WorldWideScience

Sample records for methane mitigation potentials

  1. Screening method to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of old landfills, based on downwind methane concentration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Mønster, J.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A nationwide effort is taking place in Denmark to mitigate methane emissions from landfills, by using biocovers. A large number of older landfills were found to be potential candidates for biocover implementation, but very little information was available for these sites to help evaluate if signi......A nationwide effort is taking place in Denmark to mitigate methane emissions from landfills, by using biocovers. A large number of older landfills were found to be potential candidates for biocover implementation, but very little information was available for these sites to help evaluate...... if significant methane emissions occur. To assess these sites, we developed a low-cost and quick remote sensing methodology, whereby downwind methane concentrations from 91 landfills were measured using a mobile analytical platform, and emission rates were calculated using an inverse dispersion model. The method...

  2. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  3. Mitigating global warming potentials of methane and nitrous oxide gases from rice paddies under different irrigation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Hoque, M Anamul; Kim, Pil Joo

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm to investigate the mitigating effects of soil amendments such as calcium carbide, calcium silicate, phosphogypsum, and biochar with urea fertilizer on global warming potentials (GWPs) of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases during rice cultivation under continuous and intermittent irrigations. Among the amendments phosphogypsum and silicate fertilizer, being potential source of electron acceptors, decreased maximum level of seasonal CH4 flux by 25-27 % and 32-38 % in continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. Biochar and calcium carbide amendments, acting as nitrification inhibitors, decreased N2O emissions by 36-40 % and 26-30 % under continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. The total GWP of CH4 and N2O gases were decreased by 7-27 % and 6-34 % with calcium carbide, phosphogypsum, and silicate fertilizer amendments under continuous and intermittent irrigations, respectively. However, biochar amendments increased overall GWP of CH4 and N2O gases.

  4. Methane mitigation potential of phyto-sources from Northeast India and their effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Baruah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the anti-methanogenic potential of phyto-sources from Northeast region of the country and assess the effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa for their likely inclusion in animal diet to reduce methane emission. Materials and Methods: Twenty phyto-sources were collected from Northeast state, Assam, during March to April 2014. Phyto-sources were analyzed for their tannin content followed by screening for methane mitigation potential using in vitro system. The effect of tannin on methane production and other fermentation parameters was confirmed by attenuating the effect of tannin with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 addition. About 200 mg dried phyto-source samples were incubated for 24 h in vitro, and volume of gas produced was recorded. The gas sample was analyzed on gas chromatograph for the proportion of methane in the sample. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population was determined using standard methodologies. Results: Results from studies demonstrated that Litchi chinensis, Melastoma malabathricum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia chebula, and Syzygium cumini produced comparatively less methane, while Christella parasitica, Leucas linifolia, Citrus grandis, and Aquilaria malaccensis produced relatively more methane during in vitro incubation. An increase (p<0.05 in gas and methane production from the phyto-sources was observed when incubated with PEG-6000. Entodinimorphs were prominent ciliates irrespective of the phyto-sources, while holotrichs represented only small fraction of protozoa. An increase (p<0.05 in total protozoa, entodinimorphs, and holotrichs was noted when PEG-6000 added to the basal substrate. Our study confirmed variable impact of phyto-sources on total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N. Conclusion: It may be concluded that L. chinensis, M. malabathricum, L. speciosa, S. cumini, and T. chebula are having

  5. CYANOBACTERIA FOR MITIGATING METHANE EMISSION FROM SUBMERGED PADDY FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upasana Mishra; Shalini Anand [Department of Environmental Studies, Inderprastha Engineering College, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad (India)

    2008-09-30

    Atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas with high absorption potential for infrared radiation, is responsible for one forth of the total anticipated warming. It is forming a major part of green house gases, next after carbon dioxide. Its concentration has been increasing alarmingly on an average at the rate of one percent per year. Atmospheric methane, originating mainly from biogenic sources such as paddy fields, natural wetlands and landfills, accounts for 15-20% of the world's total anthropogenic methane emission. With intensification of rice cultivation in coming future, methane emissions from paddy fields are anticipated to increase. India's share in world's rice production is next after to China and likewise total methane emission from paddy fields also. Methane oxidation through planktophytes, particularly microalgae which are autotrophic and abundant in rice rhizospheres, hold promise in controlling methane emission from submerged paddy fields. The present study is focused on the role of nitrogen fixing, heterocystous cyanobacteria and Azolla (a water fern harboring a cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae) as biological sink for headspace concentration of methane in flooded soils. In this laboratory study, soil samples containing five potent nitrogen fixer cyanobacterial strains from paddy fields, were examined for their methane reducing potential. Soil sample without cyanobacterial strain was tested and taken as control. Anabaena sp. was found most effective in inhibiting methane concentration by 5-6 folds over the control. Moist soil cores treated with chemical nitrogen, urea, in combination with cyanobacteria mixture, Azolla microphylla or cyanobacteria mixture plus Azolla microphylla exhibited significance reduction in the headspace concentration of methane than the soil cores treated with urea alone. Contrary to other reports, this study also demonstrates that methane oxidation in soil core samples from paddy fields was stimulated by

  6. Factors Affecting Mitigation of Methane Emission from Ruminants: Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, greenhouse gas emission which results in elevating global temperature is an important subject of worldwide ecological and environmental concern. Among greenhouse gases, methane is considered a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Worldwide, ruminant livestock produce about 80 million metric tons of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore it is impelling animal scientists to finding solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. It seems that solutions can be discussed in four topics including: nutrition (feeding, biotechnology, microbiology and management strategies. We have already published the first review article on feeding strategies. In the current review, management strategies such as emphasizing on animals - type and individual variability, reducing livestock numbers, improving animal productivity and longevity as well as pasture management; that can be leads to decreasing methane production from ruminant animal production are discussed.

  7. Global estimations of the inventory and mitigation potential of methane emissions from rice cultivation conducted using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Akiyama, Hiroko; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2009-06-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) regularly publishes guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories and methane emission (CH4) from rice paddies has been an important component of these guidelines. While there have been many estimates of global CH4 emissions from rice fields, none of them have been obtained using the IPCC guidelines. Therefore, we used the Tier 1 method described in the 2006 IPCC guidelines to estimate the global CH4 emissions from rice fields. To accomplish this, we used country-specific statistical data regarding rice harvest areas and expert estimates of relevant agricultural activities. The estimated global emission for 2000 was 25.6 Tg a-1, which is at the lower end of earlier estimates and close to the total emission summarized by individual national communications. Monte Carlo simulation revealed a 95% uncertainty range of 14.8-41.7 Tg a-1; however, the estimation uncertainty was found to depend on the reliability of the information available regarding the amount of organic amendments and the area of rice fields that were under continuous flooding. We estimated that if all of the continuously flooded rice fields were drained at least once during the growing season, the CH4 emissions would be reduced by 4.1 Tg a-1. Furthermore, we estimated that applying rice straw off season wherever and whenever possible would result in a further reduction in emissions of 4.1 Tg a-1 globally. Finally, if both of these mitigation options were adopted, the global CH4 emission from rice paddies could be reduced by 7.6 Tg a-1. Although draining continuously flooded rice fields may lead to an increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, the global warming potential resulting from this increase is negligible when compared to the reduction in global warming potential that would result from the CH4 reduction associated with draining the fields.

  8. Methane Tracking and Mitigation Options - EPA CMOP

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the sub-model for EPA's MARKAL model, which tracks methane emissions from the energy system, and limited other sources (landfills and manure...

  9. Handbook methane potential; Handbok metanpotential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My (AnoxKaldnes AB (Sweden)); Schnurer, Anna (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    Before using a organic material for biogas production it is essential to evaluate the methane production potential. The methane potential is one important tool possible to use during planning of new plants but also when new materials are considered for already running biogas plants. The chemical composition of different organic material varies extensively and this will have an impact on both the degradability and the methane potential. Information about the methane potential of a specific material can sometimes be found in the literature or can be calculated after a chemical/ physical or biological characterization. Here, the BMP test (Biochemical Methane Potential) is a commonly used method. Today the BMP test is a commonly used method to determine the methane potential. Many national and international research groups, consultants as well as personal at biogas plants are using this method and there is a lot of data available in the literature from such tests. In addition there are several protocols giving guidelines on how to execute a BMP-test. The BMP-test is performed in many different ways, not always under optimized conditions, and there is a lack of information on how to interpret the obtained data. This report summarizes knowledge from the literature and the experience from a Swedish referee group, consisting of persons being active performers of BMP-tests. The report does not include a standardized protocol as the procedure can be performed in different ways depending on available equipment and on the type of material to be tested. Instead the report discusses different factors of great importance for a successful test giving reliable results. The report also summarizes important information concerning the interpretation and how to present results in order to allow comparison of data from different test.

  10. Mitigation and recovery of methane emissions from tropical hydroelectric dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambace, L.A.W.; Ramos, F.M.; Lima, I.B.T.; Rosa, R.R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    Tropical hydroelectric reservoirs generally constitute an appreciable source of methane to the atmosphere. This paper proposes simple mitigation and recovery procedures to substantially reduce atmospheric methane emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs. We aim at transforming existing methane stocks of tropical reservoirs into a clean, renewable energy source. The recovered gas methane may be pumped to large consuming centers, stocked locally and burned in gas turbines to generate electricity during high demand periods, or even purified for transport applications. Our simulations show that the use of biogenic methane may increase considerably the energy supply in countries like Brazil. As a result, it would be possible to reduce the need of additional hydroelectric dams, protecting important pristine biomes, and avoiding the resettlement of villages and indigenous reserves. (author)

  11. Reduction of methane emission from landfills using bio-mitigation systems – from lab tests to full scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    , or open or closed bed biofilter systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the relationship between research on process understanding of the oxidation of landfill gas contained methane and the up-scale to full bio-mitigation systems implemented at landfills. The oxidation of methane is controlled...... for implementing a bio-mitigation system is presented, and the reported landfill-implemented bio-mitigation systems either established as full-scale or pilot-scale systems are reviewed. It is concluded that bio-mitigation systems have a large potential for providing cost-efficient mitigation options for reducing...

  12. Biofiltration for Mitigation of Methane Emission from Animal Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Werf, van der A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Removal of methane from exhaust air of animal houses and manure storage has a large potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from animal husbandry. The aim of this study was to design a biofilter for methane removal at a full-scale livestock production facility. Air from the headspace

  13. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed....

  14. Methane mitigation timelines to inform energy technology evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mandira; Edwards, Morgan R.; Trancik, Jessika E.

    2015-11-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) vary significantly in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the distinct atmospheric lifetimes and radiative efficiencies of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) with a fixed time horizon do not account for the timing of emissions in relation to climate policy goals. Here we develop a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts based on the temporal proximity of emissions to a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher-CH4-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by CH4-light technologies as the stabilization year approaches. We apply the model to evaluate transportation technology pairs and find that accounting for dynamic emissions impacts, in place of using the static GWP, can result in CH4 mitigation timelines and technology transitions that allow for significantly greater energy consumption while meeting a climate policy target. The results can inform the forward-looking evaluation of energy technologies by engineers, private investors, and policy makers.

  15. Methane mitigation timelines to inform energy technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Mandira; Edwards, Morgan R; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) vary significantly in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the distinct atmospheric lifetimes and radiative efficiencies of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) with a fixed time horizon do not account for the timing of emissions in relation to climate policy goals. Here we develop a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts based on the temporal proximity of emissions to a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher-CH 4 -emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by CH 4 -light technologies as the stabilization year approaches. We apply the model to evaluate transportation technology pairs and find that accounting for dynamic emissions impacts, in place of using the static GWP, can result in CH 4 mitigation timelines and technology transitions that allow for significantly greater energy consumption while meeting a climate policy target. The results can inform the forward-looking evaluation of energy technologies by engineers, private investors, and policy makers. (letter)

  16. The indirect global warming potential and global temperature change potential due to methane oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Olivier; Collins, Bill; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Shine, Keith P

    2009-01-01

    Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere next to carbon dioxide. Its global warming potential (GWP) for a time horizon of 100 years is 25, which makes it an attractive target for climate mitigation policies. Although the methane GWP traditionally includes the methane indirect effects on the concentrations of ozone and stratospheric water vapour, it does not take into account the production of carbon dioxide from methane oxidation. We argue here that this CO 2 -induced effect should be included for fossil sources of methane, which results in slightly larger GWP values for all time horizons. If the global temperature change potential is used as an alternative climate metric, then the impact of the CO 2 -induced effect is proportionally much larger. We also discuss what the correction term should be for methane from anthropogenic biogenic sources.

  17. Early drainage mitigates methane and nitrous oxide emissions from organically amended paddy soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, Azeem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; de Tourdonnet, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly of methane (CH4) from flooded rice production systems contribute to global warming. Different crop management strategies, such as drainage of paddy soils and climate-smart residue management, are essential in order to mitigate GHG emissions from...... flooded rice systems, but they often conflict with practical management preferences.The aim of this study was to assess the potential of early-season drainage for mitigating CH4 and N2O emissions from soils with and without added organic amendments in relation to native soil organic carbon (SOC). Rice...

  18. Design and evaluation of a porous burner for the mitigation of anthropogenic methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susie; Fletcher, David F; Joseph, Stephen D; Dawson, Adrian; Harris, Andrew T

    2009-12-15

    Methane constitutes 15% of total global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The mitigation of these emissions could have a significant near-term effect on slowing global warming, and recovering and burning the methane would allow a wasted energy resource to be exploited. The typically low and fluctuating energy content of the emission streams makes combustion difficult; however porous burners-an advanced combustion technology capable of burning low-calorific value fuels below the conventional flammability limit-are one possible mitigation solution. Here we discuss a pilot-scale porous burner designed for this purpose. The burner comprises a cylindrical combustion chamber filled with a porous bed of alumina saddles, combined with an arrangement of heat exchanger tubes for preheating the incoming emission stream. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to aid in the design process. Results illustrating the burner's stable operating range and behavior are presented: stable ultralean combustion is demonstrated at natural gas concentrations as low as 2.3 vol%, with transient combustion at concentrations down to 1.1 vol%; the system is comparatively stable to perturbations in the operating conditions, and emissions of both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons are negligible. Based on this pilot-scale demonstration, porous burners show potential as a methane mitigation technology.

  19. Enteric methane mitigation technologies for ruminant livestock: a synthesis of current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Enteric methane (CH(4)) emission in ruminants, which is produced via fermentation of feeds in the rumen and lower digestive tract by methanogenic archaea, represents a loss of 2% to 12% of gross energy of feeds and contributes to global greenhouse effects. Globally, about 80 million tonnes of CH(4) is produced annually from enteric fermentation mainly from ruminants. Therefore, CH(4) mitigation strategies in ruminants have focused to obtain economic as well as environmental benefits. Some mitigation options such as chemical inhibitors, defaunation, and ionophores inhibit methanogenesis directly or indirectly in the rumen, but they have not confirmed consistent effects for practical use. A variety of nutritional amendments such as increasing the amount of grains, inclusion of some leguminous forages containing condensed tannins and ionophore compounds in diets, supplementation of low-quality roughages with protein and readily fermentable carbohydrates, and addition of fats show promise for CH(4) mitigation. These nutritional amendments also increase the efficiency of feed utilization and, therefore, are most likely to be adopted by farmers. Several new potential technologies such as use of plant secondary metabolites, probiotics and propionate enhancers, stimulation of acetogens, immunization, CH(4) oxidation by methylotrophs, and genetic selection of low CH(4)-producing animals have emerged to decrease CH(4) production, but these require extensive research before they can be recommended to livestock producers. The use of bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and development of recombinant vaccines targeting archaeal-specific genes and cell surface proteins may be areas worthy of investigation for CH(4) mitigation as well. A combination of different CH(4) mitigation strategies should be adopted in farm levels to substantially decrease methane emission from ruminants. Evidently, comprehensive research is needed to explore proven and reliable CH(4) mitigation technologies

  20. Alternatives for methane emission mitigation in livestock systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lascano,Carlos E.; Cárdenas,Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Human activities are contributing to Global Climate Change through the production of Green House Gases (GHG), which result in increased air, land and ocean temperatures and extreme changes in precipitation in regions of low and high rainfall. The most important GHG's are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). It is estimated that 18 % of the annual GHG emissions come from different types of livestock and that 37% of CH4, with higher global warming potential (23) relative...

  1. Understanding the nature of methane emission from rice ecosystems as basis of mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia, L.V.; Neue, H.U.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Methane is considered as an important Greenhouse gas and rice fields are one of the major atmospheric methane sources. The paper aims to develop sampling strategies and formulate mitigation options based on diel (day and night) and seasonal pattern of methane emission. The study was conducted in 4 countries to measure methane flux using an automatic closed chamber system. A 24-hour bihourly methane emissions were continuously obtained during the whole growing season. Daily and seasonal pattern of methane fluxes from different rice ecosystems were evaluated. Diel pattern of methane emission from irrigated rice fields, in all sites, displayed similar pattern from planting to flowering. Fluxes at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h were important components of the total diel flux. A proposed sampling frequency to accurately estimate methane emission within the growing season was designed based on the magnitude of daily flux variation. Total methane emission from different ecosystems follow the order: deepwater rice > irrigated rice > rainfed rice. Application of pig manure increased total emission by 10 times of that without manure. Green manure application increased emission by 49% of that applied only with inorganic fertilizer. Removal of floodwater at 10 DAP and 35 DAP, within a period of 4 days, inhibited production and emission of methane. The level of variation in daily methane emission and seasonal emission pattern provides useful information for accurate determination of methane fluxes. Characterization of seasonal emission pattern as to ecologies, fertilizer amendments, and water management gives an idea of where to focus mitigation strategies for sustainable rice production.

  2. The Use of Plant Bioactive Compounds to Mitigate Enteric Methane in Ruminants and its Application in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, increasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have become a major concern as they are now considered to be the cause of global warming. Several strategies have been planned and taken by different countries including Indonesia to mitigate this situation. Agriculture is considered to be one of major contributors to GHG, especially methane coming from ruminant digestive processes. More than 85% of the methane produced by ruminants comes from enteric fermentation. Several options have been proposed to lower this enteric methane production. This paper describes a review on diet manipulation using feed additives, especially plant bioactive compounds, to mitigate the GHG emission from ruminant livestock. Plant bioactive compounds have been found with various chemical structures. Some of them such as saponin, tannin, essential oils, organosulphur compounds, have been reported to have ability to reduce enteric methane production. Indonesia has many plant resources that have potential as methane reducing agents. Sapindus rarak fruit especially its methanol extract contain saponins which reduce the activity of methanogens in the rumen in vitro, hence reduce methane production (11%. Feeding S. rarak to sheep increased daily weight gain but not that of local cattle. Shrub legumes such as Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala contain tannins which can reduce methanogenesis (3 – 21% methane reduction. Besides tannin, these shrub legumes are a good source of protein. Feeding shrub legumes can be beneficial as a protein source and a methane reducer. Other sources of methane reducing agents have been tested in other countries and some can be applied for Indonesian situation. The strategy to reduce methane by plant bioactive compounds should be developed to be simple and relatively cheap so it will benefit the local farmers. Extraction of these compounds may be expensive, therefore, costs should be considered carefully when proposing to use the

  3. The potential for coalbed methane (CBM) development in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This report presents fiscal and regulatory recommendations of the coalbed methane (CBM) Advisory Committee which consists of representatives from Alberta's oil and gas industry who participated in a study to determine the potential for coalbed methane development in the province. CBM is a natural gas produced as a by-product of the coal formation process. This study examined the CBM reserve base in Alberta along with the necessary steps and strategies required to develop it. There is increased interest in natural gas from Alberta's coal resources because of the forecast for reasonable natural gas prices coupled with an increase in energy demand. The remaining established natural gas reserves are estimated at 43 trillion cubic feet and unconventional supplies of natural gas will be needed by 2008 to meet this increasing demand. The recoverable reserves of CBM are estimated to be between 0 and 135 trillion cubic feet. This report discussed the following mitigation strategies suggested by industry that may applicable to CBM development in Alberta: (1) potential technical mitigation strategies, (2) potential land access and tenure strategies, (3) potential water disposal and diversion mitigation strategies, (4) potential non-technical mitigation strategies, and (5) potential economic mitigation strategies. The study concluded that since no two CBM basins are the same, it is necessary to have good baseline resource inventory data. It was also noted that evolving management, drilling and completion techniques will continue to enhance the economic understanding of Alberta's extensive coal beds. It was suggested that lessons from CBM development in the United States can be useful for development in Alberta since there are currently no publicly recognized commercial production of CBM in Alberta. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 25 figs

  4. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in Indian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Feliciano, Diana; Sapkota, Tek; Hillier, Jon; Smith, Pete; Stirling, Clare

    2016-04-01

    India is one of the world's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for about 5% of global emissions with further increases expected in the future. The Government of India aims to reduce emission intensities by 20-25% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level. In a recent departure from past practice the reconvened Council on Climate Change stated that climate change in agriculture would include a component that would focus on reducing emissions in agriculture, particularly methane and nitrous oxide emissions. To develop recommendations for mitigation in agriculture in India, a baseline study is presented to analyse the GHG emissions from agriculture for current management (Directorate of Economics and Statistics of the government of India). This analysis is done for the two states Bihar and Haryana, which differ in their management and practises based on different climate and policies. This first analysis shows were the highest GHG emissions in agriculture is produced and were the highest mitigation potential might be. The GHG emissions and mitigation potential are calculated using the CCAFS Mitigation Option Tool (CCAFS-MOT) (https://ccafs.cgiar.org/mitigation-option-tool-agriculture#.VpTnWL826d4) with modifications for the special modelling. In a second step, stakeholder meetings provided a wide range of possible and definite scenarios (management, policy, technology, costs, etc.) for the future to mitigate emissions in agriculture as well as how to increase productivity. These information were used to create scenarios to give estimates for the mitigation potential in agriculture for India in 2020.

  5. Coal-packed methane biofilter for mitigation of green house gas emissions from coal mine ventilation air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbri, Hendy; Gunawan, Cindy; Thomas, Torsten; Smith, Andrew; Scott, Jason; Rosche, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Methane emitted by coal mine ventilation air (MVA) is a significant greenhouse gas. A mitigation strategy is the oxidation of methane to carbon dioxide, which is approximately twenty-one times less effective at global warming than methane on a mass-basis. The low non-combustible methane concentrations at high MVA flow rates call for a catalytic strategy of oxidation. A laboratory-scale coal-packed biofilter was designed and partially removed methane from humidified air at flow rates between 0.2 and 2.4 L min-1 at 30°C with nutrient solution added every three days. Methane oxidation was catalysed by a complex community of naturally-occurring microorganisms, with the most abundant member being identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence as belonging to the methanotrophic genus Methylocystis. Additional inoculation with a laboratory-grown culture of Methylosinus sporium, as investigated in a parallel run, only enhanced methane consumption during the initial 12 weeks. The greatest level of methane removal of 27.2±0.66 g methane m-3 empty bed h-1 was attained for the non-inoculated system, which was equivalent to removing 19.7±2.9% methane from an inlet concentration of 1% v/v at an inlet gas flow rate of 1.6 L min-1 (2.4 min empty bed residence time). These results show that low-cost coal packing holds promising potential as a suitable growth surface and contains methanotrophic microorganisms for the catalytic oxidative removal of methane.

  6. Coal-Packed Methane Biofilter for Mitigation of Green House Gas Emissions from Coal Mine Ventilation Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbri, Hendy; Gunawan, Cindy; Thomas, Torsten; Smith, Andrew; Scott, Jason; Rosche, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Methane emitted by coal mine ventilation air (MVA) is a significant greenhouse gas. A mitigation strategy is the oxidation of methane to carbon dioxide, which is approximately twenty-one times less effective at global warming than methane on a mass-basis. The low non-combustible methane concentrations at high MVA flow rates call for a catalytic strategy of oxidation. A laboratory-scale coal-packed biofilter was designed and partially removed methane from humidified air at flow rates between 0.2 and 2.4 L min−1 at 30°C with nutrient solution added every three days. Methane oxidation was catalysed by a complex community of naturally-occurring microorganisms, with the most abundant member being identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence as belonging to the methanotrophic genus Methylocystis. Additional inoculation with a laboratory-grown culture of Methylosinus sporium, as investigated in a parallel run, only enhanced methane consumption during the initial 12 weeks. The greatest level of methane removal of 27.2±0.66 g methane m−3 empty bed h−1 was attained for the non-inoculated system, which was equivalent to removing 19.7±2.9% methane from an inlet concentration of 1% v/v at an inlet gas flow rate of 1.6 L min−1 (2.4 min empty bed residence time). These results show that low-cost coal packing holds promising potential as a suitable growth surface and contains methanotrophic microorganisms for the catalytic oxidative removal of methane. PMID:24743729

  7. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: II. A review of manure management mitigation options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes, F.; Meinen, R.; Dell, C.; Rotz, A.; Hristov, A.N.; Oh, J.; Waghorn, G.; Gerber, P.J.; Henderson, B.L.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    This review analyzes published data on manure management practices used to mitigate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from animal operations. Reducing excreted nitrogen (N) and degradable organic carbon (C) by diet manipulation to improve the balance of nutrient inputs with production

  8. Mitigation options for methane emissions from rice fields in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantin, R.S.; Buendia, L.V.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The contribution of Philippine rice production to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies conducted in the country are presented in this paper. A significant impact in the reduction of GHG emissions from agriculture can be achieved if methane emissions from ricefields can be abated. This study presents the contribution of Philippine rice cultivation to global methane emission and breakthroughs in methane emission studies in the country which address the issue of mitigation. Using the derived emission factors from local measurements, rice cultivation contributes 566.6 Gg of methane emission in the Philippines. This value is 62% of the total methane emitted from the agriculture sector. The emission factors employed which are 78% of the IPCC value for irrigated rice and 95% for rainfed rice were derived from measurements with an automatic system taken during the growth duration in the respective ecosystems. Plots drained for 2 weeks at midtillering and before harvest gave a significant reduction in methane emission as opposed to continuously flooded plots and plots drained before harvest. The cultivar Magat reduced methane emission by 50% as compared to the check variety IR72. The application of ammonium sulfate instead of urea reduced methane emission by 10% to 34%. Addition of 6 t ha{sup {minus}1} phosphogypsum in combination with urea reduced emission by 74% as opposed to plots applied with urea alone. It is also from the results of such measurements that abatement strategies are based as regards to modifying treatments such as water management, fertilization, and choice of rice variety. It is not easy to identify and recommend mitigation strategies that will fit a particular cropping system. However, the identified mitigation options provide focus for the abatement of methane emission from ricefields.

  9. Global health benefits of mitigating ozone pollution with methane emission controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J Jason; Fiore, Arlene M; Horowitz, Larry W; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2006-03-14

    Methane (CH(4)) contributes to the growing global background concentration of tropospheric ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant associated with premature mortality. Methane and ozone are also important greenhouse gases. Reducing methane emissions therefore decreases surface ozone everywhere while slowing climate warming, but although methane mitigation has been considered to address climate change, it has not for air quality. Here we show that global decreases in surface ozone concentrations, due to methane mitigation, result in substantial and widespread decreases in premature human mortality. Reducing global anthropogenic methane emissions by 20% beginning in 2010 would decrease the average daily maximum 8-h surface ozone by approximately 1 part per billion by volume globally. By using epidemiologic ozone-mortality relationships, this ozone reduction is estimated to prevent approximately 30,000 premature all-cause mortalities globally in 2030, and approximately 370,000 between 2010 and 2030. If only cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities are considered, approximately 17,000 global mortalities can be avoided in 2030. The marginal cost-effectiveness of this 20% methane reduction is estimated to be approximately 420,000 US dollars per avoided mortality. If avoided mortalities are valued at 1 US dollars million each, the benefit is approximately 240 US dollars per tone of CH(4) ( approximately 12 US dollars per tone of CO(2) equivalent), which exceeds the marginal cost of the methane reduction. These estimated air pollution ancillary benefits of climate-motivated methane emission reductions are comparable with those estimated previously for CO(2). Methane mitigation offers a unique opportunity to improve air quality globally and can be a cost-effective component of international ozone management, bringing multiple benefits for air quality, public health, agriculture, climate, and energy.

  10. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper compares model estimates of national and sectoral GHG mitigation potential across six key OECD GHG-emitting economies: Australia, Canada, the EU, Japan, Mexico and the US. It examines the implications of model structure, baseline and policy assumptions, and assesses GHG mitigation potential estimates across a variety of models, including models that are used to inform climate policy-makers in each of these economies.

  12. Field-scale operation of methane biofiltration systems to mitigate point source methane emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettiarachchi, Vijayamala C.; Hettiaratchi, Patrick J.; Mehrotra, Anil K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Methane biofiltration (MBF) is a novel low-cost technique for reducing low volume point source emissions of methane (CH 4 ). MBF uses a granular medium, such as soil or compost, to support the growth of methanotrophic bacteria responsible for converting CH 4 to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). A field research program was undertaken to evaluate the potential to treat low volume point source engineered CH 4 emissions using an MBF at a natural gas monitoring station. A new comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model was developed incorporating advection-diffusive flow of gas, biological reactions and heat and moisture flow. The one-dimensional version of this model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. The long-term monitoring results of the field MBF are also presented. The field MBF operated with no control of precipitation, evaporation, and temperature, provided more than 80% of CH 4 oxidation throughout spring, summer, and fall seasons. The numerical model was able to predict the CH 4 oxidation behavior of the field MBF with high accuracy. The numerical model simulations are presented for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions, including different filter bed depths and CH 4 flux rates. The field observations as well as numerical model simulations indicated that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly dependent on environmental factors, such as ambient temperature and precipitation. - Highlights: → One-dimensional version of the model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. → Mathematical model predicted CH 4 oxidation behaviors of the field MBF with high accuracy i.e. (> 80 %). → Performance of MBF is dependent on ambient temperature and precipitation. - The developed numerical model simulations and field observations for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions indicate that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly

  13. Methane, nitrous oxide emissions and mitigation strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flavio

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... from livestock in developing countries and the mitigation actions that could be put in .... This measurement reflects most accurately the management, feeding and ...... and profit dimensions: A developing country perspective.

  14. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a gas cows naturally produce in the rumen. However, it is also a potential greenhouse gas. Therefore, there is a certain interest from an environmental point of view to reduce methane emissions from dairy cows. Estimates from earlier studies indicate that there is a potential to reduce...... methane production by 10 to 25% by changing the feeding strategies. Several feedstuffs influence methane production, such as additional fat. The increase of the concentrate proportion can potentially decrease methane by decreasing the rumen degradability of the diet or by changing the rumen fermentation......, while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...

  15. Direct Quantification of Methane Emissions Across the Supply Chain: Identification of Mitigation Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, M.; Johnson, D.; Heltzel, R.; Clark, N.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers at West Virginia University's Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions have recently participated in a variety of studies targeted at direction quantification of methane emissions from across the natural gas supply chain. These studies included assessing methane emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and their fuel stations, active unconventional well sites - during both development and production, natural gas compression and storage facilities, natural gas engines - both large and small, two- and four-stroke, and low-throughput equipment associated with coal bed methane wells. Engine emissions were sampled using conventional instruments such as Fourier transform infrared spectrometers and heated flame ionization detection analyzers. However, to accurately quantify a wide range of other sources beyond the tailpipe (both leaks and losses), a full flow sampling system was developed, which included an integrated cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometer. Through these direct quantification efforts and analysis major sources of methane emissions were identified. Technological solutions and best practices exist or could be developed to reduce methane emissions by focusing on the "lowest-hanging fruit." For example, engine crankcases from across the supply chain should employ vent mitigation systems to reduce methane and other emissions. An overview of the direct quantification system and various campaign measurements results will be presented along with the identification of other targets for additional mitigation.

  16. Methane Explosion Mitigation in Coal Mines by Water Mist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Mikheil; Krauthammer, Ted; Mansurov, Zulkhair; Alyiev, Erhan

    2017-12-01

    Statistics shows that the majority of accidents with fatal outcome are caused by methane and/or coal dust explosion. This leads to assume that contemporary counter-explosion systems of various designs cannot be considered effective. Considering the growing threat of methane explosion in the coming years along with the development of deeper levels, the improvement of a system for protecting people in underground opening appears urgent. This paper focuses on technical solutions to be used in designing a protective system for minimizing the consequences of methane explosions in coalmines. The new protective system consists of three main modules: i) a high-speed shock wave suppression section; ii) a suppression section with a long-term action and iii) a system activating device. The shock wave suppressor contains a 200 litre volume water tank with a built-in gas generator and nozzles. It is activated after 12ms from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 40 s. The suppression section with a long-term action contains a 2000 litre volume water tank, a high-pressure pump, a hydraulic accumulator, solenoid valves, and a system of pipes with built-in nozzles. It is activated after 4 s from the blast moment, the duration of discharge is 8 min. The activation device includes a detection block containing sensors, an emergency signal generation module, a signal transmission module, a signal receiving module and a power supply module. The system operates in a waiting mode and activates immediately upon the receipt of the start signal generated by the detector. The paper also addresses the preliminary results of the system prototype testing in the tunnel.

  17. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  18. Mitigation of methane emission from an old unlined landfill in Klintholm, Denmark using a passive biocover system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen; Petersen, Per Haugsted

    2014-01-01

    Methane generated at landfills contributes to global warming and can be mitigated by biocover systems relying on microbial methane oxidation. As part of a closure plan for an old unlined landfill without any gas management measures, an innovative biocover system was established. The system was de...

  19. Recent advances in measurement and dietary mitigation of enteric methane emissions in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 emission, which is mainly produced during normal fermentation of feeds by the rumen microorganisms, represents a major contributor to the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Several enteric CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored recently. A number of new techniques have also been developed and existing techniques have been improved in order to evaluate CH4 mitigation technologies and prepare an inventory of GHG emissions precisely. The aim of this review is to discuss different CH4 measuring and mitigation technologies, which have been recently developed. Respiration chamber technique is still considered as a gold standard technique due to its greater precision and reproducibility in CH4 measurements. With the adoption of recent recommendations for improving the technique, the SF6 method can be used with a high level of precision similar to the chamber technique. Short-term measurement techniques of CH4 measurements generally invite considerable within- and between animal variations. Among the short-term measuring techniques, Greenfeed and methane hood systems are likely more suitable for evaluation of CH4 mitigation studies, if measurements could be obtained at different times of the day relative to the diurnal cycle of the CH4 production. Carbon dioxide and CH4 ratio, sniffer and other short-term breath analysis techniques are more suitable for on farm screening of large number of animals to generate the data of low CH4 producing animals for genetic selection purposes. Different indirect measuring techniques are also investigated in recent years. Several new dietary CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored, but only a few of them are practical and cost-effective. Future research should be directed towards both the medium- and long-term mitigation strategies, which could be utilized on farms to accomplish substantial reductions of CH4 emissions and to profitably reduce carbon footprint of livestock production systems. This

  20. Recent Advances in Measurement and Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Emissions in Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan K

    2016-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emission, which is mainly produced during normal fermentation of feeds by the rumen microorganisms, represents a major contributor to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several enteric CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored recently. A number of new techniques have also been developed and existing techniques have been improved in order to evaluate CH4 mitigation technologies and prepare an inventory of GHG emissions precisely. The aim of this review is to discuss different CH4 measuring and mitigation technologies, which have been recently developed. Respiration chamber technique is still considered as a gold standard technique due to its greater precision and reproducibility in CH4 measurements. With the adoption of recent recommendations for improving the technique, the SF6 method can be used with a high level of precision similar to the chamber technique. Short-term measurement techniques of CH4 measurements generally invite considerable within- and between-animal variations. Among the short-term measuring techniques, Greenfeed and methane hood systems are likely more suitable for evaluation of CH4 mitigation studies, if measurements could be obtained at different times of the day relative to the diurnal cycle of the CH4 production. Carbon dioxide and CH4 ratio, sniffer, and other short-term breath analysis techniques are more suitable for on farm screening of large number of animals to generate the data of low CH4-producing animals for genetic selection purposes. Different indirect measuring techniques are also investigated in recent years. Several new dietary CH4 mitigation technologies have been explored, but only a few of them are practical and cost-effective. Future research should be directed toward both the medium- and long-term mitigation strategies, which could be utilized on farms to accomplish substantial reductions of CH4 emissions and to profitably reduce carbon footprint of livestock production systems. This review presents

  1. Mitigation of methane emission from an old unlined landfill in Klintholm, Denmark using a passive biocover system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Rasmus Broe; Petersen, Per Haugsted; Jørgensen, Jørgen Henrik Bjerre; Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia; Mønster, Jacob G.; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative biocover system was constructed on a landfill cell to mitigate the methane emission. • The biocover system had a mitigation efficiently of typically 80%. • The system also worked efficiently at ambient temperatures below freezing. • A whole landfill emission measurement tool was required to document the biocover system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane generated at landfills contributes to global warming and can be mitigated by biocover systems relying on microbial methane oxidation. As part of a closure plan for an old unlined landfill without any gas management measures, an innovative biocover system was established. The system was designed based on a conceptual model of the gas emission patterns established through an initial baseline study. The study included construction of gas collection trenches along the slopes of the landfill where the majority of the methane emissions occurred. Local compost materials were tested as to their usefulness as bioactive methane oxidizing material and a suitable compost mixture was selected. Whole site methane emission quantifications based on combined tracer release and downwind measurements in combination with several local experimental activities (gas composition within biocover layers, flux chamber based emission measurements and logging of compost temperatures) proved that the biocover system had an average mitigation efficiency of approximately 80%. The study showed that the system also had a high efficiency during winter periods with temperatures below freezing. An economic analysis indicated that the mitigation costs of the biocover system were competitive to other existing greenhouse gas mitigation options

  2. Mitigation of methane emission from an old unlined landfill in Klintholm, Denmark using a passive biocover system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Rasmus Broe [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Per Haugsted [Ramboll Denmark A/S, DK-5100 Odense C (Denmark); Jørgensen, Jørgen Henrik Bjerre [Klintholm I/S, DK-5874 Hasselager (Denmark); Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia; Mønster, Jacob G. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker [FluxSense AB/Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter, E-mail: pekj@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • An innovative biocover system was constructed on a landfill cell to mitigate the methane emission. • The biocover system had a mitigation efficiently of typically 80%. • The system also worked efficiently at ambient temperatures below freezing. • A whole landfill emission measurement tool was required to document the biocover system efficiency. - Abstract: Methane generated at landfills contributes to global warming and can be mitigated by biocover systems relying on microbial methane oxidation. As part of a closure plan for an old unlined landfill without any gas management measures, an innovative biocover system was established. The system was designed based on a conceptual model of the gas emission patterns established through an initial baseline study. The study included construction of gas collection trenches along the slopes of the landfill where the majority of the methane emissions occurred. Local compost materials were tested as to their usefulness as bioactive methane oxidizing material and a suitable compost mixture was selected. Whole site methane emission quantifications based on combined tracer release and downwind measurements in combination with several local experimental activities (gas composition within biocover layers, flux chamber based emission measurements and logging of compost temperatures) proved that the biocover system had an average mitigation efficiency of approximately 80%. The study showed that the system also had a high efficiency during winter periods with temperatures below freezing. An economic analysis indicated that the mitigation costs of the biocover system were competitive to other existing greenhouse gas mitigation options.

  3. Status and potential of bio-methane fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document first indicates and describes the various bio-methane production processes which can be implemented on a short term (use of organic wastes or effluents), on a medium term (from energetic crops) and on a longer term (gasification). It discusses and assesses the potential production of bio-methane fuel from different sources and processes. It describes the steps of the production of bio-methane fuel from biogas, with notably biogas refinement to produce bio-methane through three processes (de-carbonation, desulfurization, dehydration). Cost productions are assessed. Expected technology advances are evoked. Finally, the authors outline the contribution of bio-methane in the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector

  4. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of solid organic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results obtained for different participating research groups in an interlaboratory study related to the biochemical methane potential (BMP). In this research work, the full experimental conditions influencing the test such as inoculum, substrate characteristics and experi...

  5. EU mitigation potential of harvested wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Grassi, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The new rules for the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry sector under the Kyoto Protocol recognized the importance of Harvested Wood Products (HWP) in climate change mitigation. We used the Tier 2 method proposed in the 2013 IPCC KP Supplement to estimate emissions and removals from HWP from 1990 to 2030 in EU-28 countries with three future harvest scenarios (constant historical average, and +/-20% in 2030). For the historical period (2000-2012) our results are consistent with other studies, indicating a HWP sink equal on average to -44.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 (about 10% of the sink by forest pools). Assuming a constant historical harvest scenario and future distribution of the total harvest among each commodity, the HWP sink decreases to -22.9 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030. The increasing and decreasing harvest scenarios produced a HWP sink of -43.2 and -9.0 Mt CO 2 yr -1 in 2030, respectively. Other factors may play an important role on HWP sink, including: (i) the relative share of different wood products, and (ii) the combined effect of production, import and export on the domestic production of each commodity. Maintaining a constant historical harvest, the HWP sink will slowly tend to saturate, i.e. to approach zero in the long term. The current HWP sink will be maintained only by further increasing the current harvest; however, this will tend to reduce the current sink in forest biomass, at least in the short term. Overall, our results suggest that: (i) there is limited potential for additional HWP sink in the EU; (ii) the HWP mitigation potential should be analyzed in conjunction with other mitigation components (e.g. sink in forest biomass, energy and material substitution by wood).

  6. Does Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane Production Affect Rumen Function and Animal Productivity in Dairy Cows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneman, Jolien B; Muetzel, Stefan; Hart, Kenton J; Faulkner, Catherine L; Moorby, Jon M; Perdok, Hink B; Newbold, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the rumen microbiome and rumen function might be disrupted if methane production in the rumen is decreased. Furthermore concerns have been voiced that geography and management might influence the underlying microbial population and hence the response of the rumen to mitigation strategies. Here we report the effect of the dietary additives: linseed oil and nitrate on methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and the rumen microbiome in two experiments from New Zealand (Dairy 1) and the UK (Dairy 2). Dairy 1 was a randomized block design with 18 multiparous lactating cows. Dairy 2 was a complete replicated 3 x 3 Latin Square using 6 rumen cannulated, lactating dairy cows. Treatments consisted of a control total mixed ration (TMR), supplementation with linseed oil (4% of feed DM) and supplementation with nitrate (2% of feed DM) in both experiments. Methane emissions were measured in open circuit respiration chambers and rumen samples were analyzed for rumen fermentation parameters and microbial population structure using qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS). Supplementation with nitrate, but not linseed oil, decreased methane yield (g/kg DMI; Prumen acetate to propionate ratio and consistent changes in the rumen microbial populations including a decreased abundance of the main genus Prevotella and a decrease in archaeal mcrA (log10 copies/g rumen DM content). These results demonstrate that methane emissions can be significantly decreased with nitrate supplementation with only minor, but consistent, effects on the rumen microbial population and its function, with no evidence that the response to dietary additives differed due to geography and different underlying microbial populations.

  7. The Potential Role of Seaweeds in the Natural Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.; Mendonça, Carla; Cabrita, Ana R. J.

    2016-08-01

    This study is the first to evaluate the effects of five seaweeds (Ulva sp., Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccharina latissima, Gigartina sp., and Gracilaria vermiculophylla) on gas and methane production and ruminal fermentation parameters when incubated in vitro with two substrates (meadow hay and corn silage) for 24 h. Seaweeds led to lower gas production, with Gigartina sp. presenting the lowest value. When incubated with meadow hay, Ulva sp., Gigartina sp. and G. vermiculophylla decreased methane production, but with corn silage, methane production was only decreased by G. vermiculophylla. With meadow hay, L. ochroleuca and S. latissima promoted similar methane production as the control, but with corn silage, L. ochroleuca increased it. With the exception of S. latissima, all seaweeds promoted similar levels of total volatile fatty acid production. The highest proportion of acetic acid was produced with Ulva sp., G. vermiculophylla, and S. latissima; the highest proportion of butyric acid with the control and L. ochroleuca; and the highest proportion of iso-valeric acid with Gigartina sp. These results reveal the potential of seaweeds to mitigate ruminal methane production and the importance of the basal diet. To efficiently use seaweeds as feed ingredients with nutritional and environmental benefits, more research is required to determine the mechanisms underlying seaweed and substrate interactions.

  8. Quantifying, Assessing, and Mitigating Methane Emissions from Super-emitters in the Oil and Gas Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, David Richard

    Methane emissions from the oil and gas (O&G) supply chain reduce potential climate benefits of natural gas as a replacement for other fossil fuels that emit more carbon dioxide per energy produced. O&G facilities have skewed emission rate distributions with a small fraction of sites contributing the majority of emissions. Knowledge of the identity and cause of these high emission facilities, referred to as super-emitters or fat-tail sources, is critical for reducing supply chain emissions. This dissertation addresses the quantification of super-emitter emissions, assessment of their prevalence and relationship to site characteristics, and mitigation with continuous leak detection systems. Chapter 1 summarizes the state of the knowledge of O&G methane emissions. Chapter 2 constructs a spatially-resolved emission inventory to estimate total and O&G methane emissions in the Barnett Shale as part of a coordinated research campaign using multiple top-down and bottom-up methods to quantify emissions. The emission inventory accounts for super-emitters with two-phase Monte Carlo simulations that combine site measurements collected with two approaches: unbiased sampling and targeted sampling of super-emitters. More comprehensive activity data and the inclusion of super-emitters, which account for 19% of O&G emissions, produces a emission inventory that is not statistically different than top-down regional emission estimates. Chapter 3 describes a helicopter-based survey of over 8,000 well pads in seven basins with infrared optical gas imaging to assess high emission sources. Four percent of sites are observed to have high emissions with over 90% of observed sources from tanks. The occurrence of high emissions is weakly correlated to site parameters and the best statistical model explains only 14% of variance, which demonstrates that the occurrence of super-emitters is primarily stochastic. Chapter 4 presents a Gaussian dispersion model for optimizing the placement of

  9. The implications of carbon dioxide and methane exchange for the heavy mitigation RCP2.6 scenario under two metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason A.; Howarth, Nicholas; Bowerman, Niel H.A.; Gohar, Laila K.; Otto, Alexander; Lee, David S.; Smith, Stephen M.; Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Millar, Richard J.; Allen, Myles R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exchanging methane for carbon dioxide emissions affects peak global warming. • Economic constraints severely affects exchange possibilities. • Chosen metric determines if economic to eliminate all removable methane emissions. • If all methane emissions could be removed, this could aid meeting two-degrees warming target. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas emissions associated with Representative Concentration Pathway RCP2.6 could limit global warming to around or below a 2 °C increase since pre-industrial times. However this scenario implies very large and rapid reductions in both carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and non-CO 2 emissions, and suggests a need to understand available flexibility between how different greenhouse gases might be abated. There is a growing interest in developing a greater understanding of the particular role of shorter lived non-CO 2 gases as abatement options. We address this here through a sensitivity study of different methane (CH 4 ) emissions pathways to year 2100 and beyond, by including exchanges with CO 2 emissions, and with a focus on related climate and economic advantages and disadvantages. Metrics exist that characterise gas equivalence in terms of climate change effect per tonne emitted. We analyse the implications of CO 2 and CH 4 emission exchanges under two commonly considered metrics: the 100-yr Global Warming Potential (GWP-100) and Global Temperature Potential (GTP-100). This is whilst keeping CO 2 -equivalent emissions pathways fixed, based on the standard set of emissions usually associated with RCP2.6. An idealised situation of anthropogenic CH 4 emissions being reduced to zero across a period of two decades and with the implementation of such cuts starting almost immediately gives lower warming than for standard RCP2.6 emissions during the 21st and 22nd Century. This is despite exchanging for higher CO 2 emissions. Introducing Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves provides an economic assessment of alternative gas

  10. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong [Agrometeorology Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  11. Ginkgo fruit extract as an additive to modify rumen microbiota and fermentation and to mitigate methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S; Shintani, R; Koike, S; Kobayashi, Y

    2017-03-01

    Ginkgo fruit, an unused byproduct of the ginkgo nut industry, contains antimicrobial compounds known as anacardic acids. Two major cultivars of ginkgo, Kyuju (K) and Tokuro (T), were evaluated for their potential as a feed additive for ruminants. In batch culture, we incubated a mixture of hay and concentrate in diluted rumen fluid with or without 1.6% (fruit equivalent) ginkgo fruit extract. We conducted another series of batch culture studies to determine the dose response of fermentation. We also conducted continuous culture using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) with cultivar K and carried out a pure culture study to monitor the sensitivity of 17 representative rumen bacterial species to ginkgo extract and component phenolics. Although both K and T extracts led to decreased methane and increased propionate production, changes were more apparent with K extract, and were dose-dependent. Total gas production was depressed at doses ≥3.2%, suggesting that 1.6% was the optimal supplementation level. In RUSITEC fermentation supplemented with 1.6% ginkgo K, methane decreased by 53% without affecting total gas or total VFA production, but with decreased acetate and increased propionate. Disappearance of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber were not affected by ginkgo, but ammonia levels were decreased. Quantitative PCR indicated that the abundance of protozoa, fungi, methanogens, and bacteria related to hydrogen and formate production decreased, but the abundance of bacteria related to propionate production increased. MiSeq analysis (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) confirmed these bacterial changes and identified archaeal community changes, including a decrease in Methanobrevibacter and Methanomassiliicoccaceae and an increase in Methanoplanus. Pure culture study results supported the findings for the above bacterial community changes. These results demonstrate that ginkgo fruit can modulate rumen fermentation toward methane mitigation

  12. The Potential for Methane Isotopologue Channels in GOSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Edward; Yoshida, Yukio; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2017-04-01

    Of the major Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) currently considered as having a major impact on atmospheric chemistry, Methane is amongst the most important (IPCC, 2014). Methane concentration in the atmosphere has been documented to be rising steadily over the past century, aside from an unexplained short period in the middle of the last decade (Heimann., 2011), leading to renewed efforts to understand global atmospheric Methane. Atmospheric Methane is primarily composed of two key isotopologues, 12CH4 and 13CH4, which have a natural abundance of about 98% and 1.1% respectively. It is a well-established fact that different sources of Methane (i.e. biogenic sources such as methanogens, or non-biogenic such as industrial hydrocarbon burning) vary in the abundance of these isotopologues (Etiope, 2009). The global identification of the ratios of these isotopologues could vastly increase knowledge of global Methane sources, and shed some light on global Methane growth. GOSAT-2 due to be launched in 2018 is a follow on from the original GOSAT mission launched in 2009. GOSAT-2 aims to continue the legacy of GOSAT by providing global measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide on a global basis in order to monitor GHG emissions. GOSAT-2 in the context of this study has a significant advantage over GOSAT, which is the extension of the sensitivity of band 3 to 2330nm from 2080nm where significant numbers of Methane spectral lines are located. In this study we apply the well-established Information Content (IC) analysis techniques originally proposed by Rodgers (2000) to determine the potential benefit of retrieving total column Methane isotopologue concentrations assuming bands 2 and 3 of the GOSAT-2/TANSO-FTS-2 instrument. The value of such studies has been proven on multiple occasions and can provide guidance on appropriate potential retrieval setups. Due to the fact that there has been limited research in this area, no 'a priori' state vectors or Variance Covariance Matrices (VCMs

  13. Methanization potential of anaerobic biodigestion of solid food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís R. G. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion of solid and semi-solid wastes has been widely used for the treatment of these residues and methane production; however, during the process (more specifically in the acidogenic phase, there is a tendency of pH reduction, an unfavorable condition to methanogenic bacteria. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate the methanization potential of an agroindustrial anaerobic granular sludge (AIS from UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor, individually and biodigested with food waste (FW from the University Restaurant of the Federal University of Pernambuco with buffering agent (AIS + FW + b and without it (AIS + FW. After the laboratory tests, the AIS + FW + b configuration obtained a cumulative methane production approximately six times greater than that of AIS + FW, and approximately twice that of the inoculum alone (AIS.

  14. Global Air Quality and Health Co-benefits of Mitigating Near-term Climate Change Through Methane and Black Carbon Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Schwartz, Joel; Shindell, Drew Todd; Amann, Markus; Faluvegi, Gregory S.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Pozzoli, Luca; Dingenen, Rita Van; Vignati, Elisabetta; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM health benefits of 14 specific emission control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor, that were selected because of their potential to reduce the rate of climate change over the next 20-40 years. Methods: We simulated the impacts of mitigation measures on outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone using two composition-climate models, and calculated associated changes in premature PM2.5- and ozone-related deaths using epidemiologically derived concentration-response functions. Results: We estimated that, for PM2.5 and ozone, respectively, fully implementing these measures could reduce global population-weighted average surface concentrations by 23-34% and 7-17% and avoid 0.6-4.4 and 0.04-0.52 million annual premature deaths globally in 2030. More than 80% of the health benefits are estimated to occur in Asia. We estimated that BC mitigation measures would achieve approximately 98% of the deaths that would be avoided if all BC and methane mitigation measures were implemented, due to reduced BC and associated reductions of nonmethane ozone precursor and organic carbon emissions as well as stronger mortality relationships for PM2.5 relative to ozone. Although subject to large uncertainty, these estimates and conclusions are not strongly dependent on assumptions for the concentration-response function. Conclusions: In addition to climate benefits, our findings indicate that the methane and BC emission control measures would have substantial co-benefits for air quality and public health worldwide, potentially reversing trends of increasing air pollution concentrations and mortality in Africa and South, West, and Central Asia. These projected benefits are independent of carbon dioxide mitigation measures. Benefits of BC measures are underestimated because we did not account for benefits from reduced indoor exposures and because outdoor exposure estimates were limited by

  15. Biogenic methane potential of marine sediments. Application of chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arning, E.T.; Schulz, H.M. [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany). Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2013-08-01

    Accumulations of biogenic methane-dominated gas are widespread and occur in a variety of depositional settings and rock types. However, the potential of biogenic methane remains underexplored. This is mainly due to the fact that quantitative assessments applying numerical modeling techniques for exploration purposes are generally lacking to date. Biogenic methane formation starts in relatively shallow marine sediments below the sulfate reduction zone. When sulfate is exhausted, methanogenesis via the CO{sub 2} reduction pathway is often the dominant biogenic methane formation process in marine sediments (Claypool and Kaplan, 1974). The process can be simplified by the reaction: 2CH{sub 2}O + Ca{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} CH{sub 4} + CaCO{sub 3} + 2H{sup +}. The products of early diagenetic reactions initiate coupled equilibrium reactions that induce a new state of chemical equilibrium among minerals, pore water and gas. The driving force of the complex biogeochemical reactions in sedimentary environments during early diagenesis is the irreversible redox-conversion of organic matter. Early diagenetic formation of biogenic methane shortly after deposition ('early diagenesis') was retraced using PHREEQC computer code that is applied to calculate homogenous and heterogeneous mass-action equations in combination with one-dimensional diffusion driven transport (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). Our modeling approach incorporates interdependent diagenetic reactions evolving into a diffusive multi-component and multiphase system by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of species distribution (Arning et al., 2011, 2012, 2013). Reaction kinetics of organic carbon conversion is integrated into the set of equilibrium reactions by defining type and amount of converted organic matter in a certain time step. It is the aim (1) to calculate quantitatively thermodynamic equilibrium conditions (composition of pore water, mineral phase and gas phase assemblage) in

  16. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) of artichoke waste: the inoculum effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate anaerobic digestibility of artichoke waste resulting from industrial transformation. A series of batch anaerobic digestion tests was performed in order to evaluate the biochemical methane potential of the matrix in respect of the process. A comparison of the different performances of the laboratory-scale reactors operating in mesophilic conditions and utilizing three different values of the inoculum/substrate ratio was carried out. The best performance was achieved with an inoculum/substrate ratio of 2. Artichoke-processing byproducts showed a classical organic waste decomposition behaviour: a fast start-up phase, an acclimation stage, and a final stabilization phase. Following this approach, artichoke waste reached chemical oxygen demand removal of about 90% in 40 days. The high methane yield (average 408.62 mL CH4 gvs (-1) voltatile solids), makes artichoke waste a good product to be utilized in anaerobic digestion plants for biogas production.

  18. Potential impact of salinity on methane production from food waste anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Fei; Li, Xiaoming; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) inhibited the production of methane from food waste anaerobic digestion. However, the details of how NaCl affects methane production from food waste remain unknown by now and the efficient approach to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was seldom reported. In this paper, the details of how NaCl affects methane production was first investigated via a series of batch experiments. Experimental results showed the effect of NaCl on methane production was dosage dependent. Low level of NaCl improved the hydrolysis and acidification but inhibited the process of methanogenesis whereas high level of NaCl inhibit both steps of acidification and methanogenesis. Then an efficient approach, i.e. co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge, to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was reported. Finally, the mechanisms of how co-digestion mitigates the effect on methane production caused by NaCl in co-digestion system were revealed. These findings obtained in this work might be of great importance for the operation of methane recovery from food waste in the presence of NaCl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Peat Mining and Restoration on Methane Turnover Potential and Methane-Cycling Microorganisms in a Northern Bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reumer, Max; Harnisz, Monika; Lee, Hyo Jung; Reim, Andreas; Grunert, Oliver; Putkinen, Anuliina; Fritze, Hannu; Bodelier, Paul L E; Ho, Adrian

    2018-02-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands are a recognized global carbon reservoir. Without restoration and peat regrowth, harvested peatlands are dramatically altered, impairing their carbon sink function, with consequences for methane turnover. Previous studies determined the impact of commercial mining on the physicochemical properties of peat and the effects on methane turnover. However, the response of the underlying microbial communities catalyzing methane production and oxidation have so far received little attention. We hypothesize that with the return of Sphagnum spp. postharvest, methane turnover potential and the corresponding microbial communities will converge in a natural and restored peatland. To address our hypothesis, we determined the potential methane production and oxidation rates in natural (as a reference), actively mined, abandoned, and restored peatlands over two consecutive years. In all sites, the methanogenic and methanotrophic population sizes were enumerated using quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting the mcrA and pmoA genes, respectively. Shifts in the community composition were determined using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the mcrA gene and a pmoA -based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) analysis, complemented by cloning and sequence analysis of the mmoX gene. Peat mining adversely affected methane turnover potential, but the rates recovered in the restored site. The recovery in potential activity was reflected in the methanogenic and methanotrophic abundances. However, the microbial community composition was altered, being more pronounced for the methanotrophs. Overall, we observed a lag between the recovery of the methanogenic/methanotrophic activity and the return of the corresponding microbial communities, suggesting that a longer duration (>15 years) is needed to reverse mining-induced effects on the methane-cycling microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Ombrotrophic peatlands are a crucial carbon sink, but this environment

  20. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders M.; Chanton, Jeffrey; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH 4 ) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH 4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called 'biocovers') to enhance biological oxidation of CH 4 . A full scale biocover system to reduce CH 4 emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH 4 oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000 m 2 were integrated into the existing cover at the 12 ha site. To increase CH 4 load to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH 4 was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH 4 emissions showed that a significant portion of the emission quantified in the baseline study continued unabated from the site. Total emission measurements suggested a reduction in CH 4 emission of approximately 28% at the end of the one year monitoring period. This was supported by analysis of stable carbon isotopes which showed an increase in oxidation efficiency from 16% to 41%. The project documented that integrating approaches such a whole landfill emission measurements using tracer techniques or stable carbon isotope measurements of ambient air samples are needed to document CH 4 mitigation efficiencies of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.

  1. Potential Cost-Effective Opportunities for Methane Emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ethan [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States); Hodson, Elke [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Heath, Garvin [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The energy sector was responsible for approximately 84% of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the U.S. in 2012 (EPA 2014a). Methane is the second most important GHG, contributing 9% of total U.S. CO2e emissions. A large portion of those methane emissions result from energy production and use; the natural gas, coal, and oil industries produce approximately 39% of anthropogenic methane emissions in the U.S. As a result, fossil-fuel systems have been consistently identified as high priority sectors to contribute to U.S. GHG reduction goals (White House 2015). Only two studies have recently attempted to quantify the abatement potential and cost associated with the breadth of opportunities to reduce GHG emissions within natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains in the United States, namely the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2013a) and ICF (2014). EPA, in its 2013 analysis, estimated the marginal cost of abatement for non-CO2 GHG emissions from the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains for multiple regions globally, including the United States. Building on this work, ICF International (ICF) (2014) provided an update and re-analysis of the potential opportunities in U.S. natural gas and oil systems. In this report we synthesize these previously published estimates as well as incorporate additional data provided by ICF to provide a comprehensive national analysis of methane abatement opportunities and their associated costs across the natural gas, oil, and coal supply chains. Results are presented as a suite of marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which depict the total potential and cost of reducing emissions through different abatement measures. We report results by sector (natural gas, oil, and coal) and by supply chain segment - production, gathering and boosting, processing, transmission and storage, or distribution - to facilitate identification of which sectors and supply chain

  2. On the Assessment of the CO2 Mitigation Potential of Woody Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Codina Gironès

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Woody biomass, a renewable energy resource, accumulates solar energy in form of carbon hydrates produced from atmospheric CO2 and H2O. It is, therefore, a means of CO2 mitigation for society as long as the biogenic carbon released to the atmosphere when delivering its energy content by oxidation can be accumulated again during growth of new woody biomass. Even when considering the complete life cycle, usually, only a small amount of fossil CO2 is emitted. However, woody biomass availability is limited by land requirement and, therefore, it is important to maximize its CO2 mitigation potential in the energy system. In this study, we consider woody biomass not only as a source of renewable energy but also as a source of carbon for seasonal storage of solar electricity. A first analysis is carried out based on the mitigation effect of woody biomass usage pathways, which is the avoided fossil CO2 emissions obtained by using one unit of woody biomass to provide energy services, as alternative to fossil fuels. Results show that woody biomass usage pathways can achieve up to 9.55 times the mitigation effect obtained through combustion of woody biomass, which is taken as a reference. Applying energy system modeling and multi-objective optimization techniques, the role of woody biomass technological choices in the energy transition is then analyzed at a country scale. The analysis is applied to Switzerland, demonstrating that the use of woody biomass in gasification–methanation systems, coupled with electrolysers and combined with an intensive deployment of PV panels and efficient technologies, could reduce the natural gas imports to zero. Electrolysers are used to boost synthetic natural gas production by hydrogen injection into the methanation reaction. The hydrogen used is produced when there is excess of solar electricity. The efficient technologies, such as heat pumps and battery electric vehicles, allow increasing the overall efficiency of the

  3. CO2 emissions and mitigation potential in China's ammonia industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenji; Zhu Bing; Li Qiang; Ma Tieju; Hu Shanying; Griffy-Brown, Charla

    2010-01-01

    Significant pressure from increasing CO 2 emissions and energy consumption in China's industrialization process has highlighted a need to understand and mitigate the sources of these emissions. Ammonia production, as one of the most important fundamental industries in China, represents those heavy industries that contribute largely to this sharp increasing trend. In the country with the largest population in the world, ammonia output has undergone fast growth spurred by increasing demand for fertilizer of food production since 1950s. However, various types of technologies implemented in the industry make ammonia plants in China operate with huge differences in both energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. With consideration of these unique features, this paper attempts to estimate the amount of CO 2 emission from China's ammonia production, and analyze the potential for carbon mitigation in the industry. Based on the estimation, related policy implications and measures required to realize the potential for mitigation are also discussed.

  4. Landfill methane emission mitigation – How to construct and document a full‐scale biocover system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Landfills receiving organic wastes produce biogas (landfill gas – LFG) containing methane (CH4). Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to gas utilization systems or as a follow‐on technology when a gas utilization system gets non...... rate can be obtained in soils, compost and other materials, high enough to significant reduce the methane emission from landfills. The process has been scaled up by DTU Environment to a full‐scale implemented technology at two Danish landfills. Now the Danish government has decided to establish bio...

  5. Methane clumped isotopes: Progress and potential for a new isotopic tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Stolper, Daniel A.; Eiler, John M.; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Shuai, Yanhua; Bishop, Andrew; Podlaha, Olaf G.; Ferreira, Alexandre A.; Santos Neto, Eugenio V.; Niemann, Martin; Steen, Arne S.; Huang, Ling; Chimiak, Laura; Valentine, David L.; Fiebig, Jens; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Seyfried, William E.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Inskeep, William P.; Moran, James J.; Kitchen, Nami

    2017-11-01

    The isotopic composition of methane is of longstanding geochemical interest, with important implications for understanding hydrocarbon systems, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the global carbon cycle, and life in extreme environments. Recent analytical developments focusing on multiply substituted isotopologues (‘clumped isotopes’) are opening a potentially valuable new window into methane geochemistry. When methane forms in internal isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotopes can provide a direct record of formation temperature, making this property particularly valuable for identifying different methane origins. However, it has also become clear that in certain settings methane clumped isotope measurements record kinetic rather than equilibrium isotope effects. Here we present a substantially expanded dataset of methane clumped isotope analyses, and provide a synthesis of the current interpretive framework for this parameter. We review different processes affecting methane clumped isotope compositions, describe the relationships between conventional isotope and clumped isotope data, and summarize the types of information that this measurement can provide in different Earth and planetary environments.

  6. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  8. Estimate of the emissions of methane in a dairy farm and a proposal of mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R; Alvarez, E; Gely, M; Pagano, A; Crozza, D

    2005-01-01

    The methane represents one of the most potent greenhouse gas and recent inventories express that the systems of handling of the manure of the livestock have influence in the global emissions of methane (Martinez et. al, 2003).This residue, during the periods of storage to open sky, suffers a natural anaerobic decomposition and gases like ammonium, hydrogen, sulfhydric, methane and dioxide of carbon; are generated and emitted to the atmosphere (EPA, 1999, Misselbrook et. al, 2001; Martinez et. al, 2003).In a report presented by the EPA (EPA, 1999) it was estimated that the methane emission originated in United States (1997) for the handling of the manure of the livestock ascended to 3.0 T g., what represents 10% of the total content of the methane emissions in that country.It is also expected that these emissions caused by the cattle residual grow above 25% from the 2000 to the 2020.In Argentina, and in particular in the region that includes the territorial space of the present study, in the Party of Olavarria located in the center of the Buenos Aires Province, it is considered that there are 8265 heads of bovine livestock, distributed under different forms of exploitation, dairy farms, cattle-breeding ranch and feedlots.These figures show the clearly incipient advance of the bovine livestock in this area, showing that the values of generated methane can influence thoroughly in the contribution of the greenhouse gas.The objective of the present study resides in carrying out an estimate of the equivalent quantity of CO 2 that is emitted to the atmosphere and how much it could decrease if the methodology of anaerobic digestion is applied, for the conversion of the bovine manure in biogas

  9. In vivo and in vitro effects of a blend of essential oils on rumen methane mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Montoya, J.; Peiren, N.; Cone, J.W.; Zweifel, B.; Fievez, V.; Campeneere, De S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Agolin Ruminant, a blend of essential oils, on methane (CH4) emissions were investigated in two in vivo experiments and in four in vitro experiments. In the in vivo experiments, four lactating dairy cows and four beef heifers were supplemented 0.2 g/d of the essential oils (ca. 2–4 ppm

  10. Effect of quantity and composition of waste on the prediction of annual methane potential from landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han Sang; Moon, Hee Sun; Kim, Jae Young

    2012-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of waste composition change on the methane production in landfills. An empirical equation for the methane potential of the mixed waste is derived based on the methane potential values of individual waste components and the compositional ratio of waste components. A correction factor was introduced in the equation and was determined from the BMP and lysimeter tests. The equation and LandGEM were applied for a full size landfill and the annual methane potential was estimated. Results showed that the changes in quantity of waste affected the annual methane potential from the landfill more than the changes of waste composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Chanton, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called “biocovers”) to enhance biological...... of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.......Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called “biocovers”) to enhance biological...

  12. Mitigation of methane emissions in a pilot-scale biocover system at the AV Miljø Landfill, Denmark: 1. System design and gas distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassini, Filippo; Scheutz, Charlotte; Skov, Bent Henning

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation at landfills by methane oxidation in engineered biocover systems is believed to be a cost effective technology, but so far a full quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of the technology in full scale has only been carried out in a few cases. A third generation semi-p...

  13. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. corn belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jane M-F; Archer, David W; Weyers, Sharon L; Barbour, Nancy W

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural management practices that enhance C sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide [N₂O], methane [CH₄], and carbon dioxide [CO₂]), and promote productivity are needed to mitigate global warming without sacrificing food production. The objectives of the study were to compare productivity, greenhouse gas emission, and change in soil C over time and to assess whether global warming potential and global warming potential per unit biomass produced were reduced through combined mitigation strategies when implemented in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The systems compared were (i) business as usual (BAU); (ii) maximum C sequestration (MAXC); and (iii) optimum greenhouse gas benefit (OGGB). Biomass production, greenhouse gas flux change in total and organic soil C, and global warming potential were compared among the three systems. Soil organic C accumulated only in the surface 0 to 5 cm. Three-year average emission of N₂O and CH was similar among all management systems. When integrated from planting to planting, N₂O emission was similar for MAXC and OGGB systems, although only MAXC was fertilized. Overall, the three systems had similar global warming potential based on 4-yr changes in soil organic C, but average rotation biomass was less in the OGGB systems. Global warming potential per dry crop yield was the least for the MAXC system and the most for OGGB system. This suggests management practices designed to reduce global warming potential can be achieved without a loss of productivity. For example, MAXC systems over time may provide sufficient soil C sequestration to offset associated greenhouse gas emission. by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Dietary Nitrate for Methane Mitigation Leads to Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Brask, Maike

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate supplements to cattle diets can reduce enteric CH4 emissions. However, if NO3- metabolism stimulates N2O emissions, this will reduce the effectiveness of dietary NO3- for CH4 mitigation. We quantified N2O emissions as part of a dairy cow feeding experiment where urea was substituted...

  15. Modelling methane emission mitigation by anaerobic digestion: effect of storage conditions and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, Veronica; Wahid, R; Ward, A; Møller, H B

    2018-03-13

    In this work the methane conversion factor (MCF) of untreated and anaerobically digested cattle manure (CM) as a function of storage temperature, time and co-digestion was measured in an in vitro experiment and modelled based on IPCC (2006) methodology (Tier 2). For this, one sample of untreated CM, one sample of mono-digested CM and three samples of CM co-digested with grass were incubated at seven different temperatures (from 5°C to 50°C) over 346 days. The main results showed that ultimate methane yield (B 0 ) of CM is higher than the B 0 reported by the IPCC (2006). Two temperature ranges should be considered for MCF evolution, below 15°C very low MCF was measured in this work for untreated CM, mono and co-digested samples. At higher temperatures, MCF obtained in this work and that provided by the IPCC could be comparable depending on storage time. Anaerobic mono-digestion decreased MCF compared to untreated CM at all temperatures and times, except in the temperature range between 20°C and 25°C if storage time is low, due to a lag phase observed in CM. This lag phase would probably not happen in real storage conditions depending on the proportion of old manure remaining in the storage tank. Co-digestion with grass-decreased MCF compared to mono-digestion, but increased CH 4 production in terms of fresh matter due to the higher B 0 of the mixture. Storage time, temperature and co-digestion should be considered in the quantification of CH 4 emission from digested material.

  16. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane. For every two molecules of CO2 injected, roughly one molecule of methane is produced. The work included an investigation of the potential CBM reserves in the Dutch underground and the related CO2 s...

  17. Meta-analysis on Methane Mitigating Properties of Saponin-rich Sources in the Rumen: Influence of Addition Levels and Plant Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been considered as promising natural substances for mitigating methane emissions from ruminants. However, studies reported that addition of saponin-rich sources often arrived at contrasting results, i.e. either it decreased methane or it did not. The aim of the present study was to assess ruminal methane emissions through a meta-analytical approach of integrating related studies from published papers which described various levels of different saponin-rich sources being added to ruminant feed. A database was constructed from published literature reporting the addition of saponin-rich sources at various levels and then monitoring ruminal methane emissions in vitro. Accordingly, levels of saponin-rich source additions as well as different saponin sources were specified in the database. Apart from methane, other related rumen fermentation parameters were also included in the database, i.e. organic matter digestibility, gas production, pH, ammonia concentration, short-chain fatty acid profiles and protozoal count. A total of 23 studies comprised of 89 data points met the inclusion criteria. The data obtained were subsequently subjected to a statistical meta-analysis based on mixed model methodology. Accordingly, different studies were treated as random effects whereas levels of saponin-rich source additions or different saponin sources were considered as fixed effects. Model statistics used were p-value and root mean square error. Results showed that an addition of increasing levels of a saponin-rich source decreased methane emission per unit of substrate incubated as well as per unit of total gas produced (ptea>quillaja, statistically they did not differ each other. It can be concluded that methane mitigating properties of saponins in the rumen are level- and source-dependent.

  18. Biotechnological conversion of methane to methanol: evaluation of progress and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte E. Bjorck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources of methane are numerous, and vary greatly in their use and sustainable credentials. A Jekyll and Hyde character, it is a valuable energy source present as geological deposits of natural gas, however it is also potent greenhouse gas, released during many waste management processes. Gas-to-liquid technologies are being investigated as a means to exploit and monetise non-traditional and unutilised methane sources. The product identified as having the greatest potential is methanol due to it being a robust, commercially mature conversion process from methane and its beneficial fuel characteristics. Commercial methane to methanol conversion requires high temperatures and pressures, in an energy intensive and costly process. In contrast methanotrophic bacteria perform the desired transformation under ambient conditions, using methane monooxygenase (MMO enzymes. Despite the great potential of these bacteria a number of biotechnical difficulties are hindering progress towards an industrially suitable process. We have identified five major challenges that exist as barriers to a viable conversion process that, to our knowledge, have not previously been examined as distinct process challenges. Although biotechnological applications of methanotrophic bacteria have been reviewed in part, no review has comprehensively covered progress and challenges for a methane to methanol process from an industrial perspective. All published examples to date of methanotroph catalysed conversion of methane to methanol are collated, and standardised to allow direct comparison. The focus will be on conversion of methane to methanol by whole-cell, wild type, methanotroph cultures, and the potential for their application in an industrially relevant process. A recent shift in the research community focus from a mainly biological angle to an overall engineering approach, offers potential to exploit methanotrophs in an industrially relevant biotechnological gas

  19. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH 4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N 2 O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH 4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH 4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH 4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N 2 O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitigation of methane emissions in a pilot-scale biocover system at the av miljø landfill, denmark: system design and gas distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Skov, B.; Cassini, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    -passive biocover system was constructed at the AV Miljø landfill. The biocover is fed by landfill gas pumped out of three leachate wells. An innovative gas distribution system was used to overcome the often observed overloaded hot spot areas resulting from uneven gas distribution to the active methane oxidation......Greenhouse gas mitigation at landfills by methane oxidation in engineered biocover systems is believed to be a cost effective technology but so far a full quantitative evaluation of the efficiency of the technology in full scale has only been carried out in a few cases. A third generation semi...... layer. Performed screening of methane and carbon dioxide concentration at the surface of the biocover showed homogenous distributions indicating an even gas distribution. This was supported by result from a performed tracer test where the compound HFC-134a was added to the gas inlet over a 12 day period...

  1. Methane emission from ruminants and solid waste: A critical analysis of baseline and mitigation projections for climate and policy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.

    2012-12-01

    Current and projected estimates of methane (CH4) emission from anthropogenic sources are numerous but largely unexamined or compared. Presented here is a critical appraisal of CH4 projections used in climate-chemistry and policy studies. We compare emissions for major CH4 sources from several groups, including our own new data and RCP projections developed for climate-chemistry models for the next IPCC Assessment Report (AR5). We focus on current and projected baseline and mitigation emissions from ruminant animals and solid waste that are both predicted to rise dramatically in coming decades, driven primarily by developing countries. For waste, drivers include increasing urban populations, higher per capita waste generation due to economic growth and increasing landfilling rates. Analysis of a new global data base detailing waste composition, collection and disposal indicates that IPCC-based methodologies and default data overestimate CH4 emission for the current period which cascades into substantial overestimates in future projections. CH4 emission from solid waste is estimated to be ~10-15 Tg CH4/yr currently rather than the ~35 Tg/yr often reported in the literature. Moreover, emissions from developing countries are unlikely to rise rapidly in coming decades because new management approaches, such as sanitary landfills, that would increase emissions are maladapted to infrastructures in these countries and therefore unlikely to be implemented. The low current emission associated with solid waste (~10 Tg), together with future modest growth, implies that mitigation of waste-related CH4 emission is a poor candidate for slowing global warming. In the case of ruminant animals (~90 Tg CH4/yr currently), the dominant assumption driving future trajectories of CH4 emission is a substantial increase in meat and dairy consumption in developing countries to be satisfied by growing animal populations. Unlike solid waste, current ruminant emissions among studies exhibit a

  2. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...... scale landfill reactors. The initial methane potential of solid wastes filled to the reactors was around 0.347 L/CH(4)/g dry waste, which decreased with operational time of landfill reactors to values of 0.117 and 0.154 L/CH(4)/g dry waste for leachate recirculated (R1) and non-recirculated (R2...

  3. Potential for methane production from typical Mediterranean agro-industrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Drakopoulou, S.; Terzakis, S.; Georgaki, E.; Manios, T. [Laboratory of Solid Waste and Wastewater Management, School of Agricultural Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, GR-71004 Iraklio, Crete (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    This work examines the potential for methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater and wine-grape residues with slaughterhouse wastewater. Continuous (mesophilic) and batch (mesophilic and thermophilic) experiments were studied, both with the separate types of by-products and with mixtures. Methane yields from olive oil wastewater, winery residues and slaughterhouse wastewater were 108, 147 and 297 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD fed respectively. Co-digestion with 50% olive oil wastewater and 50% slaughterhouse wastewater or 50% winery residues gave a methane yield of 184 and 214 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD, respectively. Furthermore, the methane yield was 188 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD added, co-digesting a mixture of 50% winery residues and slaughterhouse wastewater. Finally, the same mixtures under thermophilic conditions gave methane yields of 282, 301 and 219 L CH{sub 4} kg{sup -1} COD, respectively. These results suggest that methane can be produced very efficiently by co-digesting olive oil wastewater, wine-grape residues and slaughterhouse wastewater. (author)

  4. Renewable Biochemical Methane Potential through Anaerobic Co-digestion from Selective Feed Stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thara, K.; Navis Karthika, Ignatius; Dheenadayalan, M. S., Dr

    2017-08-01

    Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) analysis provides a measure of the anaerobic biodegradability of a given substrate. BMP test is also used to evaluate the potential biogas (methane) production between various Co-digestion substrates. This test is also used to determine the amount of organic carbon in a given material that can be an aerobically converted to methane-Biogas. Studies were carried out for the production of biogas from the leather solid waste. Co-digestion (simultaneous digestion of two or more substrates) studies were carried out in batch reactor using the fleshing (a solid waste generated during the processing of raw hides or skins into finished leather) along with the fruit and vegetable waste at mesophilic condition 35° C). The anaerobic methanogenic seed sludge prepared separately followed by standard BMP test, which was used as the seed inoculums. Recent research on this topic is reviewed in this current paper.

  5. Study of the methanization development potential in the Mayenne district (53)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Valentin; Lemarie, Christophe; Geneau De Lamarliere, Laurent; Hubert, Cecile; Le Guen, Gaelle

    2011-06-01

    The first objective of this study is to determine the quantity of fermentable wastes produced by agricultural exploitations, agri-food industries and communities at the district scale, and to identify the main agricultural, industrial and community-based consumers of agricultural heat in order to ensure project profitability. A second objective, based on previous assessments, is to highlight possible methanization projects on the whole district territory, and to determine needed surfaces in relationship with the spreading of the digestate produced by these methanization projects. As far as the second objective is concerned, the report propose some generalities (project typologies, development criteria, produced energy, other potential wastes), presents different types of liquid phase or dry methanization (methodology, technology, costs), alternative scenarios, spreading potentials, and an environmental assessment (greenhouse emissions, impact on the natural and human environment). Several appendices are provided which contain data tables, maps of production assessments and of location distributions of installations

  6. Application of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking for enhancement of methane potential of swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    . No inhibition was observed for the digested fibers at the loadings tested while raw fibers exhibited slight inhibition only at very high loadings. Main conclusions: In the present study, AAS was successfully applied as a pretreatment method to increase methane potential of swine manure fibers. Batch anaerobic......Purpose: Increasing the methane productivity of manure based biogas plants is challenging because the solid fraction of manure contains lignocellulosic fibers, which are difficult to biodegrade and thus make anaerobic digestion process slow and economically unfavourable. Therefore, pretreatment...... of the solid fraction is a prerequisite for increasing its digestibility. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) and subsequent ammonia removal as a pretreatment method for increasing methane potential and biogas productivity of raw and digested manure fibers. Methods...

  7. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  8. The potential for methane hydrate formation in deep repositories of spent nuclear fuel in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohidi, Bahman; Chapoy, Antonin; Smellie, John; Puigdomenech, Ignasi

    2010-12-01

    The main aim of this work was to establish whether the pertaining pressure and temperature conditions and dissolved gas concentration in groundwater is conducive to gas hydrate formation using a modelling approach. The hydrate stability pressure-temperature zone of dissolved methane in the presence of salt has been obtained through calculations which show that a decrease in the system pressure and/or an increase in salt concentration favours hydrate formation, as both factors reduce equilibrium gas solubility in the aqueous phase. This behaviour is unlike that of the system including a gas phase, where the water phase is always saturated with methane, and hence the methane solubility in water is not a limiting factor. The main conclusion is that hydrate formation is not possible at the reported methane concentrations and water salinities for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. At the highest salinities and methane concentrations encountered, namely ∼0.00073 mole fraction methane and ∼10 mass % NaCl at a depth of 1,000 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, hydrates could form if the system temperatures and pressures are below 2.5 deg C and 60 bar, respectively, i.e. values that are much lower than those prevailing at that depth (∼20 deg C and ∼100 bar, respectively). Furthermore, the calculated results provide the necessary data to estimate the effect of increase in dissolved methane concentration on potential hydrate formation, as well as two phase flow. The available depth dependency of methane concentration at the sites studied in Sweden and Finland was used in another study to estimate the diffusive flow of methane in the rock volumes. These diffusion rates, which are highest at Olkiluoto, indicate that even if the conditions were to become favourable to methane hydrate formation, then it would take several millions of years before a thin layer of hydrates could be formed, a condition which is outside the required period of satisfactory

  9. The potential for methane hydrate formation in deep repositories of spent nuclear fuel in granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohidi, Bahman; Chapoy, Antonin (Hydrafact Ltd, Inst. of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Puigdomenech, Ignasi (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The main aim of this work was to establish whether the pertaining pressure and temperature conditions and dissolved gas concentration in groundwater is conducive to gas hydrate formation using a modelling approach. The hydrate stability pressure-temperature zone of dissolved methane in the presence of salt has been obtained through calculations which show that a decrease in the system pressure and/or an increase in salt concentration favours hydrate formation, as both factors reduce equilibrium gas solubility in the aqueous phase. This behaviour is unlike that of the system including a gas phase, where the water phase is always saturated with methane, and hence the methane solubility in water is not a limiting factor. The main conclusion is that hydrate formation is not possible at the reported methane concentrations and water salinities for the Forsmark and Laxemar sites in Sweden and Olkiluoto in Finland. At the highest salinities and methane concentrations encountered, namely approx0.00073 mole fraction methane and approx10 mass % NaCl at a depth of 1,000 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, hydrates could form if the system temperatures and pressures are below 2.5 deg C and 60 bar, respectively, i.e. values that are much lower than those prevailing at that depth (approx20 deg C and approx100 bar, respectively). Furthermore, the calculated results provide the necessary data to estimate the effect of increase in dissolved methane concentration on potential hydrate formation, as well as two phase flow. The available depth dependency of methane concentration at the sites studied in Sweden and Finland was used in another study to estimate the diffusive flow of methane in the rock volumes. These diffusion rates, which are highest at Olkiluoto, indicate that even if the conditions were to become favourable to methane hydrate formation, then it would take several millions of years before a thin layer of hydrates could be formed, a condition which is outside the required period of

  10. Potential of biogas and methane production from anaerobic digestion of poultry slaughterhouse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva Sunada

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of anaerobic digestion on the treatment of effluent from poultry slaughterhouse. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Waste Recycling from Animal Production/FCA/UFGD. During four weeks, eight experimental digesters, semi-continuous models, were loaded and set according to the hydraulic retention time (HRT of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, and according to the solid fraction treatment, separated with 1 mm sieve or without separation. The average weekly production of biogas and methane as well as the methane concentrations, the potential production per amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD added and reduced, the concentrations of N, P and K at the beginning and end of process, and the most likely numbers of total and thermotolerant coliforms were evaluated. For data analysis, a completely randomized design was performed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 HRT: 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and separation with 1 mm sieve or without separation, with repetition over time. The highest production of biogas and methane was statistically significant for the HRT of 7 and 14 days (5.29 and 2.38 L of biogas and 4.28 and 1.73 L of methane, respectively. There was an interaction between HRT and the separation of the solid with sieve and the highest production was obtained in the treatment without separation. Similar behavior was observed for the potential production with a maximum of 0.41 m³ methane.kg-1 COD added with an HRT of 7 days without separation of the solid fraction. The separation of the solid fraction is not recommended in the pretreatment of liquid effluent from poultry slaughterhouse, once the potential for production and production of methane and biogas were reduced with this treatment.

  11. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  12. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Heiske, S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species--harvested in Denmark--for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 degrees C) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids(-1) (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 mi gVS(-1) for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS(-1) for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS(-1) for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5-2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during 'green tides' in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor. A 48% increase in methane production rate of the reactor was observed when the concentration of U. lactuca in the feedstock was 40% (VS basis). Increasing the concentration to 50% had no further effect on the methane production, which limits the application of this algae at Danish centralized biogas plant.

  13. Potential for methane production from anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure with winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño, B; Molinuevo, B; García-González, M C

    2011-03-01

    This work examines the methane production potential for the anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure (SM) with winery wastewater (WW). Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific methane yield was 348 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added, obtained at 85.4% of WW and 0.7 g COD g(-1)VS. Specific methane yield from SM alone was 27 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added d(-1). Furthermore, specific methane yields were 49, 87 and 107 mL CH(4)g(-1) COD added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10% WW, 25% WW and 40% WW, respectively. Co-digestion with 40% WW improved the removal efficiencies up to 52% (TCOD), 132% (SCOD) and 61% (VSS) compared to SM alone. These results suggest that methane can be produced very efficiently by the co-digestion of swine manure with winery wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of perennials: Methane potential and digestate nitrogen fertilizer value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Stover, Dorette Sophie; Sun, Guotao; Kroff, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Co-digestion of crop biomass improves the traditional manure-based biogas yield due to an increased content of easily degradable carbon compounds. In this study, the methane potential of three perennials (grass, legumes, and grass+legume) was determined using various amounts together with animal ...

  15. Biochemical methane potential and anaerobic biodegradability of non-herbaceous and herbaceous phytomass in biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triolo, Jin Mi; Pedersen, Lene; Qu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    The suitability of municipal plant waste for anaerobic digestion was examined using 57 different herbaceous and non-herbaceous samples. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability were related to the degree of lignification and crystallinity of cellulose. The BMP of herbace...

  16. Reaction-driven casing expansion : potential for wellbore leakage mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, Timotheus K. T.; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Christopher J.

    It is generally challenging to predict the post-abandonment behaviour and integrity of wellbores. Leakage is, moreover, difficult to mitigate, particularly between the steel casing and outer cement sheath. Radially expanding the casing with some form of internal plug, thereby closing annular voids

  17. Anycast and its potential for DDoS mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wouter Bastiaan; de Oliveira Schmidt, R.; Pras, Aiko

    IP anycast is widely being used to distribute essential Internet services, such as DNS, across the globe. One of the main reasons for doing so is to increase the redundancy of the service and reduce the impacts of the growing threat of DDoS attacks. IP anycast can be further used to mitigate DDoS

  18. Ozonation and Thermal Pre-Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge-Implications for Toxicity and Methane Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment...... by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed....

  19. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strömberg, Sten; Nistor, Mihaela; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2 4 full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world

  20. Towards eliminating systematic errors caused by the experimental conditions in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strömberg, Sten, E-mail: sten.stromberg@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nistor, Mihaela, E-mail: mn@bioprocesscontrol.com [Bioprocess Control, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jing.liu@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, Getingevägen 60, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bioprocess Control, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The evaluated factors introduce significant systematic errors (10–38%) in BMP tests. • Ambient temperature (T) has the most substantial impact (∼10%) at low altitude. • Ambient pressure (p) has the most substantial impact (∼68%) at high altitude. • Continuous monitoring of T and p is not necessary for kinetic calculations. - Abstract: The Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) test is increasingly recognised as a tool for selecting and pricing biomass material for production of biogas. However, the results for the same substrate often differ between laboratories and much work to standardise such tests is still needed. In the current study, the effects from four environmental factors (i.e. ambient temperature and pressure, water vapour content and initial gas composition of the reactor headspace) on the degradation kinetics and the determined methane potential were evaluated with a 2{sup 4} full factorial design. Four substrates, with different biodegradation profiles, were investigated and the ambient temperature was found to be the most significant contributor to errors in the methane potential. Concerning the kinetics of the process, the environmental factors’ impact on the calculated rate constants was negligible. The impact of the environmental factors on the kinetic parameters and methane potential from performing a BMP test at different geographical locations around the world was simulated by adjusting the data according to the ambient temperature and pressure of some chosen model sites. The largest effect on the methane potential was registered from tests performed at high altitudes due to a low ambient pressure. The results from this study illustrate the importance of considering the environmental factors’ influence on volumetric gas measurement in BMP tests. This is essential to achieve trustworthy and standardised results that can be used by researchers and end users from all over the world.

  1. Characterizing food waste substrates for co-digestion through biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Maria Sol; Lansing, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure is increasingly utilized to increase energy production and make anaerobic digestion more affordable; however, there is a lack of information on appropriate co-digestion substrates. In this study, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the suitability of four food waste substrates (meatball, chicken, cranberry and ice cream processing wastes) for co-digestion with flushed dairy manure at a ratio of 3.2% food waste and 96.8% manure (by volume), which equated to 14.7% (ice-cream) to 80.7% (chicken) of the VS being attributed to the food waste. All treatments led to increases in methane production, ranging from a 67.0% increase (ice cream waste) to a 2940% increase (chicken processing waste) compared to digesting manure alone, demonstrating the large potential methane production of food waste additions compared to relatively low methane production potential of the flushed dairy manure, even if the overall quantity of food waste added was minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The potential of Norwegian ecosystems for climate mitigation and adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, Graciela M.

    2012-07-01

    The concept of ecosystem services encompasses the many benefits that society receives from nature and that are often taken for granted. The conceptual framework highlights the connection between ecosystems and its components, and human well-being, and aims to complement current conservation measures and practices which have turned to be insufficient to achieve the 2010 targets of controlling the drivers of biodiversity loss. Ecosystem services are the aspects of nature that society uses, consumes, or enjoys. In some cases, i.e. when individuals or the society make choices that imply the allocation of resources, the benefits from nature have an economic dimension and can potentially be attached an economic value. At the same time many other aspects of nature are valuable but cannot be valued in an economic sense because they are not associated with social or individual economic choices. This report is about some of the benefits that society receives form nature and that are linked with the challenges that society faces regarding climate change. Two areas in which nature brings benefits to society are highlighted and supported with examples which show the ecological and biological characteristics and processes that underpin the level of service supply. The first one is associated with the capacity of nature to counteract or mitigate the increase in global greenhouse gas emissions. This benefit is ultimately delivered by the growth of plants and the processes that accumulate carbon in biomass and in the soil. In addition, natural vegetation and undisturbed soil in terrestrial ecosystems form large reservoirs of carbon that are released as carbon dioxide when the vegetation cover and the soil are transformed through burning, tillage and draining, or through soil erosion. A second group of benefits is related to the capacity of nature to buffer against hazards produced by climatic extremes, for example, events with high rainfall which are often the cause of floods and

  4. The potential of methane-oxidizing bacteria for applications in environmental biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendlandt, Karin-Dagmar; Stottmeister, Ulrich; Jechorek, Mirko [Helmholtz-Center for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Helm, Jana [School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Soltmann, Bettina [Institute for Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Beck, Matthias [Oncotec, Pharma Production GmbH, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Methanotrophic bacteria possess a unique set of enzymes enabling them to oxidize, degrade and transform organic molecules and synthesize new compounds. Therefore, they have great potential in environmental biotechnology. The application of these unique properties was demonstrated in three case studies: (i) Methane escaping from leaky gas pipes may lead to massive mortality of trees in urban areas. Lack of oxygen within the soil surrounding tree roots caused by methanotrophic activity was identified as one of the reasons for this phenomenon. The similarity between metabolic reactions performed by the key enzymes of methanotrophs (methane monooxygenase) and ammonium oxidizers (ammonium monooxygenase) might offer a solution to this problem by applying commercially available nitrification and urease inhibitors. (ii) Methanotrophs are able to co-metabolically degrade contaminants such as low-molecular-weight-chlorinated hydrocarbons in soil and water in the presence of methane. Batch and continuous trichloroethylene degradation experiments in laboratory-scale reactors using Methylocystis sp. GB 14 were performed, partly with cells entrapped in a polymer matrix. (iii) Using a short, two-stage pilot-scale process, the intracellular polymer accumulation of poly-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in methanotrophs reached a maximum of 52%. Interestingly, an ultra-high-molecular-weight PHB of 3.1 MDa was accumulated under potassium deficiency. Under strictly controlled conditions (temperature, pH and methane supply) this process can be nonsterile because of the establishment of a stable microbial community (dominant species Methylocystis sp. GB 25 {>=}86% by biomass). The possibility to substitute methane with biogas from renewable sources facilitates the development of a methane-based PHB production process that yields a high-quality biopolymer at competitive costs. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste through biochemical methane potential assays at different substrate: inoculum ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Shakira R; Landis, Amy E; Rittmann, Bruce E; Young, Michelle N; Parameswaran, Prathap

    2018-01-01

    Food waste has a high energy potential that can be converted into useful energy in the form of methane via anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential assays (BMPs) were conducted to quantify the impacts on methane production of different ratios of food waste. Anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) was used as the inoculum, and BMPs were performed at food waste:inoculum ratios of 0.42, 1.42, and 3.0g chemical oxygen demand/g volatile solids (VS). The 1.42 ratio had the highest CH 4 -COD recovery: 90% of the initial total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was from food waste, followed by ratios 0.42 and 3.0 at 69% and 57%, respectively. Addition of food waste above 0.42 caused a lag time for CH 4 production that increased with higher ratios, which highlighted the negative impacts of overloading with food waste. The Gompertz equation was able to represent the results well, and it gave lag times of 0, 3.6 and 30days and maximum methane productions of 370, 910, and 1950mL for ratios 0.42, 1.42 and 3.0, respectively. While ratio 3.0 endured a long lag phase and low VSS destruction, ratio 1.42 achieved satisfactory results for all performance criteria. These results provide practical guidance on food-waste-to-inoculum ratios that can lead to optimizing methanogenic yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient content, in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane reduction potential of tropical tannin-containing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Raghavendra; Saravanan, Mani; Baruah, Luna; Sampath, Koratekere T

    2012-12-01

    Plant tannins as rumen modifiers are better than chemicals or antibiotic-based modifiers since these compounds are natural products which are environmentally friendly and therefore have a better acceptance with regard to feed safety issues. Tropical plants containing phenols such as tannins were found to suppress or eliminate protozoa from the rumen and reduce methane and ammonia production. The screening of these plants is an important step in the identification of new compounds and feed additives which might contribute to mitigate rumen methanogenesis. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of tannins from tropical tree leaves for their methane reduction properties. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 as a tannin binder (tannin bioassay) was highest in Ficus bengalensis (555%), followed by Azardirachta indica (78.5%). PEG addition did not alter (P > 0.05) methane percentage in Ficus racemosa, Glyricidia maculata, Leucena leucocephala, Morus alba and Semaroba glauca, confirming that tannins in these samples did not affect methanogenesis. The increase (P 0.05) in the protozoa population in Autocarpus integrifolia, Ficus bengalensis, Jatropha curcus, Morus alba and Sesbania grandiflora, demonstrating that methane reduction observed in these samples per se was not due to defaunation effect of the tannin. The increase in total volatile fatty acid concentration in samples with PEG ranged from 0.6% to > 70%. The highest increase (%) in NH(3)-N was recorded in Azardirachta indica (67.4), followed by Ficus mysoriensis (35.7) and Semaroba glauca (32.6) leaves, reflecting strong protein binding properties of tannin. The results of our study established that in vitro methanogenesis was not essentially related to the density of protozoa population. Tropical tree leaves containing tannins such as Autocarpus integrifolia, Jatropha curcus and Sesbania grandiflora have the

  7. Study of the implantation potential for methanizers at the scale of the Pays-de-Bocage (61). Diagnosis of the situation of the methanization sector and of its development potential - Detailed analysis of scenarios. Study report, November 2016. Action study for the development of territorial methanization - Orne Pays-de-Bocage. Projected methanization units in the Orne district. An opportunity for local companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonnel, Claire; Priarollo, Jeremie; Deborde, Isabelle; Quere, Jean-Jacques; Goasdoue, Yves; Nury, Jerome; Borney, Eric; Bisson, Stephane; Lhomer, Regis

    2016-11-01

    This study aims at characterising territories of the Orne district in terms of potential of development of individual, collective and territorial methanization units. A first phase aimed at providing a situational analysis of the methanization sector in the district. During a second phase, different resources of mobilisable organic wastes have been quantified, characterised and mapped at the district level in combination with energy outlets (gas and heat) and digestate outlets. A third phase aimed identifying and characterising district areas displaying a methanization potential. The report thus presents the territory, the methanization as an opportunity for territories, and an assessment of the present situation of the methanization sector. It gives an assessment of the methanizable matter resource from various origins, an identification of the different energetic outlets, and of potential areas. Four scenarios are then presented and are characterised by specific hypotheses, energy flows, investments, exploitation assessment, and a financial analysis. Agronomic, environmental and regulatory challenges are commented, as well as legal aspects related to project implementation. Power Point presentations are then provided which present results of this study in a synthetic and illustrated way. A second set of Power Point presentations proposes an analysis of the methanization potential in the district, and a description of a typical business model for a methanization unit

  8. Did state renewable portfolio standards induce technical change in methane mitigation in the U.S. landfill sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhotal, Katherine Casey

    Landfill gas (LFG) projects use the gas created from decomposing waste, which is approximately 49% methane, and substitute it for natural gas in engines, boilers, turbines, and other technologies to produce energy or heat. The projects are beneficial in terms of increased safety at the landfill, production of a cost-effective source of energy or heat, reduced odor, reduced air pollution emissions, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. However, landfills sometimes face conflicting policy incentives. The theory of technical change shows that the diffusion of a technology or groups of technologies increases slowly in the beginning and then picks up speed as knowledge and better understanding of using the technology diffuses among potential users. Using duration analysis, data on energy prices, State and Federal policies related to landfill gas, renewable energy, and air pollution, as well as control data on landfill characteristics, I estimate the influence and direction of influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The analysis found that RPS positively influences the diffusion of landfill gas technologies, encouraging landfills to consider electricity generation projects over direct sales of LFG to another facility. Energy price increases or increased revenues for a project are also critical. Barriers to diffusion include air emission permits in non-attainment areas and policies, such as net metering, which promote other renewables over LFG projects. Using the estimates from the diffusion equations, I analyze the potential influence of a Federal RPS as well as the potential interaction with a Federal, market based climate change policy, which will increase the revenue of a project through higher energy sale prices. My analysis shows that a market based climate change policy such as a cap-and-trade or carbon tax scheme would increase the number of landfill gas projects significantly more than a Federal RPS.

  9. The potential for biologically catalyzed anaerobic methane oxidation on ancient Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Jeffrey J; Larowe, Douglas E; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Amend, Jan P; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the potential for the biologically mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction on ancient Mars. Seven distinct fluids representative of putative martian groundwater were used to calculate Gibbs energy values in the presence of dissolved methane under a range of atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. In all scenarios, AOM is exergonic, ranging from -31 to -135 kJ/mol CH4. A reaction transport model was constructed to examine how environmentally relevant parameters such as advection velocity, reactant concentrations, and biomass production rate affect the spatial and temporal dependences of AOM reaction rates. Two geologically supported models for ancient martian AOM are presented: a sulfate-rich groundwater with methane produced from serpentinization by-products, and acid-sulfate fluids with methane from basalt alteration. The simulations presented in this study indicate that AOM could have been a feasible metabolism on ancient Mars, and fossil or isotopic evidence of this metabolic pathway may persist beneath the surface and in surface exposures of eroded ancient terrains.

  10. Biogenic Methane Generation Potential in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan: Effect of Reaction Temperature and Total Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Amo, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding potential of methane flux from the Pleistocene fore-arc basin filled turbiditic sedimentary formation along the eastern Nankai Trough is important in the quantitative assessment of gas hydrate resources. We considered generated methane could exist in sedimentary basin in the forms of three major components, and those are methane in methane hydrate, free gas and methane dissolved in water. Generation of biomethane strongly depends on microbe activity and microbes in turn survive in diverse range of temperature, salinity and pH. This study aims to understand effect of reaction temperature and total organic carbon on generation of biomethane and its components. Biomarker analysis and cultural experiment results of the core samples from the eastern Nankai Trough reveal that methane generation rate gets peak at various temperature ranging12.5°to 35°. Simulation study of biomethane generation was made using commercial basin scale simulator, PetroMod, with different reaction temperature and total organic carbon to predict how these effect on generation of biomethane. Reaction model is set by Gaussian distribution with constant hydrogen index and standard deviation of 1. Series of simulation cases with peak reaction temperature ranging 12.5°to 35° and total organic carbon of 0.6% to 3% were conducted and analyzed. Simulation results show that linear decrease in generation potential while increasing reaction temperature. But decreasing amount becomes larger in the model with higher total organic carbon. At higher reaction temperatures, >30°, extremely low generation potential was found. This is due to the fact that the source formation modeled is less than 1 km in thickness and most of formation do not reach temperature more than 30°. In terms of the components, methane in methane hydrate and free methane increase with increasing TOC. Drastic increase in free methane was observed in the model with 3% of TOC. Methane amount dissolved in water shows almost

  11. Impact of peat mining, and restoration on methane turnover potentials and methane-cycling microorganisms in a northern bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reumer, Max; Harnisz, M.; Lee, H.J.; Reim, A.; Grunert, O.; Putkinen, A.; Fritze, H.; Bodelier, P.L.E.; Ho, A.

    2018-01-01

    Ombrotrophic peatlands are a recognized global carbon reservoir. Without restoration and peat regrowth, harvested peatlands are dramatically altered, impairing its carbon sink function, with consequences for methane turnover. Previous studies determined the impact of commercial mining on the peat

  12. Functional traits of urban trees: Air pollution mitigation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grote, Rüdiger; Samson, Roeland; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly urbanized world, air pollution mitigation is considered one of most important issues in city planning. Urban trees help to improve air quality by facilitating widespread deposition of various gases and particles through the provision of large surface areas as well as through...... are manifested depends on species-specific tree properties: that is, their "traits". We summarize and discuss the current knowledge on how such traits affect urban air pollution. We also present aggregated traits of some of the most common tree species in Europe, which can be used as a decision-support tool...... their influence on microclimate and air turbulence. However, many of these trees produce wind-dispersed pollen (a known allergen) and emit a range of gaseous substances that take part in photochemical reactions - all of which can negatively affect air quality. The degree to which these air-quality impacts...

  13. phMRI: methodological considerations for mitigating potential confounding factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius H Bourke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI is a variant of conventional MRI that adds pharmacological manipulations in order to study the effects of drugs, or uses pharmacological probes to investigate basic or applied (e.g. clinical neuroscience questions. Issues that may confound the interpretation of results from various types of phMRI studies are briefly discussed, and a set of methodological strategies that can mitigate these problems are described. These include strategies that can be employed at every stage of investigation, from study design to interpretation of resulting data, and additional techniques suited for use with clinical populations are also featured. Pharmacological MRI is a challenging area of research that has both significant advantages and formidable difficulties, however with due consideration and use of these strategies many of the key obstacles can be overcome.

  14. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial Insights into Shifting Methane Production Potential in Thawing Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossen, K.; Wilson, R.; Raab, N.; Neumann, R.; Chanton, J.; Saleska, S. R.; Rich, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost, which stores 50% of global soil carbon, is thawing rapidly due to climate change, and resident microbes are contributing to changing carbon gas emissions. Predictions of the fate of carbon in these regions is poorly constrained; however, improved, careful mapping of microbial community members influencing CO2 and CH4 emissions will help clarify the system response to continued change. In order to more fully understand connections between the microbial communities, major geochemical transformations, and CO2 and CH4 emissions, peat cores were collected from the active layers of three permafrost habitats spanning a thaw gradient (collapsed palsa, bog, and fen) at Stordalen Mire, Abisko, Sweden. Anaerobic incubations of shallow and deep subsamples from these sites were performed, with time-course characterization of the changes in microbial communities, peat geochemistry, and carbon gas production. The latter were profiled with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, and targeted metagenomes. The communities within each habitat and depth were statistically distinct, and changed significantly over the course of the incubations. Acidobacteria was consistently the dominant bacterial phylum in all three habitat types. With increased thaw, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria tended to decrease, while Chloroflexi and Bacteroidetes increased with thaw. The relative abundance of methanogens increased with thaw and with depth within each habitat. Over time in the incubations, the richness of the communities tended to decrease. Homoacetogenesis (CO2 + H2 -> CH3COOH) has been documented in other peatlands, and homoacetogens can influence CH4 production by interacting with methanogens, competing with hydrogenotrophs while providing substrate for acetoclasts. Modelling of microbial reaction networks suggests potential for highest homoacetogenesis rates in the collapsed palsa, which also contains the highest relative abundances of lineages taxonomically affiliated with known

  16. The global warming potential of methane reassessed with combined stratosphere and troposphere chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. D.; Archibald, A. T.; Eastham, S. D.; Søvde, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is a direct and indirect greenhouse gas. The direct greenhouse effect comes from the radiation absorbed and emitted by methane itself. The indirect greenhouse effect comes from radiatively active gases that are produced during methane oxidation: principally O3, H2O, and CO2. Methane also suppresses tropospheric OH, which indirectly affects numerous greenhouses gases and aerosols. Traditionally, the methane global warming potential (GWP) has included the indirect effects on tropospheric O3 and OH and stratospheric H2O, with these effects estimated independently from unrelated tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry models and observations. Using this approach the CH4 is about 28 over 100 yr (without carbon cycle feedbacks, IPCC, 2013). Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the CH4 GWP in several 3-D global atmospheric models capable of simulating both tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem, Oslo CTM3, UKCA). This enables us to include, for the first time, the indirect effects of CH4 on stratospheric O3 and stratosphere-troposphere coupling. We diagnose the GWP from paired simulations with and without a 5% perturbation to tropospheric CH4 concentrations. Including stratospheric chemistry nearly doubles the O3 contribution to CH4 GWP because of O3 production in the lower stratosphere and because CH4 inhibits Cl-catalyzed O3 loss in the upper stratosphere. In addition, stratosphere-troposphere coupling strengthens the chemical feedback on its own lifetime. In the stratosphere, this feedback operates by a CH4 perturbation thickening the stratospheric O3 layer, which impedes UV-driven OH production in the troposphere and prolongs the CH4 lifetime. We also quantify the impact of CH4-derived H2O on the stratospheric HOx cycles but these effects are small. Combining all of the above, these models suggest that the 100-yr GWP of CH4 is over 33.5, a 20% increase over the latest IPCC assessment.

  17. Biomass estimates, characteristics, biochemical methane potential, kinetics and energy flow from Jatropha curcus on dry lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nallathambi Gunaseelan, V. [Department of Zoology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 014 (India)

    2009-04-15

    In this study, we examined the production of Jatropha curcus plants on 1 ha of rain fed dry lands. All of the plant components that would result from plantation tending, fruit harvesting and processing were sampled for their yield and chemical composition, and then subjected to the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in BMP which was reflected in their ultimate methane yield which ranged from 0.08 to 0.97 L g{sup -1} VS added, and their first order kinetics which ranged from 0.07 to 0.14 d{sup -1}. We examined two integrated utilization schemes: the first which converted plant prunings, fruit hulls and de-oiled seed cake to methane, and the oil to fatty acid methyl-ester (FAME); the second was to convert the seeds, plant prunings and fruit hulls entirely to methane. The basis for the plantation was, a density of 4444 plant ha{sup -1} (1.5 m x 1.5 m spacing), with a seed yield of 0.911 kg TS plant{sup -1} (1 kg total weight) with an oil content of 35% providing an annual oil yield of 1.42 t y{sup -1}. The corresponding yields of pruned leaves, fruit hulls and de-oiled cake are 0.97, 1.0, and 2.35 t VS ha y{sup -1}, respectively. An integrated scheme of producing biogas by means of anaerobic digestion of the latter components and oil for biodiesel would produce 90 GJ ha{sup -1} y{sup -1} in total with the oil being 54 GJ. The alternative biogas only option which would convert the seed oil into methane instead of biodiesel would produce 97 GJ ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Potential impact on climate of the exploitation of methane hydrate deposits offshore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glasby, G.P.

    . Brewer (2000) has identified two examples, one in the Eel River Basin off the coast of northern California (Brooks, Field, & Kennicutt, 1991) and the other in the Gulf of Mexico (MacDonald et al., 1994), where the methane hydrate deposits lie almost... of Mexico (an example of the structural type of deposit) are potentially the most attractive deposits economically. In particular, it was considered that devel- opment costs for these deposits would be low because the accumulations are located at relatively...

  19. Effect of Substrate-Inoculum Ratio on the Biochemical Methane Potential of Municipal Biowastes

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Orobio Brayan Alexis; Torres-Lozada Patricia; Marmolejo-Rebellón Luis Fernando; Cárdenas-Cleves Lina Marcela; Vásquez-Franco Carlos; Torres-López Wilmar Alexander; Ordoñez-Andrade José Abdón

    2015-01-01

    Biowastes are the predominant fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) of developing countries. Biowastes are characterized by a high content of organic matter; characteristics which facilitates its transformation through biological processes such as anaerobic digestion (AD). Using biochemical methane potential (PBM) assays, in this study we evaluated the influence of substrate-inoculum (S/I) ratio on the AD of biowaste from MSW. The S/I ranged between 0.25 to 9 gSVsubstrate * ...

  20. Early Fattening Lamb Could Mitigate Methane Production-an Example of Climate Smart Livestock Farming System in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomoadi, A.

    2018-02-01

    Ruminants, with a presence of rumen in their digestive tract, will produce methane during his life. Therefore, shortening the rearing period to produce a meat or milk is an alternative to reduce methane emissions. In Indonesia, in the last decades the tendency to slaughter the sheep at young age (around 5 months old) is increasing. This tendency is due to the young sheep (lamb) provide a tender meat and low in fat, as well as a faster in economical return. This study was aimed to evaluate whether shortening (and early age) fattening can reduce methane emissions. Sixteen data from two experimental sheep, each 8 heads of young sheep (aged 3 months old; initial weight 14.32+/- 1.25 kg), and 8 mature sheep (aged 12 m.o.; initial weight 20.65 +/- 1.89 kg) were used in this study. They were fed the pelleted diet formulated to give at least CP 12% and TDN 60% ad libitum. The results showed that the dry matter intake of young sheep was higher than mature sheep (1.33 vs. 1.08 kg), as well as daily gain (156 vs. 83 g/d) and the methane production (41.4vs 36.0 L/d), or methane production per kg daily gain (269 vs 434 L/kg body weight gain), although the production of methane per DMI was similar (32.0 vs 33.5 L/kg DMI). With assumption that sheep commonly weaned at 2 months old at body weight of 10 kg, and was slaughter at 22 kg of body weight, it could be calculated that shortening (and early age) fattening could reduce totally 1,984 L per head and 10 months shortened.

  1. Wheat is more potent than corn or barley for dietary mitigation of enteric methane emissions from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Beauchemin, K A; Eckard, R J; Wales, W J

    2017-09-01

    Wheat is the most common concentrate fed to dairy cows in Australia, but few studies have examined the effects of wheat feeding on enteric methane emissions, and no studies have compared the relative potencies of wheat, corn, and barley for their effects on enteric methane production. In this 35-d experiment, 32 Holstein dairy cows were offered 1 of 4 diets: a corn diet (CRN) of 10.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/d of single-rolled corn grain, 1.8 kg of DM/d of canola meal, 0.2 kg of DM/d of minerals, and 11.0 kg of DM/d of chopped alfalfa hay; a wheat diet (WHT) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by single-rolled wheat; a barley diet (SRB) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by single-rolled barley; and a barley diet (DRB) similar to the CRN diet but with the corn replaced by double-rolled barley. Individual cow feed intakes, milk yields, and milk compositions were measured daily but reported for the last 5 d of the experiment. During the last 5 d of the experiment, individual cow methane emissions were measured using the SF 6 tracer technique for all cows, and ruminal fluid pH was continuously measured by intraruminal sensors for 3 cows in each treatment group. The average DM intake of cows offered the CRN, WHT, SRB, and DRB diets was 22.2, 21.1, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/d. The mean energy-corrected milk of cows fed the WHT diet was less than that of cows fed the other diets. This occurred because the milk fat percentage of cows fed the WHT diet was significantly less than that of cows fed the other diets. The mean methane emissions and methane yields of cows fed the WHT diet were also significantly less than those of cows fed the other diets. Indeed, the CRN, SRB, and DRB diets were associated with 49, 73, and 78% greater methane emissions, respectively, compared with the emissions from the WHT diet. Methane yield was found to be most strongly related to the minimum daily ruminal fluid pH. This study showed that although the inclusion of wheat in

  2. Intermolecular interaction potentials of the methane dimer from the local density approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangrong; Bai Yulin; Zhu Jun; Yang Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    The intermolecular interaction potentials of methane (CH 4 ) dimer are calculated within the density functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA). It is found that the calculated potentials have minima when the intermolecular distance of CH 4 dimer is about 7.0 a.u., which is in good agreement with the experiment. The depth of the potential is 0.017 eV. The results obtained by our LDA calculations seem to agree well with those obtained by MP2, MP3, and CCSD from the Moeller-Plesset and coupled cluster methods by Tsuzuki et al. and with the experimental data

  3. Determination of as-discarded methane potential in residential and commercial municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickering, Giles W; Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-06-01

    Methane generation potential, L 0 , is a primary parameter of the first-order decay (FOD) model used for prediction and regulation of landfill gas (LFG) generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The current US EPA AP-42 default value for L 0 , which has been in place for almost 20 years, is 100 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW as-discarded. Recent research suggests the yield of landfilled waste could be less than 60 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW. This study aimed to measure the L 0 of present-day residential and commercial as-discarded MSW. In doing so, 39 waste collection vehicles were sorted for composition before samples of each biodegradable fraction were analyzed for methane generation potential. Methane yields were determined for over 450 samples of 14 different biodegradable MSW fractions, later to be combined with moisture content and volatile solids data to calculate L 0 values for each waste load. An average value of 80 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW was determined for all samples with 95% of values in the interval 74-86 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW as-discarded. While no statistically significant difference was observed, commercial MSW yields (mean 85, median 88 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW) showed a higher average L 0 than residential MSW (mean 75, median 71 m 3 CH 4 /Mg MSW). Many methane potential values for individual fractions described in previous work were found within the range of values determined by BMP in this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of Monte Carlo Simulation Method for Methane Phase Diagram Prediction using Two Different Potential Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad

    2011-06-06

    Lennard‐Jones (L‐J) and Buckingham exponential‐6 (exp‐6) potential models were used to produce isotherms for methane at temperatures below and above critical one. Molecular simulation approach, particularly Monte Carlo simulations, were employed to create these isotherms working with both canonical and Gibbs ensembles. Experiments in canonical ensemble with each model were conducted to estimate pressures at a range of temperatures above methane critical temperature. Results were collected and compared to experimental data existing in literature; both models showed an elegant agreement with the experimental data. In parallel, experiments below critical temperature were run in Gibbs ensemble using L‐J model only. Upon comparing results with experimental ones, a good fit was obtained with small deviations. The work was further developed by adding some statistical studies in order to achieve better understanding and interpretation to the estimated quantities by the simulation. Methane phase diagrams were successfully reproduced by an efficient molecular simulation technique with different potential models. This relatively simple demonstration shows how powerful molecular simulation methods could be, hence further applications on more complicated systems are considered. Prediction of phase behavior of elemental sulfur in sour natural gases has been an interesting and challenging field in oil and gas industry. Determination of elemental sulfur solubility conditions helps avoiding all kinds of problems caused by its dissolution in gas production and transportation processes. For this purpose, further enhancement to the methods used is to be considered in order to successfully simulate elemental sulfur phase behavior in sour natural gases mixtures.

  5. Anaerobic biodegradability and methane potential of crop residue co-digested with buffalo dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Mahar, R.B.; Brohi, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability) and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential) of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System). The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids), ultimate analysis (CHONS), pH and TA (Total Alkalinity). The BMP/sub observed/ during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37+-0.2+-degree C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVS/sub add/ for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane. (author)

  6. Anaerobic Biodegradability and Methane Potential of Crop Residue Co-Digested with Buffalo Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System. The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids and VS (Volatile Solids, ultimate analysis (CHONS, pH and TA (Total Alkalinity. The BMPobserved during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37±0.2°C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVSadd for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH4/gVSadd for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH4/gVSadd for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane

  7. Quantification of the Potential Gross Economic Impacts of Five Methane Reduction Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curley, Christina [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-04-23

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas that is released from the natural gas supply chain into the atmosphere as a result of fugitive emissions1 and venting2 . We assess five potential CH4 reduction scenarios from transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) using published literature on the costs and the estimated quantity of CH4 reduced. We utilize cost and methane inventory data from ICF (2014) and Warner et al. (forthcoming) as well as data from Barrett and McCulloch (2014) and the American Gas Association (AGA) (2013) to estimate that the implementation of these measures could support approximately 85,000 jobs annually from 2015 to 2019 and reduce CH4 emissions from natural gas TS&D by over 40%. Based on standard input/output analysis methodology, measures are estimated to support over $8 billion in GDP annually over the same time period and allow producers to recover approximately $912 million annually in captured gas.

  8. Effects of substrate to inoculum ratio on the biochemical methane potential of piggery slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Man; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Shin, Kook-Sik; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substrate to inoculum ratio (S/I ratio) on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic biodegradability (Ddeg) of different piggery slaughterhouse wastes, such as piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content. These wastes were sampled from a piggery slaughterhouse located in Kimje, South Korea. Cumulative methane production curves for the wastes were obtained from the anaerobic batch fermentation having different S/I ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. BMP and anaerobic biodegradabilities (Ddeg) of the wastes were calculated from cumulative methane production data for the tested conditions. At the lowest S/I ration of 0.1, BMPs of piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content were determined to be 0.799, 0.848, and 1.076 Nm(3) kg(-1)-VSadded, respectively, which were above the theoretical methane potentials of 0.539, 0.644, and 0.517 Nm(3) kg(-1)-VSadded for blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content, respectively. However, BMPs obtained from the higher S/I ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 were within the theoretical range for all three types of waste and were not significantly different for the different S/I ratios tested. Anaerobic biodegradabilities calculated from BMP data showed a similar tendency. These results imply that, for BMP assay in an anaerobic reactor, the S/I ratio of anaerobic reactor should be above 0.1 and the inoculum should be sufficiently stabilized to avoid further degradation during the assay.

  9. Effects of Substrate to Inoculum Ratio on the Biochemical Methane Potential of Piggery Slaughterhouse Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Man Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of substrate to inoculum ratio (S/I ratio on the biochemical methane potential (BMP and anaerobic biodegradability (Ddeg of different piggery slaughterhouse wastes, such as piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content. These wastes were sampled from a piggery slaughterhouse located in Kimje, South Korea. Cumulative methane production curves for the wastes were obtained from the anaerobic batch fermentation having different S/I ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. BMP and anaerobic biodegradabilities (Ddeg of the wastes were calculated from cumulative methane production data for the tested conditions. At the lowest S/I ration of 0.1, BMPs of piggery blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content were determined to be 0.799, 0.848, and 1.076 Nm3 kg−1-VSadded, respectively, which were above the theoretical methane potentials of 0.539, 0.644, and 0.517 Nm3 kg−1-VSadded for blood, intestine residue, and digestive tract content, respectively. However, BMPs obtained from the higher S/I ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 were within the theoretical range for all three types of waste and were not significantly different for the different S/I ratios tested. Anaerobic biodegradabilities calculated from BMP data showed a similar tendency. These results imply that, for BMP assay in an anaerobic reactor, the S/I ratio of anaerobic reactor should be above 0.1 and the inoculum should be sufficiently stabilized to avoid further degradation during the assay.

  10. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B.; Jimenez, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 deg. C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y M,ult ) decreased considerably from 227±23 to 107±11 ml CH 4 at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g -1 VS added when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g -1 VS added was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates

  11. Evaluation of feeds from tropical origin for in vitro methane production potential and rumen fermentation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Pal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane arising due to fermentation of feeds in the rumen contributes substantially to the greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, like evaluation of chemical composition and nutritive values of feeds, methane production potential of each feed should be determined. This experiment was conducted to evaluate several feeds for methane production potential and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production technique so that low methane producing feeds could be utilized to feed ruminants. Protein- and energy-rich concentrates (n=11, cereal and grass forages (n=11, and different straws and shrubs (n=12, which are commonly fed to ruminants in India, were collected from a number of locations. Gas production kinetics, methane production, degradability and rumen fermentation greatly varied (p<0.01 among feeds depending upon the chemical composition. Methane production (mL/g of degraded organic matter was lower (p<0.01 for concentrate than forages, and straws and shrubs. Among shrubs and straws, methane production was lower (p<0.01 for shrubs than straws. Methane production was correlated (p<0.05 with concentrations of crude protein (CP, ether extract and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC negatively, and with neutral detergent (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF positively. Potential gas production was negatively correlated (p=0.04 with ADF, but positively (p<0.01 with NFC content. Rate of gas production and ammonia concentration were influenced by CP content positively (p<0.05, but by NDF and ADF negatively (p<0.05. Total volatile fatty acid concentration and organic matter degradability were correlated (p<0.05 positively with CP and NFC content, but negatively with NDF and ADF content. The results suggest that incorporation of concentrates and shrubs replacing straws and forages in the diets of ruminants may decrease methane production.

  12. Quantifying the biophysical climate change mitigation potential of Canada's forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, C. E.; Stinson, G.; Neilson, E.; Lemprière, T. C.; Hafer, M.; Rampley, G. J.; Kurz, W. A.

    2014-07-01

    The potential of forests and the forest sector to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is widely recognized, but challenging to quantify at a national scale. Forests and their carbon (C) sequestration potential are affected by management practices, where wood harvesting transfers C out of the forest into products, and subsequent regrowth allows further C sequestration. Here we determine the mitigation potential of the 2.3 × 106 km2 of Canada's managed forests from 2015 to 2050 using the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3), a harvested wood products (HWP) model that estimates emissions based on product half-life decay times, and an account of emission substitution benefits from the use of wood products and bioenergy. We examine several mitigation scenarios with different assumptions about forest management activity levels relative to a base case scenario, including improved growth from silvicultural activities, increased harvest and residue management for bioenergy, and reduced harvest for conservation. We combine forest management options with two mitigation scenarios for harvested wood product use involving an increase in either long-lived products or bioenergy uses. Results demonstrate large differences among alternative scenarios, and we identify potential mitigation scenarios with increasing benefits to the atmosphere for many decades into the future, as well as scenarios with no net benefit over many decades. The greatest mitigation impact was achieved through a mix of strategies that varied across the country and had cumulative mitigation of 254 Tg CO2e in 2030, and 1180 Tg CO2e in 2050. There was a trade-off between short-term and long-term goals, in that maximizing short-term emissions reduction could reduce the forest sector's ability to contribute to longer-term objectives. We conclude that (i) national-scale forest sector mitigation options need to be assessed rigorously from a systems perspective to avoid the development of

  13. Review: Assessing the climate mitigation potential of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many millennia, humans have used biomass for three broad purposes: food for humans and fodder for farm animals; energy; and materials. Food has always been exclusively produced from biomass, and in the year 1800, biomass still accounted for about 95% of all energy. Biomass has also been a major source of materials for construction, implements, clothing, bedding and other uses, but some researchers think that total human uses of biomass will soon reach limits of sustainability. It is thus important to select those biomass uses that will maximise global climate change benefits. With a ‘food first’ policy, it is increasingly recognised that projections of food needs are important for estimating future global bioenergy potential, and that non-food uses of biomass can be increased by both food crop yield improvements and dietary changes. However, few researchers have explicitly included future biomaterials production as a factor in bioenergy potential. Although biomaterials’ share of the materials market has roughly halved over the past quarter-century, we show that per tonne of biomass, biomaterials will usually allow greater greenhouse gas reductions than directly using biomass for bioenergy. particularly since in many cases, biomaterials can be later burnt for energy after their useful life.

  14. Study of methanization resource and potential development in Aquitaine - Technical report. To keep on developing the methanization sector in the Dordogne district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priarollo, Jeremie; Michels, Julie; Jimenez, Julien

    2015-05-01

    This study aims at characterising territories of the Aquitaine region in terms of potential of development of individual, collective and territorial methanization units. The territory organic resource potential has first been assessed, and then combined with energetic outlets for biogas and outlets for digestates. A first phase aimed at providing a situational analysis of the methanization sector in the region. During a second phase, different resources of mobilisable organic wastes have been quantified, characterised and mapped at the district level in combination with energetic outlets (gas and heat) and digestate outlets. A third phase aimed at identifying and characterising areas of the different districts of the region displaying a methanization potential. After this report, a set of Power Point presentations is proposed which present this study under another form. Thus, these presentations contain graphs and data which illustrate these different aspects and issues: presentation of the different methanizable resources (quantitative results and maps), energy valorisation potential (co-generation and thermal outlets, injection into natural gas networks, definition and characterisation of areas displaying an interesting potential), presentation of a regional support arrangement (Methaqtion)

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Mitigation on Methane and Ammonia Production by Using Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oils on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Cobellis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of increasing concentrations of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. essentials oil (EO on ruminal gas emissions were tested in vitro using 50 mL serum bottles. Each bottle contained a 200 mg substrate (alfalfa hay and corn meal 1:1 and a 20 mL solution composed of a buffered medium and rumen fluid (1:2. The percentage of ruminal fermentation products was quantified by an infrared analyzer. The reduction of total gas production was 6% and 9% respectively when using the 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO measurements. The reduction of methane production was 55%, 72% and 71% respectively with regard to the 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g/L oregano EO doses, while rosemary EO (2.0 g/L reduced the methane production by 9%. The production of ammonia was significantly reduced (59%–78% by all treatments with the exception of rosemary EO at the lowest dose. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability was reduced by most of the treatments (respectively 4%–9% and 8%–24%. The total volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration was markedly decreased by oregano EO and was not affected by rosemary EO. Both EOs mitigated rumen fermentations, but oregano EO gave rise to the highest reduction in methane and ammonia production. However, further research is needed to evaluate the use of these essential oils as dietary supplements by taking into account the negative effects on feed degradability.

  16. Differentiating TOC sources, preservation, and potential methane emissions in sub-Arctic lakes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. E.; Varner, R. K.; Wik, M.; Chanton, J.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Organic carbon-rich sediments from high latitude, shallow lakes and ponds are significant sources of methane throughout the Arctic. The origin and evolution of these lakes and ponds, however, is often not the same. Several lake types have been identified based on (1) hydrological conditions (melt-water fed, rain water fed, groundwater influenced, evaporation dominated, drained) (2) permafrost condition (thermokarst), and (3) time of origin (glacial or post-glacial). Given sufficient time (100's to 1000's years) many of these lake types may morph into others. In sub-Arctic Sweden, near Abisko and within the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the elongate glacial lake Torneträsk is fed by several streams draining the surrounding highlands. Lake Tornetrask is one of several NW-SE trending glacial lakes common in the landscape throughout northern and western Sweden. Between and alongside these glacial lakes, several small (ponds exist in low-lying mires. Sediment cores from the lakes in the Stordalen Mire are characterized by high total organic carbon (TOC) content (10-50 wt. %) in the uppermost ~50 cm and commonly underlain by glaciofluvial derived sediments with lower TOC (emissions from several of these lakes has also been measured and is driven by heat input. Coincident young ages of carbon in the sediments and in methane indicate in situ production. A published record from Lake Torneträsk shows sediments there contain significantly less TOC (1-2.5 wt. %) that is derived primarily from old, terrestrial organic carbon delivered via rivers to the lake. Although the larger and deeper glacial lakes currently occupy much of the landscape it is becoming clear that as the Arctic warms TOC preservation and methane production in the smaller lakes and ponds play a more significant, immediate role in emission of methane to the atmosphere. With continued warming in the Arctic, terrestrial TOC will be relinquished from highland watersheds to glacial lakes, but the methane

  17. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2013-01-01

    and accessible during subsequent anaerobic digestion. This finding has confirmed earlier experimental results, showing that delignification was not necessarily the limiting factor during conversion of manure fibers into methane while cellulose accessibility during digestion seemed more crucial.......AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning...

  18. Lessons learnt from a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopoulou, E.; Mirasgedis, S.; Sarafidis, Y.; Gakis, N.; Hontou, V.; Lalas, D.P.; Steiner, D.; Tuerk, A.; Fruhmann, C.; Pucker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Balkan countries in the process of joining the European Union shall adopt greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets and implement appropriate mitigation policies and measures. This paper presents a simplified methodological framework based on marginal abatement cost curves for estimating the technical and economic mitigation potential at sectoral level (buildings and road transport) in selected Balkan countries. The results of the analysis provide to decision makers useful information regarding the availability of background data, the potential for setting ambitious mitigation targets, and detailed tools for assisting the selection of policies and measures to meet these targets. The analysis performed shows that a significant part of the greenhouse gas emissions abatement potential can be achieved through win–win measures. The incorporation of environmental externalities associated with these interventions, estimated through benefits transfer, further improves the economic performance of these measures, especially in the buildings sector. Moreover, the implementation of these measures is shown to result in positive macroeconomic effects through increases in GDP (gross domestic product) and creation of new jobs. Finally, the rebound effect may restrict the estimated greenhouse gas emission reductions in the buildings of the countries examined due to the low energy performance of the existing building stock. - Highlights: • Analysis of the technical and economic GHG mitigation potential in western Balkans. • Marginal abatement cost curves highlight several win–win interventions. • Incorporation of environmental benefits improves the performance of measures. • Mitigation measures result in significant positive macroeconomic effects. • The investment costs and the rebound effect may influence measures' effectiveness.

  19. Financial Impact of Cancer Drug Wastage and Potential Cost Savings From Mitigation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Caitlyn Y W; Cheung, Matthew C; Charbonneau, Lauren F; Prica, Anca; Ng, Pamela; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2017-07-01

    Cancer drug wastage occurs when a parenteral drug within a fixed vial is not administered fully to a patient. This study investigated the extent of drug wastage, the financial impact on the hospital budget, and the cost savings associated with current mitigation strategies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three University of Toronto-affiliated hospitals of various sizes. We recorded the actual amount of drug wasted over a 2-week period while using current mitigation strategies. Single-dose vial cancer drugs with the highest wastage potentials were identified (14 drugs). To calculate the hypothetical drug wastage with no mitigation strategies, we determined how many vials of drugs would be needed to fill a single prescription. The total drug costs over the 2 weeks ranged from $50,257 to $716,983 in the three institutions. With existing mitigation strategies, the actual drug wastage over the 2 weeks ranged from $928 to $5,472, which was approximately 1% to 2% of the total drug costs. In the hypothetical model with no mitigation strategies implemented, the projected drug cost wastage would have been $11,232 to $149,131, which accounted for 16% to 18% of the total drug costs. As a result, the potential annual savings while using current mitigation strategies range from 15% to 17%. The financial impact of drug wastage is substantial. Mitigation strategies lead to substantial cost savings, with the opportunity to reinvest those savings. More research is needed to determine the appropriate methods to minimize risk to patients while using the cost-saving mitigation strategies.

  20. Effect of pre-treatments on methane production potential of energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaki, A.; Ronkainen; Rintala, J.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences; Viinikainen, T.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Energy crops, that is, crops grown specifically for energy purposes are an alternative to food production in areas with sufficient agricultural land. Crop residues are also a potential source of energy. The anaerobic digestion of solid materials is limited by hydrolysis of complex polymeric substances such as lignocellulose. The methane producing potential of ligno cellulosic material is to pretreat the substrate in order to break up the polymer chains to more easily accessible soluble compounds. In this study, three different substrates were used: sugar beet tops, grass hay, and straw of oats. Biological pretreatments were the following: enzyme treatment, composting, white-rot fungi treatment. Also, pretreatment in water was tried. Chemical pretreatments included peracetic acid treatment, and treatment with two different alkalis. Alkaline pretreatments of hay and sugar beet tops have the potential to improve the methane yield. For instance, the yield of grass hay was increased 15 per cent by one particular alkaline treatment. Straw did not respond to any of the treatments tried. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Potential for CO2 sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane production in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, D.; Pagnier, H.; Van Bergen, F.; Wolf, K.H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.; Schreurs, H.

    2001-03-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane) in the Netherlands are explored. The potential and the economic performance are worked out for several ECBM recovery concepts and technological issues are outlined. The research includes the following main activities: Inventory of CO2 sources in the Netherlands and techno-economic analysis of CO2 removal and transport. Several scenarios for CO2 transport of different capacities and distances will be assessed. ECBM production locations are determined by analysis of coal reserves and their characteristics. Four potential areas are assessed: one in eastern Gelderland, two in Limburg and one in Zeeland. Description of ECBM theory and production technology resulting in a time dependent model for ECBM production and CO2 injection. Selection and description of various ECBM production/CO2 sequestration systems. Systems considered include direct delivery of methane to the natural gas grid, production of power (on various scales) and hydrogen. Information from the location assessment is combined with modelling results. Costs of CO2 sequestration are calculated for various scales and configurations. Evaluation of main uncertainties, environmental impacts and sensitivity analyses. Comparison of CBM production systems with reference systems and exploration of potential implementation schemes in the Dutch context. 72 refs

  2. Evaluation of feeds from tropical origin for in vitro methane production potential and rumen fermentation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, K.; Patra, A. K.; Sahoo, K.

    2015-07-01

    Enteric methane arising due to fermentation of feeds in the rumen contributes substantially to the greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, like evaluation of chemical composition and nutritive values of feeds, methane production potential of each feed should be determined. This experiment was conducted to evaluate several feeds for methane production potential and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production technique so that low methane producing feeds could be utilized to feed ruminants. Protein- and energy-rich concentrates (n=11), cereal and grass forages (n=11), and different straws and shrubs (n=12), which are commonly fed to ruminants in India, were collected from a number of locations. Gas production kinetics, methane production, degradability and rumen fermentation greatly varied (p<0.01) among feeds depending upon the chemical composition. Methane production (mL/g of degraded organic matter) was lower (p<0.01) for concentrate than forages, and straws and shrubs. Among shrubs and straws, methane production was lower (p<0.01) for shrubs than straws. Methane production was correlated (p<0.05) with concentrations of crude protein (CP), ether extract and non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) negatively, and with neutral detergent (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) positively. Potential gas production was negatively correlated (p=0.04) with ADF, but positively (p<0.01) with NFC content. Rate of gas production and ammonia concentration were influenced by CP content positively (p<0.05), but by NDF and ADF negatively (p<0.05). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and organic matter degradability were correlated (p<0.05) positively with CP and NFC content, but negatively with NDF and ADF content. The results suggest that incorporation of concentrates and shrubs replacing straws and forages in the diets of ruminants may decrease. (Author)

  3. Effects of three methane mitigation agents on parameters of kinetics of total and hydrogen gas production, ruminal fermentation and hydrogen balance using in vitro technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Yang, Shan; Deng, Jin Ping; Tang, Shao Xun; Tan, Zhi Liang

    2016-02-01

    Methane (CH4 ) can be mitigated through directly inhibiting methanogen activity and starving methanogens by hydrogen (H2 ) sink. Three types of mechanism (i.e. bromoethanesulphonate (BES), nitrate and emodin) and doses of CH4 mitigation agents were employed to investigate their pathways of CH4 inhibition. Results indicated that both BES and emodin inhibited CH4 production and altered H2 balance, which could be accompanied by decreased dry matter disappearance (DMD), fractional rate of gH2 formation, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, ability to produce and use reducing equivalences and molecular H2 , and increased final asymptotic gH2 production, time to the peak of gH2 , discrete lag time of gH2 production and fermentation efficiency. However, emodin decreased gas volume produced by rapidly fermentable components of substrate and the rate of fermentation at early stage of incubation, while BES supplementation inhibited gas volume produced by both rapidly and slowly fermentable components of substrate and the rate of fermentation at middle or late stage of incubation. The nitrate supplementation inhibited CH4 production without affecting VFA profile, because of its dual role as H2 sink and being toxic to methanogens. Nitrate supplementation had more complicated pattern of fermentation, VFA production and profile and H2 balance in comparison to BES and emodin supplementation. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  5. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using bio-methane potential (BMP) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nur Izzah Hamna A.; Hanafiah, Marlia M.

    2018-04-01

    Biogas is a promising sustainable and renewable energy alternative to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. In Malaysia, the conversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to bioenergy has recently been expanded due to its high potential in generating energy. However, without a proper treatment and management, POME could be harmful to environment because it emits greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and could also pollutes the watercourses if discharge directly due to the high acidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content. Many initiatives have been taken by the government towards sustainable development. Therefore, more efforts need to be practiced to improve and upscale the technology for a better waste management. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of POME was carried out using Bio-methane potential (BMP) test in batch and laboratory scales. Physicochemical characteristics and the biogas production of POME were measured. The BMP test under mesophilic condition was conducted for 23 consecutive days to measure the biogas production. The POME produced 721.3 cm3 of biogas by using anaerobic sludge as inoculum. The results also found that the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases produced with 360.65 cm3 and 288.52 cm3, respectively.

  7. Potential for carbon sequestration and mitigation of climate change by irrigation of grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Alexander; Campana, Pietro Elia; Lind, Mårten; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A generic method for climate change mitigation feasibility of PVWPS is developed. • Restoration of degraded lands in China has large climate change mitigation potential. • PV produces excess electricity included in the mitigation potential of the system. • The benefit is higher than if the PV were to produce electricity for the grid only. - Abstract: The climate change mitigation potential of irrigation powered by a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) to restore degraded grasslands has been investigated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use. The purpose of this study is to develop a generic and simple method to estimate the climate change mitigation benefit of a PVWPS. The possibility to develop carbon credits for the carbon offset markets has also been studied comparing carbon sequestration in grasslands to other carbon sequestration projects. The soil carbon sequestration following irrigation of the grassland is calculated as an annual increase in the soil organic carbon pool. The PVWPS can also generate an excess of electricity when irrigation is not needed and the emissions reductions due to substitution of grid electricity give additional climate change mitigation potential. The results from this study show that the carbon sequestration and emissions reductions benefits per land area using a PVWPS for irrigating grasslands are comparable to other carbon sequestration options such as switching to no-till practice. Soil carbon in irrigated grasslands is increased with over 60% relative to severely degraded grasslands and if nitrogen fixing species are introduced the increase in soil organic carbon can be almost 80%. Renewable electricity generation by the PVWPS will further increase the mitigation benefit of the system with 70–90%. When applying the methodology developed in this paper to a case in Qinghai, China

  8. Assessment of different pre-treatment methods for the removal of limonene in citrus waste and their effect on methane potential and methane production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Begoña; de Benito, Amparo; Rivera, José Daniel; Flotats, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the limonene removal efficiency of three pre-treatment methods when applied to citrus waste and to evaluate their effects on the biochemical methane potential and the methane production rate using batch anaerobic tests. The methods tested were based on removal (biological pretreatment by fungi) or recovery (steam distillation and ethanol extraction) of limonene. All the treatments decreased the concentration of limonene in orange peel, with average efficiencies of 22%, 44% and 100% for the biological treatment, steam distillation and ethanol extraction, respectively. By-products from limonene biodegradation by fungi exhibited an inhibitory effect also, not making interesting the biological pretreatment. The methane potential and production rate of the treated orange peel increased significantly after applying the recovery strategies, which separated and recovered simultaneously other inhibitory components of the citrus essential oil. Apart from the high recovery efficiency of the ethanol extraction process, it presented a favourable energy balance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Biochars mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and bioaccumulation of potentially toxic elements and arsenic speciation in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Chi, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Yaoyang; Zhu, Yongguan

    2017-08-01

    Anthropogenic and natural activities can lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions and discharge of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into soil environment. Biochar amendment to soils is a cost-effective technology and sustainable approach used to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, improve phytoremediation, and minimize the health risks associated with consumption of PTE-contaminated vegetables. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of peanut shell biochar (PNB) and sewage sludge biochar (SSB) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, plant growth, PTE bioaccumulation, and arsenic (As) speciation in bean plants. Results indicated that amendments of PNB and SSB increased plant biomass production by increasing soil fertility and reducing bioavailability of PTEs. Addition of biochars also increased soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 -N) but decreased available concentrations of PTEs such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and As. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 - -N) was also decreased in biochar-amended soils. In addition, PNB and SSB amendments significantly (P Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions were significantly (P greenhouse gas emissions and PTE bioaccumulation as well as arsenic speciation in P. vulgaris L.

  10. Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid

  11. Using global warming potential to compare methane and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gases affect the planetary heat budget. Any change of their concentration affects this budget and therefore the global mean surface temperature of the Earth. These gases have different radiative properties and different lifetimes in the atmosphere, which prevents any direct comparison of the consequences of their emissions on global warming. Almost twenty years ago, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) proposed the global warming potential (GWP) as an index to compare the emissions of the various greenhouse gases. In a recent paper, it has been stated that the use of GWP leads to strongly underestimating the global warming due to constant methane emissions compared to that of constant CO 2 emissions. Here we show that it is not really the case. The GWP enables comparisons of global warming due to constant emissions for any prescribed period, 100 years being often used. But this comparison is not universal. For instance, the impact of methane is underestimated at the beginning of the chosen period while the impact of CO 2 is underestimated after this period

  12. Determination of coalbed methane potential and gas adsorption capacity in Western Kentucky coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, S.M.; Takacs, K.G.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The Illinois Basin has not been developed for Coalbed Methane (CBM) production. It is imperative to determine both gas content and other parameters for the Kentucky portion of the Illinois Basin if exploration is to progress and production is to occur in this area. This research is part of a larger project being conducted by the Kentucky Geological Survey to evaluate the CBM production of Pennsylvanian-age western Kentucky coals in Ohio, Webster, and Union counties using methane adsorption isotherms, direct gas desorption measurements, and chemical analyses of coal and gas. This research will investigate relationships between CBM potential and petrographic, surface area, pore size, and gas adsorption isotherm analyses of the coals. Maceral and reflectance analyses are being conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. At the Indiana Geological Survey, the surface area and pore size of the coals will be analyzed using a Micrometrics ASAP 2020, and the CO2 isotherm analyses will be conducted using a volumetric adsorption apparatus in a water temperature bath. The aforementioned analyses will be used to determine site specific correlations for the Kentucky part of the Illinois Basin. The data collected will be compared with previous work in the Illinois Basin and will be correlated with data and structural features in the basin. Gas composition and carbon and hydrogen isotopic data suggest mostly thermogenic origin of coalbed gas in coals from Webster and Union Counties, Kentucky, in contrast to the dominantly biogenic character of coalbed gas in Ohio County, Kentucky.

  13. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Vaswani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM] varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro. Materials and Methods: Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold, and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Results: Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM] was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22. Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM] and methane (% were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (p<0.05 highest for HM 5 (14.22 and 26.62 and lowest for DHM 117 variety (7.47 and 14.13. The in vitro DM digestibility (% and in vitro organic matter digestibility (% varied from 47.48 (HQPM 5 to 52.05 (HQPM 9 and 50.03 (HQPM 7 to 54.22 (HM 5, respectively. Conclusion: The present study concluded that DHM 117 maize variety fodder has lowest methane generation potential and incorporating it in the dietary regime of ruminants may contribute to lower methane production.

  14. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...... composition of the wastes and the estimated methane potentials....

  15. The potential contribution to climate change mitigation from temporary carbon storage in biomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2015-01-01

    of biomaterials.The recently developed approach for quantifying the climate tipping potential (CTP) of emissions is used, with some adaption, to account for the value of temporary carbon storage. CTP values for short-, medium- and long-term carbon storage in chosen biomaterials are calculated for two possible...... future atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration development scenarios. The potential magnitude of the temporary carbon storage in biomaterials is estimated by considering the global polymer production being biobased in the future.Both sets of CTP values show the same trend; storage which releases...... contributes with negative CTP values, which means mitigation. The longer the duration of the storage, the larger the mitigation potential.Temporary carbon storage in biomaterials has a potential for contributing to avoid or postpone the crossing of a climatic target level of 450 ppm CO2e, depending on GHG...

  16. Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge – Implications for toxicity and methane potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, A.; Eriksson, Eva; Fick, J.

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects on the methane potential and the overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 °C). In general both treatments gave an increased methane potential. The thermal t...... treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. The sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre...

  17. Mitigation potential of carbon dioxide emissions by management of forests in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    Substantial areas of available forest lands in Asia could be managed for conservation and sequestration of carbon. These include 133 Mha for establishment of plantations and agroforests, 33.5 Mha for slowed tropical deforestation, and 48 Mha for natural and assisted regeneration of tropical forests. The potential quantity of C conserved and sequestered on these lands was conservatively estimated to be 24 Pg C (1 Pg = 10 15 g) by 2050. Establishment of plantations and agroforests could account for 58% of the total mitigation potential on Asian forest lands. The amount of C that could be conserved and sequestered by all forest sector practices by 2050 under baseline conditions is equivalent to about 4% of the global fossil fuel emissions over the same time period. The uncertainties in estimates of mitigation potential presented in this paper are likely to be high, particularly with respect to the land area available for forestation projects and the rate at which deforestation could be slowed. The uncertainty terms are compounded in making global estimates of the mitigation potential, perhaps to large proportions, but to what extent is presently unknown. An example of a forestry project in China whose main goal was to rehabilitate degraded lands and at the same time provide biomass fuel for the local rural inhabitants is presented to demonstrate that C sequestration, and thus mitigation, is an added benefit to more traditional uses of forests. This forestry project is currently mitigating CO 2 emissions (up to 1.4 Mg C ha -1 yr -1 ) and, with a change in management, an almost two-fold increase in the current reduction of net C emissions would occur. 33 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Assessment of substrate potential resources which can be used in methanization - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    This report proposes a method to elaborate a detailed and precise assessment of potential resources of substrates which can be used for methanization. It aims at obtaining global results at the national level while proposing figures at the district level which can be integrated into regional documents. Four types of resources have been addressed: the production raw resource, the available raw resource, the available net resource, and the mobilisable resource by 2030. These resources have different origins: agriculture (breeding effluents, crop residues, energetic intermediate crops), various agri-food industries, sanitation systems, green wastes, and bio-wastes from different origins (restaurants, small shops, retail trade, markets). Some other sources (green algae, micro-algae, roadside grass, meadows, farming fruits and vegetables) have only been identified but are considered as experiments or difficult to be assessed

  19. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaswani, Shalini; Kumar, Ravindra; Kumar, Vinod; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM]) varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro . Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold), and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek) were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM]) was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22). Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM]) and methane (%) were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (pproduction.

  20. Dynamics and climate change mitigation potential of soil organic carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Rolf; Bossio, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    When assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and its climate change (CC) mitigation potential at global scale, the dynamic nature of soil carbon storage and interventions to foster it should be taken into account. Firstly, adoption of SOC-sequestration measures will take time, and reasonably such schemes could only be implemented gradually at large-scale. Secondly, if soils are managed as carbon sinks, then SOC will increase only over a limited time, up to the point when a new SOC equilibrium is reached. This paper combines these two processes and predicts potential SOC sequestration dynamics in agricultural land at global scale and the corresponding CC mitigation potential. Assuming that global governments would agree on a worldwide effort to gradually change land use practices towards turning agricultural soils into carbon sinks starting 2014, the projected 87-year (2014-2100) global SOC sequestration potential of agricultural land ranged between 31 and 64 Gt. This is equal to 1.9-3.9% of the SRES-A2 projected 87-year anthropogenic emissions. SOC sequestration would peak 2032-33, at that time reaching 4.3-8.9% of the projected annual SRES-A2 emission. About 30 years later the sequestration rate would have reduced by half. Thus, SOC sequestration is not a C wedge that could contribute increasingly to mitigating CC. Rather, the mitigation potential is limited, contributing very little to solving the climate problem of the coming decades. However, we deliberately did not elaborate on the importance of maintaining or increasing SOC for sustaining soil health, agro-ecosystem functioning and productivity; an issue of global significance that deserves proper consideration irrespectively of any potential additional sequestration of SOC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  2. Large uncertainty in carbon uptake potential of land-based climate-change mitigation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Pugh, Thomas A M; Bayer, Anita D; Li, Wei; Leung, Felix; Bondeau, Alberte; Doelman, Jonathan C; Humpenöder, Florian; Anthoni, Peter; Bodirsky, Benjamin L; Ciais, Philippe; Müller, Christoph; Murray-Tortarolo, Guillermo; Olin, Stefan; Popp, Alexander; Sitch, Stephen; Stehfest, Elke; Arneth, Almut

    2018-07-01

    Most climate mitigation scenarios involve negative emissions, especially those that aim to limit global temperature increase to 2°C or less. However, the carbon uptake potential in land-based climate change mitigation efforts is highly uncertain. Here, we address this uncertainty by using two land-based mitigation scenarios from two land-use models (IMAGE and MAgPIE) as input to four dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs; LPJ-GUESS, ORCHIDEE, JULES, LPJmL). Each of the four combinations of land-use models and mitigation scenarios aimed for a cumulative carbon uptake of ~130 GtC by the end of the century, achieved either via the cultivation of bioenergy crops combined with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or avoided deforestation and afforestation (ADAFF). Results suggest large uncertainty in simulated future land demand and carbon uptake rates, depending on the assumptions related to land use and land management in the models. Total cumulative carbon uptake in the DGVMs is highly variable across mitigation scenarios, ranging between 19 and 130 GtC by year 2099. Only one out of the 16 combinations of mitigation scenarios and DGVMs achieves an equivalent or higher carbon uptake than achieved in the land-use models. The large differences in carbon uptake between the DGVMs and their discrepancy against the carbon uptake in IMAGE and MAgPIE are mainly due to different model assumptions regarding bioenergy crop yields and due to the simulation of soil carbon response to land-use change. Differences between land-use models and DGVMs regarding forest biomass and the rate of forest regrowth also have an impact, albeit smaller, on the results. Given the low confidence in simulated carbon uptake for a given land-based mitigation scenario, and that negative emissions simulated by the DGVMs are typically lower than assumed in scenarios consistent with the 2°C target, relying on negative emissions to mitigate climate change is a highly uncertain strategy. © 2018 John

  3. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in

  4. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species – harvested in Denmark – for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 WC) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids1 (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 ml g VS1 for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS1...

  6. Mapping of soil organic carbon stocks for spatially explicit assessments of climate change mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vågen, Tor-Gunnar; Winowiecki, Leigh A

    2013-01-01

    Current methods for assessing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally not well suited for understanding variations in SOC stocks in landscapes. This is due to the tedious and time-consuming nature of the sampling methods most commonly used to collect bulk density cores, which limits repeatability across large areas, particularly where information is needed on the spatial dynamics of SOC stocks at scales relevant to management and for spatially explicit targeting of climate change mitigation options. In the current study, approaches were explored for (i) field-based estimates of SOC stocks and (ii) mapping of SOC stocks at moderate to high resolution on the basis of data from four widely contrasting ecosystems in East Africa. Estimated SOC stocks for 0–30 cm depth varied both within and between sites, with site averages ranging from 2 to 8 kg m −2 . The differences in SOC stocks were determined in part by rainfall, but more importantly by sand content. Results also indicate that managing soil erosion is a key strategy for reducing SOC loss and hence in mitigation of climate change in these landscapes. Further, maps were developed on the basis of satellite image reflectance data with multiple R-squared values of 0.65 for the independent validation data set, showing variations in SOC stocks across these landscapes. These maps allow for spatially explicit targeting of potential climate change mitigation efforts through soil carbon sequestration, which is one option for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Further, the maps can be used to monitor the impacts of such mitigation efforts over time. (letter)

  7. Revisiting CO2 mitigation potential and costs in China's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wenjia; Wang Can; Chen Jining

    2010-01-01

    To improve the reliability of sectoral mitigation potential and cost analysis, this paper made an in-depth exploration into China's electricity sector's thermal efficiency and inner structure. It is found that unlike what many literatures portray, China is actually among the world's leaders in coal-fired power plants' generating efficiencies; besides, although there are still numerous small and inefficient generating units in the current generation fleet, many of them are in fact playing important roles in supporting local economic development, meeting peak load needs, balancing heat and electricity supply and providing job opportunities to the local economy, therefore their existence does not necessarily mean low-cost mitigation potential. Given the efficiency and structural characteristics of China's electricity sector, it is pointed out that some other mitigation options, such as demand side management, IGCC and renewable energy as well as the break-through of CCS technology may play an even more important role in emission reduction. Considering the significant lock-in effects in electricity sector, it is warned that China, if continues putting majority investment in large and advanced coal-fired generating units, will face another round of chasing-after for the new and advanced renewable generation technologies. Therefore China should put more efforts in renewable generation technologies now.

  8. Demand-side mitigation options of the agricultural sector: potential, barriers and ways forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelle Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the potential and barriers of demand-side mitigation options in the agricultural sector based on the recent academic literature and on a survey conducted on a sample of 788 respondents living in France. The mitigation potential of such measures as reducing losses in the food supply chain and shifting diets toward less animal products is estimated to be particularly high, higher, in particular, than supply-side mitigation options. However, to ensure that these measures do not entail a reduction in protein intake, these estimations should consider both caloric and protein units, and take into account the digestibility differentials between protein sources. Our survey shows that people are relatively reluctant to eat more sustainably, preferring to reduce their emissions in other areas such as housing or equipment. This relative reluctance is mainly due to individual perceptions linked to health concerns, taste or habits. Some obstacles could easily be overcome through well-designed policies aiming to, for example, advertise a lower consumption of red meat for health benefits. National governments are, however, rather inactive on this topic, leaving the initiative to the civil society.

  9. Potential of carbon mitigation by vertical axis wind turbines in urban regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, K.; Naterer, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of greenhouse gas reduction with vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) in urban centers is examined in this paper. Four different wind turbine designs are compared, in terms of greenhouse gas reduction and specific energy distribution of the wind energy resource. A VAWT can potentially improve power generation capability in turbulent regions, where wind conditions can be represented by an exponential function. Results are presented to demonstrate that a VAWT covering one square metre, installed in 50% of Toronto residential dwellings, could mitigate between 29,193 and 138,741 tonnes of CO 2 per year. (author)

  10. Synergistic impact of sonic-tenside on biomass disintegration potential: Acidogenic and methane potential studies, kinetics and cost analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilarasan, K; Arulazhagan, P; Rani, R Uma; Kaliappan, S; Banu, J Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    An exploration into the symbiotic impact of sonic-tenside (SDBS - sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate) on biomass disintegration potential and to reduce the energy consumption was studied. At optimized condition (specific energy input 9600 kJ/kg TS; SDBS dosage 0.07 g/g SS), higher percentage of biomass lysis and solids reduction (23.9% and 19.8%) was obtained in blended sonic-tenside disintegration (STD), than sonic disintegration (SD) (17.6% and 9.8%). The bioacidogenic potential (BAP) assay in terms of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production (722 mg/L) was found to be higher for STD, in comparison to SD (350 mg/L). The impact of STD on anaerobic digestion was evident from its methane yield (0.239 g/g COD), higher than SD (0.182 g/g COD). A monetary evaluation of the present study provides a net gain of 2 USD/ton for STD, indicating the profitability of the technique. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  12. Forestry for mitigating the greenhouse effect : an ecological and economic assessment of the potential of land use to mitigate CO2 emissions in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de B.H.J.

    2000-01-01

    The present study intends to answer some of the important questions that arise when translating projects that have an ecological potential to mitigate carbon excesses, into actual implementation of these projects in a farmer-dominated landscape. Farm and community forestry projects for

  13. Exploring the potential of fungi for methane abatement: Performance evaluation of a fungal-bacterial biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Lehtinen, Iiro; Pérez, Rebeca; Quijano, Guillermo; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-02-01

    Despite several fungal strains have been retrieved from methane-containing environments, the actual capacity and role of fungi on methane abatement is still unclear. The batch biodegradation tests here performed demonstrated the capacity of Graphium sp. to co-metabolically biodegrade methane and methanol. Moreover, the performance and microbiology of a fungal-bacterial compost biofilter treating methane at concentrations of ∼2% was evaluated at empty bed residence times of 40 and 20 min under different irrigation rates. The daily addition of 200 mL of mineral medium resulted in elimination capacities of 36.6 ± 0.7 g m(-3) h(-1) and removal efficiencies of ≈90% at the lowest residence time. The indigenous fungal community of the compost was predominant in the final microbial population and outcompeted the inoculated Graphium sp. during biofilter operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Information content analysis: the potential for methane isotopologue retrieval from GOSAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Edward; Yoshida, Yukio; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric methane is comprised of multiple isotopic molecules, with the most abundant being 12CH4 and 13CH4, making up 98 and 1.1 % of atmospheric methane respectively. It has been shown that is it possible to distinguish between sources of methane (biogenic methane, e.g. marshland, or abiogenic methane, e.g. fracking) via a ratio of these main methane isotopologues, otherwise known as the δ13C value. δ13C values typically range between -10 and -80 ‰, with abiogenic sources closer to zero and biogenic sources showing more negative values. Initially, we suggest that a δ13C difference of 10 ‰ is sufficient, in order to differentiate between methane source types, based on this we derive that a precision of 0.2 ppbv on 13CH4 retrievals may achieve the target δ13C variance. Using an application of the well-established information content analysis (ICA) technique for assumed clear-sky conditions, this paper shows that using a combination of the shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands on the planned Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT-2) mission, 13CH4 can be measured with sufficient information content to a precision of between 0.7 and 1.2 ppbv from a single sounding (assuming a total column average value of 19.14 ppbv), which can then be reduced to the target precision through spatial and temporal averaging techniques. We therefore suggest that GOSAT-2 can be used to differentiate between methane source types. We find that large unconstrained covariance matrices are required in order to achieve sufficient information content, while the solar zenith angle has limited impact on the information content.

  15. Information content analysis: the potential for methane isotopologue retrieval from GOSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Malina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric methane is comprised of multiple isotopic molecules, with the most abundant being 12CH4 and 13CH4, making up 98 and 1.1 % of atmospheric methane respectively. It has been shown that is it possible to distinguish between sources of methane (biogenic methane, e.g. marshland, or abiogenic methane, e.g. fracking via a ratio of these main methane isotopologues, otherwise known as the δ13C value. δ13C values typically range between −10 and −80 ‰, with abiogenic sources closer to zero and biogenic sources showing more negative values. Initially, we suggest that a δ13C difference of 10 ‰ is sufficient, in order to differentiate between methane source types, based on this we derive that a precision of 0.2 ppbv on 13CH4 retrievals may achieve the target δ13C variance. Using an application of the well-established information content analysis (ICA technique for assumed clear-sky conditions, this paper shows that using a combination of the shortwave infrared (SWIR bands on the planned Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT-2 mission, 13CH4 can be measured with sufficient information content to a precision of between 0.7 and 1.2 ppbv from a single sounding (assuming a total column average value of 19.14 ppbv, which can then be reduced to the target precision through spatial and temporal averaging techniques. We therefore suggest that GOSAT-2 can be used to differentiate between methane source types. We find that large unconstrained covariance matrices are required in order to achieve sufficient information content, while the solar zenith angle has limited impact on the information content.

  16. Enhanced Soluble Protein and Biochemical Methane Potential of Apple Biowaste by Different Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulun, Şevket; Bilgin, Melayib

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic digestion of apple pomace waste in terms of pretreatment. In this study, the main pretreatment strategies for apple pomace include: ultrasound (35 and 53 kHz), thermal and chemical (pH 5 and 10). For each pretreatment method four different temperatures are selected as 25, 40, 50, and 60 °C, and operation times are selected as 5th, 15th, 30th, and 45th minutes. The effects on pretreatment were investigated by measuring changes in the soluble protein concentrations of pretreated wastes and the enhanced anaerobic digestion was investigated by using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. The soluble proteins of ultrasonic (35 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), ultrasonic (53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), chemical (pH 5 at 60 °C, 5th min), chemical (pH 10 at 60 °C, 30th min) and thermal chemical (40 °C, 15th min) pretreatment apple pomace were 74.3, 75.6, 48.7, 85.5 and 58.6% higher, respectively. The results indicated that apple pomace treated with 53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min had the highest biogas yield of 1519 mL CH4/g VSS.day after anaerobic digestion, which was on average 40.9% higher than raw pomace.

  17. Enhanced Soluble Protein and Biochemical Methane Potential of Apple Biowaste by Different Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulun, Şevket; Bilgin, Melayib

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anaerobic digestion of apple pomace waste in terms of pretreatment. In this study, the main pretreatment strategies for apple pomace include: ultrasound (35 and 53 kHz), thermal and chemical (pH 5 and 10). For each pretreatment method four different temperatures are selected as 25, 40, 50, and 60 °C, and operation times are selected as 5th, 15th, 30th, and 45th minutes. The effects on pretreatment were investigated by measuring changes in the soluble protein concentrations of pretreated wastes and the enhanced anaerobic digestion was investigated by using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. The soluble proteins of ultrasonic (35 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), ultrasonic (53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min), chemical (pH 5 at 60 °C, 5th min), chemical (pH 10 at 60 °C, 30th min) and thermal chemical (40 °C, 15th min) pretreatment apple pomace were 74.3, 75.6, 48.7, 85.5 and 58.6% higher, respectively. The results indicated that apple pomace treated with 53 kHz at 60 °C, 45th min had the highest biogas yield of 1519 mL CH4/g VSS.day after anaerobic digestion, which was on average 40.9% higher than raw pomace.

  18. Potential roles of anaerobic ammonium and methane oxidation in the nitrogen cycle of wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guibing; Jetten, Mike S M; Kuschk, Peter; Ettwig, Katharina F; Yin, Chengqing

    2010-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and anaerobic methane oxidation (ANME coupled to denitrification) with nitrite as electron acceptor are two of the most recent discoveries in the microbial nitrogen cycle. Currently the anammox process has been relatively well investigated in a number of natural and man-made ecosystems, while ANME coupled to denitrification has only been observed in a limited number of freshwater ecosystems. The ubiquitous presence of anammox bacteria in marine ecosystems has changed our knowledge of the global nitrogen cycle. Up to 50% of N(2) production in marine sediments and oxygen-depleted zones may be attributed to anammox bacteria. However, there are only few indications of anammox in natural and constructed freshwater wetlands. In this paper, the potential role of anammox and denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria in natural and artificial wetlands is discussed in relation to global warming. The focus of the review is to explore and analyze if suitable environmental conditions exist for anammox and denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria in nitrogen-rich freshwater wetlands.

  19. Changes in composition, cellulose degradability and biochemical methane potential of Miscanthus species during the growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Li, Chao; Liu, Jing; Yi, Zili; Han, Yejun

    2017-07-01

    The composition, cellulose degradability and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of M. sinensis, M. floridulus, Miscanthus×giganteus and M. lutarioriparius were investigated concomitantly at different growth/harvest times during their growing season. For all the four species, there was only a slight change in the compositional content. Meanwhile there was a huge change in the BMP values. At the growth time of 60days the BMPs ranged from 247.1 to 266.5mlg -1 VS. As growth time was prolonged, the BMPs decreased by 11-35%. For each species, the BMP was positively correlated to the cellulose degradability with the correlation coefficients (R 2 ) ranging from 0.8055 to 0.9925. This suggests that besides the biomass yield, it is justifiable to consider cellulose degradability when selecting the suitable harvest time for biofuels production from Miscanthus, especially in tropical and subtropical regions where Miscanthus can be harvested twice or more within a year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and its potential role to mitigate carbon emission in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Wu, Zong-Xin; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2007-06-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been widely recognized as one of the options to mitigate carbon emission to eventually stabilize carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Three parts of CCS, which are carbon capture, transport, and storage are assessed in this paper, covering comparisons of techno-economic parameters for different carbon capture technologies, comparisons of storage mechanism, capacity and cost for various storage formations, and etc. In addition, the role of CCS to mitigate global carbon emission is introduced. Finally, China MARKAL model is updated to include various CCS technologies, especially indirect coal liquefaction and poly-generation technologies with CCS, in order to consider carbon emission reduction as well as energy security issue. The model is used to generate different scenarios to study potential role of CCS to mitigate carbon emissions by 2050 in China. It is concluded that application of CCS can decrease marginal abatement cost and the decrease rate can reach 45% for the emission reduction rate of 50%, and it can lessen the dependence on nuclear power development for stringent carbon constrains. Moreover, coal resources can be cleanly used for longer time with CCS, e.g., for the scenario C70, coal share in the primary energy consumption by 2050 will increase from 10% when without CCS to 30% when with CCS. Therefore, China should pay attention to CCS R&D activities and to developing demonstration projects.

  1. Magnesium carbide synthesis from methane and magnesium oxide - a potential methodology for natural gas conversion to premium fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Diversification of the raw materials base for manufacturing premium fuels and chemicals offers U.S. and international consumers economic and strategic benefits. Extensive reserves of natural gas in the world provide a valuable source of clean gaseous fuel and chemical feedstock. Assuming the availability of suitable conversion processes, natural gas offers the prospect of improving flexibility in liquid fuels and chemicals manufacture, and thus, the opportunity to complement, supplement, or displace petroleum-based production as economic and strategic considerations require. The composition of natural gas varies from reservoir to reservoir but the principal hydrocarbon constituent is always methane (CH{sub 4}). With its high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, methane has the potential to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich products. However, methane is a very chemically stable molecule and, thus, is not readily transformed to other molecules or easily reformed to its elements (H{sub 2} and carbon). In many cases, further research is needed to augment selectivity to desired product(s), increase single-pass conversions, or improve economics (e.g. there have been estimates of $50/bbl or more for liquid products) before the full potential of these methodologies can be realized on a commercial scale. With the trade-off between gas conversion and product selectivity, a major challenge common to many of these technologies is to simultaneously achieve high methane single-pass conversions and high selectivity to desired products. Based on the results of the scoping runs, there appears to be strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved in that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated.

  2. Bioaccumulation and rhizofiltration potential of Pistia stratiotes L. for mitigating water pollution in the Egyptian wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Tarek M; Eid, Ebrahem M; Dakhil, Mohammed A; Hassan, Loutfy M

    2018-04-16

    The bioaccumulation and rhizofiltration potential of P. stratiotes for heavy metals were investigated to mitigate water pollution in the Egyptian wetlands. Plant and water samples were collected monthly through nine quadrats equally distributed along three sites at Al-Sero drain in Giza Province. The annual mean of the shoot biomass was 10 times that of the root. The concentrations of shoot heavy metals fell in the order: Fe < Mn < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn < Ni < Co < Cd, while that of the roots were: Fe < Mn < Cr < Pb < Zn < Ni < Co < Cu < Cd. The bio-concentration factor (BCF) of most investigated heavy metals, except Cr and Pb, was greater than 1000, while the translocation factor (TF) of most investigated metals, except Pb and Cu, did not exceed one. The rhizofiltration potential (RP) of heavy metals was higher than 1000 for Fe, and 100 for Cr, Pb and Cu. Significant positive correlations between Fe and Cu in water with those in plant roots and leaves, respectively were recorded, which, in addition to the high BCF and RP, indicate the potential use of P. stratiotes in mitigating these toxic metals.

  3. Mitigating secondary aerosol generation potentials from biofuel use in the energy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Colls, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates secondary aerosol generation potential of biofuel use in the energy sector from the photochemical interactions of precursor gases on a life cycle basis. The paper is divided into two parts-first, employing life cycle analysis (LCA) to evaluate the extent of the problem for a typical biofuel based electricity production system using five baseline scenarios; second, proposing adequate mitigation options to minimise the secondary aerosol generation potential on a life cycle basis. The baseline scenarios cover representative technologies for 2010 utilising energy crop (miscanthus), short rotation coppiced chips and residual/waste wood in different proportions. The proposed mitigation options include three approaches-biomass gasification prior to combustion, delaying the harvest of biomass, and increasing the geographical distance between the biomass plant and the harvest site (by importing the biofuels). Preliminary results indicate that the baseline scenarios (assuming all the biomass is sourced locally) bear significant secondary aerosol formation potential on a life cycle basis from photochemical neutralisation of acidic emissions (hydrogen chloride and sulphur dioxide) with ammonia. Our results suggest that gasification of miscanthus biomass would provide the best option by minimising the acidic emissions from the combustion plant whereas the other two options of delaying the harvest or importing biofuels from elsewhere would only lead to marginal reduction in the life cycle aerosol loadings of the systems.

  4. Pig feeding strategy coupled with effluent management - fresh or stored slurry, solid phase separation - on methane potential and methane conversion factors during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarret, Guillaume; Martinez, José; Dourmad, Jean-Yves

    2011-11-01

    In the guideline for the determination of methane (CH 4) emission from animal manure (IPCC) the amount of CH 4 emitted is generally calculated according to an equation combining the amount of organic matter (OM) or volatile solids excreted, the ultimate CH 4 potential ( B0) of excreta and a system-specific methane conversion factor (MCF, %) that reflects the portion of B0 that is really converted into CH 4. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modification of dietary crude protein and fibre levels on B0 of pig slurry and on subsequent MCF according to different strategies of slurry management. Five experimental diets differing mainly in their crude protein and fibre content were compared. Two types of measurement of CH 4 emission were performed. The first was the measurement of B0 of slurry using biomethanogene potential (BMP) test. The second consisted in a storage simulation, which was performed on different kinds of effluents: fresh slurry (FSl), stored slurry (SSl), and faeces mixed with water (FaW). The type of diet and the type of effluent affected ( P storage from FaW, FSl and SSl samples representing 77%, 58% and 64% of the B0 value. The dynamic of CH 4 production during BMP tests was rather similar for all dietary treatments whereas it differed for storage simulation studies with significant effects of dietary CP and fibre contents. The results from this study indicate that the type of diet has a significant but rather limited effect on B0 value of effluent. The effect of diet is much more marked on MCF, with lower values for high protein diets, and higher values for high fibre diets. MCF is also affected by manure management, the values measured on separated faeces from urine being much higher than for slurry.

  5. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Upward revision of global fossil fuel methane emissions based on isotope database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Sherwood, Owen A; Bruhwiler, Lori M P; Miller, John B; Etiope, Giuseppe; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Michel, Sylvia Englund; Arling, Victoria A; Vaughn, Bruce H; White, James W C; Tans, Pieter P

    2016-10-06

    Methane has the second-largest global radiative forcing impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gases after carbon dioxide, but our understanding of the global atmospheric methane budget is incomplete. The global fossil fuel industry (production and usage of natural gas, oil and coal) is thought to contribute 15 to 22 per cent of methane emissions to the total atmospheric methane budget. However, questions remain regarding methane emission trends as a result of fossil fuel industrial activity and the contribution to total methane emissions of sources from the fossil fuel industry and from natural geological seepage, which are often co-located. Here we re-evaluate the global methane budget and the contribution of the fossil fuel industry to methane emissions based on long-term global methane and methane carbon isotope records. We compile the largest isotopic methane source signature database so far, including fossil fuel, microbial and biomass-burning methane emission sources. We find that total fossil fuel methane emissions (fossil fuel industry plus natural geological seepage) are not increasing over time, but are 60 to 110 per cent greater than current estimates owing to large revisions in isotope source signatures. We show that this is consistent with the observed global latitudinal methane gradient. After accounting for natural geological methane seepage, we find that methane emissions from natural gas, oil and coal production and their usage are 20 to 60 per cent greater than inventories. Our findings imply a greater potential for the fossil fuel industry to mitigate anthropogenic climate forcing, but we also find that methane emissions from natural gas as a fraction of production have declined from approximately 8 per cent to approximately 2 per cent over the past three decades.

  7. Potentials and costs of carbon dioxide mitigation in the world's buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urge-Vorsatz, Diana; Novikova, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Buildings are responsible for over a third of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. A significant share of these emissions can be avoided cost effectively through improved energy efficiency, while providing the same or higher level of energy services. How large is this emission reduction potential globally and how much will it cost for society to unlock it? This paper provides answers to these questions, presenting the results of bottom-up research conducted for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), based on the assessment of 80 country- or regional-level mitigation studies throughout the world. First, the paper analyses the findings of these studies in a common framework. Then, it aggregates their results into a global estimate of CO 2 mitigation potential. The paper concludes that by 2020 it is possible to cut cost effectively approximately 29% of buildings-related global CO 2 emissions, the largest among all sectors reported by the IPCC, representing a 3.2 GtCO 2 eq. reduction. Developing countries house the largest cost-effective potential with up to 52% of building-level emissions, whereas transition economies and industrialised countries have cost-effective potentials of up to 37% and 25%, respectively. Energy-efficient lighting was identified as the most attractive measure worldwide, in terms of both reduction potential and cost effectiveness. If this potential is realised, the building-related CO 2 emissions would stay constant over 2004-2030. These stabilisation levels (if achieved by all other sectors) would cancel about 3 o C temperature increase over the projected period of time

  8. External Cooling of the BWR Mark I and II Drywell Head as a Potential Accident Mitigation Measure - Scoping Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    This report documents a scoping assessment of a potential accident mitigation action applicable to the US fleet of boiling water reactors with Mark I and II containments. The mitigation action is to externally flood the primary containment vessel drywell head using portable pumps or other means. A scoping assessment of the potential benefits of this mitigation action was conducted focusing on the ability to (1) passively remove heat from containment, (2) prevent or delay leakage through the drywell head seal (due to high temperatures and/or pressure), and (3) scrub radionuclide releases if the drywell head seal leaks.

  9. External Cooling of the BWR Mark I and II Drywell Head as a Potential Accident Mitigation Measure – Scoping Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This report documents a scoping assessment of a potential accident mitigation action applicable to the US fleet of boiling water reactors with Mark I and II containments. The mitigation action is to externally flood the primary containment vessel drywell head using portable pumps or other means. A scoping assessment of the potential benefits of this mitigation action was conducted focusing on the ability to (1) passively remove heat from containment, (2) prevent or delay leakage through the drywell head seal (due to high temperatures and/or pressure), and (3) scrub radionuclide releases if the drywell head seal leaks.

  10. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  11. Potential for cometabolic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in aquifers with methane or ethane as primary substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Paul B; Banerjee, Rahul; Rezes, Rachael; Streger, Sheryl H; McClay, Kevin; Schaefer, Charles E

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential for two gases, methane and ethane, to stimulate the biological degradation of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) in groundwater aquifers via aerobic cometabolism. Experiments with aquifer microcosms, enrichment cultures from aquifers, mesophilic pure cultures, and purified enzyme (soluble methane monooxygenase; sMMO) were conducted. During an aquifer microcosm study, ethane was observed to stimulate the aerobic biodegradation of 1,4-D. An ethane-oxidizing enrichment culture from these samples, and a pure culture capable of growing on ethane (Mycobacterium sphagni ENV482) that was isolated from a different aquifer also biodegraded 1,4-D. Unlike ethane, methane was not observed to appreciably stimulate the biodegradation of 1,4-D in aquifer microcosms or in methane-oxidizing mixed cultures enriched from two different aquifers. Three different pure cultures of mesophilic methanotrophs also did not degrade 1,4-D, although each rapidly oxidized 1,1,2-trichloroethene (TCE). Subsequent studies showed that 1,4-D is not a substrate for purified sMMO enzyme from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, at least not at the concentrations evaluated, which significantly exceeded those typically observed at contaminated sites. Thus, our data indicate that ethane, which is a common daughter product of the biotic or abiotic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethanes and ethenes, may serve as a substrate to enhance 1,4-D degradation in aquifers, particularly in zones where these products mix with aerobic groundwater. It may also be possible to stimulate 1,4-D biodegradation in an aerobic aquifer through addition of ethane gas. Conversely, our results suggest that methane may have limited importance in natural attenuation or for enhancing biodegradation of 1,4-D in groundwater environments.

  12. Compositional changes in swine manure fibers treated with aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) resulting in increased methane potential

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Esperanza; Hansen, Mads A.T.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    AAS treatment is a very efficient method to increase the methane potential of manure fibers. The chemical composition and supramolecular structures of swine manure fibers before and after AAS treatment was investigated in this study. Composition analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical surface composition by Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR–FTIR) showed that no delignification of the lignocellulose took place during ...

  13. Climate change mitigation: the potential of agriculture as a renewable energy source in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elum, Z A; Modise, D M; Nhamo, G

    2017-02-01

    Energy is pivotal to the economic development of every nation. However, its production and utilization leads to undesirable carbon emissions that aggravate global warming which results in climate change. The agriculture sector is a significant user of energy. However, it has the potential to be a major contributor to Nigeria's energy supply mix in meeting its energy deficit. More so, in the light of current and impending adverse effects of climate change, there is a need to contain GHG's emissions. This paper focuses on bioenergy utilization as a climate change mitigation strategy and one that can, through effective waste management, enhance sustainable economic development in Nigeria. The paper employed a critical discourse analysis to examine the potential of the agricultural sector to provide biofuels from energy crops and other biomass sources. We conclude that Nigeria can reduce its GHG emissions and greatly contribute to global climate change mitigation while also alleviating its energy supply deficit if the agricultural and municipal wastes readily available in its towns and cities are converted to bioenergy. Such engagements will not only promote a clean and healthy environment but also create jobs for economic empowerment and a better standard of living for the people.

  14. Influence of wastewater characteristics on methane potential in food-processing industry wastewaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maya Altamira, Larisa; Baun, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    ) were compared to the theoretical methane yields (Bo,th) in order to evaluate the biodegradability of the tested wastewaters and the influence of their physico-chemical characteristics. The analytical method applied to quantify the wastewaters’ organic content proved to influence the estimation...... of their theoretical yields. The substrate:inoculum ratio as well as the dilution factor of the wastewaters influenced the ultimate practical methane yields differently in each of the wastewaters assessed. Substrate chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations did not present any influence on ultimate practical methane...... yields; on the other hand, it was found that they were affected positively by concentrations of total inorganic carbon when wastewaters were 25% and 50% diluted and affected negatively by concentrations of total acetate when wastewaters were undiluted. Carbohydrate and protein concentrations affected...

  15. Studies on potential effects of fumaric acid on rumen microbial fermentation, methane production and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Susanne; Boguhn, Jeannette; Breves, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) contributes substantially to global climate change. As a potential approach to decrease ruminal methanogenesis, the effects of different dosages of fumaric acid (FA) on ruminal microbial metabolism and on the microbial community (archaea, bacteria) were studied using a rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). FA acts as alternative hydrogen acceptor diverting 2H from methanogenesis of archaea towards propionate formation of bacteria. Three identical trials were conducted with 12 fermentation vessels over a period of 14 days. In each trial, four fermentation vessels were assigned to one of the three treatment groups differing in FA dosage: low fumaric acid (LFA), high fumaric acid (HFA) and without FA (control). FA was continuously infused with the buffer. Grass silage and concentrate served as substrate. FA led to decreases in pH and to higher production rates of total short chain fatty acids (SCFA) mediated by increases in propionate for LFA of 1.69 mmol d(-1) and in propionate and acetate production for HFA of 4.49 and 1.10 mmol d(-1), respectively. Concentrations of NH3-N, microbial crude protein synthesis, their efficiency, degradation of crude nutrients and detergent fibre fraction were unchanged. Total gas and CH4 production were not affected by FA. Effects of FA on structure of microbial community by means of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses could not be detected. Given the observed increase in propionate production and the unaffected CH4 production it can be supposed that the availability of reduction equivalents like 2H was not limited by the addition of FA in this study. It has to be concluded from the present study that the application of FA is not an appropriate approach to decrease the ruminal CH4 production.

  16. A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna

    2017-10-01

    The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methane production potential and microbial community structure for different forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Ueyama, M.; Kominami, Y.; Endo, R.; Tokumoto, H.; Hirano, T.; Takagi, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Iwata, H.; Harazono, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Forest soils are often considered as a methane (CH4) sink, but anaerobic microsites potentially decrease the sink at the ecosystem scale. In this study, we measured biological CH4 production potential of soils at various ecosystems, including upland forests, a lowland forest, and a bog, and analyzed microbial community structure using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Three different types of soil samples (upland, bank of the stream, and center of the stream) were collected from Yamashiro forest meteorology research site (YMS) at Kyoto, Japan, on 11 May 2017. The soils were incubated at dark and anaerobic conditions under three different temperatures (37°C, 25°C, and 10°C) from 9 June 2017. The upland soils emitted CH4 with largest yields among the three soils at 37°C and 25°C, although no CH4 emission was observed at 10°C. For all temperature ranges, the emission started to increase with a 14- to 20-days lag after the start of the incubation. The lag indicates a slow transition to anaerobic conditions; as dissolved oxygen in water decreased, the number and/or activity of anaerobic bacteria like methanogens increased. The soils at the bank and center of the stream emitted CH4 with smaller yields than the upland soils in the three temperature ranges. The microbial community analyses indicate that methanogenic archaea presented at the three soils including the aerobic upland soil, but compositions of methanogenic archaea were different among the soils. In upland soils, hydrogenotrophic methanogens, such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermobacter, consisted almost all of the total methanogen detected. In the bank and center of the stream, soils contained approximately 10-25% of acetoclastic methanogens, such as Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta, among the total methanogen detected. Methanotrophs, a genus of Methanobacteriaceae, was appeared in the all types of soils. We will present results from same incubation and 16S rRNA analyses for other ecosystems, including

  18. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-10

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a

  19. Climate change mitigation studies in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramaratne, Rupa

    1998-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)

  20. Evaluation of the biological methane potential of various feedstock for the production of biogas to supply agricultural tractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewska, Anna; Owczuk, Marlena; Zamojska-Jaroszewicz, Anna; Jakubiak-Lasocka, Joanna; Lasocki, Jakub; Orliński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochemical methane potential for mixtures of whey, manures and silages was tested. • High impact of feedstock type on composition and yield of biogas was observed. • Simple mathematical model of methanogenic fermentation was proposed. • Exhaust emissions from dual fuel (biogas and diesel oil) engine were investigated. • Using biogas in engine reduces particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emissions. - Abstract: This work is divided into three parts. The first one presents results of biological methane potential of agriculture raw materials available in Poland. In the second part the simple mathematical model of methanogenic fermentation is proposed. The data for this model were obtained from experimental digestion process of chosen mixtures. Last part includes the results of research of exhaust emissions generated by dual dual-fuel engine of agricultural tractor powered by mixture of model biogas (60% and 70% of methane) and diesel oil. The obtained results revealed that there was a significant difference in chemical composition and yield of biogas between considered feedstock types. The highest biogas and methane production was obtained for mixtures in ratio of 6:4 for swine manure/maize silage and whey/grass silage. Due to agriculture conditions in Poland and obtain results, the maize silage and swine manure were chosen to development of mathematical model of fermentation process. It showed a satisfactory match to the experimental results. Results of emission tests on dual-fuel tractor engine supplied with biogas and diesel oil showed the higher concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon oxide and lower concentrations of particulate matter in exhaust gases. Level of emission of particular components depends on the biogas composition.

  1. Differential solubilities of CO[2] and methane and the potential for coupling in TFA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.

    2003-01-01

    We wish to add to the recent insightful comments of Wilcox et al. [1] regarding the thermodynamics of light alkane carboxylation. This process is particularly of industrial interest when it comes to methane which is vented at oil production sites where there are significant quantities of

  2. Evaluation of coal bed methane potential of coal seams of Sawang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This analysis shows that the maximum methane gas adsorbed in the coal sample CG-81 is 17 m3/t (Std. daf), at maximum pressure of 5.92 MPa ... vast coal reserves are ideal reservoirs for the gen- eration and accumulation of CBM. ... of gases in coal seams, such as, compression as free gas in the pore spaces, condensed ...

  3. Applying a Systems Approach to Monitoring and Assessing Climate Change Mitigation Potential in Mexico's Forest Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin-Alvarez, M. I.; Wayson, C.; Fellows, M.; Birdsey, R.; Smyth, C.; Magnan, M.; Dugan, A.; Mascorro, V.; Alanís, A.; Serrano, E.; Kurz, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2012, the Mexican government through its National Forestry Commission, with support from the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the Forest Services of Canada and USA, the SilvaCarbon Program and research institutes in Mexico, has made important progress towards the use of carbon dynamics models ("gain-loss" approach) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions monitoring and projections into the future. Here we assess the biophysical mitigation potential of policy alternatives identified by the Mexican Government (e.g. net zero deforestation rate, sustainable forest management) based on a systems approach that models carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems, harvested wood products and substitution benefits in two contrasting states of Mexico. We provide key messages and results derived from the use of the Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector and a harvested wood products model, parameterized with input data from Mexicós National Forest Monitoring System (e.g. forest inventories, remote sensing, disturbance data). The ultimate goal of this tri-national effort is to develop data and tools for carbon assessment in strategic landscapes in North America, emphasizing the need to include multiple sectors and types of collaborators (scientific and policy-maker communities) to design more comprehensive portfolios for climate change mitigation in accordance with the Paris Agreement of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (e.g. Mid-Century Strategy, NDC goals).

  4. [Preliminary assessment of the potential of biochar technology in mitigating the greenhouse effect in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Xiang; Zheng, Hao; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-06-01

    The production of biochar by pyrolysis and its application to soil can sequester the CO2 which was absorbed by plants from atmosphere into soil, in addition it can also bring multiple benefits for agriculture production. On the basis of the available potential survey of the biomass residues from agriculture and forestry section, life cycle assessment was employed to quantify the potential of biochar technology in mitigation of greenhouse gases in our country. The results showed: In China, the amount of available biomass resource was 6.04 x 10(8) t every year and its net greenhouse effect potential was 5.32 x 10(8) t CO(2e) (CO(2e): CO2 equivalent), which was equivalent to 0.88 t CO(2e) for every ton biomass. The greatest of contributor to the total potential was plant carbon sequestration in soil as the form of biochar which accounts for 73.94%, followed by production of renewable energy and its percentage was 23.85%. In summary, production of biochar from agriculture and forestry biomass residues had a significant potential for our country to struggle with the pressure of greenhouse gas emission.

  5. Simple Fabrication Process for 2D ZnO Nanowalls and Their Potential Application as a Methane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Shuo Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D ZnO nanowalls were prepared on a glass substrate by a low-temperature thermal evaporation method, in which the fabrication process did not use a metal catalyst or the pre-deposition of a ZnO seed layer on the substrate. The nanowalls were characterized for their surface morphology, and the structural and optical properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL. The fabricated ZnO nanowalls have many advantages, such as low growth temperature and good crystal quality, while being fast, low cost, and easy to fabricate. Methane sensor measurements of the ZnO nanowalls show a high sensitivity to methane gas, and rapid response and recovery times. These unique characteristics are attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the ZnO nanowalls. Thus, the ZnO nanowall methane sensor is a potential gas sensor candidate owing to its good performance.

  6. Ensiling of fish industry waste for biogas production: a lab scale evaluation of biochemical methane potential (BMP) and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Kim, Sang Hun; Sung, Kyung Ill

    2013-01-01

    Fish waste (FW) obtained from a fish processor was ensiled for biogas production. The FW silages were prepared by mixing FW with bread waste (BW) and brewery grain waste (BGW), and the quality of the prepared silages were evaluated. The biogas potentials of BW, BGW, three different types of FW, and FW silages were measured. A first-order kinetic model and the modified Gompertz model were also used to predict methane yield. The biogas and methane yield for FW silages after 96 days was calculated to be 671-763 mL/g VS and 441-482 mL/g VS, respectively. There were smaller differences between measured and predicted methane yield for FW silages when using a modified Gompertz model (1.1-4.3%) than when using a first-order kinetic model (22.5-32.4%). The critical HRTs and technical digestion times (T(80-90)) for the FW silages were calculated to be 21.0-23.8 days and 40.5-52.8 days, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon potential measurement on the Mo-MoC0.47 system by methane - hydrogen equilibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthasivan, K.; Kaliappan, I.; Chandramouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Mathews, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium plutonium mixed carbides are potential candidate fuel materials for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. The carbon potential of the fuel is an important thermochemical property which strongly influences the carbon transport between the clad and the fuel. The carbon potential of the fuel is altered during irradiation of the fuel in the reactor. This is due to the formation of various fission products and their binary and ternary carbides. Molybdenum is a fission product with a high yield which can alter the carbon potential of the fuel. The present work forms part of our studies on the carbon potential measurements in the U - Mo - C ternary system. The carbon potential of the Mo-Mo 2 C couple measured by the methane hydrogen gas equilibration technique is presented here and the results are compared with the values cited in the literature. (author)

  8. Mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio-frequency sheath potentials on edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio frequency (RF) sheath potentials on the peeling-ballooning modes is studied non-linearly by employing a two-fluid three-field simulation model based on the BOUT++ framework. Additional shear flow and the Kelvin-Helmholtz effect due to the thermal and rectified RF sheath potential are induced. It is found that the shear flow increases the growth rate while the K-H effect decreases the growth rate slightly when there is a density gradient, but the energy loss of these cases is suppressed in the nonlinear phase. The stronger external electrostatic field due to the sheaths has a more significant effect on the energy loss suppression. From this study, it is found the growth rate in the linear phase mainly determines the onset of edge-localized modes, while the mode spectrum width in the nonlinear phase has an important impact on the turbulent transport. The wider mode spectrum leads to weaker turbulent transport and results in a smaller energy loss. Due to the thermal sheath and rectified RF sheath potential in the scrape-off-layer, the modified shear flow tears apart the peeling-ballooning filament and makes the mode spectrum wider, resulting in less energy loss. The perturbed electric potential and the parallel current near the sheath region is also suppressed locally due to the sheath boundary condition.

  9. The Environmental Mitigation Potential of Photovoltaic-Powered Irrigation in the Production of South African Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Wettstein

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is under pressure to reduce its environmental impact. The use of renewable energy sources has potential to decrease these impacts. Maize is one of the most significant crops in South Africa and approximately 241,000 hectares are irrigated. This irrigation is most commonly powered by grid electricity generated using coal. However, South Africa has high solar irradiation, which could be used to generate photovoltaic electricity. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental mitigation potential of replacing grid-powered irrigation in South African maize production with photovoltaic irrigation systems using Life Cycle Assessment. The study included the value chain of maize production from cultivation to storage. Replacing grid electricity with photovoltaic-generated electricity leads to a 34% reduction in the global warming potential of maize produced under irrigation, and—applied at a national level—could potentially reduce South Africa’s greenhouse gas emissions by 536,000 t CO2-eq. per year. Non-renewable energy demand, freshwater eutrophication, acidification, and particulate matter emissions are also significantly lowered. Replacing grid electricity with renewable energy in irrigation has been shown to be an effective means of reducing the environmental impacts associated with South African maize production.

  10. Potential of native forests for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Salta, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, Silvina; Franco, Judith; Nunez, Virgilio; Seghezzo, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Carbon stocks were assessed in three archetypal forest ecosystems in the province of Salta, Argentina, namely Yungas, Chaco, and shrublands located around Chaco. Over a total area of about 7000 m 2 , detailed measurements of woody biomass were conducted using structural information such as diameter at breast height (dbh), total height, and stem height. At the same time, the wet weight of herbaceous, shrubs, and litter was registered within that area. Soil samples were also collected to determine parameters such as bulk density and organic carbon. The above-ground tree biomass (AGB) was quantified by two non-destructive methods. This biomass was expressed from each reservoir studied in t.ha -1 and the carbon content was then calculated using a factor of 0.5. Carbon stocks in the ecosystems studied were 162, 92, and 48 tC.ha -1 for Yungas, Chaco, and shrublands, respectively. Our results show that carbon is concentrated in the soil or as AGB. The latter is the most important reservoir in Yungas, while the soil plays this role in the other two, drier environments. In the province of Salta, native forests play a significant role in the mitigation of greenhouse gases. Our results reveal the magnitude of carbon stocks in some characteristic regional native forests, and estimate their carbon sequestration potential. These results could be useful to inform policy makers in charge of negotiations related to conservation and sustainable management of native forests, and be a relevant input for the formulation of more comprehensive land use planning processes in the region. -- Highlights: → We assessed carbon stocks in forest ecosystems in the province of Salta, Argentina. → The studied areas are located within ecosystems called Yungas, Chaco and shrublands. → Main carbon reservoirs in all ecosystems were found in above-ground tree biomass and soil. → Carbon stocks could be restored, maintained or increased with forest management. → We conclude that the studied

  11. Human-elephant conflict in western Thailand: Socio-economic drivers and potential mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding human-wildlife conflict is an important first step in the conservation of highly endangered species that can have adverse effects on human communities, such as elephants. To gain insights into variables that shape attitudes toward elephant conservation in Asia, we surveyed 410 households and 46 plantation owners in seven villages around the Salakpra Wildlife Sanctuary in western Thailand, an area of high human-elephant conflict. We sought to evaluate how past experiences with elephants (positive or negative), as well as socio-economic variables (age, income level, gender, and employment type) affect attitudes toward elephant conservation and coexistence in this area. In addition, we quantified deterrence methods currently used and identify potential mitigation strategies supported by community members. In general, less supportive attitudes toward elephant conservation and coexistence were held by individuals older than 35 years of age, those who had previously had experienced negative interactions with elephants, those with lower incomes, and those working in the agricultural sector. Conversely, those who had received benefits from living near elephants (e.g., supplemental income or feelings of pride from hosting volunteers or participating in conservation work) had more supportive views of elephant coexistence. Plantation owners reported using a variety of deterrence methods with varying success, with firecrackers being the most commonly utilized method. Community members identified several potentially beneficial mitigation strategies including forest restorations and patrol teams, adding water sources to wild elephant habitat, and education of local school and community groups. Overall, our results highlight the value of community members receiving benefits from living near elephants and suggest that special incentives may be needed for demographic groups disproportionately affected by elephants (e.g. those at lower income levels, those working in

  12. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Submarine methane hydrates - Potential fuel resource of the 21st century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.

    of these countries to initiate harvesting methane hydrates as soon as scientists and technologists come forward with dependable, safe and cost effective mechanisms to explore and exploit this resource. Technological factors : Lack of suitable production technology... reduction in deep-water development costs. All these are positive factors for hydrate exploration and development. Much of the engineering required to exploit these deposits can be achieved by suitably adopting proven technology currently used...

  14. Effect of the properties of Silurian shales from the Barrandian Basin on their methane sorption potential

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana; René, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 203, SEP 1 (2017), s. 68-81 ISSN 0016-2361 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : methane sorption capacity * Silurian shales * Barrandian Basin * thermal maturity * TOC * clays * porous structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 4.601, year: 2016

  15. Production of H2 from aluminium/water reaction and its potential for CO2 methanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai Phung, Khor; Sethupathi, Sumathi; Siang Piao, Chai

    2018-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a natural gas that presents in excess in the atmosphere. Owing to its ability to cause global warming, capturing and conversion of CO2 have attracted much attention worldwide. CO2 methanation using hydrogen (H2) is believed to be a promising route for CO2 removal. In the present work, H2 is produced using aluminum-water reaction and tested for its ability to convert CO2 to methane (CH4). Different type of water i.e. tap water, distilled water, deionized water and ultrapure water, concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) (0.2 M to 1.0 M) and particle size of aluminum (45 m to 500 μm) were varied as parameter study. It was found that the highest yield of H2 was obtained using distilled water, 1.0 M of NaOH and 45μm particle size of aluminium. However, the highest yield of methane was achieved using a moderate and progressive H2 production (distilled water, 0.6 M of NaOH and 45 μm particle size of aluminium) which allowed sufficient time for H2 to react with CO2. It was concluded that 1130 ml of H2 can produce about 560 ppm of CH4 within 25 min of batch reaction using nickel catalyst.

  16. CO2 emissions mitigation potential of solar home systems under clean development mechanism in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav

    2009-01-01

    The Government of India has taken several initiatives for promotion of solar energy systems in the country during the last two decades. A variety of policy measures have been adopted which include provision of financial and fiscal incentives to the potential users of solar energy systems however, only 0.4 million solar home systems (SHSs) have been installed so far that is far below their respective potential. One of the major barriers is the high costs of investments in these systems. The clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol provides industrialized (Annex-I) countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing (non-Annex-I) countries to achieve a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. SHSs could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development, if developed correctly. In this study an attempt has been made to estimate the CO 2 mitigation potential of SHSs under CDM in India.

  17. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  18. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  19. Potential for Climate Change Mitigation in Degraded Forests: A Study from La Primavera, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Forests contribute to climate change mitigation by removing atmospheric carbon dioxide and storing it in biomass and other carbon pools. Additionally, since appropriate forest management can reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, it is important to estimate the magnitude of these services to include them into climate policy. We used a forest inventory stratified by canopy cover in the oak-pine forest of La Primavera Biosphere Reserve in México (30,500 ha, to assess the potential provision of forest carbon services. Inventory results were used in combination with a Landsat image to estimate carbon stocks in arboreal biomass. Potential carbon removals were calculated from published allometric equations and models estimating tree growth rates, for enhancements in forested areas and for reforestation/afforestation. Carbon stocks estimated in arboreal biomass at the time of the inventory were 4.16 MtCO2eq (3.42–4.89. The potential for further carbon sequestration and enhancement could take the level of stocks up to 9.77 MtCO2eq (7.66–11.89, 95% confidence interval; previous fires have degraded carbon stocks below their natural potential. The results present a gradient of carbon stocks for different degradation levels and are consistent with national and international estimates and previous local research. The baseline for the estimation of reduced emissions is critical for assessing the overall contribution of forests to mitigate climate change. The local baseline of emissions might be around 1% according to historical data; however, when enhancements and reduced emissions are valuated together, a baseline of 3.7% is required to prevent the creation of perverse incentives favouring previously degraded areas; considering these figures for reduced emissions, the yearly carbon services provided by La Primavera, including enhancements, sequestration and reduced emissions, could be between 169.4 ktCO2eq/year (134.8–204.5 and

  20. Options and potentials to mitigate N2O emissions from wheat and maize fields in China: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Li, X.

    2017-12-01

    Upland croplands are the main source of N2O emission. Mitigation of N2O emissions from upland croplands will greatly contribute to an overall reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the mitigation options and potential of N2O emissions from wheat and maize fields in China. Results showed that application of inhibitors in wheat and maize fields reduced36‒46% of the N2O emissions with an increase in crop yield. Cutting the application rates of nitrogen fertilizers by no more than 30% could reduce N2O emissions by 10‒18%without crop yield loss. Applications of slow (controlled-) release fertilizer fertilizers and incorporations of crop residues can significantly mitigate N2O emission from wheat fields, but this mitigation is not statistically significant in maize fields. The gross N2O emission could be reduced by 9.3‒13.9Gg N2O-N per wheat season and 10.5‒23.2 Gg N2O-N per maize season when different mitigation options are put into practices. The mitigation potential (MP) in wheat cultivation is particularly notable for Henan, Shandong, Hebei and Anhui Province, contributing 53% to the total MP in wheat fields. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Shandong, Hebei and Henan Province showed high MP in maize cultivation, accounting for approximately 50% of the total MP in maize fields.

  1. Composition variability of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and effects on hydrogen and methane production potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-02-01

    The composition of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) strongly depends on the place and time of collection for a specific municipality or area. Moreover synthetic food waste or organic waste from cafeterias and restaurants may not be representative of the overall OFMSW received at treatment facilities for source-separated waste. This work is aimed at evaluating the composition variability of OFMSW, the potential productions of hydrogen and methane from specific organic waste fractions typically present in MSW and the effects of waste composition on overall hydrogen and methane yields. The organic waste fractions considered in the study were: bread-pasta, vegetables, fruits, meat-fish-cheese and undersieve 20mm. Composition analyses were conducted on samples of OFMSW that were source segregated at household level. Batch tests for hydrogen and methane productions were carried out under mesophilic conditions on selected fractions and OFMSW samples. Results indicated that the highest production of hydrogen was achieved by the bread-pasta fraction while the lowest productions were measured for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The results indicated that the content of these two fractions in organic waste had a direct influence on the hydrogen production potentials of OFMSW. The higher the content of bread-pasta fraction, the higher the hydrogen yields were while the contrary was observed for the meat-fish-cheese fraction. The definition of waste composition therefore represents fundamental information to be reported in scientific literature to allow data comparison. The variability of OFMSW and its effects on hydrogen potentials might also represents a problematic issue in the management of pilot or full-scale plants for the production of hydrogen by dark fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the energetic potential of methanization sources in Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    This publication reports a study of assessment of the potential production of methanization sources in the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region. Different organic materials have been considered: agri-industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, and wastes from local communities. In order to perform the assessment, various technical, financial, social and environmental parameters and criteria have been taken into account. After a synthetic presentation of results, and a description of the adopted methodology, the document reports the detailed assessments for the three addressed sources with distinctions of the different origins for each of them

  3. Soils as a Solution: The Potential of Rangelands to Contribute to Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; DeLonge, M. S.; Owen, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of soil-related climate change research has focused on describing the problem - estimating rates of carbon (C) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from natural and managed ecosystems. More research is needed to explore potential solutions to climate change through mitigation and adaptation. Here we report on an integrated set of studies aimed at critically evaluating the biogeochemical potential of rangeland soils to help mitigate climate change, while improving the sustainability and productivity of food production systems. We explored direct effects through enhanced net primary production (NPP) and soil C sequestration, and indirect effects through diversion of high emitting sources to lower emitting organic matter dynamics. We used a combination of long- and short-term field experiments, modeling, laboratory assays, life cycle assessment (LCA), and meta-analyses in consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from both the private and public sectors. We found that organic matter amendments held particularly strong potential. Compost amendments increased soil C storage by 0.5-1.0 Mg C ha-1 y-1 in surface soils over 5 y, and increased NPP and water holding capacity. We measured 1.0 Mg of new C ha-1 y-1 over 3 y. Long-term amendment of cattle manure increased surface soil C by 19.0±7.3 Mg C ha-1 relative to unmanured fields. However, field and modeling experiments suggested that manure amendments lead to large nitrous oxide emissions that eventually eliminated CO2e benefits, whereas compost amendments continued to benefit climate for decades longer. An LCA identified a broader range of climate impacts. When scaled to an area of 25% of California's rangelands, new C sequestered following compost amendments (21 million Mg CO2e) exceeded emissions from cattle (15 million Mg CO2e); diverting organics from waste streams to amendments led to additional GHG savings. In collaboration with our partners, our research contributed to the development of

  4. Methane emissions from the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.; Cowgill, R.M.; Campbell, L.M.; Lott, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. EPA and the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have suggested that global warming could be reduced if more energy was generated using natural gas rather than fuels such as coal. An increased use of natural gas instead of coal would decrease global warming since methane emits less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than any fossil fuel. However, methane is a more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 , and leakage from the gas system could reduce or eliminate the inherent advantage of natural gas. For this reason, methane emissions must be quantified before a national policy on preferred fuels is developed. Therefore, GRI and EPA have developed this confunded program to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry. This paper presents, for general industry review, the approach and methodology that the project is using to determine the emissions. The study will measure or calculate all gas industry methane emissions - from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. When these data are combined with data from other studies, a definitive comparison of the relative environmental impact of using methane versus other fuels will be possible. The study will also provide data that can be used by the industry to identify cost-effective mitigation techniques to reduce losses. The methane emissions project is being conducted in three phases: the first two phases have identified and ranked all known potential methane-emitting sources and established methods for measuring, calculating, and extrapolating emissions from those sources. The third phase, which is currently in progress, will gather sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal. This paper briefly summarizes the methodology being used for the completion of the third phase

  5. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  6. Ontario Hydro experience in the identification and mitigation of potential failures in safety critical software systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huget, R.G.; Viola, M.; Froebel, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has had experience in designing and qualifying safety critical software used in the reactor shutdown systems of its nuclear generating stations. During software design, an analysis of system level hazards and potential hardware failure effects provide input to determining what safeguards will be needed. One form of safeguard, called software self checks, continually monitor the health of the computer on line. The design of self checks usually is a trade off between the amount of computing resources required, the software complexity, and the level of safeguarding provided. As part of the software verification activity, a software hazards analysis is performed, which identifiers any failure modes that could lead to the software causing an unsafe state, and which recommends changes to mitigate that potential. These recommendations may involve a re-structuring of the software to be more resistant to failure, or the introduction of other safeguarding measures. This paper discusses how Ontario Hydro has implemented these aspects of software design and verification into safety critical software used in reactor shutdown systems

  7. The potential role for management of U.S. public lands in greenhouse gas mitigation and climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia P; Cooley, David M; Galik, Christopher S

    2012-03-01

    Management of forests, rangelands, and wetlands on public lands, including the restoration of degraded lands, has the potential to increase carbon sequestration or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions beyond what is occurring today. In this paper we discuss several policy options for increasing GHG mitigation on public lands. These range from an extension of current policy by generating supplemental mitigation on public lands in an effort to meet national emissions reduction goals, to full participation in an offsets market by allowing GHG mitigation on public lands to be sold as offsets either by the overseeing agency or by private contractors. To help place these policy options in context, we briefly review the literature on GHG mitigation and public lands to examine the potential for enhanced mitigation on federal and state public lands in the United States. This potential will be tempered by consideration of the tradeoffs with other uses of public lands, the needs for climate change adaptation, and the effects on other ecosystem services.

  8. Methane mitigation with corn oil and calcium sulfate, responses on whole animal energy and nitrogen balance in dairy cattle consuming reduced-fat distillers grains plus solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of fat and calcium sulfate to diets fed to ruminants has been shown to reduce methane production, but these factors have not shown effects on energy balance. A study using 16 multiparous (8 Holstein and 8 Jersey) (78 ± 15 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating dairy cows was conducted to determine how ...

  9. Role of European Grasslands in the mitigation of climate change - potential constraints and research challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van den A.; Smith, Pete; Merbold, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that projected levels of meat demand are unsustainable, so we will need to eat less meat in the future, as well as tackling waste in the food system. Since ruminants produce large quantities of methane through enteric fermentation, it has been suggested that ruminants

  10. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation from changes to crop root mass and architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustian, Keith [Booz Allen Hamiltion Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Campbell, Nell [Booz Allen Hamiltion Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Dorich, Chris [Booz Allen Hamiltion Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Marx, Ernest [Booz Allen Hamiltion Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Swan, Amy [Booz Allen Hamiltion Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Reducing (and eventually reversing) the increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere due to human activities, and thus reducing the extent and severity of anthropogenic climate change, is one of the great challenges facing humanity. While most of the man-caused increase in GHGs has been due to fossil fuel use, land use (including agriculture) currently accounts for about 25% of total GHG emissions and thus there is a need to include emission reductions from the land use sector as part of an effective climate change mitigation strategy. In addition, analyses included in the recent IPCC 5th Climate Change Assessment report suggests that it may not be possible to achieve large enough emissions reductions in the energy, transport and industrial sectors alone to stabilize GHG concentrations at a level commensurate with a less than 2°C global average temperature increase, without the help of a substantial CO2 sink (i.e., atmospheric CO2 removal) from the land use sector. One of the potential carbon sinks that could contribute to this goal is increasing C storage in soil organic matter on managed lands. This report details a preliminary scoping analysis, to assess the potential agricultural area in the US – where appropriate soil, climate and land use conditions exist – to determine the land area on which ‘improved root phenotype’ crops could be deployed and to evaluate the potential long-term soil C storage, given a set of ‘bounding scenarios’ of increased crop root input and/or rooting depth for major crop species (e.g., row crops (corn, sorghum, soybeans), small grains (wheat, barley, oats), and hay and pasture perennial forages). The enhanced root phenotype scenarios assumed 25, 50 and 100% increase in total root C inputs, in combination with five levels of modifying crop root distributions (i.e., no change and four scenarios with increasing downward shift in root distributions). We also analyzed impacts of greater root

  11. Gas hydrates: entrance to a methane age or climate threat?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krey, Volker; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Grubler, Arnulf; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Canadell, Josep G; Abe, Yuichi; Andruleit, Harald; Archer, David; Hamilton, Neil T M; Johnson, Arthur; Kostov, Veselin; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Langhorne, Nicholas; Nisbet, Euan G; Riedel, Michael; Wang Weihua; Yakushev, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Methane hydrates, ice-like compounds in which methane is held in crystalline cages formed by water molecules, are widespread in areas of permafrost such as the Arctic and in sediments on the continental margins. They are a potentially vast fossil fuel energy source but, at the same time, could be destabilized by changing pressure-temperature conditions due to climate change, potentially leading to strong positive carbon-climate feedbacks. To enhance our understanding of both the vulnerability of and the opportunity provided by methane hydrates, it is necessary (i) to conduct basic research that improves the highly uncertain estimates of hydrate occurrences and their response to changing environmental conditions, and (ii) to integrate the agendas of energy security and climate change which can provide an opportunity for methane hydrates-in particular if combined with carbon capture and storage-to be used as a 'bridge fuel' between carbon-intensive fossil energies and zero-emission energies. Taken one step further, exploitation of dissociating methane hydrates could even mitigate against escape of methane to the atmosphere. Despite these opportunities, so far, methane hydrates have been largely absent from energy and climate discussions, including global hydrocarbon assessments and the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  12. Forest policy implications of climate change: Economic impacts and potential mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, D.G.; Belli, K.L.; Watson, W.F.; Regens, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Increasing mean global temperatures due to rising levels of carbon dioxide and other ''greenhouse'' gases in the atmosphere could affect the distribution of commercially important forests in North America significantly. The temperature increases might outpace the ability of forests to adapt, causing considerable stress and mortality to trees in the southern part of their range without a commensurate increase in growth across the expanding range. If realized, these potential biological impacts on forest distribution and health would affect management decisions substantially and could adversely impact forest-based economies in the United States. Specific effects on forest management include changes in the methods and costs of fire, insect, and disease protection; greater demands on forest lands for conversion to food production; and uncertain changes in site quality. One means of mitigating the effects of CO 2 emissions is to establish tree plantations for carbon sequestration. Preliminary analyses suggest that a program aimed at marginal cropland in the South could store more than 563 million tons of carbon over 45 years, although 90 million tons would be lost due to risks associated with plantations

  13. Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaohui; Liu, Yi; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P J; Chen, Jining

    2015-01-01

    To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  15. South Africa's national REDD+ initiative: assessing the potential of the forestry sector on climate change mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahlao, Sebataolo; Mantlana, Brian; Winkler, Harald; Knowles, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is regarded by its proponents as one of the more efficient and cost effective ways to mitigate climate change. There was further progress toward the implementation of this mechanism at the 16th Conference of Parties (COP) in Cancun in December 2010. Many countries in southern African, including South Africa, have not been integrated (do not participate) into the UN-REDD+ programme, probably due to their low forest cover and national rates of deforestation. This paper discusses the potential contribution of REDD+ activities to the South African Government's pledge of reducing national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 34% below business as usual by 2020. A number of issues such as complex land tenure system, limited forest cover and other conflicting environmental issues present challenges for REDD+ in South Africa. Despite these genuine concerns, REDD+ remains a practical strategy to contribute to climate change mitigation for South Africa. The paper raises the need for development of a variety of emission reduction programmes – not only in the energy sector. The paper also assesses several national options and opportunities towards a working REDD+ mechanism. It concludes by identifying key mechanisms for moving forward to prepare for REDD+ actions in South Africa and raises the urgent need for national dialogue between stakeholders and institutions to evaluate the feasibility of making use of the mechanism in South Africa and the Southern African Development Cooperation (SADC) region. The paper further addresses possible synergies and conflicts between the national climate change and forestry policies towards REDD+ development. It suggests that REDD+ should be part of the national dialogue on policy to respond to climate change and should be integrated into the national flagship programmes that the national climate change white paper seeks to implement. A multiple

  16. Beyond Failure: Potentially Mitigating Failed Author Searches in the Online Library Catalog through the Use of Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulaison, Heather Lea; Stanley, Susan Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Linked data stores house vetted content that can supplement the information available through online library catalogs, potentially mitigating failed author searches if information about the author exists in linked data formats. In this case study, a total of 689 failed author index queries from a large Midwestern academic library's online library…

  17. Potential for phosphate mitigation from agricultural runoff by three aquatic macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate from agricultural runoff is considered a contributor to eutrophication. Three aquatic macrophyte species, Leersia oryzoides, Typha latifolia, and Sparganium americanum, were investigated for their phosphate mitigation ability. Mesocosms were exposed to flowing phosphate enriched water (1...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation and marine transportation : mitigation potential and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions : from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050reduct...

  19. The potential contribution of disruptive low-carbon innovations to 1.5 °C climate mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, C.; Pettifor, H.; Cassar, E.; Kerr, L.; Wilson, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for consumer-facing innovations to contribute emission reductions for limiting warming to 1.5 °C. First, we show that global integrated assessment models which characterise transformation pathways consistent with 1.5 °C mitigation are limited in their ability to analyse the emergence of novelty in energy end-use. Second, we introduce concepts of disruptive innovation which can be usefully applied to the challenge of 1.5 °C mitigation. Disruptive low-carbo...

  20. Estimating the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal Ground Source Heat Pumps in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, R.; Verhoef, A.; Vidale, P. L.; Gan, G.; Chong, A.; Clark, D.

    2012-04-01

    By 2020, the UK will need to generate 15% of its energy from renewables to meet our contribution to the EU renewable energy target. Heating and cooling systems of buildings account for 30%-50% of the global energy consumption; thus, alternative low-carbon technologies such as horizontal Ground Couple Heat Pumps (GCHPs) can contribute to the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Horizontal GCHPs currently represent a small fraction of the total energy generation in the UK. However, the fact that semi-detached and detached dwellings represent approximately 40% of the total housing stocks in the UK could make the widespread implementation of this technology particularly attractive in the UK and so could significantly increase its renewable energy generation potential. Using a simulation model, we analysed the dynamic interactions between the environment, the horizontal GCHP heat exchanger and typical UK dwellings, as well as their combined effect on heat pump performance and CO2 mitigation potential. For this purpose, a land surface model (JULES, Joint UK Land Environment Simulator), which calculates coupled soil heat and water fluxes, was combined with a heat extraction model. The analyses took into account the spatio-temporal variability of soil properties (thermal and hydraulic) and meteorological variables, as well as different horizontal GCHP configurations and a variety of building loads and heat demands. Sensitivity tests were performed for four sites in the UK with different climate and soil properties. Our results show that an installation depth of 1.0m would give us higher heat extractions rates, however it would be preferable to install the pipes slightly deeper to avoid the seasonal influence of variable meteorological conditions. A value of 1.5m for the spacing between coils (S) for a slinky configuration type is recommended to avoid thermal disturbances between neighbouring coils. We also found that for larger values of the spacing between the coils

  1. An assessment of potential hydrologic and ecologic impacts of constructing mitigation wetlands, Rifle, Colorado, UMTRA project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This-assessment examines the consequences and risks that could result from the proposed construction of mitigation wetlands at the New and Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites near Rifle, Colorado. Remediation of surface contamination at those sites is now under way. Preexisting wetlands at or near the Old and New Rifle sites have been cleaned up, resulting in the loss of 0.7 and 10.5 wetland acres (ac) (0.28 and 4.2 hectares [ha]) respectively. Another 9.9 ac (4.0 ha) of wetlands are in the area of windblown contamination west of the New Rifle site. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has jurisdiction over the remediated wetlands. Before remedial action began, and before any wetlands were eliminated, the USACE issued a Section 404 Permit that included a mitigation plan for the wetlands to be lost. The mitigation plan calls for 34.2 ac (1 3.8 ha) of wetlands to be constructed at the south end and to the west of the New Rifle site. The mitigation wetlands would be constructed over and in the contaminated alluvial aquifer at the New Rifle site. As a result of the hydrologic characteristics of this aquifer, contaminated ground water would be expected to enter the environment through the proposed wetlands. A preliminary assessment was therefore required to assess any potential ecological risks associated with constructing the mitigation wetlands at the proposed location

  2. The effects of post-treatments and temperature on recovering the methane potential of > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaparaju, Prasad Laxmi-Narasimha; Rintala, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of thermal and chemical treatments, mechanical maceration and freezing and thawing on recovering the remaining methane potential of the > 2 mm solid fraction of digested cow manure - which accounted for 30% of the original potential of digested cow manure - were studied in laboratory...

  3. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  4. Atmospheric methane removal by methane-oxidizing bacteria immobilized on porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganendra, G; De Muynck, W; Ho, A.; Hoefman, S.; De Vos, P.; Boeckx, P.; Boon, N.

    2014-01-01

    Biological treatment using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) immobilized on six porous carrier materials have been used to mitigate methane emission. Experiments were performed with different MOB inoculated in building materials at high (similar to 20 % (v/v)) and low (similar to 100 ppmv) methane

  5. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  6. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated...... and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties......) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition...

  7. Ab initio calculation of the interaction potentials of helium, neon, and methane as well as theoretical studies on their thermophysical properties and those of water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of the pure gases helium, neon, methane and water vapor were calculated for low densities over wide temperature ranges. Statistical thermodynamics was used for the determination of the pressure virial coefficients. The kinetic theory of gases was utilized for the calculation of the transport and relaxation properties. So far kinetic theory was limited to linear molecules and has now been extended to molecules of arbitrary geometry to enable calculations on methane and water vapor. The interaction potentials, which are needed for all computations, were determined for helium, neon and methane from the supermolecular approach using quantum chemical ab initio methods. For water the interaction potentials were taken from the literature. The calculated values of the thermophysical properties for the four gases show very good agreement with the best experimental data. At very low and very high temperatures the theoretical values are more accurate than experimental data. (orig.)

  8. Potential of Immobilized Whole-Cell Methylocella tundrae as a Biocatalyst for Methanol Production from Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardina, Primata; Li, Jinglin; Patel, Sanjay K S; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul; Selvaraj, Chandrabose

    2016-07-28

    Methanol is a versatile compound that can be biologically synthesized from methane (CH4) by methanotrophs using a low energy-consuming and environment-friendly process. Methylocella tundrae is a type II methanotroph that can utilize CH4 as a carbon and energy source. Methanol is produced in the first step of the metabolic pathway of methanotrophs and is further oxidized into formaldehyde. Several parameters must be optimized to achieve high methanol production. In this study, we optimized the production conditions and process parameters for methanol production. The optimum incubation time, substrate, pH, agitation rate, temperature, phosphate buffer and sodium formate concentration, and cell concentration were determined to be 24 h, 50% CH4, pH 7, 150 rpm, 30°C, 100 mM and 50 mM, and 18 mg/ml, respectively. The optimization of these parameters significantly improved methanol production from 0.66 to 5.18 mM. The use of alginate-encapsulated cells resulted in enhanced methanol production stability and reusability of cells after five cycles of reuse under batch culture conditions.

  9. Retrieval of Methane Source Strengths in Europe Using a Simple Modeling Approach to Assess the Potential of Spaceborne Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C.; Kiemle, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Aalto, T.; Necki, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Arduini, J.; Apadula, F.; Berkhout, H.; Hatakka, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of future spaceborne lidar measurements to changes in surface methane emissions. We use surface methane observations from nine European ground stations and a Lagrangian transport model to infer surface methane emissions for 2010. Our inversion shows the strongest emissions from the Netherlands, the coal mines in Upper Silesia, Poland, and wetlands in southern Finland. The simulated methane surface concentrations capture at least half of the daily variability in the observations, suggesting that the transport model is correctly simulating the regional transport pathways over Europe. With this tool we can test whether proposed methane lidar instruments will be sensitive to changes in surface emissions. We show that future lidar instruments should be able to detect a 50% reduction in methane emissions from the Netherlands and Germany, at least during summer.

  10. Genomic selection for methane emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Yvette; Pryce, Jennie E; Wall, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a growing area of international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. Of the various GHG produced by ruminants, enteric methane (CH4 ) is the most important contributor. One mitigation strategy is to reduce methane...... emission through genetic selection. Our first attempt used beef cattle and a GWAS to identify genes associated with several CH4 traits in Angus beef cattle. The Angus population consisted of 1020 animals with phenotypes on methane production (MeP), dry matter intake (DMI), and weight (WT). Additionally......, two new methane traits: residual genetic methane (RGM) and residual phenotypic methane (RPM) were calculated by adjusting CH4 for DMI and WT. Animals were genotyped using the 800k Illumina Bovine HD Array. Estimated heritabilities were 0.30, 0.19 and 0.15 for MeP, RGM and RPM respectively...

  11. Climate Change Mitigation Potential of Wood Use in Civil Engineering in Japan Based on Life-Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Kayo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its life-cycle, wood contributes to climate change mitigation through carbon storage and material and energy substitution. Focusing on wood use for piles, check dams, paved walkways, guardrails, and noise barriers, we quantified the nationwide potential for climate change mitigation in civil engineering in Japan through 2050. To assess mitigation potential, we examined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG emissions that are avoided by storing carbon in wood and forests, substituting wooden materials for non-wooden materials (cement, concrete, steel, and asphalt, and substituting processing residue and waste wood salvaged from defunct civil engineering structures for fossil fuels (heavy oil. Our projections suggest that there will be a maximum potential domestic log volume of 6.80 million m3/year available for civil engineering use in Japan in 2050, and that it would be possible to produce this volume while increasing Japan’s forest resources over the long term. A maximum nationwide avoided GHG emissions potential of 9.63 million t-CO2eq/year could be achieved in 2050, which is equivalent to 0.7% of Japan’s current GHG emissions. The breakdown of avoided emissions is 73%, 19%, and 8% for carbon storage, material substitution, and energy substitution, respectively, with the greatest contributions coming from carbon storage through the use of log piles.

  12. The potential role of nuclear energy in mitigating CO2 emissions in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlFarra, Hasan Jamil; Abu-Hijleh, Bassam

    2012-01-01

    The annual CO 2 emissions have more than doubled in the UAE since 1990. Electricity generated by fossil fuels is responsible for almost half of the country's emissions. Keeping with the Kyoto Protocol, the UAE decided to integrate nuclear energy into the electricity scheme to mitigate CO 2 emissions as declared by the government. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the UAE's proposed nuclear energy strategy in mitigating CO 2 emissions from the built environment up to year 2050. The IAEA's simulation model “MESSAGE” is used to estimate the energy demand and CO 2 emissions in the UAE up to year 2050. Several energy supply/fuels scenarios are modeled and simulated including the following: Business as Usual (BaU), the UAE proposed nuclear strategy (APR1400) as well as 12 more aggressive Clean Energy Era (CEE) proposed scenarios. Nuclear energy, especially in its extreme CEE scenario (8NPPs), was found to be more practical option in mitigating CO 2 than renewable energy and carbon capture and sequestration among the simulated scenarios. Nuclear energy also demonstrated an economic viability. The cost of electricity produced from nuclear energy was calculated to be 3.2 cents/kWh, significantly less than the current cost of 8.15 cents/kWh for electricity generation from fossil fuels in the UAE. - Highlights: ► Effectiveness of the UAE's proposed nuclear energy strategy in mitigating CO 2 emissions. ► Simulation is used to estimate the energy demand and CO 2 emissions in the UAE. ► Tested several energy supply/fuels scenarios on mitigating CO 2 .

  13. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  14. Enhanced CO2 uptake at a shallow Arctic Ocean seep field overwhelms the positive warming potential of emitted methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, John W; Greinert, Jens; Ruppel, Carolyn; Silyakova, Anna; Vielstädte, Lisa; Casso, Michael; Mienert, Jürgen; Bünz, Stefan

    2017-05-23

    Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 10 6 tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. On the shallow shelves (shallow ebullitive methane seep field on the Svalbard margin reveal atmospheric CO 2 uptake rates (-33,300 ± 7,900 μmol m -2 ⋅d -1 ) twice that of surrounding waters and ∼1,900 times greater than the diffusive sea-air methane efflux (17.3 ± 4.8 μmol m -2 ⋅d -1 ). The negative radiative forcing expected from this CO 2 uptake is up to 231 times greater than the positive radiative forcing from the methane emissions. Surface water characteristics (e.g., high dissolved oxygen, high pH, and enrichment of 13 C in CO 2 ) indicate that upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water from near the seafloor accompanies methane emissions and stimulates CO 2 consumption by photosynthesizing phytoplankton. These findings challenge the widely held perception that areas characterized by shallow-water methane seeps and/or strongly elevated sea-air methane flux always increase the global atmospheric greenhouse gas burden.

  15. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work

  16. Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Lundmark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  17. Greenhouse gas energy scenarios for Mexico in year 2020, and mitigation potential of renewable technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, Claudia; Robles, Guillermo; Rodriguez V, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Massera, Omar [UNAM, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the structure of the Mexican Energy-Emission Scenario Model (MEESM). In explains the importance of developing a bottom-up model for GHG mitigation assessment in Mexico. Also, the paper presents results of CO{sub 2} mitigation scenarios for year 2020 for five renewable energy technologies: solar water heaters, geothermal, biomass, mini/micro hydro and wind power generation. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of simulation accounting bottom-up models as tools for GHG mitigation policies. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta la estructura del Modelo de Escenario de Emision de Energia Mexicano (MEESM). En el se explica la importancia de desarrollar un modelo organizacional de abajo hacia arriba para la evaluacion de la mitigacion del efecto invernadero en Mexico. El articulo presenta tambien los resultados de los escenarios de mitigacion de CO{sub 2} para el ano 2020 utilizando cinco tecnologias de energia renovable: calentadores solares de agua, geotermia, biomasa, y mini/micro generacion de energia por agua y viento. El articulo concluye con el analisis de la importancia de la simulacion tomando en cuenta modelos organizacionales de abajo hacia arriba como herramientas para las politicas de mitigacion del efecto invernadero.

  18. Mitigation potential of soil carbon management overestimated by neglecting N2O emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Leip, Adrian; Jones, Arwyn

    2018-03-01

    International initiatives such as the `4 per 1000' are promoting enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in agricultural soils as a way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions1. However, changes in soil organic C turnover feed back into the nitrogen (N) cycle2, meaning that variation in soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions may offset or enhance C sequestration actions3. Here we use a biogeochemistry model on approximately 8,000 soil sampling locations in the European Union4 to quantify the net CO2 equivalent (CO2e) fluxes associated with representative C-mitigating agricultural practices. Practices based on integrated crop residue retention and lower soil disturbance are found to not increase N2O emissions as long as C accumulation continues (until around 2040), thereafter leading to a moderate C sequestration offset mostly below 47% by 2100. The introduction of N-fixing cover crops allowed higher C accumulation over the initial 20 years, but this gain was progressively offset by higher N2O emissions over time. By 2060, around half of the sites became a net source of greenhouse gases. We conclude that significant CO2 mitigation can be achieved in the initial 20-30 years of any C management scheme, but after that N inputs should be controlled through appropriate management.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission and mitigation potential of changes in water management for two rice sites in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Khadiza; Kuhnert, Matthias; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Smith, Pete; Ogle, Stephen; Parton, William; Kader, Abdul; Sleutel, Steven

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is one of the main contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Bangladesh and rice production is one of the largest sources of GHG emissions. This study considers measurements from two test sites, situated in Mymensingh (Bangladesh), to calibrate and validate the biogeochemical model DailyDayCent and estimate the mitigation potential of alternative management practices at the sites. There are two different N application treatments on the two test sites, which are on the first site a control with no N application and a mineral fertilizer application (120 kg N ha-1) and on the second site only a mineral fertilizer application (110 kg N ha-1). For mitigation, the water management is modified in a modelling approach to estimate the mitigation potential for reducing GHG emissions. The model shows partial agreement with the observations. The modifications to the water management, by changing from permanent wetting to alternate wetting, shows a decrease in GHG emissions of up to 46 % and 37 % for the two test sites, respectively. These tests enable an optimization of the management options to reduce the GHG emissions while maintaining yields.

  20. Evaluation of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure with food wastes via bio-methane potential assay and CSTR reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yulin; Zamalloa, Carlos; Lin, Hongjian; Yan, Mi; Schmidt, David; Hu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of food wastes into anaerobic digestion (AD) brings a promising scenario of increasing feedstock availability and overall energy production from AD. This study evaluated the biodegradability and methane potential from co-digestion of two typical food wastes, kitchen waste and chicken fat, with dairy manure. For single substrate, the bio-methane potential assays showed that kitchen waste had the highest methane yield of 352 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS added, 92% more than dairy manure alone. Chicken fat at the same Volatile Solid (VS) level (2 g L(-1)) inhibited bio-methane production. Addition of kitchen waste and chicken fat to a VS percentage of up to 40% improved overall methane yield by 44% and 34%, respectively. Synergistic effect was observed when either combining two or three substrates as AD feedstock, possibly as a result of increased biodegradability of organic materials in chicken fat and kitchen waste compared with dairy manure. Addition of chicken fat improved methane yield more than kitchen waste. However, addition of chicken fat VS over 0.8 g L(-1) should be cautiously done because it may cause reactor failure due to decrease in pH. The maximum methane yield was 425 L-CH4 kg(-1)-VS, achieved at a VS ratio of 2:2:1 for kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure. Results from batch AD experiment demonstrated that supplementing dairy manure to chicken fat and/or kitchen waste improved alkalinity of substrate due to the inclusion of more titratable bases in dairy manure, and therefore stabilized the methanogenesis and substantially improved biogas yield. A mixture of substrates of kitchen waste, chicken fat, and dairy manure at a ratio of 1:1:3 was fed to a continuously stirred tank reactor operated at organic loading rates of 3.28, 6.55, and 2.18 g-COD L(-1)-day (hydraulic retention time of 20, 10, and 30 days, respectively) under mesophilic condition, and methane production rate reached 0.65, 0.95, and 0.34 L-CH4 L(-1)-reactor-day.

  1. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines

  2. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  3. Potential and economic efficiency of using reduced tillage to mitigate climate effects in Danish agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Sisse Liv; Nainggolan, Doan

    2016-01-01

    , research also suggests that soil carbon stocks are declining. The scope of Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES) approaches to effectively and efficiently address climate regulation will depend on the spatial distribution of the carbon assimilation capacity, current land use, the value of avoided emissions...... and compare these to the marginal abatement costs curve used in Danish climate policy. The cost effectiveness of reduced tillage as a climate mitigation PES scheme critically depends on the current debate on the net effects of carbon sequestration in reduced tillage practices. Based on existing IPCC...

  4. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of short-rotation-coppice based generation of electricity in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.; Meyer-Aurich, A.; Kern, J.; Balasus, A.; Prochnow, A. [Leibniz Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The generation of energy from wood biomass may help secure local energy supplies and reduce the greenhouse effect by substituting fossil resources with bio-based ones. In the case of short rotation coppice (SRC), bio-based resources can be generated by extensive agricultural production systems. They produce less carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2eq}) emissions than fossil resources. This paper reported on a study in which a model system was developed for a regional supply chain producing second generation bioenergy generated from SRC in eastern Germany. The study focuses on the generation of electricity and was compared to a business-as-usual reference system, based on the latest CO{sub 2} mitigation factors for renewable energies in the German power-generation mix. A life cycle assessment based on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories was also conducted in which other factors were also considered, such as options for nutrient cycling. The key determinants for GHG mitigation with SRC were also discussed with regards to indirect land-use effects resulting from increased demand for land.

  6. CO2 Mitigation Potential of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles larger than expected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötz, P; Funke, S A; Jochem, P; Wietschel, M

    2017-11-28

    The actual contribution of plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles (PHEV and BEV) to greenhouse gas mitigation depends on their real-world usage. Often BEV are seen as superior as they drive only electrically and do not have any direct emissions during driving. However, empirical evidence on which vehicle electrifies more mileage with a given battery capacity is lacking. Here, we present the first systematic overview of empirical findings on actual PHEV and BEV usage for the US and Germany. Contrary to common belief, PHEV with about 60 km of real-world range currently electrify as many annual vehicles kilometres as BEV with a much smaller battery. Accordingly, PHEV recharged from renewable electricity can highly contribute to green house gas mitigation in car transport. Including the higher CO 2eq emissions during the production phase of BEV compared to PHEV, PHEV show today higher CO 2eq savings then BEVs compared to conventional vehicles. However, for significant CO 2eq improvements of PHEV and particularly of BEVs the decarbonisation of the electricity system should go on.

  7. Urban ecosystem modeling and global change: Potential for rational urban management and emissions mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Fath, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a strong and extensive driver that causes environmental pollution and climate change from local to global scale. Modeling cities as ecosystems has been initiated by a wide range of scientists as a key to addressing challenging problems concomitant with urbanization. In this paper, ‘urban ecosystem modeling (UEM)’ is defined in an inter-disciplinary context to acquire a broad perception of urban ecological properties and their interactions with global change. Furthermore, state-of-the-art models of urban ecosystems are reviewed, categorized as top-down models (including materials/energy-oriented models and structure-oriented models), bottom-up models (including land use-oriented models and infrastructure-oriented models), or hybrid models thereof. Based on the review of UEM studies, a future framework for explicit UEM is proposed based the integration of UEM approaches of different scales, guiding more rational urban management and efficient emissions mitigation. - Highlights: • Urban ecosystems modeling (UEM) is defined in an interdisciplinary context. • State-of-the-art models for UEM are critically reviewed and compared. • An integrated framework for explicit UEM is proposed under global change. - State-of-the-art models of urban ecosystem modeling (UEM) are reviewed for rational urban management and emissions mitigation

  8. The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, Daniel; Purbopuspito, Joko; Kauffman, J. Boone; Warren, Matthew W.; Sasmito, Sigit D.; Donato, Daniel C.; Manuri, Solichin; Krisnawati, Haruni; Taberima, Sartji; Kurnianto, Sofyan

    2015-12-01

    Mangroves provide a wide range of ecosystem services, including nutrient cycling, soil formation, wood production, fish spawning grounds, ecotourism and carbon (C) storage. High rates of tree and plant growth, coupled with anaerobic, water-logged soils that slow decomposition, result in large long-term C storage. Given their global significance as large sinks of C, preventing mangrove loss would be an effective climate change adaptation and mitigation strategy. It has been reported that C stocks in the Indo-Pacific region contain on average 1,023 MgC ha-1 (ref. ). Here, we estimate that Indonesian mangrove C stocks are 1,083 +/- 378 MgC ha-1. Scaled up to the country-level mangrove extent of 2.9 Mha (ref. ), Indonesia’s mangroves contained on average 3.14 PgC. In three decades Indonesia has lost 40% of its mangroves, mainly as a result of aquaculture development. This has resulted in annual emissions of 0.07-0.21 Pg CO2e. Annual mangrove deforestation in Indonesia is only 6% of its total forest loss; however, if this were halted, total emissions would be reduced by an amount equal to 10-31% of estimated annual emissions from land-use sectors at present. Conservation of carbon-rich mangroves in the Indonesian archipelago should be a high-priority component of strategies to mitigate climate change.

  9. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  10. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of biomass energy technologies in Vietnam using the long range energy alternative planning system model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Amit; Bhattacharya, S.C.; Pham, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios were considered, namely the base case with no mitigation options, replacement of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by biogas stove, substitution of gasoline by ethanol in transport sector, replacement of coal by wood as fuel in industrial boilers, electricity generation with biomass energy technologies and an integrated scenario including all the options together. Substitution of coal stoves by biogas stove has positive abatement cost, as the cost of wood in Vietnam is higher than coal. Replacement of kerosene and LPG cookstoves by biomass stove also has a positive abatement cost. Replacement of gasoline by ethanol can be realized after a few years, as at present the cost of ethanol is more than the cost of gasoline. The replacement of coal by biomass in industrial boiler is also not an attractive option as wood is more expensive than coal in Vietnam. The substitution of fossil fuel fired plants by packages of BETs has a negative abatement cost. This option, if implemented, would result in mitigation of 10.83 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 in 2010

  11. Methane Production of Full-Scale Anaerobic Digestion Plants Calculated from Substrate’s Biomethane Potentials Compares Well with the One Measured On-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holliger, Christof; Fruteau de Laclos, Hélène; Hack, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    Biomethane potential (BMP) tests are used to determine the amount of methane that can be produced from organic materials in order to design different components of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants such as size of the digesters and units exploiting the produced biogas. However, little is known on how well BMPs compare with biogas production from the same organic materials in full-scale installations. In this study, two AD plants were chosen to carry out such comparisons, a dry AD plant treating green waste from urban areas and food waste from restaurants and supermarkets, and a liquid AD plant treating waste sludge from wastewater treatment and seven additional organic wastes. The BMPs of multiple samples of the individual organic materials collected during a period of 7–9 months were determined. Separate tests of mixtures of organic materials confirmed that the BMP of the mixtures can be calculated by adding the BMPs of the individual materials. The weekly methane production during the investigated periods was calculated from the full-scale installation data on the feeding of the digesters and the BMPs of each substrate fed into the digesters and compared with the weekly methane production measured on-site. The latter was calculated from the most accurately measured entity, either the electricity or the volume of purified biomethane injected into the grid. The weekly methane production rates calculated from BMPs and the one measured on-site were very similar and followed the same pattern. Some exceptions could be explained by, e.g., an overload of the full-scale installation. The measured weekly methane production accounted for 94.0 ± 6.8 and 89.3 ± 5.7% of the calculated weekly methane production for the wet and dry AD plant, respectively. For 26 out of 29 weeks, the calculated weekly methane production overestimated the measured one in the case of the wet AD plant and for 37 out of 39 weeks for the dry AD plant. Based on these results, it is

  12. Methane Production of Full-Scale Anaerobic Digestion Plants Calculated from Substrate’s Biomethane Potentials Compares Well with the One Measured On-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliger, Christof, E-mail: christof.holliger@epfl.ch [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, School for Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Fruteau de Laclos, Hélène [Methaconsult, Préverenges (Switzerland); Hack, Gabrielle [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, School for Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-06-09

    Biomethane potential (BMP) tests are used to determine the amount of methane that can be produced from organic materials in order to design different components of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) plants such as size of the digesters and units exploiting the produced biogas. However, little is known on how well BMPs compare with biogas production from the same organic materials in full-scale installations. In this study, two AD plants were chosen to carry out such comparisons, a dry AD plant treating green waste from urban areas and food waste from restaurants and supermarkets, and a liquid AD plant treating waste sludge from wastewater treatment and seven additional organic wastes. The BMPs of multiple samples of the individual organic materials collected during a period of 7–9 months were determined. Separate tests of mixtures of organic materials confirmed that the BMP of the mixtures can be calculated by adding the BMPs of the individual materials. The weekly methane production during the investigated periods was calculated from the full-scale installation data on the feeding of the digesters and the BMPs of each substrate fed into the digesters and compared with the weekly methane production measured on-site. The latter was calculated from the most accurately measured entity, either the electricity or the volume of purified biomethane injected into the grid. The weekly methane production rates calculated from BMPs and the one measured on-site were very similar and followed the same pattern. Some exceptions could be explained by, e.g., an overload of the full-scale installation. The measured weekly methane production accounted for 94.0 ± 6.8 and 89.3 ± 5.7% of the calculated weekly methane production for the wet and dry AD plant, respectively. For 26 out of 29 weeks, the calculated weekly methane production overestimated the measured one in the case of the wet AD plant and for 37 out of 39 weeks for the dry AD plant. Based on these results, it is

  13. Vista-LA: Mapping methane-emitting infrastructure in the Los Angeles megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Valerie; Rafiq, Talha; Frausto-Vicencio, Isis; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Rao, Preeti; Duren, Riley M.; Miller, Charles E.

    2018-03-01

    Methane (CH4) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) and a critical target of climate mitigation efforts. However, actionable emission reduction efforts are complicated by large uncertainties in the methane budget on relevant scales. Here, we present Vista, a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based approach to map potential methane emissions sources in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) that encompasses Los Angeles, an area with a dense, complex mixture of methane sources. The goal of this work is to provide a database that, together with atmospheric observations, improves methane emissions estimates in urban areas with complex infrastructure. We aggregated methane source location information into three sectors (energy, agriculture, and waste) following the frameworks used by the State of California GHG Inventory and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for GHG Reporting. Geospatial modeling was applied to publicly available datasets to precisely geolocate facilities and infrastructure comprising major anthropogenic methane source sectors. The final database, Vista-Los Angeles (Vista-LA), is presented as maps of infrastructure known or expected to emit CH4. Vista-LA contains over 33 000 features concentrated on Vista-LA is used as a planning and analysis tool for atmospheric measurement surveys of methane sources, particularly for airborne remote sensing, and methane hotspot detection using regional observations. This study represents a first step towards developing an accurate, spatially resolved methane flux estimate for point sources in SoCAB, with the potential to address discrepancies between bottom-up and top-down methane emissions accounting in this region. The Vista-LA datasets and associated metadata are available from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center for Biogeochemical Dynamics (ORNL DAAC; https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/1525).

  14. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  15. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R M [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  16. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  17. Rapid estimation of the biochemical methane potential of plant biomasses using Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Triolo, Jin M; Peltre, Clément; Pedersen, Lene; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) is a very important characteristic of a given feedstock for optimisation of its use in biogas production. However, the long digestion time needed to determine BMP is the main limitation for the use of this assay during the operation of anaerobic digesters to produce biogas. Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was used to predict the BMP of 87 plant biomasses. The developed calibration model was able to explain 81% of the variance in the measured BMP of a selected test set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 40NLCH4kg(-1) of volatile solids (VS) and a ratio of performance to deviation (RPD) of 2.38. The interpretation of the regression coefficients used in the calibration revealed a positive correlation of BMP with easily degradable compounds (amorphous cellulose, hemicellulose and aliphatic compounds) and a negative correlation with inhibitors of cellulose hydrolysis (lignin, hemicellulose). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Case study on prediction of remaining methane potential of landfilled municipal solid waste by statistical analysis of waste composition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, İlker; Çakmakcı, Mehmet; Özkaya, Bestamin; Suphi Altan, H

    2016-10-01

    Main objective of this study was to develop a statistical model for easier and faster Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) prediction of landfilled municipal solid waste by analyzing waste composition of excavated samples from 12 sampling points and three waste depths representing different landfilling ages of closed and active sections of a sanitary landfill site located in İstanbul, Turkey. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used as a decision support tool to evaluation and describe the waste composition variables. Four principal component were extracted describing 76% of data set variance. The most effective components were determined as PCB, PO, T, D, W, FM, moisture and BMP for the data set. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models were built by original compositional data and transformed data to determine differences. It was observed that even residual plots were better for transformed data the R(2) and Adjusted R(2) values were not improved significantly. The best preliminary BMP prediction models consisted of D, W, T and FM waste fractions for both versions of regressions. Adjusted R(2) values of the raw and transformed models were determined as 0.69 and 0.57, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Volatile N-nitrosamines in meat products: Potential precursors, influence of processing, and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mey, Eveline; De Maere, Hannelore; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2017-09-02

    Meat products can be contaminated with carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, which is ascribed to the reaction between a nitrosating agent, originating from nitrite or smoke, and a secondary amine, derived from protein and lipid degradation. Although in model systems it is demonstrated that many amine containing compounds can be converted to N-nitrosamines, the yield is dependent of reaction conditions (e.g., low pH and high temperature). In this article, the influence of the composition of the meat products (e.g., pH, a w , spices) and processing (e.g., ageing, ripening, fermentation, smoking, heat treatment and storage) on the presence and availability of the amine precursors and the N-nitrosamine formation mechanism is discussed. In addition, this article explores the current N-nitrosamine mitigation strategies in order to obtain healthier and more natural meat products.

  20. Assessing transformational change potential: the case of the Tunisian cement Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boodoo, Zyaad; Olsen, Karen Holm

    2018-01-01

    and documentation gathered during field work in Tunisia 2014–2015. The study finds that the NAMA design is not likely to lead to transformational change of the cement sector, since underlying factors accounting for lock-in are not properly tackled. Although the NAMA has enabled new and promising sectoral......To effectively address the root causes of carbon lock-in across developing countries, Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) with transformational change characteristics are being supported by donors and finance mechanisms as a means to achieve ambitious nationally determined...... contributions (NDCs). However, there is still a scarcity of empirical studies on how transformational change policies and actions are designed and supported in practice. This article addresses such a gap in knowledge by combining theoretical insights from the multi-level perspective and transitions management...

  1. Extensive management of field margins enhances their potential for off-site soil erosion mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamada E; Reineking, Björn

    2016-03-15

    Soil erosion is a widespread problem in agricultural landscapes, particularly in regions with strong rainfall events. Vegetated field margins can mitigate negative impacts of soil erosion off-site by trapping eroded material. Here we analyse how local management affects the trapping capacity of field margins in a monsoon region of South Korea, contrasting intensively and extensively managed field margins on both steep and shallow slopes. Prior to the beginning of monsoon season, we equipped a total of 12 sites representing three replicates for each of four different types of field margins ("intensive managed flat", "intensive managed steep", "extensive managed flat" and "extensive managed steep") with Astroturf mats. The mats (n = 15/site) were placed before, within and after the field margin. Sediment was collected after each rain event until the end of the monsoon season. The effect of management and slope on sediment trapping was analysed using linear mixed effects models, using as response variable either the sediment collected within the field margin or the difference in sediment collected after and before the field margin. There was no difference in the amount of sediment reaching the different field margin types. In contrast, extensively managed field margins showed a large reduction in collected sediment before and after the field margins. This effect was pronounced in steep field margins, and increased with the size of rainfall events. We conclude that a field margin management promoting a dense vegetation cover is a key to mitigating negative off-site effects of soil erosion in monsoon regions, particularly in field margins with steep slopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Disease dynamics and potential mitigation among restored and wild staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Kathryn E.; Cameron, Caitlin M.; Williams, Dana E.; Peters, Esther C.

    2014-01-01

    The threatened status (both ecologically and legally) of Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, has prompted rapidly expanding efforts in culture and restocking, although tissue loss diseases continue to affect populations. In this study, disease surveillance and histopathological characterization were used to compare disease dynamics and conditions in both restored and extant wild populations. Disease had devastating effects on both wild and restored populations, but dynamics were highly variable and appeared to be site-specific with no significant differences in disease prevalence between wild versus restored sites. A subset of 20 haphazardly selected colonies at each site observed over a four-month period revealed widely varying disease incidence, although not between restored and wild sites, and a case fatality rate of 8%. A tropical storm was the only discernable environmental trigger associated with a consistent spike in incidence across all sites. Lastly, two field mitigation techniques, (1) excision of apparently healthy branch tips from a diseased colony, and (2) placement of a band of epoxy fully enclosing the diseased margin, gave equivocal results with no significant benefit detected for either treatment compared to controls. Tissue condition of associated samples was fair to very poor; unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples had severe degeneration of mesenterial filament cnidoglandular bands. Polyp mucocytes in all samples were infected with suspect rickettsia-like organisms; however, no bacterial aggregates were found. No histological differences were found between disease lesions with gross signs fitting literature descriptions of white-band disease (WBD) and rapid tissue loss (RTL). Overall, our results do not support differing disease quality, quantity, dynamics, nor health management strategies between restored and wild colonies of A. cervicornis in the Florida Keys. PMID:25210660

  3. Japan's long-term energy outlook to 2050: Estimation for the potential of massive CO2 mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-09-15

    This paper analyzes Japan's energy outlook and CO2 emissions to 2050. Scenario analysis reveals that Japan's CO2 emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 58% from the emissions in 2005. For achieving this massive mitigation, it is required to reduce primary energy supply per GDP by 60% in 2050 from the 2005 level and to expand the share of non-fossil fuel in total supply to 50% by 2050. Concerning power generation mix, nuclear will account for 60%, renewable for 30% in 2050. For massive CO2 abatement, Japan should tackle technological and economic challenges for large-scale deployment of advanced technologies.

  4. International Methane Partnership Fighting Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Due to the growth of international attention on the problem of climate change combined with the attractiveness of methane mitigation technologies, the capture and use of methane in agriculture, coal mines, landfills, and the oil and gas sector has increasingly become popular over the past few years. Highlighting this, several countries hosted the international 'Methane to Market' Partnership Conference and Exposition in October 2007 in Beijing, China.

  5. Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchman, David L. [Univ. of Delaware, Lewes, DE (United States)

    2012-03-29

    The net flux of methane from methane hydrates and other sources to the atmosphere depends on methane degradation as well as methane production and release from geological sources. The goal of this project was to examine methane-degrading archaea and organic carbon oxidizing bacteria in methane-rich and methane-poor sediments of the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. The Beaufort Sea system was sampled as part of a multi-disciplinary expedition (Methane in the Arctic Shelf or MIDAS) in September 2009. Microbial communities were examined by quantitative PCR analyses of 16S rRNA genes and key methane degradation genes (pmoA and mcrA involved in aerobic and anaerobic methane degradation, respectively), tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to determine the taxonomic make up of microbes in these sediments, and sequencing of all microbial genes (metagenomes ). The taxonomic and functional make-up of the microbial communities varied with methane concentrations, with some data suggesting higher abundances of potential methane-oxidizing archaea in methane-rich sediments. Sequence analysis of PCR amplicons revealed that most of the mcrA genes were from the ANME-2 group of methane oxidizers. According to metagenomic data, genes involved in methane degradation and other degradation pathways changed with sediment depth along with sulfate and methane concentrations. Most importantly, sulfate reduction genes decreased with depth while the anaerobic methane degradation gene (mcrA) increased along with methane concentrations. The number of potential methane degradation genes (mcrA) was low and inconsistent with other data indicating the large impact of methane on these sediments. The data can be reconciled if a small number of potential methane-oxidizing archaea mediates a large flux of carbon in these sediments. Our study is the first to report metagenomic data from sediments dominated by ANME-2 archaea and is one of the few to examine the entire microbial assemblage potentially involved in

  6. Fossil energy savings and GHG mitigation potentials of ethanol as a gasoline substitute in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    One of the Thai government's measures to promote ethanol use is excise tax exemption, making gasohol cheaper than gasoline. The policy in favour of biofuels is being supported by their contribution to fossil energy savings and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. An analysis of energy balance (EnB), GHG balance and GHG abatement cost has been done to evaluate molasses-based ethanol (MoE) in Thailand. A positive EnB of 19.2 MJ/L implies that MoE is a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy savings. GHG balance assessment based on the baseline scenario shows that emissions are most likely to increase with the substitution. Scenarios using biogas captured from spent wash treatment and rice husk to substitute coal used in ethanol conversion give encouraging results in improving the GHG balance. However, the higher price of MoE over gasoline currently has resulted in high GHG abatement costs, even under the best-case scenario. Compared to the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand, MoE is much less cost effective. Governed by the rule of supply and demand, a strong fluctuation in molasses price is considered the main cause of volatile MoE price. Once supplies are stable, the trend of price drops would make MoE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  7. Forecasting the effects of land use scenarios on farmland birds reveal a potential mitigation of climate change impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Princé

    Full Text Available Climate and land use changes are key drivers of current biodiversity trends, but interactions between these drivers are poorly modeled, even though they could amplify or mitigate negative impacts of climate change. Here, we attempt to predict the impacts of different agricultural change scenarios on common breeding birds within farmland included in the potential future climatic suitable areas for these species. We used the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES to integrate likely changes in species climatic suitability, based on species distribution models, and changes in area of farmland, based on the IMAGE model, inside future climatic suitable areas. We also developed six farmland cover scenarios, based on expert opinion, which cover a wide spectrum of potential changes in livestock farming and cropping patterns by 2050. We ran generalized linear mixed models to calibrate the effects of farmland cover and climate change on bird specific abundance within 386 small agricultural regions. We used model outputs to predict potential changes in bird populations on the basis of predicted changes in regional farmland cover, in area of farmland and in species climatic suitability. We then examined the species sensitivity according to their habitat requirements. A scenario based on extensification of agricultural systems (i.e., low-intensity agriculture showed the greatest potential to reduce reverse current declines in breeding birds. To meet ecological requirements of a larger number of species, agricultural policies accounting for regional disparities and landscape structure appear more efficient than global policies uniformly implemented at national scale. Interestingly, we also found evidence that farmland cover changes can mitigate the negative effect of climate change. Here, we confirm that there is a potential for countering negative effects of climate change by adaptive management of landscape. We argue that such studies will help inform

  8. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  9. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere has been linked to global warming. Carbon dioxide's (CO2) one of the most abundant greenhouse gases. Natural gas, mainly methane, is the cleanest fossil fuel for electricity production helping meet the United States ever growing energy needs. The methanation of CO2 has the potential to address both of these problems if a catalyst can be developed that meets the activity, economic and environmental requirements to industrialize the process. ...

  10. Influence of rumen protozoa on methane emission in ruminants: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyader, J; Eugène, M; Nozière, P; Morgavi, D P; Doreau, M; Martin, C

    2014-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effects of protozoa concentration on methane emission from ruminants. A database was built from 59 publications reporting data from 76 in vivo experiments. The experiments included in the database recorded methane production and rumen protozoa concentration measured on the same groups of animals. Quantitative data such as diet chemical composition, rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, and qualitative information such as methane mitigation strategies were also collected. In the database, 31% of the experiments reported a concomitant reduction of both protozoa concentration and methane emission (g/kg dry matter intake). Nearly all of these experiments tested lipids as methane mitigation strategies. By contrast, 21% of the experiments reported a variation in methane emission without changes in protozoa numbers, indicating that methanogenesis is also regulated by other mechanisms not involving protozoa. Experiments that used chemical compounds as an antimethanogenic treatment belonged to this group. The relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration was studied with a variance-covariance model, with experiment as a fixed effect. The experiments included in the analysis had a within-experiment variation of protozoa concentration higher than 5.3 log10 cells/ml corresponding to the average s.e.m. of the database for this variable. To detect potential interfering factors for the relationship, the influence of several qualitative and quantitative secondary factors was tested. This meta-analysis showed a significant linear relationship between methane emission and protozoa concentration: methane (g/kg dry matter intake)=-30.7+8.14×protozoa (log10 cells/ml) with 28 experiments (91 treatments), residual mean square error=1.94 and adjusted R 2=0.90. The proportion of butyrate in the rumen positively influenced the least square means of this relationship.

  11. Evaluation and mitigation of potential errors in radiochromic film dosimetry due to film curvature at scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony L; Bradley, David A; Nisbet, Andrew

    2015-03-08

    This work considers a previously overlooked uncertainty present in film dosimetry which results from moderate curvature of films during the scanning process. Small film samples are particularly susceptible to film curling which may be undetected or deemed insignificant. In this study, we consider test cases with controlled induced curvature of film and with film raised horizontally above the scanner plate. We also evaluate the difference in scans of a film irradiated with a typical brachytherapy dose distribution with the film naturally curved and with the film held flat on the scanner. Typical naturally occurring curvature of film at scanning, giving rise to a maximum height 1 to 2 mm above the scan plane, may introduce dose errors of 1% to 4%, and considerably reduce gamma evaluation passing rates when comparing film-measured doses with treatment planning system-calculated dose distributions, a common application of film dosimetry in radiotherapy. The use of a triple-channel dosimetry algorithm appeared to mitigate the error due to film curvature compared to conventional single-channel film dosimetry. The change in pixel value and calibrated reported dose with film curling or height above the scanner plate may be due to variations in illumination characteristics, optical disturbances, or a Callier-type effect. There is a clear requirement for physically flat films at scanning to avoid the introduction of a substantial error source in film dosimetry. Particularly for small film samples, a compression glass plate above the film is recommended to ensure flat-film scanning. This effect has been overlooked to date in the literature.

  12. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating climate change mitigation potential of hydrochars: compounding insights from three different indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Brooks, Jennifer; Renz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    beet, fava bean, onion and lucerne) and two different countries (Spain and Germany), and used three different indicators of climate change: global warming potential (GWP), global temperature change potential (GTP), and climate tipping potential (CTP). We found that although climate change benefits (GWP......) from just sequestration and temporary storage of carbon are sufficient to outweigh impacts stemming from hydrochar production and transportation to the field, even greater benefits stem from replacing climate-inefficient biowaste management treatment options, like composting in Spain. By contrast...

  14. Assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of compacted soils intended for use as landfill cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachor, Ingke; Gebert, Julia; Groengroeft, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    The microbial oxidation of methane in engineered cover soils is considered a potent option for the mitigation of emissions from old landfills or sites containing wastes of low methane generation rates. A laboratory column study was conducted in order to derive design criteria that enable construction of an effective methane oxidising cover from the range of soils that are available to the landfill operator. Therefore, the methane oxidation capacity of different soils was assessed under simulated landfill conditions. Five sandy potential landfill top cover materials with varying contents of silt and clay were investigated with respect to methane oxidation and corresponding soil gas composition over a period of four months. The soils were compacted to 95% of their specific proctor density, resulting in bulk densities of 1.4-1.7 g cm -3 , reflecting considerably unfavourable conditions for methane oxidation due to reduced air-filled porosity. The soil water content was adjusted to field capacity, resulting in water contents ranging from 16.2 to 48.5 vol.%. The investigated inlet fluxes ranged from 25 to about 100 g CH 4 m -2 d -1 , covering the methane load proposed to allow for complete oxidation in landfill covers under Western European climate conditions and hence being suggested as a criterion for release from aftercare. The vertical distribution of gas concentrations, methane flux balances as well as stable carbon isotope studies allowed for clear process identifications. Higher inlet fluxes led to a reduction of the aerated zone, an increase in the absolute methane oxidation rate and a decline of the relative proportion of oxidized methane. For each material, a specific maximum oxidation rate was determined, which varied between 20 and 95 g CH 4 m -2 d -1 and which was positively correlated to the air-filled porosity of the soil. Methane oxidation efficiencies and gas profile data imply a strong link between oxidation capacity and diffusive ingress of

  15. Characterization of methane emissions from five cold heavy oil production with sands (CHOPS) facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Knighton, W Berk; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Johnson, Matthew R; Tyner, David R

    2018-03-07

    Cold heavy oil production with sands (CHOPS) is a common oil extraction method in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan that can result in significant methane emissions due to annular venting. Little is known about the magnitude of these emissions, nor their contributions to the regional methane budget. Here the authors present the results of field measurements of methane emissions from CHOPS wells and compare them with self-reported venting rates. The tracer ratio method was used not only to analyze total site emissions but at one site it was also used to locate primary emission sources and quantify their contributions to the facility-wide emission rate, revealing the annular vent to be a dominant source. Emissions measured from five different CHOPS sites in Alberta showed large discrepancies between the measured and reported rates, with emissions being mainly underreported. These methane emission rates are placed in the context of current reporting procedures and the role that gas-oil ratio (GOR) measurements play in vented volume estimates. In addition to methane, emissions of higher hydrocarbons were also measured; a chemical "fingerprint" associated with CHOPS wells in this region reveals very low emission ratios of ethane, propane, and aromatics versus methane. The results of this study may inform future studies of CHOPS sites and aid in developing policy to mitigate regional methane emissions. Methane measurements from cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) sites identify annular venting to be a potentially major source of emissions at these facilities. The measured emission rates are generally larger than reported by operators, with uncertainty in the gas-oil ratio (GOR) possibly playing a large role in this discrepancy. These results have potential policy implications for reducing methane emissions in Alberta in order to achieve the Canadian government's goal of reducing methane emissions by 40-45% below 2012 levels within 8 yr.

  16. Hydrology and hydraulics of Cypress Creek watershed, Texas during Hurricane Harvey and Impact of Potential Mitigation Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassan, A.; Fares, A.; Risch, E.

    2017-12-01

    Rain resulting from Hurricane Harvey stated to spread into Harris County late in August 25 and continued until August 31 2017. This high intensity rainfall caused catastrophic flooding across the Greater Houston Area and south Texas. The objectives of this study are to use the USACE Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis model (GSSHA) to: i) simulate the hydrology and hydraulics of Cypress Creek watershed and quantify the impact of hurricane Harvey on it; and ii) test potential mitigation measures, e.g., construction of a third surface reservoir on the flooding and hydrology of this watershed. Cypress Creek watershed area is 733 km2. Simulations were conducted using precipitation from two sources a) the Multisensory Precipitation Estimator radar products (MPE) and Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system. Streamflow was downloaded from the USGS gauge at the outlet of the watershed. The models performance using both precipitation data was very reasonable. The construction of an 8 m high embankment at the south central part of the watershed resulted in over 22% reduction of the peak flow of the stream and also reduction of the depth of inundation across the east part of the watershed. These and other mitigation scenarios will be further discussed in details during the presentation.

  17. Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, S.F.; Lawson, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident's unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident's knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns, and the best media to deliver radon education campaigns. A stratified random sampling method was applied for a total of 400 samples. The number of samples from each township/city was a proportion of their taxable parcels. The survey return rate was 39.8%. The data were analyzed by Epi Info and SPSS. The statistical significant level was set at α = 0.05. The results showed that resident's knowledge about radon was at a relatively superficial level. There was no association identified between the knowledge of radon and gender, age, family income, or education, except that females more frequently believed in false effects caused by radon. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests was observed. Also found in this study was that respondents with better knowledge about diseases caused by radon had more confidence in radon mitigation actions. Newspaper was chosen by respondents as the most favorite media to deliver radon health education campaigns. Health education campaigns for the residents of Boone County might be conducted by local governments and/or other organizations

  18. Coal rank, distribution and coalbed methane potential of the lower cretaceous luscar group, Bow River to Blackstone River, Central Alberta Foothills. Bulletin No. 473

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, F M

    1994-12-31

    Renewed interest in coal for alternative sources of energy such as coalbed methane have led to an expansion of exploration efforts into areas where the distribution and characterization of the coal resources is not well documented. This paper provides a geological compilation and assessment of the coal distribution and characterization of the Lower Cretaceous Luscar Group for the foothills area from the Bow River to Blackstone River in west-central Alberta. Included with the report are a series of geological maps and cross-sections that highlight the distribution of the coal-bearing strata and potential coalbed methane exploration targets. Field mapping of the area was carried out during the summers of 1988, 1989, and 1990.

  19. Monitoring and mitigating measures to reduce potential impacts of oil and gas exploration and development on bears in the Inuvik region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branigan, M. [Government of the Northwest Territories, Inuvik, NT (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources

    2007-07-01

    The Inuvik Region consists of the Northwest Territories portion of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and the Gwich'in Settlement Area. The range of grizzly bears, polar bears and black bears extends to different parts of the region. The potential impact of development depends on the season of the development and the species of bear found in the footprint. As such, monitoring and mitigation measures should take this into consideration. This presentation focused on the potential impacts and current practices to monitor and mitigate the impacts in the region. Mitigation measures currently used include: communication with stakeholders; waste management guidelines; use of wildlife monitors to identify key habitat and den sites and to deter bears; minimum flight altitudes; and safety training. Suggestions for additional mitigation measures were also presented. figs.

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and microalgae Chlorella sp.: Methane potential, microbial diversity and synergistic impact evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruirui; Duan, Na; Zhang, Yuanhui; Liu, Zhidan; Li, Baoming; Zhang, Dongming; Dong, Taili

    2017-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising alternative for livestock manure management. This paper presents the experimental results obtained through a batch experiment by using chicken manure (CM) and microalgae Chlorella sp. as co-substrates. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated by varying CM to Chlorella sp. ratios (0:10, 2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2, 10: 0 based on the volatile solids (VS)). The major objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and synergistic impact of co-digestion of CM and Chlorella sp. Enhanced 14.20% and 76.86% methane production than CM and Chlorella sp. mono-digestion respectively was achieved in co-digestion at the ratio 8:2. In addition, the co-digestion at the ratio 8:2 showed significantly higher methane yield than the weighted average of the individual substrates' specific methane yield (WSMY), indicating strong synergy effect. The Illumina Miseq sequencing analysis showed that the AD process suppressed the acetoclastic methanogenesis Methanosaeta content; but partly enhanced hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis Methanosarcina, Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium, which was responsible for the methane production. The pre-treated microalgae was then introduced at the optimal ratio 8:2 to estimate the effect of pre-treatment of microalgae on AD process. However, the pre-treatment exhibited no positive effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppressing methane emission and global warming potential from rice fields through intermittent drainage and green biomass amendment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, Md. M.; Biswas, J. C.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, P. J.

    Winter cover crops are recommended to improve soil quality and carbon sequestration, although their use as green manure can significantly increase methane (CH4) emission from paddy soils. Soil management practices can be used to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soils, but intermittent drainage is

  2. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, G.W.; Ho, A.; Kim, P.J.; Kim, Sang Yun

    2016-01-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to

  3. Development and implementation of a screening method to categorise the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of 91 landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    A cost-effective screening method for assessing methane emissions was developed and employed to categorise 91 older Danish landfills into three categories defined by the magnitude of their emissions. The overall aim was to assess whether these landfills were relevant or irrelevant with respect...... to variations in input parameters. Of the 91 landfills in the survey, 25 were found to be relevant for biocover construction when the methane emission threshold was set at 2 kg CH4 h−1....

  4. Climate change mitigation: potential benefits and pitfalls of enhanced rock weathering in tropical agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David P; Lim, Felix; James, Rachael H; Pearce, Christopher R; Scholes, Julie; Freckleton, Robert P; Beerling, David J

    2017-04-01

    Restricting future global temperature increase to 2°C or less requires the adoption of negative emissions technologies for carbon capture and storage. We review the potential for deployment of enhanced weathering (EW), via the application of crushed reactive silicate rocks (such as basalt), on over 680 million hectares of tropical agricultural and tree plantations to offset fossil fuel CO 2 emissions. Warm tropical climates and productive crops will substantially enhance weathering rates, with potential co-benefits including decreased soil acidification and increased phosphorus supply promoting higher crop yields sparing forest for conservation, and reduced cultural eutrophication. Potential pitfalls include the impacts of mining operations on deforestation, producing the energy to crush and transport silicates and the erosion of silicates into rivers and coral reefs that increases inorganic turbidity, sedimentation and pH, with unknown impacts for biodiversity. We identify nine priority research areas for untapping the potential of EW in the tropics, including effectiveness of tropical agriculture at EW for major crops in relation to particle sizes and soil types, impacts on human health, and effects on farmland, adjacent forest and stream-water biodiversity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Future production and utilisation of biomass in Sweden: potentials and CO2 mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, P.; Gustavsson, L.; Christersson, L.; Linder, S.

    1997-01-01

    Swedish biomass production potential could be increased significantly if new production methods, such as optimised fertilisation, were to be used. Optimised fertilisation on 25% of Swedish forest land and the use of stem wood could almost double the biomass potential from forestry compared with no fertilisation, as both logging residues and large quantities of excess stem wood not needed for industrial purposes could be used for energy purposes. Together with energy crops and straw from agriculture, the total Swedish biomass potential would be about 230 TWh/yr or half the current Swedish energy supply if the demand for stem wood for building and industrial purposes were the same as today. The new production methods are assumed not to cause any significant negative impact on the local environment. The cost of utilising stem wood produced with optimised fertilisation for energy purposes has not been analysed and needs further investigation. Besides replacing fossil fuels and, thus, reducing current Swedish CO 2 emissions by about 65%, this amount of biomass is enough to produce electricity equivalent to 20% of current power production. Biomass-based electricity is produced preferably through co-generation using district heating systems in densely populated regions, and pulp industries in forest regions. Alcohols for transportation and stand-alone power production are preferably produced in less densely populated regions with excess biomass. A high intensity in biomass production would reduce biomass transportation demands. There are uncertainties regarding the future demand for stem wood for building and industrial purposes, the amount of arable land available for energy crop production and future yields. These factors will influence Swedish biomass potential and earlier estimates of the potential vary from 15 to 125 TWh/yr. (author)

  6. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    conditions in the trenches with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), which would be able to remove the rest of the accompanying pollutants, is proposed and merits evaluation. Preliminary batch experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of different chemical oxidation reactions (permanganate, persulphate, hydrogen peroxide and Fenton) on the complex contaminated recharge water which were, in general, more effective for degrading the chlorinated ethenes than for the chlorinated methanes (Torrentó et al. EGU 2012). Therefore, this study seeks to improve the understanding of CF and CT degradation mechanisms/processes that are going on in the interception trenches as well as to select between the two most effective chemical oxidation remediation treatments (persulphate and permanganate) taking into account their efficiency respect the chlorinated methanes removal, the generated acute toxicity and the applicability of the carbon isotopic fractionation as an indicator of the effectiveness of the future in situ remediation. Additionally, ongoing batch experiments are expected to elucidate if CT is undergoing abiotic reductive dechlorination by Fe-bearing minerals such as hydrophobic green rust (Ayala-Luis et al., 2012) which transform CT into non-chlorinated substances such as formic acid and carbon monoxide. This unstable iron compound might be formed in the interception trenches during chloride induced corrosion of iron mineral phases present in the concrete-based construction wastes (Sagoe-Crentsil and Glasser, 1993). The role of other minerals like iron oxy-hydroxides, carbonates or sulphides cannot be discarded at all. The potential of δ13C values to assess the efficiency of this abiotic CT degradation reaction will be also evaluated. References Ayala-Luis, K.; Cooper, N.; Bender C. and Hansen. H. (2012) Efficient dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride by hydrophobic green rust intercaled with dodecanoate anions. Environmental Science & Technology 46, 3390

  7. THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Song Jin

    2006-05-01

    Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

  8. Technologies for the bioconversion of methane into more valuable products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantera, Sara; Muñoz, Raúl; Lebrero, Raquel; López, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez, Yadira; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Methane, with a global warming potential twenty five times higher than that of CO 2 is the second most important greenhouse gas emitted nowadays. Its bioconversion into microbial molecules with a high retail value in the industry offers a potential cost-efficient and environmentally friendly solution for mitigating anthropogenic diluted CH 4 -laden streams. Methane bio-refinery for the production of different compounds such as ectoine, feed proteins, biofuels, bioplastics and polysaccharides, apart from new bioproducts characteristic of methanotrophic bacteria, has been recently tested in discontinuous and continuous bioreactors with promising results. This review constitutes a critical discussion about the state-of-the-art of the potential and research niches of biotechnologies applied in a CH 4 biorefinery approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coal rank, distribution, and coalbed methane potential of the Lower Cretaceous Luscar Group, Bow River to Blackstone River, central Alberta foothills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, F M; Kalkreuth, W D

    1994-12-31

    Mapping data on Lower Cretaceous Luscar Group coals in the central Alberta foothills is presented. The coals outcrop in the Inner Foothills from the Bow River to the boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, north of Grande Cache. Both subsurface and surface mapping data is presented. The coal rank is highly variable and depends on sample location and depth, as established by vitrinite reflectance studies on trench samples and cuttings gathered from petroleum exploration wells. The conventional coal resource potential and the coalbed methane potential for the area are discussed with reference to the map sheets provided. 29 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs., 3 apps.

  10. How to mitigate impacts of wind farms on bats? A review of potential conservation measures in the European context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peste, Filipa; Paula, Anabela; Silva, Luís P. da; Bernardino, Joana; Pereira, Pedro; Mascarenhas, Miguel; Costa, Hugo; Vieira, José; Bastos, Carlos; Fonseca, Carlos; Pereira, Maria João Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is growing worldwide as a source of power generation. Bat assemblages may be negatively affected by wind farms due to the fatality of a significant number of individuals after colliding with the moving turbines or experiencing barotrauma. The implementation of wind farms should follow standard procedures to prevent such negative impacts: avoid, reduce and offset, in what is known as the mitigation hierarchy. According to this approach avoiding impacts is the priority, followed by the minimisation of the identified impacts, and finally, when residual negative impacts still remain, those must be offset or at least compensated. This paper presents a review on conservation measures for bats and presents some guidelines within the compensation scenario, focusing on negative impacts that remain after avoidance and minimisation measures. The conservation strategies presented aim at the improvement of the ecological conditions for the bat assemblage as a whole. While developed under the European context, the proposed measures are potentially applicable elsewhere, taking into consideration the specificity of each region in terms of bat assemblages present, landscape features and policy context regarding nature and biodiversity conservation and management. An analysis of potential opportunities and constraints arising from the implementation of offset/compensation programmes and gaps in the current knowledge is also considered. - Highlights: • Wind energy impacts bat populations in ways not yet fully understood. • As the use of windfarms is growing worldwide greater impacts on bat populations are also expected. • Mitigation hierarchy provides a way to reduce impacts from new wind farm facilities. • Compensation measures may be used to reduce the residual effects on bat populations. • Identify bats ecological needs and compensate according to the existing surroundings

  11. How to mitigate impacts of wind farms on bats? A review of potential conservation measures in the European context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peste, Filipa, E-mail: filipapeste@gmail.com [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Paula, Anabela [Bioinsight - Ambiente e Biodiversidade, Lda. Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, Luís P. da [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); MARE and CEF, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra (Portugal); Bernardino, Joana; Pereira, Pedro [Bio3 - Estudos e Projectos em Biologia e Recursos Naturais, Lda. Almada (Portugal); Mascarenhas, Miguel [Bioinsight - Ambiente e Biodiversidade, Lda. Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Hugo [Bio3 - Estudos e Projectos em Biologia e Recursos Naturais, Lda. Almada (Portugal); Vieira, José; Bastos, Carlos [Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics / IEETA, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Fonseca, Carlos [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Maria João Ramos [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); PPGBAN, Department of Zoology, Institute of Biosciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); PPGEC, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Wind energy is growing worldwide as a source of power generation. Bat assemblages may be negatively affected by wind farms due to the fatality of a significant number of individuals after colliding with the moving turbines or experiencing barotrauma. The implementation of wind farms should follow standard procedures to prevent such negative impacts: avoid, reduce and offset, in what is known as the mitigation hierarchy. According to this approach avoiding impacts is the priority, followed by the minimisation of the identified impacts, and finally, when residual negative impacts still remain, those must be offset or at least compensated. This paper presents a review on conservation measures for bats and presents some guidelines within the compensation scenario, focusing on negative impacts that remain after avoidance and minimisation measures. The conservation strategies presented aim at the improvement of the ecological conditions for the bat assemblage as a whole. While developed under the European context, the proposed measures are potentially applicable elsewhere, taking into consideration the specificity of each region in terms of bat assemblages present, landscape features and policy context regarding nature and biodiversity conservation and management. An analysis of potential opportunities and constraints arising from the implementation of offset/compensation programmes and gaps in the current knowledge is also considered. - Highlights: • Wind energy impacts bat populations in ways not yet fully understood. • As the use of windfarms is growing worldwide greater impacts on bat populations are also expected. • Mitigation hierarchy provides a way to reduce impacts from new wind farm facilities. • Compensation measures may be used to reduce the residual effects on bat populations. • Identify bats ecological needs and compensate according to the existing surroundings.

  12. Review of the reef effects of offshore wind farm structures and potential for enhancement and mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-09

    The purpose of this report is to review the likely reef effects of offshore wind farm (OWF) structures focussing on two aspects of their physical presence: firstly, the likely reef effects on fish, shellfish and other marine biota and secondly, the potential to enhance the reef effect for commercially significant species.Turbine towers and their associated scour protection constitute surfaces readily colonised by a typical and broadly predictable assemblage of organisms, reflecting zonation patterns observed in adjacent intertidal and sub-tidal rocky shore communities. The physical impact and biological impact of OWFs will be proportional to the level (area/extent) of scour protection utilised and this will need to be assessed on a site specific basis. At sites where it is unnecessary or unworkable to exclude all fishing gears, some commercial species will probably benefit from the presence of turbine structures and their associated reefs as a result of the provision of enhanced habitat opportunities. Exploration of the potential for mussel culture appears to be one of the most straightforward economic opportunities which could be progressed within existing OWFs - although, development of appropriate technology for culture in water depths at OWFs will require some further investigation. The opportunities presented by seaweed culture in the UK have yet to be recognised and an appropriate strategic direction provided for the sector. At the present time there appears to be very little potential for fin fish culture within OWFs, as shallow water depths and current conditions are not ideal for cage culture of salmon or cod, and current market conditions and labour costs mean that culture of sea bass in UK waters could not compete favourably with Mediterranean mariculture. Evidence from a variety of sources indicates that one enhancement effect which requires further investigation, as it is potentially a valuable opportunity for restoration and management of commercially

  13. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  14. The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

    2013-01-01

    The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  16. Contribution of anaerobic digesters to emissions mitigation and electricity generation under U.S. climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, David P M; Winchester, Niven; Kucharik, Christopher J; Barford, Carol C; Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John M

    2011-08-15

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria that produce methane, which can be collected and combusted to generate electricity. ADs also reduce odors and pathogens that are common with manure storage and the digested manure can be used as a fertilizer. There are relatively few ADs in the U.S., mainly due to their high capital costs. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to test the effects of a representative U.S. climate stabilization policy on the adoption of ADs which sell electricity and generate methane mitigation credits. Under such policy, ADs become competitive at producing electricity in 2025, when they receive methane reduction credits and electricity from fossil fuels becomes more expensive. We find that ADs have the potential to generate 5.5% of U.S. electricity.

  17. Cryoinsulation Material Development to Mitigate Obsolescence Risk for Global Warming Potential Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Alison; Bruyns, Roland; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Cryoinsulation foams currently being qualified for the Space Launch System (SLS) core stage are nonozone- depleting substances (ODP) and are compliant with current environmental regulations. However, these materials contain the blowing agent HFC-245fa, a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), which is a Global Warming Potential (GWP) substance. In August 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a policy change to reduce or eliminate certain HFCs, including HFC-245fa, in end-use categories including foam blowing agents beginning in 2017. The policy proposes a limited exception to allow continued use of HFC and HFC-blend foam blowing agents for military or space- and aeronautics-related applications, including rigid polyurethane spray foams, but only until 2022.

  18. Electrical potential-assisted DNA hybridization. How to mitigate electrostatics for surface DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoczko, Jakub; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Gebala, Magdalena

    2014-12-24

    Surface-confined DNA hybridization reactions are sensitive to the number and identity of DNA capture probes and experimental conditions such as the nature and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solution. When the surface probe density is high or the concentration of bulk ions is much lower than the concentration of ions within the DNA layer, hybridization is significantly slowed down or does not proceed at all. However, high-density DNA monolayers are attractive for designing high-sensitivity DNA sensors. Thus, circumventing sluggish DNA hybridization on such interfaces allows a high surface concentration of target DNA and improved signal/noise ratio. We present potential-assisted hybridization as a strategy in which an external voltage is applied to the ssDNA-modified interface during the hybridization process. Results show that a significant enhancement of hybridization can be achieved using this approach.

  19. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  20. Bio methane in the cogeneration market and heating market. Status quo, potentials and recommendations for an accelerated market penetration; Biomethan im KWK- und Waermemarkt. Status Quo, Potenziale und Handlungsempfehlungen fuer eine beschleunigte Marktdurchdringung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Michael; Rostek, Sandra [comps.

    2010-07-15

    The current contribution of the German Energy Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the present sale situation of bio methane on the coupled and uncoupled heating market. The contribution clarifies, why the existing support measures do not stimulate the demand for bio methane in the necessary order of magnitude. Without adjustment of the legal framework neither the considerable sales potentials can be established, nor the targets for the development of the biogas feeding can be achieved approximately. The low demand on bio methane led to a planning stop on the producer side. Direct need for action is required.

  1. Peaking China’s CO2 Emissions: Trends to 2030 and Mitigation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available China has submitted its nationally determined contribution to peak its energy-related emissions around 2030. To understand how China might develop its economy while controlling CO2 emissions, this study surveys a number of recent modeling scenarios that project the country’s economic growth, energy mix, and associated emissions until 2050. Our analysis suggests that China’s CO2 emissions will continue to grow until 2040 or 2050 and will approximately double their 2010 level without additional policy intervention. The alternative scenario, however, suggests that peaking CO2 emissions around 2030 requires the emission growth rate to be reduced by 2% below the reference level. This step would result in a plateau in China’s emissions from 2020 to 2030. This paper also proposed a deep de-carbonization pathway for China that is consistent with China’s goal of peaking emissions by around 2030, which can best be achieved through a combination of improvements in energy and carbon intensities. Our analysis also indicated that the potential for energy intensity decline will be limited over time. Thus, the peaking will be largely dependent on the share of non-fossil fuel energy in primary energy consumption.

  2. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Junfeng, Li [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  3. Impact of non-petroleum vehicle fuel economy on GHG mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy of gasoline vehicles will increase to meet 2025 corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE). However, dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) already exceed future CAFE fuel economy targets because only 15% of non-petroleum energy use is accounted for when determining compliance. This study aims to inform stakeholders about the potential impact of CAFE on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, should non-petroleum fuel vehicles displace increasingly fuel efficient petroleum vehicles. The well-to-wheel GHG emissions of a set of hypothetical model year 2025 light-duty vehicles are estimated. A reference gasoline vehicle is designed to meet the 2025 fuel economy target within CAFE, and is compared to a set of dedicated CNG vehicles and BEVs with different fuel economy ratings, but all vehicles meet or exceed the fuel economy target due to the policy’s dedicated non-petroleum fuel vehicle incentives. Ownership costs and BEV driving ranges are estimated to provide context, as these can influence automaker and consumer decisions. The results show that CNG vehicles that have lower ownership costs than gasoline vehicles and BEVs with long distance driving ranges can exceed the 2025 CAFE fuel economy target. However, this could lead to lower efficiency CNG vehicles and heavier BEVs that have higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions than gasoline vehicles on a per km basis, even if the non-petroleum energy source is less carbon intensive on an energy equivalent basis. These changes could influence the effectiveness of low carbon fuel standards and are not precluded by the light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards, which regulate tailpipe but not fuel production emissions. (letter)

  4. Methane adsorption on activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perl, Andras; Koopman, Folkert; Jansen, Peter; de Rooij, Marietta; van Gemert, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Methane storage in adsorbed form is a promising way to effectively and safely store fuel for vehicular transportation or for any other potential application. In a solid adsorbent, nanometer wide pores can trap methane by van der Waals forces as high density fluid at low pressure and room

  5. Modeling of methane bubbles released from large sea-floor area: Condition required for methane emission to the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, A.; Yamanaka, Y.; Tajika, E.

    2009-01-01

    Massive methane release from sea-floor sediments due to decomposition of methane hydrate, and thermal decomposition of organic matter by volcanic outgassing, is a potential contributor to global warming. However, the degree of global warming has not been estimated due to uncertainty over the proportion of methane flux from the sea-floor to reach the atmosphere. Massive methane release from a large sea-floor area would result in methane-saturated seawater, thus some methane would reach the atm...

  6. Greenhouse gases mitigation potential and costs for Brazil's energy system from 2010 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Bruno S.M.C.; Lucena, Andre F.P. de; Rathmann, Regis; Costa, Isabella V.L. da; Nogueira, Larissa P.P.; Rochedo, Pedro R.R.; H. Junior, Mauricio F.; Szklo, Alexandre; Schaeffer, Roberto [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyses the potential for energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and their abatement costs in the energy system of Brazil. The analysis of mitigation options and their costs focuses on the following sectors: industry, transportation and energy supply (electricity generation and oil refining), given their large contribution to the Brazil's GHGs emissions. For the industrial and oil refining sectors, the paper estimated abatement costs based on the investments along with the energy and operational costs of the measures considered. Two discount rates were used: 15% a year (private discount rate) and 8% a year (social discount rate). Compared to a business-as-usual reference scenario, results show a potential to reduce future energy-related GHG emissions by 27% in 2030. This study shows, however, that in relation to a reference year (2007), the examined abatement measures, along with the socioeconomic dynamics of an emerging country such as Brazil, would not be enough to attain absolute reductions in GHG emissions by 2030. This result is valid both each sector individually and for the sum of the emissions from all the sectors analyzed. (author)

  7. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Bauer, Nico; Krause, Michael; Beringer, Tim; Gerten, Dieter; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-01-01

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  8. Systems level insights into alternate methane cycling modes in a freshwater lake via community transcriptomics, metabolomics and nano-SIMS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidstrom, Mary E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chistoserdova, Ludmila [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orphan, Victoria J. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Beck, David A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-08-07

    The research conducted as part of this project contributes significantly to the understanding of the microbes and their activities involved in methane metabolism in freshwater lake sediments and in the environment in a more global sense. Significant new insights have been gained into the identity of the species that are most active in methane oxidation. New concepts have been developed based on the new data on how these organisms metabolize methane, impacting not only environmental microbiology but also biotechnology, including biotechnology of next generation biofuels. Novel approaches have been developed for studying functional microbial communities, via holistic approaches, such as metagenomics, metatrancriptomics and metabolite analysis. As a result, a novel outlook has been obtained at how such communities operate in nature. Understanding methane-oxidizing communities in lakes and other environments is of significant benefit to the public, in terms of methane emission mitigation and in terms of potential biotechnological applications.

  9. Methane production and methane consumption: a review of processes underlying wetland methane fluxes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, R.

    1998-01-01

    Potential rates of both methane production and methane consumption vary over three orders of magnitude and their distribution is skew. These rates are weakly correlated with ecosystem type, incubation temperature, in situ aeration, latitude, depth and distance to oxic/anoxic interface. Anaerobic

  10. 75 FR 9886 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane... the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential...

  11. Methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets in different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Thomaz, Maria Cristina; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this trial was to value the methane content and potential of biogas' production by manure of pigs fed with corn or sorghum-based diets (energy's source) in different phases. The manures were daily collected, diluted in water and homogeneous. Were used 267 mL of influent with 6% total solids concentration for supply of continuous-flow laboratory anaerobic digesters, with 30 days of detention time (DT) and temperature of 35 deg C. The experiment was completely randomized design with 2 treatments (corn or sorghum) and 3 phases of growth (initial x growing x finishing) in 10 replications (anaerobic digesters). The methane contents by manure of pigs fed with corn were greater (p<0.01) than pigs fed with sorghum (65.19 and 67.32%) on the phases of growing and finishing, respectively. The most potential of biogas' production (0.181, 0.138 and 0.162 m{sup 3}/kg of manure) was with manure of pigs fed with corn on the phases of initial, growing and finishing, respectively (p<0.01). Considering all the phases, the most potential of biogas' production (p<0.01) was observed in the initial phase, in both treatments. (author)

  12. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  13. Effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on waste activated sludge rheology, hygienization and methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Hernando, M; Martín-Díaz, J; Labanda, J; Mata-Alvarez, J; Llorens, J; Lucena, F; Astals, S

    2014-09-15

    Waste activated sludge is slower to biodegrade under anaerobic conditions than is primary sludge due to the glycan strands present in microbial cell walls. The use of pre-treatments may help to disrupt cell membranes and improve waste activated sludge biodegradability. In the present study, the effect of ultrasound, low-temperature thermal and alkali pre-treatments on the rheology, hygienization and biodegradability of waste activated sludge was evaluated. The optimum condition of each pre-treatment was selected based on rheological criteria (reduction of steady state viscosity) and hygienization levels (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia). The three pre-treatments were able to reduce the viscosity of the sludge, and this reduction was greater with increasing treatment intensity. However, only the alkali and thermal conditioning allowed the hygienization of the sludge, whereas the ultrasonication did not exhibit any notorious effect on microbial indicators populations. The selected optimum conditions were as follows: 27,000 kJ/kg TS for the ultrasound, 80 °C during 15 min for the thermal and 157 g NaOH/kg TS for the alkali. Afterward, the specific methane production was evaluated through biomethane potential tests at the specified optimum conditions. The alkali pre-treatment exhibited the greatest methane production increase (34%) followed by the ultrasonication (13%), whereas the thermal pre-treatment presented a methane potential similar to the untreated sludge. Finally, an assessment of the different treatment scenarios was conducted considering the results together with an energy balance, which revealed that the ultrasound and alkali treatments entailed higher costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  15. Coalbed methane: new frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2003-02-01

    There are large numbers of stacked coal seams permeated with methane or natural gas in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, and approximately 20 coalbed methane pilot projects are operating in the area, and brief descriptions of some of them were provided. Coalbed methane reserves have a long life cycle. A definition of coalbed methane can be a permeability challenged reservoir. It is not uncommon for coalbed methane wells to flow water for periods varying from 2 to 6 months after completion before the production of natural gas. A made-in-Canada technological solution is being developed by CDX Canada Inc., along with its American parent company. The techniques used by CDX are a marriage between coal mining techniques and oil and gas techniques. A brief description of coalification was provided. Nexen is participating in the production of gas from an Upper Mannville coal at 1 000-metres depth in a nine-well pilot project. The Alberta Foothills are considered prime exploration area since older coal is carried close to the surface by thrusting. CDX Canada uses cavitation completion in vertical wells. Cavitation consists in setting the casing above the coal seam and drilling ahead under balanced. The design of wells for coalbed methane gas is based on rock and fluid mechanics. Hydraulic fracturing completions is also used, as are tiltmeters. An enhanced coalbed methane recovery pilot project is being conducted by the Alberta Research Council at Fenn-Big Valley, located in central Alberta. It injects carbon dioxide, which shows great potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. 1 figs.

  16. A Time-Varying Potential-Based Demand Response Method for Mitigating the Impacts of Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ning

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty of wind power results in wind power forecasting errors (WPFE which lead to difficulties in formulating dispatching strategies to maintain the power balance. Demand response (DR is a promising tool to balance power by alleviating the impact of WPFE. This paper offers a control method of combining DR and automatic generation control (AGC units to smooth the system’s imbalance, considering the real-time DR potential (DRP and security constraints. A schematic diagram is proposed from the perspective of a dispatching center that manages smart appliances including air conditioner (AC, water heater (WH, electric vehicle (EV loads, and AGC units to maximize the wind accommodation. The presented model schedules the AC, WH, and EV loads without compromising the consumers’ comfort preferences. Meanwhile, the ramp constraint of generators and power flow transmission constraint are considered to guarantee the safety and stability of the power system. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach, simulations are performed in an IEEE 24-node system. The results indicate that considerable benefits can be realized by coordinating the DR and AGC units to mitigate the WPFE impacts.

  17. Potential impacts of shipping noise on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and implications for regulation and mitigation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songhai; Liu, Mingming; Dong, Lijun; Dong, Jianchen; Wang, Ding

    2018-01-09

    Shipping noise is a widespread and relatively loud sound source among human-induced underwater sounds. The impacts of shipping noise are of special concern for Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), as they inhabit shallow and nearshore habitats and are highly dependent on sound for survival. This study synthesizes our current understanding of the potential impacts of shipping noise on Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins combined with knowledge on sound production and hearing of these animals and the impacts of noise on other whales and dolphins. For further protection and management of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins and their habitats, shipping noise should be regulated and mitigated to modify sound from ships, to reduce overall noise levels, and to set more marine protected areas (MPAs) covering most Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin habitats with seasonal and geographical restrictions to avoid ensonification of shipping noise. The emphasis for future research should be on obtaining more baseline information about the population distribution, sound production, hearing capabilities at the population level, behavior, and stress hormones of the humpback dolphins under different noise conditions or under different noise-producing activities, and/or in high-noise areas compared with relatively quiet areas, and the noise characteristics of ships of different types, sizes, and speeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress* #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses. PMID:28124841

  19. Endophytes from medicinal plants and their potential for producing indole acetic acid, improving seed germination and mitigating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Waqas, Muhammad; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Al-Khiziri, Salima; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Ali, Liaqat; Kang, Sang-Mo; Asaf, Sajjad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hussain, Javid; Lee, In-Jung; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    Medicinal plants have been used by marginal communities to treat various ailments. However, the potential of endophytes within these bio-prospective medicinal plants remains unknown. The present study elucidates the endophytic diversity of medicinal plants (Caralluma acutangula, Rhazya stricta, and Moringa peregrina) and the endophyte role in seed growth and oxidative stress. Various organs of medicinal plants yielded ten endophytes, which were identified as Phoma sp. (6 isolates), Alternaria sp. (2), Bipolaris sp. (1), and Cladosporium sp. (1) based on 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The culture filtrates (CFs; 25%, 50%, and 100% concentrations) from these endophytes were tested against the growth of normal and dwarf mutant rice lines. Endophytic CF exhibited dose-dependent growth stimulation and suppression effects. CF (100%) of Phoma sp. significantly increased rice seed germination and growth compared to controls and other endophytes. This growth-promoting effect was due to the presence of indole acetic acid in endophytic CF. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed the highest indole acetic acid content ((54.31±0.21) µmol/L) in Bipolaris sp. In addition, the isolate of Bipolaris sp. exhibited significantly higher radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than the other isolates. Bipolaris sp. and Phoma sp. also exhibited significantly higher flavonoid and phenolic contents. The medicinal plants exhibited the presence of bio-prospective endophytic strains, which could be used for the improvement of crop growth and the mitigation of oxidative stresses.

  20. Identifying and Mitigating Potential Nutrient and Sediment Hot Spots under a Future Scenario in the Missouri River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhang, Zhonglong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for large-scale watershed modeling could be useful for evaluating the quality of the water in regions that are dominated by nonpoint sources in order to identify potential “hot spots” for which mitigating strategies could be further developed. An analysis of water quality under future scenarios in which changes in land use would be made to accommodate increased biofuel production was developed for the Missouri River Basin (MoRB) based on a SWAT model application. The analysis covered major agricultural crops and biofuel feedstock in the MoRB, including pasture land, hay, corn, soybeans, wheat, and switchgrass. The analysis examined, at multiple temporal and spatial scales, how nitrate, organic nitrogen, and total nitrogen; phosphorus, organic phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, and total phosphorus; suspended sediments; and water flow (water yield) would respond to the shifts in land use that would occur under proposed future scenarios. The analysis was conducted at three geospatial scales: (1) large tributary basin scale (two: Upper MoRB and Lower MoRB); (2) regional watershed scale (seven: Upper Missouri River, Middle Missouri River, Middle Lower Missouri River, Lower Missouri River, Yellowstone River, Platte River, and Kansas River); and (3) eight-digit hydrologic unit (HUC-8) subbasin scale (307 subbasins). Results showed that subbasin-level variations were substantial. Nitrogen loadings decreased across the entire Upper MoRB, and they increased in several subbasins in the Lower MoRB. Most nitrate reductions occurred in lateral flow. Also at the subbasin level, phosphorus in organic, sediment, and soluble forms was reduced by 35%, 45%, and 65%, respectively. Suspended sediments increased in 68% of the subbasins. The water yield decreased in 62% of the subbasins. In the Kansas River watershed, the water quality improved significantly with regard to every nitrogen and phosphorus compound. The improvement was

  1. Methane and carbon dioxide hydrates on Mars: Potential origins, distribution, detection, and implications for future in situ resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellenbarg, Robert E.; Max, Michael D.; Clifford, Stephen M.

    2003-04-01

    There is high probability for the long-term crustal accumulation of methane and carbon dioxide on Mars. These gases can arise from a variety of processes, including deep biosphere activity and abiotic mechanisms, or, like water, they could exist as remnants of planetary formation and by-products of internal differentiation. CH4 and CO2 would tend to rise buoyantly toward the planet's surface, condensing with water under appropriate conditions of temperature and pressure to form gas hydrate. Gas hydrates are a class of materials created when gas molecules are trapped within a crystalline lattice of water-ice. The hydrate stability fields of both CH4 and CO2 encompass a portion of the Martian crust that extends from within the water-ice cryosphere, from a depth as shallow as ~10-20 m to as great as a kilometer or more below the base of the Martian cryosphere. The presence and distribution of methane and carbon dioxide hydrates may be of critical importance in understanding the geomorphic evolution of Mars and the geophysical identification of water and other volatiles stored in the hydrates. Of critical importance, Martian gas hydrates would ensure the availability of key in situ resources for sustaining future robotic and human exploration, and the eventual colonization, of Mars.

  2. Potential development of compressed bio-methane gas production from pig farms and elephant grass silage for transportation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussadee, Natthawud; Reansuwan, Kamoldara; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu

    2014-03-01

    This research project evaluated biogas production using anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure and elephant grass silage in large scale to delivered transportation directly for cars. Anaerobic co-digestion was estimated in three full-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) at 40°C. In the form of compressed bio-methane gas (CBG) production was 14,400m(3)/day (CH4 60-70%) amount of CBG was 9600m(3)/day. The procedure was enhanced by using molecular sieve, activated carbon for removal of moisture and CO2 membrane H2S and CO2 respectively. The results were demonstrated the amount of CO2, H2S gas was reduced along with CH4 was improved up to 90% by volume and compressed to 250bar tank pressure gauge to the fuel for cars. The CBG production, methane gas improvement and performance were evaluated before entering the delivered systems according to the energy standards. The production of CBG is advantageous to strengthen the Thailand biogas market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential for energy conservation in the food and beverage industries through anaerobic digestion of wastes to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The Canadian food and beverage industry is the fourth largest consumer of energy among manufacturers. An area of energy use which has received little attention in the past is that of waste treatment. Conventional aerobic treatment systems tend to be energy-intensive, unlike new high-rate anaerobic processes which often have better balances because they produce recoverable methane that can be used for fuel. For these reasons, anaerobic systems may be attractive to food and beverage industries seeking an economical means of waste treatment. A number of factors will determine whether anaerobic treatment is a feasible option for a given plant. Chief among these are waste strength, waste temperature, waste flow rate, consistent production of waste, and need for and cost of treatment. This study attempted to determine for what proportion of Canadian food and beverage companies anaerobic treatment is likely to be a feasible option in the near to middle term. It was found that the general plant effluents of several industries appear in many cases to be economically treatable by anaerobic processes, and practical considerations involved in methane end-use were briefly considered. A number of barriers to the application of anaerobic technology were revealed, including high capital costs, the dilution of high strength effluents, misconception about anaerobic processes, ignorance of the state of the art and the ambiguities in regulations and standards concerning biogas. 108 refs., 22 figs., 45 tabs.

  4. Methanization - Technical sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    This document explains fundamentals of methanization such as biological reactions and conditions suitable for biogas production (temperature, pH, anaerobic medium, and so on). It also proposes an overview of available techniques, of the present regulation, of environmental impacts, and of costs and profitability of methanization installations. Examples of installations are provided, as well as a set of questions and answers. Perspectives of development are finally discussed in terms of sector development potential, of regulatory evolution, of new perspectives for gas valorisation, of need of acquisition of reference data due to the relatively low number of existing installations, and of research and development

  5. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  6. Anaerobic digestion of solid waste in RAS: Effect of reactor type on the biochemical acidogenic potential (BAP) and assessment of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) by a batch assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin Isabel; Letelier-Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Lund, Ivar

    2015-01-01

    the biochemical acidogenic potential of solid waste from juvenile rainbow trout was evaluated by measuring the yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion by batch or fed-batch reactor operation at hydrolysis time (HT) / hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1, 5, or 10 days (and for batch......Anaerobic digestion is a way to utilize the potential energy contained in solid waste produced in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs), either by providing acidogenic products for driving heterotrophic denitrification on site or by directly producing combustive methane. In this study...

  7. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily

  8. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quant......The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services....

  9. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  10. Potential phosphorus eutrophication mitigation strategy: Biochar carbon composition, thermal stability and pH influence phosphorus sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatia, L W; Hsieh, Y P; Nemours, D; Fu, R; Taylor, R W

    2017-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) eutrophication is a major pollution problem globally, with unprecedented amount of P emanating from agricultural sources. But little is known about the optimization of soil-biochar P sorption capacity. The study objective was to determine how biochar feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions influences carbon (C) thermal stability, C composition and pH and in turn influence the phosphorus sorption optimization. Biochar was produced from switchgrass, kudzu and Chinese tallow at 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, 650,750 °C. Carbon thermal stability was determined by multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA), C composition was determined using solid state 13 C NMR. Phosphorus sorption was determined using a mixture of 10% biochar and 90% sandy soil after incubation. Results indicate increased P sorption (P biochar pyrolysis temperature. However, optimum P sorption was feedstock specific with switchgrass indicating P desorption between 200 and 550 °C. Phosphorus sorption was in the order of kudzu > switchgrass > Chinese tallow. Total C, C thermal stability, aromatic C and alkalinity increased with elevated pyrolysis temperature. Biochar alkalinity favored P sorption. There was a positive relationship between high thermal stable C and P sorption for Kudzu (r = 0.62; P = 0.0346) and Chinese tallow (r = 0.73; P = 0.0138). In conclusion, biochar has potential for P eutrophication mitigation, however, optimum biochar pyrolysis temperature for P sorption is feedstock specific and in some cases might be out of 300-500 °C temperature range commonly used for agronomic application. High thermal stable C dominated by aromatic C and alkaline pH seem to favor P sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ab initio calculation of the interaction potentials of helium, neon, and methane as well as theoretical studies on their thermophysical properties and those of water vapor; Ab initio-Berechnung der Wechselwirkungspotentiale von Helium, Neon und Methan sowie theoretische Untersuchungen zu ihren thermophysikalischen Eigenschaften und denen von Wasserdampf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellmann, Robert

    2009-06-16

    Thermophysical properties of the pure gases helium, neon, methane and water vapor were calculated for low densities over wide temperature ranges. Statistical thermodynamics was used for the determination of the pressure virial coefficients. The kinetic theory of gases was utilized for the calculation of the transport and relaxation properties. So far kinetic theory was limited to linear molecules and has now been extended to molecules of arbitrary geometry to enable calculations on methane and water vapor. The interaction potentials, which are needed for all computations, were determined for helium, neon and methane from the supermolecular approach using quantum chemical ab initio methods. For water the interaction potentials were taken from the literature. The calculated values of the thermophysical properties for the four gases show very good agreement with the best experimental data. At very low and very high temperatures the theoretical values are more accurate than experimental data. (orig.)

  12. Landfill Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

  13. Catalytic aromatization of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, James J; Hutchings, Graham

    2014-02-07

    Recent developments in natural gas production technology have led to lower prices for methane and renewed interest in converting methane to higher value products. Processes such as those based on syngas from methane reforming are being investigated. Another option is methane aromatization, which produces benzene and hydrogen: 6CH4(g) → C6H6(g) + 9H2(g) ΔG°(r) = +433 kJ mol(-1) ΔH°(r) = +531 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic calculations for this reaction show that benzene formation is insignificant below ∼600 °C, and that the formation of solid carbon [C(s)] is thermodynamically favored at temperatures above ∼300 °C. Benzene formation is insignificant at all temperatures up to 1000 °C when C(s) is included in the calculation of equilibrium composition. Interestingly, the thermodynamic limitation on benzene formation can be minimized by the addition of alkanes/alkenes to the methane feed. By far the most widely studied catalysts for this reaction are Mo/HZSM-5 and Mo/MCM-22. Benzene selectivities are generally between 60 and 80% at methane conversions of ∼10%, corresponding to net benzene yields of less than 10%. Major byproducts include lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight substituted aromatics. However, carbon formation is inevitable, but the experimental findings show this can be kinetically limited by the use of H2 or oxidants in the feed, including CO2 or steam. A number of reactor configurations involving regeneration of the carbon-containing catalyst have been developed with the goal of minimizing the cost of regeneration of the catalyst once deactivated by carbon deposition. In this tutorial review we discuss the thermodynamics of this process, the catalysts used and the potential reactor configurations that can be applied.

  14. A comparative analysis of longitudinal computed tomography and histopathology for evaluating the potential of mesenchymal stem cells in mitigating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jessica R; Lee, Sangkyu; Ybarra, Norma; Maria, Ola; Serban, Monica; Jeyaseelan, Krishinima; Wang, Li Ming; Seuntjens, Jan; Naqa, Issam El

    2017-08-22

    Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (RIPF) is a debilitating side effect that occurs in up to 30% of thoracic irradiations in breast and lung cancer patients. RIPF remains a major limiting factor to dose escalation and an obstacle to applying more promising new treatments for cancer cure. Limited treatment options are available to mitigate RIPF once it occurs, but recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and a drug treatment stimulating endogenous stem cells (GM-CSF) have been investigated for their potential in preventing this disease onset. In a pre-clinical rat model, we contrasted the application of longitudinal computed tomography (CT) imaging and classical histopathology to quantify RIPF and to evaluate the potential of MSCs in mitigating RIPF. Our results on histology demonstrate promises when MSCs are injected endotracheally (but not intravenously). While our CT analysis highlights the potential of GM-CSF treatment. Advantages and limitations of both analytical methods are contrasted in the context of RIPF.

  15. Scenario analysis of energy saving and CO_2 emissions reduction potentials to ratchet up Japanese mitigation target in 2030 in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Takako; Kuramochi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses to what extent CO_2 emissions from electricity in the residential sector can be further reduced in Japan beyond its post-2020 mitigation target (known as “Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC)”). The paper examines the reduction potential of electricity demand and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector by conducting a scenario analysis. Electricity consumption scenarios are set up using a time-series regression model, and used to forecast the electricity consumption patterns to 2030. The scenario analysis also includes scenarios that reduce electricity consumption through enhanced energy efficiency and energy saving measures. The obtained results show that Japan can reduce electricity consumption and CO_2 emissions in the residential sector in 2030 more than the Japanese post-2020 mitigation target indicates. At the maximum, the electricity consumption could be reduced by 35 TWh, which contributes to 55.4 MtCO_2 of emissions reduction in 2030 compared to 2013 if the voluntarily targeted CO_2 intensity of electricity is achieved. The result implies that Japan has the potential to ratchet up post-2020 mitigation targets discussed under the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). - Highlights: • Further reduction of electricity consumption is possible beyond Japan's post-2020 mitigation target. • Energy saving efforts by households and incentives to reduce electricity demands are required. • Improvement of CO_2 intensity from electricity is a key factor in the reduction of CO_2 emissions.

  16. The social cost of methane: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D T; Fuglestvedt, J S; Collins, W J

    2017-08-24

    Methane emissions contribute to global warming, damage public health and reduce the yield of agricultural and forest ecosystems. Quantifying these damages to the planetary commons by calculating the social cost of methane (SCM) facilitates more comprehensive cost-benefit analyses of methane emissions control measures and is the first step to potentially incorporating them into the marketplace. Use of a broad measure of social welfare is also an attractive alternative or supplement to emission metrics focused on a temperature target in a given year as it incentivizes action to provide benefits over a broader range of impacts and timescales. Calculating the SCM using consistent temporal treatment of physical and economic processes and incorporating climate- and air quality-related impacts, we find large SCM values, e.g. ∼$2400 per ton and ∼$3600 per ton with 5% and 3% discount rates respectively. These values are ∼100 and 50 times greater than corresponding social costs for carbon dioxide. Our results suggest that ∼110 of 140 Mt of identified methane abatement via scaling up existing technology and policy options provide societal benefits that outweigh implementation costs. Within the energy sector, renewables compare far better against use of natural gas in electricity generation when incorporating these social costs for methane. In the agricultural sector, changes in livestock management practices, promoting healthy diets including reduced beef and dairy consumption, and reductions in food waste have been promoted as ways to mitigate emissions, and these are shown here to indeed have the potential to provide large societal benefits (∼$50-150 billion per year). Examining recent trends in methane and carbon dioxide, we find that increases in methane emissions may have offset much of the societal benefits from a slowdown in the growth rate of carbon dioxide emissions. The results indicate that efforts to reduce methane emissions via policies spanning a wide

  17. Estimating the potential of energy saving and carbon emission mitigation of cassava-based fuel ethanol using life cycle assessment coupled with a biogeochemical process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Hao, Mengmeng; Fu, Jingying; Tian, Guangjin; Ding, Fangyu

    2017-09-01

    Global warming and increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) have prompted considerable interest in the potential role of energy plant biomass. Cassava-based fuel ethanol is one of the most important bioenergy and has attracted much attention in both developed and developing countries. However, the development of cassava-based fuel ethanol is still faced with many uncertainties, including raw material supply, net energy potential, and carbon emission mitigation potential. Thus, an accurate estimation of these issues is urgently needed. This study provides an approach to estimate energy saving and carbon emission mitigation potentials of cassava-based fuel ethanol through LCA (life cycle assessment) coupled with a biogeochemical process model—GEPIC (GIS-based environmental policy integrated climate) model. The results indicate that the total potential of cassava yield on marginal land in China is 52.51 million t; the energy ratio value varies from 0.07 to 1.44, and the net energy surplus of cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 92,920.58 million MJ. The total carbon emission mitigation from cassava-based fuel ethanol in China is 4593.89 million kgC. Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian are identified as target regions for large-scale development of cassava-based fuel ethanol industry. These results can provide an operational approach and fundamental data for scientific research and energy planning.

  18. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, more than 40 schools in Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were visited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). School characteristics that potentially influence radon entry and impact mitigation system design and performance were identified. Mitigation systems that had proven successful in house mitigation were then installed in several of these schools. Many of the systems were installed by school personnel with some assistance from EPA and an experienced radon diagnostician. This article presents the diagnostic measurements made in the schools and it discusses in detail the specific mitigation systems that were installed in four Maryland schools by the EPA

  19. Biochemical methane potential prediction of plant biomasses: Comparing chemical composition versus near infrared methods and linear versus non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Mayer, Frédéric; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick; Dardenne, Pierre; Delfosse, Philippe; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of different models to predict the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of various plant biomasses using a multispecies dataset was compared. The most reliable prediction models of the BMP were those based on the near infrared (NIR) spectrum compared to those based on the chemical composition. The NIR predictions of local (specific regression and non-linear) models were able to estimate quantitatively, rapidly, cheaply and easily the BMP. Such a model could be further used for biomethanation plant management and optimization. The predictions of non-linear models were more reliable compared to those of linear models. The presentation form (green-dried, silage-dried and silage-wet form) of biomasses to the NIR spectrometer did not influence the performances of the NIR prediction models. The accuracy of the BMP method should be improved to enhance further the BMP prediction models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical Mechanism, Spectral Detection, and Potential Mitigation of 3D Cloud Effects on OCO-2 Radiances and Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, S.; Schmidt, S.; Massie, S. T.; Iwabuchi, H.; Chen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of multiple partially cloudy scenes as observed by OCO-2 in nadir and target mode (published previously and reviewed here) revealed that XCO2 retrievals are systematically biased in presence of scattered clouds. The bias can only partially be removed by applying more stringent filtering, and it depends on the degree of scene inhomogeneity as quantified with collocated MODIS/Aqua imagery. The physical reason behind this effect was so far not well understood because in contrast to cloud-mediated biases in imagery-derived aerosol retrievals, passive gas absorption spectroscopy products do not depend on the absolute radiance level and should therefore be less sensitive to 3D cloud effects and surface albedo variability. However, preliminary evidence from 3D radiative transfer calculations suggested that clouds in the vicinity of an OCO-2 footprint not only offset the reflected radiance spectrum, but introduce a spectrally dependent perturbation that affects absorbing channels disproportionately, and therefore bias the spectroscopy products. To understand the nature of this effect for a variety of scenes, we developed the OCO-2 radiance simulator, which uses the available information on a scene (e.g., MODIS-derived surface albedo, cloud distribution, and other parameters) as the basis for 3D radiative transfer calculations that can predict the radiances observed by OCO-2. We present this new tool and show examples of its utility for a few specific scenes. More importantly, we draw conclusions about the physical mechanism behind this 3D cloud effect on radiances and ultimately OCO-2 retrievals, which involves not only the clouds themselves but also the surface. Harnessed with this understanding, we can now detect cloud vicinity effects in the OCO-2 spectra directly, without actually running the 3D radiance simulator. Potentially, it is even possible to mitigate these effects and thus increase data harvest in regions with ubiquitous cloud cover such as the Amazon

  1. Direct Aromaization of Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Marcelin

    1997-01-15

    The thermal decomposition of methane offers significant potential as a means of producing higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of reaction is limited. Work in the literature previous to this project had shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds would significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon or heavier (Clo+) materials. This project studied the effect and optimization of the quenching process as a means of increasing the amount of value added products during the pyrolysis of methane. A reactor was designed to rapidly quench the free-radical combustion reaction so as to maximize the yield of aromatics. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts were studied as a means of lowering the reaction temperature. A lower reaction temperature would have the benefits of more rapid quenching as well as a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. It was the goal of the project to identify promising routes from methane to higher hydrocarbons based on the pyrolysis of methane.

  2. Fodder shrubs and fatty acids: strategies to reduce enteric methane production in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Leonardo Cardona-Iglesias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the use of fodder shrubs and polyunsaturated fatty acids as a nutritional strategy to mitigate enteric methane production in cattle. Special emphasis was made on the use of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray (Mexican sun ower, as a species with antimethanogenic potential. Bibliographic information for this review was obtained between July and September 2015 by using key words. Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG, the increase of its atmospheric concentration is caused mainly by emissions from agriculture and industry, but it is also estimated that a proportion of methane is emitted by ruminants as a product of enteric and anaerobic fermentation of diet. This causes an environmental and productive problem in livestock production systems worldwide. Although there is controversy about the real contribution of methane by ruminants and its impact on environmental issues, the amount of emissions should try to be reduced.This document emphasizes the search for nutritional strategies such as supplementation with forage shrubs and sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have shown potential to maintain animal production ef ciency and decrease enteric methane synthesis.

  3. Design and test of an artificial reference cow to simulate methane release through exhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate methane emission from dairy cows, a technique is needed to evaluate individual methane emission from a large number of cows under practical conditions in barns. For developing such a measurement technique, a known reference source that can simulate cow exhalation of methane would be a

  4. Bio-methane obtained by gasification. Assessment of the production potential in France by 2020 and 2050. Final report - February 2013. Study performed on behalf of GrDF by the GDF SUEZ's CRIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulonneau, Catherine; Mazzenga, Anthony; Perrin, Marc; Guerrini, Olivier; Bessieres, Marie; Gagnepain, Bruno; Houdon, Aude-Claire; Rantien, Caroline; Alexandre, Sylvie; Boukhetaia, Nadia; Lampin, Laure; Contamin, Raphael; Aribart, Michel; Vert, Julien; Dermaux, Valerie; Molinie, Lea

    2013-02-01

    This study aims at determining the bio-methane production potential by using so-called second-generation technologies in France in order to inject it into the natural gas network by 2020 or 2050. The second-generation production process is described: gasification, cleaning, methanation, compliance with specifications. Energetic and environmental performances of these processes are also addressed. Different biomass are considered (forest biomass, sawmill by-products, wood wastes, paper sludge, crops, energetic cops, agro-food industry by-products) within three prospective scenarios

  5. Coalbed Methane Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalbed Methane Outreach Program, voluntary program seeking to reduce methane emissions from coal mining activities. CMOP promotes profitable recovery/use of coal mine methane (CMM), addressing barriers to using CMM instead of emitting it to atmosphere.

  6. Effect of bio-column composed of aged refuse on methane abatement--a novel configuration of biological oxidation in refuse landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dan; Zhao, Youcai; Xue, Binjie; Chai, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    An experimental bio-column composed of aged refuse was installed around the exhaust pipe as a new way to mitigate methane in refuse landfill. One of the objectives of this work was to assess the effect of aged refuse thickness in bio-column on reducing CH4 emissions. Over the study period, methane oxidation was observed at various thicknesses, 5 cm (small size), 10 cm (middle size) and 15 cm (large size), representing one to three times of pipeline diameters. The middle and large size both showed over 90% methane conversion, and the highest methane conversion rate of above 95% occurred in the middle-size column cell. Michaelis-Menten equation addressed the methanotrophs diffusion in different layers of the bio-columns. Maximum methanotrophic activity (Vmax) measured at the three thicknesses ranged from 6.4 x 10(-3) to 15.6 x 10(-3) units, and the half-saturation value (K(M)) ranged from 0.85% to 1.67%. Both the highest Vmax and K(M) were observed at the middle-size of the bio-column, as well as the largest methanotrophs population, suggesting a significant efficiency of methane mitigation happened in the optimum zone with greatest affinity and methanotrophic bacteria activities. Therefore, bio-column is a potential style for methane abatement in landfill, and the aged refuse both naturally formed and artificially placed in the column plays a critical role in CH4 emission.

  7. Radon, methane, carbon dioxide, oil seeps and potentially harmful elements from natural sources and mining area: relevance to planning and development in Great Britain. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated land is a major environmental issue in Great Britain mainly due to increased awareness and the change in public attitudes, but also due to pressures of UK and EC environmental legislation and directives. Government policy with respect to contaminated land is to deal with actual threats to health on a risk-based approach taking into account the use and environmental setting of the land; and to bring contaminated land back into beneficial use as far as practicable, and taking into account the principles of sustainability. The government has been concerned primarily with land which is being or has been put to potentially contaminative uses. However, some potentially harmful substances occur naturally and this review is concerned principally with three groups of 'natural' contaminants from geological sources: natural radioactivity, including radon, background radioactivity, and radioactive waters, derived mainly from uranium minerals and their weathering products in rocks and soils; methane, carbon dioxide and oil derived from coal bearing rocks, hydrocarbon source rocks, peat and other natural accumulations of organic matter; and potentially harmful chemical elements (PHEs), including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, fluorine, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc, derived from naturally occurring rocks and minerals. (author)

  8. Analyzing the carbon mitigation potential of tradable green certificates based on a TGC-FFSRO model: A case study in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhu, Ying; Zeng, Xueting; Huang, Guohe; Li, Yongping

    2018-07-15

    Contradictions of increasing carbon mitigation pressure and electricity demand have been aggravated significantly. A heavy emphasis is placed on analyzing the carbon mitigation potential of electric energy systems via tradable green certificates (TGC). This study proposes a tradable green certificate (TGC)-fractional fuzzy stochastic robust optimization (FFSRO) model through integrating fuzzy possibilistic, two-stage stochastic and stochastic robust programming techniques into a linear fractional programming framework. The framework can address uncertainties expressed as stochastic and fuzzy sets, and effectively deal with issues of multi-objective tradeoffs between the economy and environment. The proposed model is applied to the major economic center of China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The generated results of proposed model indicate that a TGC mechanism is a cost-effective pathway to cope with carbon reduction and support the sustainable development pathway of electric energy systems. In detail, it can: (i) effectively promote renewable power development and reduce fossil fuel use; (ii) lead to higher CO 2 mitigation potential than non-TGC mechanism; and (iii) greatly alleviate financial pressure on the government to provide renewable energy subsidies. The TGC-FFSRO model can provide a scientific basis for making related management decisions of electric energy systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Methane release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Gas Industry has carried out a systematic, technical estimate of methane release from the complete supply chain from production to consumption for the years 1992/1993. The result of this survey provided a conservative value, amounting to 0.9% of the Swiss domestic output. A continuation of the study taking into account new findings with regard to emission factors and the effect of the climate is now available, which provides a value of 0.8% for the target year of 1996. These results show that the renovation of the network has brought about lower losses in the local gas supplies, particularly for the grey cast iron pipelines. (author)

  10. Characterizations of purple non-sulfur bacteria isolated from paddy fields, and identification of strains with potential for plant growth-promotion, greenhouse gas mitigation and heavy metal bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakpirom, Jakkapan; Kantachote, Duangporn; Nunkaew, Tomorn; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed at selecting purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) isolated from various paddy fields, including Cd- and Zn-contaminated paddy fields, based on their biofertilizer properties. Among 235 PNSB isolates, strain TN110 was most effective in plant growth-promoting substance (PGPS) production, releasing 3.2 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 4.11 mg/L of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and 3.62 mg/L of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and reducing methane emission up to 80%. This strain had nifH, vnfG and anfG, which are the Mo, V and Fe nitrogenase genes encoded for key enzymes in nitrogen fixation under different conditions. This strain provided 84% and 55% removal of Cd and Zn, respectively. Another isolate, TN414, not only produced PGPS (1.30 mg/L of [Formula: see text] , 0.94 mg/L of ALA and 0.65 mg/L of IAA), but was also efficient in removing both Cd and Zn at 72% and 74%, respectively. Based on 16S rDNA sequencing, strain TN110 was identified as Rhodopseudomonas palustris, while strain TN414 was Rubrivivax gelatinosus. A combination of TN110 and TN414 could potentially provide a biofertilizer, which is a greener alternative to commercial/chemical fertilizers and an agent for bioremediation of heavy metals and greenhouse gas mitigation in paddy fields. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. All rights reserved.

  11. The determination of methane resources from liquidated coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenczek, Stanisław

    2017-11-01

    The article refers to methane presented in hard coal seams, which may pose a serious risk to workers, as evidenced by examples of incidents, and may also be a high energy source. That second issue concerns the possibility of obtaining methane from liquidated coal mines. There is discussed the current methodology for determination of methane resources from hard coal deposits. Methods of assessing methane emissions from hard coal deposits are given, including the degree of rock mass fracture, which is affected and not affected by mining. Additional criteria for methane recovery from the methane deposit are discussed by one example (of many types) of methane power generation equipment in the context of the estimation of potential viable resources. Finally, the concept of “methane resource exploitation from coal mine” refers to the potential for exploitation of the resource and the acquisition of methane for business purposes.

  12. Methane flux from boreal peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crill, P.; Bartlett, K.; Roulet, N.

    1992-01-01

    The peatlands in the boreal zone (roughly 45 deg - 60 degN) store a significant reservoir of carbon, much of which is potentially available for exchange with the atmosphere. The anaerobic conditions that cause these soils to accumulate carbon also makes wet, boreal peatlands significant sources of methane to the global troposphere. It is estimated that boreal wetlands contribute approximately 19.5 Tg methane per year. The data available on the magnitude of boreal methane emissions have rapidly accumulated in the past twenty years. This paper offers a short review of the flux measured (with range roughly 1 - 2000 mg methane/m2d), considers environmental controls of the flux and briefly discusses how climate change might affect future fluxes

  13. Methane emissions form terrestrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Dentener, F.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Somogyi, Z.; Federici, S.; Seufert, G.; Raes, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In a recent issue of Nature Keppler et al. (2006) report the discovery that terrestrial plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions. Until now it was thought that bacterial decomposition of plant material under anaerobic conditions, such as in wetlands and water flooded rice paddies, is the main process leading to emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In a first attempt to upscale these measurements, the authors estimate that global total emissions may be 149 Tg CH4/yr (62-236 Tg CH4/yr), with the main contribution estimated from tropical forests and grasslands (107 Tg CH4/yr with a range of 46-169 Tg CH4/yr). If confirmed, this new source of emission would constitute a significant fraction of the total global methane sources (estimated 500-600 Tg CH4/yr for present day total natural and anthropogenic sources) and have important implications for the global CH4 budget. To accommodate it within the present budget some sources would need to be re-assessed downwards and/or some sinks re-assessed upwards. Furthermore, also considering that methane is a {approx}23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, the possible feedbacks of these hitherto unknown CH4 emissions on global warming and their impacts on greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation strategies need to be carefully evaluated. The merit of the paper is without doubt related to the remarkable discovery of a new process of methane emissions active under aerobic conditions. However, we think that the applied approach of scaling up emissions from the leaf level to global totals by using only few measured data (mainly from herbaceous species) and the Net Primary Productivity of the main biomes is scientifically questionable and tends to overestimate considerably the global estimates, especially for forest biomes. Furthermore, some significant constraints on the upper limit of the global natural CH4 emissions arise from the pre-industrial CH4 budget. Pre-industrial atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios have been measured

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLE IN MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGES AND AS A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DRIVER IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar M Gvero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosnia and Herzegovina have significant physical potential regarding to renewable energy sources. Hydro, biomass, geothermal, wind, and solar potential can play important role in the whole state economy. Bosnia and Herzegovina is Non-Annex I country according to UNFCCC and according to that it is obligated to participate in the global efforts in order to reduce green house gases emission. This paper gives some analysis of the physical, technological, economic, and market potential of renewable energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina and their potential role in mitigation of climate changes. Paper also gives the analysis of the potential connections between renewable energy sources and sustainable development of the economy, taking in to consideration specific political structure of the state. Bosnia and Herzegovina is consisting from two entities: Republic of Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Brcko District; energy sector and climate changes mitigation measures are under their jurisdiction. According to that some of this paper results can be useful for the improvement of entity and state strategies with the final aim to place renewable energy sources on the right position, as some of the major economy drivers, not only in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but in whole region.

  15. Sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Teo, T. [Caterpillar China Investment Co., Beijing (China); Tnay, C.H. [Westrac Inc., Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    According to the World Coal Institute, coal provides 25 per cent of worldwide primary energy needs and generates 40 per cent of the world's electricity. China produces the largest amount of hard coal. The anthropogenic release of methane (CH{sub 4}) into the environment is a byproduct of the coal mining process. The global warming potential of this methane continues to draw attention around the world. In particular, China's government has recognized the need for environmental responsibility in the pursuit of greater power production. The Kyoto Protocol requires developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and targets must be met within a five-year time frame between 2008 and 2012. Sequestering coal mine methane (CMM) as an alternative fuel for reciprocating gas engine generator sets is a mature and proven technology for greenhouse gas mitigation. Prior to commissioning CMM-fueled power systems, the methane gas composition must be evaluated. An integrated systems approach can then be used to develop a CMM-fueled power project. This paper discussed the sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane. It discussed the Kyoto Protocol, clean development mechanism, and CMM as compared to other fuel sources. It was concluded that there is considerable opportunity for growth in the Asia-Pacific region for electric power applications using CMM. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, A.; Williams, I.D.; Pant, D.C.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages – first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated – mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH 3 , CH 4 and N 2 O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution. - Highlights: • In situ air pollution assessment of land applied digestate is performed. • Environmental burden minimisation scenarios for digestate bio fertiliser presented. • Food-based digestate show high ammonia volatilisation potential. • Soil incorporated digestate effectively reduces NH 3 but elevates N 2 O emissions. • Managing digestate emissions mitigate both climate change and air pollution. - In situ monitoring and analyses demonstrate the role of post-processing in greenhouse gases and air pollution mitigation from food-based digestate use as bio fertiliser

  17. Guidance related to the efficacy of measures used to mitigate potential impacts of seismic sound on marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Research has established that the effectiveness of mitigation of seismic sound operational techniques, described in the statement of Canadian practice, can vary with varying conditions in the marine environment. Among the six factors that should be taken into account, two are emphasized in this review. These are: the establishment of a safety zone, which affects the ability of observers to detect marine mammals; and factors which impact the effectiveness of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) in detecting vocalizing marine mammals under the standard operating conditions of a seismic survey. Some recommendations were put forward for further research, including active acoustics research, and included: building a larger signals library for PAM; and carrying out autonomous PAM with underwater gliders. These suggestions were given with a view to mounting a collegial effort in the future that will advance our collective knowledge concerning the mitigation of the influence of seismic sound on marine mammals rather than entrusting this to any one particular government agency, regulatory body or offshore oil and gas company.

  18. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  19. Perspectives of bio methane as a substitute for natural gas. Economic, ecologic and technical potential; Perspektiven von Biomethan als Erdgassubstitut. Oekonomisches, oekologisches und technisches Potenzial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachar, Jan-Claudio

    2012-11-01

    A possibility to supply energy from gaseous biomass is the generation of biogas and bio-SNG, respectively, with a subsequent conditioning to bio methane which can be fed in into the natural gas distribution system. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on how the conventionally used natural gas can be substituted by the biogas. It is investigated whether the transformation of biogas or bio-SNG to bio methane is worthwhile under economic and ecologic aspects. It is also investigated to what extend natural gas can be exchanged by bio methane under consideration of the technical and legal frameworks.

  20. Exploring the macro-scale CO_2 mitigation potential of photovoltaics and wind energy in Europe's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usubiaga, Arkaitz; Acosta-Fernández, José; McDowall, Will; Li, Francis G.N.

    2017-01-01

    Replacing traditional technologies by renewables can lead to an increase of emissions during early diffusion stages if the emissions avoided during the use phase are exceeded by those associated with the deployment of new units. Based on historical developments and on counterfactual scenarios in which we assume that selected renewable technologies did not diffuse, we conclude that onshore and offshore wind energy have had a positive contribution to climate change mitigation since the beginning of their diffusion in EU27. In contrast, photovoltaic panels did not pay off from an environmental standpoint until very recently, since the benefits expected at the individual plant level were offset until 2013 by the CO_2 emissions related to the construction and deployment of the next generation of panels. Considering the varied energy mixes and penetration rates of renewable energies in different areas, several countries can experience similar time gaps between the installation of the first renewable power plants and the moment in which the emissions from their infrastructure are offset. The analysis demonstrates that the time-profile of renewable energy emissions can be relevant for target-setting and detailed policy design, particularly when renewable energy strategies are pursued in concert with carbon pricing through cap-and-trade systems. - Highlights: • There is a time gap between the deployment of renewables and net CO2 mitigation. • Offshore wind energy contributes to net emission reductions in the EU27 since 2004. • PV panels contribute to net emission reductions in the EU27 since 2013. • The time-profile of renewable energy emissions is not usually considered in policy-design. • But it is important when renewable energy strategies are combined with carbon pricing.

  1. Clarifying socio-economic impacts and mitigation measures related to potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    Research conducted to clarify the socioeconomic impacts on the Denver-Boulder area of potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant and the mitigation measures taken to contain these impacts are described. Two primary alternatives have been examined, including the relocation of certain activities associated with radioactive materials, as well as a total phase out of the plant over the next decade. These perspectives include an assessment of alternative uses for Rocky Flats by both governmental agencies and private sector developers. Major findings address location, employment, public involvement, private enterprises, community attitudes, employee relocation; land use; and environment

  2. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  3. Atmospheric methane removal by methane-oxidizing bacteria immobilized on porous building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganendra, Giovanni; De Muynck, Willem; Ho, Adrian; Hoefman, Sven; De Vos, Paul; Boeckx, Pascal; Boon, Nico

    2014-04-01

    Biological treatment using methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) immobilized on six porous carrier materials have been used to mitigate methane emission. Experiments were performed with different MOB inoculated in building materials at high (~20 % (v/v)) and low (~100 ppmv) methane mixing ratios. Methylocystis parvus in autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) exhibited the highest methane removal rate at high (28.5 ± 3.8 μg CH₄ g⁻¹ building material h⁻¹) and low (1.7 ± 0.4 μg CH₄ g⁻¹ building material h⁻¹) methane mixing ratio. Due to the higher volume of pores with diameter >5 μm compared to other materials tested, AAC was able to adsorb more bacteria which might explain for the higher methane removal observed. The total methane and carbon dioxide-carbon in the headspace was decreased for 65.2 ± 10.9 % when M. parvus in Ytong was incubated for 100 h. This study showed that immobilized MOB on building materials could be used to remove methane from the air and also act as carbon sink.

  4. The contribution of transport policies to the mitigation potential and cost of 2 °C and 1.5 °C goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runsen; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hanaoka, Tatsuya

    2018-05-01

    The transport sector contributes around a quarter of global CO2 emissions; thus, low-carbon transport policies are required to achieve the 2 °C and 1.5 °C targets. In this paper, representative transport policy scenarios are structured with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the interaction between the transport sector and the macroeconomy. To accomplish this, the Asia–Pacific Integrated Model/Transport (AIM/Transport) model, coupled with a computable general equilibrium model (AIM/CGE), is used to simulate the potential for different transport policy interventions to reduce emissions and cost over the period 2005–2100. The results show that deep decarbonization in the transport sector can be achieved by implementing transport policies such as energy efficiency improvements, vehicle technology innovations particularly the deployment of electric vehicles, public transport developments, and increasing the car occupancy rate. Technological transformations such as vehicle technological innovations and energy efficiency improvements provide the most significant reduction potential. The key finding is that low-carbon transport policies can reduce the carbon price, gross domestic product loss rate, and welfare loss rate generated by climate mitigation policies to limit global warming to 2 °C and 1.5 °C. Interestingly, the contribution of transport policies is more effective for stringent climate change targets in the 1.5 °C scenario, which implies that the stronger the mitigation intensity, the more transport specific policy is required. The transport sector requires attention to achieve the goal of stringent climate change mitigation.

  5. Impacts of integrated nutrient management on methane emission, global warming potential and carbon storage capacity in rice grown in a northeast India soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharali, Ashmita; Baruah, Kushal Kumar; Baruah, Sunitee Gohain; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2018-02-01

    Rice soil is a source of emission of two major greenhouse gases (methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O)) and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The effect of inorganic fertilizers in combination with various organics (cow dung, green manure (Sesbania aculeata) Azolla compost, rice husk) on CH 4 emission, global warming potential, and soil carbon storage along with crop productivity were studied at university farm under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design for 2 years in a monsoon rice (cv. Ranjit) ecosystem (June-November, 2014 and 2015). Combined application of inorganic (NPK) with Sesbania aculeata resulted in high global warming potential (GWP) of 887.4 kg CO 2 ha -1 and low GWP of 540.6 kg CO 2 ha -1 was recorded from inorganic fertilizer applied field. Irrespective of the type of organic amendments, flag leaf photosynthesis of the rice crop increased over NPK application (control). There was an increase in CH 4 emission from the organic amended fields compared to NPK alone. The combined application of NPK and Azolla compost was effective in the buildup of soil carbon (16.93 g kg -1 ) and capacity of soil carbon storage (28.1 Mg C ha -1 ) with high carbon efficiency ratio (16.9). Azolla compost application along with NPK recorded 15.66% higher CH 4 emission with 27.43% yield increment over control. Azolla compost application significantly enhanced carbon storage of soil and improved the yielding ability of grain (6.55 Mg ha -1 ) over other treatments.

  6. Rice straw as a renewable energy source in India, Thailand, and the Philippines: Overall potential and limitations for energy contribution and greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Menke, Christoph; Wassmann, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    abstract: Rice is a widely grown crop in the South and South-East Asia that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. The aim of this paper is to assess the quantity of rice straw produced, estimate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions based on its current uses, and assess its possible energy potential and related GHG emissions mitigation potential. Updated statistics on rough rice production are used in this study in combination with the literature values on Straw-to-Grain Ratio (SGR) to quantify the amount of rice straw produced in the three countries of focus. It is estimated that 97.19, 21.86, and 10.68 Mt of rice straw residue are produced in India, Thailand, and the Philippines, respectively. In India, 23% of rice straw residue produced is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. About 48% of this residue produced is subjected to open-field burning in Thailand, and in the Philippines it is 95%. The GHG emissions contribution through open-field burning of rice straw in India, Thailand, and the Philippines are 0.05%, 0.18%, and 0.56%, and the mitigated GHG emissions when generated electricity is used would be 0.75%, 1.81%, and 4.31%, respectively, when compared to the total country GHG emissions.

  7. Recent patterns of methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in the terrestrial biosphere: The bottom-up approach (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.

    2013-12-01

    Accurately estimating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems is critical for resolving global budgets of these greenhouse gases (GHGs) and continuing to mitigate climate warming. In this study, we use a bottom-up approach to estimate annual budgets of both methane and nitrous oxide in global terrestrial ecosystem during 1981-2010 and analyze the underlying mechanisms responsible for spatial and temporal variations in these GHGs. Both methane and nitrous oxide emissions significantly increased from 1981 to 2010, primarily owing to increased air temperature, nitrogen fertilizer use, and land use change. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions increased the fastest in Asia due to the more prominent environmental changes compared to other continents. The cooling effects by carbon dioxide sink in the terrestrial biosphere might be completely offset by increasing methane and nitrous oxide emissions, resulting in a positive global warming potential. Asia and South America were the largest contributors to increasing global warming potential. This study suggested that current management practices might not be effective enough to reduce future global warming.

  8. Methane hydrates in quaternary climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennett, J. P.; Hill, T. M.; Behl, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrate reservoir in marine sediments is known to contain a large volume of exchangeable carbon stored as solid methane hydrate and associated free gas. This reservoir has been shown to be potentially unstable in response to changing intermediate water temperature and sea level (pressure). Evidence continues to grow for past episodes of major methane release at times of climatic warming. Yet few studies of late Quaternary climate change include methane hydrates as an integral part of the global climate system, in spite of the largest known oscillations at this time in sea level and upper ocean temperature changes for the Cenozoic or earlier, conditions that favor instability of the methane hydrate reservoir. Abrupt increases in atmospheric methane recorded in polar ice cores are widely believed to have resulted, not from ocean-floor methane degassing, but instead from continental wetland activation, a hypothesis thus far unsupported by geological data. Furthermore, as part of this Wetland Methane Hypothesis, the abrupt methane increases have been seen as a response to climatic warming rather than contributing significantly to the change. An alternative view (formulated as the Clathrate Gun Hypothesis) is that the speed, magnitude and timing of abrupt climate change in the recent geologic past are consistent with the process of major degassing of methane hydrates. We summarize aspects of this hypothesis here and needs to test this hypothesis. (Author)

  9. Nutritional mitigation of winter thermal stress in gilthead seabream: Associated metabolic pathways and potential indicators of nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nadège; Silva, Tomé S; Wulff, Tune; Schrama, Denise; Dias, Jorge P; Rodrigues, Pedro M L; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-06-16

    A trial was carried out with gilthead seabream juveniles, aiming to investigate the ability of an enhanced dietary formulation (diet Winter Feed, WF, containing a higher proportion of marine-derived protein sources and supplemented in phospholipids, vitamin C, vitamin E and taurine) to assist fish in coping with winter thermal stress, compared to a low-cost commercial diet (diet CTRL). In order to identify the metabolic pathways affected by WF diet, a comparative two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis of fish liver proteome (pH 4–7) was undertaken at the end of winter. A total of 404 protein spots, out of 1637 detected, were differentially expressed between the two groups of fish. Mass spectrometry analysis of selected spots suggested that WF diet improved oxidative stress defense, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress, enhanced metabolic flux through methionine cycle and phenylalanine/tyrosine catabolism, and induced higher aerobic metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Results support the notion that WF diet had a positive effect on fish nutritional state by partially counteracting the effect of thermal stress and underlined the sensitivity of proteome data for nutritional and metabolic profiling purposes. Intragroup variability and co-measured information were also used to pinpoint which proteins displayed a stronger relation with fish nutritional state. Winter low water temperature is a critical factor for gilthead seabream farming in the Mediterranean region, leading to a reduction of feed intake, which often results in metabolic and immunological disorders and stagnation of growth performances. In a recent trial, we investigated the ability of an enhanced dietary formulation (diet WF) to assist gilthead seabream in coping with winter thermal stress, compared to a standard commercial diet (diet CTRL). Within this context, in the present work, we identified metabolic processes that are involved in the stress-mitigating effect observed

  10. The use of reflective and permeable pavements as a potential practice for heat island mitigation and stormwater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Harvey, J T; Holland, T J; Kayhanian, M

    2013-01-01

    To help address the built environmental issues of both heat island and stormwater runoff, strategies that make pavements cooler and permeable have been investigated through measurements and modeling of a set of pavement test sections. The investigation included the hydraulic and thermal performance of the pavements. The permeability results showed that permeable interlocking concrete pavers have the highest permeability (or infiltration rate, ∼0.5 cm s −1 ). The two permeable asphalt pavements showed the lowest permeability, but still had an infiltration rate of ∼0.1 cm s −1 , which is adequate to drain rainwater without generating surface runoff during most typical rain events in central California. An increase in albedo can significantly reduce the daytime high surface temperature in summer. Permeable pavements under wet conditions could give lower surface temperatures than impermeable pavements. The cooling effect highly depends on the availability of moisture near the surface layer and the evaporation rate. The peak cooling effect of watering for the test sections was approximately 15–35 °C on the pavement surface temperature in the early afternoon during summer in central California. The evaporative cooling effect on the pavement surface temperature at 4:00 pm on the third day (25 h after watering) was still 2–7 °C lower compared to that on the second day, without considering the higher air temperature on the third day. A separate and related simulation study performed by UCPRC showed that full depth permeable pavements, if designed properly, can carry both light-duty traffic and certain heavy-duty vehicles while retaining the runoff volume captured from an average California storm event. These preliminarily results indicated the technical feasibility of combined reflective and permeable pavements for addressing the built environment issues related to both heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff management. (letter)

  11. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PLANT DIVERSITY OF HILLY AREAS OF AZAD KASHMIR AND THEIR MITIGATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Akbar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Azad Kashmir has variety of mountain ecosystems which are rich in floral and faunal diversity. These ecosystems are fragile and are under stress due to various natural and anthropogenic pressures. Mountain ecosystems of Azad Kashmir are more vulnerable to global warming and are expected to show its impacts rapidly. Climate change may cause major changes in distribution ranges of different vegetation types. As a result of climate change, the area of three vegetation groups (alpine, grassland/arid woodlands and deserts is expected to decrease and the areas of five types (cold conifer/mixed woodland, cold conifer/mixed forests, temperate conifer/mixed forests, warm conifer/mixed forests, and steppe/arid shrub lands are expected to increase. Climate change is going to affect conservation of plant species and ecosystems by causing direct loss of plant species and intensify the effects of existing threats such as habitat degradation, deforestation and over-harvesting of plants by local communities, pollution and invasive species. These stresses, acting individually and collectively on species, communities and ecosystems, are depleting and will continue to deplete biodiversity. The negative impacts of climate change are multi-dimensional and wide-ranging. Their mitigation requires an integrated and coordinated policy response for conservation of plant resources. These measures include a regular monitoring and observation system, restoration of degraded habitats and forests, identifying new solutions involving cross-sectoral linkages to conserve biological diversity of Azad Kashmir by supporting the intricate and complex responses of species and ecosystems to climate change.

  12. Environmental impact of coal mine methane emissions and responding strategies in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.P.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X.L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2011-01-15

    The impact on global climate change from coal mine methane emissions in China has been drawing attention as coal production has powered its economic development. Data on coal mine methane emissions from the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety of China has been analyzed. It is estimated that the methane emission from coal mining in China reached 20 billions of cubic meters in 2008, most of which comes from state-owned coal mines with high-gas content. China releases six times as much of methane from coal mines as compared to the United States. However, Chinese methane emission from coal production accounts for only a very small proportion on the environmental impact when compared to emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption. The Chinese government has shown environmental awareness and resolution on the mitigation and utilization of coal mine methane emissions. Measures have been taken to implement the programs of mitigation and utilization of coal mine methane, and at the same time, to ensure mining safety. Nearly 7.2 billions of cubic meters of methane were drained from the coal mines, and 32% of it was utilized in 2008. The slow advancement of technologies for the drainage and utilization of low-concentration methane from ventilation air hinders the progress of mitigation of atmospheric methane and the utilization of coal mine methane emissions.

  13. Comparison on batch anaerobic digestion of five different livestock manures and prediction of biochemical methane potential (BMP) using different statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Gopi Krishna; Chen, Lide

    2016-02-01

    There is a lack of literature reporting the methane potential of several livestock manures under the same anaerobic digestion conditions (same inoculum, temperature, time, and size of the digester). To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported biochemical methane potential (BMP) predicting models developed and evaluated by solely using at least five different livestock manure tests results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the BMP of five different livestock manures (dairy manure (DM), horse manure (HM), goat manure (GM), chicken manure (CM) and swine manure (SM)) and to predict the BMP using different statistical models. Nutrients of the digested different manures were also monitored. The BMP tests were conducted under mesophilic temperatures with a manure loading factor of 3.5g volatile solids (VS)/L and a feed to inoculum ratio (F/I) of 0.5. Single variable and multiple variable regression models were developed using manure total carbohydrate (TC), crude protein (CP), total fat (TF), lignin (LIG) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), and measured BMP data. Three different kinetic models (first order kinetic model, modified Gompertz model and Chen and Hashimoto model) were evaluated for BMP predictions. The BMPs of DM, HM, GM, CM and SM were measured to be 204, 155, 159, 259, and 323mL/g VS, respectively and the VS removals were calculated to be 58.6%, 52.9%, 46.4%, 81.4%, 81.4%, respectively. The technical digestion time (T80-90, time required to produce 80-90% of total biogas production) for DM, HM, GM, CM and SM was calculated to be in the ranges of 19-28, 27-37, 31-44, 13-18, 12-17days, respectively. The effluents from the HM showed the lowest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations. The effluents from the CM digesters showed highest nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and digested SM showed highest potassium concentration. Based on the results of the regression analysis, the model using the variable of LIG showed the best (R(2

  14. Alternatives for methane emission mitigation in livestock systems Alternativas para mitigação de emissão de metano em sistemas de criação de animais domésticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Lascano

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are contributing to Global Climate Change through the production of Green House Gases (GHG, which result in increased air, land and ocean temperatures and extreme changes in precipitation in regions of low and high rainfall. The most important GHG's are carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O. It is estimated that 18 % of the annual GHG emissions come from different types of livestock and that 37% of CH4, with higher global warming potential (23 relative to CO2 (1, comes from fermentation processes in ruminants. It is possible that in the future beef and milk exports from producing countries is subject to bans if cattle systems do not comply with measures to reduce GHG. There are several alternatives available and being researched to reduce enteric CH4 emissions from cattle that range from manipulating diet composition, supplementing feed additives (i.e. ionophores, organic acids, halogenated compounds, oils and selection of forage plants of high quality and containing secondary metabolites (i.e. tannins and saponins to animal breeding, immunization and genetic transformation of rumen microorganisms. Results show that inhibition of enteric CH4 emission is possible through the use of ionophores, organic acids and oils. The use of ionophores can result in resistance of rumen microbes and as a result the effect is short term. The high cost of organic acids makes it unlikely that there direct supplementation in ruminant diets is economically viable. However, organic acids are present at relatively high concentrations in the leaf tissue of plants and attempts should be made to select and breed forages with higher levels of these compounds. It is argued that a more efficient strategy to reduce enteric CH4 in ruminants is through selection of grasses of high quality (i.e. high concentration of water soluble carbohydrates, of forage legumes containing secondary metabolites like tannins and of fruits/plants containing

  15. Enhanced Emission Performance and Fuel Efficiency for HD Methane Engines. Literature Study. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, R.; Staalhammar, P.; Erlandsson, L.

    2010-05-15

    A literature survey has been conducted in order to define state-of-the-art for methane fuelled engines to be used in heavy duty vehicles. Use of methane can be favourable to increase security of supply and mitigate CO2 emissions, especially when the methane origins from biomass. Furthermore, methane used as a fuel in heavy duty engines has a potential to reduce toxic exhaust emissions. Historically, use of methane in heavy duty engines has often been hampered by poor efficiency, i.e. high fuel consumption when using the Otto-cycle. However, current generation technology engines might be within 5-10 % of the efficiency of Diesel engine technology. In this context it is worth mentioning that compliance-driven changes for meeting future emission regulations for Diesel engines may have a negative impact on fuel efficiency, thereby narrowing the gap. This may present an opportunity for heavy methane fuelled engines. The reliability and durability of the exhaust aftertreatment devices for methane fuelled engines has also given rise to some concerns. Some concepts are performing acceptable while others do not meet expectations. This is partly due to difficulties in handling methane in the aftertreatment device and partly to issues in the design of the ignition system. Methane is a fuel used worldwide and has a potential to be an important complement to Diesel oil. There are two categories of HD methane engines available to end-users: Retrofitted engines, which often include computer controlled retrofit systems developed as 'bolt-on' technologies that can be removed if necessary, to resell the vehicle with a normal diesel engine, and those developed specifically for and in conjunction with engine manufacturers and delivered to customers as factory-built engines or vehicles (OEM). Additionally, both these categories can include engines that use the Otto- or Diesel combustion cycles. When adapting a HD Diesel engine to run on methane there are two options, either

  16. An assessment of the potentials of nuclear power and carbon capture and storage in the long-term global warming mitigation options based on Asian Modeling Exercise scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of global warming mitigation options based on scenarios from the Asian Modeling Exercise. Using an extended version of the integrated assessment model MARIA-23 (Multiregional Approach for Resource and Industry Allocation), we analyze nuclear fuel recycling options, carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS), and biomass utilization. To assess the potential implications of decreased social acceptance of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident, additional scenarios including a nuclear power expansion limitation, are analyzed. We also evaluate MARIA-23 model simulation estimates of long-term contributions and interrelationships among nuclear power, biomass, and CCS. Finally, potential costs of nuclear limitation under carbon control policies are assessed. The simulation results in this paper suggest the following: (1) under the reference scenario, global GDP losses in climate limitation scenarios range from 1.3% per year to 3.9% per year in 2060, rising to between 3.5% per year and 4.5% per year in 2100; (2) the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing technologies increase rapidly in all carbon control policy scenarios; (3) under a scenario where the price of CO 2 is $30 and nuclear power expansion is strictly limited, GDP losses increase significantly—from 4.5% per year to 6.4% per year by 2100; (4) nuclear power and CCS are substitute mitigation technologies. With nuclear power technology available CCS deployment reaches approximately 15,000 Mt-CO 2 per year by 2010; without a nuclear power option, CCS deployment rises to more than 80,000 Mt-CO 2 per year; and (5) biomass utilization cannot fully compensate for limitations to nuclear power expansion in policy scenarios. In addition to examining the role of these three technologies on global scales, we report results for several major Asian regions, namely Japan, China, and India. China tends to deploy nuclear power (if available) in response to rapidly growing

  17. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  18. METHANE INCORPORATION BY PROCARYOTIC PHOTOSYNTHETICMICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Charles J.; Kirk, Martha; Calvin, Melvin

    1970-08-01

    The procaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms Anacystis nidulans, Nostoc and Rhodospirillum rubrum have cell walls and membranes that are resistant to the solution of methane in their lipid components and intracellular fluids. But Anacystis nidulans, possesses a limited bioxidant system, a portion of which may be extracellularly secreted, which rapidly oxidizes methane to carbon dioxide. Small C{sup 14} activities derived from CH{sub 4} in excess of experimental error are detected in all the major biochemical fractions of Anacystis nidulans and Nostoc. This limited capacity to metabolize methane appears to be a vestigial potentiality that originated over two billion years ago in the early evolution of photosynthetic bacteria and blue-green algae.

  19. Global Methane Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Methane Initiative promotes cost-effective, near-term methane recovery through partnerships between developed and developing countries, with participation from the private sector, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations.

  20. Design and Use of a Full Flow Sampling System (FFS) for the Quantification of Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N

    2016-06-12

    The use of natural gas continues to grow with increased discovery and production of unconventional shale resources. At the same time, the natural gas industry faces continued scrutiny for methane emissions from across the supply chain, due to methane's relatively high global warming potential (25-84x that of carbon dioxide, according to the Energy Information Administration). Currently, a variety of techniques of varied uncertainties exists to measure or estimate methane emissions from components or facilities. Currently, only one commercial system is available for quantification of component level emissions and recent reports have highlighted its weaknesses. In order to improve accuracy and increase measurement flexibility, we have designed, developed, and implemented a novel full flow sampling system (FFS) for quantification of methane emissions and greenhouse gases based on transportation emissions measurement principles. The FFS is a modular system that consists of an explosive-proof blower(s), mass airflow sensor(s) (MAF), thermocouple, sample probe, constant volume sampling pump, laser based greenhouse gas sensor, data acquisition device, and analysis software. Dependent upon the blower and hose configuration employed, the current FFS is able to achieve a flow rate ranging from 40 to 1,500 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM). Utilization of laser-based sensors mitigates interference from higher hydrocarbons (C2+). Co-measurement of water vapor allows for humidity correction. The system is portable, with multiple configurations for a variety of applications ranging from being carried by a person to being mounted in a hand drawn cart, on-road vehicle bed, or from the bed of utility terrain vehicles (UTVs). The FFS is able to quantify methane emission rates with a relative uncertainty of ± 4.4%. The FFS has proven, real world operation for the quantification of methane emissions occurring in conventional and remote facilities.

  1. Design and Use of a Full Flow Sampling System (FFS) for the Quantification of Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R.; Covington, April N.; Clark, Nigel N.

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural gas continues to grow with increased discovery and production of unconventional shale resources. At the same time, the natural gas industry faces continued scrutiny for methane emissions from across the supply chain, due to methane's relatively high global warming potential (25-84x that of carbon dioxide, according to the Energy Information Administration). Currently, a variety of techniques of varied uncertainties exists to measure or estimate methane emissions from components or facilities. Currently, only one commercial system is available for quantification of component level emissions and recent reports have highlighted its weaknesses. In order to improve accuracy and increase measurement flexibility, we have designed, developed, and implemented a novel full flow sampling system (FFS) for quantification of methane emissions and greenhouse gases based on transportation emissions measurement principles. The FFS is a modular system that consists of an explosive-proof blower(s), mass airflow sensor(s) (MAF), thermocouple, sample probe, constant volume sampling pump, laser based greenhouse gas sensor, data acquisition device, and analysis software. Dependent upon the blower and hose configuration employed, the current FFS is able to achieve a flow rate ranging from 40 to 1,500 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM). Utilization of laser-based sensors mitigates interference from higher hydrocarbons (C2+). Co-measurement of water vapor allows for humidity correction. The system is portable, with multiple configurations for a variety of applications ranging from being carried by a person to being mounted in a hand drawn cart, on-road vehicle bed, or from the bed of utility terrain vehicles (UTVs). The FFS is able to quantify methane emission rates with a relative uncertainty of ± 4.4%. The FFS has proven, real world operation for the quantification of methane emissions occurring in conventional and remote facilities. PMID:27341646

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L.; Colturato, L.F.; Font, X.; Vicent, T.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 o C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 ± 0.02 L g VS feed -1 to 0.55 ± 0.05 L g VS feed -1 as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  3. Energy efficiency and CO_2 mitigation potential of the Turkish iron and steel industry using the LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Seyithan A.

    2015-01-01

    With the assistance of the LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning) energy modeling tool, this study explores the energy efficiency and CO_2 emission reduction potential of the iron and steel industry in Turkey. With a share of 35%, the steel and iron industry is considered as the most energy-consuming sector in Turkey. The study explores that the energy intensity rate can be lowered by 13%, 38% and 51% in SEI (slow-speed energy efficiency improvement), AEI (accelerating energy efficiency improvement) and CPT (cleaner production and technology scenario) scenarios, respectively. Particularly the projected aggregated energy savings of the scenarios CPT and AES are very promising with saving rates of 33.7% and 23% respectively. Compared to baseline scenarios, energy efficiency improvements correspond to economic potential of 0.1 billion dollars for SEI, 1.25 dollars for AEI and 1.8 billion dollars for CPT scenarios annually. Concerning GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, in 2030 the iron and steel industry in Turkey is estimated to produce 34.9 MtCO_2 in BAU (business-as-usual scenario), 32.5 MtCO_2 in SEI, 24.6 MtCO_2 in AEI and 14.5 MtCO_2 in CPT a scenario which corresponds to savings of 9%–39%. The study reveals that energy consumption and GHG emissions of the iron and steel industry can be lowered significantly if the necessary measures are implemented. It is expected that this study will fill knowledge gaps pertaining to energy efficiency potential in Turkish energy intensive industries and help stakeholders in energy intensive industries to realize the potential for energy efficiency and GHG mitigation. - Highlights: • This paper explores energy efficiency potential of iron and Steel industry in Turkey. • We applied the LEAP modeling to forecast future developments. • Four different scenarios have been developed for the LEAP modeling. • There is a huge potential for energy efficiency and mitigation of GHG emissions.

  4. Pesticide and Water management alternatives to mitigate potential ground-water contamination for selected counties in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, Majid; Requena, Antonio M.; Peralta, R. C.; Deer, Howard M.; Hill, Robert W.; Ranjha, Ahmad Yar

    1990-01-01

    Production of adequate supplies of food and fiber currently requires that pesticides be used to limit crop losses from insects, pathogens, weeds and other pests. Although pesticides are necessary in today's agriculture, they can be a serious problem if they reach and contaminate ground water, especially in places where drinking water needs are supplied from ground water. The relative reduction of potential ground-water contamination due to agricultural use of pesticides was analyzed for parti...

  5. Future C loss in mid-latitude mineral soils: climate change exceeds land use mitigation potential in France

    OpenAIRE

    Meersmans, Jeroen; Arrouays, Dominique; Van Rompaey, Anton J. J.; Pag?, Christian; De Baets, Sarah; Quine, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted significant interactions between soil C reservoir dynamics and global climate and environmental change. However, in order to estimate the future soil organic carbon sequestration potential and related ecosystem services well, more spatially detailed predictions are needed. The present study made detailed predictions of future spatial evolution (at 250 m resolution) of topsoil SOC driven by climate change and land use change for France up to the year 2100 by takin...

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases during the life-cycles of staple food production in China and their mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Longlong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ti, Chaopu [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Bolun [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xia, Yongqiu [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: yanxy@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Life-cycle analysis of staple food (rice, flour and corn-based fodder) production and assessments of the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) and reactive nitrogen (Nr) releases, from environmental and economic perspectives, help to develop effective mitigation options. However, such evaluations have rarely been executed in China. We evaluated the GHG and Nr releases per kilogram of staple food production (carbon and Nr footprints) and per unit of net economic benefit (CO{sub 2-NEB} and Nr{sub -NEB}), and explored their mitigation potential. Carbon footprints of food production in China were obviously higher than those in some developed countries. There was a high spatial variation in the footprints, primarily attributable to differences in synthetic N use (or CH{sub 4} emissions) per unit of food production. Provincial carbon footprints had a significant linear relationship with Nr footprints, attributed to large contribution of N fertilizer use to both GHG and Nr releases. Synthetic N fertilizer applications and CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the carbon footprints, while NH{sub 3} volatilization and N leaching were the main contributors to the Nr footprints. About 564 (95% uncertainty range: 404–701) Tg CO{sub 2} eq GHG and 10 (7.4–12.4) Tg Nr-N were released every year during 2001–2010 from staple food production. This caused the total damage costs of 325 (70–555) billion ¥, equivalent to nearly 1.44% of the Gross Domestic Product of China. Moreover, the combined damage costs and economic input costs, accounted for 66%-80% of the gross economic benefit generated from food production. A reduction of 92.7 Tg CO{sub 2} eq yr{sup −1} and 2.2 Tg Nr-N yr{sup −1} could be achieved by reducing synthetic N inputs by 20%, increasing grain yields by 5% and implementing off-season application of straw and mid-season drainage practices for rice cultivation. In order to realize these scenarios, an ecological compensation scheme should be established to incentivize

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases during the life-cycles of staple food production in China and their mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Longlong; Ti, Chaopu; Li, Bolun; Xia, Yongqiu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Life-cycle analysis of staple food (rice, flour and corn-based fodder) production and assessments of the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) and reactive nitrogen (Nr) releases, from environmental and economic perspectives, help to develop effective mitigation options. However, such evaluations have rarely been executed in China. We evaluated the GHG and Nr releases per kilogram of staple food production (carbon and Nr footprints) and per unit of net economic benefit (CO 2-NEB and Nr -NEB ), and explored their mitigation potential. Carbon footprints of food production in China were obviously higher than those in some developed countries. There was a high spatial variation in the footprints, primarily attributable to differences in synthetic N use (or CH 4 emissions) per unit of food production. Provincial carbon footprints had a significant linear relationship with Nr footprints, attributed to large contribution of N fertilizer use to both GHG and Nr releases. Synthetic N fertilizer applications and CH 4 emissions dominated the carbon footprints, while NH 3 volatilization and N leaching were the main contributors to the Nr footprints. About 564 (95% uncertainty range: 404–701) Tg CO 2 eq GHG and 10 (7.4–12.4) Tg Nr-N were released every year during 2001–2010 from staple food production. This caused the total damage costs of 325 (70–555) billion ¥, equivalent to nearly 1.44% of the Gross Domestic Product of China. Moreover, the combined damage costs and economic input costs, accounted for 66%-80% of the gross economic benefit generated from food production. A reduction of 92.7 Tg CO 2 eq yr −1 and 2.2 Tg Nr-N yr −1 could be achieved by reducing synthetic N inputs by 20%, increasing grain yields by 5% and implementing off-season application of straw and mid-season drainage practices for rice cultivation. In order to realize these scenarios, an ecological compensation scheme should be established to incentivize farmers to gradually adopt knowledge

  8. A Framework for Using Rural Markets to Analyze Local Food Shortage Resilience and Mitigation Potential in sub-Saharan Africa based on Evidence from Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M. J.; Baylis, K.; Evans, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to have negative impacts on agriculture and food security in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Regional and temporal climate variability will disburse these effects, creating opportunities to mitigate food shortages through well-studied international, regional, and national food flows and associated food prices. However, most food products consumed and traded by rural smallhold farmers rely on local market exchanges that take place outside the scope of prevalent regional and national market analysis. There is little empirical evidence on these rural markets outside of their potential for smallholder agribusiness. However, they offer an unopened window into local food supply and the nuances of food movements in rural areas. Our research explores how to analyze the cost and availability of food products in rural markets and their connection with each other, as well as with nearby households' food security. This new approach of using food markets as a unit of analysis necessitates a new framework that groups markets based on a hierarchy of variables relevant to their role as food movers and suppliers. In our research, we collected price and source data for 22 commodities bought and sold within 52 rural markets in 12 districts spatially distributed throughout Zambia. We continue to collect data via phone interviews with 206 traders and market managers within these markets each month. We used this data to develop a typology of stationary rural food markets based on their size in terms of traders and buyers, the diversity of commodities available year-round and seasonally, their price transmission with other markets, and their trading scheme and governance. The result is a dynamic framework with varying weights on each variable that classifies which characteristic of markets under which conditions increase their potential for local food shortage resilience and mitigation. We also allocate for commodity-specific scenarios to allow for modeling

  9. Malaria morbidity and mortality in Ebola-affected countries caused by decreased health-care capacity, and the potential effect of mitigation strategies: a modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Patrick G T; White, Michael T; Griffin, Jamie T; Reynolds, Alison; Ferguson, Neil M; Ghani, Azra C

    2015-07-01

    The ongoing Ebola epidemic in parts of west Africa largely overwhelmed health-care systems in 2014, making adequate care for malaria impossible and threatening the gains in malaria control achieved over the past decade. We quantified this additional indirect burden of Ebola virus disease. We estimated the number of cases and deaths from malaria in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone from Demographic and Health Surveys data for malaria prevalence and coverage of malaria interventions before the Ebola outbreak. We then removed the effect of treatment and hospital care to estimate additional cases and deaths from malaria caused by reduced health-care capacity and potential disruption of delivery of insecticide-treated bednets. We modelled the potential effect of emergency mass drug administration in affected areas on malaria cases and health-care demand. If malaria care ceased as a result of the Ebola epidemic, untreated cases of malaria would have increased by 45% (95% credible interval 43-49) in Guinea, 88% (83-93) in Sierra Leone, and 140% (135-147) in Liberia in 2014. This increase is equivalent to 3·5 million (95% credible interval 2·6 million to 4·9 million) additional untreated cases, with 10,900 (5700-21,400) additional malaria-attributable deaths. Mass drug administration and distribution of insecticide-treated bednets timed to coincide with the 2015 malaria transmission season could largely mitigate the effect of Ebola virus disease on malaria. These findings suggest that untreated malaria cases as a result of reduced health-care capacity probably contributed substantially to the morbidity caused by the Ebola crisis. Mass drug administration can be an effective means to mitigate this burden and reduce the number of non-Ebola fever cases within health systems. UK Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2015 Walker et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY

  10. Quantification of seep-related methane gas emissions at Tommeliten, North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider von Deimling, J.S.; Rehder, G.; Greinert, J.; McGinnnis, D.F.; Boetius, A.; Linke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tommeliten is a prominent methane seep area in the Central North Sea. Previous surveys revealed shallow gas-bearing sediments and methane gas ebullition into the water column. In this study, the in situ methane flux at Tommeliten is re-assessed and the potential methane transport to the atmosphere

  11. Potential water-quality effects of coal-bed methane production water discharged along the upper Tongue River, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Stacy M.; Nimick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Water quality in the upper Tongue River from Monarch, Wyoming, downstream to just upstream from the Tongue River Reservoir in Montana potentially could be affected by discharge of coal-bed methane (CBM) production water (hereinafter referred to as CBM discharge). CBM discharge typically contains high concentrations of sodium and other ions that could increase dissolved-solids (salt) concentrations, specific conductance (SC), and sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR) in the river. Increased inputs of sodium and other ions have the potential to alter the river's suitability for agricultural irrigation and aquatic ecosystems. Data from two large tributaries, Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek, indicate that these tributaries were large contributors to the increase in SC and SAR in the Tongue River. However, water-quality data were not available for most of the smaller inflows, such as small tributaries, irrigation-return flows, and CBM discharges. Thus, effects of these inflows on the water quality of the Tongue River were not well documented. Effects of these small inflows might be subtle and difficult to determine without more extensive data collection to describe spatial patterns. Therefore, synoptic water-quality sampling trips were conducted in September 2005 and April 2006 to provide a spatially detailed profile of the downstream changes in water quality in this reach of the Tongue River. The purpose of this report is to describe these downstream changes in water quality and to estimate the potential water-quality effects of CBM discharge in the upper Tongue River. Specific conductance of the Tongue River through the study reach increased from 420 to 625 microsiemens per centimeter (.μS/cm; or 49 percent) in the downstream direction in September 2005 and from 373 to 543 .μS/cm (46 percent) in April 2006. Large increases (12 to 24 percent) were measured immediately downstream from Goose Creek and Prairie Dog Creek during both sampling trips. Increases attributed to

  12. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  13. Future C loss in mid-latitude mineral soils: climate change exceeds land use mitigation potential in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersmans, Jeroen; Arrouays, Dominique; Van Rompaey, Anton J J; Pagé, Christian; De Baets, Sarah; Quine, Timothy A

    2016-11-03

    Many studies have highlighted significant interactions between soil C reservoir dynamics and global climate and environmental change. However, in order to estimate the future soil organic carbon sequestration potential and related ecosystem services well, more spatially detailed predictions are needed. The present study made detailed predictions of future spatial evolution (at 250 m resolution) of topsoil SOC driven by climate change and land use change for France up to the year 2100 by taking interactions between climate, land use and soil type into account. We conclude that climate change will have a much bigger influence on future SOC losses in mid-latitude mineral soils than land use change dynamics. Hence, reducing CO 2 emissions will be crucial to prevent further loss of carbon from our soils.

  14. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, Roger D.; Blake, John I.; Crolly, William T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  15. Oceanographic, Air-sea Interaction, and Environmental Aspects of Artificial Upwelling Produced by Wave-Inertia Pumps for Potential Hurricane Intensity Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, A.; Dean, C.

    2017-12-01

    The artificial upwelling system consisting of the wave-inertia pumps driven by surface waves can produce flow of cold deep water to the surface. One of the recently proposed potential applications of the artificial upwelling system is the hurricane intensity mitigation. Even relatively small reduction of intensity may provide significant benefits. The ocean heat content (OHC) is the "fuel" for hurricanes. The OHC can be reduced by mixing of the surface layer with the cold water produced by wave-inertia pumps. Implementation of this system for hurricane mitigation has several oceanographic and air-sea interaction aspects. The cold water brought to the surface from a deeper layer has higher density than the surface water and, therefore, tends to sink back down. The mixing of the cold water produced by artificial upwelling depends on environmental conditions such as stratification, regional ocean circulation, and vertical shear. Another aspect is that as the sea surface temperature drops below the air temperature, the stable stratification develops in the atmospheric boundary layer. The stable atmospheric stratification suppresses sensible and latent heat air-sea fluxes and reduces the net longwave irradiance from the sea surface. As a result, the artificial upwelling may start increasing the OHC (though still reducing the sea surface temperature). In this work, the fate of the cold water in the stratified environment with vertical shear has been studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. A 3D large eddy simulation model is initialized with observational temperature, salinity, and current velocity data from a sample location in the Straits of Florida. A periodic boundary condition is set along the direction of the current, which allows us to simulate infinite fetch. The model results indicate that the cold water brought to the sea surface by a wave-inertia pump forms a convective jet. This jet plunges into the upper ocean mixed layer and penetrates the

  16. Mitigation of emissions from wildfires in Australia: potential for use of managed prescribed fire in eucalypt dominated vegetation, present and future. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstock, R.; Price, O.; Williams, D.; Hutley, L.

    2010-12-01

    Species of Eucalyptus and other closely related genera dominate woodlands and forests in the moist regions of tropical and temperate Australia. Respectively, these savanna woodlands and open forests are highly fire prone, though fire regimes are fundamentally different due to inherent influences of weather, fuels, ignitions and terrain. Fuel reduction via prescribed burning is commonly used in both savanna woodlands and temperate, open forests with the intention of reducing the incidence, extent and intensity of wildfires and subsequent risk to human and environmental assets. The prospect of mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from wildfires provides further impetus for extensive use of prescribed fire. This potential is dependent on a number of key factors, namely the efficacy of this fuel reduction technique and the relative difference in the intensity of prescribed fires and wildfires. We present a conceptual model of the potential for prescribed fire to mitigate emissions based on these key factors. Prescribed burning requires an outlay of emissions in return for a saving through a reduction in area burned and intensity of subsequent wildfires. If the reduction in area burned by wildfires, achieved through prescribed burning, is relatively small then the reduction in intensity of wildfires must be relatively large in order to achieve a net reduction in emissions. This is not the case if prescribed burning has a strong effect in reducing the size of wildfires. Contemporary data indicate that the effect of prescribed burning in reducing area burned by wildfires is high in savanna woodlands but relatively low in forests. Corresponding potential for mitigation of emissions is therefore high and low respectively. We tested this prediction for forests by estimating fire intensity and fuel consumption using a range of fuel accumulation models for south eastern Australian forests. The results indicate that at the level of effectiveness of prescribed fire achieved

  17. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  18. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed. PMID:25741767

  19. Airborne Infectious Agents and Other Pollutants in Automobiles for Domestic Use: Potential Health Impacts and Approaches to Risk Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Sattar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world total of passenger cars is expected to go from the current one billion to >2.5 billion by 2050. Cars for domestic use account for ~74% of the world’s yearly production of motorized vehicles. In North America, ~80% of the commuters use their own car with another 5.6% travelling as passengers. With the current life-expectancy of 78.6 years, the average North American spends 4.3 years driving a car! This equates to driving 101 minutes/day with a lifetime driving distance of nearly 1.3 million km inside the confined and often shared space of the car with exposure to a mix of potentially harmful pathogens, allergens, endotoxins, particulates, and volatile organics. Such risks may increase in proportion to the unprecedented upsurge in the numbers of family cars globally. Though new technologies may reduce the levels of air pollution from car exhausts and other sources, they are unlikely to impact our in-car exposure to pathogens. Can commercial in-car air decontamination devices reduce the risk from airborne infections and other pollutants? We lack scientifically rigorous protocols to verify the claims of such devices. Here we discuss the essentials of a customized aerobiology facility and test protocols to assess such devices under field-relevant conditions.

  20. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashandy, Samir A. E.; El Awdan, Sally A.; Ebaid, Hossam; Alhazza, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis) against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks) caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS) led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication. PMID:26881036

  1. Antioxidant Potential of Spirulina platensis Mitigates Oxidative Stress and Reprotoxicity Induced by Sodium Arsenite in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir A. E. Bashandy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the protective role of Spirulina platensis (S. platensis against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative damage in rats. Arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2 at a dose of 6.3 mg/kg body weight for 8 weeks caused a significant accumulation of arsenic in testicular tissues as well as a decrease in the levels of testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione, and zinc. Moreover, it significantly decreased plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 levels and reduced sperm motility and sperm count. Arsenic (AS led to a significant increase in testicular malondialdehyde (MDA, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO, and sperm abnormalities. S. platensis at a dose of 300 mg/kg was found to attenuate As-induced oxidative stress, testicular damage, and sperm abnormalities by its potent antioxidant activity. S. platensis may represent a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from arsenic intoxication.

  2. Chemical Structure, Property and Potential Applications of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacillus subtilis in Petroleum Recovery and Spill Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Feng Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides produced by microorganisms are one of the five major classes of biosurfactants known and they have received much attention from scientific and industrial communities due to their powerful interfacial and biological activities as well as environmentally friendly characteristics. Microbially produced lipopeptides are a series of chemical structural analogues of different families and, among them, 26 families covering about 90 lipopeptide compounds have been reported in the last two decades. This paper reviews the chemical structural characteristics and molecular behaviors of surfactin, one of the representative lipopeptides of the 26 families. In particular, two novel surfactin molecules isolated from cell-free cultures of Bacillus subtilis HSO121 are presented. Surfactins exhibit strong self-assembly ability to form sphere-like micelles and larger aggregates at very low concentrations. The amphipathic and surface properties of surfactins are related to the existence of the minor polar and major hydrophobic domains in the three 3-D conformations. In addition, the application potential of surfactin in bioremediation of oil spills and oil contaminants, and microbial enhanced oil recovery are discussed.

  3. Mitigating potential of Ginkgo biloba extract and melatonin against hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by Bisphenol A in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssaa M. Wahby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A is one of the anthropogenic chemicals produced worldwide, currently released into the environment and causes endocrine-disruption. The largest environmental compartments of BPA are abiotic associated with water and suspended solids that becomes an integrated part of the food chain. The present study aimed to examine the possible protective role of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE, melatonin and their combination against BPA-induced liver and kidney toxicity of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: control, BPA, BPA plus GBE, BPA plus melatonin and BPA plus GBE plus melatonin. The elevated activities of plasma ALT and AST in addition to increased levels of urea and creatinine concomitant with the decreased total plasma protein could reflect the injurious effect of BPA. Liver and kidney levels of TBARS were significantly increased, while GSH, SOD and GPX were decreased in BPA-treated rats. Also, CAT and GST activities were significantly disrupted in the liver and kidney of rats treated with BPA. Moreover, BPA significantly increased the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the liver and kidney tissues. The histopathological analysis confirmed these results. All the previous alterations in the liver and kidney could be ameliorated when BPA-treated rats were co-administrated either with GBE, melatonin or their combination. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against BPA-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. Keywords: Bisphenol A, Ginkgo biloba extract, Melatonin, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidant enzymes, Histopathological analysis

  4. Potential Impact of Integrated Stigma Mitigation Interventions in Improving HIV/AIDS Service Delivery and Uptake for Key Populations in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Carrie E; Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou M; Liestman, Benjamin; Coly, Karleen; Ndour, Cheikh; Turpin, Gnilane; Mboup, Souleymane; Diop, Karim; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Castor, Delivette; Leye-Diouf, Nafissatou; Baral, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) are consistently shown to have a higher burden of HIV compared with other adults in Senegal. This study, HIV Prevention 2.0, evaluates the impact of the 3-tiered integrated stigma mitigation interventions (ISMIs) approach to optimizing HIV service delivery for key populations in Senegal. Baseline assessment includes a questionnaire and biological testing for HIV. A proportion of participants enrolled into a 24-month longitudinal cohort with questionnaires and biological testing every 3 months. In these preliminary analyses, ISMIs are evaluated from participants in the cohort through uptake of HIV services and implementation outcomes. Overall, 724 MSM and 758 FSW participated in the baseline assessment. HIV prevalence is 30.2% (n = 219/724) among MSM and 5.3% (n = 40/758) among FSW. Fear of seeking health services among MSM is 17.7% (n = 128/724) at baseline, 10.5% (n = 18/172) at month 3, and 9.8% (n = 10/102) at month 6 (P intervention is effective in addressing stigma; however, loss to follow-up was 41.1% among MSM and 10% among FSW. Baseline data reinforce the need for stigma mitigation interventions, combined with enhanced linkage and retention to optimize HIV treatment. Preliminary results show high levels of HIV-related risk determinants and suggest the potential utility of the ISMI to decrease perceived stigma relating to engagement in HIV prevention, treatment, and care services among key populations in Senegal.

  5. Methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis in anoxic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milucka, Jana; Kirf, Mathias; Lu, Lu; Krupke, Andreas; Lam, Phyllis; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel MM; Schubert, Carsten J

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater lakes represent large methane sources that, in contrast to the Ocean, significantly contribute to non-anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. Particularly mixed lakes are major methane emitters, while permanently and seasonally stratified lakes with anoxic bottom waters are often characterized by strongly reduced methane emissions. The causes for this reduced methane flux from anoxic lake waters are not fully understood. Here we identified the microorganisms and processes responsible for the near complete consumption of methane in the anoxic waters of a permanently stratified lake, Lago di Cadagno. Interestingly, known anaerobic methanotrophs could not be detected in these waters. Instead, we found abundant gamma-proteobacterial aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria active in the anoxic waters. In vitro incubations revealed that, among all the tested potential electron acceptors, only the addition of oxygen enhanced the rates of methane oxidation. An equally pronounced stimulation was also observed when the anoxic water samples were incubated in the light. Our combined results from molecular, biogeochemical and single-cell analyses indicate that methane removal at the anoxic chemocline of Lago di Cadagno is due to true aerobic oxidation of methane fuelled by in situ oxygen production by photosynthetic algae. A similar mechanism could be active in seasonally stratified lakes and marine basins such as the Black Sea, where light penetrates to the anoxic chemocline. Given the widespread occurrence of seasonally stratified anoxic lakes, aerobic methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis might have an important but so far neglected role in methane emissions from lakes. PMID:25679533

  6. Methane hydrates in nature - Current knowledge and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    our understanding of methane hydrates in nature. COL assembled a Methane Hydrate Project Science Team with members from academia, industry, and government. This Science Team worked with COL and DOE to develop and host the Methane Hydrate Community Workshop, which surveyed a substantial cross section of the methane hydrate research community for input on the most important research developments in our understanding of methane hydrates in nature and their potential role as an energy resource, a geohazard, and/or as an agent of global climate change. Our understanding of how methane hydrates occur in nature is still growing and evolving, and it is known with certainty that field, laboratory, and modeling studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of hydrates in nature and will continue to be a critical source of the information needed to advance our understanding of methane hydrates.

  7. Intensive Ammonia and Methane Oxidation in Organic Liquid Manure Crusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Daniel Aagren; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Schramm, Andreas

    methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and are known to accumulate nitrite and nitrate, indicating the presence of ammonia oxidizers (AOB). We have surveyed six manure tanks with organic covers to investigate the prevalence of MOB and AOB and to link the potential activity with physical and chemical aspects...... characterized with respect to O2 availability by in situ profiling with electrochemical microsensors. Results show that oxygen penetration increased from few micrometers up to several centimetres with crust age. AOB and ammonium oxidation are ubiquitously present in well-developed manure crusts whereas MOB were...... also CH4 emission mitigation, an organic surface crust can be effective if populations of MOB and AOB are allowed to build up....

  8. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2007-01-01

    More than 75 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban communities where people are exposed to levels of smog or pollution that exceed the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) safety standards. Urban air quality presents a unique problem because of a number of complex variables, including traffic congestion, energy production, and energy consumption activities, all of which can contribute to and affect air pollution and air quality in this environment. In environmental engineering, photocatalysis is an area of research whose potential for environmental clean-up is rapidly developing popularity and success. Photocatalysis, a natural chemical process, is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. Photocatalytic agents are activated when exposed to near UV (ultraviolet) light (320-400 nm) and water. In recent years, surfaces coated with photocatalytic materials have been extensively studied because pollutants on these surfaces will degrade when the surfaces are exposed to near UV light. Building materials, such as tiles, cement, glass, and aluminum sidings, can be coated with a thin film of a photocatalyst. These coated materials can then break down organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, into environmentally friendly compounds. These surfaces also exhibit a high affinity for water when exposed to UV light. Therefore, not only are the pollutants decomposed, but this superhydrophilic nature makes the surface self-cleaning, which helps to further increase the degradation rate by allowing rain and/or water to wash byproducts away. According to the Clean Air Act, each individual state is responsible for implementing prevention and regulatory programs to control air pollution. To operate an air quality program, states must adopt and/or develop a plan and obtain approval from the EPA. Federal approval provides a means for the EPA to maintain consistency among different state programs and ensures that they comply with the

  9. Methane emissions by Chinese economy. Inventory and embodiment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, G.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Concrete inventories for methane emissions and associated embodied emissions in production, consumption, and international trade are presented in this paper for the mainland Chinese economy in 2007 with most recent availability of relevant environmental resources statistics and the input-output table. The total CH 4 emission by Chinese economy 2007 estimated as 39,592.70 Gg is equivalent to three quarters of China's CO 2 emission from fuel combustion by the global thermodynamic potentials, and even by the commonly referred lower IPCC global warming potentials is equivalent to one sixth of China's CO 2 emission from fuel combustion and greater than the CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion of many economically developed countries such as UK, Canada, and Germany. Agricultural activities and coal mining are the dominant direct emission sources, and the sector of Construction holds the top embodied emissions in both production and consumption. The emission embodied in gross capital formation is more than those in other components of final demand characterized by extensive investment and limited consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied CH 4 emissions with the emission embodied in exports of 14,021.80 Gg, in magnitude up to 35.42% of the total direct emission. China's exports of textile products, industrial raw materials, and primary machinery and equipment products have a significant impact on its net embodied emissions of international trade balance. Corresponding policy measures such as agricultural carbon-reduction strategies, coalbed methane recovery, export-oriented and low value added industry adjustment, and low carbon energy polices to methane emission mitigation are addressed. (author)

  10. The Global Methane Budget 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunois, Marielle; Bousquet, Philippe; Poulter, Benjamin; Peregon, Anna; Ciais, Philippe; Canadell, Josep G.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Bastviken, David; Houweling, Sander; hide

    2016-01-01

    The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (approximately biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modeling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations).For the 2003-2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 TgCH4 yr(exp -1), range 540-568. About 60 of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50-65%). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP

  11. Methane-fueled vehicles: A promising market for coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deul, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most acceptable alternative fuel for motor vehicles is compressed natural gas (CNG). An important potential source of such gas is coalbed methane, much of which is now being wasted. Although there are no technological impediments to the use of CNG it has not been adequately promoted for a variety of reasons: structural, institutional and for coalbed gas, legal. The benefits of using CNG fuel are manifold: clean burning, low cost, abundant, and usable in any internal combustion engine. Even though more than 30,000 CNG vehicles are now in use in the U.S.A., they are not readily available, fueling stations are not easily accessible, and there is general apathy on the part of the public because of negligence by such agencies as the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency. The economic benefits of using methane are significant: 100,000 cubic feet of methane is equivalent to 800 gallons of gasoline. Considering the many millions of cubic feet methane wasted from coal mines conservation and use of this resource is a worthy national goal

  12. Methane storage in metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yabing; Zhou, Wei; Qian, Guodong; Chen, Banglin

    2014-08-21

    Natural gas (NG), whose main component is methane, is an attractive fuel for vehicular applications. Realization of safe, cheap and convenient means and materials for high-capacity methane storage can significantly facilitate the implementation of natural gas fuelled vehicles. The physisorption based process involving porous materials offers an efficient storage methodology and the emerging porous metal-organic frameworks have been explored as potential candidates because of their extraordinarily high porosities, tunable pore/cage sizes and easily immobilized functional sites. In this view, we provide an overview of the current status of metal-organic frameworks for methane storage.

  13. Measurement methods to assess methane production of individual dairy cows in a barn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract

    Mitigation of methane production from dairy cows is critical to reduce the dairy industry’s contribution to the production of greenhouse gases. None of current used methane measurement methods are flawless and application of the methods is limited to assess the

  14. An assessment of coalbed methane exploration projects in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, F.M.; Marchioni, D.L.; Anderson, T.C.; McDougall, W.J. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    A critical assessment of coalbed methane exploration opportunities is presented. Geological and production data from 59 well bores drilled in Canada's major coal basins are evaluated to assess the coalbed methane potential of the deposits. Data acquisition, geology, gas content, coal quality, adsorption isotherms, formation testing, and a technical assessment are presented for each area. Areas with the best potential for economic coalbed methane accumulations are indicated. 6 refs., 153 figs., 99 tabs.

  15. Characteristics of Methane Hydrate Formation in Artificial and Natural Media

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhang; Qingbai Wu; Yuzhong Yang

    2013-01-01

    The formation of methane hydrate in two significantly different media was investigated, using silica gel as an artificial medium and loess as a natural medium. The methane hydrate formation was observed through the depletion of water in the matrix, measured via the matrix potential and the relationship between the matrix potential and the water content was determined using established equations. The velocity of methane hydrate nucleation slowed over the course of the reaction, as it relied on...

  16. SAES St 909 pilot scale methane cracking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J. E.; Sessions, H. T.

    2008-01-01

    Pilot scale (0.5 kg) SAES St 909 methane cracking tests were conducted for potential tritium process applications. Up to 1400 hours tests were done at 700 deg.C, 202.7 kPa (1520 torr) with a 0.03 sLPM feed of methane plus impurities, in a 20 vol% hydrogen, balance helium, stream. Carbon dioxide gettered by St 909 can be equated to an equivalent amount of methane gettered, but equating nitrogen to an equivalent amount of methane was nitrogen feed composition dependent. A decreased hydrogen feed increased methane getter rates while a 30 deg.C drop in one furnace zone increased methane emissions by over a factor of 30. The impact of gettered nitrogen can be somewhat minimized if nitrogen feed to the bed has been stopped and sufficient time given to recover the methane cracking rate. (authors)

  17. Lambs Fed Fresh Winter Forage Rape (Brassica napus L.) Emit Less Methane than Those Fed Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and Possible Mechanisms behind the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Molano, German; Harrison, Scott J.; Luo, Dongwen; Janssen, Peter H.; Pacheco, David

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems. PMID:25803688

  18. Biological conversion of coal gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    Biological conversion of low-Btu coal synthesis gas to higher Btu methane was demonstrated using both pure co-cultures and/or adapted-mixed anaerobic bacteria. Peptostreptococcus productus metabolized coal gas to mainly acetate and CO/sub 2/. The co-cultures containing methanogens converted these products to methane. In mixed culture studies, CH/sub 4/ and small amounts of acetate were produced. Reactor studies using stirred-tank and immobilized cell reactors exhibited excellent potential to convert CO, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ to methane at higher gas flow rates. Gas retention times ranging from 0.7 to 2 hours and high agitation were required for 90 percent CO conversion in these systems. This paper also illustrates the potential of biological methanation and demonstrates the need for good mass transfer in converting gas phase substrates. 21 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. Doses from radioactive methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, A.W.; Kendall, G.M.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    A possible radiation hazard arises from exposure to methane labelled with either a 3 H or a 14 C nuclide. This radioactive methane could be released from a variety of sources, e.g. land burial sites containing radioactive waste. Standard assumptions adopted for vapours would not apply to an inert alkane like methane. This paper discusses mechanisms by which radioactive methane would irradiate tissues and provides estimates of doses. Data on skin thickness and metabolism of methane are discussed with reference to these mechanisms. It is found that doses are dominated by dose from the small fraction of methane which is inhaled and metabolised. This component of dose has been calculated under rather conservative assumptions. (author)

  20. Biochemical composition and methane production correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Moscoviz, Roman; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Substrates for anaerobic digestion are composed of heterogeneous and complex organic matter. General parameters of the organic matter can be used to describe its composition such as sugar, protein and lipid contents, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and kinetic of methane production. These parameters are required for the monitoring of digesters but their characterization are time consuming and expensive; thus, these parameters are rarely assessed all together....

  1. Bioelectrochemical approach for control of methane emission from wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shentan; Feng, Xiaojuan; Li, Xianning

    2017-10-01

    To harvest electricity and mitigate methane emissions from wetlands, a novel microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland (MFC-CW) was assembled with an anode placing in the rhizosphere and a cathode on the water surface. Plant-mediated methane accounted for 71-82% of the total methane fluxes. The bioanode served as an inexhaustible source of electron acceptors and resulted in reduced substantial methane emissions owing to electricigens outcompeting methanogens for carbon and electrons when substrate was deficient. However, when supplying sufficient organic carbon, both electricity and methane increased, indicating that electrogenesis and methanogenesis could co-exist in harmony. Direct methane emission (diffusion/ebullition) and plant-mediated methane emission were affected by operating conditions. Methanogenesis was significantly suppressed (∼98%) at HRT of 96h and with external resistance of 200Ω, accompanied with improved coulombic efficiency of 14.9% and current density of 187mA/m 2 . Contrarily, change of electrode polarity in the rhizosphere led to more methane efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Could Methane Oxidation in Lakes Be Enhanced by Eutrophication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grinsven, S.; Villanueva, L.; Harrison, J.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and eutrophication both affect aquatic ecosystems. Eutrophication is caused by high nutrient inputs, leading to algal blooms, oxygen depletion and disturbances of the natural balances in aquatic systems. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas produced biologically by anaerobic degradation of organic matter, is often released from the sediments of lakes and marine systems to overlying water and the atmosphere. Methane oxidation, a microbial methane consumption process, can limit methane emission from lakes and reservoirs by 50-80%. Here, we studied methane oxidation in a seasonally stratified reservoir: Lacamas Lake in Washington, USA. We found this lake has a large summer storage capacity of methane in its deep water layer, with a very active microbial community capable of oxidizing exceptionally high amounts of methane. The natural presence of terminal electron acceptors is, however, too low to support these high potential rates. Addition of eutrophication-related nutrients such as nitrate and sulfate increased the methane removal rates by 4 to 7-fold. The microbial community was studied using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and preliminary results indicate the presence of a relatively unknown facultative anaerobic methane oxidizer of the genus Methylomonas, capable of using nitrate as an electron donor. Experiments in which anoxic and oxic conditions were rapidly interchanged showed this facultative anaerobic methane oxidizer has an impressive flexibility towards large, rapid changes in environmental conditions and this feature might be key to the unexpectedly high methane removal rates in eutrophied and anoxic watersheds.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases during the life-cycles of staple food production in China and their mitigation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Longlong; Ti, Chaopu; Li, Bolun; Xia, Yongqiu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-06-15

    Life-cycle analysis of staple food (rice, flour and corn-based fodder) production and assessments of the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) and reactive nitrogen (Nr) releases, from environmental and economic perspectives, help to develop effective mitigation options. However, such evaluations have rarely been executed in China. We evaluated the GHG and Nr releases per kilogram of staple food production (carbon and Nr footprints) and per unit of net economic benefit (CO2-NEB and Nr-NEB), and explored their mitigation potential. Carbon footprints of food production in China were obviously higher than those in some developed countries. There was a high spatial variation in the footprints, primarily attributable to differences in synthetic N use (or CH4 emissions) per unit of food production. Provincial carbon footprints had a significant linear relationship with Nr footprints, attributed to large contribution of N fertilizer use to both GHG and Nr releases. Synthetic N fertilizer applications and CH4 emissions dominated the carbon footprints, while NH3 volatilization and N leaching were the main contributors to the Nr footprints. About 564 (95% uncertainty range: 404-701) TgCO2eqGHG and 10 (7.4-12.4) Tg Nr-N were released every year during 2001-2010 from staple food production. This caused the total damage costs of 325 (70-555) billion ¥, equivalent to nearly 1.44% of the Gross Domestic Product of China. Moreover, the combined damage costs and economic input costs, accounted for 66%-80% of the gross economic benefit generated from food production. A reduction of 92.7TgCO2eqyr(-1) and 2.2TgNr-Nyr(-1) could be achieved by reducing synthetic N inputs by 20%, increasing grain yields by 5% and implementing off-season application of straw and mid-season drainage practices for rice cultivation. In order to realize these scenarios, an ecological compensation scheme should be established to incentivize farmers to gradually adopt knowledge-based managements. Copyright © 2016

  4. Radon mitigation experience in difficult-to-mitigate schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Initial radon mitigation experience in schools has shown sub-slab depressurization (SSD) to be generally effective in reducing elevated levels of radon in schools that have a continuous layer of clean, coarse aggregate underneath the slab. However, mitigation experience is limited in schools without sub-slab aggregate and in schools with characteristics such as return-air ductwork underneath the slab or unducted return-air plenums in the drop ceiling that are open to the sub-slab area (via open tops of block walls). Mitigation of schools with utility tunnels and of schools constructed over crawl spaces is also limited. Three Maryland schools exhibiting some of the above characteristics are being researched to help understand the mechanisms that control radon entry and mitigation in schools where standard SSD systems are not effective. This paper discusses specific characteristics of potentially difficult-to-mitigate schools and, where applicable, details examples from the three Maryland schools

  5. A Compact, Low Resource Instrument to Measure Atmospheric Methane and Carbon Dioxide From Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafkin, Scot; Davis, Michael; Varner, Ruth; Basu, Sourish; Bruhwiler, Lori; Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathy; Roming, Pete; Soto, Alejandro; Tapley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Methane is the second most important radiatively active trace gas forcing anthropogenic climate change. Methane has ˜28 times more warming potential than carbon dioxide on a 100-year time horizon, and the background atmospheric concentration of methane has increased by more than 150% compared to pre-industrial levels. The increase in methane abundance is driven by a combination of direct human activity, such as fossil fuel extraction and agriculture, and natural feedback processes that respond to human-induced climate change, such as increased wetland production. Accurate accounting of the exchange between the atmosphere and the natural and anthropogenic methane reservoirs is necessary to predict how methane concentration will increase going forward, how that increase will modulate the natural methane cycle, and how effective policy decisions might be at mitigating methane-induced climate change. Monitoring and quantifying methane source intensity and spatial-temporal variability has proven challenging; there are unresolved and scientifically significant discrepancies between flux estimates based on limited surface measurements (the so-called "bottom-up" method) and the values derived from limited, remotely-sensed estimates from orbit and modeling (the so-called "top-down" method). A major source of the discrepancy between bottom-up and top-down estimates is likely a result of insufficient accuracy and resolution of space-based instrumentation. Methane releases, especially anthropogenic sources, are often at kilometer-scale (or less), whereas past remote sensing instruments have at least an order of magnitude greater footprint areas. Natural sources may be larger in areal extent, but the enhancement over background levels can be just a few percent, which demands high spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratios from monitoring instrumentation. In response to the need for higher performance space-based methane monitoring, we have developed a novel, compact, low

  6. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Sun, Miao; Caps, Valerie; Pelletier, Jeremie; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2013-01-01

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin

  7. Methane and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reay, D.; Smith, P.; Amstel, van A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas and is estimated to be responsible for approximately one-fifth of man-made global warming. Per kilogram, it is 25 times more powerful than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time horizon -- and global warming is likely to enhance methane release from a number of

  8. Reconciling Top-Down and Bottom-Up Estimates of Oil and Gas Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches that use aircraft, tower, or satellite-based measurements of well-mixed air to quantify regional methane emissions have typically estimated higher emissions from the natural gas supply chain when compared to bottom-up inventories. A coordinated research campaign in October 2013 used simultaneous top-down and bottom-up approaches to quantify total and fossil methane emissions in the Barnett Shale region of Texas. Research teams have published individual results including aircraft mass-balance estimates of regional emissions and a bottom-up, 25-county region spatially-resolved inventory. This work synthesizes data from the campaign to directly compare top-down and bottom-up estimates. A new analytical approach uses statistical estimators to integrate facility emission rate distributions from unbiased and targeted high emission site datasets, which more rigorously incorporates the fat-tail of skewed distributions to estimate regional emissions of well pads, compressor stations, and processing plants. The updated spatially-resolved inventory was used to estimate total and fossil methane emissions from spatial domains that match seven individual aircraft mass balance flights. Source apportionment of top-down emissions between fossil and biogenic methane was corroborated with two independent analyses of methane and ethane ratios. Reconciling top-down and bottom-up estimates of fossil methane emissions leads to more accurate assessment of natural gas supply chain emission rates and the relative contribution of high emission sites. These results increase our confidence in our understanding of the climate impacts of natural gas relative to more carbon-intensive fossil fuels and the potential effectiveness of mitigation strategies.

  9. Gene and transcript abundances of bacterial type III secretion systems from the rumen microbiome are correlated with methane yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Janine; Soni, Priya; Li, Yang; Ganesh, Siva; Kelly, William J; Leahy, Sinead C; Shi, Weibing; Froula, Jeff; Rubin, Edward M; Attwood, Graeme T

    2017-08-08

    methane emissions in ruminants, and identifies these secretions systems as potential new targets for methane mitigation research. The effects of S. dextrinosolvens on the growth of rumen methanogens in co-cultures indicate that bacteria-methanogen interactions are important modulators of methane production in ruminant animals.

  10. Evaluating the coalbed methane potential of the Gething coals in NE British Columbia, Canada: An example from the Highhat area, Peace River coalfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentzis, Thomas; Schoderbek, David; Pollock, Sharlene

    2006-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous coals from the Gething Formation in the Highhat area of NE British Columbia were analyzed for gas content as part of an exploration program. Samples of continuous wireline core and cuttings were processed. Vitrinite reflectance and dry ash-free volatile matter both indicate that the rank of the coal is low volatile bituminous. The coals are well cleated and contain shear fractures, as seen in the core description and in the FMI logs. Coal cuttings were screened to remove a very fine fraction (-200 mesh) and then treated in heavy liquid (SG 1.75 g/cm 3 ) to remove inorganic lithologies. For the cores, total gas content ranges from 516.9 to 876.8 scf/t (16.1-27.4 cm 3 /g; adb) with a mean value of 671.1 scf/t (20.9 cm 3 /g) at 20.5% ash (adb). For the cuttings, all desorbed gas was assigned to the +200 mesh/float 1.75 SG weight fraction. On this recalculated basis, total gas content for the processed cuttings ranges from 651.8 scf/t (20.4 cm 3 /g) to a high value of 2083.6 scf/t (65.1 cm 3 /g; adb). Weight yields after screening/floating are generally low. For samples yielding very low values ( 3 /g; adb) with a mean value of 760.4 scf/t (23.8 cm 3 /g) at 15.5% ash (adb). The desorbed gas is predominantly methane (98-99%; air-free and acid-free basis) and average carbon dioxide is about 6%. Methane is thermogenic based on isotopic analysis. Methane adsorption isotherm analysis at reservoir conditions shows that the Gething coals are at least 95% gas saturated. Using 1300 m as a depth cut-off and an average gas content of 672 scf/t (21 cm 3 /g), GIP (gas-in-place) in the Highhat prospect area is estimated to be 270 bcf (billion cubic feet). This translates to 24.5 bcf/section (a section is equal to a square mile or 640 acres) for the 11 sections of land in the vicinity of the corehole or to 3 bcf/m/mile 2 . The low absolute permeability of the coals (0.5 md) is the main limiting factor for producibility and commercial development of the resource. Even

  11. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies

  12. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-11-13

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies.

  13. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Azevedo, Ines Lima

    2009-09-01

    In this analysis, the authors projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions to 2050. Their analysis of various scenarios indicated that Japan's CO{sub 2} emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 26-58% from the current level (FY 2005). These results suggest that Japan could set a CO{sub 2} emission reduction target for 2050 at between 30% and 60%. In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050 from the present level, Japan will have to strongly promote energy conservation at the same pace as an annual rate of 1.9% after the oil crises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP (TPES/GDP) in 2050 by 60% from 2005) and expand the share of non-fossil energy sources in total primary energy supply in 2050 to 50% (to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per primary energy demand (CO{sub 2}/TPES) in 2050 by 40% from 2005). Concerning power generation mix in 2050, nuclear power will account for 60%, solar and other renewable energy sources for 20%, hydro power for 10% and fossil-fired generation for 10%, indicating substantial shift away from fossil fuel in electric power supply. Among the mitigation measures in the case of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050, energy conservation will make the greatest contribution to the emission reduction, being followed by solar power, nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. In order to realize this massive CO{sub 2} abatement, however, Japan will have to overcome technological and economic challenges including the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable technologies.

  14. Assessment of the potential of state-of-the-art biomass technologies in contributing to a sustainable SADC regional mitigation energy scenario[Southern African Development Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamba, F.D.; Matsika, E. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia)

    2003-09-01

    Southern Africa's energy supply is based on power sector collaboration - the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). SAPP was created in 1995 through an inter-utility memorandum of understanding among 12 of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) utilities including Congo DR. The aims of SAPP are: To increase regional security of supply; To smoothen load curves; To engender economies of scale in the supply base; To increase revenue for exporting countries by opening up a ready market; To share power to meet national shortfalls and to off set temporary deficits in the medium term, and in the long term to adopt and implement power sharing as an operational strategy aimed at maximising financial and environmental benefits. Currently, SAPP has an operational installed capacity of 45.000 MW, of which 84% is thermal, predominantly coal based, which represents 79% of the total supply. 16% of the total SAPP interconnected supply is hydro, while the contribution from biomass is currently non-existent. The sugar industry in Southern Africa can significantly alter this picture. Increased competitive pressures serve as economic incentives for the sugar industry to diversify their product portfolio by investing in renewable energy applications. Of the new state-of-the-art biomass based technologies available Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine (CEST) is the most promising. Application of CEST technologies in Southern Africa will modestly contribute towards a sustainable energy supply mitigation scenario. If implemented, the contribution of bioenergy will increase from 0.5% for the baseline situation, to 2.5% in 2030 and 3.0% in 2050. This scenario will also yield global environmental benefits potential through saving of GHG reductions to 14 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2030 and 20 million tonnes CO{sub 2} in 2050. Furthermore, this paper produces a monogram which will assist investors in making decisions whether to invest in the Kyoto Protocols Clean Development

  15. Biological processes for mitigation of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, John R. [California Univ., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Biological processes driven by photosynthesis cycle through the atmosphere well over an order of magnitude more CO{sub 2} than is currently emitted from the combustion of fossils fuels. Already human activities control and appropriate almost half the primary photosynthetic productivity of the planet. Better management of natural and man-made ecosystems affords many opportunities for mitigation of greenhouse gases, through sink enhancements, source reduction and substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels. Biofuels can be recovered from most organic wastes, from agricultural and forestry residues, and from biomass produced solely for energy use. However, the currently low costs of fossil fuels limits the market for biofuels. Accounting for the greenhouse mitigation value of biofuels would significantly increase their contribution to world fuel suppliers, estimated to be currently equivalent to about 15% of fossil fuel usage. Another limiting factor in expanding the use of biofuels is the relatively low solar energy conversion efficiencies of photosynthesis. Currently well below 1% of solar energy is converted into biomass energy even by intensive agricultural or forestry systems, with peak conversion efficiencies about 2 to 3% for sugar cane or microalgae cultures. One approach to increase photosynthetic efficiencies, being developed at the University of California Berkeley, is to reduce the amount of light-gathering chlorophyll in microalgae and higher plants. This would reduce mutual shading and also increase photosynthetic efficiencies under full sunlight intensities. Estimates of the potential of photosynthetic greenhouse mitigation processes vary widely. However, even conservative estimates for biofuels substituting for fossil fuels project the potential to reduce a large fraction of current increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Biofuels production will require integration with existing agronomic, forestry and animal husbandry systems, and improved

  16. Feasibility of atmospheric methane removal using methanotrophic biotrickling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sukhwan; Carey, Jeffrey N; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2009-07-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential ~23 times that of carbon dioxide. Here, we describe the modeling of a biotrickling filtration system composed of methane-consuming bacteria, i.e., methanotrophs, to assess the utility of these systems in removing methane from the atmosphere. Model results indicate that assuming the global average atmospheric concentration of methane, 1.7 ppmv, methane removal is ineffective using these methanotrophic biofilters as the methane concentration is too low to enable cell survival. If the concentration is increased to 500-6,000 ppmv, however, similar to that found above landfills and in concentrated animal feeding operations (factory farms), 4.98-35.7 tons of methane can be removed per biofilter per year assuming biotrickling filters of typical size (3.66 m in diameter and 11.5 m in height). Using reported ranges of capital, operational, and maintenance costs, the cost of the equivalent ton of CO(2) removal using these systems is $90-$910 ($2,070-$20,900 per ton of methane), depending on the influent concentration of methane and if heating is required. The use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible and, provided that either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO(2) credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  17. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  18. Temporal variation of aerobic methane oxidation over a tidal cycle in a wetland of northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. Y.; Wang, P. L.; Lin, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Aerobic methanotrophy plays an important role in controlling methane emitted from wetlands. However, the activity of aerobic methanotrophy regulated by temporal fluctuation of oxygen and methane supply in tidal wetlands is not well known. This study aims to examine the dynamics of methane fluxes and potential aerobic methane consumption rates in a tidal wetland of northern Taiwan, where the variation of environmental characteristics, such as sulfate and methane concentration in pore water has been demonstrated during a tidal cycle. Two field campaigns were carried out in December of 2016 and March of 2017. Fluxes of methane emission, methane concentrations in surface sediments and oxygen profiles were measured at different tidal phases. Besides, batch incubations were conducted on surface sediments in order to quantify potential microbial methane consumption rates and to derive the kinetic parameters for aerobic methanotrophy. Our results demonstrated temporal changes of the surface methane concentration and the methane emission flux during a tidal cycle, while the oxygen flux into the sediment was kept at a similar magnitude. The methane flux was low when the surface was exposed for both shortest and longest periods of time. The potential aerobic methane oxidation rate was high for sample collected from the surface sediments exposed the longest. No correlation could be found between the potential aerobic methane oxidation rate and either the oxygen downward flux or methane emission flux. The decoupled relationships between these observed rates and fluxes suggest that, rather than aerobic methanotrophy, heterotrophic respirations exert a profound control on oxygen flux, and the methane emission is not only been affected by methane consumption but also methane production at depths. The maximum potential rate and the half saturation concentration determined from the batch incubations were high for the surface sediments collected in low tide, suggesting that aerobic

  19. Modelled impacts of mitigation measures on greenhouse gas emissions from Finnish agriculture up to 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. REGINA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission scenarios based on integrated quantitative modelling are a valuable tool in planning strategies for greenhouse gas mitigation. By estimating the potential of individual mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, resources can be targeted to the most promising policy measures. This paper reports two agricultural emission scenarios for Finland up to year 2020, one baseline scenario (Scenario 1 based on the projected agricultural production levels determined by markets and agricultural policy and one with selected mitigation measures included (Scenario 2. Measures selected for the analysis consisted of 1 keeping agricultural area at the current level, 2 decreasing the proportion of organic soils, 3 increasing the proportion of grass cultivation on organic soils and 4 supporting biogas production on farms. Starting from 2005, the emissions of nitrous oxide and methane from agriculture would decrease 2.3% in Scenario 1 by 2020 whereas the respective decrease would be 11.5% in Scenario 2. According to the results, mitigation measures targeted to cultivation of organic soils have the largest potential to reduce the emissions. Such measures would include reducing the area of cultivated organic soils and increasing the proportion of perennial crops on the remaining area.

  20. The importance of a methane reduction policy for the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard; Le Treut, Herve

    2012-01-01

    There is currently a debate on the ability of the simple Global Warming Potential (GWP) concept to describe adequately the effects of the different gases under different mitigation strategies. Public action to curve down greenhouse gases may target different time scales, and different climate parameters. A recent IPCC expert meeting has concluded that, while GWP is a useful index, defined in a clear and physical manner, and improved by a continuous review process, it has not been designed to address the whole range of policies and is not adequate to deal with some of them. There is a concern about the best way to include the role of short-lived pollution, which is reflected in many of the papers presented at the IPCC Expert Meeting. Focusing again on methane, and depending on the context, the CO 2 equivalent value appear too large or too small, with foreseeable consequences on the negotiations and policies. On one side, the surface temperature of the Earth, at a given time, is largely at equilibrium with the concentration of all greenhouse gases, including methane. As the concentration due to a pulse of methane declines very rapidly with time, the integration concept associated to GWP does not provide a correct assessment of this temperature. It is the reason why a different concept, the Global Temperature Potential (GTP) has been proposed as more suitable for this purpose. A detail computation of the GTP would involve a model of surface temperature evolutions, but the GTP of CH 4 at year T may be approximated as the radiative forcing from the CH 4 concentration that would result from a pulse emission of 1 tonne after T years, compared to that of a pulse of 1 tonne of CO 2 after the same T years. On one side, we may think that GTP is better suited to estimate the impact of methane policies, because one of the reasons why we need short-term actions to curb down methane is precisely the fear of seeing the global earth temperature rising above the 2 deg. C level. On

  1. Mechanics of coalbed methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, J C; Rollins, J B [Crawley, Gillespie and Associates, Inc. (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Understanding the behaviour of coalbed methane reservoirs and the mechanics of production is crucial to successful management of coalbed methane resources and projects. This paper discusses the effects of coal properties and coalbed methane reservoir characteristics on gas production rates and recoveries with a review of completion techniques for coalbed methane wells. 4 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Challenges related to methanization - Bibliographical synthesis by France Nature Environnement. Opinion of FNE on methanization: Which challenges and which desirable development? Methascope: assessment support tool for a methanization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desaunay, Thomas; Mathien, Adeline; Dorioz, Camille; Saint-Aubin, Thibaud; Banaszuk, Agnes; Badereau, Benedicte de; Capiez, Nathalie; Zoffoli, Maxime

    2014-12-01

    A first document proposes a bibliographical synthesis on the various challenges related to methanization. It addresses the following issues: biogas and public policies, methanization as a natural process of transformation of organic matter, different installations for different territories, matters which can be used in methanization, biogas as a renewable and local energy which can be transformed according to needs, properties and uses of digestate, choice between composting and methanization, energetic crops, methanization and nitrates, regulation, potential risks and pollutions, economic profitability of projects. The second document states the FNE's opinion on methanization, its challenges and the associated desirable development. The third document is a guide which aims at providing knowledge on methanization, at easing dialogue between actors of a territory, and at elaborating a position and an opinion with respect to a specific methanization project on a territory

  3. Methane-oxidizing seawater microbial communities from an Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kirkpatrick, John B.; D'Hondt, Steven; Loose, Brice

    2018-06-01

    Marine microbial communities can consume dissolved methane before it can escape to the atmosphere and contribute to global warming. Seawater over the shallow Arctic shelf is characterized by excess methane compared to atmospheric equilibrium. This methane originates in sediment, permafrost, and hydrate. Particularly high concentrations are found beneath sea ice. We studied the structure and methane oxidation potential of the microbial communities from seawater collected close to Utqiagvik, Alaska, in April 2016. The in situ methane concentrations were 16.3 ± 7.2 nmol L-1, approximately 4.8 times oversaturated relative to atmospheric equilibrium. The group of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the natural seawater and incubated seawater was > 97 % dominated by Methylococcales (γ-Proteobacteria). Incubations of seawater under a range of methane concentrations led to loss of diversity in the bacterial community. The abundance of MOB was low with maximal fractions of 2.5 % at 200 times elevated methane concentration, while sequence reads of non-MOB methylotrophs were 4 times more abundant than MOB in most incubations. The abundances of MOB as well as non-MOB methylotroph sequences correlated tightly with the rate constant (kox) for methane oxidation, indicating that non-MOB methylotrophs might be coupled to MOB and involved in community methane oxidation. In sea ice, where methane concentrations of 82 ± 35.8 nmol kg-1 were found, Methylobacterium (α-Proteobacteria) was the dominant MOB with a relative abundance of 80 %. Total MOB abundances were very low in sea ice, with maximal fractions found at the ice-snow interface (0.1 %), while non-MOB methylotrophs were present in abundances similar to natural seawater communities. The dissimilarities in MOB taxa, methane concentrations, and stable isotope ratios between the sea ice and water column point toward different methane dynamics in the two environments.

  4. Raman studies of methane-ethane hydrate metastability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Strobel, Timothy A; Dec, Steven F; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-03-05

    The interconversion of methane-ethane hydrate from metastable to stable structures was studied using Raman spectroscopy. sI and sII hydrates were synthesized from methane-ethane gas mixtures of 65% or 93% methane in ethane and water, both with and without the kinetic hydrate inhibitor, poly(N-vinylcaprolactam). The observed faster structural conversion rate in the higher methane concentration atmosphere can be explained in terms of the differences in driving force (difference in chemical potential of water in sI