable energy on earth. In this study, the biomethane potential (BMP) of two types of industrial paper wastes, wood and pulp residues (WR and PR, respectively), were evaluated under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, and various pretreatment methods were applied in the attempt to increase the methane potential during anaerobic digestion. The methanogenic community composition was investigated with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the ANAEROCHIP microarray, and dominant methanogens were quantitated using quantitative PCR. All pretreatments investigated in this study with the exception of the alkaline pretreatment of PR were found to increase the BMP of two paper industry wastes. However, the low recalcitrance level of the PR resulted in the pretreatments being less effective in increasing BMP when compared with those for WR. These results were supported by the physico-chemical data. A combined application of ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatment was found to be the best strategy for increasing methane yields. The retention time of substrates in the reactors strongly influenced the BMP of wastes subjected to the different pretreatments. In sludges from both paper wastes subjected to the various pretreatments, mixotrophic Methanosarcina species were found to dominate the community, accompanied by a consortium of hydrogenotrophic genera. Pretreating industrial paper wastes could be a potentially viable option for increasing the overall degradation efficiency and decreasing reactor retention time for the digestion of complex organic matter such as lignocellulose or hemicellulose. This would help reduce the environmental burden generated from paper production. Although there were minor differences in the methanogenic communities depending on the temperature of anaerobic digestion, there was little effect of substrate

  20. Ginger Stimulates Hematopoiesis via Bmp Pathway in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-Lagneau, Karine F.; Moshal, Karni S.; Grimes, Matthew; Zahora, Braden; Lv, Lishuang; Sang, Shengmin; Leung, TinChung

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is a hematologic disorder with decreased number of erythrocytes. Erythropoiesis, the process by which red blood cells differentiate, are conserved in humans, mice and zebrafish. The only known agents available to treat pathological anemia are erythropoietin and its biologic derivatives. However, erythropoietin therapy elicits unwanted side-effects, high cost and intravenous or subcutaneous injection, warranting the development of a more cost effective and non-peptide alternative. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been widely used in traditional medicine; however, to date there is no scientific research documenting the potential of ginger to stimulate hematopoiesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we utilized gata1:dsRed transgenic zebrafish embryos to investigate the effect of ginger extract on hematopoiesis in vivo and we identified its bioactive component, 10-gingerol. We confirmed that ginger and 10-gingerol promote the expression of gata1 in erythroid cells and increase the expression of hematopoietic progenitor markers cmyb and scl. We also demonstrated that ginger and 10-gingerol can promote the hematopoietic recovery from acute hemolytic anemia in zebrafish, by quantifying the number of circulating erythroid cells in the dorsal aorta using video microscopy. We found that ginger and 10-gingerol treatment during gastrulation results in an increase of bmp2b and bmp7a expression, and their downstream effectors, gata2 and eve1. At later stages ginger and 10-gingerol can induce bmp2b/7a, cmyb, scl and lmo2 expression in the caudal hematopoietic tissue area. We further confirmed that Bmp/Smad pathway mediates this hematopoiesis promoting effect of ginger by using the Bmp-activated Bmp type I receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin, LND193189 and DMH1. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a strong foundation to further evaluate the molecular mechanism of ginger and its bioactive components during hematopoiesis and to investigate their

  1. Evaluation of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with food wastes via bio-methane potential assay and CSTR reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yulin; Zamalloa, Carlos; Lin, Hongjian; Yan, Mi; Schmidt, David; Hu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of food wastes into anaerobic digestion (AD) brings a promising scenario of increasing feedstock availability and overall energy production from AD. This study evaluated the biodegradability and methane potential from co-digestion of two typical food wastes, kitchen waste and chicken fat, with dairy manure. For single substrate, the bio-methane potential assays showed that kitchen waste had the highest methane yield of 352 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS added, 92% more than dairy manure alone. Chicken fat at the same Volatile Solid (VS) level (2 g L(-1)) inhibited bio-methane production. Addition of kitchen waste and chicken fat to a VS percentage of up to 40% improved overall methane yield by 44% and 34%, respectively. Synergistic effect was observed when either combining two or three substrates as AD feedstock, possibly as a result of increased biodegradability of organic materials in chicken fat and kitchen waste compared with dairy manure. Addition of chicken fat improved methane yield more than kitchen waste. However, addition of chicken fat VS over 0.8 g L(-1) should be cautiously done because it may cause reactor failure due to decrease in pH. The maximum methane yield was 425 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS, achieved at a VS ratio of 2:2:1 for kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure. Results from batch AD experiment demonstrated that supplementing dairy manure to chicken fat and/or kitchen waste improved alkalinity of substrate due to the inclusion of more titratable bases in dairy manure, and therefore stabilized the methanogenesis and substantially improved biogas yield. A mixture of substrates of kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure at a ratio of 1:1:3 was fed to a continuously stirred tank reactor operated at organic loading rates of 3.28, 6.55, and 2.18 g-COD L(-1)-day (hydraulic retention time of 20, 10, and 30 days, respectively) under mesophilic condition, and methane production rate reached 0.65, 0.95, and 0.34 L-CH4 L(-1)-reactor-day.

  2. Mitigating global warming potentials of methane and nitrous oxide gases from rice paddies under different irrigation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Hoque, M Anamul; Kim, Pil Joo

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm to investigate the mitigating effects of soil amendments such as calcium carbide, calcium silicate, phosphogypsum, and biochar with urea fertilizer on global warming potentials (GWPs) of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases during rice cultivation under continuous and intermittent irrigations. Among the amendments phosphogypsum and silicate fertilizer, being potential source of electron acceptors, decreased maximum level of seasonal CH4 flux by 25-27 % and 32-38 % in continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. Biochar and calcium carbide amendments, acting as nitrification inhibitors, decreased N2O emissions by 36-40 % and 26-30 % under continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. The total GWP of CH4 and N2O gases were decreased by 7-27 % and 6-34 % with calcium carbide, phosphogypsum, and silicate fertilizer amendments under continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. However, biochar amendments increased overall GWP of CH4 and N2O gases.

  3. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  4. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 expression is decreased in human hypertensive nephrosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Clemens D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-7 is protective in different animal models of acute and chronic kidney disease. Its role in human kidneys, and in particular hypertensive nephrosclerosis, has thus far not been described. Methods BMP-7 mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR and localised by immunostaining in tissue samples from normal and nephrosclerotic human kidneys. The impact of angiotensin (AT-II and the AT-II receptor antagonist telmisartan on BMP-7 mRNA levels and phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8 (pSmad 1/5/8 expression was quantified in proximal tubular cells (HK-2. Functional characteristics of BMP-7 were evaluated by testing its influence on TGF-β induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, expression of TGF-β receptor type I (TGF-βRI and phosphorylated Smad 2 (pSmad 2 as well as on TNF-α induced apoptosis of proximal tubular cells. Results BMP-7 was predominantly found in the epithelia of the distal tubule and the collecting duct and was less abundant in proximal tubular cells. In sclerotic kidneys, BMP-7 was significantly decreased as demonstrated by real-time PCR and immunostaining. AT-II stimulation in HK-2 cells led to a significant decrease of BMP-7 and pSmad 1/5/8, which was partially ameliorated upon co-incubation with telmisartan. Only high concentrations of BMP-7 (100 ng/ml were able to reverse TNF-α-induced apoptosis and TGF-β-induced EMT in human proximal tubule cells possibly due to a decreased expression of TGF-βRI. In addition, BMP-7 was able to reverse TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad 2. Conclusions The findings suggest a protective role for BMP-7 by counteracting the TGF-β and TNF-α-induced negative effects. The reduced expression of BMP-7 in patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis may imply loss of protection and regenerative potential necessary to counter the disease.

  5. Effect of three pretreatment techniques on the chemical composition and on the methane yields of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, P S; Catalán, E; Folino, A; Sánchez, A; Komilis, D

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is an emerging biomass that has the potential to be used as substrate in anaerobic digestion. The goal of this work was to investigate the effect of three pretreatment techniques (thermal, alkaline, acidic) on the chemical composition and the methane yield of OFI biomass. A composite experimental design with three factors and two to three levels was implemented, and regression modelling was employed using a total of 10 biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The measured methane yields ranged from 289 to 604 NmL/gVS added ; according to the results, only the acidic pretreatment (HCl) was found to significantly increase methane generation. However, as the experimental values were quite high with regards to the theoretical methane yield of the substrate, this effect still needs to be confirmed via further research. The alkaline pretreatment (NaOH) did not noticeably affect methane yields (an average reduction of 8% was recorded), despite the fact that it did significantly reduce the lignin content. Thermal pretreatment had no effect on the methane yields or the chemical composition. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed changes in the chemical structure after the addition of NaOH and HCl. Modelling of the cumulated methane production by the Gompertz modified equation was successful and aided in understanding kinetic advantages linked to some of the pretreatments. For example, the alkaline treatment (at the 20% dosage) at room temperature resulted to a μ max (maximum specific methane production rate [NmLCH 4 /(gVS added ·d)]) equal to 36.3 against 18.6 for the control.

  6. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  7. A novel free ammonia based pretreatment technology to enhance anaerobic methane production from primary sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Xie, Guo-Jun; Duan, Haoran; Wang, Qilin

    2017-10-01

    This study proposed a novel free ammonia (FA, i.e., NH 3 ) pretreatment technology to enhance anaerobic methane production from primary sludge for the first time. The solubilization of primary sludge was substantially enhanced following 24 h FA pretreatment (250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L), by which the release of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) (i.e., 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS added; VS: volatile solids) was approximately 10 times as much as that without pretreatment (i.e., 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS added). Then, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests demonstrated that FA pretreatment of 250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L was capable of enhancing anaerobic methane production while the digestion time was more than 7 days. Model based analysis indicated that the improved anaerobic methane production was due to an increased biochemical methane potential (B 0 ) of 8-17% (i.e., from 331 to 357-387 L CH 4 /kg VS added), with the highest B 0 achieved at 420 mg NH 3 -N/L pretreatment. However, FA pretreatment of 250-680 mg NH 3 -N/L decreased hydrolysis rate (k) by 24-38% compared with control (i.e., from 0.29 d -1 to 0.18-0.22 d -1 ), which explained the lower methane production over the first 7 days' digestion period. Economic analysis and environmental evaluation demonstrated that FA pretreatment technology was environmentally friendly and economically favorable. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2245-2252. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Emerging roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eTillet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome, also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder. Three genes are causally related to HHT: the ENG gene encoding endoglin, a co-receptor of the TGFß family (HHT1, the ACVRL1 gene encoding ALK1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1, a type I receptor of the TGFß family (HHT2, and the SMAD4 gene, encoding a transcription factor critical for this signaling pathway. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are growth factors of the TGFß family. Among them, BMP9 and BMP10 have been shown to bind directly with high affinity to ALK1 and endoglin, and BMP9 mutations have recently been linked to a vascular-anomaly syndrome that has phenotypic overlap with HHT. BMP9 and BMP10 are both circulating cytokines in blood, and the current working model is that BMP9 and BMP10 maintain a quiescent endothelial state that is dependent on the level of ALK1/endoglin activation on endothelial cells. In accordance with this model, to explain the etiology of HHT we hypothesize that a deficient BMP9/BMP10/ALK1/endoglin pathway may lead to re-activation of angiogenesis or a greater sensitivity to an angiogenic stimulus. Resulting endothelial hyperproliferation and hypermigration may lead to vasodilatation and formation of arteriovenous malformation (AVM. HHT would thus result from a defect in the angiogenic balance. This review will focus on the emerging role played by BMP9 and BMP10 in the development of this disease and the therapeutic approaches that this opens.

  9. BMP9 and BMP10 are necessary for proper closure of the ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levet, Sandrine; Ouarné, Marie; Ciais, Delphine; Coutton, Charles; Subileau, Mariela; Mallet, Christine; Ricard, Nicolas; Bidart, Marie; Debillon, Thierry; Faravelli, Francesca; Rooryck, Caroline; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Tillet, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The transition to pulmonary respiration after birth requires rapid alterations in the structure of the mammalian cardiovascular system. One dramatic change that occurs is the closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA), an arterial connection in the fetus that directs blood flow away from the pulmonary circulation. Two members of the TGFβ family, bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10, have been recently involved in postnatal angiogenesis, both being necessary for remodeling of newly formed microvascular beds. The aim of the present work was to study whether BMP9 and BMP10 could be involved in closure of the DA. We found that Bmp9 knockout in mice led to an imperfect closure of the DA. Further, addition of a neutralizing anti-BMP10 antibody at postnatal day 1 (P1) and P3 in these pups exacerbated the remodeling defect and led to a reopening of the DA at P4. Transmission electron microscopy images and immunofluorescence stainings suggested that this effect could be due to a defect in intimal cell differentiation from endothelial to mesenchymal cells, associated with a lack of extracellular matrix deposition within the center of the DA. This result was supported by the identification of the regulation by BMP9 and BMP10 of several genes known to be involved in this process. The involvement of these BMPs was further supported by human genomic data because we could define a critical region in chromosome 2 encoding eight genes including BMP10 that correlated with the presence of a patent DA. Together, these data establish roles for BMP9 and BMP10 in DA closure. PMID:26056270

  10. Mass loss controlled thermal pretreatment system to assess the effects of pretreatment temperature on organic matter solubilization and methane yield from food waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Minale Yeshanew

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal pretreatment (TP on the main characteristics of food waste (FW and its biochemical methane potential (BMP and distribution of volatile fatty acids (VFAs under mesophilic condition (35 ⁰C were investigated. The TP experiments were carried out at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C for 2 hour and 140 °C for 1 hour. The designed TP set-up was able to minimize the organic matter loss during the course of the pretreatments. Soluble organic fractions evaluated in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD and soluble protein increased linearly with pretreatment temperature. In contrast, the carbohydrate solubilization was more enhanced (30 % higher solubilization by the TP at lower temperature (80 °C. A slight increment of soluble phenols was found, particularly for temperatures exceeding 100 °C. Thermally pretreated FW under all conditions exhibited an improved methane yield than the untreated FW, due to the increased organic matter solubilization. The highest cumulative methane yield of 442 (± 8.6 mL/gVSadded, corresponding to a 28.1 % enhancement compared to the untreated FW, was obtained with a TP at 80 °C. No significant variation in the VFAs trends were observed during the BMP tests under all investigated conditions.

  11. BMP2 and BMP7 play antagonistic roles in feather induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michon, Frédéric; Forest, Loïc; Collomb, Elodie; Demongeot, Jacques; Dhouailly, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Summary During embryonic development, feathers first appear as primordia consisting of an epidermal placode associated with a dermal condensation. In most previous studies, the BMPs have been proposed to function as inhibitors of the formation of cutaneous appendages. We showed that the function of BMPs is quite nuanced: BMP-2 and BMP-7, which are expressed in both skin components, act antagonistically and yet are both involved in the dermal condensations formation. BMP-7, the first to be expressed, is implicated in chemotaxis which leads to cell recruitment to the condensation, whereas BMP-2, which is expressed later, leads to an arrest of cell migration, likely via its modulation of EIIIA Fibronectin domain and α4-Integrin expression. We also propose a mathematical model, a reaction-diffusion system, based on cell proliferation, chemotaxis and the timing of BMP-2 and BMP-7 expression, which simulates the endogenous situation and reproduces the negative effects of excess BMP-2 or BMP-7 on feather patterning. PMID:18635609

  12. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, David L. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)

    2012-03-29

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (Methane in the Arctic Shelf or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (metagenomes ). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in

  13. Lactoferricin enhances BMP7-stimulated anabolic pathways in intervertebral disc cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Michael B; Kim, Jaesung; An, Howard S; Chen, Di; Kc, Ranjan; Li, Xin; Xiao, Guozhi; Yan, Dongyao; Suh, Joon; van Wjnen, Andre J; Wang, James H-C; Kim, Su-Gwan; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-07-25

    Bone-morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is a well-known anabolic and anti-catabolic growth factor on intervertebral disc (IVD) matrix and cell homeostasis. Similarly, Lactoferricin B (LfcinB) has recently been shown to have pro-anabolic, anti-catabolic, anti-oxidative and/or anti-inflammatory effects in bovine disc cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the potential benefits of using combined peptide therapy with LfcinB and BMP7 for intervertebral disc matrix repair and to understand cellular and signaling mechanisms controlled by these factors. We studied the effects of BMP7 and LfcinB as individual treatments and combined therapy on bovine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells by assessing proteoglycan (PG) accumulation and synthesis, and the gene expression of matrix protein aggrecan and transcription factor SOX-9. We also analyzed the role of Noggin, a BMP antagonist, in IVD tissue and examined its effect after stimulation with LfcinB. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which LfcinB synergizes with BMP7, we investigated the ERK-SP1 axis as a downstream intracellular signaling regulator involved in BMP7 and LfcinB-mediated activities. Treatment of bovine NP cells cultured in alginate with LfcinB plus BMP7 synergistically stimulates PG synthesis and accumulation in part by upregulation of aggrecan gene expression. The synergism results from LfcinB-mediated activation of Sp1 and SMAD signaling pathways by (i) phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8; (ii) downregulation of SMAD inhibitory factors [i.e., noggin and SMAD6 (inhibitory SMAD)]; and (iii) upregulation of SMAD4 (universal co-SMAD). These data indicate that LfcinB-suppression of Noggin may eliminate the negative feedback of BMP7, thereby maximizing biological activity of BMP7 and ultimately shifting homeostasis to a pro-anabolic state in disc cells. We propose that combination growth factor therapy using BMP7 and LfcinB may be beneficial for treatment of disc degeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  15. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has been linked to global warming. Carbon dioxide's (CO2) one of the most abundant greenhouse gases. Natural gas, mainly methane, is the cleanest fossil fuel for electricity production helping meet the United States ever growing energy needs. The methanation of CO2 has the potential to address both of these problems if a catalyst can be developed that meets the activity, economic and environmental requirements to industrialize the process. ...

  16. Coal rank, distribution and coalbed methane potential of the lower cretaceous luscar group, Bow River to Blackstone River, Central Alberta Foothills. Bulletin No. 473

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, F M

    1994-12-31

    Renewed interest in coal for alternative sources of energy such as coalbed methane have led to an expansion of exploration efforts into areas where the distribution and characterization of the coal resources is not well documented. This paper provides a geological compilation and assessment of the coal distribution and characterization of the Lower Cretaceous Luscar Group for the foothills area from the Bow River to Blackstone River in west-central Alberta. Included with the report are a series of geological maps and cross-sections that highlight the distribution of the coal-bearing strata and potential coalbed methane exploration targets. Field mapping of the area was carried out during the summers of 1988, 1989, and 1990.

  17. Electrospun PLLA nanofiber scaffolds and their use in combination with BMP-2 for reconstruction of bone defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus D Schofer

    Full Text Available Adequate migration and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells is essential for regeneration of large bone defects. To achieve this, modern graft materials are becoming increasingly important. Among them, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds are a promising approach, because of their high physical porosity and potential to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM.The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of electrospun PLLA nanofiber scaffolds on bone formation in vivo, using a critical size rat calvarial defect model. In addition we analyzed whether direct incorporation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 into nanofibers could enhance the osteoinductivity of the scaffolds. Two critical size calvarial defects (5 mm were created in the parietal bones of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Defects were either (1 left unfilled, or treated with (2 bovine spongiosa, (3 PLLA scaffolds alone or (4 PLLA/BMP-2 scaffolds. Cranial CT-scans were taken at fixed intervals in vivo. Specimens obtained after euthanasia were processed for histology, histomorphometry and immunostaining (Osteocalcin, BMP-2 and Smad5.PLLA scaffolds were well colonized with cells after implantation, but only showed marginal ossification. PLLA/BMP-2 scaffolds showed much better bone regeneration and several ossification foci were observed throughout the defect. PLLA/BMP-2 scaffolds also stimulated significantly faster bone regeneration during the first eight weeks compared to bovine spongiosa. However, no significant differences between these two scaffolds could be observed after twelve weeks. Expression of osteogenic marker proteins in PLLA/BMP-2 scaffolds continuously increased throughout the observation period. After twelve weeks osteocalcin, BMP-2 and Smad5 were all significantly higher in the PLLA/BMP-2 group than in all other groups.Electrospun PLLA nanofibers facilitate colonization of bone defects, while their use in combination with BMP-2 also increases bone

  18. Bone mesenchymal stem cells co-expressing VEGF and BMP-6 genes to combat avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongxing; Zhong, Zhixiong; Liu, Zhanliang; Li, Liangping; Ling, Zemin; Zou, Xuenong

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) treated with a combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) genes for the treatment of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH). Rat BMSCs were isolated and purified using a density gradient centrifugation method. The purity and characteristics of the BMSCs were detected by cell surface antigens identification using flow cytometry. The experimental groups were administered with one of the following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector constructs: AAV-green fluorescent protein (AAV-GFP), AAV-BMP-6, AAV-VEGF or AAV-VEGF-BMP-6. The expression of VEGF and BMP-6 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and ELISA assays. The effects of VEGF and BMP-6 on BMSCs were evaluated by angiogenic and osteogenic assays. The transfected BMSCs were combined with a biomimetic synthetic scaffold poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and they were then subcutaneously implanted into nude mice. After four weeks, the implants were analyzed with histology and subsequent immunostaining to evaluate the effects of BMSCs on blood vessel and bone formation in vivo . In the AAV-VEGF-BMP-6 group, the expression levels of VEGF and BMP-6 were significantly increased and human umbilical vein endothelial cells tube formation was significantly enhanced compared with other groups. Capillaries and bone formation in the AAV-VEGF-BMP-6 group was significantly higher compared with the other groups. The results of the present study suggest that BMSCs expressing both VEGF and BMP-6 induce an increase in blood vessels and bone formation, which provides theoretical support for ANFH gene therapy.

  19. BMP pathway regulation of and by macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Talati

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a disease of progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, associated with mutations of the type 2 receptor for the BMP pathway, BMPR2. The canonical signaling pathway for BMPR2 is through the SMAD family of transcription factors. BMPR2 is expressed in every cell type, but the impact of BMPR2 mutations affecting SMAD signaling, such as Bmpr2delx4+, had only previously been investigated in smooth muscle and endothelium. In the present study, we created a mouse with universal doxycycline-inducible expression of Bmpr2delx4+ in order to determine if broader expression had an impact relevant to the development of PAH. We found that the most obvious phenotype was a dramatic, but patchy, increase in pulmonary inflammation. We crossed these double transgenic mice onto an NF-κB reporter strain, and by luciferase assays on live mice, individual organs and isolated macrophages, we narrowed down the origin of the inflammatory phenotype to constitutive activation of tissue macrophages. Study of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mutant and wild-type mice suggested a baseline difference in differentiation state in Bmpr2 mutants. When activated with LPS, both mutant and wild-type macrophages secrete BMP pathway inhibitors sufficient to suppress BMP pathway activity in smooth muscle cells (SMC treated with conditioned media. Functionally, co-culture with macrophages results in a BMP signaling-dependent increase in scratch closure in cultured SMC. We conclude that SMAD signaling through BMP is responsible, in part, for preventing macrophage activation in both live animals and in cells in culture, and that activated macrophages secrete BMP inhibitors in sufficient quantity to cause paracrine effect on vascular smooth muscle.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and microalgae Chlorella sp.: Methane potential, microbial diversity and synergistic impact evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruirui; Duan, Na; Zhang, Yuanhui; Liu, Zhidan; Li, Baoming; Zhang, Dongming; Dong, Taili

    2017-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising alternative for livestock manure management. This paper presents the experimental results obtained through a batch experiment by using chicken manure (CM) and microalgae Chlorella sp. as co-substrates. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated by varying CM to Chlorella sp. ratios (0:10, 2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2, 10: 0 based on the volatile solids (VS)). The major objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and synergistic impact of co-digestion of CM and Chlorella sp. Enhanced 14.20% and 76.86% methane production than CM and Chlorella sp. mono-digestion respectively was achieved in co-digestion at the ratio 8:2. In addition, the co-digestion at the ratio 8:2 showed significantly higher methane yield than the weighted average of the individual substrates' specific methane yield (WSMY), indicating strong synergy effect. The Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis showed that the AD process suppressed the acetoclastic methanogenesis Methanosaeta content; but partly enhanced hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis Methanosarcina, Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium, which was responsible for the methane production. The pre-treated microalgae was then introduced at the optimal ratio 8:2 to estimate the effect of pre-treatment of microalgae on AD process. However, the pre-treatment exhibited no positive effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppressing methane emission and global warming potential from rice fields through intermittent drainage and green biomass amendment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, Md. M.; Biswas, J. C.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, P. J.

    Winter cover crops are recommended to improve soil quality and carbon sequestration, although their use as green manure can significantly increase methane (CH4) emission from paddy soils. Soil management practices can be used to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soils, but intermittent drainage is

  2. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, G.W.; Ho, A.; Kim, P.J.; Kim, Sang Yun

    2016-01-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to

  3. Functional cardiomyocytes derived from Isl1 cardiac progenitors via Bmp4 stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Cagavi

    Full Text Available As heart failure due to myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, cell-based cardiac regenerative therapy using cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs could provide a potential treatment for the repair of injured myocardium. As adult CPCs may have limitations regarding tissue accessibility and proliferative ability, CPCs derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs could serve as an unlimited source of cells with high proliferative ability. As one of the CPCs that can be derived from embryonic stem cells, Isl1 expressing cardiac progenitor cells (Isl1-CPCs may serve as a valuable source of cells for cardiac repair due to their high cardiac differentiation potential and authentic cardiac origin. In order to generate an unlimited number of Isl1-CPCs, we used a previously established an ESC line that allows for isolation of Isl1-CPCs by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression that is directed by the mef2c gene, specifically expressed in the Isl1 domain of the anterior heart field. To improve the efficiency of cardiac differentiation of Isl1-CPCs, we studied the role of Bmp4 in cardiogenesis of Isl1-CPCs. We show an inductive role of Bmp directly on cardiac progenitors and its enhancement on early cardiac differentiation of CPCs. Upon induction of Bmp4 to Isl1-CPCs during differentiation, the cTnT+ cardiomyocyte population was enhanced 2.8±0.4 fold for Bmp4 treated CPC cultures compared to that detected for vehicle treated cultures. Both Bmp4 treated and untreated cardiomyocytes exhibit proper electrophysiological and calcium signaling properties. In addition, we observed a significant increase in Tbx5 and Tbx20 expression in differentiation cultures treated with Bmp4 compared to the untreated control, suggesting a link between Bmp4 and Tbx genes which may contribute to the enhanced cardiac differentiation in Bmp4 treated cultures. Collectively these findings suggest a cardiomyogenic role for Bmp4 directly on a pure population of

  4. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    conditions in the trenches with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), which would be able to remove the rest of the accompanying pollutants, is proposed and merits evaluation. Preliminary batch experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of different chemical oxidation reactions (permanganate, persulphate, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton) on the complex contaminated recharge water which were, in general, more effective for degrading the chlorinated ethenes than for the chlorinated methanes (Torrentó et al. EGU 2012). Therefore, this study seeks to improve the understanding of CF and CT degradation mechanisms/processes that are going on in the interception trenches as well as to select between the two most effective chemical oxidation remediation treatments (persulphate and permanganate) taking into account their efficiency respect the chlorinated methanes removal, the generated acute toxicity and the applicability of the carbon isotopic fractionation as an indicator of the effectiveness of the future in situ remediation. Additionally, ongoing batch experiments are expected to elucidate if CT is undergoing abiotic reductive dechlorination by Fe-bearing minerals such as hydrophobic green rust (Ayala-Luis et al., 2012) which transform CT into non-chlorinated substances such as formic acid and carbon monoxide. This unstable iron compound might be formed in the interception trenches during chloride induced corrosion of iron mineral phases present in the concrete-based construction wastes (Sagoe-Crentsil and Glasser, 1993). The role of other minerals like iron oxy-hydroxides, carbonates or sulphides cannot be discarded at all. The potential of δ13C values to assess the efficiency of this abiotic CT degradation reaction will be also evaluated. References Ayala-Luis, K.; Cooper, N.; Bender C. and Hansen. H. (2012) Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercaled with dodecanoate anions. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 3390

  5. Coal rank, distribution, and coalbed methane potential of the Lower Cretaceous Luscar Group, Bow River to Blackstone River, central Alberta foothills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, F M; Kalkreuth, W D

    1994-12-31

    Mapping data on Lower Cretaceous Luscar Group coals in the central Alberta foothills is presented. The coals outcrop in the Inner Foothills from the Bow River to the boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, north of Grande Cache. Both subsurface and surface mapping data is presented. The coal rank is highly variable and depends on sample location and depth, as established by vitrinite reflectance studies on trench samples and cuttings gathered from petroleum exploration wells. The conventional coal resource potential and the coalbed methane potential for the area are discussed with reference to the map sheets provided. 29 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs., 3 apps.

  6. Characterization and use of Equine Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Equine Cartilage Engineering. Study of their Hyaline Cartilage Forming Potential when Cultured under Hypoxia within a Biomaterial in the Presence of BMP-2 and TGF-ß1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branly, Thomas; Bertoni, Lélia; Contentin, Romain; Rakic, Rodolphe; Gomez-Leduc, Tangni; Desancé, Mélanie; Hervieu, Magalie; Legendre, Florence; Jacquet, Sandrine; Audigié, Fabrice; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Demoor, Magali; Galéra, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    Articular cartilage presents a poor capacity for self-repair. Its structure-function are frequently disrupted or damaged upon physical trauma or osteoarthritis in humans. Similar musculoskeletal disorders also affect horses and are the leading cause of poor performance or early retirement of sport- and racehorses. To develop a therapeutic solution for horses, we tested the autologous chondrocyte implantation technique developed on human bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on horse BM-MSCs. This technique involves BM-MSC chondrogenesis using a combinatory approach based on the association of 3D-culture in collagen sponges, under hypoxia in the presence of chondrogenic factors (BMP-2 + TGF-β 1 ) and siRNA to knockdown collagen I and HtrA1. Horse BM-MSCs were characterized before being cultured in chondrogenic conditions to find the best combination to enhance, stabilize, the chondrocyte phenotype. Our results show a very high proliferation of MSCs and these cells satisfy the criteria defining stem cells (pluripotency-surface markers expression). The combination of BMP-2 + TGF-β 1 strongly induces the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs and prevents HtrA1 expression. siRNAs targeting Col1a1 and Htra1 were functionally validated. Ultimately, the combined use of specific culture conditions defined here with specific growth factors and a Col1a1 siRNAs (50 nM) association leads to the in vitro synthesis of a hyaline-type neocartilage whose chondrocytes present an optimal phenotypic index similar to that of healthy, differentiated chondrocytes. Our results lead the way to setting up pre-clinical trials in horses to better understand the reaction of neocartilage substitute and to carry out a proof-of-concept of this therapeutic strategy on a large animal model.

  7. The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

    2013-01-01

    The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A computational model for BMP movement in sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heijster, Peter; Hardway, Heather; Kaper, Tasso J; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2014-12-21

    Bone morphogen proteins (BMPs) are distributed along a dorsal-ventral (DV) gradient in many developing embryos. The spatial distribution of this signaling ligand is critical for correct DV axis specification. In various species, BMP expression is spatially localized, and BMP gradient formation relies on BMP transport, which in turn requires interactions with the extracellular proteins Short gastrulation/Chordin (Chd) and Twisted gastrulation (Tsg). These binding interactions promote BMP movement and concomitantly inhibit BMP signaling. The protease Tolloid (Tld) cleaves Chd, which releases BMP from the complex and permits it to bind the BMP receptor and signal. In sea urchin embryos, BMP is produced in the ventral ectoderm, but signals in the dorsal ectoderm. The transport of BMP from the ventral ectoderm to the dorsal ectoderm in sea urchin embryos is not understood. Therefore, using information from a series of experiments, we adapt the mathematical model of Mizutani et al. (2005) and embed it as the reaction part of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. We use it to study aspects of this transport process in sea urchin embryos. We demonstrate that the receptor-bound BMP concentration exhibits dorsally centered peaks of the same type as those observed experimentally when the ternary transport complex (Chd-Tsg-BMP) forms relatively quickly and BMP receptor binding is relatively slow. Similarly, dorsally centered peaks are created when the diffusivities of BMP, Chd, and Chd-Tsg are relatively low and that of Chd-Tsg-BMP is relatively high, and the model dynamics also suggest that Tld is a principal regulator of the system. At the end of this paper, we briefly compare the observed dynamics in the sea urchin model to a version that applies to the fly embryo, and we find that the same conditions can account for BMP transport in the two types of embryos only if Tld levels are reduced in sea urchin compared to fly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  10. Synthetic scaffold coating with adeno-associated virus encoding BMP2 to promote endogenous bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Kenneth M; Boerckel, Joel D; Stevens, Hazel Y; Diab, Tamim; Kolambkar, Yash M; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M; Guldberg, Robert E

    2012-03-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds functionalized to stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms via the incorporation of osteogenic cues offer a potential alternative to bone grafting for the treatment of large bone defects. We first quantified the ability of a self-complementary adeno-associated viral vector encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (scAAV2.5-BMP2) to enhance human stem cell osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In two-dimensional culture, scAAV2.5-BMP2-transduced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) displayed significant increases in BMP2 production and alkaline phosphatase activity compared with controls. hMSCs and human amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells (hAFS cells) seeded on scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated three-dimensional porous polymer Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds also displayed significant increases in BMP2 production compared with controls during 12 weeks of culture, although only hMSC-seeded scaffolds displayed significantly increased mineral formation. PCL scaffolds coated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 were implanted into critically sized immunocompromised rat femoral defects, both with or without pre-seeding of hMSCs, representing ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy treatments, respectively. After 12 weeks, defects treated with acellular scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds displayed increased bony bridging and had significantly higher bone ingrowth and mechanical properties compared with controls, whereas defects treated with scAAV2.5-BMP2 scaffolds pre-seeded with hMSCs failed to display significant differences relative to controls. When pooled, defect treatment with scAAV2.5-BMP2-coated scaffolds, both with or without inclusion of pre-seeded hMSCs, led to significant increases in defect mineral formation at all time points and increased mechanical properties compared with controls. This study thus presents a novel acellular bone-graft-free endogenous repair therapy for orthotopic tissue-engineered bone regeneration.

  11. E. coli-Produced BMP-2 as a Chemopreventive Strategy for Colon Cancer: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Yuvaraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a serious health problem, and novel preventive and therapeutical avenues are urgently called for. Delivery of proteins with anticancer activity through genetically modified bacteria provides an interesting, potentially specific, economic and effective approach here. Interestingly, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 is an important and powerful tumour suppressor in the colon and is thus an attractive candidate protein for delivery through genetically modified bacteria. It has not been shown, however, that BMP production in the bacterial context is effective on colon cancer cells. Here we demonstrate that transforming E. coli with a cDNA encoding an ileal-derived mature human BMP-2 induces effective apoptosis in an in vitro model system for colorectal cancer, whereas the maternal organism was not effective in this respect. Furthermore, these effects were sensitive to cotreatment with the BMP inhibitor Noggin. We propose that prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer using transgenic bacteria is feasible.

  12. Poly(lactic-co-glycolide) polymer constructs cross-linked with human BMP-6 and VEGF protein significantly enhance rat mandible defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anusuya; Fishero, Brian A; Christophel, J Jared; Li, Ching-Ju; Kohli, Nikita; Lin, Yong; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun

    2016-04-01

    We have previously shown that the combined delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) induces significantly more bone formation than that induced by the delivery of any single factor or a combination of any two factors. We now determine whether the exogenous addition of VEGF and BMP-6 is sufficient for bone healing when MSCs are not provided. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) microsphere-based three-dimensional scaffolds (P) were fabricated by thermal sintering of PLAGA microspheres. The scaffolds were chemically cross-linked with 200 ng recombinant human VEGF (P(VEGF)) or BMP-6 (P(BMP-6)) or both (P(VEGF+BMP-6)) by the EDC-NHS-MES method. Release of the proteins from the scaffolds was detected for 21 days in vitro which confirmed their comparable potential to supply the proteins in vivo. The scaffolds were delivered to a critical-sized mandibular defect created in 32 Sprague Dawley rats. Significant bone regeneration was observed only in rats with P(VEGF+BMP-6) scaffolds at weeks 2, 8 and 12 as revealed by micro-computer tomography. Vascular ingrowth was higher in the P(VEGF+BMP-6) group as seen by microfil imaging than in other groups. Trichrome staining revealed that a soft callus formed in P(VEGF), P(BMP-6) and P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not in P. MSCs isolated from rat femurs displayed expression of the bone-specific marker osteocalcin when cultured with P(VEGF), P(BMP-6), or P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not with P. Robust mineralization and increased alkaline phosphatase gene expression were seen in rat MSCs when cultured on P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not on P, P(VEGF), or P(BMP-6). Thus, unlike the delivery of VEGF or BMP-6 alone, the combined delivery of VEGF and BMP-6 to the bone defect significantly enhanced bone repair through the enhancement of angiogenesis and the differentiation of endogenously recruited MSCs into the bone repair site.

  13. Forestry BMP Implementation Costs for Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Shaffer; H.L. Haney; E.G. Worrell; W.M. Aust

    1998-01-01

    Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) are operational techniques used to protect water quality during timber harvesting operations. The implementation cost of BMPs is important to loggers, forest landowners, and the forest industry. This study provides an estimate of BMP implementation cost on a per harvested acre basis for the coastal plain, Piedmont, and...

  14. Bio methane in the cogeneration market and heating market. Status quo, potentials and recommendations for an accelerated market penetration; Biomethan im KWK- und Waermemarkt. Status Quo, Potenziale und Handlungsempfehlungen fuer eine beschleunigte Marktdurchdringung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Michael; Rostek, Sandra [comps.

    2010-07-15

    The current contribution of the German Energy Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the present sale situation of bio methane on the coupled and uncoupled heating market. The contribution clarifies, why the existing support measures do not stimulate the demand for bio methane in the necessary order of magnitude. Without adjustment of the legal framework neither the considerable sales potentials can be established, nor the targets for the development of the biogas feeding can be achieved approximately. The low demand on bio methane led to a planning stop on the producer side. Direct need for action is required.

  15. Twisted gastrulation, a BMP antagonist, exacerbates podocyte injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Yamada

    Full Text Available Podocyte injury is the first step in the progression of glomerulosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7 in podocyte injury and the existence of native Bmp signaling in podocytes. Local activity of Bmp7 is controlled by cell-type specific Bmp antagonists, which inhibit the binding of Bmp7 to its receptors. Here we show that the product of Twisted gastrulation (Twsg1, a Bmp antagonist, is the central negative regulator of Bmp function in podocytes and that Twsg1 null mice are resistant to podocyte injury. Twsg1 was the most abundant Bmp antagonist in murine cultured podocytes. The administration of Bmp induced podocyte differentiation through Smad signaling, whereas the simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. The administration of Bmp also inhibited podocyte proliferation, whereas simultaneous administration of Twsg1 antagonized the effect. Twsg1 was expressed in the glomerular parietal cells (PECs and distal nephron of the healthy kidney, and additionally in damaged glomerular cells in a murine model of podocyte injury. Twsg1 null mice exhibited milder hypoalbuminemia and hyperlipidemia, and milder histological changes while maintaining the expression of podocyte markers during podocyte injury model. Taken together, our results show that Twsg1 plays a critical role in the modulation of protective action of Bmp7 on podocytes, and that inhibition of Twsg1 is a promising means of development of novel treatment for podocyte injury.

  16. Methane adsorption on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perl, Andras; Koopman, Folkert; Jansen, Peter; de Rooij, Marietta; van Gemert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Methane storage in adsorbed form is a promising way to effectively and safely store fuel for vehicular transportation or for any other potential application. In a solid adsorbent, nanometer wide pores can trap methane by van der Waals forces as high density fluid at low pressure and room

  17. Modeling of methane bubbles released from large sea-floor area: Condition required for methane emission to the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, A.; Yamanaka, Y.; Tajika, E.

    2009-01-01

    Massive methane release from sea-floor sediments due to decomposition of methane hydrate, and thermal decomposition of organic matter by volcanic outgassing, is a potential contributor to global warming. However, the degree of global warming has not been estimated due to uncertainty over the proportion of methane flux from the sea-floor to reach the atmosphere. Massive methane release from a large sea-floor area would result in methane-saturated seawater, thus some methane would reach the atm...

  18. Ectopic application of recombinant BMP-2 and BMP-4 can change patterning of developing chick facial primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A J; Francis-West, P H

    1997-01-01

    The facial primordia initially consist of buds of undifferentiated mesenchyme, which give rise to a variety of tissues including cartilage, muscle and nerve. These must be arranged in a precise spatial order for correct function. The signals that control facial outgrowth and patterning are largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic proteins Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 are expressed in discrete regions at the distal tips of the early facial primordia suggesting possible roles for BMP-2 and BMP-4 during chick facial development. We show that expression of Bmp-4 and Bmp-2 is correlated with the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 and that ectopic application of BMP-2 and BMP-4 can activate Msx-1 and Msx-2 gene expression in the developing facial primordia. We correlate this activation of gene expression with changes in skeletal development. For example, activation of Msx-1 gene expression across the distal tip of the mandibular primordium is associated with an extension of Fgf-4 expression in the epithelium and bifurcation of Meckel's cartilage. In the maxillary primordium, extension of the normal domain of Msx-1 gene expression is correlated with extended epithelial expression of shh and bifurcation of the palatine bone. We also show that application of BMP-2 can increase cell proliferation of the mandibular primordia. Our data suggest that BMP-2 and BMP-4 are part of a signalling cascade that controls outgrowth and patterning of the facial primordia.

  19. Methane production and methane consumption: a review of processes underlying wetland methane fluxes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, R.

    1998-01-01

    Potential rates of both methane production and methane consumption vary over three orders of magnitude and their distribution is skew. These rates are weakly correlated with ecosystem type, incubation temperature, in situ aeration, latitude, depth and distance to oxic/anoxic interface. Anaerobic

  20. 75 FR 9886 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane... the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential...

  1. Methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets in different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Thomaz, Maria Cristina; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to value the methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets (energy's source) in different phases. The manures were daily collected, diluted in water and homogeneous. Were used 267 mL of influent with 6% total solids concentration for supply of continuous-flow laboratory anaerobic digesters, with 30 days of detention time (DT) and temperature of 35 deg C. The experiment was completely randomized design with 2 treatments (corn or sorghum) and 3 phases of growth (initial x growing x finishing) in 10 replications (anaerobic digesters). The methane contents by manure of pigs fed with corn were greater (p<0.01) than pigs fed with sorghum (65.19 and 67.32%) on the phases of growing and finishing, respectively. The most potential of biogas' production (0.181, 0.138 and 0.162 m{sup 3}/kg of manure) was with manure of pigs fed with corn on the phases of initial, growing and finishing, respectively (p<0.01). Considering all the phases, the most potential of biogas' production (p<0.01) was observed in the initial phase, in both treatments. (author)

  2. Validation and Recommendation of Methods to Measure Biogas Production Potential of Animal Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Pham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, biogas energy production is seen as a technology that can provide clean energy in poor regions and reduce pollution caused by animal manure. Laboratories in these countries have little access to advanced gas measuring equipment, which may limit research aimed at improving local adapted biogas production. They may also be unable to produce valid estimates of an international standard that can be used for articles published in international peer-reviewed science journals. This study tested and validated methods for measuring total biogas and methane (CH4 production using batch fermentation and for characterizing the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP (CH4 NL kg−1 VS of pig manure, cow manure and cellulose determined with the Moller and VDI methods was not significantly different in this test (p>0.05. The biodegradability using a ratio of BMP and theoretical BMP (TBMP was slightly higher using the Hansen method, but differences were not significant. Degradation rate assessed by methane formation rate showed wide variation within the batch method tested. The first-order kinetics constant k for the cumulative methane production curve was highest when two animal manures were fermented using the VDI 4630 method, indicating that this method was able to reach steady conditions in a shorter time, reducing fermentation duration. In precision tests, the repeatability of the relative standard deviation (RSDr for all batch methods was very low (4.8 to 8.1%, while the reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDR varied widely, from 7.3 to 19.8%. In determination of biomethane concentration, the values obtained using the liquid replacement method (LRM were comparable to those obtained using gas chromatography (GC. This indicates that the LRM method could be used to determine biomethane concentration in biogas in laboratories with limited access to GC.

  3. BMP15 suppresses progesterone production by down-regulating StAR via ALK3 in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-12-01

    In addition to somatic cell-derived growth factors, oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor (GDF)9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)15 play essential roles in female fertility. However, few studies have investigated their effects on human ovarian steroidogenesis, and fewer still have examined their differential effects or underlying molecular determinants. In the present study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) and human granulosa cell tumor cells (KGN) to compare the effects of GDF9 and BMP15 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and investigate potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, neither GDF9 nor BMP15 affects the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme or 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. However, treatment with BMP15, but not GDF9, significantly decreases steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA and protein levels as well as progesterone production. These suppressive effects, along with the induction of Sma and Mad-related protein (SMAD)1/5/8 phosphorylation, are attenuated by cotreatment with 2 different BMP type I receptor inhibitors (dorsomorphin and DMH-1). Furthermore, depletion of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)3 using small interfering RNA reverses the effects of BMP15 on SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation and StAR expression. Similarly, knockdown of ALK3 abolishes BMP15-induced SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation in KGN cells. These results provide evidence that oocyte-derived BMP15 down-regulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via ALK3-mediated SMAD1/5/8 signaling. Our findings suggest that oocyte may play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone to prevent premature luteinization during the late stage of follicle development.

  4. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S

    2014-09-15

    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma Treated High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE Medpor Implant Immobilized with rhBMP-2 for Improving the Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Su Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the bone generation capacity of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor surface through acrylic acid plasma-polymerization. Plasma-polymerization was carried out at a 20 W at an acrylic acid flow rate of 7 sccm for 5 min. The plasma-polymerized Medpor surface showed hydrophilic properties and possessed a high density of carboxyl groups. The rhBMP-2 was immobilized with covalently attached carboxyl groups using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide. Carboxyl groups and rhBMP-2 immobilization on the Medpor surface were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The activity of Medpor with rhBMP-2 immobilized was examined using an alkaline phosphatase assay on MC3T3-E1 cultured Medpor. These results showed that the rhBMP-2 immobilized Medpor increased the level of MC3T3-E1 cell differentiation. These results demonstrated that plasma surface modification has the potential to immobilize rhBMP-2 on polymer implant such as Medpor and can be used for the binding of bioactive nanomolecules in bone tissue engineering.

  6. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Coalbed methane: new frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2003-02-01

    There are large numbers of stacked coal seams permeated with methane or natural gas in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, and approximately 20 coalbed methane pilot projects are operating in the area, and brief descriptions of some of them were provided. Coalbed methane reserves have a long life cycle. A definition of coalbed methane can be a permeability challenged reservoir. It is not uncommon for coalbed methane wells to flow water for periods varying from 2 to 6 months after completion before the production of natural gas. A made-in-Canada technological solution is being developed by CDX Canada Inc., along with its American parent company. The techniques used by CDX are a marriage between coal mining techniques and oil and gas techniques. A brief description of coalification was provided. Nexen is participating in the production of gas from an Upper Mannville coal at 1 000-metres depth in a nine-well pilot project. The Alberta Foothills are considered prime exploration area since older coal is carried close to the surface by thrusting. CDX Canada uses cavitation completion in vertical wells. Cavitation consists in setting the casing above the coal seam and drilling ahead under balanced. The design of wells for coalbed methane gas is based on rock and fluid mechanics. Hydraulic fracturing completions is also used, as are tiltmeters. An enhanced coalbed methane recovery pilot project is being conducted by the Alberta Research Council at Fenn-Big Valley, located in central Alberta. It injects carbon dioxide, which shows great potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. 1 figs.

  8. Drosophila Nociceptive Sensitization Requires BMP Signaling via the Canonical SMAD Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follansbee, Taylor L; Gjelsvik, Kayla J; Brann, Courtney L; McParland, Aidan L; Longhurst, Colin A; Galko, Michael J; Ganter, Geoffrey K

    2017-08-30

    Nociceptive sensitization is a common feature in chronic pain, but its basic cellular mechanisms are only partially understood. The present study used the Drosophila melanogaster model system and a candidate gene approach to identify novel components required for modulation of an injury-induced nociceptive sensitization pathway presumably downstream of Hedgehog. This study demonstrates that RNAi silencing of a member of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling pathway, Decapentaplegic (Dpp), specifically in the Class IV multidendritic nociceptive neuron, significantly attenuated ultraviolet injury-induced sensitization. Furthermore, overexpression of Dpp in Class IV neurons was sufficient to induce thermal hypersensitivity in the absence of injury. The requirement of various BMP receptors and members of the SMAD signal transduction pathway in nociceptive sensitization was also demonstrated. The effects of BMP signaling were shown to be largely specific to the sensitization pathway and not associated with changes in nociception in the absence of injury or with changes in dendritic morphology. Thus, the results demonstrate that Dpp and its pathway play a crucial and novel role in nociceptive sensitization. Because the BMP family is so strongly conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, it seems likely that the components analyzed in this study represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of chronic pain in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This report provides a genetic analysis of primary nociceptive neuron mechanisms that promote sensitization in response to injury. Drosophila melanogaster larvae whose primary nociceptive neurons were reduced in levels of specific components of the BMP signaling pathway, were injured and then tested for nocifensive responses to a normally subnoxious stimulus. Results suggest that nociceptive neurons use the BMP2/4 ligand, along with identified receptors and intracellular transducers to transition to a

  9. Methane and carbon dioxide hydrates on Mars: Potential origins, distribution, detection, and implications for future in situ resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellenbarg, Robert E.; Max, Michael D.; Clifford, Stephen M.

    2003-04-01

    There is high probability for the long-term crustal accumulation of methane and carbon dioxide on Mars. These gases can arise from a variety of processes, including deep biosphere activity and abiotic mechanisms, or, like water, they could exist as remnants of planetary formation and by-products of internal differentiation. CH4 and CO2 would tend to rise buoyantly toward the planet's surface, condensing with water under appropriate conditions of temperature and pressure to form gas hydrate. Gas hydrates are a class of materials created when gas molecules are trapped within a crystalline lattice of water-ice. The hydrate stability fields of both CH4 and CO2 encompass a portion of the Martian crust that extends from within the water-ice cryosphere, from a depth as shallow as ~10-20 m to as great as a kilometer or more below the base of the Martian cryosphere. The presence and distribution of methane and carbon dioxide hydrates may be of critical importance in understanding the geomorphic evolution of Mars and the geophysical identification of water and other volatiles stored in the hydrates. Of critical importance, Martian gas hydrates would ensure the availability of key in situ resources for sustaining future robotic and human exploration, and the eventual colonization, of Mars.

  10. Potential development of compressed bio-methane gas production from pig farms and elephant grass silage for transportation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussadee, Natthawud; Reansuwan, Kamoldara; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu

    2014-03-01

    This research project evaluated biogas production using anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and elephant grass silage in large scale to delivered transportation directly for cars. Anaerobic co-digestion was estimated in three full-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 40°C. In the form of compressed bio-methane gas (CBG) production was 14,400m(3)/day (CH4 60-70%) amount of CBG was 9600m(3)/day. The procedure was enhanced by using molecular sieve, activated carbon for removal of moisture and CO2 membrane H2S and CO2 respectively. The results were demonstrated the amount of CO2, H2S gas was reduced along with CH4 was improved up to 90% by volume and compressed to 250bar tank pressure gauge to the fuel for cars. The CBG production, methane gas improvement and performance were evaluated before entering the delivered systems according to the energy standards. The production of CBG is advantageous to strengthen the Thailand biogas market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential for energy conservation in the food and beverage industries through anaerobic digestion of wastes to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The Canadian food and beverage industry is the fourth largest consumer of energy among manufacturers. An area of energy use which has received little attention in the past is that of waste treatment. Conventional aerobic treatment systems tend to be energy-intensive, unlike new high-rate anaerobic processes which often have better balances because they produce recoverable methane that can be used for fuel. For these reasons, anaerobic systems may be attractive to food and beverage industries seeking an economical means of waste treatment. A number of factors will determine whether anaerobic treatment is a feasible option for a given plant. Chief among these are waste strength, waste temperature, waste flow rate, consistent production of waste, and need for and cost of treatment. This study attempted to determine for what proportion of Canadian food and beverage companies anaerobic treatment is likely to be a feasible option in the near to middle term. It was found that the general plant effluents of several industries appear in many cases to be economically treatable by anaerobic processes, and practical considerations involved in methane end-use were briefly considered. A number of barriers to the application of anaerobic technology were revealed, including high capital costs, the dilution of high strength effluents, misconception about anaerobic processes, ignorance of the state of the art and the ambiguities in regulations and standards concerning biogas. 108 refs., 22 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. Methanization - Technical sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    This document explains fundamentals of methanization such as biological reactions and conditions suitable for biogas production (temperature, pH, anaerobic medium, and so on). It also proposes an overview of available techniques, of the present regulation, of environmental impacts, and of costs and profitability of methanization installations. Examples of installations are provided, as well as a set of questions and answers. Perspectives of development are finally discussed in terms of sector development potential, of regulatory evolution, of new perspectives for gas valorisation, of need of acquisition of reference data due to the relatively low number of existing installations, and of research and development

  13. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. HIF-1α as a Regulator of BMP2-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation, Osteogenic Differentiation, and Endochondral Ossification in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Joint cartilage defects are difficult to treat due to the limited self-repair capacities of cartilage. Cartilage tissue engineering based on stem cells and gene enhancement is a potential alternative for cartilage repair. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 has been shown to induce chondrogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs; however, maintaining the phenotypes of MSCs during cartilage repair since differentiation occurs along the endochondral ossification pathway. In this study, hypoxia inducible factor, or (HIF-1α, was determined to be a regulator of BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation, and endochondral bone formation. Methods: BMP2 was used to induce chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation in stem cells and fetal limb development. After HIF-1α was added to the inducing system, any changes in the differentiation markers were assessed. Results: HIF-1α was found to potentiate BMP2-induced Sox9 and the expression of chondrogenesis by downstream markers, and inhibit Runx2 and the expression of osteogenesis by downstream markers in vitro. In subcutaneous stem cell implantation studies, HIF-1α was shown to potentiate BMP2-induced cartilage formation and inhibit endochondral ossification during ectopic bone/cartilage formation. In the fetal limb culture, HIF-1α and BMP2 synergistically promoted the expansion of the proliferating chondrocyte zone and inhibited chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral ossification. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that, when combined with BMP2, HIF-1α induced MSC differentiation could become a new method of maintaining cartilage phenotypes during cartilage tissue engineering.

  15. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  16. Regulation of Msx-1, Msx-2, Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 during foetal and postnatal mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phippard, D J; Weber-Hall, S J; Sharpe, P T; Naylor, M S; Jayatalake, H; Maas, R; Woo, I; Roberts-Clark, D; Francis-West, P H; Liu, Y H; Maxson, R; Hill, R E; Dale, T C

    1996-09-01

    Expression of the Msx-1 and Msx-2 homeobox genes have been shown to be coordinately regulated with the Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 ligands in a variety of developing tissues. Here we report that transcripts from all four genes are developmentally regulated during both foetal and postnatal mammary gland development. The location and time-course of the Bmp and Msx expression point to a role for Msx and Bmp gene products in the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Expression of Msx-2, but not Msx-1, Bmp-2 or Bmp-4 was decreased following ovariectomy, while expression of the human Msx-2 homologue was regulated by 17beta-oestradiol in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The regulation of Msx-2 expression by oestrogen raises the possibility that hormonal regulation of mammary development is mediated through the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

  17. Ab initio calculation of the interaction potentials of helium, neon, and methane as well as theoretical studies on their thermophysical properties and those of water vapor; Ab initio-Berechnung der Wechselwirkungspotentiale von Helium, Neon und Methan sowie theoretische Untersuchungen zu ihren thermophysikalischen Eigenschaften und denen von Wasserdampf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2009-06-16

    Thermophysical properties of the pure gases helium, neon, methane and water vapor were calculated for low densities over wide temperature ranges. Statistical thermodynamics was used for the determination of the pressure virial coefficients. The kinetic theory of gases was utilized for the calculation of the transport and relaxation properties. So far kinetic theory was limited to linear molecules and has now been extended to molecules of arbitrary geometry to enable calculations on methane and water vapor. The interaction potentials, which are needed for all computations, were determined for helium, neon and methane from the supermolecular approach using quantum chemical ab initio methods. For water the interaction potentials were taken from the literature. The calculated values of the thermophysical properties for the four gases show very good agreement with the best experimental data. At very low and very high temperatures the theoretical values are more accurate than experimental data. (orig.)

  18. Landfill Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

  19. Catalytic aromatization of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, James J; Hutchings, Graham

    2014-02-07

    Recent developments in natural gas production technology have led to lower prices for methane and renewed interest in converting methane to higher value products. Processes such as those based on syngas from methane reforming are being investigated. Another option is methane aromatization, which produces benzene and hydrogen: 6CH4(g) → C6H6(g) + 9H2(g) ΔG°(r) = +433 kJ mol(-1) ΔH°(r) = +531 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic calculations for this reaction show that benzene formation is insignificant below ∼600 °C, and that the formation of solid carbon [C(s)] is thermodynamically favored at temperatures above ∼300 °C. Benzene formation is insignificant at all temperatures up to 1000 °C when C(s) is included in the calculation of equilibrium composition. Interestingly, the thermodynamic limitation on benzene formation can be minimized by the addition of alkanes/alkenes to the methane feed. By far the most widely studied catalysts for this reaction are Mo/HZSM-5 and Mo/MCM-22. Benzene selectivities are generally between 60 and 80% at methane conversions of ∼10%, corresponding to net benzene yields of less than 10%. Major byproducts include lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight substituted aromatics. However, carbon formation is inevitable, but the experimental findings show this can be kinetically limited by the use of H2 or oxidants in the feed, including CO2 or steam. A number of reactor configurations involving regeneration of the carbon-containing catalyst have been developed with the goal of minimizing the cost of regeneration of the catalyst once deactivated by carbon deposition. In this tutorial review we discuss the thermodynamics of this process, the catalysts used and the potential reactor configurations that can be applied.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi Rici Rose

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-β. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry. Results We evaluated the regenerative potential of in vitro treatment with rhBMP-2 and found that both osteogenic induction and tumor regression occur in stem cells from canine bone marrow. rhBMP-2 inhibits the proliferation capacity of OST cells by mechanisms of apoptosis and tumor suppression mediated by p

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; Alcântara, Dayane; Fratini, Paula; Wenceslau, Cristiane Valverde; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Miglino, Maria Angelica; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2012-02-22

    The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-β. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST) cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs) and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP) stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry. We evaluated the regenerative potential of in vitro treatment with rhBMP-2 and found that both osteogenic induction and tumor regression occur in stem cells from canine bone marrow. rhBMP-2 inhibits the proliferation capacity of OST cells by mechanisms of apoptosis and tumor suppression mediated by p53. We propose that rhBMP-2 has great

  2. A Long-Acting BMP-2 Release System Based on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) Nanoparticles Modified by Amphiphilic Phospholipid for Osteogenic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaochun; Chen, Yunsu; Li, Yamin; Wang, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    We explored a novel poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) nanoparticle loaded with hydrophilic recombinant human BMP-2 with amphiphilic phospholipid (BPC-PHB NP) for a rapid-acting and long-acting delivery system of BMP-2 for osteogenic differentiation. The BPC-PHB NPs were prepared by a solvent evaporation method and showed a spherical particle with a mean particle size of 253.4 nm, mean zeta potential of −22.42 mV, and high entrapment efficiency of 77.18%, respectively. For BPC-PHB NPs, a short initial burst release of BMP-2 from NPs in 24 h was found and it has steadily risen to reach about 80% in 20 days for in vitro test. BPC-PHB NPs significantly reduced the burst release of BMP-2, as compared to that of PHB NPs loading BMP-2 without PL (B-PHB NPs). BPC-PHB NPs maintained the content of BMP-2 for a long-term osteogenic differentiation. The OCT-1 cells with BPC-PHB NPs have high ALP activity in comparison with others. The gene markers for osteogenic differentiation were significantly upregulated for sample with BPC-PHB NPs, implying that BPC-PHB NPs can be used as a rapid-acting and long-acting BMP-2 delivery system for osteogenic differentiation. PMID:27379249

  3. Bmp indicator mice reveal dynamic regulation of transcriptional response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Javier

    Full Text Available Cellular responses to Bmp ligands are regulated at multiple levels, both extracellularly and intracellularly. Therefore, the presence of these growth factors is not an accurate indicator of Bmp signaling activity. While a common approach to detect Bmp signaling activity is to determine the presence of phosphorylated forms of Smad1, 5 and 8 by immunostaining, this approach is time consuming and not quantitative. In order to provide a simpler readout system to examine the presence of Bmp signaling in developing animals, we developed BRE-gal mouse embryonic stem cells and a transgenic mouse line that specifically respond to Bmp ligand stimulation. Our reporter identifies specific transcriptional responses that are mediated by Smad1 and Smad4 with the Schnurri transcription factor complex binding to a conserved Bmp-Responsive Element (BRE, originally identified among Drosophila, Xenopus and human Bmp targets. Our BRE-gal mES cells specifically respond to Bmp ligands at concentrations as low as 5 ng/ml; and BRE-gal reporter mice, derived from the BRE-gal mES cells, show dynamic activity in many cellular sites, including extraembryonic structures and mammary glands, thereby making this a useful scientific tool.

  4. Select polyphenolic fractions from dried plum enhance osteoblast activity through BMP-2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Jennifer L; Rendina-Ruedy, Elizabeth; Crockett, Erica K; Ouyang, Ping; King, Jarrod B; Cichewicz, Robert H; Lucas, Edralin A; Smith, Brenda J

    2018-05-01

    Dried plum supplementation has been shown to enhance bone formation while suppressing bone resorption. Evidence from previous studies has demonstrated that these responses can be attributed in part to the fruit's polyphenolic compounds. The purpose of this study was to identify the most bioactive polyphenolic fractions of dried plum with a focus on their osteogenic activity and to investigate their mechanisms of action under normal and inflammatory conditions. Utilizing chromatographic techniques, six fractions of polyphenolic compounds were prepared from a crude extract of dried plum. Initial screening assays revealed that two fractions (DP-FrA and DP-FrB) had the greatest osteogenic potential. Subsequent experiments using primary bone-marrow-derived osteoblast cultures demonstrated these two fractions enhanced extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an indicator of osteoblast activity, and mineralized nodule formation under normal conditions. Both fractions enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, as indicated by increased Bmp2 and Runx2 gene expression and protein levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5. DP-FrB was most effective at up-regulating Tak1 and Smad1, as well as protein levels of phospho-p38. Under inflammatory conditions, TNF-α suppressed ALP and tended to decrease nodule formation (P=.0674). This response coincided with suppressed gene expression of Bmp2 and the up-regulation of Smad6, an inhibitor of BMP signaling. DP-FrA and DP-FrB partially normalized these responses. Our results show that certain fractions of polyphenolic compounds in dried plum up-regulate osteoblast activity by enhancing BMP signaling, and when this pathway is inhibited by TNF-α, the osteogenic response is attenuated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Emdogain enamel matrix derivative and BMP-2 on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy El-Sayed, Karim M; Dörfer, Christof; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Kassem, Neemat; Wiltfang, Jörg; Paris, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Emdogain (Enamel Matrix Derivative, EMD) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), either solely or in combination, on the gene expression and mineralized nodule formation of alveolar bone proper-derived stem/progenitor cells. Stem/progenitor cells were isolated from human alveolar bone proper, magnetically sorted using STRO-1 antibodies, characterized flowcytometrically for their surface markers' expression, and examined for colony formation and multilineage differentiation potential. Subsequently, cells were treated over three weeks with 100 μg/ml Emdogain (EMD-Group), or 100 ng/ml BMP-2 (BMP-Group), or a combination of 100 ng/ml BMP-2 and 100 μg/ml Emdogain (BMP/EMD-Group). Unstimulated stem/progenitor cells (MACS(+)-Group) and osteoblasts (OB-Group) served as controls. Osteogenic gene expression was analyzed using RTq-PCR after 1, 2 and 3 weeks (N = 3/group). Mineralized nodule formation was evaluated by Alizarin-Red staining. BMP and EMD up-regulated the osteogenic gene expression. The BMP Group showed significantly higher expression of Collagen-I, III, and V, Alkaline phosphatase and Osteonectin compared to MACS(+)- and OB-Group (p < 0.05; Two-way ANOVA/Bonferroni) with no mineralized nodule formation. Under in-vitro conditions, Emdogain and BMP-2 up-regulate the osteogenic gene expression of stem/progenitor cells. The combination of BMP-2 and Emdogain showed no additive effect and would not be recommended for a combined clinical stimulation. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  7. Differentiation of Odontoblast-Like Cells From Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Pax9 and Bmp4 Transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Daisuke; Takeshita, Nobuo; Oyanagi, Toshihito; Sasaki, Shutaro; Takano, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-09-01

    The field of tooth regeneration has progressed in recent years, and human tooth regeneration could become viable in the future. Because induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into odontogenic cells given appropriate conditions, iPS cells are a potential cell source for tooth regeneration. However, a definitive method to induce iPS cell-derived odontogenic cells has not been established. We describe a novel method of odontoblast differentiation from iPS cells using gene transfection. We generated mouse iPS cell-derived neural crest-like cells (iNCLCs), which exhibited neural crest markers. Next, we differentiated iNCLCs into odontoblast-like cells by transfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 expression plasmids. Exogenous Pax9 upregulated expression of Msx1 and dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) in iNCLCs but not bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) or dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp). Exogenous Bmp4 upregulated expression of Msx1, Dmp1, and Dspp in iNCLCs, but not Pax9. Moreover, cotransfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 plasmids in iNCLCs revealed a higher expression of Pax9 than when Pax9 plasmid was used alone. In contrast, exogenous Pax9 downregulated Bmp4 overexpression. Cotransfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 synergistically upregulated Dmp1 expression; however, Pax9 overexpression downregulated exogenous Bmp4-induced Dspp expression. Together, these findings suggest that an interaction between exogenous Pax9- and Bmp4-induced signaling modulated Dmp1 and Dspp expression. In conclusion, transfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 expression plasmids in iNCLCs induced gene expression associated with odontoblast differentiation, suggesting that iNCLCs differentiated into odontoblast-like cells. The iPS cell-derived odontoblast-like cells could be a useful cell source for tooth regeneration. It has been reported that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells differentiate into odontogenic cells by administration of recombinant growth factors and coculture with odontogenic cells. Therefore, they can

  8. [miRNA profile of the human dental pulp cells during odontoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Li-Rong; Zhao, Wen-Qing; Lin, Tian; Lu, Yan-Ling; Wu, Yu

    2017-10-01

    To screen and verify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) during the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) to odontoblasts induced by BMP-2. The isolated hDPCs were cultured in vitro and induced by BMP-2. The levels of ALP, DMP-1 and DSPP were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The potential characteristics of hDPCs were investigated by miRNA microarray and highly expressed miRNAs were selected with bio-information software for predicting target genes and their biological functions. Then the results were validated using qRT-PCR analysis for the selected miRNAs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0 software package. The expression of ALP, DSPP, and DMP-1 showed significantly higher levels in BMP-2 induced groups compared to the control group(Pfunction(33%), while the function of other 0.2% genes remained unknown. This study identified differential expression of miRNAs in BMP-2-induced odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs, thus contributing to further investigations of regulatory mechanisms and biological effect of target genes in BMP-2-induced odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs.

  9. Bio-methane obtained by gasification. Assessment of the production potential in France by 2020 and 2050. Final report - February 2013. Study performed on behalf of GrDF by the GDF SUEZ's CRIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulonneau, Catherine; Mazzenga, Anthony; Perrin, Marc; Guerrini, Olivier; Bessieres, Marie; Gagnepain, Bruno; Houdon, Aude-Claire; Rantien, Caroline; Alexandre, Sylvie; Boukhetaia, Nadia; Lampin, Laure; Contamin, Raphael; Aribart, Michel; Vert, Julien; Dermaux, Valerie; Molinie, Lea

    2013-02-01

    This study aims at determining the bio-methane production potential by using so-called second-generation technologies in France in order to inject it into the natural gas network by 2020 or 2050. The second-generation production process is described: gasification, cleaning, methanation, compliance with specifications. Energetic and environmental performances of these processes are also addressed. Different biomass are considered (forest biomass, sawmill by-products, wood wastes, paper sludge, crops, energetic cops, agro-food industry by-products) within three prospective scenarios

  10. NOX4 mediates BMP4-induced upregulation of TRPC1 and 6 protein expressions in distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jiang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 mediated, elevated expression of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC largely accounts for the enhanced proliferation in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs. In the present study, we sought to determine the signaling pathway through which BMP4 up-regulates TRPC expression.We employed recombinant human BMP4 (rhBMP4 to determine the effects of BMP4 on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in rat distal PASMCs. We also designed small interfering RNA targeting NOX4 (siNOX4 and detected whether NOX4 knockdown affects rhBMP4-induced ROS, TRPC1 and 6 expression, cell proliferation and intracellular Ca2+ determination in PASMCs.In rhBMP4 treated rat distal PASMCs, NOX4 expression was (226.73±11.13 %, and the mean ROS level was (123.65±1.62 % of that in untreated control cell. siNOX4 transfection significantly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of the mean ROS level in PASMCs. Moreover, siNOX4 transfection markedly reduced rhBMP4-induced elevation of TRPC1 and 6 proteins, basal [Ca2+]i and SOCE. Furthermore, compared with control group (0.21±0.001, the proliferation of rhBMP4 treated cells was significantly enhanced (0.41±0.001 (P<0.01. However, such increase was attenuated by knockdown of NOX4. Moreover, external ROS (H2O2 100 µM, 24 h rescued the effects of NOX4 knockdown, which included the declining of TRPC1 and 6 expression, basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE, suggesting that NOX4 plays as an important mediator in BMP4-induced proliferation and intracellular calcium homeostasis.These results suggest that BMP4 may increase ROS level, enhance TRPC1 and 6 expression and proliferation by up-regulating NOX4 expression in PASMCs.

  11. Coalbed Methane Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalbed Methane Outreach Program, voluntary program seeking to reduce methane emissions from coal mining activities. CMOP promotes profitable recovery/use of coal mine methane (CMM), addressing barriers to using CMM instead of emitting it to atmosphere.

  12. Quinoline compound KM11073 enhances BMP-2-dependent osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells via activation of p38 signaling and exhibits in vivo bone forming activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-hwa Baek

    Full Text Available Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 has been approved by the FDA for clinical application, but its use is limited due to high cost and a supra-physiological dose for therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, recent studies have focused on the generation of new therapeutic small molecules to induce bone formation or potentiate the osteogenic activity of BMP-2. Here, we show that [4-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl piperazino][1-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]methanone (KM11073 strongly enhances the BMP-2-stimulated induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, an early phase biomarker of osteoblast differentiation, in bi-potential mesenchymal progenitor C2C12 cells. The KM11073-mediated ALP induction was inhibited by the BMP antagonist noggin, suggesting that its osteogenic activity occurs via BMP signaling. In addition, a pharmacological inhibition study suggested the involvement of p38 activation in the osteogenic action of KM11073 accompanied by enhanced expression of BMP-2, -6, and -7 mRNA. Furthermore, the in vivo osteogenic activity of KM11073 was confirmed in zebrafish and mouse calvarial bone formation models, suggesting the possibility of its single use for bone formation. In conclusion, the combination of rhBMP-2 with osteogenic small molecules could reduce the use of expensive rhBMP-2, mitigating the undesirable side effects of its supra-physiological dose for therapeutic efficacy. Moreover, due to their inherent physical properties, small molecules could represent the next generation of regenerative medicine.

  13. Radon, methane, carbon dioxide, oil seeps and potentially harmful elements from natural sources and mining area: relevance to planning and development in Great Britain. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated land is a major environmental issue in Great Britain mainly due to increased awareness and the change in public attitudes, but also due to pressures of UK and EC environmental legislation and directives. Government policy with respect to contaminated land is to deal with actual threats to health on a risk-based approach taking into account the use and environmental setting of the land; and to bring contaminated land back into beneficial use as far as practicable, and taking into account the principles of sustainability. The government has been concerned primarily with land which is being or has been put to potentially contaminative uses. However, some potentially harmful substances occur naturally and this review is concerned principally with three groups of 'natural' contaminants from geological sources: natural radioactivity, including radon, background radioactivity, and radioactive waters, derived mainly from uranium minerals and their weathering products in rocks and soils; methane, carbon dioxide and oil derived from coal bearing rocks, hydrocarbon source rocks, peat and other natural accumulations of organic matter; and potentially harmful chemical elements (PHEs), including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluorine, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc, derived from naturally occurring rocks and minerals. (author)

  14. Exogenous BMP7 in aortae of rats with chronic uremia ameliorates expression of profibrotic genes, but does not reverse established vascular calcification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Lerche Mace, Maria; Nordholm, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification are frequent complications of chronic renal failure and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) has been shown to protect against development of vascular calcification in uremia. The present investigation examined the potential reversibility of established...... uremic vascular calcification by treatment of uremic rats with BMP7. A control model of isogenic transplantation of a calcified aorta from uremic rats into healthy littermates examined whether normalization of the uremic environment reversed vascular calcification. Uremia and vascular calcification were...... induced in rats by 5/6 nephrectomy, high phosphate diet and alfacalcidol treatment. After 14 weeks severe vascular calcification was present and rats were allocated to BMP7, vehicle or aorta transplantation. BMP7 treatment caused a significant decrease of plasma phosphate to 1.56 ± 0.17 mmol/L vs 2.06 ± 0...

  15. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  16. The determination of methane resources from liquidated coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenczek, Stanisław

    2017-11-01

    The article refers to methane presented in hard coal seams, which may pose a serious risk to workers, as evidenced by examples of incidents, and may also be a high energy source. That second issue concerns the possibility of obtaining methane from liquidated coal mines. There is discussed the current methodology for determination of methane resources from hard coal deposits. Methods of assessing methane emissions from hard coal deposits are given, including the degree of rock mass fracture, which is affected and not affected by mining. Additional criteria for methane recovery from the methane deposit are discussed by one example (of many types) of methane power generation equipment in the context of the estimation of potential viable resources. Finally, the concept of “methane resource exploitation from coal mine” refers to the potential for exploitation of the resource and the acquisition of methane for business purposes.

  17. Methane flux from boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crill, P.; Bartlett, K.; Roulet, N.

    1992-01-01

    The peatlands in the boreal zone (roughly 45 deg - 60 degN) store a significant reservoir of carbon, much of which is potentially available for exchange with the atmosphere. The anaerobic conditions that cause these soils to accumulate carbon also makes wet, boreal peatlands significant sources of methane to the global troposphere. It is estimated that boreal wetlands contribute approximately 19.5 Tg methane per year. The data available on the magnitude of boreal methane emissions have rapidly accumulated in the past twenty years. This paper offers a short review of the flux measured (with range roughly 1 - 2000 mg methane/m2d), considers environmental controls of the flux and briefly discusses how climate change might affect future fluxes

  18. Dynamics of BMP signaling in limb bud mesenchyme and polydactyly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Jacqueline L; Lewandowski, Jordan P; Bouldin, Cortney M; Amarnath, Smita; Li, Qiang; Vokes, Martha S; Ehrlich, Lauren I R; Harfe, Brian D; Vokes, Steven A

    2014-09-15

    Mutations in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway are associated with a range of defects in skeletal formation. Genetic analysis of BMP signaling requirements is complicated by the presence of three partially redundant BMPs that are required for multiple stages of limb development. We generated an inducible allele of a BMP inhibitor, Gremlin, which reduces BMP signaling. We show that BMPs act in a dose and time dependent manner in which early reduction of BMPs result in digit loss, while inhibiting overall BMP signaling between E10.5 and E11.5 allows polydactylous digit formation. During this period, inhibiting BMPs extends the duration of FGF signaling. Sox9 is initially expressed in normal digit ray domains but at reduced levels that correlate with the reduction in BMP signaling. The persistence of elevated FGF signaling likely promotes cell proliferation and survival, inhibiting the activation of Sox9 and secondarily, inhibiting the differentiation of Sox9-expressing chondrocytes. Our results provide new insights into the timing and clarify the mechanisms underlying BMP signaling during digit morphogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  20. Unique players in the BMP pathway: Small C-terminal domain phosphatases dephosphorylate Smad1 to attenuate BMP signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knockaert, Marie; Sapkota, Gopal; Alarcón, Claudio; Massagué, Joan; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2006-01-01

    Smad transcription factors are key signal transducers for the TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of cytokines and morphogens. C-terminal serine phosphorylation by TGF-β and BMP membrane receptors drives Smads into the nucleus as transcriptional regulators. Dephosphorylation and recycling of activated Smads is an integral part of this process, which is critical for agonist sensing by the cell. However, the nuclear phosphatases involved have remained unknown. Here we provide functional, biochemical, and embryological evidence identifying the SCP (small C-terminal domain phosphatase) family of nuclear phosphatases as mediators of Smad1 dephosphorylation in the BMP signaling pathway in vertebrates. Xenopus SCP2/Os4 inhibits BMP activity in the presumptive ectoderm and leads to neuralization. In Xenopus embryos, SCP2/Os4 and human SCP1, 2, and 3 cause selective dephosphorylation of Smad1 compared with Smad2, inhibiting BMP- and Smad1-dependent transcription and leading to the induction of the secondary dorsal axis. In human cells, RNAi-mediated depletion of SCP1 and SCP2 increases the extent and duration of Smad1 phosphorylation in response to BMP, the transcriptional action of Smad1, and the strength of endogenous BMP gene responses. The present identification of the SCP family as Smad C-terminal phosphatases sheds light on the events that attenuate Smad signaling and reveals unexpected links to the essential phosphatases that control RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. PMID:16882717

  1. Perspectives of bio methane as a substitute for natural gas. Economic, ecologic and technical potential; Perspektiven von Biomethan als Erdgassubstitut. Oekonomisches, oekologisches und technisches Potenzial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachar, Jan-Claudio

    2012-11-01

    A possibility to supply energy from gaseous biomass is the generation of biogas and bio-SNG, respectively, with a subsequent conditioning to bio methane which can be fed in into the natural gas distribution system. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on how the conventionally used natural gas can be substituted by the biogas. It is investigated whether the transformation of biogas or bio-SNG to bio methane is worthwhile under economic and ecologic aspects. It is also investigated to what extend natural gas can be exchanged by bio methane under consideration of the technical and legal frameworks.

  2. Functional expression of BMP7 receptors in oral epithelial cells. Interleukin-17F production in response to BMP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kensuke; Ozawa, Yasumasa; Ito, Hisanori; Kifune, Takashi; Narita, Tatsuya; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Asano, Masatake

    2017-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. Recently, BMP7 has been demonstrated to be produced by salivary glands and contribute to embryonic branching in mice. The BMP7 in saliva is thought to be delivered to the oral cavity and is expected to contact with stratified squamous epithelial cells which line the surface of oral mucosa. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of BMP7 on oral epithelial cells. The expression of BMP receptors was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OSCCs were stimulated with human recombinant BMP7 (hrBMP7) and the phosphorylation status of Smad1/5/8 was examined by western blotting. For microarray analysis, Ca9-22 cells were stimulated with 100 ng/mL of hrBMP7 and total RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IL-17 F gene was cloned to pGL4-basic vector and used for luciferase assay. Ca9-22 cells were pre-incubated with DM3189, a specific inhibitor of Smad1/5/8, for inhibition assay. All isoforms of type I and type II BMP receptors were expressed in both Ca9-22 and HSC3 cells and BMP7 stimulation resulted in the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in both cell lines. The microarray analysis revealed the induction of interleukin-17 F (IL-17 F), netrin G2 (NTNG2) and hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1). Luciferase assay using the 5'-UTR of the IL-17 F gene revealed transcriptional regulation. Induced IL-17 F production was further confirmed at the protein level by ELISA. Smad1/5/8 inhibitor pretreatment decreased IL-17 F expression levels in the cells.

  3. MiRNA-20a promotes osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by co-regulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-fang; Fu, Wei-ming; He, Ming-liang; Xie, Wei-dong; Lv, Qing; Wan, Gang; Li, Guo; Wang, Hua; Lu, Gang; Hu, Xiang; Jiang, Su; Li, Jian-na; Lin, Marie C M; Zhang, Ya-ou; Kung, Hsiang-fu

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a complex process, which is regulated by various factors including microRNAs. Our preliminary data showed that the expression of endogenous miR-20a was increased during the course of osteogenic differentiation. Simultaneously, the expression of osteoblast markers and regulators BMP2, BMP4, Runx2, Osx, OCN and OPN was also elevated whereas adipocyte markers PPARγ and osteoblast antagonist, Bambi and Crim1, were downregulated, thereby suggesting that miR-20a plays an important role in regulating osteoblast differentiation. To validate this hypothesis, we tested its effects on osteogenic differentiation by introducing miR-20a mimics and lentiviral-miR20a-expression vectors into hMSCs. We showed that miR-20a promoted osteogenic differentiation by the upregulation of BMP/Runx2 signaling. We performed bioinformatics analysis and predicted that PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1 would be potential targets of miR-20a. PPARγ is a negative regulator of BMP/Runx2 signaling whereas Bambi or Crim1 are antagonists of the BMP pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that all these molecules were indeed the targets of miR-20a by luciferase reporter, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays. Similarly to miR-20a overexpression, the osteogenesis was enhanced by the silence of PPARγ, Bambi or Crim1 by specific siRNAs. Taken together, for the first time, we demonstrated that miR-20a promoted the osteogenesis of hMSCs in a co-regulatory pattern by targeting PPARγ, Bambi and Crim1, the negative regulators of BMP signaling.

  4. BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yue; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Leung, Peter C K; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2018-05-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

  5. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung Hee [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Cheul [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Joo [Department of Pathology, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Han Na; Kim, Jung Lim [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Suk [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young A., E-mail: ydanbi@korea.ac.kr [Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedical Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.

  6. Spatial control of bone formation using a porous polymer scaffold co-delivering anabolic rhBMP-2 and anti-resorptive agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYC Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current clinical delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMPs utilises freeze-dried collagen. Despite effective new bone generation, rhBMP via collagen can be limited by significant complications due to inflammation and uncontrolled bone formation. This study aimed to produce an alternative rhBMP local delivery system to permit more controllable and superior rhBMP-induced bone formation. Cylindrical porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds were manufactured by thermally-induced phase separation. Scaffolds were encapsulated with anabolic rhBMP-2 (20 µg ± anti-resorptive agents: zoledronic acid (5 µg ZA, ZA pre-adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite microparticles, (5 µg ZA/2 % HA or IkappaB kinase (IKK inhibitor (10 µg PS-1145. Scaffolds were inserted in a 6-mm critical-sized femoral defect in Wistar rats, and compared against rhBMP-2 via collagen. The regenerate region was examined at 6 weeks by 3D microCT and descriptive histology. MicroCT and histology revealed rhBMP-induced bone was more restricted in the PLGA scaffolds than collagen scaffolds (-92.3 % TV, p < 0.01. The regenerate formed by PLGA + rhBMP-2/ZA/HA showed comparable bone volume to rhBMP-2 via collagen, and bone mineral density was +9.1 % higher (p < 0.01. Local adjunct ZA/HA or PS-1145 significantly enhanced PLGA + rhBMP-induced bone formation by +78.2 % and +52.0 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.01. Mechanistically, MG-63 human osteoblast-like cells showed cellular invasion and proliferation within PLGA scaffolds. In conclusion, PLGA scaffolds enabled superior spatial control of rhBMP-induced bone formation over clinically-used collagen. The PLGA scaffold has the potential to avoid uncontrollable bone formation-related safety issues and to customise bone shape by scaffold design. Moreover, local treatment with anti-resorptive agents incorporated within the scaffold further augmented rhBMP-induced bone formation.

  7. Functionalization of deproteinized bovine bone with a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 renders the material efficiently osteoinductive and suppresses foreign-body reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Hunziker, Ernst B; Zheng, Yuanna; Wismeijer, Daniel; Liu, Yuelian

    2011-12-01

    The repair of critical-sized bony defects remains a challenge in the fields of implantology, maxillofacial surgery and orthopaedics. As an alternative bone-defect filler to autologous bone grafts, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is highly osteoconductive and clinically now widely used. However, this product suffers from the disadvantage of not being intrinsically osteoinductive. In the present study, this property was conferred by coating DBB with a layer of calcium phosphate into which bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was incorporated. Granules of DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2--together with the appropriate controls (DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; uncoated DBB bearing no BMP-2)--were implanted subcutaneously in rats. Five weeks later, the implants were withdrawn for a histomorphometric analysis of the volume densities of (i) bone, (ii) bone marrow, (iii) foreign-body giant cells and (iv) fibrous capsular tissue. Parameters (i) and (ii) were highest, whilst parameters (iii) and (iv) were lowest in association with DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. Hence, this mode of functionalization not only confers DBB with the property of osteoinductivity but also improves its biocompatibility--thus dually enhancing its clinical potential in the repair of bony defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adipose-derived stem cells and BMP-2 delivery in chitosan-based 3D constructs to enhance bone regeneration in a rat mandibular defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiabing; Park, Hyejin; Lee, Matthew K; Bezouglaia, Olga; Fartash, Armita; Kim, Jinku; Aghaloo, Tara; Lee, Min

    2014-08-01

    Reconstructing segmental mandiblular defects remains a challenge in the clinic. Tissue engineering strategies provide an alternative option to resolve this problem. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone morphogenetic proteins-2 (BMP-2) in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds on mandibular repair in a small animal model. Noggin expression levels in ASCs were downregulated by a lentiviral short hairpin RNA strategy to enhance ASC osteogenesis (ASCs(Nog-)). Chitosan (CH) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), natural polysaccharides, were fabricated into 3D porous scaffolds, which were further modified with apatite coatings for enhanced cellular responses and efficient delivery of BMP-2. The efficacy of 3D apatite-coated CH/CS scaffolds supplemented with ASCs(Nog-) and BMP-2 were evaluated in a rat critical-sized mandibular defect model. After 8 weeks postimplantation, the scaffolds treated with ASCs(Nog-) and BMP-2 significantly promoted rat mandibular regeneration as demonstrated by micro-computerized tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry, compared with the groups treated with ASCs(Nog-) or BMP-2 alone. These results suggest that our combinatorial strategy of ASCs(Nog-)+BMP-2 in 3D apatite microenvironments can significantly promote mandibular regeneration, and these may provide a potential tissue engineering approach to repair large bony defects.

  9. BMP4 density gradient in disk-shaped confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgui, Behnaz; Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    We present a quantitative model that explains the scaling of BMP4 gradients during gastrulation and the recent experimental observation that geometric confinement of human embryonic stem cells is sufficient to recapitulate much of germ layer patterning. Based on a assumption that BMP4 diffusion rate is much smaller than the diffusion rate of it's inhibitor molecules, our results confirm that the length-scale which defines germ layer territories does not depend on system size.

  10. Release and Cytokine Production of BmpB from BmpB-Loaded pH-Sensitive and Mucoadhesive Thiolated Eudragit Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijay; Jiang, Tao; Kim, You-Kyoung; Kang, Sang-Kee; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Cho, Chong-Su

    2015-01-01

    Swine dysentery is a contagious mucohaemorrhagic colitis of pigs that is caused by anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Recently, an outer membrane lipoprotein of B. hyodysenteriae (BmpB) has been identified, and the mice or pigs immunized with a recombinant BmpB generated antibodies recognizing the native BmpB of B. hyodysenteriae. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified BmpB protein from E. coli and used it as a vaccine candidate for oral delivery. The BmpB was encapsulated into the pH-sensitive and thiolated Eudragit microspheres (TEMS). The sizes of the microspheres ranged from 5-20 μ. About 22-34% of BmpB were released from the BmpB-loaded TEMS within 24 h at stomach pH 2.0 whereas the release of BmpB from the BmpB-loaded TEMS was 35% in the first one hour and reached 81% within 24 h at intestinal pH 7.2. These data revealed that the BmpB could be protected in the harsh gastric condition. Mucoadhesive experiment in vitro showed that TEMS have high binding affinity with the mucin glycoproteins of porcine intestine. Finally, in vitro production of cytokines from immune cells treated with the BmpB-loaded TEMS suggested that the TEMS would be a promising approach for oral delivery of BmpB as vaccine candidate.

  11. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Mitigate Cirrhosis through BMP7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has therapeutic effects on various diseases, while its effect on developing cirrhosis as well as the underlying mechanism remained largely unknown. Methods: Twenty C57BL/6 mice were randomly separated into 2 groups of ten each. One group received transplantation of MSCs, while the other group received saline as control. The mice then received intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 twice per week for 8 weeks to develop cirrhosis. After another 4 weeks, the levels of cirrhosis in these mice were evaluated by liver fibrosis area, portal pressure, sodium balance and excretion. Transcripts of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the mouse livers were quantified by RT-qPCR. BMP7-depleted MSCs were prepared and applied in this model, and compared to MSCs. Results: Liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention that were developed by CCl4, were all significantly alleviated by MSCs transplantation, which decreased TGFβ1 levels and increased BMP7 levels in the injured liver. MSCs were found to express extremely high levels of BMP7. Knockdown of BMP7 in MSCs completely abolished the protective effect of MSCs against CCl4-induced cirrhosis. Conclusions: MSCs mitigate cirrhosis through their production of BMP7 against the fibrogenic effect of TGFβ1 in the injured liver.

  12. Expression of human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes in transgenic bovine fibroblasts Expressão dos genes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2 e BMP-4 em fibroblastos bovinos transgênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Oleskovicz

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available cDNAs dos genes bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 e bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4 foram sintetizados a partir de RNA total extraído de tecidos ósseos de pacientes que apresentavam trauma facial (fraturas do maxilar entre o 7º e o 10º dia pós-trauma e clonados num vetor para expressão em células mamíferas, sob controle do promotor de citomegalovírus (CMV. Os vetores contendo os genes BMP-2 e o BMP-4 foram utilizados para a transfecção de fibroblastos bovinos. mRNAs foram indiretamente detectados por RT-PCR nas células transfectadas. As proteínas BMP-2 e BMP-4 foram detectadas mediante análises de Western blot. Os resultados demonstram a possibilidade de produção desses fatores de crescimento celular em fibroblastos bovinos. Essas células poderão ser utilizadas como fontes doadoras de material genético para a técnica de transferência nuclear na geração de animais transgênicos.

  13. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song eQin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates BMP-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  14. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Niu, Wenze; Iqbal, Nida; Smith, Derek K; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  15. Inhibition of BMP signaling overcomes acquired resistance to cetuximab in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinlong; Jung, Ji-Eun; Choi, Sun Il; Kim, Sung Soo; Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Choi, Eunji; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Hana; Kim, Eun Ok; Lee, Yu Sun; Chang, Hee Jin; Park, Joo Yong; Kim, Yeejeong; Yun, Tak; Heo, Kyun; Kim, Youn-Jae; Kim, Hyunggee; Kim, Yun-Hee; Park, Jong Bae; Choi, Sung Weon

    2018-02-01

    Despite expressing high levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a majority of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients show limited response to cetuximab and ultimately develop drug resistance. However, mechanism underlying cetuximab resistance in OSCC is not clearly understood. Here, using a mouse orthotopic xenograft model of OSCC, we show that bone morphogenic protein-7-phosphorylated Smad-1, -5, -8 (BMP7-p-Smad1/5/8) signaling contributes to cetuximab resistance. Tumor cells isolated from the recurrent cetuximab-resistant xenograft models exhibited low EGFR expression but extremely high levels of p-Smad1/5/8. Treatment with the bone morphogenic protein receptor type 1 (BMPRI) inhibitor, DMH1 significantly reduced cetuximab-resistant OSCC tumor growth, and combined treatment of DMH1 and cetuximab remarkably reduced relapsed tumor growth in vivo. Importantly, p-Smad1/5/8 level was elevated in cetuximab-resistant patients and this correlated with poor prognosis. Collectively, our results indicate that the BMP7-p-Smad1/5/8 signaling is a key pathway to acquired cetuximab resistance, and demonstrate that combination therapy of cetuximab and a BMP signaling inhibitor as potentially a new therapeutic strategy for overcoming acquired resistance to cetuximab in OSCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Kaempferol induces chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells through activation of ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo

    2013-12-01

    Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Apc bridges Wnt/{beta}-catenin and BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation of KS483 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miclea, Razvan L., E-mail: R.L.Miclea@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Horst, Geertje van der, E-mail: G.van_der_Horst@lumc.nl [Department of Urology, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Robanus-Maandag, Els C., E-mail: E.C.Robanus@lumc.nl [Department of Human Genetics, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Loewik, Clemens W.G.M., E-mail: C.W.G.M.Lowik@lumc.nl [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, LUMC, Leiden (Netherlands); Oostdijk, Wilma, E-mail: W.Oostdijk@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Wit, Jan M., E-mail: J.M.Wit@lumc.nl [Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC), Leiden (Netherlands); Karperien, Marcel, E-mail: H.B.J.Karperien@tnw.utwente.nl [MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, Zuidhorst Room ZH 144, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-06-10

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway influences the differentiation of mesenchymal cell lineages in a quantitative and qualitative fashion depending on the dose of {beta}-catenin signaling. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is the critical intracellular regulator of {beta}-catenin turnover. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Apc in regulating the differentiation capacity of skeletal progenitor cells, we have knocked down Apc in the murine mesenchymal stem cell-like KS483 cells by stable expression of Apc-specific small interfering RNA. In routine culture, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells displayed a mesenchymal-like spindle shape morphology, exhibited markedly decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Apc knockdown resulted in upregulation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin and the BMP/Smad signaling pathways, but osteogenic differentiation was completely inhibited. This effect could be rescued by adding high concentrations of BMP-7 to the differentiation medium. Furthermore, KSFrt-Apc{sub si} cells showed no potential to differentiate into chondrocytes or adipocytes. These results demonstrate that Apc is essential for the proliferation, survival and differentiation of KS483 cells. Apc knockdown blocks the osteogenic differentiation of skeletal progenitor cells, a process that can be overruled by high BMP signaling.

  18. Multiple common susceptibility variants near BMP pathway loci GREM1, BMP4, and BMP2 explain part of the missing heritability of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian P M Tomlinson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 14 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs that are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and several of these tagSNPs are near bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathway loci. The penalty of multiple testing implicit in GWAS increases the attraction of complementary approaches for disease gene discovery, including candidate gene- or pathway-based analyses. The strongest candidate loci for additional predisposition SNPs are arguably those already known both to have functional relevance and to be involved in disease risk. To investigate this proposition, we searched for novel CRC susceptibility variants close to the BMP pathway genes GREM1 (15q13.3, BMP4 (14q22.2, and BMP2 (20p12.3 using sample sets totalling 24,910 CRC cases and 26,275 controls. We identified new, independent CRC predisposition SNPs close to BMP4 (rs1957636, P = 3.93×10(-10 and BMP2 (rs4813802, P = 4.65×10(-11. Near GREM1, we found using fine-mapping that the previously-identified association between tagSNP rs4779584 and CRC actually resulted from two independent signals represented by rs16969681 (P = 5.33×10(-8 and rs11632715 (P = 2.30×10(-10. As low-penetrance predisposition variants become harder to identify-owing to small effect sizes and/or low risk allele frequencies-approaches based on informed candidate gene selection may become increasingly attractive. Our data emphasise that genetic fine-mapping studies can deconvolute associations that have arisen owing to independent correlation of a tagSNP with more than one functional SNP, thus explaining some of the apparently missing heritability of common diseases.

  19. Global estimations of the inventory and mitigation potential of methane emissions from rice cultivation conducted using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Akiyama, Hiroko; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2009-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) regularly publishes guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories and methane emission (CH4) from rice paddies has been an important component of these guidelines. While there have been many estimates of global CH4 emissions from rice fields, none of them have been obtained using the IPCC guidelines. Therefore, we used the Tier 1 method described in the 2006 IPCC guidelines to estimate the global CH4 emissions from rice fields. To accomplish this, we used country-specific statistical data regarding rice harvest areas and expert estimates of relevant agricultural activities. The estimated global emission for 2000 was 25.6 Tg a-1, which is at the lower end of earlier estimates and close to the total emission summarized by individual national communications. Monte Carlo simulation revealed a 95% uncertainty range of 14.8-41.7 Tg a-1; however, the estimation uncertainty was found to depend on the reliability of the information available regarding the amount of organic amendments and the area of rice fields that were under continuous flooding. We estimated that if all of the continuously flooded rice fields were drained at least once during the growing season, the CH4 emissions would be reduced by 4.1 Tg a-1. Furthermore, we estimated that applying rice straw off season wherever and whenever possible would result in a further reduction in emissions of 4.1 Tg a-1 globally. Finally, if both of these mitigation options were adopted, the global CH4 emission from rice paddies could be reduced by 7.6 Tg a-1. Although draining continuously flooded rice fields may lead to an increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, the global warming potential resulting from this increase is negligible when compared to the reduction in global warming potential that would result from the CH4 reduction associated with draining the fields.

  20. Impacts of integrated nutrient management on methane emission, global warming potential and carbon storage capacity in rice grown in a northeast India soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, Ashmita; Baruah, Kushal Kumar; Baruah, Sunitee Gohain; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2018-02-01

    Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH 4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv. Ranjit) ecosystem (June-November, 2014 and 2015). Combined application of inorganic (NPK) with Sesbania aculeata resulted in high global warming potential (GWP) of 887.4 kg CO 2 ha -1 and low GWP of 540.6 kg CO 2 ha -1 was recorded from inorganic fertilizer applied field. Irrespective of the type of organic amendments, flag leaf photosynthesis of the rice crop increased over NPK application (control). There was an increase in CH 4 emission from the organic amended fields compared to NPK alone. The combined application of NPK and Azolla compost was effective in the buildup of soil carbon (16.93 g kg -1 ) and capacity of soil carbon storage (28.1 Mg C ha -1 ) with high carbon efficiency ratio (16.9). Azolla compost application along with NPK recorded 15.66% higher CH 4 emission with 27.43% yield increment over control. Azolla compost application significantly enhanced carbon storage of soil and improved the yielding ability of grain (6.55 Mg ha -1 ) over other treatments.

  1. Constitutive activation of BMP signalling abrogates experimental metastasis of OVCA429 cells via reduced cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Trevor G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP4 signalling in human ovarian cancer cells induces a number of phenotypic changes in vitro, including altered cell morphology, adhesion, motility and invasion, relative to normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells. From these in vitro analyses, we had hypothesized that active BMP signalling promotes the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer. Methods To test this directly, we engineered OVCA429 human ovarian cancer cells possessing doxycycline-inducible expression of a constitutively-active mutant BMP receptor, ALK3QD, and administered these cells to immunocompromised mice. Further characterization was performed in vitro to address the role of activated BMP signalling on the EOC phenotype, with particular emphasis on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and cell adhesion. Results Unexpectedly, doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression in OVCA429 cells reduced tumour implantation on peritoneal surfaces and ascites formation when xenografted into immunocompromised mice by intraperitoneal injection. To determine the potential mechanisms controlling this in vivo observation, we followed with several cell culture experiments. Doxycycline-induced ALK3QD expression enhanced the refractile, spindle-shaped morphology of cultured OVCA429 cells eliciting an EMT-like response. Using in vitro wound healing assays, we observed that ALK3QD-expressing cells migrated with long, cytoplasmic projections extending into the wound space. The phenotypic alterations of ALK3QD-expressing cells correlated with changes in specific gene expression patterns of EMT, including increased Snail and Slug and reduced E-cadherin mRNA expression. In addition, ALK3QD signalling reduced β1- and β3-integrin expression, critical molecules involved in ovarian cancer cell adhesion. The combination of reduced E-cadherin and β-integrin expression correlates directly with the reduced EOC cell cohesion in spheroids and

  2. Sirenomelia in Bmp7 and Tsg compound mutant mice: requirement for Bmp signaling in the development of ventral posterior mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakin, Lise; Reversade, Bruno; Kuroda, Hiroki; Lyons, Karen M; De Robertis, Eddy M

    2005-05-01

    Sirenomelia or mermaid-like phenotype is one of the principal human congenital malformations that can be traced back to the stage of gastrulation. Sirenomelia is characterized by the fusion of the two hindlimbs into a single one. In the mouse, sirens have been observed in crosses between specific strains and as the consequence of mutations that increase retinoic acid levels. We report that the loss of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) in combination with a half dose or complete loss of twisted gastrulation (Tsg) causes sirenomelia in the mouse. Tsg is a Bmp- and chordin-binding protein that has multiple effects on Bmp metabolism in the extracellular space; Bmp7 is one of many Bmps and is shown here to bind to Tsg. In Xenopus, co-injection of Tsg and Bmp7 morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) has a synergistic effect, greatly inhibiting formation of ventral mesoderm and ventral fin tissue. In the mouse, molecular marker studies indicate that the sirenomelia phenotype is associated with a defect in the formation of ventroposterior mesoderm. These experiments demonstrate that dorsoventral patterning of the mouse posterior mesoderm is regulated by Bmp signaling, as is the case in other vertebrates. Sirens result from a fusion of the hindlimb buds caused by a defect in the formation of ventral mesoderm.

  3. Abrogation of epithelial BMP2 and BMP4 causes Amelogenesis Imperfecta by reducing MMP20 and KLK4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaohua; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hua; Jani, Priyam H; Lu, Yongbo; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bin; Qin, Chunlin

    2016-05-05

    Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) can be caused by the deficiencies of enamel matrix proteins, molecules responsible for the transportation and secretion of enamel matrix components, and proteases processing enamel matrix proteins. In the present study, we discovered the double deletion of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the dental epithelium by K14-cre resulted in hypoplastic enamel and reduced density in X-ray radiography as well as shortened enamel rods under scanning electron microscopy. Such enamel phenotype was consistent with the diagnosis of hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. Histological and molecular analyses revealed that the removal of matrix proteins in the mutant enamel was drastically delayed, which was coincided with the greatly reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 20 (MMP20) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4). Although the expression of multiple enamel matrix proteins was down-regulated in the mutant ameloblasts, the cleavage of ameloblastin was drastically impaired. Therefore, we attributed the AI primarily to the reduction of MMP20 and KLK4. Further investigation found that BMP/Smad4 signaling pathway was down-regulated in the K14-cre;Bmp2(f/f);Bmp4(f/f)ameloblasts, suggesting that the reduced MMP20 and KLK4 expression may be due to the attenuated epithelial BMP/Smad4 signaling.

  4. Methane hydrates in quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennett, J. P.; Hill, T. M.; Behl, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrate reservoir in marine sediments is known to contain a large volume of exchangeable carbon stored as solid methane hydrate and associated free gas. This reservoir has been shown to be potentially unstable in response to changing intermediate water temperature and sea level (pressure). Evidence continues to grow for past episodes of major methane release at times of climatic warming. Yet few studies of late Quaternary climate change include methane hydrates as an integral part of the global climate system, in spite of the largest known oscillations at this time in sea level and upper ocean temperature changes for the Cenozoic or earlier, conditions that favor instability of the methane hydrate reservoir. Abrupt increases in atmospheric methane recorded in polar ice cores are widely believed to have resulted, not from ocean-floor methane degassing, but instead from continental wetland activation, a hypothesis thus far unsupported by geological data. Furthermore, as part of this Wetland Methane Hypothesis, the abrupt methane increases have been seen as a response to climatic warming rather than contributing significantly to the change. An alternative view (formulated as the Clathrate Gun Hypothesis) is that the speed, magnitude and timing of abrupt climate change in the recent geologic past are consistent with the process of major degassing of methane hydrates. We summarize aspects of this hypothesis here and needs to test this hypothesis. (Author)

  5. Interaction of TGFβ and BMP signaling pathways during chondrogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Keller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TGFβ and BMP signaling pathways exhibit antagonistic activities during the development of many tissues. Although the crosstalk between BMP and TGFβ signaling pathways is well established in bone development, the relationship between these two pathways is less well defined during cartilage development and postnatal homeostasis. We generated hypomorphic mouse models of cartilage-specific loss of BMP and TGFβ signaling to assess the interaction of these pathways in postnatal growth plate homeostasis. We further used the chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line to test effects of BMP and TGFβ signaling on each other's downstream targets. We found that conditional deletion of Smad1 in chondrocytes resulted in a shortening of the growth plate. The addition of Smad5 haploinsufficiency led to a more severe phenotype with shorter prehypertrophic and hypertrophic zones and decreased chondrocyte proliferation. The opposite growth plate phenotype was observed in a transgenic mouse model of decreased chondrocytic TGFβ signaling that was generated by expressing a dominant negative form of the TGFβ receptor I (ΔTβRI in cartilage. Histological analysis demonstrated elongated growth plates with enhanced Ihh expression, as well as an increased proliferation rate with altered production of extracellular matrix components. In contrast, in chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, TGFβ was able to enhance BMP signaling, while BMP2 significantly reduces levels of TGF signaling. In summary, our data demonstrate that during endochondral ossification, BMP and TGFβ signaling can have antagonistic effects on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in vivo. We also found evidence of direct interaction between the two signaling pathways in a cell model of chondrogenesis in vitro.

  6. Trehalose maintains bioactivity and promotes sustained release of BMP-2 from lyophilized CDHA scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate (Ca-P scaffolds have been widely employed as a supportive matrix and delivery system for bone tissue engineering. Previous studies using osteoinductive growth factors loaded Ca-P scaffolds via passive adsorption often experience issues associated with easy inactivation and uncontrolled release. In present study, a new delivery system was fabricated using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 loaded calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA scaffold by lyophilization with addition of trehalose. The in vitro osteogenesis effects of this formulation were compared with lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct without trehalose and absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose. The release characteristics and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity analyses showed that addition of trehalose could sufficiently protect BMP-2 bioactivity during lyophilization and achieve sustained BMP-2 release from lyophilized CDHA construct in vitro and in vivo. However, absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose showed similar BMP-2 bioactivity and presented a burst release. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA demonstrated that lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct with trehalose (lyo-tre-BMP-2 promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs significantly and this formulation could preserve over 70% protein bioactivity after 5 weeks storage at 25°C. Micro-computed tomography, histological and fluorescent labeling analyses further demonstrated that lyo-tre-BMP-2 formulation combined with bMSCs led to the most percentage of new bone volume (38.79% ± 5.32% and area (40.71% ± 7.14% as well as the most percentage of fluorochrome stained bone area (alizarin red S: 2.64% ± 0.44%, calcein: 6.08% ± 1.37% and mineral apposition rate (4.13 ± 0.62 µm/day in critical-sized rat cranial defects healing. Biomechanical tests also indicated the maximum stiffness (118.17 ± 15.02 Mpa and

  7. 3D bioprinting of BMSC-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds with CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingchun; Chen, Bing; Meng, Qingyuan; Liu, Sumei; Zheng, Xiongfei; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Heran; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Nuo; Dai, Jianwu

    2015-12-18

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting combines biomaterials, cells and functional components into complex living tissues. Herein, we assembled function-control modules into cell-laden scaffolds using 3D bioprinting. A customized 3D printer was able to tune the microstructure of printed bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-laden methacrylamide gelatin scaffolds at the micrometer scale. For example, the pore size was adjusted to 282 ± 32 μm and 363 ± 60 μm. To match the requirements of the printing nozzle, collagen microfibers with a length of 22 ± 13 μm were prepared with a high-speed crusher. Collagen microfibers bound bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) with a collagen binding domain (CBD) as differentiation-control module, from which BMP2 was able to be controllably released. The differentiation behaviors of BMSCs in the printed scaffolds were compared in three microenvironments: samples without CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers in the growth medium, samples without microfibers in the osteogenic medium and samples with microfibers in the growth medium. The results indicated that BMSCs showed high cell viability (>90%) during printing; CBD-BMP2-collagen microfibers induced BMSC differentiation into osteocytes within 14 days more efficiently than the osteogenic medium. Our studies suggest that these function-control modules are attractive biomaterials and have potential applications in 3D bioprinting.

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized collagen-coated polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Ye, Xin; Nie, He-Min; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Zeng, Teng-Hui; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates of biomaterials in spinal implant applications. However, as a bioinert material, PEEK plays a limited role in osteoconduction and osseointegration. In this study, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was immobilized onto the surface of collagen-coated PEEK in order to prepare a multi-functional material. After adsorbed onto the PEEK surface by hydrophobic interaction, collagen was cross-linked with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). EDC/NHS system also contributed to the immobilization of rhBMP-2. Water contact angle tests, XPS and SEM clearly demonstrated the surface changes. ELISA tests quantified the amount of rhBMP-2 immobilized and the release over a period of 30 d. In vitro evaluation proved that the osteogenesis differentiation rate was higher when cells were cultured on modified PEEK discs than on regular ones. In vivo tests were conducted and positive changes of major parameters were presented. This report demonstrates that the rhBMP-2 immobilized method for PEEK modification increase bioactivity in vitro and in vivo, suggesting its practicability in orthopedic and spinal clinical applications.

  9. Co-digestion of solid waste: Towards a simple model to predict methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouas, Mokhles; Torrijos, Michel; Schmitz, Sabine; Sousbie, Philippe; Sayadi, Sami; Harmand, Jérôme

    2018-04-01

    Modeling methane production is a key issue for solid waste co-digestion. Here, the effect of a step-wise increase in the organic loading rate (OLR) on reactor performance was investigated, and four new models were evaluated to predict methane yields using data acquired in batch mode. Four co-digestion experiments of mixtures of 2 solid substrates were conducted in semi-continuous mode. Experimental methane yields were always higher than the BMP values of mixtures calculated from the BMP of each substrate, highlighting the importance of endogenous production (methane produced from auto-degradation of microbial community and generated solids). The experimental methane productions under increasing OLRs corresponded well to the modeled data using the model with constant endogenous production and kinetics identified at 80% from total batch time. This model provides a simple and useful tool for technical design consultancies and plant operators to optimize the co-digestion and the choice of the OLRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TNF-α Upregulates Expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3 Genes in the Rat Dental Follicle – Implications for Tooth Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shaomian; Prpic, Veronica; Pan, Fenghui; Wise, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The dental follicle appears to regulate both the alveolar bone resorption and bone formation needed for tooth eruption. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-α) gene expression is maximally upregulated at postnatal day 9 in the rat dental follicle of the 1st mandibular molar, a time that correlates with rapid bone growth at the base of the tooth crypt, as well as a minor burst of osteoclastogenesis. TNF-α expression is correlated with the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a molecule expressed in the dental follicle that can promote bone formation. Because BMP-2 signaling may be augmented by bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP-3), it was the objective of this study to determine 1) if the dental follicle expresses BMP-3 and 2) if TNF-α stimulates the dental follicle cells to express BMP-2 and BMP-3. Dental follicles were collected from different postnatal ages of rat pups. Dental follicle cells were incubated with TNF-α to study its dosage and time-course effects on gene expression of BMP-2 and BMP-3, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Next, immunostaining was conducted to confirm if the protein was synthesized and ELISA of the conditioned medium was conducted to determine if BMP-2 was secreted. We found that BMP-3 expression is correlated with the expression of TNF-α in the dental follicle and TNF-α significantly increased BMP-2 and BMP-3 expression in vitro. Immunostaining and ELISA showed that BMP-2 and BMP-3 were synthesized and secreted. This study suggests that TNF-α can upregulate the expression of bone formation genes that may be needed for tooth eruption. PMID:20067418

  11. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  12. METHANE INCORPORATION BY PROCARYOTIC PHOTOSYNTHETICMICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Charles J.; Kirk, Martha; Calvin, Melvin

    1970-08-01

    The procaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms Anacystis nidulans, Nostoc and Rhodospirillum rubrum have cell walls and membranes that are resistant to the solution of methane in their lipid components and intracellular fluids. But Anacystis nidulans, possesses a limited bioxidant system, a portion of which may be extracellularly secreted, which rapidly oxidizes methane to carbon dioxide. Small C{sup 14} activities derived from CH{sub 4} in excess of experimental error are detected in all the major biochemical fractions of Anacystis nidulans and Nostoc. This limited capacity to metabolize methane appears to be a vestigial potentiality that originated over two billion years ago in the early evolution of photosynthetic bacteria and blue-green algae.

  13. Global Methane Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Methane Initiative promotes cost-effective, near-term methane recovery through partnerships between developed and developing countries, with participation from the private sector, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations.

  14. 3-OST-7 regulates BMP-dependent cardiac contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiela C Samson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST family catalyzes rare modifications of glycosaminoglycan chains on heparan sulfate proteoglycans, yet their biological functions are largely unknown. Knockdown of 3-OST-7 in zebrafish uncouples cardiac ventricular contraction from normal calcium cycling and electrophysiology by reducing tropomyosin4 (tpm4 expression. Normal 3-OST-7 activity prevents the expansion of BMP signaling into ventricular myocytes, and ectopic activation of BMP mimics the ventricular noncontraction phenotype seen in 3-OST-7 depleted embryos. In 3-OST-7 morphants, ventricular contraction can be rescued by overexpression of tropomyosin tpm4 but not by troponin tnnt2, indicating that tpm4 serves as a lynchpin for ventricular sarcomere organization downstream of 3-OST-7. Contraction can be rescued by expression of 3-OST-7 in endocardium, or by genetic loss of bmp4. Strikingly, BMP misregulation seen in 3-OST-7 morphants also occurs in multiple cardiac noncontraction models, including potassium voltage-gated channel gene, kcnh2, affected in Romano-Ward syndrome and long-QT syndrome, and cardiac troponin T gene, tnnt2, affected in human cardiomyopathies. Together these results reveal 3-OST-7 as a key component of a novel pathway that constrains BMP signaling from ventricular myocytes, coordinates sarcomere assembly, and promotes cardiac contractile function.

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 o C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 ± 0.02 L g VS feed -1 to 0.55 ± 0.05 L g VS feed -1 as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  16. Quantification of seep-related methane gas emissions at Tommeliten, North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider von Deimling, J.S.; Rehder, G.; Greinert, J.; McGinnnis, D.F.; Boetius, A.; Linke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tommeliten is a prominent methane seep area in the Central North Sea. Previous surveys revealed shallow gas-bearing sediments and methane gas ebullition into the water column. In this study, the in situ methane flux at Tommeliten is re-assessed and the potential methane transport to the atmosphere

  17. Potential water-quality effects of coal-bed methane production water discharged along the upper Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Stacy M.; Nimick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Water quality in the upper Tongue River from Monarch, Wyoming, downstream to just upstream from the Tongue River Reservoir in Montana potentially could be affected by discharge of coal-bed methane (CBM) production water (hereinafter referred to as CBM discharge). CBM discharge typically contains high concentrations of sodium and other ions that could increase dissolved-solids (salt) concentrations, specific conductance (SC), and sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR) in the river. Increased inputs of sodium and other ions have the potential to alter the river's suitability for agricultural irrigation and aquatic ecosystems. Data from two large tributaries, Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek, indicate that these tributaries were large contributors to the increase in SC and SAR in the Tongue River. However, water-quality data were not available for most of the smaller inflows, such as small tributaries, irrigation-return flows, and CBM discharges. Thus, effects of these inflows on the water quality of the Tongue River were not well documented. Effects of these small inflows might be subtle and difficult to determine without more extensive data collection to describe spatial patterns. Therefore, synoptic water-quality sampling trips were conducted in September 2005 and April 2006 to provide a spatially detailed profile of the downstream changes in water quality in this reach of the Tongue River. The purpose of this report is to describe these downstream changes in water quality and to estimate the potential water-quality effects of CBM discharge in the upper Tongue River. Specific conductance of the Tongue River through the study reach increased from 420 to 625 microsiemens per centimeter (.μS/cm; or 49 percent) in the downstream direction in September 2005 and from 373 to 543 .μS/cm (46 percent) in April 2006. Large increases (12 to 24 percent) were measured immediately downstream from Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek during both sampling trips. Increases attributed to

  18. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  19. Transcription regulation of the vegf gene by the BMP/Smad pathway in the angioblast of zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chen; Chen Xiaozhuo

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a mitogen that is critically involved in vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and hematopoiesis. However, what and how transcription factors participate in the regulation of vegf gene expression are not fully understood. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of the zebrafish vegf promoter which revealed that the promoter contains a number of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-activated Smad binding elements (SBE), implicating Smad1 and Smad5 in the regulation of BMP-induced expression of vegf. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of adding recombinant Smad proteins to the SBE-containing DNA oligonucleotides that represent portions of zebrafish vegf promoter resulted in mobility shift of the oligonucleotides. These changes demonstrate potential interactions between Smad1/5 and the vegf promoter. Reporter activity assays using the wild-type or SBE-deleted vegf promoters to drive the luciferase reporter gene expression revealed that Smad1 stimulated while Smad5 repressed the vegf promoter activity in zebrafish embryos. These data indicate that the BMP/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of zebrafish vegf transcription. In addition, we demonstrate that transgenic expression of human BMP4 in zebrafish embryos induced an expansion of the posterior intermediate cell mass (ICM, also commonly called blood island), a population of cells containing endothelial and hematopoietic precursors. In the expanded ICM, vegf and VEGF receptor 2 (flk-1) were ectopically co-expressed, suggesting that an autocrine/paracrine regulation of vegf expression may exist and contribute to the BMP-induced hemangiogenic cell proliferation

  20. In silico Mechano-Chemical Model of Bone Healing for the Regeneration of Critical Defects: The Effect of BMP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico O Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The healing of bone defects is a challenge for both tissue engineering and modern orthopaedics. This problem has been addressed through the study of scaffold constructs combined with mechanoregulatory theories, disregarding the influence of chemical factors and their respective delivery devices. Of the chemical factors involved in the bone healing process, bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 has been identified as one of the most powerful osteoinductive proteins. The aim of this work is to develop and validate a mechano-chemical regulatory model to study the effect of BMP-2 on the healing of large bone defects in silico. We first collected a range of quantitative experimental data from the literature concerning the effects of BMP-2 on cellular activity, specifically proliferation, migration, differentiation, maturation and extracellular matrix production. These data were then used to define a model governed by mechano-chemical stimuli to simulate the healing of large bone defects under the following conditions: natural healing, an empty hydrogel implanted in the defect and a hydrogel soaked with BMP-2 implanted in the defect. For the latter condition, successful defect healing was predicted, in agreement with previous in vivo experiments. Further in vivo comparisons showed the potential of the model, which accurately predicted bone tissue formation during healing, bone tissue distribution across the defect and the quantity of bone inside the defect. The proposed mechano-chemical model also estimated the effect of BMP-2 on cells and the evolution of healing in large bone defects. This novel in silico tool provides valuable insight for bone tissue regeneration strategies.

  1. Towards a standardization of biomethane potential tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holliger, C.; Alves, M.; Andrade, D.

    2016-01-01

    Production of biogas fromdifferent organic materials is a most interesting source of renewable energy. The biomethane potential (BMP) of these materials has to be determined to get insight in design parameters for anaerobic digesters. Although several norms and guidelines for BMP tests exist, int...

  2. Best Management Practices (BMP) Monitoring Manual Field Guide: Implementation and Effectiveness for Protection of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Welsch; Roger Ryder; Tim Post

    2006-01-01

    The specific purpose of the BMP protocol is to create an economical, standardized, and repeatable BMP monitoring process that is completely automated, from data gathering through report generation, in order to provide measured data, ease of use, and compatibility with State BMP programs.The protocol was developed to meet the following needs:? Document the use and...

  3. Developmental roles of the BMP1/TLD metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gaoxiang; Greenspan, Daniel S

    2006-03-01

    The astacin family (M12A) of the metzincin subclan MA(M) of metalloproteinases has been detected in developing and mature individuals of species that range from hydra to humans. Functions of this family of metalloproteinase vary from digestive degradation of polypeptides, to biosynthetic processing of extracellular proteins, to activation of growth factors. This review will focus on a small subgroup of the astacin family; the bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1)/Tolloid (TLD)-like metalloproteinases. In vertebrates, the BMP1/TLD-like metalloproteinases play key roles in regulating formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) via biosynthetic processing of various precursor proteins into mature functional enzymes, structural proteins, and proteins involved in initiating mineralization of the ECM of hard tissues. Roles in ECM formation include: processing of the C-propeptides of procollagens types I-III, to yield the major fibrous components of vertebrate ECM; proteolytic activation of the enzyme lysyl oxidase, necessary to formation of covalent cross-links in collagen and elastic fibers; processing of NH2-terminal globular domains and C-propeptides of types V and XI procollagen chains to yield monomers that are incorporated into and control the diameters of collagen type I and II fibrils, respectively; processing of precursors for laminin 5 and collagen type VII, both of which are involved in securing epidermis to underlying dermis; and maturation of small leucine-rich proteoglycans. The BMP1/TLD-related metalloproteinases are also capable of activating the vertebrate transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-like "chalones" growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8, also known as myostatin), and GDF11 (also known as BMP11), involved in negative feedback inhibition of muscle and neural tissue growth, respectively; by freeing them from noncovalent latent complexes with their cleaved prodomains. BMP1/TLD-like proteinases also liberate the vertebrate TGF

  4. Evaluation of methane production features and kinetics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the biomethane potential (BMP) of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd waste in Yunnan, China, when subjected to mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD). Three different categories of plant waste investigated were as follows: the flowers, leaves and stems of B. spectabilia.

  5. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  6. Methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis in anoxic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milucka, Jana; Kirf, Mathias; Lu, Lu; Krupke, Andreas; Lam, Phyllis; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel MM; Schubert, Carsten J

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater lakes represent large methane sources that, in contrast to the Ocean, significantly contribute to non-anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. Particularly mixed lakes are major methane emitters, while permanently and seasonally stratified lakes with anoxic bottom waters are often characterized by strongly reduced methane emissions. The causes for this reduced methane flux from anoxic lake waters are not fully understood. Here we identified the microorganisms and processes responsible for the near complete consumption of methane in the anoxic waters of a permanently stratified lake, Lago di Cadagno. Interestingly, known anaerobic methanotrophs could not be detected in these waters. Instead, we found abundant gamma-proteobacterial aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria active in the anoxic waters. In vitro incubations revealed that, among all the tested potential electron acceptors, only the addition of oxygen enhanced the rates of methane oxidation. An equally pronounced stimulation was also observed when the anoxic water samples were incubated in the light. Our combined results from molecular, biogeochemical and single-cell analyses indicate that methane removal at the anoxic chemocline of Lago di Cadagno is due to true aerobic oxidation of methane fuelled by in situ oxygen production by photosynthetic algae. A similar mechanism could be active in seasonally stratified lakes and marine basins such as the Black Sea, where light penetrates to the anoxic chemocline. Given the widespread occurrence of seasonally stratified anoxic lakes, aerobic methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis might have an important but so far neglected role in methane emissions from lakes. PMID:25679533

  7. Methane hydrates in nature - Current knowledge and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    our understanding of methane hydrates in nature. COL assembled a Methane Hydrate Project Science Team with members from academia, industry, and government. This Science Team worked with COL and DOE to develop and host the Methane Hydrate Community Workshop, which surveyed a substantial cross section of the methane hydrate research community for input on the most important research developments in our understanding of methane hydrates in nature and their potential role as an energy resource, a geohazard, and/or as an agent of global climate change. Our understanding of how methane hydrates occur in nature is still growing and evolving, and it is known with certainty that field, laboratory, and modeling studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of hydrates in nature and will continue to be a critical source of the information needed to advance our understanding of methane hydrates.

  8. Chondrogenesis of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induced by TGFβ1 and BMP7 Through Increased TGFβ Receptor Expression and Endogenous TGFβ1 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick T; Li, Wan-Ju

    2017-01-01

    For decades stem cells have proven to be invaluable to the study of tissue development. More recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (ESC-MSCs) have emerged as a cell source with great potential for the future of biomedical research due to their enhanced proliferative capability compared to adult tissue-derived MSCs and effectiveness of musculoskeletal lineage-specific cell differentiation compared to ESCs. We have previously compared the properties and differentiation potential of ESC-MSCs to bone marrow-derived MSCs. In this study, we evaluated the potential of TGFβ1 and BMP7 to induce chondrogenic differentiation of ESC-MSCs compared to that of TGFβ1 alone and further investigated the cellular phenotype and intracellular signaling in response to these induction conditions. Our results showed that the expression of cartilage-associated markers in ESC-MSCs induced by the TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination was increased compared to induction with TGFβ1 alone. The TGFβ1 and BMP7 combination upregulated the expression of TGFβ receptor and the production of endogenous TGFβs compared to TGFβ1 induction. The growth factor combination also increasingly activated both of the TGF and BMP signaling pathways, and inhibition of the signaling pathways led to reduced chondrogenesis of ESC-MSCs. Our findings suggest that by adding BMP7 to TGFβ1-supplemented induction medium, ESC-MSC chondrogenesis is upregulated through increased production of endogenous TGFβ and activities of TGFβ and BMP signaling. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 172-181, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Methane-fueled vehicles: A promising market for coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deul, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most acceptable alternative fuel for motor vehicles is compressed natural gas (CNG). An important potential source of such gas is coalbed methane, much of which is now being wasted. Although there are no technological impediments to the use of CNG it has not been adequately promoted for a variety of reasons: structural, institutional and for coalbed gas, legal. The benefits of using CNG fuel are manifold: clean burning, low cost, abundant, and usable in any internal combustion engine. Even though more than 30,000 CNG vehicles are now in use in the U.S.A., they are not readily available, fueling stations are not easily accessible, and there is general apathy on the part of the public because of negligence by such agencies as the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency. The economic benefits of using methane are significant: 100,000 cubic feet of methane is equivalent to 800 gallons of gasoline. Considering the many millions of cubic feet methane wasted from coal mines conservation and use of this resource is a worthy national goal

  10. Overlapping and differential localization of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Msx-2 and apoptosis in the endocardial cushion and adjacent tissues of the developing mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahid, E; Rice, D; Pelliniemi, L J; Jokinen, E

    2001-07-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2 and BMP-4 and the homeobox gene MSX-2 are required for normal development of many embryonic tissues. To elucidate their possible roles during the remodeling of the tubular heart into a fully septated four-chambered heart, we have localized the mRNA of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Msx-2 and apoptotic cells in the developing mouse heart from embryonic day (E)11 to E17. mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization, and apoptotic cells by TUNEL (TDT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling) as well as by transmission electron microscopy. By analyzing adjacent serial sections, we demonstrated that the expression of Msx-2 and Bmp-2 strikingly overlapped in the atrioventricular canal myocardium, in the atrioventricular junctional myocardium, and in the maturing myocardium of the atrioventricular valves. Bmp-4 was expressed in the outflow tract myocardium and in the endocardial cushion of the outflow tract ridges from E12 to E14. Msx-2 appeared in the mesenchyme of the atrioventricular endocardial cushion from E11 to E14, while Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 were detected between E11 and E14. Apoptotic cells were also detected in the mesenchyme of the endocardial cushion between E12 and E14. Our results suggest that BMP-2 and MSX-2 are tightly linked to the formation of the atrioventricular junction and valves and that BMP-4 is involved in the development of the outflow tract myocardium and of the endocardial cushion. In addition, BMP-2, BMP-4 and MSX-2 and apoptosis seem to be associated with differentiation of the endocardial cushion.

  11. Methane storage in metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yabing; Zhou, Wei; Qian, Guodong; Chen, Banglin

    2014-08-21

    Natural gas (NG), whose main component is methane, is an attractive fuel for vehicular applications. Realization of safe, cheap and convenient means and materials for high-capacity methane storage can significantly facilitate the implementation of natural gas fuelled vehicles. The physisorption based process involving porous materials offers an efficient storage methodology and the emerging porous metal-organic frameworks have been explored as potential candidates because of their extraordinarily high porosities, tunable pore/cage sizes and easily immobilized functional sites. In this view, we provide an overview of the current status of metal-organic frameworks for methane storage.

  12. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  13. Calcium phosphate implants coatings as carriers for BMP-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; He, J.F.; Hunziker, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    The osteoconductivity of dental implants can be improved by coating them with a layer of calcium phosphate (CaP), which can be rendered osteoinductive by functionalizing it with an osteogenic agent, such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). In the present study, we wished to compare the

  14. An assessment of coalbed methane exploration projects in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, F.M.; Marchioni, D.L.; Anderson, T.C.; McDougall, W.J. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A critical assessment of coalbed methane exploration opportunities is presented. Geological and production data from 59 well bores drilled in Canada's major coal basins are evaluated to assess the coalbed methane potential of the deposits. Data acquisition, geology, gas content, coal quality, adsorption isotherms, formation testing, and a technical assessment are presented for each area. Areas with the best potential for economic coalbed methane accumulations are indicated. 6 refs., 153 figs., 99 tabs.

  15. Characteristics of Methane Hydrate Formation in Artificial and Natural Media

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhang; Qingbai Wu; Yuzhong Yang

    2013-01-01

    The formation of methane hydrate in two significantly different media was investigated, using silica gel as an artificial medium and loess as a natural medium. The methane hydrate formation was observed through the depletion of water in the matrix, measured via the matrix potential and the relationship between the matrix potential and the water content was determined using established equations. The velocity of methane hydrate nucleation slowed over the course of the reaction, as it relied on...

  16. Opposing nodal and BMP signals regulate left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Luo

    Full Text Available Nodal and BMP signals are important for establishing left-right (LR asymmetry in vertebrates. In sea urchins, Nodal signaling prevents the formation of the rudiment on the right side. However, the opposing pathway to Nodal signaling during LR axis establishment is not clear. Here, we revealed that BMP signaling is activated in the left coelomic pouch, specifically in the veg2 lineage, but not in the small micromeres. By perturbing BMP activities, we demonstrated that BMP signaling is required for activating the expression of the left-sided genes and the formation of the left-sided structures. On the other hand, Nodal signals on the right side inhibit BMP signaling and control LR asymmetric separation and apoptosis of the small micromeres. Our findings show that BMP signaling is the positive signal for left-sided development in sea urchins, suggesting that the opposing roles of Nodal and BMP signals in establishing LR asymmetry are conserved in deuterostomes.

  17. SAES St 909 pilot scale methane cracking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.

    2008-01-01

    Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)

  18. Biological conversion of coal gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    Biological conversion of low-Btu coal synthesis gas to higher Btu methane was demonstrated using both pure co-cultures and/or adapted-mixed anaerobic bacteria. Peptostreptococcus productus metabolized coal gas to mainly acetate and CO/sub 2/. The co-cultures containing methanogens converted these products to methane. In mixed culture studies, CH/sub 4/ and small amounts of acetate were produced. Reactor studies using stirred-tank and immobilized cell reactors exhibited excellent potential to convert CO, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ to methane at higher gas flow rates. Gas retention times ranging from 0.7 to 2 hours and high agitation were required for 90 percent CO conversion in these systems. This paper also illustrates the potential of biological methanation and demonstrates the need for good mass transfer in converting gas phase substrates. 21 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. Doses from radioactive methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, A.W.; Kendall, G.M.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A possible radiation hazard arises from exposure to methane labelled with either a 3 H or a 14 C nuclide. This radioactive methane could be released from a variety of sources, e.g. land burial sites containing radioactive waste. Standard assumptions adopted for vapours would not apply to an inert alkane like methane. This paper discusses mechanisms by which radioactive methane would irradiate tissues and provides estimates of doses. Data on skin thickness and metabolism of methane are discussed with reference to these mechanisms. It is found that doses are dominated by dose from the small fraction of methane which is inhaled and metabolised. This component of dose has been calculated under rather conservative assumptions. (author)

  20. Structural Basis of the Human Endoglin-BMP9 Interaction: Insights into BMP Signaling and HHT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Saito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endoglin (ENG/CD105 is an essential endothelial cell co-receptor of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β superfamily, mutated in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1 and involved in tumor angiogenesis and preeclampsia. Here, we present crystal structures of the ectodomain of human ENG and its complex with the ligand bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9. BMP9 interacts with a hydrophobic surface of the N-terminal orphan domain of ENG, which adopts a new duplicated fold generated by circular permutation. The interface involves residues mutated in HHT1 and overlaps with the epitope of tumor-suppressing anti-ENG monoclonal TRC105. The structure of the C-terminal zona pellucida module suggests how two copies of ENG embrace homodimeric BMP9, whose binding is compatible with ligand recognition by type I but not type II receptors. These findings shed light on the molecular basis of the BMP signaling cascade, with implications for future therapeutic interventions in this fundamental pathway.

  1. Could Methane Oxidation in Lakes Be Enhanced by Eutrophication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grinsven, S.; Villanueva, L.; Harrison, J.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and eutrophication both affect aquatic ecosystems. Eutrophication is caused by high nutrient inputs, leading to algal blooms, oxygen depletion and disturbances of the natural balances in aquatic systems. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas produced biologically by anaerobic degradation of organic matter, is often released from the sediments of lakes and marine systems to overlying water and the atmosphere. Methane oxidation, a microbial methane consumption process, can limit methane emission from lakes and reservoirs by 50-80%. Here, we studied methane oxidation in a seasonally stratified reservoir: Lacamas Lake in Washington, USA. We found this lake has a large summer storage capacity of methane in its deep water layer, with a very active microbial community capable of oxidizing exceptionally high amounts of methane. The natural presence of terminal electron acceptors is, however, too low to support these high potential rates. Addition of eutrophication-related nutrients such as nitrate and sulfate increased the methane removal rates by 4 to 7-fold. The microbial community was studied using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and preliminary results indicate the presence of a relatively unknown facultative anaerobic methane oxidizer of the genus Methylomonas, capable of using nitrate as an electron donor. Experiments in which anoxic and oxic conditions were rapidly interchanged showed this facultative anaerobic methane oxidizer has an impressive flexibility towards large, rapid changes in environmental conditions and this feature might be key to the unexpectedly high methane removal rates in eutrophied and anoxic watersheds.

  2. Growth differentiation factor 3 is induced by bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and BMP-7 and increases luteinizing hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Yoshino, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Akiyama, Ikumi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relevance of growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human ovary. Molecular studies. Research laboratory. Eight women undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy and 30 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Localizing GDF-3 protein in human ovaries; granulosa cells (GC) cultured with GDF-3, BMP-6, or BMP-7 followed by RNA extraction. The localization of GDF-3 protein in normal human ovaries via immunohistochemical analysis, GDF-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression evaluation via quantitative real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluation of the effect of GDF-3 on leuteinizing hormone (LH) receptor mRNA expression via quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In the ovary, BMP cytokines, of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, are known as a luteinization inhibitor by suppressing LH receptor expression in GC. Growth differentiation factor 3, a TGF-β superfamily cytokine, is recognized as an inhibitor of BMP cytokines in other cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GDF-3 was strongly detected in the GC of antral follicles. An in vitro assay revealed that BMP-6 or BMP-7 induced GDF-3 mRNA in GC. Also, GDF-3 increased LH receptor mRNA expression and inhibited the effect of BMP-7, which suppressed the LH receptor mRNA expression in GC. GDF-3, induced with BMP-6 and BMP-7, might play a role in folliculogenesis by inhibiting the effect of BMP cytokines. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Kaempferol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by modulating BMP-mediated miR-21 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara

    2015-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

  4. BMP4 and BMP7 Suppress StAR and Progesterone Production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Adequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum is critical to the successful establishment of pregnancy. In animal models, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 have been shown to suppress either basal or gonadotropin-induced progesterone production, depending on the species examined. However, the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on progesterone production in human granulosa cells are unknown. In the present study, we used immortalized (SVOG) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells to investigate the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of primary and immortalized human granulosa cells with recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 decreased StAR expression and progesterone accumulation. In SVOG cells, the suppressive effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression were blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/3/6 (dorsomorphin) or ALK2/3 (DMH1) but not ALK4/5/7 (SB-431542). Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of ALK3, but not ALK2 or ALK6, reversed the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Likewise, BMP4- and BMP7-induced phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8 was reversed by treatment with DMH1 or small interfering RNA targeting ALK3. Knockdown of SMAD4, the essential common SMAD for BMP/TGF-β signaling, abolished the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Our results suggest that BMP4 and BMP7 down-regulate StAR and progesterone production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 signaling in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  5. Local rhBMP-12 on an Absorbable Collagen Sponge as an Adjuvant Therapy for Rotator Cuff Repair - A Phase 1, Randomized, Standard of Care Control, Multicenter Study: Safety and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Stefan; Ide, Junji; Van Noort, Arthur; Mochizuki, Yu; Ochi, Hiroshi; Marraffino, Shannon; Sridharan, Sudhakar; Rudicel, Sally; Itoi, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    to be feasible and safe in a concentration of 0.015 mg/mL when used in open rotator cuff repair. Higher dose concentrations of rhBMP-12 should be evaluated in the future to evaluate their safety and potential to increase rotator cuff healing after open surgical repair. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-05-01

    In this study, methane (CH 4 ) production rates from shredder waste (SW) were determined by incubation of waste samples over a period of 230days under different operating conditions, and first-order decay kinetic constants (k-values) were calculated. SW and sterilized SW were incubated under different temperatures (20-25°C, 37°C, and 55°C), moisture contents (35% and 75% w/w) and amounts of inoculum (5% and 30% of the samples wet weight). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) from different types of SW (fresh, old and sieved) was determined and compared. The ability of metals (iron, aluminum, zinc, and copper) contained in SW to provide electrons for methanogens resulting in gas compositions with high CH 4 contents and very low CO 2 contents was investigated. The BMP of SW was 1.5-6.2kg CH 4 /ton waste. The highest BMP was observed in fresh SW samples, while the lowest was observed in sieved samples (fine fraction of SW). Abiotic production of CH 4 was not observed in laboratory incubations. The biotic experiments showed that when the moisture content was 35% w/w and the temperature was 20-25°C, CH 4 production was extremely low. Increasing the temperature from 20-25°C to 37°C resulted in significantly higher CH 4 production while increasing the temperature from 37°C to 55°C resulted in higher CH 4 production, but to a lower extent. Increasing the moisture and inoculum content also increased CH 4 production. The k-values were 0.033-0.075yr -1 at room temperature, 0.220-0.429yr -1 at 37°C and 0.235-0.488yr -1 at 55°C, indicating that higher temperatures resulted in higher k-values. It was observed that H 2 can be produced by biocorrosion of iron, aluminum, and zinc and it was shown that produced H 2 can be utilized by hydrogenotrophic methanogens to convert CO 2 to CH 4 . Addition of iron and copper to SW resulted in inhibition of CH 4 production, while addition of aluminum and zinc resulted in higher CH 4 production. This suggested that aluminum and

  7. Acellular dermal matrix loading with bFGF achieves similar acceleration of bone regeneration to BMP-2 via differential effects on recruitment, proliferation and sustained osteodifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Mi; Zhu, Ting; Duan, Xiaoqi; Ge, Shaohua; Li, Ning; Sun, Qinfeng; Yang, Pishan

    2017-01-01

    New generation of barrier membranes has been developed, which not only act as barriers but also as delivery devices to release specific growth factors. This study observed biological behaviors of bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) pretreated by bFGF or BMP-2 in vitro and evaluated differential bone regeneration process induced by bFGF and BMP-2 loaded acellular dermal matrix (ADM) membrane using critical-size rat calvarial defect model in vivo. The results showed that the proliferation capability of BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF was stronger than that by BMP-2, while there was temporally differential effect of bFGF and BMP-2 pretreatment on MSC osteogenic differentiation potentials. During healing process of rat calvarial defects, 2-fold more CD34 −/CD90 + MSCs in group of bFGF-ADM was observed than in any other treatment group at 2 weeks. However, there were similar amount of new bone formation and expression of osteopotin in newly-formed bone tissue in groups of bFGF- and BMP-2-ADM at 8 weeks, which were more than those in ADM alone and blank control. Taken together, bFGF-ADM guided similar bone regeneration to BMP-2 through more efficient recruitment of MSCs, and moreover, BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF showed stronger proliferation at 1–5 days and osteogenic differentiation potentials at 14 days compared with BMP-2 pretreatment. - Highlights: • An improved barrier membrane used in the field of bone tissue engineering was proposed, which is acellular dermal matrix (ADM) loaded with growth factors. • It is generally agreed that BMP-2 and -7 provide the greatest bone regeneration potentials, however, we found that ADM loading with bFGF could guide similar bone regeneration to BMP-2. • Compared with BMP-2, bFGF could more effectively recruit MSCs and moreover, BMMSCs pretreated by bFGF showed out stronger proliferation at 1-5 days and osteogenic differentiation potentials at 14 days.

  8. A new molecular logic for BMP-mediated dorsoventral patterning in the leech Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Dian-Han; Weisblat, David A

    2011-08-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is broadly implicated in dorsoventral (DV) patterning of bilaterally symmetric animals [1-3], and its role in axial patterning apparently predates the birth of Bilateria [4-7]. In fly and vertebrate embryos, BMPs and their antagonists (primarily Sog/chordin) diffuse and interact to generate signaling gradients that pattern fields of cells [8-10]. Work in other species reveals diversity in essential facets of this ancient patterning process, however. Here, we report that BMP signaling patterns the DV axis of segmental ectoderm in the leech Helobdella, a clitellate annelid (superphylum Lophotrochozoa) featuring stereotyped developmental cell lineages, but the detailed mechanisms of DV patterning in Helobdella differ markedly from fly and vertebrates. In Helobdella, BMP2/4s are expressed broadly, rather than in dorsal territory, whereas a dorsally expressed BMP5-8 specifies dorsal fate by short-range signaling. A BMP antagonist, gremlin, is upregulated by BMP5-8 in dorsolateral, rather than ventral territory, and yet the BMP-antagonizing activity of gremlin is required for normal ventral cell fates. Gremlin promotes ventral fates without disrupting dorsal fates by selectively inhibiting BMP2/4s, not BMP5-8. Thus, DV patterning in the development of the leech revealed unexpected evolutionary plasticity of the conserved BMP patterning system, presumably reflecting its adaptation to different modes of embryogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Systems biology derived source-sink mechanism of BMP gradient formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinski, Joseph; Bu, Ye; Wang, Xu; Dou, Wei; Umulis, David; Mullins, Mary C

    2017-08-09

    A morphogen gradient of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling patterns the dorsoventral embryonic axis of vertebrates and invertebrates. The prevailing view in vertebrates for BMP gradient formation is through a counter-gradient of BMP antagonists, often along with ligand shuttling to generate peak signaling levels. To delineate the mechanism in zebrafish, we precisely quantified the BMP activity gradient in wild-type and mutant embryos and combined these data with a mathematical model-based computational screen to test hypotheses for gradient formation. Our analysis ruled out a BMP shuttling mechanism and a bmp transcriptionally-informed gradient mechanism. Surprisingly, rather than supporting a counter-gradient mechanism, our analyses support a fourth model, a source-sink mechanism, which relies on a restricted BMP antagonist distribution acting as a sink that drives BMP flux dorsally and gradient formation. We measured Bmp2 diffusion and found that it supports the source-sink model, suggesting a new mechanism to shape BMP gradients during development.

  10. Dragon enhances BMP signaling and increases transepithelial resistance in kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Babitt, Jodie L; Bouley, Richard; Zhang, Ying; Da Silva, Nicolas; Chen, Shanzhuo; Zhuang, Zhenjie; Samad, Tarek A; Brenner, Gary J; Anderson, Jennifer L; Hong, Charles C; Schneyer, Alan L; Brown, Dennis; Lin, Herbert Y

    2010-04-01

    The neuronal adhesion protein Dragon acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor that enhances BMP signaling. Given the importance of BMP signaling in nephrogenesis and its putative role in the response to injury in the adult kidney, we studied the localization and function of Dragon in the kidney. We observed that Dragon localized predominantly to the apical surfaces of tubular epithelial cells in the thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, and collecting ducts of mice. Dragon expression was weak in the proximal tubules and glomeruli. In mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD3) cells, Dragon generated BMP signals in a ligand-dependent manner, and BMP4 is the predominant endogenous ligand for the Dragon coreceptor. In mIMCD3 cells, BMP4 normally signaled through BMPRII, but Dragon enhanced its signaling through the BMP type II receptor ActRIIA. Dragon and BMP4 increased transepithelial resistance (TER) through the Smad1/5/8 pathway. In epithelial cells isolated from the proximal tubule and intercalated cells of collecting ducts, we observed coexpression of ActRIIA, Dragon, and BMP4 but not BMPRII. Taken together, these results suggest that Dragon may enhance BMP signaling in renal tubular epithelial cells and maintain normal renal physiology.

  11. A BMP responsive transcriptional region in the chicken type X collagen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, S W; Luvalle, P; Leask, T; Leboy, P S

    1998-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were originally identified by their ability to induce ectopic bone formation and have been shown to promote both chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy. BMPs have recently been found to activate a membrane serine/threonine kinase signaling mechanism in a variety of cell types, but the downstream effectors of BMP signaling in chondrocyte differentiation remain unidentified. We have previously reported that BMP-2 markedly stimulates type X collagen expression in prehypertrophic chick sternal chondrocytes, and that type X collagen mRNA levels in chondrocytes cultured under serum-free (SF) conditions are elevated 3- to 5-fold within 24 h. To better define the molecular mechanisms of induction of chondrocyte hypertrophy by BMPs, we examined the effect of BMPs on type X collagen production by 15-day chick embryo sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. Two populations of chondrocytes were used: one representing resting cartilage isolated from the caudal third of the sterna and the second representing prehypertrophic cartilage from the cephalic third of the sterna. BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7 all effectively promoted chondrocyte maturation of cephalic sternal chondrocytes as measured by high levels of alkaline phosphatase, diminished levels of type II collagen, and induction of the hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific marker, type X collagen. To test whether BMP control of type X collagen expression occurs at the transcriptional level, we utilized plasmid constructs containing the chicken collagen X promoter and 5' flanking regions fused to a reporter gene. Constructs were transiently transfected into sternal chondrocytes cultured under SF conditions in the presence or absence of 30 ng/ml BMP-2, BMP-4, or BMP-7. A 533 bp region located 2.4-2.9 kb upstream from the type X collagen transcriptional start site was both necessary and sufficient for strong BMP responsiveness

  12. Characterization of wise protein and its molecular mechanism to interact with both Wnt and BMP signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintern, Katherine B; Guidato, Sonia; Rowe, Alison; Saldanha, José W; Itasaki, Nobue

    2009-08-21

    Cross-talk of BMP and Wnt signaling pathways has been implicated in many aspects of biological events during embryogenesis and in adulthood. A secreted protein Wise and its orthologs (Sostdc1, USAG-1, and Ectodin) have been shown to modulate Wnt signaling and also inhibit BMP signals. Modulation of Wnt signaling activity by Wise is brought about by an interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6, whereas BMP inhibition is by binding to BMP ligands. Here we have investigated the mode of action of Wise on Wnt and BMP signals. It was found that Wise binds LRP6 through one of three loops formed by the cystine knot. The Wise deletion construct lacking the LRP6-interacting loop domain nevertheless binds BMP4 and inhibits BMP signals. Moreover, BMP4 does not interfere with Wise-LRP6 binding, suggesting separate domains for the physical interaction. Functional assays also show that the ability of Wise to block Wnt1 activity through LRP6 is not impeded by BMP4. In contrast, the ability of Wise to inhibit BMP4 is prevented by additional LRP6, implying a preference of Wise in binding LRP6 over BMP4. In addition to the interaction of Wise with BMP4 and LRP6, the molecular characteristics of Wise, such as glycosylation and association with heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface, are suggested. This study helps to understand the multiple functions of Wise at the molecular level and suggests a possible role for Wise in balancing Wnt and BMP signals.

  13. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Sun, Miao; Caps, Valerie; Pelletier, Jeremie; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2013-01-01

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin

  14. Methane and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reay, D.; Smith, P.; Amstel, van A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is estimated to be responsible for approximately one-fifth of man-made global warming. Per kilogram, it is 25 times more powerful than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time horizon -- and global warming is likely to enhance methane release from a number of

  15. CYANOBACTERIA FOR MITIGATING METHANE EMISSION FROM SUBMERGED PADDY FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upasana Mishra; Shalini Anand [Department of Environmental Studies, Inderprastha Engineering College, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad (India)

    2008-09-30

    Atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas with high absorption potential for infrared radiation, is responsible for one forth of the total anticipated warming. It is forming a major part of green house gases, next after carbon dioxide. Its concentration has been increasing alarmingly on an average at the rate of one percent per year. Atmospheric methane, originating mainly from biogenic sources such as paddy fields, natural wetlands and landfills, accounts for 15-20% of the world's total anthropogenic methane emission. With intensification of rice cultivation in coming future, methane emissions from paddy fields are anticipated to increase. India's share in world's rice production is next after to China and likewise total methane emission from paddy fields also. Methane oxidation through planktophytes, particularly microalgae which are autotrophic and abundant in rice rhizospheres, hold promise in controlling methane emission from submerged paddy fields. The present study is focused on the role of nitrogen fixing, heterocystous cyanobacteria and Azolla (a water fern harboring a cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae) as biological sink for headspace concentration of methane in flooded soils. In this laboratory study, soil samples containing five potent nitrogen fixer cyanobacterial strains from paddy fields, were examined for their methane reducing potential. Soil sample without cyanobacterial strain was tested and taken as control. Anabaena sp. was found most effective in inhibiting methane concentration by 5-6 folds over the control. Moist soil cores treated with chemical nitrogen, urea, in combination with cyanobacteria mixture, Azolla microphylla or cyanobacteria mixture plus Azolla microphylla exhibited significance reduction in the headspace concentration of methane than the soil cores treated with urea alone. Contrary to other reports, this study also demonstrates that methane oxidation in soil core samples from paddy fields was stimulated by

  16. Evaluating the coalbed methane potential of the Gething coals in NE British Columbia, Canada: An example from the Highhat area, Peace River coalfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentzis, Thomas; Schoderbek, David; Pollock, Sharlene

    2006-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous coals from the Gething Formation in the Highhat area of NE British Columbia were analyzed for gas content as part of an exploration program. Samples of continuous wireline core and cuttings were processed. Vitrinite reflectance and dry ash-free volatile matter both indicate that the rank of the coal is low volatile bituminous. The coals are well cleated and contain shear fractures, as seen in the core description and in the FMI logs. Coal cuttings were screened to remove a very fine fraction (-200 mesh) and then treated in heavy liquid (SG 1.75 g/cm 3 ) to remove inorganic lithologies. For the cores, total gas content ranges from 516.9 to 876.8 scf/t (16.1-27.4 cm 3 /g; adb) with a mean value of 671.1 scf/t (20.9 cm 3 /g) at 20.5% ash (adb). For the cuttings, all desorbed gas was assigned to the +200 mesh/float 1.75 SG weight fraction. On this recalculated basis, total gas content for the processed cuttings ranges from 651.8 scf/t (20.4 cm 3 /g) to a high value of 2083.6 scf/t (65.1 cm 3 /g; adb). Weight yields after screening/floating are generally low. For samples yielding very low values ( 3 /g; adb) with a mean value of 760.4 scf/t (23.8 cm 3 /g) at 15.5% ash (adb). The desorbed gas is predominantly methane (98-99%; air-free and acid-free basis) and average carbon dioxide is about 6%. Methane is thermogenic based on isotopic analysis. Methane adsorption isotherm analysis at reservoir conditions shows that the Gething coals are at least 95% gas saturated. Using 1300 m as a depth cut-off and an average gas content of 672 scf/t (21 cm 3 /g), GIP (gas-in-place) in the Highhat prospect area is estimated to be 270 bcf (billion cubic feet). This translates to 24.5 bcf/section (a section is equal to a square mile or 640 acres) for the 11 sections of land in the vicinity of the corehole or to 3 bcf/m/mile 2 . The low absolute permeability of the coals (0.5 md) is the main limiting factor for producibility and commercial development of the resource. Even

  17. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies

  18. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-11-13

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies.

  19. BMP Suppresses PTEN Expression via RAS/ERK Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Stayce E.; Carethers, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a member of the transforming growth factor β family, classically utilizes the SMAD signaling pathway for its growth suppressive effects, and loss of this signaling cascade may accelerate cell growth. In the colon cancer predisposition syndrome Juvenile Polyposis, as well as in the late progression stages of nonsyndromic colorectal cancers, SMAD4 function is typically abrogated. Here, we utilized the SMAD4-null SW480 colon cancer cell line to examine BMPs effe...

  20. Can anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp support the circular economy? a study of biogas and nutrient potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartini, S.; Heaven, S.; Banks, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD), known as a biological process without oxygen to convert complex organic materials into biogas, is capable of processing large tonnage quantities of biomass, such as sugar beet pulp (SBP). In addition to biogas production, its use allows nutrients and organic carbon recycle back to agriculture through the spreading of digestate. Digestate still contains high amount of nutrients (N, P, K) for use as biofertiliser. The aims of this research were to determine biogas/methane potential as a baseline for comparison with performance in semi-continuous digestion, and to determine nutrient and potentially toxic elements (PTE) of digestate fractions with respect to their potential for utilisation in agriculture. The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test was performed in triplicate against blank and positive controls over a period of 28 days with gas measured at regular intervals. Semi-continuous AD of SBP was operated under mesophilic and thermophilic condition for 206 and 165 days. The results indicated that SBP is a very promising feedstock for AD, with the average BMP of 0.321 l CH4 g-1 VS and biogas potential of 0.605 l g-1 VS. Under semi-continuous operation, SBP also demonstrated positive results. Digestates from mesophilic and thermophilic AD of SBP contained useful quantities of N, P and K, with an acceptable Ni concentration in accordance to limits for PTE. These results suggest that digestate has the potential to be utilised on agricultural and arable land. This study illustrated the positive effects of applying AD to the achievement of economic savings and environmental-friendly performance.

  1. Role of ID Proteins in BMP4 Inhibition of Profibrotic Effects of TGF-β2 in Human TM Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Avani A; Wordinger, Robert J; Clark, Abbot F

    2017-02-01

    Increased expression of TGF-β2 in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) aqueous humor (AH) and trabecular meshwork (TM) causes deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the TM and elevated IOP. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate TGF-β2-induced ECM production. The underlying mechanism for BMP4 inhibition of TGF-β2-induced fibrosis remains undetermined. Bone morphogenic protein 4 induces inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID1, ID3), which suppress transcription factor activities to regulate gene expression. Our study will determine whether ID1and ID3 proteins are downstream targets of BMP4, which attenuates TGF-β2 induction of ECM proteins in TM cells. Primary human TM cells were treated with BMP4, and ID1 and ID3 mRNA, and protein expression was determined by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and Western immunoblotting. Intracellular ID1 and ID3 protein localization was studied by immunocytochemistry. Transformed human TM cells (GTM3 cells) were transfected with ID1 or ID3 expression vectors to determine their potential inhibitory effects on TGF-β2-induced fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-1) protein expression. Basal expression of ID1-3 was detected in primary human TM cells. Bone morphogenic protein 4 significantly induced early expression of ID1 and ID3 mRNA (P protein in primary TM cells, and a BMP receptor inhibitor blocked this induction. Overexpression of ID1 and ID3 significantly inhibited TGF-β2-induced expression of fibronectin and PAI-1 in TM cells (P protein 4 induced ID1 and ID3 expression suppresses TGF-β2 profibrotic activity in human TM cells. In the future, targeting specific regulators may control the TGF-β2 profibrotic effects on the TM, leading to disease modifying IOP lowering therapies.

  2. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-An; Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris; Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong; MacDougall, Mary; Donly, Kevin J.; Harris, Stephen; Chen, Shuo

    2009-01-01

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  3. SMOC can act as both an antagonist and an expander of BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J Terrig; Eric Dollins, D; Andrykovich, Kristin R; Chu, Tehyen; Stultz, Brian G; Hursh, Deborah A; Moos, Malcolm

    2017-03-21

    The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone ( pent ), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling. The SMOC-EC domain bound HSPGs with a similar affinity to BMP2 and could expand the range of BMP signaling in an in vitro assay by competition for HSPG-binding. Together with data from studies in vivo we propose a model to explain how these two activities contribute to the function of Pent in Drosophila wing development and SMOC in mammalian joint formation.

  4. Dexamethasone, BMP-2, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D enhance a more differentiated osteoblast phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Henriksen, Z; Sørensen, O H

    2004-01-01

    . Osteoblast phenotypes were induced by either dexamethasone (Dex) or bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Bone marrow was obtained from biopsies at the posterior iliac spine. Cells were isolated by gradient centrifugation and grown to confluence. Cells were treated with 1 nM 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (vitamin...... activity was increased by Dex, but not by BMP-2 treatment. P1NP production was decreased after Dex treatment, while BMP-2 had no effect on P1NP levels. Osteocalcin production was low in cultures not stimulated with vitamin D. Dex or BMP-2 treatment alone did not affect the basic osteocalcin levels......, but in combination with vitamin D, BMP-2 increased the osteocalcin production, while Dex treatment completely suppressed osteocalcin production. Further, PTH-induced cAMP production was greatly enhanced by Dex treatment, whereas BMP-2 did not affect cAMP production. Finally, in vitro mineralization was greatly...

  5. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Li-An [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi-an (China); Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Engineering Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China); Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); MacDougall, Mary [Department of Oral/Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Donly, Kevin J. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Harris, Stephen [Department of Periodontics, Dental School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: chens0@uthscsa.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-08-14

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  6. 2,2'-Bis(monoacylglycero) PO4 (BMP), but Not 3,1'-BMP, increases membrane curvature stress to enhance α-tocopherol transfer protein binding to membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Matilda; Panagabko, Candace; Nickels, Jonathan D; Katsaras, John; Atkinson, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Previous work revealed that α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) co-localizes with bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) in late endosomes. BMP is a lipid unique to late endosomes and is believed to induce membrane curvature and support the multivesicular nature of this organelle. We examined the effect of BMP on α-TTP binding to membranes using dual polarization interferometry and vesicle-binding assay. α-TTP binding to membranes is increased by the curvature-inducing lipid BMP. α-TTP binds to membranes with greater affinity when they contain the 2,2'-BMP versus 3,1'-BMP isomers.

  7. Feasibility of atmospheric methane removal using methanotrophic biotrickling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sukhwan; Carey, Jeffrey N; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2009-07-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential ~23 times that of carbon dioxide. Here, we describe the modeling of a biotrickling filtration system composed of methane-consuming bacteria, i.e., methanotrophs, to assess the utility of these systems in removing methane from the atmosphere. Model results indicate that assuming the global average atmospheric concentration of methane, 1.7 ppmv, methane removal is ineffective using these methanotrophic biofilters as the methane concentration is too low to enable cell survival. If the concentration is increased to 500-6,000 ppmv, however, similar to that found above landfills and in concentrated animal feeding operations (factory farms), 4.98-35.7 tons of methane can be removed per biofilter per year assuming biotrickling filters of typical size (3.66 m in diameter and 11.5 m in height). Using reported ranges of capital, operational, and maintenance costs, the cost of the equivalent ton of CO(2) removal using these systems is $90-$910 ($2,070-$20,900 per ton of methane), depending on the influent concentration of methane and if heating is required. The use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible and, provided that either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO(2) credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  8. Temporal variation of aerobic methane oxidation over a tidal cycle in a wetland of northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. Y.; Wang, P. L.; Lin, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Aerobic methanotrophy plays an important role in controlling methane emitted from wetlands. However, the activity of aerobic methanotrophy regulated by temporal fluctuation of oxygen and methane supply in tidal wetlands is not well known. This study aims to examine the dynamics of methane fluxes and potential aerobic methane consumption rates in a tidal wetland of northern Taiwan, where the variation of environmental characteristics, such as sulfate and methane concentration in pore water has been demonstrated during a tidal cycle. Two field campaigns were carried out in December of 2016 and March of 2017. Fluxes of methane emission, methane concentrations in surface sediments and oxygen profiles were measured at different tidal phases. Besides, batch incubations were conducted on surface sediments in order to quantify potential microbial methane consumption rates and to derive the kinetic parameters for aerobic methanotrophy. Our results demonstrated temporal changes of the surface methane concentration and the methane emission flux during a tidal cycle, while the oxygen flux into the sediment was kept at a similar magnitude. The methane flux was low when the surface was exposed for both shortest and longest periods of time. The potential aerobic methane oxidation rate was high for sample collected from the surface sediments exposed the longest. No correlation could be found between the potential aerobic methane oxidation rate and either the oxygen downward flux or methane emission flux. The decoupled relationships between these observed rates and fluxes suggest that, rather than aerobic methanotrophy, heterotrophic respirations exert a profound control on oxygen flux, and the methane emission is not only been affected by methane consumption but also methane production at depths. The maximum potential rate and the half saturation concentration determined from the batch incubations were high for the surface sediments collected in low tide, suggesting that aerobic

  9. Cathepsin H indirectly regulates morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in various human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojnik, Matija; Jevnikar, Zala; Mirkovic, Bojana; Janes, Damjan; Zidar, Nace; Kikelj, Danijel; Kos, Janko

    2011-01-01

    Background Cathepsin H is a cysteine protease considered to play a major role in tumor progression, however, its precise function in tumorigenesis is unclear. Cathepsin H was recently proposed to be involved in processing of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in mice. In order to clarify whether cathepsin H also regulates BMP-4 in humans, its impact on BMP-4 expression, processing and degradation was investigated in prostate cancer (PC-3), osteosarcoma (HOS) and pro-monocytic (U937) human cell lines. Materials and methods BMP-4 expression was founded to be regulated by cathepsin H using PCR array technology and confirmed by real time PCR. Immunoassays including Western blot and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the influence of cathepsin H on BMP-4 processing. Results In contrast to HOS, the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in U937 and PC3 cells was significantly decreased by cathepsin H. The different regulation of BMP-4 synthesis could be associated with the absence of the mature 28 kDa cathepsin H form in HOS cells, where only the intermediate 30 kDa form was observed. No co-localization of BMP-4 and cathepsin H was observed in human cell lines and the multistep processing of BMP-4 was not altered in the presence of specific cathepsin H inhibitor. Isolated cathepsin H does not cleave mature recombinant BMP-4, neither with its amino- nor its endopeptidase activity. Conclusions Our results exclude direct proteolytic processing of BMP-4 by cathepsin H, however, they provide support for its involvement in the regulation of BMP-4 expression. PMID:22933963

  10. Mechanics of coalbed methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, J C; Rollins, J B [Crawley, Gillespie and Associates, Inc. (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Understanding the behaviour of coalbed methane reservoirs and the mechanics of production is crucial to successful management of coalbed methane resources and projects. This paper discusses the effects of coal properties and coalbed methane reservoir characteristics on gas production rates and recoveries with a review of completion techniques for coalbed methane wells. 4 refs., 17 figs.

  11. Challenges related to methanization - Bibliographical synthesis by France Nature Environnement. Opinion of FNE on methanization: Which challenges and which desirable development? Methascope: assessment support tool for a methanization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaunay, Thomas; Mathien, Adeline; Dorioz, Camille; Saint-Aubin, Thibaud; Banaszuk, Agnes; Badereau, Benedicte de; Capiez, Nathalie; Zoffoli, Maxime

    2014-12-01

    A first document proposes a bibliographical synthesis on the various challenges related to methanization. It addresses the following issues: biogas and public policies, methanization as a natural process of transformation of organic matter, different installations for different territories, matters which can be used in methanization, biogas as a renewable and local energy which can be transformed according to needs, properties and uses of digestate, choice between composting and methanization, energetic crops, methanization and nitrates, regulation, potential risks and pollutions, economic profitability of projects. The second document states the FNE's opinion on methanization, its challenges and the associated desirable development. The third document is a guide which aims at providing knowledge on methanization, at easing dialogue between actors of a territory, and at elaborating a position and an opinion with respect to a specific methanization project on a territory

  12. Methane emissions from the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.; Cowgill, R.M.; Campbell, L.M.; Lott, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. EPA and the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have suggested that global warming could be reduced if more energy was generated using natural gas rather than fuels such as coal. An increased use of natural gas instead of coal would decrease global warming since methane emits less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than any fossil fuel. However, methane is a more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 , and leakage from the gas system could reduce or eliminate the inherent advantage of natural gas. For this reason, methane emissions must be quantified before a national policy on preferred fuels is developed. Therefore, GRI and EPA have developed this confunded program to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry. This paper presents, for general industry review, the approach and methodology that the project is using to determine the emissions. The study will measure or calculate all gas industry methane emissions - from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. When these data are combined with data from other studies, a definitive comparison of the relative environmental impact of using methane versus other fuels will be possible. The study will also provide data that can be used by the industry to identify cost-effective mitigation techniques to reduce losses. The methane emissions project is being conducted in three phases: the first two phases have identified and ranked all known potential methane-emitting sources and established methods for measuring, calculating, and extrapolating emissions from those sources. The third phase, which is currently in progress, will gather sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal. This paper briefly summarizes the methodology being used for the completion of the third phase

  13. Methane-oxidizing seawater microbial communities from an Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kirkpatrick, John B.; D'Hondt, Steven; Loose, Brice

    2018-06-01

    Marine microbial communities can consume dissolved methane before it can escape to the atmosphere and contribute to global warming. Seawater over the shallow Arctic shelf is characterized by excess methane compared to atmospheric equilibrium. This methane originates in sediment, permafrost, and hydrate. Particularly high concentrations are found beneath sea ice. We studied the structure and methane oxidation potential of the microbial communities from seawater collected close to Utqiagvik, Alaska, in April 2016. The in situ methane concentrations were 16.3 ± 7.2 nmol L-1, approximately 4.8 times oversaturated relative to atmospheric equilibrium. The group of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the natural seawater and incubated seawater was > 97 % dominated by Methylococcales (γ-Proteobacteria). Incubations of seawater under a range of methane concentrations led to loss of diversity in the bacterial community. The abundance of MOB was low with maximal fractions of 2.5 % at 200 times elevated methane concentration, while sequence reads of non-MOB methylotrophs were 4 times more abundant than MOB in most incubations. The abundances of MOB as well as non-MOB methylotroph sequences correlated tightly with the rate constant (kox) for methane oxidation, indicating that non-MOB methylotrophs might be coupled to MOB and involved in community methane oxidation. In sea ice, where methane concentrations of 82 ± 35.8 nmol kg-1 were found, Methylobacterium (α-Proteobacteria) was the dominant MOB with a relative abundance of 80 %. Total MOB abundances were very low in sea ice, with maximal fractions found at the ice-snow interface (0.1 %), while non-MOB methylotrophs were present in abundances similar to natural seawater communities. The dissimilarities in MOB taxa, methane concentrations, and stable isotope ratios between the sea ice and water column point toward different methane dynamics in the two environments.

  14. Raman studies of methane-ethane hydrate metastability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Strobel, Timothy A; Dec, Steven F; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-03-05

    The interconversion of methane-ethane hydrate from metastable to stable structures was studied using Raman spectroscopy. sI and sII hydrates were synthesized from methane-ethane gas mixtures of 65% or 93% methane in ethane and water, both with and without the kinetic hydrate inhibitor, poly(N-vinylcaprolactam). The observed faster structural conversion rate in the higher methane concentration atmosphere can be explained in terms of the differences in driving force (difference in chemical potential of water in sI and sII hydrates) and kinetics (mass transfer of gas and water rearrangement). The kinetic hydrate inhibitor increased the conversion rate at 65% methane in ethane (sI is thermodynamically stable) but retards the rate at 93% methane in ethane (sII is thermodynamically stable), implying there is a complex interaction between the polymer, water, and hydrate guests at crystal surfaces.

  15. Martian Methane From a Cometary Source: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Christou, A.; Archer, D.; Conrad, P.; Cooke, W.; Eigenbrode, J.; ten Kate, I. L.; Matney, M.; Niles, P.; Sykes, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, methane in the martian atmosphere has been detected by Earth-based spectroscopy, the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on the ESA Mars Express mission, and the NASA Mars Science Laboratory. The methane's origin remains a mystery, with proposed sources including volcanism, exogenous sources like impacts and interplanetary dust, aqueous alteration of olivine in the presence of carbonaceous material, release from ancient deposits of methane clathrates, and/or biological activity. An additional potential source exists: meteor showers from the emission of large comet dust particles could generate martian methane via UV pyrolysis of carbon-rich infall material. We find a correlation between the dates of Mars/cometary orbit encounters and detections of methane on Mars. We hypothesize that cometary debris falls onto Mars during these interactions, generating methane via UV photolysis.

  16. Methane to bioproducts: the future of the bioeconomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieja, Allison J; Morse, Molly C; Cal, Andrew J

    2017-12-01

    Methanotrophs have been studied since the 1970s, but interest has increased tremendously in recent years due to their potential to transform methane into valuable bioproducts. The vast quantity of available methane and the low price of methane as natural gas have helped to spur this interest. The most well-studied, biologically-derived products from methane include methanol, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and single cell protein. However, many other high-interest chemicals such as biofuels or high-value products such as ectoine could be made industrially relevant through metabolic engineering. Although challenges must be overcome to achieve commercialization of biologically manufactured methane-to-products, taking a holistic view of the production process or radically re-imagining pathways could lead to a future bioeconomy with methane as the primary feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. methanization of organic matters. Guide for project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This document aims at informing potential project developers (farmers, local communities, industrials) all along the creation of a methanization unit. It precisely indicates administrative procedures required to complete a project. It first presents some generalities about methanization (matters and their performance, methanization cycle, biogas), describes methanization processes (dry and humid), and valorisation processes (co-generation, hot water production, gas injection into the public network), presents digestate characteristics, and discusses benefits and drawbacks of methanization. The different steps of a project management are then analysed. Additional procedures are indicated, and risks and traps of methanization projects are highlighted. The document comes along with a large number of appendices which can be documents released by professional or public bodies

  18. Cell saver filtering of extravasated rhBMP-2 after degenerative scoliosis reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Liu, MBBCh, MSc, FRCS, FAMS (Orth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RhBMP-2 is a bone fusion enhancer commonly used in scoliosis reconstruction surgery. It is delivered via an absorbable collagen sponge but has been known to migrate away from its delivery site. RhBMP-2 extravasation in surgical drainage has been noted during first two days post-surgery. Cell savers are widely used in scoliosis reconstruction to limit transfusion requirements and are commonly deployed in cases where rhBMP-2 is used for fusion augmentation. It is not known whether rhBMP-2 is present in salvaged blood or filtered away during cell saver recycling. Through this case series of four patients who underwent scoliosis reconstruction, we assess cell saver efficacy in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules by quantifying the amount of rhBMP-2 present in salvaged blood obtained after postoperative drainage recycling by OrthoPAT® cell saver and comparing it to rhBMP-2 leakage in postoperative drainage without cell saver recycling. We report an almost 10-fold reduction of rhBMP-2 concentration in salvaged blood obtained after cell saver recycling of postoperative drainage, suggesting cell saver effectiveness in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules.

  19. Bmp2 deletion causes an amelogenesis imperfecta phenotype via regulating enamel gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Feng, Junsheng; Wang, Feng; Li, Wentong; Gao, Qingping; Chen, Zhuo; Shoff, Lisa; Donly, Kevin J; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Chun, Yong Hee Patricia; Harris, Stephen E; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Although Bmp2 is essential for tooth formation, the role of Bmp2 during enamel formation remains unknown in vivo. In this study, the role of Bmp2 in regulation of enamel formation was investigated by the Bmp2 conditional knock out (Bmp2 cKO) mice. Teeth of Bmp2 cKO mice displayed severe and profound phenotypes with asymmetric and misshaped incisors as well as abrasion of incisors and molars. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the enamel layer was hypoplastic and enamel lacked a typical prismatic pattern. Teeth from null mice were much more brittle as tested by shear and compressive moduli. Expression of enamel matrix protein genes, amelogenin, enamelin, and enamel-processing proteases, Mmp-20 and Klk4 was reduced in the Bmp2 cKO teeth as reflected in a reduced enamel formation. Exogenous Bmp2 up-regulated those gene expressions in mouse enamel organ epithelial cells. This result for the first time indicates Bmp2 signaling is essential for proper enamel development and mineralization in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hydrothermal waste package interactions with methane-containing basalt groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrothermal waste package interaction tests were conducted with a mixture of crushed glass, basalt, and steel in methane-containing synthetic basalt groundwater. In the absence of gamma radiolysis, methane was found to have little influence on the corrosion behavior of the waste package constituents. Under gamma radiolysis, methane was found to significantly lower the solution oxidation potential when compared to identical tests without methane. In addition, colloidal hydrocarbon polymers that have been produced under the irradiation conditions of these experiments were not formed. The presence of the waste package constituents apparently inhibited the formation of the polymers. However, the mechanism which prevented their formation was not determined

  1. Titan's Methane Cycle is Closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Lunine, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Doppler tracking of the Cassini spacecraft determined a polar moment of inertia for Titan of 0.34 (Iess et al., 2010, Science, 327, 1367). Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, one interpretation is that Titan's silicate core is partially hydrated (Castillo-Rogez and Lunine, 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L20205). These authors point out that for the core to have avoided complete thermal dehydration to the present day, at least 30% of the potassium content of Titan must have leached into an overlying water ocean by the end of the core overturn. We calculate that for probable ammonia compositions of Titan's ocean (compositions with greater than 1% ammonia by weight), that this amount of potassium leaching is achievable via the substitution of ammonium for potassium during the hydration epoch. Formation of a hydrous core early in Titan's history by serpentinization results in the loss of one hydrogen molecule for every hydrating water molecule. We calculate that complete serpentinization of Titan's core corresponds to the release of more than enough hydrogen to reconstitute all of the methane atoms photolyzed throughout Titan's history. Insertion of molecular hydrogen by double occupancy into crustal clathrates provides a storage medium and an opportunity for ethane to be converted back to methane slowly over time--potentially completing a cycle that extends the lifetime of methane in Titan's surface atmosphere system by factors of several to an order of magnitude over the photochemically-calculated lifetime.

  2. Source Attribution of Methane Emissions in Northeastern Colorado Using Ammonia to Methane Emission Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilerman, S. J.; Neuman, J. A.; Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Perring, A. E.; Robinson, E. S.; Holloway, M.; Trainer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Due to recent advances in extraction technology, oil and natural gas extraction and processing in the Denver-Julesburg basin has increased substantially in the past decade. Northeastern Colorado is also home to over 250 concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), capable of hosting over 2 million head of ruminant livestock (cattle and sheep). Because of methane's high Global Warming Potential, quantification and attribution of methane emissions from oil and gas development and agricultural activity are important for guiding greenhouse gas emission policy. However, due to the co-location of these different sources, top-down measurements of methane are often unable to attribute emissions to a specific source or sector. In this work, we evaluate the ammonia:methane emission ratio directly downwind of CAFOs using a mobile laboratory. Several CAFOs were chosen for periodic study over a 12-month period to identify diurnal and seasonal variation in the emission ratio as well as differences due to livestock type. Using this knowledge of the agricultural ammonia:methane emission ratio, aircraft measurements of ammonia and methane over oil and gas basins in the western US during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field campaign in March and April 2015 can be used for source attribution of methane emissions.

  3. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of mixed waste streams to separate generation of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Horam, N.J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the net energy potential of single stage mesophilic reactor and two phase mesophilic reactor (hydrogeniser followed by methaniser) using the mix of process industrial food waste (IFW) and sewage sludge (SS). Two-phase reactor efficiency was analysed based on individual optimum influent/environmental (C:N and pH) and reactor/engineering (HRT and OLR) conditions achieved using the batch and continuous reactor study for the hydrogen and methane. Optimum C:N 20 and pH 5.5{+-}0.5 was observed using the Bio-H{sub 2} potential (BHP) and C:N 15 and pH 6.5{+-}0.3 for the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. The maximum hydrogen content of 47% (v/v) was achieved using OLR 6 g VS/L/d and HRT of 5 days. Increase in hydrogen yield was noticed with consistent decrease in OLR. The volatile solids (VS) removal and hydrogen yield was observed in range 41.3 to 47% and 112.3 to 146.7 mL/ gVS{sub removed}. The specific hydrogen production rate improved at low OLR, 0.2 to 0.4 L/(L.d) using OLR 7.1 and 6 g VS/L/d respectively was well corroborated comparable to previous reported results at OLR 6 gVS/L/d using the enriched carbohydrate waste stream in particular to food wastes. A significant increase in VFA concentrations were noticed shifting OLR higher from 6 g VS/L/d thereby unbalancing the reactor pH and the biogas yield respectively. In similar, maximum methane content of 70% (v/v) was achieved using OLR of 3.3 gVS/L/d and HRT of 10 days. Slight decrease in methane content was noticed thereby increasing HRT to 12 and 15 days respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal and specific methane production rate was observed in range 57.6 to 68.7 and 0.22 to 1.19 L/(L.d). The specific methane production potential improved thereby reducing the HRT and optimum yield was recorded as 476.6 mL/gVS{sub removed} using OLR 3.3 gVS/L/d. The energy potential of optimum condition in single stage hydorgeniser is 2.27 MW/tonne VS{sub fed}. Using the

  4. Methane monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, C.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.; Ehret, G.; Flamant, P.

    2017-11-01

    Methane is one of the strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gases. It contributes by its radiative forcing significantly to the global warming. For a better understanding of climate changes, it is necessary to apply precise space-based measurement techniques in order to obtain a global view on the complex processes that control the methane concentration in the atmosphere. The MERLIN mission is a joint French-German cooperation, on a micro satellite mission for space-based measurement of spatial and temporal gradients of atmospheric methane columns on a global scale. MERLIN will be the first Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR for greenhouse gas monitoring from space. In contrast to passive methane missions, the LIDAR instrument allows measurements at alllatitudes, all-seasons and during night.

  5. Methane prediction in collieries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Creedy, DP

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the project was to assess the current status of research on methane emission prediction for collieries in South Africa in comparison with methods used and advances achieved elsewhere in the world....

  6. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite surfaces-mediated adsorption alters recognition of BMP receptor IA and bioactivity of bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baolin; Yuan, Yuan; Ding, Sai; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Feng, Bo; Li, Tong; Gu, Yuantong; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-11-01

    Highly efficient loading of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) onto carriers with desirable performance is still a major challenge in the field of bone regeneration. Till now, the nanoscaled surface-induced changes of the structure and bioactivity of BMP-2 remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of nanoscaled surface on the adsorption and bioactivity of BMP-2 was investigated with a series of hydroxyapatite surfaces (HAPs): HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP), HAP crystal-coated polished surface (HAP-Pol), and sintered HAP crystal-coated surface (HAP-Sin). The adsorption dynamics of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) and the accessibility of the binding epitopes of adsorbed rhBMP-2 for BMP receptors (BMPRs) were examined by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Moreover, the bioactivity of adsorbed rhBMP-2 and the BMP-induced Smad signaling were investigated with C2C12 model cells. A noticeably high mass-uptake of rhBMP-2 and enhanced recognition of BMPR-IA to adsorbed rhBMP-2 were found on the HAP-Pol surface. For the rhBMP-2-adsorbed HAPs, both ALP activity and Smad signaling increased in the order of HAP-Sinuses of rhBMP-2 in clinical applications and arouse broad interests among researchers in the fields of nano-biotechnology, biomaterials and bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of methane generation based on anaerobic digestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... comparable (within 14%) to the amount estimated by laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion experiment (1.43 Gg methane/month). It is a worthwhile undertaking to further investigate the potential of commercially producing methane from Kiteezi landfill as an alternative source of green and clean energy for urban masses.

  8. Root biomass as a major means of affecting methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions. Methane, the second most abundant greenhouse gas, is ~25 times more potent in global warming potential than carbon dioxide, and 7-17% of atmospheric methane comes from paddy rice fields. The purpose of the study was to investigate gene...

  9. Biofiltration for Mitigation of Methane Emission from Animal Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Werf, van der A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Removal of methane from exhaust air of animal houses and manure storage has a large potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from animal husbandry. The aim of this study was to design a biofilter for methane removal at a full-scale livestock production facility. Air from the headspace

  10. Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    REPORT Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have transformed a plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, with the...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 31-Mar-2012 Phytoremediation of Atmospheric Methane Report Title ABSTRACT We have transformed a...DD882) Scientific Progress See attachment Technology Transfer 1    Final Report for DARPA project W911NF1010027  Phytoremediation  of Atmospheric

  11. BMP-2 Induced Expression of Alx3 That Is a Positive Regulator of Osteoblast Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate many aspects of skeletal development, including osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, cartilage and bone formation, and cranial and limb development. Among them, BMP-2, one of the most potent osteogenic signaling molecules, stimulates osteoblast differentiation, while it inhibits myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells. To evaluate genes involved in BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation, we performed cDNA microarray analyses to compare BMP-2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells. We focused on Alx3 (aristaless-like homeobox 3 which was clearly induced during osteoblast differentiation. Alx3, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophilaaristaless gene, has been linked to developmental functions in craniofacial structures and limb development. However, little is known about its direct relationship with bone formation. In the present study, we focused on the mechanisms of Alx3 gene expression and function during osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. In C2C12 cells, BMP-2 induced increase of Alx3 gene expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the BMP receptors-mediated SMAD signaling pathway. In addition, silencing of Alx3 by siRNA inhibited osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2, as showed by the expressions of alkaline phosphatase (Alp, Osteocalcin, and Osterix, while over-expression of Alx3 enhanced osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. These results indicate that Alx3 expression is enhanced by BMP-2 via the BMP receptors mediated-Smad signaling and that Alx3 is a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2.

  12. BMP2 induced osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord stem cells in a peptide-based hydrogel scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmana, Shruthi M.

    Craniofacial tissue loss due to traumatic injuries and congenital defects is a major clinical problem around the world. Cleft palate is the second most common congenital malformation in the United States occurring with an incidence of 1 in 700. Some of the problems associated with this defect are feeding difficulties, speech abnormalities and dentofacial anomalies. Current treatment protocol offers repeated surgeries with extended healing time. Our long-term goal is to regenerate bone in the palatal region using tissue-engineering approaches. Bone tissue engineering utilizes osteogenic cells, osteoconductive scaffolds and osteoinductive signals. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (HUMSCs) are highly proliferative with the ability to differentiate into osteogenic precursor cells. The primary objective of the study was to characterize HUMSCs and culture them in a 3D hydrogel scaffold and investigate their osteogenic potential. PuraMatrix(TM) is an injectable 3D nanofiber scaffold capable of self-assembly when exposed to physiologic conditions. Our second objective was to investigate the effect of Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 (BMP2) in enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of HUMSCs encapsulated in PuraMatrix(TM). We isolated cells isolated from Wharton's Jelly region of the umbilical cord obtained from NDRI (New York, NY). Isolated cells satisfied the minimal criteria for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as defined by International Society of Cell Therapy in terms of plastic adherence, fibroblastic phenotype, surface marker expression and osteogenic differentiation. Flow Cytometry analysis showed that cells were positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 while negative for hematopoietic marker CD34. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) of HUMSCs showed peak activity at 2 weeks (p<0.05). Cells were encapsulated in 0.2% PuraMatrix(TM) at cell densities of 10x104, 20x104, 40x10 4 and 80x104. Cell viability with WST and proliferation with Live-Dead cell assays

  13. Understanding the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rice-microbial interactions that produce methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second most abundant greenhouse gas, methane, is ~25 times more potent in global warming potential than carbon dioxide, and 7-17% of atmospheric methane comes from flooded rice fields. Methane emissions can be greatly reduced by using alternate wetting and drying irrigation management and/or cul...

  14. Breeding Ruminants that Emit Less Methane – The Role of International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oddy, V.H.; Haas, de Y.; Basarab, J.; Cammack, K.; Hayes, B.J.; Hegarty, R.; Lassen, J.; McEwan, J.; Miller, S.; Pinares-Patino, C.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminants contribute to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, principally as enteric methane (CH4) emissions. Direct selection for reduced CH4 emissions through combined selection for both low residual feed intake and methane yield could potentially provide a long term reduction in enteric methane

  15. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Dijkstra, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators

  16. Methane yield enhancement via electroporation of organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyedeh Masoumeh; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study with pulsed electric field (PEF) pre-treatment was conducted to investigate its effect on methane production. PEF pre-treatment converts organic solids into soluble and colloidal forms, increasing bioavailability for anaerobic microorganisms participating in methane generation process. The substrates tested were landfill leachate and fruit/vegetable. Three treatment intensities of 15, 30, and 50kWh/m 3 were applied to investigate the influence of pre-treatment on methane production via biochemical methane potential test. Threshold treatment intensity was found to be around 30kWh/m 3 for landfill leachate beyond which the methane production enhanced linearly with increase in intensity. Methane production of the landfill leachate significantly increased up to 44% with the highest intensity. The result of pulsed electric field pre-treatment on fruit/vegetable showed that 15kWh/m 3 was the intensity by which the highest amount of methane (up to 7%) was achieved. Beyond this intensity, the methane production decreased. Chemical oxygen demand removals were increased up to 100% for landfill leachate and 17% for fruit/vegetable, compared to the untreated slurries. Results indicate that the treatment intensity has a significant effect on the methane production and biosolid removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus augmentation using rhBMP-2: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rubens Moreno de; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Marcantonio Junior, Elcio; Pereira, Luís Antônio Violin Dias; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate clinical and safety data for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier when used for alveolar ridge/maxillary sinus augmentation in humans. Clinical studies/case series published 1980 through June 2012 using rhBMP-2/ACS were searched. Studies meeting the following criteria were considered eligible for inclusion: >10 subjects at baseline and maxillary sinus or alveolar ridge augmentation not concomitant with implant placement. Seven of 69 publications were eligible for review. rhBMP-2/ACS yielded clinically meaningful bone formation for maxillary sinus augmentation that would allow placement of regular dental implants without consistent differences between rhBMP-2 concentrations. Nevertheless, the statistical analysis showed that sinus augmentation following autogenous bone graft was significantly greater (mean bone height: 1.6 mm, 95% CI: 0.5-2.7 mm) than for rhBMP-2/ACS (rhBMP-2 at 1.5 mg/mL). In extraction sockets, rhBMP-2/ACS maintained alveolar ridge height while enhancing alveolar ridge width. Safety reports did not represent concerns for the proposed indications. rhBMP-2/ACS appears a promising alternative to autogenous bone grafts for alveolar ridge/maxillary sinus augmentation; dose and carrier optimization may expand its efficacy, use, and clinical application. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bmp signaling is at the heart of vertebrate left-right asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling is vitally important in many aspects of cardiac development. These include cardiac induction and differentiation and establishing the L/R axis. In this thesis, we focus on the role of Bmp signaling in securing proper cardiac asymmetry, by (1) establishing

  19. Dkk1 haploinsufficiency requires expression of Bmp2 for bone anabolic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Giuseppe; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2015-01-01

    Bone fractures remain a serious health burden and prevention and enhanced healing of fractures has been obtained by augmenting either BMP or Wnt signaling. However, whether BMP and Wnt signaling are both required or are self-sufficient for anabolic and fracture healing activities has never been fully elucidated. Mice haploinsufficient for Dkk1 (Dkk1+/−) exhibit a high bone mass phenotype due to an up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling while mice lacking Bmp2 expression in the limbs (Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre) succumb to spontaneous fracture and are unable to initiate fracture healing; combined, these mice offer an opportunity to examine the requirement for activated BMP signaling on the anabolic and fracture healing activity of Wnts. When Dkk1+/− mice were crossed with Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre mice, the offspring bearing both genetic alterations were unable to increase bone mass and heal fractures, indicating that increased canonical Wnt signaling is unable to exploit its activity in absence of Bmp2. Thus, our data suggest that BMP signaling is required for Wnt-mediated anabolic activity and that therapies aimed at preventing fractures and fostering fracture repair may need to target both pathways for maximal efficacy. PMID:25603465

  20. BMP4 signaling is involved in the generation of inner ear sensory epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yucheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robust expression of BMP4 in the incipient sensory organs of the inner ear suggests possible roles for this signaling protein during induction and development of auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia. Homozygous BMP4-/- animals die before the inner ear's sensory organs develop, which precludes determining the role of BMP4 in these organs with simple gene knockout experiments. Results Here we use a chicken otocyst culture system to perform quantitative studies on the development of inner ear cell types and show that hair cell and supporting cell generation is remarkably reduced when BMP signaling is blocked, either with its antagonist noggin or by using soluble BMP receptors. Conversely, we observed an increase in the number of hair cells when cultured otocysts were treated with exogenous BMP4. BMP4 treatment additionally prompted down-regulation of Pax-2 protein in proliferating sensory epithelial progenitors, leading to reduced progenitor cell proliferation. Conclusion Our results implicate BMP4 in two events during chicken inner ear sensory epithelium formation: first, in inducing the switch from proliferative sensory epithelium progenitors to differentiating epithelial cells and secondly, in promoting the differentiation of hair cells within the developing sensory epithelia.

  1. Cryogenic 3D printing for producing hierarchical porous and rhBMP-2-loaded Ca-P/PLLA nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Zhao, Qilong; Wang, Min

    2017-06-07

    The performance of bone tissue engineering scaffolds can be assessed through cell responses to scaffolds, including cell attachment, infiltration, morphogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, etc, which are determined or heavily influenced by the composition, structure, mechanical properties, and biological properties (e.g. osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity) of scaffolds. Although some promising 3D printing techniques such as fused deposition modeling and selective laser sintering could be employed to produce biodegradable bone tissue engineering scaffolds with customized shapes and tailored interconnected pores, effective methods for fabricating scaffolds with well-designed hierarchical porous structure (both interconnected macropores and surface micropores) and tunable osteoconductivity/osteoinductivity still need to be developed. In this investigation, a novel cryogenic 3D printing technique was investigated and developed for producing hierarchical porous and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded calcium phosphate (Ca-P) nanoparticle/poly(L-lactic acid) nanocomposite scaffolds, in which the Ca-P nanoparticle-incorporated scaffold layer and rhBMP-2-encapsulated scaffold layer were deposited alternatingly using different types of emulsions as printing inks. The mechanical properties of the as-printed scaffolds were comparable to those of human cancellous bone. Sustained releases of Ca 2+ ions and rhBMP-2 were achieved and the biological activity of rhBMP-2 was well-preserved. Scaffolds with a desirable hierarchical porous structure and dual delivery of Ca 2+ ions and rhBMP-2 exhibited superior performance in directing the behaviors of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and caused improved cell viability, attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation, which has suggested their great potential for bone tissue engineering.

  2. Towards a standardization of biomethane potential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliger, Christof; Alves, Madalena; Andrade, Diana; Angelidaki, Irini; Astals, Sergi; Baier, Urs; Bougrier, Claire; Buffière, Pierre; Carballa, Marta; de Wilde, Vinnie; Ebertseder, Florian; Fernández, Belén; Ficara, Elena; Fotidis, Ioannis; Frigon, Jean-Claude; de Laclos, Hélène Fruteau; Ghasimi, Dara S M; Hack, Gabrielle; Hartel, Mathias; Heerenklage, Joern; Horvath, Ilona Sarvari; Jenicek, Pavel; Koch, Konrad; Krautwald, Judith; Lizasoain, Javier; Liu, Jing; Mosberger, Lona; Nistor, Mihaela; Oechsner, Hans; Oliveira, João Vítor; Paterson, Mark; Pauss, André; Pommier, Sébastien; Porqueddu, Isabella; Raposo, Francisco; Ribeiro, Thierry; Rüsch Pfund, Florian; Strömberg, Sten; Torrijos, Michel; van Eekert, Miriam; van Lier, Jules; Wedwitschka, Harald; Wierinck, Isabella

    2016-12-01

    Production of biogas from different organic materials is a most interesting source of renewable energy. The biomethane potential (BMP) of these materials has to be determined to get insight in design parameters for anaerobic digesters. Although several norms and guidelines for BMP tests exist, inter-laboratory tests regularly show high variability of BMPs for the same substrate. A workshop was held in June 2015, in Leysin, Switzerland, with over 40 attendees from 30 laboratories around the world, to agree on common solutions to the conundrum of inconsistent BMP test results. This paper presents the consensus of the intense roundtable discussions and cross-comparison of methodologies used in respective laboratories. Compulsory elements for the validation of BMP results were defined. They include the minimal number of replicates, the request to carry out blank and positive control assays, a criterion for the test duration, details on BMP calculation, and last but not least criteria for rejection of the BMP tests. Finally, recommendations on items that strongly influence the outcome of BMP tests such as inoculum characteristics, substrate preparation, test setup, and data analysis are presented to increase the probability of obtaining validated and reproducible results.

  3. Methane Hydrate in Confined Spaces: An Alternative Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Lars; Casco, Mirian Elizabeth; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquin

    2018-03-14

    Methane hydrate inheres the great potential to be a nature-inspired alternative for chemical energy storage, as it allows to store large amounts of methane in a dense solid phase. The embedment of methane hydrate in the confined environment of porous materials can be capitalized for potential applications as its physicochemical properties, such as the formation kinetics or pressure and temperature stability, are significantly changed compared to the bulk system. We review this topic from a materials scientific perspective by considering porous carbons, silica, clays, zeolites, and polymers as host structures for methane hydrate formation. We discuss the contribution of advanced characterization techniques and theoretical simulations towards the elucidation of the methane hydrate formation and dissociation process within the confined space. We outline the scientific challenges this system is currently facing and look on possible future applications for this technology. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Wide area methane emissions mapping with airborne IPDA lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Jarett; Lyman, Philip; Weimer, Carl; Tandy, William

    2017-08-01

    Methane emissions from natural gas production, storage, and transportation are potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Methane leaks also constitute revenue loss potential from operations. Since 2013, Ball Aerospace has been developing advanced airborne sensors using integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) LIDAR instrumentation to identify methane, propane, and longer-chain alkanes in the lowest region of the atmosphere. Additional funding has come from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Administration (PHMSA) to upgrade instrumentation to a broader swath coverage of up to 400 meters while maintaining high spatial sampling resolution and geolocation accuracy. Wide area coverage allows efficient mapping of emissions from gathering and distribution networks, processing facilities, landfills, natural seeps, and other distributed methane sources. This paper summarizes the benefits of advanced instrumentation for aerial methane emission mapping, describes the operating characteristics and design of this upgraded IPDA instrumentation, and reviews technical challenges encountered during development and deployment.

  5. Matrix-immobilized BMP-2 on microcontact printed fibronectin as in vitro tool to study BMP-mediated signaling and cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin eHauff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During development, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs exert important functions in several tissues by regulating signaling for cell differentiation and migration. In vivo the extracellular matrix (ECM not only provides a support for adherent cells, but also presents a reservoir of growth factors (GFs. Several constituents of the ECM provide adhesive cues, which serve as binding sites for cell transmembrane receptors, such as integrins, which convey adhesion-mediated signaling to the intracellular compartment. Integrins do not function alone but rather crosstalk and cooperate with other receptors, such as GF receptors, in regulating cell responses to extracellular signals. To this, we present here the immobilization of BMP-2 onto cellular fibronectin (cFN, a key protein of the ECM, to investigate their impact on GF-mediated signaling and migration.Following biotinylation, BMP-2 was linked to biotinylated cFN using NeutrAvidin (NA as cross-linker. Characterization with QCM-D and ELISA confirmed the efficient immobilization of BMP-2 on cFN over a period of 24 h.To validate the bioactivity of matrix-immobilized BMP-2 (iBMP-2 we investigated short- and long-term responses of C2C12 myoblasts in comparison to soluble BMP-2 (sBMP-2 or in absence of GFs. Similarly to sBMP-2, iBMP-2 triggered Smad 1/5 phosphorylation and translocation into the nucleus corresponding to the activation of BMP-mediated Smad-dependent pathway. Additionally, successful suppression of myotube formation was observed after six days.We next implemented this approach to fabricate cFN micro patterned stripes by soft lithography. These stripes only allowed cell-surface interaction on the pattern due to passivation of the surface in between, thus serving as platform for studies on directed cell migration. During a 10 h-period, cells showed an increased migratory activity upon BMP-2 exposure.Thus, this versatile tool retains the GF's bioactivity and allows the presentation of ECM

  6. Methane Hydrate Field Program. Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Tim [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Bahk, Jang-Jun [Korea Inst. of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea); Frye, Matt [U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Sterling, VA (United States); Goldberg, Dave [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Husebo, Jarle [Statoil ASA, Stavenger (Norway); Koh, Carolyn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Malone, Mitch [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Shipp, Craig [Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Torres, Marta [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Myers, Greg [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Divins, David [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Morell, Margo [Consortium For Ocean Leadership Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-12-31

    This topical report represents a pathway toward better understanding of the impact of marine methane hydrates on safety and seafloor stability and future collection of data that can be used by scientists, engineers, managers and planners to study climate change and to assess the feasibility of marine methane hydrate as a potential future energy resource. Our understanding of the occurrence, distribution and characteristics of marine methane hydrates is incomplete; therefore, research must continue to expand if methane hydrates are to be used as a future energy source. Exploring basins with methane hydrates has been occurring for over 30 years, but these efforts have been episodic in nature. To further our understanding, these efforts must be more regular and employ new techniques to capture more data. This plan identifies incomplete areas of methane hydrate research and offers solutions by systematically reviewing known methane hydrate “Science Challenges” and linking them with “Technical Challenges” and potential field program locations.

  7. Comparison of newly developed anti-bone morphogenetic protein 4 llama-derived antibodies with commercially available BMP4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpe, Silvia; Correia, Ana C P; Sancho-Serra, Maria Del Carmen; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2016-01-01

    Due to improved understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in an increasing number of diseases, the development of selective inhibitors of BMP4 is an attractive therapeutic option. The currently available BMP4 inhibitors are not suitable as therapeutics because of their low specificity and low effectiveness. Here, we compared newly generated anti-BMP4 llama-derived antibodies (VHHs) with 3 different types of commercially available BMP4 inhibitors, natural antagonists, small molecule BMPR inhibitors and conventional anti-BMP4 monoclonal antibodies. We found that the anti-BMP4 VHHs were as effective as the natural antagonist or small molecule inhibitors, but had higher specificity. We also showed that commercial anti-BMP4 antibodies were inferior in terms of both specificity and effectiveness. These findings might result from the fact that the VHHs C4C4 and C8C8 target a small region within the BMPR1 epitope of BMP4, whereas the commercial antibodies target other areas of the BMP4 molecule. Our results show that the newly developed anti-BMP4 VHHs are promising antibodies with better specificity and effectivity for inhibition of BMP4, making them an attractive tool for research and for therapeutic applications.

  8. Ecosystem and physiological controls over methane production in northern wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, David W.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Schimel, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Peat chemistry appears to exert primary control over methane production rates in the Canadian Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) area. We determined laboratory methane production rate potentials in anaerobic slurries of samples collected from a transect of sites through the NOWES study area. We related methane production rates to indicators of resistance to microbial decay (peat C: N and lignin: N ratios) and experimentally manipulated substrate availability for methanogenesis using ethanol (EtOH) and plant litter. We also determined responses of methane production to pH and temperature. Methane production potentials declined along the gradient of sites from high rates in the coastal fens to low rates in the interior bogs and were generally highest in surface layers. Strong relationships between CH4 production potentials and peat chemistry suggested that methanogenesis was limited by fermentation rates. Methane production at ambient pH responded strongly to substrate additions in the circumneutral fens with narrow lignin: N and C: N ratios (delta CH4/delta EtOH = 0.9-2.3 mg/g) and weakly in the acidic bogs with wide C: N and lignin: N ratios (delta CH4/delta EtOH = -0.04-0.02 mg/g). Observed Q(sub 10) values ranged from 1.7 to 4.7 and generally increased with increasing substrate availability, suggesting that fermentation rates were limiting. Titration experiments generally demonstrated inhibition of methanogenesis by low pH. Our results suggest that the low rates of methane emission observed in interior bogs during NOWES likely resulted from pH and substrate quality limitation of the fermentation step in methane production and thus reflect intrinsically low methane production potentials. Low methane emission rates observed during NOWES will likely be observed in other northern wetland regions with similar vegetation chemistry.

  9. Investigations of Methane Production in Hypersaline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad M.

    2015-01-01

    produced by these sediments. Substrate limitation of methanogenesis in these environments, and not methane oxidation, would explain the isotopic values of the methane in these environments. Incubations with both isotopically labeled and unlabeled putative substrates for methanogenesis have shown that the substrates most important for methanogenesis in these environments are the so-called non-competitive substrates, e.g., methylamines, dimethylsulfide, and methanol. Acetate and bicarbonate appear not to be important substrates for methanogens in these environments. Extraction of DNA and analysis of a gene used for methane production (mcrA) has revealed that the community composition of methanogens is consistent with organisms known to use non-competitive substrates. Our work has shown that hypersaline environments have the potential to both produce and preserve methane for analysis, e.g., by capable rovers. Our work expends the range of methane isotopic values now known to be produced by active methanogenesis

  10. MiR-22 Suppresses BMP7 in the Development of Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: New strategies for the prevention and treatment of cirrhosis are urgently needed for improving therapeutic outcome. A role of microRNAs (miRNAs in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis has been recently acknowledged, whereas the exact involved miRNAs as well as the associated molecular signaling pathways have not been determined. Specifically, the studies on the relationship between miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the development of cirrhosis are lacking. Methods: We examined the correlation of the levels of miR-22 and bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients with cirrhosis. We examined overexpression or suppression of miR-22 on BMP7 in hepatocytes. We examined the binding of miR-22 to the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Finally, in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced cirrhosis model in mice, we gave mice adeno-associated viruses carrying antisense of miR-22, and examined its effects on BMP7 levels and the hallmarks of cirrhosis. Results: The levels of miR-22 and BMP7 in the liver biopsies from patients were strongly and inversely correlated. MiR-22 inhibited BMP7 expression in hepatocytes, through directly binding the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA. Expression of antisense miR-22 significantly attenuated the levels of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and sodium retention caused by CCl4, possibly through upregulation of BMP7. Conclusions: MiR-22 promotes the development of cirrhosis through BMP7 suppression.

  11. Influence of WFIKKN1 on BMP1-mediated activation of latent myostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szláma, György; Vásárhelyi, Viktor; Trexler, Mária; Patthy, László

    2016-12-01

    The NTR domain of WFIKKN1 protein has been shown to have significant affinity for the prodomain regions of promyostatin and latent myostatin but the biological significance of these interactions remained unclear. In view of its role as a myostatin antagonist, we tested the assumption that WFIKKN1 inhibits the release of myostatin from promyostatin and/or latent myostatin. WFIKKN1 was found to have no effect on processing of promyostatin by furin, the rate of cleavage of latent myostatin by BMP1, however, was significantly enhanced in the presence of WFIKKN1 and this enhancer activity was superstimulated by heparin. Unexpectedly, WFIKKN1 was also cleaved by BMP1 and our studies have shown that the KKN1 fragment generated by BMP1-cleavage of WFIKKN1 contributes most significantly to the observed enhancer activity. Analysis of a pro-TGF-β -based homology model of homodimeric latent myostatin revealed that the BMP1-cleavage sites are buried and not readily accessible to BMP1. In view of this observation, the most plausible explanation for the BMP1-enhancer activity of the KKN1 fragment is that it shifts a conformational equilibrium of latent myostatin from the closed circular structure of the homodimer to a more open form, making the cleavage sites more accessible to BMP1. On the other hand, the observation that the enhancer activity of KKN1 is superstimulated in the presence of heparin is explained by the fact KKN1, latent myostatin, and BMP1 have affinity for heparin and these interactions with heparin increase the local concentrations of the reactants thereby facilitating the action of BMP1. Furin: EC 3.4.21.75; BMP1, bone morphogentic protein 1 or procollagen C-endopeptidase: EC 3.4.24.19. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Construction of doxycycline-mediated BMP-2 transgene combining with APA microcapsules for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dongyang; Bai, Bo; Yan, Guangbin; Zhang, Shujiang; Liu, Qi; Chen, Yi; Tan, Xiaobo; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The repairing of large segmental bone defects is difficult for clinical orthopedists at present. Gene therapy is regarded as a promising method for bone defects repair. The present study aimed to construct an effective and controllable Tet-On expression system for transferring hBMP-2 gene into bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells (BMSCs). Meanwhile, with combination of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulation technology, we attempted to reduce the influence of immunologic rejection and examine the effect of the Tet-On expression system on osteogenesis of BMSCs. The adenovirus encoding hBMP-2 (ADV-hBMP2) was constructed using the means of molecular cloning. The ADV-hBMP2 and Adeno-X Tet-On virus was respectively transfected to the HEK293 for amplification and afterward BMSCs were co-infected with the virus of ADV-hBMP2 and the Adeno-X Tet-On. The expression of hBMP-2 was measured with induction by doxycycline (DOX) at different concentration by means of RT-PCR and ELISA. Combining Tet-On expression system and APA microcapsules with the use of the pulsed high-voltage electrostatic microcapsule instrument, we examined the expression level of hBMP-2 in APA microcapsules by ELISA as well as the osteogenesis by alizarin red S staining. An effective Tet-On expression system for transferring hBMP-2 gene into BMSCs was constructed successfully. Also, the expression of hBMP-2 could be regulated by concentration of DOX. The data exhibited that BMSCs in APA microcapsules maintained the capability of proliferation and differentiation. The combination of Tet-On expression system and APA microcapsules could promote the osteogenesis of BMSCs. According to the results, microencapsulated Tet-On expression system showed the effective characteristics of secreting hBMP-2 and enhancing osteogenesis, which would provide a promising way for bone repair.

  13. Genetic variation in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and colon and rectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are part of the TGF-β-signaling pathway; genetic variation in these genes may be involved in colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the association between genetic variation in BMP1 (11 tagSNPs), BMP2 (5 tagSNPs), BMP4 (3 tagSNPs), BMPR1A (9 tagSNPs), BMPR1B (21 tagSNPs), BMPR2 (11 tagSNPs), and GDF10 (7 tagSNPs) with risk of colon and rectal cancer and tumor molecular phenotype. We used data from population-based case-control studies (colon cancer n=1574 cases, 1970 controls; rectal cancer n=791 cases, 999 controls). We observed that genetic variation in BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, BMP2, and BMP4 was associated with risk of developing colon cancer, with 20 to 30% increased risk for most high-risk genotypes. A summary of high-risk genotypes showed over a twofold increase in colon cancer risk at the upper risk category (OR 2.49 95% CI 1.95, 3.18). BMPR2, BMPR1B, BMP2, and GDF10 were associated with rectal cancer. BMPR2 rs2228545 was associated with an almost twofold increased risk of rectal cancer. The risk associated with the highest category of the summary score for rectal cancer was 2.97 (95% CI 1.87, 4.72). Genes in the BMP-signaling pathway were consistently associated with CIMP+ status in combination with both KRAS-mutated and MSI tumors. BMP genes interacted statistically significantly with other genes in the TGF-β-signaling pathway, including TGFβ1, TGFβR1, Smad 3, Smad 4, and Smad 7. Our data support a role for genetic variation in BMP-related genes in the etiology of colon and rectal cancer. One possible mechanism is via the TGF-β-signaling pathway. PMID:21387313

  14. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce...... aerobic CH4 into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  15. Adsorption mechanism of BMP-7 on hydroxyapatite (001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hailong; Wu, Tao; Dong, Xiuli; Wang, Qi; Shen, Jiawei

    2007-01-01

    Many properties and functions of bone-related proteins perform through the interface with the hydroxyapatite. However, the mechanism of difference of proteins adsorbing behaviors caused by the variation of calcium and phosphate ions on hydroxyapatite is still unclear at atomic level. In this work, we investigated the site-selective adhesion and the adsorption mechanism of protein BMP-7 to the hydroxyapatite surfaces in aqueous media during adsorption and desorption processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations combined with trajectory analysis were employed to give insight into the underlying behaviors of BMP-7 binding. The results suggest that the adsorption sites could be divided into two categories: COO - and NH 2 /NH3+. For COO - , the adsorption phenomenon is driven by the electrostatic interaction formed between the negative charged carboxylate groups and the Ca1 cations on the hydroxyapatite surface. While for NH 2 /NH3+, the interaction is through the intermolecular H-bonds between the N-containing groups and the phosphate on the hydroxyapatite surface

  16. Asymmetric BMP4 signalling improves the realism of kidney organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher G; Lawrence, Melanie L; Munro, David A D; Elhendawi, Mona; Mullins, John J; Davies, Jamie A

    2017-11-01

    We present a strategy for increasing the anatomical realism of organoids by applying asymmetric cues to mimic spatial information that is present in natural embryonic development, and demonstrate it using mouse kidney organoids. Existing methods for making kidney organoids in mice yield developing nephrons arranged around a symmetrical collecting duct tree that has no ureter. We use transplant experiments to demonstrate plasticity in the fate choice between collecting duct and ureter, and show that an environment rich in BMP4 promotes differentiation of early collecting ducts into uroplakin-positive, unbranched, ureter-like epithelial tubules. Further, we show that application of BMP4-releasing beads in one place in an organoid can break the symmetry of the system, causing a nearby collecting duct to develop into a uroplakin-positive, broad, unbranched, ureter-like 'trunk' from one end of which true collecting duct branches radiate and induce nephron development in an arrangement similar to natural kidneys. The idea of using local symmetry-breaking cues to improve the realism of organoids may have applications to organoid systems other than the kidney.

  17. Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  18. Methane source identification in Boston, Massachusetts using isotopic and ethane measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, A.; Jackson, R. B.; Plata, D.; McKain, K.; Wofsy, S. C.; Rella, C.; Crosson, E.; Phillips, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    Methane has substantial greenhouse warming potential and is the principle component of natural gas. Fugitive natural gas emissions could be a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. However, the cumulative magnitude of natural gas leaks is not yet well constrained. We used a combination of point source measurements and ambient monitoring to characterize the methane sources in the Boston urban area. We developed distinct fingerprints for natural gas and multiple biogenic methane sources based on hydrocarbon concentration and isotopic composition. We combine these data with periodic measurements of atmospheric methane and ethane concentration to estimate the fractional contribution of natural gas and biogenic methane sources to the cumulative urban methane flux in Boston. These results are used to inform an inverse model of urban methane concentration and emissions.

  19. methanization development scheme in the Maine-et-Loire district - Synthesis June 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    After a presentation of the situation of methanization in France and in the Pays-de-la-Loire region, this report proposes an overview of the situation of methanization in the district and recalls objectives defined in its methanization development scheme. Then, it describes methanization principles (definition, operation and techniques, project typology, project development steps), proposes an overview of conditions for a successful methanization project development (substrate typology, biogas energetic valorisation, digestate valorisation, project financial and economic impact, social acceptability of methanization projects), gives an assessment of methanization development potential in the district through an assessment of methanizable resources and of energy outlets. It presents and comments a map of methanization development opportunities in the district

  20. Methane of the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the transformation process of the vegetable material to the coal (Carbonization), the products that are generated include CH 4, CO2, N2 and H2. The methane is generated by two mechanisms: below 50 centigrade degree, as product of microbial decomposition, the methanogenic is generated; and above 50 centigrade degree, due to the effects of the buried and increase of the range of the coal, the thermogenic methane is detachment, as a result of the catagenic. The generated methane is stored in the internal surfaces of the coal, macro and micro pores and in the natural fractures. The presence of accumulations of gas of the coal has been known in the entire world by many years, but only as something undesirable for its danger in the mining exploitation of the coal

  1. Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification is the dominant methane sink in a deep lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutzmann, Joerg S; Stief, Peter; Brandes, Josephin; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-12-23

    Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, also known as "nitrate/nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation" (n-damo), was discovered in 2006. Since then, only a few studies have identified this process and the associated microorganisms in natural environments. In aquatic sediments, the close proximity of oxygen- and nitrate-consumption zones can mask n-damo as aerobic methane oxidation. We therefore investigated the vertical distribution and the abundance of denitrifying methanotrophs related to Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera with cultivation-independent molecular techniques in the sediments of Lake Constance. Additionally, the vertical distribution of methane oxidation and nitrate consumption zones was inferred from high-resolution microsensor profiles in undisturbed sediment cores. M. oxyfera-like bacteria were virtually absent at shallow-water sites (littoral sediment) and were very abundant at deep-water sites (profundal sediment). In profundal sediment, the vertical distribution of M. oxyfera-like bacteria showed a distinct peak in anoxic layers that coincided with the zone of methane oxidation and nitrate consumption, a strong indication for n-damo carried out by M. oxyfera-like bacteria. Both potential n-damo rates calculated from cell densities (660-4,890 µmol CH4⋅m(-2)⋅d(-1)) and actual rates calculated from microsensor profiles (31-437 µmol CH4⋅m(-2)⋅d(-1)) were sufficiently high to prevent methane release from profundal sediment solely by this process. Additionally, when nitrate was added to sediment cores exposed to anoxic conditions, the n-damo zone reestablished well below the sediment surface, completely preventing methane release from the sediment. We conclude that the previously overlooked n-damo process can be the major methane sink in stable freshwater environments if nitrate is available in anoxic zones.

  2. Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification is the dominant methane sink in a deep lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutzmann, Joerg S.; Stief, Peter; Brandes, Josephin; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, also known as “nitrate/nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation” (n-damo), was discovered in 2006. Since then, only a few studies have identified this process and the associated microorganisms in natural environments. In aquatic sediments, the close proximity of oxygen- and nitrate-consumption zones can mask n-damo as aerobic methane oxidation. We therefore investigated the vertical distribution and the abundance of denitrifying methanotrophs related to Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera with cultivation-independent molecular techniques in the sediments of Lake Constance. Additionally, the vertical distribution of methane oxidation and nitrate consumption zones was inferred from high-resolution microsensor profiles in undisturbed sediment cores. M. oxyfera-like bacteria were virtually absent at shallow-water sites (littoral sediment) and were very abundant at deep-water sites (profundal sediment). In profundal sediment, the vertical distribution of M. oxyfera-like bacteria showed a distinct peak in anoxic layers that coincided with the zone of methane oxidation and nitrate consumption, a strong indication for n-damo carried out by M. oxyfera-like bacteria. Both potential n-damo rates calculated from cell densities (660–4,890 µmol CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1) and actual rates calculated from microsensor profiles (31–437 µmol CH4⋅m−2⋅d−1) were sufficiently high to prevent methane release from profundal sediment solely by this process. Additionally, when nitrate was added to sediment cores exposed to anoxic conditions, the n-damo zone reestablished well below the sediment surface, completely preventing methane release from the sediment. We conclude that the previously overlooked n-damo process can be the major methane sink in stable freshwater environments if nitrate is available in anoxic zones. PMID:25472842

  3. Upward revision of global fossil fuel methane emissions based on isotope database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Sherwood, Owen A; Bruhwiler, Lori M P; Miller, John B; Etiope, Giuseppe; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Michel, Sylvia Englund; Arling, Victoria A; Vaughn, Bruce H; White, James W C; Tans, Pieter P

    2016-10-06

    Methane has the second-largest global radiative forcing impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gases after carbon dioxide, but our understanding of the global atmospheric methane budget is incomplete. The global fossil fuel industry (production and usage of natural gas, oil and coal) is thought to contribute 15 to 22 per cent of methane emissions to the total atmospheric methane budget. However, questions remain regarding methane emission trends as a result of fossil fuel industrial activity and the contribution to total methane emissions of sources from the fossil fuel industry and from natural geological seepage, which are often co-located. Here we re-evaluate the global methane budget and the contribution of the fossil fuel industry to methane emissions based on long-term global methane and methane carbon isotope records. We compile the largest isotopic methane source signature database so far, including fossil fuel, microbial and biomass-burning methane emission sources. We find that total fossil fuel methane emissions (fossil fuel industry plus natural geological seepage) are not increasing over time, but are 60 to 110 per cent greater than current estimates owing to large revisions in isotope source signatures. We show that this is consistent with the observed global latitudinal methane gradient. After accounting for natural geological methane seepage, we find that methane emissions from natural gas, oil and coal production and their usage are 20 to 60 per cent greater than inventories. Our findings imply a greater potential for the fossil fuel industry to mitigate anthropogenic climate forcing, but we also find that methane emissions from natural gas as a fraction of production have declined from approximately 8 per cent to approximately 2 per cent over the past three decades.

  4. Nitrous oxide and methane exchange in two small temperate forest catchments - effects of hydrological gradients and implications for global warming potentials of forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper Riis; Vesterdal, Lars; Gundersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    half the catchment area at both sites, the global warming potential (GWP) derived from N2O and CH4 was more than doubled when accounting for these wet areas in the catchments. The results stress the importance of wet soils in assessments of forest soil global warming potentials, as even small...

  5. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2013-07-15

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin structure: H.sub.4SiW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.3PW.sub.12O.sub.40, H.sub.4SiMo.sub.12O.sub.40, or H.sub.3PMo.sub.12O.sub.40, can be when supported on silica.

  6. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  7. Interactions between Bmp-4 and Msx-1 act to restrict gene expression to odontogenic mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A S; Al Khamis, A; Sharpe, P T

    1998-08-01

    Tooth development is regulated by a reciprocal series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Bmp4 has been identified as a candidate signalling molecule in these interactions, initially as an epithelial signal and then later at the bud stage as a mesenchymal signal (Vainio et al. [1993] Cell 75:45-58). A target gene for Bmp4 signalling is the homeobox gene Msx-1, identified by the ability of recombinant Bmp4 protein to induce expression in mesenchyme. There is, however, no evidence that Bmp4 is the endogenous inducer of Msx-1 expression. Msx-1 and Bmp-4 show dynamic, interactive patterns of expression in oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme during the early stages of tooth development. In this study, we compare the temporal and spatial expression of these two genes to determine whether the changing expression patterns of these genes are consistent with interactions between the two molecules. We show that changes in Bmp-4 expression precede changes in Msx-1 expression. At embryonic day (E)10.5-E11.0, expression patterns are consistent with BMP4 from the epithelium, inducing or maintaining Msx-1 in underlying mesenchyme. At E11.5, Bmp-4 expression shifts from epithelium to mesenchyme and is rapidly followed by localised up-regulation of Msx-1 expression at the sites of Bmp-4 expression. Using cultured explants of developing mandibles, we confirm that exogenous BMP4 is capable of replacing the endogenous source in epithelium and inducing Msx-1 gene expression in mesenchyme. By using noggin, a BMP inhibitor, we show that endogenous Msx-1 expression can be inhibited at E10.5 and E11.5, providing the first evidence that endogenous Bmp-4 from the epithelium is responsible for regulating the early spatial expression of Msx-1. We also show that the mesenchymal shift in Bmp-4 is responsible for up-regulating Msx-1 specifically at the sites of future tooth formation. Thus, we establish that a reciprocal series of interactions act to restrict expression of both genes to future

  8. Methane Seepage on Mars: Where to Look and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Methane on Mars is a topic of special interest because of its potential association with microbial life. The variable detections of methane by the Curiosity rover, orbiters, and terrestrial telescopes, coupled with methane's short lifetime in the martian atmosphere, may imply an active gas source in the planet's subsurface, with migration and surface emission processes similar to those known on Earth as "gas seepage." Here, we review the variety of subsurface processes that could result in methane seepage on Mars. Such methane could originate from abiotic chemical reactions, thermogenic alteration of abiotic or biotic organic matter, and ancient or extant microbial metabolism. These processes can occur over a wide range of temperatures, in both sedimentary and igneous rocks, and together they enhance the possibility that significant amounts of methane could have formed on early Mars. Methane seepage to the surface would occur preferentially along faults and fractures, through focused macro-seeps and/or diffuse microseepage exhalations. Our work highlights the types of features on Mars that could be associated with methane release, including mud-volcano-like mounds in Acidalia or Utopia; proposed ancient springs in Gusev Crater, Arabia Terra, and Valles Marineris; and rims of large impact craters. These could have been locations of past macro-seeps and may still emit methane today. Microseepage could occur through faults along the dichotomy or fractures such as those at Nili Fossae, Cerberus Fossae, the Argyre impact, and those produced in serpentinized rocks. Martian microseepage would be extremely difficult to detect remotely yet could constitute a significant gas source. We emphasize that the most definitive detection of methane seepage from different release candidates would be best provided by measurements performed in the ground or at the ground-atmosphere interface by landers or rovers and that the technology for such detection is currently available. Key

  9. Methane productivity of manure, straw and solid fractions of manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H.B.; Sommer, S.G.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    are in the same range (282-301 m(3) CH4 LU-1). Pre-treatment of manure by separation is a way of making fractions of the manure that have a higher gas potential per volume. Theoretical methane potential and biodegradability of three types of fractions deriving from manure separation were tested. The volumetric...... methane yield of straw was found to be higher than the yield from total manure and the solid fractions of manure, due to the higher VS content, and hence the use of straw as bedding material will increase the volumetric as well as the livestock-based methane productivity....

  10. Sediment trapping by dams creates methane emission hot spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeck, A.; Delsontro, T.; McGinnis, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Inland waters transport and transform substantial amounts of carbon and account for similar to 18% of global methane emissions. Large reservoirs with higher areal methane release rates than natural waters contribute significantly to freshwater emissions. However, there are millions of small dams...... worldwide that receive and trap high loads of organic carbon and can therefore potentially emit significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere. We evaluated the effect of damming on methane emissions in a central European impounded river. Direct comparison of riverine and reservoir reaches, where...... sedimentation in the latter is increased due to trapping by dams, revealed that the reservoir reaches are the major source of methane emissions (similar to 0.23 mmol CH4 m(-2) d(-1) vs similar to 19.7 mmol CH4 m(-2) d(-1), respectively) and that areal emission rates far exceed previous estimates for temperate...

  11. Essentials for profitable coalbed methane production in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, J.C.; Rollins, J.B. [Cawley, Gillespie & Associates, Inc. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The UK coalbed methane industry is now poised for a continuation of its growth. For this potential growth to be realized, coalbed methane production must be profitable for producers. Commercial viability of coalbed methane production in the UK depends on th fulfilment of essential technical, regulatory, and economic conditions. Technically, coalbed methane reservoirs must have an adequate thickness of permeable gas saturated coal. The regulatory environment must offer favorable treatment regarding taxation, royalties, and policies on well spacing, wellsite locations, and market accessibility. Economically, gas prices and initial capital costs must be sufficiently favorable to yield an acceptable rate of return. If these essential conditions can be fulfilled, UK coalbed methane production can be expected to be a commercially viable industry. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Activation of PKA/CREB Signaling is Involved in BMP9-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: BMP9 is highly capable of promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs although the molecular mechanism involved is largely unknown. Here, we explored the detail role of PKA/CREB signaling in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Methods: Activation status of PKA/CREB signaling is assessed by nonradioactive assay and Western blot. Using PKA inhibitors and a dominant negative protein of CREB (A-CREB, we investigated the effect of PKA/CREB signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Results: We found that BMP9 promotes PKA activity and enhances CREB phosphorylation in MSCs. BMP9 is shown to down-regulate protein kinase A inhibitor γ (PKIγ expression. We demonstrated that PKA inhibitors suppress BMP9-induced early osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity in MSCs as well as late osteogenic markers osteopontin (OPN, osteocalcin (OCN and matrix mineralization. We found that PKA inhibitor reduces BMP9-induced Runx2 activation and p38 phosphorylation in MSCs. Lastly, interference of CREB function by A-CREB decreased BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation as well. Conclusion: Our results revealed that BMP9 may activate PKA/CREB signaling in MSCs through suppression of PKIγ expression. It is noteworthy that inhibition of PKA/CREB signaling may impair BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, implying that activation of PKA/CREB signaling is required for BMP9 osteoinductive activity.

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound accelerates tooth movement via activation of the BMP-2 signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xue

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the underlying mechanism of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS induced alveolar bone remodeling and the role of BMP-2 expression in a rat orthodontic tooth movement model. Orthodontic appliances were placed between the homonymy upper first molars and the upper central incisors in rats under general anesthesia, followed by daily 20-min LIPUS or sham LIPUS treatment beginning at day 0. Tooth movement distances and molecular changes were evaluated at each observation point. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to detect HGF (Hepatocyte growth factor/Runx2/BMP-2 signaling pathways and receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL expression by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. At day 3, LIPUS had no effect on the rat orthodontic tooth movement distance and BMP-2-induced alveolar bone remodeling. However, beginning at day 5 and for the following time points, LIPUS significantly increased orthodontic tooth movement distance and BMP-2 signaling pathway and RANKL expression compared with the control group. The qRT-PCR and Western blot data in vitro and in vivo to study BMP-2 expression were consistent with the immunohistochemistry observations. The present study demonstrates that LIPUS promotes alveolar bone remodeling by stimulating the HGF/Runx2/BMP-2 signaling pathway and RANKL expression in a rat orthodontic tooth movement model, and LIPUS increased BMP-2 expression via Runx2 regulation.

  14. Dual role of BMP signaling in the regulation of Drosophila intestinal stem cell self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Aiguo; Jiang, Jin

    2017-10-02

    Many adult organs including Drosophila adult midguts rely on resident stem cells to replenish damaged cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that, upon injury, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the midguts can increase proliferation and lineage differentiation to meet the demand for tissue repair. Our recent study has demonstrated that, in response to certain injury, midguts can expand ISC population size as an additional regenerative mechanism. We found that injury elicited by bleomycin feeding or bacterial infection increased the production of two BMP ligands (Dpp and Gbb) in enterocytes (ECs), leading to elevated BMP signaling in progenitor cells that drove an expansion of ISCs by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division. Interestingly, we also found that BMP signaling in ECs inhibits the production of Dpp and Gbb, and that this negative feedback mechanism is required to reset ISC pool size to the homeostatic state. Our findings suggest that BMP signaling exerts two opposing influences on stem cell activity depending on where it acts: BMP signaling in progenitor cells promotes ISC self-renewal while BMP signaling in ECs restricts ISC self-renewal by preventing excessive production of BMP ligands. Our results further suggest that transient expansion of ISC population in conjunction with increasing ISC proliferation provides a more effective strategy for tissue regeneration.

  15. Bmp signaling mediates endoderm pouch morphogenesis by regulating Fgf signaling in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Mary E.; McCarthy, Neil; Norrie, Jacqueline L.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2016-01-01

    The endodermal pouches are a series of reiterated structures that segment the pharyngeal arches and help pattern the vertebrate face. Multiple pathways regulate the complex process of endodermal development, including the Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) pathway. However, the role of Bmp signaling in pouch morphogenesis is poorly understood. Using genetic and chemical inhibitor approaches, we show that pouch morphogenesis requires Bmp signaling from 10-18 h post-fertilization, immediately following gastrulation. Blocking Bmp signaling during this window results in morphological defects to the pouches and craniofacial skeleton. Using genetic chimeras we show that Bmp signals directly to the endoderm for proper morphogenesis. Time-lapse imaging and analysis of reporter transgenics show that Bmp signaling is necessary for pouch outpocketing via the Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway. Double loss-of-function analyses demonstrate that Bmp and Fgf signaling interact synergistically in craniofacial development. Collectively, our analyses shed light on the tissue and signaling interactions that regulate development of the vertebrate face. PMID:27122171

  16. Endocardial to myocardial notch-wnt-bmp axis regulates early heart valve development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Wang

    Full Text Available Endocardial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT is a fundamental cellular process required for heart valve formation. Notch, Wnt and Bmp pathways are known to regulate this process. To further address how these pathways coordinate in the process, we specifically disrupted Notch1 or Jagged1 in the endocardium of mouse embryonic hearts and showed that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in the endocardium is essential for EMT and early valvular cushion formation. qPCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays reveal that endocardial Jagged1-Notch1 signaling regulates Wnt4 expression in the atrioventricular canal (AVC endocardium and Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium. Whole embryo cultures treated with Wnt4 or Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1 show that Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium is dependent on Wnt activity; Wnt4 also reinstates Bmp2 expression in the AVC myocardium of endocardial Notch1 null embryos. Furthermore, while both Wnt4 and Bmp2 rescue the defective EMT resulting from Notch inhibition, Wnt4 requires Bmp for its action. These results demonstrate that Jagged1-Notch1 signaling in endocardial cells induces the expression of Wnt4, which subsequently acts as a paracrine factor to upregulate Bmp2 expression in the adjacent AVC myocardium to signal EMT.

  17. DRAGON, a GPI-anchored membrane protein, inhibits BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanomata, Kazuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Nojima, Junya; Fukuda, Toru; Katagiri, Takenobu

    2009-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce osteoblastic differentiation of myoblasts via binding to cell surface receptors. Repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) have been identified as BMP co-receptors. We report here that DRAGON/RGMb, a member of the RGM family, suppressed BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts via a novel mechanism. All RGMs were expressed in C2C12 cells that were differentiated into myocytes and osteoblastic cells, but RGMc was not detected in immature cells. In C2C12 cells, only DRAGON suppressed ALP and Id1 promoter activities induced by BMP-4 or by constitutively activated BMP type I receptors. This inhibition by DRAGON was dependent on the secretory form of the von Willbrand factor type D domain. DRAGON even suppressed BMP signaling induced by constitutively activated Smad1. Over-expression of neogenin did not alter the inhibitory capacity of DRAGON. Taken together, these findings indicate that DRAGON may be an inhibitor of BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts. We also suggest that a novel molecule(s) expressed on the cell membrane may mediate the signal transduction of DRAGON in order to suppress BMP signaling in C2C12 myoblasts.

  18. RGM regulates BMP-mediated secondary axis formation in the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Lucas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2014-12-11

    Patterning of the metazoan dorsoventral axis is mediated by a complex interplay of BMP signaling regulators. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) is a conserved BMP coreceptor that has not been implicated in axis specification. We show that NvRGM is a key positive regulator of BMP signaling during secondary axis establishment in the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. NvRGM regulates first the generation and later the shape of a BMP-dependent Smad1/5/8 gradient with peak activity on the side opposite the NvBMP/NvRGM/NvChordin expression domain. Full knockdown of Smad1/5/8 signaling blocks the formation of endodermal structures, the mesenteries, and the establishment of bilateral symmetry, while altering the gradient through partial NvRGM or NvBMP knockdown shifts the boundaries of asymmetric gene expression and the positioning of the mesenteries along the secondary axis. These findings provide insight into the diversification of axis specification mechanisms and identify a previously unrecognized role for RGM in BMP-mediated axial patterning. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. BMP signaling mediates effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T Gobeske

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to exercise or to environmental enrichment increases the generation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus and promotes certain kinds of learning and memory. While the precise role of neurogenesis in cognition has been debated intensely, comparatively few studies have addressed the mechanisms linking environmental exposures to cellular and behavioral outcomes. Here we show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling mediates the effects of exercise on neurogenesis and cognition in the adult hippocampus. Elective exercise reduces levels of hippocampal BMP signaling before and during its promotion of neurogenesis and learning. Transgenic mice with decreased BMP signaling or wild type mice infused with a BMP inhibitor both exhibit remarkable gains in hippocampal cognitive performance and neurogenesis, mirroring the effects of exercise. Conversely, transgenic mice with increased BMP signaling have diminished hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired cognition. Exercise exposure does not rescue these deficits, suggesting that reduced BMP signaling is required for environmental effects on neurogenesis and learning. Together, these observations show that BMP signaling is a fundamental mechanism linking environmental exposure with changes in cognitive function and cellular properties in the hippocampus.

  20. Situation of methanization installations in Haute-Normandie. Phase 2: Assessment of the regional sector. Phase 3: Development perspectives for the methanization sector in Haute-Normandie. To understand methanization. Haute-Normandie Commission of expertise on methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convert, Mathilde

    2012-10-01

    A first report proposes an analysis of the situation of methanization installations in the Haute-Normandie region while recalling the national context. It briefly reports an analysis and assessment of waste flows, processed effluents, by-products and biomass displaying an energetic potential. It describes methanization installations by addressing the different steps of the methanization process, by presenting the different digestion indicators, by briefly evoking the issue of the return-to-soil of digestates, and by presenting various operational data. Financial aspects are then addressed (investments and subsidies, financial balance of farm-based and collective installations), and an overview of methanization projects in the region and development perspectives is proposed. The second report more precisely analyses development perspectives for the methanization sector in the region through a brief assessment of the methanizable organic substrate resource, a discussion of different associated challenges (energy, agronomic, environmental and societal), a discussion of development levers and brakes, and an analysis of competitions (related to the use of industrial by-products, between processing installations, and related to agricultural soils). Another document proposes an overview of various aspects of methanization: a tool for territorial development, regulatory framework, evolution of installations in the region, assets of methanization, and role of the regional commission of expertise on methanization

  1. Termites facilitate methane oxidation and shape the methanotrophic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Erens, Hans; Mujinya, Basile Bazirake; Boeckx, Pascal; Baert, Geert; Schneider, Bellinda; Frenzel, Peter; Boon, Nico; Van Ranst, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Termite-derived methane contributes 3 to 4% to the total methane budget globally. Termites are not known to harbor methane-oxidizing microorganisms (methanotrophs). However, a considerable fraction of the methane produced can be consumed by methanotrophs that inhabit the mound material, yet the methanotroph ecology in these environments is virtually unknown. The potential for methane oxidation was determined using slurry incubations under conditions with high (12%) and in situ (∼0.004%) methane concentrations through a vertical profile of a termite (Macrotermes falciger) mound and a reference soil. Interestingly, the mound material showed higher methanotrophic activity. The methanotroph community structure was determined by means of a pmoA-based diagnostic microarray. Although the methanotrophs in the mound were derived from populations in the reference soil, it appears that termite activity selected for a distinct community. Applying an indicator species analysis revealed that putative atmospheric methane oxidizers (high-indicator-value probes specific for the JR3 cluster) were indicative of the active nest area, whereas methanotrophs belonging to both type I and type II were indicative of the reference soil. We conclude that termites modify their environment, resulting in higher methane oxidation and selecting and/or enriching for a distinct methanotroph population.

  2. Factors Controlling Methane in Arctic Lakes of Southwest Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northington, Robert M; Saros, Jasmine E

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed 15 lakes during the growing season of 2014 in Arctic lakes of southwest Greenland to determine which factors influence methane concentrations in these systems. Methane averaged 2.5 μmol L-1 in lakes, but varied a great deal across the landscape with lakes on older landscapes farther from the ice sheet margin having some of the highest values of methane reported in lakes in the northern hemisphere (125 μmol L-1). The most important factors influencing methane in Greenland lakes included ionic composition (SO4, Na, Cl) and chlorophyll a in the water column. DOC concentrations were also related to methane, but the short length of the study likely underestimated the influence and timing of DOC on methane concentrations in the region. Atmospheric methane concentrations are increasing globally, with freshwater ecosystems in northern latitudes continuing to serve as potentially large sources in the future. Much less is known about how freshwater lakes in Greenland fit in the global methane budget compared to other, more well-studied areas of the Arctic, hence our work provides essential data for a more complete view of this rapidly changing region.

  3. Permafrost slowly exhales methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.

    2018-04-01

    Permafrost soils store vast quantities of organic matter that are vulnerable to decomposition under a warming climate. Recent research finds that methane release from thawing permafrost may outpace carbon dioxide as a major contributor to global warming over the next century.

  4. Methane pellet moderator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.; Carpenter, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A methane pellet moderator assembly consisting of a pelletizer, a helium cooled sub-cooling tunnel, a liquid helium cooled cryogenic pellet storage hopper and a 1.5L moderator cell has been constructed for the purpose demonstrating a system for use in high-power spallation sources. (orig.)

  5. Methane emissions from grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol - van Dasselaar, van den A.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction

    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas. The concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has been increasing since pre-industrial times, mainly due to human activities. This increase gives concern,

  6. Atmospheric Ozone and Methane in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar S. A. Isaksen

    2014-07-01

    . During thawing of permafrost, parts of the organic material that is deposited could be converted to methane. Furthermore, methane stored in deposits under shallow waters in the Arctic have the potential to be released in a future warmer climate with enhanced climate impact on methane, ozone and stratospheric water vapor. Studies performed by several groups show that the transport sectors have the potential for significant impacts on climate-chemistry interactions. There are large uncertainties connected to ozone and methane changes from the transport sector, and to methane release and climate impact during permafrost thawing.

  7. BMP15 Prevents Cumulus Cell Apoptosis Through CCL2 and FBN1 in Porcine Ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15 is a maternal gene necessary for mammalian reproduction. BMP15 expression increased in oocytes accompanied by follicle growth and development. The function and regulation mechanism of BMP15 in porcine cumulus cell apoptosis process is still unclear now. Methods: In this study, flow cytometry (FCM was used to analyze the effects of BMP15 with different concentrations to cumulus cell apoptosis. High-throughput sequencing technology was carried out to screen regulatory genes linked closely with BMP15. In order to confirm the function of (MCP-1/CCL2 and FBN1 in cumulus cell apoptosis, RNA interference (RNAi method was used to inhibit the expression of (MCP-1/CCL2 and FBN1. Apoptosis and proliferation of cumulus cell treated with siRNA transfection technology were measured by FCM, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, quantitative real time-PCR (RT-qPCR and western blotting. Results: The results showed that the apoptosis levels of cumulus cell treated by BMP15 decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of related genes protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2 and fibrillin1 (FBN1 were both regulated by BMP15. After transfection, the proliferation of porcine cumulus cells increased significantly and apoptosis of cumulus cells was prevented while FBN1 was silenced after BMP15 treatment. The proliferation of cumulus cells decreased significantly and apoptosis rate of cumulus cells increased significantly while CCL2 was silenced. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study firstly demonstrated that CCL2 and FBN1 are important regulatory factors of BMP15 in preventing cumulus cell apoptosis in porcine ovaries.

  8. Methane emissions from natural wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J.L. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States); Burke, R.A. Jr. [Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1993-09-01

    Analyses of air trapped in polar ice cores in conjunction with recent atmospheric measurements, indicate that the atmospheric methane concentration increased by about 250% during the past two or three hundred years (Rasmussen and Khalil, 1984). Because methane is a potent ``greenhouse`` gas, the increasing concentrations are expected to contribute to global warning (Dickinson and Cicerone, 1986). The timing of the methane increase suggests that it is related to the rapid growth of the human population and associated industrialization and agricultural development. The specific causes of the atmospheric methane concentration increase are not well known, but may relate to either increases in methane sources, decreases in the strengths of the sinks, or both.

  9. Potential emissions of radiatively active gases from soil to atmosphere with special reference to methane: Development of a global database (WISE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    1994-01-01

    The role of soil in controlling production and fluxes of biotic greenhouse gases is the focus of research in progress at the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC). There are two main goals in this project on World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (WISE). The first is to

  10. The direct aromatization of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R.; Migone, R.A.; Kazi, A.M. [Altamira Instruments, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The thermal decomposition of methane shows significant potential as a process for the production of higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of the reaction is limited. Thermodynamic calculations have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon and heavier (C{sub 10+}) materials. Much work remains to be done in optimizing the quenching process and this is one of the goals of this program. Means to lower the temperature of the reaction are being studied as this result in a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts will be investigated as a means of lowering the reaction temperature thus allowing faster quenching. It is highly likely that such studies will lead to a successful direct methane to higher hydrocarbon process.

  11. [The processes of methane formation and oxidation in the soils of the Russian arctic tundra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berestovskaia, Iu Iu; Rusanov, I I; Vasil'eva, L V; Pimenov, N V

    2005-01-01

    Methane emission from the following types of tundra soils was studied: coarse humic gleyey loamy cryo soil, peaty gley soil, and peaty gleyey midloamy cryo soil of the arctic tundra. All the soils studied were found to be potential sources of atmospheric methane. The highest values of methane emission were recorded in August at a soil temperature of 8-10 degrees C. Flooded parcels were the sources of atmospheric methane throughout the observation period. The rates of methane production and oxidation in tundra soils of various types at 5 and 15 degrees C were studied by the radioisotope method. Methane oxidation was found to occur in bog water, in the green part of peat moss, and in all the soil horizons studied. Methane formation was recorded in the horizons of peat, in clay with plant roots, and in peaty moss dust of the bogey parcels. At both temperatures, the methane oxidation rate exceeded the rate of methane formation in all the horizons of the mossy-lichen tundra and of the bumpy sinkhole complex. Methanogenesis prevailed only in a sedge-peat moss bog at 15 degrees C. Enrichment bacterial cultures oxidizing methane at 5 and 15 degrees C were obtained. Different types of methanotrophic bacteria were shown to be responsible for methane oxidation under these conditions. A representative of type I methylotrophs oxidized methane at 5 degrees C, and Methylocella tundrae, a psychroactive representative of an acidophilic methanotrophic genus Methylocella, at 15 degrees C.

  12. Comparison of the osteogenesis and fusion rates between activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) and rhBMP-2 in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar spine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guang Bin; Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup

    2017-10-01

    Activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) could promote bone healing more effectively than recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) with much lower dose in a rodent model, but there is no report about the effectiveness of AB204 in a large animal model. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenesis and fusion rate between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a carrier in a beagle's posterolateral lumbar fusion model. This is a randomized control animal study. Seventeen male beagle dogs were included. Bilateral posterolateral fusion was performed at the L1-L2 and L4-L5 levels. Biphasic calcium phosphate (2 cc), rhBMP-2 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc), or AB204 (50 µg)+BCP (2 cc) were implanted into the intertransverse space randomly. X-ray was performed at 4 and 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and new bone formation and fusion rate were evaluated by manual palpation, computed tomography (CT), and undecalcified histology. The AB204 group showed significantly higher fusion rate (90%) than the rhBMP-2 group (15%) or the Osteon group (6.3%) by manual palpation. On x-ray and CT assessment, fusion rate and the volume of newly formed bone were also significantly higher in AB204 group than other groups. In contrast, more osteolysis was found in rhBMP-2 group (40%) than in AB204 group (10%) on CT study. In histologic results, new bone formation was sufficient between transverse processes in AB204 group, and obvious trabeculation and bone remodeling were observed. But in rhBMP-2 group, new bone formation was less than AB204 group and osteolysis was observed between the intertransverse spaces. A low dose of AB204 with BCP as a carrier significantly promotes the fusion rate in a large animal model when compared with the rhBMP-2. These findings demonstrate that AB204 could be an alternative to rhBMP-2 to improve fusion rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of BMP-induced bone formation: Cross-talk between BMP and NF-κB signaling pathways in osteoblastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eijiro Jimi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that differentiate from mesenchymal stem cells. Differentiation processes are coordinately and dynamically controlled in the mesenchymal cells by specific signal transduction pathways. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs, members of the TGF-β superfamily, induce not only bone formation in vivo, but also osteoblast differentiation of mesenchymal cells in vitro. BMP signals are transduced from plasma membrane receptors to the nucleus through both Smad-dependent and -independent pathways, and are regulated by many extracellular and intercellular proteins that interact with BMPs or components of BMP signaling pathways. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of BMPs in osteoblast differentiation, it is important to elucidate the BMP signaling transduction pathways that are active during osteoblast differentiation. In this review, we summarize the BMP signaling pathways that are known to function in osteoblast development. We also describe our recent findings regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cross-talk between BMP/Smad and NF-κB pathways in osteoblast differentiation.

  14. Constraining the relationships between anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction under in situ methane concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, G.; Wegener, G.; Joye, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important microbial metabolism in the global carbon cycle. In marine methane seeps sediment, this process is mediated by syntrophic consortium that includes anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Stoichiometrically in AOM methane oxidation should be coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) in a 1:1 ratio. However, weak coupling of AOM and SR in seep sediments was frequently observed from the ex situ rate measurements, and the metabolic dynamics of AOM and SR under in situ conditions remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the metabolic activity of AOM and SR with radiotracers by restoring in situ methane concentrations under pressure to constrain the in situ relationships between AOM and SR in the cold seep sediments of Gulf of Mexico as well as the sediment-free AOM enrichments cultivated from cold seep of Italian Island Elba or hydrothermal vent of Guaymas Basin5. Surprisingly, we found that AOM rates strongly exceeded those of SR when high pressures and methane concentrations were applied at seep sites of GC600 and GC767 in Gulf of Mexico. With the addition of molybdate, SR was inhibited but AOM was not affected, suggesting the potential coupling of AOM with other terminal processes. Amendments of nitrate, iron, manganese and AQDS to the SR-inhibited slurries did not stimulate or inhibit the AOM activity, indicating either those electron acceptors were not limiting for AOM in the sediments or AOM was coupled to other process (e.g., organic matter). In the ANME enrichments, higher AOM rates were also observed with the addition of high concentrations of methane (10mM and 50 mM). The tracer transfer of CO2 to methane, i.e., the back reaction of AOM, increased with increasing methane concentrations and accounted for 1%-5% of the AOM rates. AOM rates at 10 mM and 50 mM methane concentration were much higher than the SR rates, suggesting those two processes were not tightly coupled

  15. Gas hydrates: entrance to a methane age or climate threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, Volker; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Grubler, Arnulf; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Canadell, Josep G; Abe, Yuichi; Andruleit, Harald; Archer, David; Hamilton, Neil T M; Johnson, Arthur; Kostov, Veselin; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Langhorne, Nicholas; Nisbet, Euan G; Riedel, Michael; Wang Weihua; Yakushev, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Methane hydrates, ice-like compounds in which methane is held in crystalline cages formed by water molecules, are widespread in areas of permafrost such as the Arctic and in sediments on the continental margins. They are a potentially vast fossil fuel energy source but, at the same time, could be destabilized by changing pressure-temperature conditions due to climate change, potentially leading to strong positive carbon-climate feedbacks. To enhance our understanding of both the vulnerability of and the opportunity provided by methane hydrates, it is necessary (i) to conduct basic research that improves the highly uncertain estimates of hydrate occurrences and their response to changing environmental conditions, and (ii) to integrate the agendas of energy security and climate change which can provide an opportunity for methane hydrates-in particular if combined with carbon capture and storage-to be used as a 'bridge fuel' between carbon-intensive fossil energies and zero-emission energies. Taken one step further, exploitation of dissociating methane hydrates could even mitigate against escape of methane to the atmosphere. Despite these opportunities, so far, methane hydrates have been largely absent from energy and climate discussions, including global hydrocarbon assessments and the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  16. Methane cycling. Nonequilibrium clumped isotope signals in microbial methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David T; Gruen, Danielle S; Lollar, Barbara Sherwood; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Stewart, Lucy C; Holden, James F; Hristov, Alexander N; Pohlman, John W; Morrill, Penny L; Könneke, Martin; Delwiche, Kyle B; Reeves, Eoghan P; Sutcliffe, Chelsea N; Ritter, Daniel J; Seewald, Jeffrey S; McIntosh, Jennifer C; Hemond, Harold F; Kubo, Michael D; Cardace, Dawn; Hoehler, Tori M; Ono, Shuhei

    2015-04-24

    Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle, with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its multiply substituted "clumped" isotopologues (for example, (13)CH3D) has recently emerged as a proxy for determining methane-formation temperatures. However, the effect of biological processes on methane's clumped isotopologue signature is poorly constrained. We show that methanogenesis proceeding at relatively high rates in cattle, surface environments, and laboratory cultures exerts kinetic control on (13)CH3D abundances and results in anomalously elevated formation-temperature estimates. We demonstrate quantitatively that H2 availability accounts for this effect. Clumped methane thermometry can therefore provide constraints on the generation of methane in diverse settings, including continental serpentinization sites and ancient, deep groundwaters. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Gremlin-2 is a BMP antagonist that is regulated by the circadian clock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeung, Ching-Yan Chloé; Gossan, Nicole; Lu, Yinhui

    2014-01-01

    knowledge of tendon gene regulation is essential for a complete understanding of FCT biology. Here we show autonomous circadian rhythms in mouse tendon and primary human tenocytes, controlled by an intrinsic molecular circadian clock. Time-series microarrays identified the first circadian transcriptome...... of murine tendon, revealing that 4.6% of the transcripts (745 genes) are expressed in a circadian manner. One of these genes was Grem2, which oscillated in antiphase to BMP signaling. Moreover, recombinant human Gremlin-2 blocked BMP2-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5 and osteogenic differentiation...... of human tenocytes in vitro. We observed dampened Grem2 expression, deregulated BMP signaling, and spontaneously calcifying tendons in young CLOCKΔ19 arrhythmic mice and aged wild-type mice. Thus, disruption of circadian control, through mutations or aging, of Grem2/BMP signaling becomes a new focus...

  18. Methane from dairy waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-22

    This short article describes a facility which will incorporate features to allow for the recovery of the methane gas that is produced in the manufacture of cheese and spray-dried whey powder at the site. The dairy plant is expected to produce about 1,385 m/sup 3//day of methane which will supplement the operation of oil burners and replace the annual consumption of 4,000 bbl of heavy fuel oil. In addition, development of the treatment system would eliminate the consumption of 7,200 kWh/day of electrical energy that would otherwise be required to operate an aerobic disposal system. Total annual energy savings, when the project is fully operational in the spring of 1984, are expected to reach $321,000.

  19. Methanation: reality or fiction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The author discusses whether it is possible to partly replace oil and natural gas by electricity-based gas, i.e. to produce methane from water by electrolysis, or by using molecule cracking in dedicated nuclear reactors, and carbon dioxide. He outlines the benefits of this perspective in terms of reduction of imports, and of national electricity production optimisation. He also discusses the drawbacks: it will be difficult to produce the huge required quantity of CO 2 ; it will be even more difficult to produce the required quantity of electricity; the e-methane production cost is much higher than that of the currently imported natural gas. In appendix, the author discusses some key figures related to energy in France (consumption, shares, imports, crucial role of nuclear energy for the future)

  20. Project identification for methane reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses efforts directed at reduction in emission of methane to the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, which on a 20 year timeframe may present a similar problem to carbon dioxide. In addition, methane causes additional problems in the form of smog and its longer atmospheric lifetime. The author discusses strategies for reducing methane emission from several major sources. This includes landfill methane recovery, coalbed methane recovery, livestock methane reduction - in the form of ruminant methane reduction and manure methane recovery. The author presents examples of projects which have implemented these ideas, the economics of the projects, and additional gains which come from the projects.

  1. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release as much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  2. Photofragment imaging of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, A.J.; Zare, R.N.; Chandler, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The photolysis of methane is studied using photofragment imaging techniques. Our study reveals that the photolysis of methane proceeds via many different pathways. The photofragment imaging technique is used to resolve and characterize these various pathways and provides therefore unique insight into the dynamical processes that govern this photodissociation. The formation of H-atom photofragments following absorption of a Lyman-α photon, and H 2 photofragments following absorption of two ultraviolet photons (λ=210 endash 230 nm) are studied. The measured H-atom photofragment images reveal that a channel that produces fast H atoms concomitant with methyl fragments is dominant in the Lyman-α photolysis of methane. This channel leads to an anisotropic recoil of the fragments. A secondary channel is observed leading to the formation of somewhat slower H atoms, but an unique identification of this second channel is not possible from the data. At least part of these slower H atoms are formed via a channel that produces H atoms concomitant with CH and H 2 photofragments. The recoil of these slower H atoms appears to be isotropic. The measured, state-resolved H 2 (v,J), photofragment images reveal that two channels lead to H 2 photofragments from the two-photon photolysis of methane: a channel that leads to H 2 products concomitant with methylene fragments; and a channel that leads to H 2 products concomitant with CH and H fragments. H 2 (v,J) rotational and vibrational distributions are measured for each of these two channels separately. The H 2 products formed via the H 2 +CH 2 channel are rotationally and vibrationally highly excited, whereas those formed via the H 2 +CH+H channel are rotationally and vibrationally cooler. Rotational distributions of H 2 formed via the H 2 +CH+H channel are well reproduced by Boltzmann distributions. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  4. BMP-2 induces EMT and breast cancer stemness through Rb and CD44

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Peide; Chen, Anan; He, Weiyi

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been reported to facilitate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and bone metastasis in breast cancer xenograft models. To investigate the role of BMP-2 in the development of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), and to further elucidate the mechanisms u...... then contribute to breast cancer metastasis. These findings may be helpful for developing new strategies for the treatment and prognosis of advanced breast cancer....

  5. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Mayer, Julie Ann; de la Cruz, Damon; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K; Maxson, Robert; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2008-01-17

    In the age of stem cell engineering it is critical to understand how stem cell activity is regulated during regeneration. Hairs are mini-organs that undergo cyclic regeneration throughout adult life, and are an important model for organ regeneration. Hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge are regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche. The activation of such stem cells is cyclic, involving periodic beta-catenin activity. In the adult mouse, regeneration occurs in waves in a follicle population, implying coordination among adjacent follicles and the extrafollicular environment. Here we show that unexpected periodic expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and Bmp4 in the dermis regulates this process. This BMP cycle is out of phase with the WNT/beta-catenin cycle, thus dividing the conventional telogen into new functional phases: one refractory and the other competent for hair regeneration, characterized by high and low BMP signalling, respectively. Overexpression of noggin, a BMP antagonist, in mouse skin resulted in a markedly shortened refractory phase and faster propagation of the regenerative wave. Transplantation of skin from this mutant onto a wild-type host showed that follicles in donor and host can affect their cycling behaviours mutually, with the outcome depending on the equilibrium of BMP activity in the dermis. Administration of BMP4 protein caused the competent region to become refractory. These results show that BMPs may be the long-sought 'chalone' inhibitors of hair growth postulated by classical experiments. Taken together, results presented in this study provide an example of hierarchical regulation of local organ stem cell homeostasis by the inter-organ macroenvironment. The expression of Bmp2 in subcutaneous adipocytes indicates physiological integration between these two thermo-regulatory organs. Our findings have practical importance for studies using mouse skin as a model for carcinogenesis, intra-cutaneous drug

  6. Methane oxidation in anoxic lake waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guangyi; Zopfi, Jakob; Niemann, Helge; Lehmann, Moritz

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater habitats such as lakes are important sources of methante (CH4), however, most studies in lacustrine environments so far provided evidence for aerobic methane oxidation only, and little is known about the importance of anaerobic oxidation of CH4 (AOM) in anoxic lake waters. In marine environments, sulfate reduction coupled to AOM by archaea has been recognized as important sinks of CH4. More recently, the discorvery of anaerobic methane oxidizing denitrifying bacteria represents a novel and possible alternative AOM pathway, involving reactive nitrogen species (e.g., nitrate and nitrite) as electron acceptors in the absence of oxygen. We investigate anaerobic methane oxidation in the water column of two hydrochemically contrasting sites in Lake Lugano, Switzerland. The South Basin displays seasonal stratification, the development of a benthic nepheloid layer and anoxia during summer and fall. The North Basin is permanently stratified with anoxic conditions below 115m water depth. Both Basins accumulate seasonally (South Basin) or permanently (North Basin) large amounts of CH4 in the water column below the chemocline, providing ideal conditions for methanotrophic microorganisms. Previous work revealed a high potential for aerobic methane oxidation within the anoxic water column, but no evidence for true AOM. Here, we show depth distribution data of dissolved CH4, methane oxidation rates and nutrients at both sites. In addition, we performed high resolution phylogenetic analyses of microbial community structures and conducted radio-label incubation experiments with concentrated biomass from anoxic waters and potential alternative electron acceptor additions (nitrate, nitrite and sulfate). First results from the unamended experiments revealed maximum activity of methane oxidation below the redoxcline in both basins. While the incubation experiments neither provided clear evidence for NOx- nor sulfate-dependent AOM, the phylogenetic analysis revealed the

  7. Kinetics of Methane Production from Swine Manure and Buffalo Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Cao, Weixing; Liu, Ronghou

    2015-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of swine and buffalo manure for methane production was investigated. Six kinetic models were employed to describe the corresponding experimental data. These models were evaluated by two statistical measurements, which were root mean square prediction error (RMSPE) and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The results showed that the logistic and Fitzhugh models could predict the experimental data very well for the digestion of swine and buffalo manure, respectively. The predicted methane yield potential for swine and buffalo manure was 487.9 and 340.4 mL CH4/g volatile solid (VS), respectively, which was close to experimental values, when the digestion temperature was 36 ± 1 °C in the biochemical methane potential assays. Besides, the rate constant revealed that swine manure had a much faster methane production rate than buffalo manure.

  8. Sustained release of BMP-2 in bioprinted alginate for osteogenicity in mice and rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Poldervaart

    Full Text Available The design of bioactive three-dimensional (3D scaffolds is a major focus in bone tissue engineering. Incorporation of growth factors into bioprinted scaffolds offers many new possibilities regarding both biological and architectural properties of the scaffolds. This study investigates whether the sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 influences osteogenicity of tissue engineered bioprinted constructs. BMP-2 loaded on gelatin microparticles (GMPs was used as a sustained release system, which was dispersed in hydrogel-based constructs and compared to direct inclusion of BMP-2 in alginate or control GMPs. The constructs were supplemented with goat multipotent stromal cells (gMSCs and biphasic calcium phosphate to study osteogenic differentiation and bone formation respectively. BMP-2 release kinetics and bioactivity showed continuous release for three weeks coinciding with osteogenicity. Osteogenic differentiation and bone formation of bioprinted GMP containing constructs were investigated after subcutaneous implantation in mice or rats. BMP-2 significantly increased bone formation, which was not influenced by the release timing. We showed that 3D printing of controlled release particles is feasible and that the released BMP-2 directs osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Effect of a Novel Nonviral Gene Delivery of BMP-2 on Bone Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schwabe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gene therapeutic drug delivery approaches have been introduced to improve the efficiency of growth factors at the site of interest. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of a new nonviral copolymer-protected gene vector (COPROG for the stimulation of bone healing. Methods. In vitro, rat osteoblasts were transfected with COPROG + luciferase plasmid or COPROG + hBMP-2 plasmid. In vivo, rat tibial fractures were intramedullary stabilized with uncoated versus COPROG+hBMP-2-plasmid-coated titanium K-wires. The tibiae were prepared for biomechanical and histological analyses at days 28 and 42 and for transfection/safety study at days 2, 4, 7, 28, and 42. Results. In vitro results showed luciferase expression until day 21, and hBMP-2-protein was measured from day 2 – day 10. In vivo, the local application of hBMP-2-plasmid showed a significantly higher maximum load after 42 days compared to that in the control. The histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly less mineralized periosteal callus area in the BMP-2 group compared to the control at day 28. The rt-PCR showed no systemic biodistribution of luciferase RNA. Conclusion. A positive effect on fracture healing by nonviral BMP-2 plasmid application from COPROG-coated implants could be shown in this study; however, the effect of the vector may be improved with higher plasmid concentrations. Transfection showed no biodistribution to distant organs and was considered to be safe.

  10. Functionalization of PCL-3D Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Improved BMP2-Induced Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszuk, Jacob M; Xu, Tao; Yao, Qingqing; Fang, Fang; Childs, Josh D; Hong, Zhongkui; Tao, Jianning; Fong, Hao; Sun, Hongli

    2018-03-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) is a key growth factor for bone regeneration, possessing FDA approval for orthopedic applications. BMP2 is often required in supratherapeutic doses clinically, yielding adverse side effects and substantial treatment costs. Considering the crucial role of materials for BMPs delivery and cell osteogenic differentiation, we devote to engineering an innovative bone-matrix mimicking niche to improve low dose of BMP2-induced bone formation. Our previous work describes a novel technique, named thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA), for generating 3D electrospun nanofibrous (NF) polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. TISA process could readily blend PCL with PLA, leading to increased osteogenic capabilities in vitro , however, these bio-inert synthetic polymers produced limited BMP2-induced bone formation in vivo. We therefore hypothesize that functionalization of NF 3D PCL scaffolds with bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) and BMP2 signaling activator phenamil will provide a favorable osteogenic niche for bone formation at low doses of BMP2. Compared to PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/HA-3D scaffolds demonstrated synergistically enhanced osteogenic differentiation capabilities of C2C12 cells with phenamil. Importantly, in vivo studies showed this synergism was able to generate significantly increased new bone in an ectopic mouse model, suggesting PCL/HA-3D scaffolds act as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for bone regeneration.

  11. Genomic selection for methane emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Yvette; Pryce, Jennie E; Wall, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a growing area of international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. Of the various GHG produced by ruminants, enteric methane (CH4 ) is the most important contributor. One mitigation strategy is to reduce methane...... emission through genetic selection. Our first attempt used beef cattle and a GWAS to identify genes associated with several CH4 traits in Angus beef cattle. The Angus population consisted of 1020 animals with phenotypes on methane production (MeP), dry matter intake (DMI), and weight (WT). Additionally......, two new methane traits: residual genetic methane (RGM) and residual phenotypic methane (RPM) were calculated by adjusting CH4 for DMI and WT. Animals were genotyped using the 800k Illumina Bovine HD Array. Estimated heritabilities were 0.30, 0.19 and 0.15 for MeP, RGM and RPM respectively...

  12. Differential expression of a BMP4 reporter allele in anterior fungiform versus posterior circumvallate taste buds of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlow Linda A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 is a diffusible factor which regulates embryonic taste organ development. However, the role of BMP4 in taste buds of adult mice is unknown. We utilized transgenic mice with LacZ under the control of the BMP4 promoter to reveal the expression of BMP4 in the tongues of adult mice. Further we evaluate the pattern of BMP4 expression with that of markers of specific taste bud cell types and cell proliferation to define and compare the cell populations expressing BMP4 in anterior (fungiform papillae and posterior (circumvallate papilla tongue. Results BMP4 is expressed in adult fungiform and circumvallate papillae, i.e., lingual structures composed of non-taste epithelium and taste buds. Unexpectedly, we find both differences and similarities with respect to expression of BMP4-driven ß-galactosidase. In circumvallate papillae, many fusiform cells within taste buds are BMP4-ß-gal positive. Further, a low percentage of BMP4-expressing cells within circumvallate taste buds is immunopositive for markers of each of the three differentiated taste cell types (I, II and III. BMP4-positive intragemmal cells also expressed a putative marker of immature taste cells, Sox2, and consistent with this finding, intragemmal cells expressed BMP4-ß-gal within 24 hours after their final mitosis, as determined by BrdU birthdating. By contrast, in fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal positive cells are never encountered within taste buds. However, in both circumvallate and fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal expressing cells are located in the perigemmal region, comprising basal and edge epithelial cells adjacent to taste buds proper. This region houses the proliferative cell population that gives rise to adult taste cells. However, perigemmal BMP4-ß-gal cells appear mitotically silent in both fungiform and circumvallate taste papillae, as we do not find evidence of their active proliferation using cell cycle immunomarkers

  13. Differential expression of a BMP4 reporter allele in anterior fungiform versus posterior circumvallate taste buds of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha M; Barlow, Linda A

    2010-10-13

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) is a diffusible factor which regulates embryonic taste organ development. However, the role of BMP4 in taste buds of adult mice is unknown. We utilized transgenic mice with LacZ under the control of the BMP4 promoter to reveal the expression of BMP4 in the tongues of adult mice. Further we evaluate the pattern of BMP4 expression with that of markers of specific taste bud cell types and cell proliferation to define and compare the cell populations expressing BMP4 in anterior (fungiform papillae) and posterior (circumvallate papilla) tongue. BMP4 is expressed in adult fungiform and circumvallate papillae, i.e., lingual structures composed of non-taste epithelium and taste buds. Unexpectedly, we find both differences and similarities with respect to expression of BMP4-driven ß-galactosidase. In circumvallate papillae, many fusiform cells within taste buds are BMP4-ß-gal positive. Further, a low percentage of BMP4-expressing cells within circumvallate taste buds is immunopositive for markers of each of the three differentiated taste cell types (I, II and III). BMP4-positive intragemmal cells also expressed a putative marker of immature taste cells, Sox2, and consistent with this finding, intragemmal cells expressed BMP4-ß-gal within 24 hours after their final mitosis, as determined by BrdU birthdating. By contrast, in fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal positive cells are never encountered within taste buds. However, in both circumvallate and fungiform papillae, BMP4-ß-gal expressing cells are located in the perigemmal region, comprising basal and edge epithelial cells adjacent to taste buds proper. This region houses the proliferative cell population that gives rise to adult taste cells. However, perigemmal BMP4-ß-gal cells appear mitotically silent in both fungiform and circumvallate taste papillae, as we do not find evidence of their active proliferation using cell cycle immunomarkers and BrdU birthdating. Our data suggest that

  14. Renewable Methane Generation from Carbon Dioxide and Sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Christoph; Junge, Henrik

    2018-01-02

    The direct approach: Methane is a potential key player in the world's transition to a more sustainable energy future. The direct conversion of carbon dioxide into methane is highly desirable to lower the concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere and also to store renewable energy. This Highlight describes the first homogeneous system for the light-driven conversion of CO 2 into CH 4 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Anaerobic Oxidization of Methane in a Minerotrophic Peatland: Enrichment of Nitrite-Dependent Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baoli; van Dijk, Gijs; Fritz, Christian; Smolders, Alfons J. P.; Pol, Arjan; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a methane sink in freshwater systems is largely unexplored, particularly in peat ecosystems. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) was recently discovered and reported to be catalyzed by the bacterium “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera,” which is affiliated with the NC10 phylum. So far, several “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” enrichment cultures have been obtained using a limited number of freshwater sediments or wastewater treatment sludge as the inoculum. In this study, using stable isotope measurements and porewater profiles, we investigated the potential of n-damo in a minerotrophic peatland in the south of the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water. Methane and nitrate profiles suggested that all methane produced was oxidized before reaching the oxic layer, and NC10 bacteria could be active in the transition zone where countergradients of methane and nitrate occur. Quantitative PCR showed high NC10 bacterial cell numbers at this methane-nitrate transition zone. This soil section was used to enrich the prevalent NC10 bacteria in a continuous culture supplied with methane and nitrite at an in situ pH of 6.2. An enrichment of nitrite-reducing methanotrophic NC10 bacteria was successfully obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of retrieved 16S rRNA and pmoA genes showed that the enriched bacteria were very similar to the ones found in situ and constituted a new branch of NC10 bacteria with an identity of less than 96 and 90% to the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes of “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera,” respectively. The results of this study expand our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of NC10 bacteria in the environment and highlight their potential contribution to nitrogen and methane cycles. PMID:23042166

  16. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low removal efficiencies (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), and Nutrients), alkalinity demand, and potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have limited its application to warmer climates. Although well designed anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) are able to effectively treat DWW at psychrophilic temperatures (10–30 °C), lower temperatures increase methane solubility leading to increased energy losses in the form of dissolved methane in the effluent. Estimates of dissolved methane losses are typically based on concentrations calculated using Henry's Law but advection limitations can lead to supersaturation of methane between 1.34 and 6.9 times equilibrium concentrations and 11–100% of generated methane being lost in the effluent. In well mixed systems such as AnMBRs which use biogas sparging to control membrane fouling, actual concentrations approach equilibrium values. Non-porous membranes have been used to recover up to 92.6% of dissolved methane and well suited for degassing effluents of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors which have considerable solids and organic contents and can cause pore wetting and clogging in microporous membrane modules. Micro

  17. TGF-β1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 stimulation induces chondrogenesis in expanded human articular chondrocytes and marrow-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Meghan K; Huey, Daniel J; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-03-01

    Replacement of degenerated cartilage with cell-based cartilage products may offer a long-term solution to halt arthritis' degenerative progression. Chondrocytes are frequently used in cell-based FDA-approved cartilage products; yet human marrow-derived stromal cells (hMSCs) show significant translational potential, reducing donor site morbidity and maintaining their undifferentiated phenotype with expansion. This study sought to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5), and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) during postexpansion chondrogenesis in human articular chondrocytes (hACs) and to compare chondrogenesis in passaged hACs with that of passaged hMSCs. Through serial expansion, chondrocytes dedifferentiated, decreasing expression of chondrogenic genes while increasing expression of fibroblastic genes. However, following expansion, 10 ng/mL TGF-β1, 100 ng/mL GDF-5, or 100 ng/mL BMP-2 supplementation during three-dimensional aggregate culture each upregulated one or more markers of chondrogenic gene expression in both hACs and hMSCs. Additionally, in both cell types, the combination of TGF-β1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 induced the greatest upregulation of chondrogenic genes, that is, Col2A1, Col2A1/Col1A1 ratio, SOX9, and ACAN, and synthesis of cartilage-specific matrix, that is, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and ratio of collagen II/I. Finally, TGF-β1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 stimulation yielded mechanically robust cartilage rich in collagen II and GAGs in both cell types, following 4 weeks maturation. This study illustrates notable success in using the self-assembling method to generate robust, scaffold-free neocartilage constructs using expanded hACs and hMSCs. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  19. Methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, C.M.; Kelafant, J.R.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Manger, K.C.; Kruger, D.

    1990-09-01

    The report estimates global methane emissions from coal mining on a country specific basis, evaluates the technologies available to degasify coal seams and assesses the economics of recovering methane liberated during mining. 33 to 64 million tonnes were liberated in 1987 from coal mining, 75 per cent of which came from China, the USSR, Poland and the USA. Methane emissions from coal mining are likely to increase. Emission levels vary between surface and underground mines. The methane currently removed from underground mines for safety reasons could be used in a number of ways, which may be economically attractive. 55 refs., 19 figs., 24 tabs

  20. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 enhance tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium mainly via activin receptor-like kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Claudia-Gabriela; Appleby, Sarah L; Nash, Gerard B; Mallat, Ziad; Chilvers, Edwin R; Upton, Paul D; Morrell, Nicholas W

    2017-08-18

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 9 and 10 (BMP9/BMP10) are circulating cytokines with important roles in endothelial homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of BMP9 and BMP10 in mediating monocyte-endothelial interactions using an in vitro flow adhesion assay. Herein, we report that whereas BMP9/BMP10 alone had no effect on monocyte recruitment, at higher concentrations both cytokines synergized with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) to increase recruitment to the vascular endothelium. The BMP9/BMP10-mediated increase in monocyte recruitment in the presence of TNFα was associated with up-regulated expression levels of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Using siRNAs to type I and II BMP receptors and the signaling intermediaries (Smads), we demonstrated a key role for ALK2 in the BMP9/BMP10-induced surface expression of E-selectin, and both ALK1 and ALK2 in the up-regulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The type II receptors, BMPR-II and ACTR-IIA were both required for this response, as was Smad1/5. The up-regulation of cell surface adhesion molecules by BMP9/10 in the presence of TNFα was inhibited by LDN193189, which inhibits ALK2 but not ALK1. Furthermore, LDN193189 inhibited monocyte recruitment induced by TNFα and BMP9/10. BMP9/10 increased basal IκBα protein expression, but did not alter p65/RelA levels. Our findings suggest that higher concentrations of BMP9/BMP10 synergize with TNFα to induce the up-regulation of endothelial selectins and adhesion molecules, ultimately resulting in increased monocyte recruitment to the vascular endothelium. This process is mediated mainly via the ALK2 type I receptor, BMPR-II/ACTR-IIA type II receptors, and downstream Smad1/5 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Adachi, Yasuha; Numata, Tomokazu; Nakada, Shoko; Yanagita, Motoko; Nakagata, Naomi; Evans, Sylvia M; Graf, Daniel; Economides, Aris; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Moon, Anne M; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein) signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox)) and the Isl1 (Islet1)-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox) conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme) and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  2. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Suzuki

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox and the Isl1 (Islet1-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  3. Methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S

    2005-07-15

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  4. Methane from wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T. F.; Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    The role of wood-based energy technologies in the Swiss energy system in the long-term is examined using the energy-system Swiss MARKAL model. The Swiss MARKAL model is a 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that allows a detailed representation of energy technologies. The model has been developed as a joint effort between the Energy Economics Group (EEG) at Paul Scherrer Institute PSI) and the University of Geneva and is currently used at PSI-EEG. Using the Swiss MARKAL model, this study examines the conditions under which wood-based energy technologies could play a role in the Swiss energy system, the most attractive pathways for their use and the policy measures that could support them. Given the involvement of PSI in the ECOGAS project, especial emphasis is put on the production of bio-SNG from wood via gasification and methanation of syngas and on hydrothermal gasification of woody biomass. Of specific interest as weIl is the fraction of fuel used in passenger cars that could be produced by locally harvested wood. The report is organized as follows: Section 2 presents a brief description of the MARKAL model. Section 3 describes the results of the base case scenario, which represents a plausible, 'middle-of-the-road' development of the Swiss energy system. Section 4 discusses results illustrating the conditions under which the wood-based methanation technology could become competitive in the Swiss energy market, the role of oil and gas prices, subsidies to methanation technologies and the introduction of a competing technology, namely the wood-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. FinaIly, section 5 outlines some conclusions from this analysis. (author)

  5. Overexpression of BMP3 in the developing skeleton alters endochondral bone formation resulting in spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Laura W; Cox, Karen; Carlo, Joelle M; Rosen, Vicki

    2009-09-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-3 (BMP) has been identified as a negative regulator in the skeleton as mice lacking BMP3 have increased bone mass. To further understand how BMP3 mediates bone formation, we created transgenic mice overexpressing BMP3 using the type I collagen promoter. BMP3 transgenic mice displayed spontaneous rib fractures that were first detected at E17.0. The fractures were due to defects in differentiation of the periosteum and late hypertrophic chondrocytes resulting in thinner cortical bone with decreased mineralization. As BMP3 modulates BMP and activin signaling through ActRIIB, we examined the ribs of ActRIIB receptor knockout mice and found they had defects in late chondrogenesis and mineralization similar to BMP3 transgenic mice. These data suggest that BMP3 exerts its effects in the skeleton by altering signaling through ActRIIB in chondrocytes and the periosteum, and this results in defects in bone collar formation and late hypertrophic chondrocyte maturation leading to decreased mineralization and less bone. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Bmp2 in osteoblasts of periosteum and trabecular bone links bone formation to vascularization and mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuchen; Guo, Dayong; Harris, Marie A.; Cui, Yong; Gluhak-Heinrich, Jelica; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Skinner, Charles; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Edwards, James R.; Mundy, Gregory R.; Lichtler, Alex; Kream, Barbara E.; Rowe, David W.; Kalajzic, Ivo; David, Val; Quarles, Darryl L.; Villareal, Demetri; Scott, Greg; Ray, Manas; Liu, S.; Martin, James F.; Mishina, Yuji; Harris, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We generated a new Bmp2 conditional-knockout allele without a neo cassette that removes the Bmp2 gene from osteoblasts (Bmp2-cKOob) using the 3.6Col1a1-Cre transgenic model. Bones of Bmp2-cKOob mice are thinner, with increased brittleness. Osteoblast activity is reduced as reflected in a reduced bone formation rate and failure to differentiate to a mature mineralizing stage. Bmp2 in osteoblasts also indirectly controls angiogenesis in the periosteum and bone marrow. VegfA production is reduced in Bmp2-cKOob osteoblasts. Deletion of Bmp2 in osteoblasts also leads to defective mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which correlates with the reduced microvascular bed in the periosteum and trabecular bones. Expression of several MSC marker genes (α-SMA, CD146 and Angiopoietin-1) in vivo, in vitro CFU assays and deletion of Bmp2 in vitro in α-SMA+ MSCs support our conclusions. Critical roles of Bmp2 in osteoblasts and MSCs are a vital link between bone formation, vascularization and mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:23843612

  7. Expression of BMP-2 in Vascular Endothelial Cells of Recipient May Predict Delayed Graft Function After Renal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic-Jukic, Nikolina; Gulin, Marijana; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Kastelan, Zeljko; Katalinic, Lea; Coric, Marijana; Veda, Marija Varnai; Ivkovic, Vanja; Kes, Petar; Jelakovic, Bojan

    2016-01-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF) is associated with adverse outcomes after renal transplantation. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is involved in both endothelial function and immunological events. We compared expression of BMP-2 in epigastric artery of renal transplant recipients with immediate graft function (IGF) and DGF. 79 patients were included in this prospective study. Patients were divided in IGF group (64 patients) and DGF group (15 patients). BMP-2 expression in intima media (BMP2m) and endothelium (BMP2e) of epigastric artery was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Lower intensity of BMP2e staining was recorded in DGF compared to IGF. In DGF patients, 93% had no expression of BMP2e and 7% had 1st grade expression, compared to 45% and 41% in IGF group, respectively (P=0.001) (P<0.001 for no expression and P = 0.015 for 1st grade expression). Patients who had BMP2e staining positive had lower odds for DGF (OR 0.059 [0.007, 0.477]) and this remained significant even after adjustment for donor and recipient variables, cold ischemia time, and immunological matching (OR 0.038 [0.003, 0.492]). Our results demonstrate that BMP-2 expression in endothelial cells of epigastric arteries may predict development of DGF. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Expression of BMP-2 in Vascular Endothelial Cells of Recipient May Predict Delayed Graft Function After Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Basic-Jukic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Delayed graft function (DGF is associated with adverse outcomes after renal transplantation. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 is involved in both endothelial function and immunological events. We compared expression of BMP-2 in epigastric artery of renal transplant recipients with immediate graft function (IGF and DGF. Methods: 79 patients were included in this prospective study. Patients were divided in IGF group (64 patients and DGF group (15 patients. BMP-2 expression in intima media (BMP2m and endothelium (BMP2e of epigastric artery was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Lower intensity of BMP2e staining was recorded in DGF compared to IGF. In DGF patients, 93% had no expression of BMP2e and 7% had 1st grade expression, compared to 45% and 41% in IGF group, respectively (P=0.001 (Pst grade expression. Patients who had BMP2e staining positive had lower odds for DGF (OR 0.059 [0.007, 0.477] and this remained significant even after adjustment for donor and recipient variables, cold ischemia time, and immunological matching (OR 0.038 [0.003, 0.492]. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that BMP-2 expression in endothelial cells of epigastric arteries may predict development of DGF.

  9. Interactions between BMP-7 and USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 regulate supernumerary organ formations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoka Kiso

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP antagonists that inhibit <