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Sample records for meter space telescope

  1. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  2. Station report on the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 1.2 meter telescope facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgarry, Jan F.; Zagwodzki, Thomas W.; Abbott, Arnold; Degnan, John J.; Cheek, Jack W.; Chabot, Richard S.; Grolemund, David A.; Fitzgerald, Jim D.

    1993-01-01

    The 1.2 meter telescope system was built for the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 1973-74 by the Kollmorgen Corporation as a highly accurate tracking telescope. The telescope is an azimuth-elevation mounted six mirror Coude system. The facility has been used for a wide range of experimentation including helioseismology, two color refractometry, lunar laser ranging, satellite laser ranging, visual tracking of rocket launches, and most recently satellite and aircraft streak camera work. The telescope is a multi-user facility housed in a two story dome with the telescope located on the second floor above the experimenter's area. Up to six experiments can be accommodated at a given time, with actual use of the telescope being determined by the location of the final Coude mirror. The telescope facility is currently one of the primary test sites for the Crustal Dynamics Network's new UNIX based telescope controller software, and is also the site of the joint Crustal Dynamics Project / Photonics Branch two color research into atmospheric refraction.

  3. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  4. Design Study of an 8 Meter Monolithic Mirror UV/Optical Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    This paper will review a recent NASA MSFC preliminary study that demonstrated the feasibility of launching a 6 to 8 meter class monolithic primary mirror telescope to Sun-Earth L2 using an Ares V. The study started with the unique capabilities of the Ares V vehicle and examined the feasibility of launching a large aperture low cost low risk telescope based on a conventional ground based glass primary mirror. Specific technical areas studied included optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; launch vehicle performance and trajectory; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN & C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; operations & servicing, mass budget and system cost. The study telescope was an on-axis three-mirror anastigmatic design with a fine steering mirror. The observatory has a 100 arc-minute (8.4 X 12 arc-minutes) of diffraction limited field of view at a wavelength les than 500 nm. The study assumed that the primary mirror would be fabricated from an existing Schott Zerodur residual VLT blank edged to 6.2 meters, 175 mm thick at the edge with a mass of 11,000 kg. The entire mass budget for the observatory including primary mirror, structure, light baffle tube, instruments, space craft, avionics, etc. is less than 40,000 kg - a 33% mass margin on the Ares V's 60,000 kg Sun-Earth L2 capability. An 8 meter class observatory would have a total mass of less than 60,000 kg of which the primary mirror is the largest contributor.

  5. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  6. Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  7. Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 166 9. Space telescopes Figure 9.1: Paraboloid telescope. In the following sections, NI...planets nearby a brighter star. Normal-incidence telescopes One-mirror telescope The one-mirror telescope (mostly an off-axis paraboloid ; Figure 9.1) has...rotation of the whole instrument (see SUMER/SOHO, Wilhelm et al (1995) and EIS/Hinode, Culhane et al (2007)). The paraboloid field curvature (Petzval

  8. Tolerancing of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer metering tube structure of a high-resolution space-borne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    High resolution space borne telescopes require dimensionally stable structures to meet very stringent optical requirements. Furthermore, high resolution space borne telescope structures need to have high stiffness and be lightweight in order to survive launch loads. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are lightweight and have tailorable mechanical properties like stiffness and coefficient of thermal expansion. However, mechanical properties are highly dependent on manufacturing processes and manufacturing precision. Moreover CFRP tend to absorb moisture which affects dimensional stability of the structure in the vacuum environment. In order to get specified properties out of manufacturing, tolerances need to be defined very accurately. In this paper, behavior of CFRP metering tube structure of a high resolution space borne camera is investigated for ply orientation, fiber and void content deviations which may arise from manufacturing errors and limitations. A computer code is generated to determine laminate properties of stacked up uni-directional (UD) laminae using classical laminate theory with fiber and matrix properties obtained from suppliers and literature. After defining laminate stackup, many samples are virtually created with ply orientations, volumetric fiber and void content that randomly deviates in a tolerance range which will be used in manufacturing. Normal distribution, standard deviation and mean values are presented for elasticity modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) and thermal conductivity in axial and transverse directions of quasi-isotropic stackups and other stackups which have properties presented in literature.

  9. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  10. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G.; TMT Project

    2004-12-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project is engaged in a design and development phase. TMT is proposed as a private-public partnership of the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (partners in the earlier CELT design study), AURA (designers of the earlier GSMT concept), and the Canadian ACURA consortium (designers of the VLOT concept). The partners are developing a 30 meter diameter, finely segmented filled aperture telescope with seeing-limited and diffraction-limited capabilities to address the broad range of GSMT science goals. The paper will present the status of the project development and telescope and instrument design.

  11. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  12. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing I: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöck, M.; Els, S.; Riddle, R.; Skidmore, W.; Travouillon, T.; Blum, R.; Bustos, E.; Chanan, G.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Gillett, P.; Gregory, B.; Nelson, J.; Otárola, A.; Seguel, J.; Vasquez, J.; Walker, A.; Walker, D.; Wang, L.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the conceptual and preliminary design processes of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the TMT site-testing team has spent the last five years measuring the atmospheric properties of five candidate mountains in North and South America with an unprecedented array of instrumentation. The site-testing period was preceded by several years of analyses selecting the five candidates: Cerros Tolar, Armazones and Tolonchar in northern Chile; San Pedro Mártir in Baja California, Mexico; and the 13 North (13N) site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Site testing was concluded by the selection of two remaining sites for further consideration, Armazones and Mauna Kea 13N. It showed that all five candidates are excellent sites for an extremely large astronomical observatory and that none of the sites stands out as the obvious and only logical choice based on its combined properties. This is the first article in a series discussing the TMT site-testing project.

  13. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing I: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Travouillon, T; Blum, R; Bustos, E; Chanan, G; Djorgovski, S G; Gillett, P; Gregory, B; Nelson, J; Otarola, A; Seguel, J; Vasquez, J; Walker, A; Walker, D; Wang, L

    2009-01-01

    As part of the conceptual and preliminary design processes of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the TMT site testing team has spent the last five years measuring the atmospheric properties of five candidate mountains in North and South America with an unprecedented array of instrumentation. The site testing period was preceded by several years of analyses selecting the five candidates, Cerros Tolar, Armazones and Tolonchar in northern Chile; San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico and the 13 North (13N) site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Site testing was concluded by the selection of two remaining sites for further consideration, Armazones and Mauna Kea 13N. It showed that all five candidates are excellent sites for an extremely large astronomical observatory and that none of the sites stands out as the obvious and only logical choice based on its combined properties. This is the first article in a series discussing the TMT site testing project.

  14. Modular assembled space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-09-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  15. NASA 3D Models: James Webb Space Telescope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. The project is working to a 2018 launch date. The JWST will...

  16. Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN; Rendong

    2006-01-01

    Five hundred meter aperture spherical radio telescope (FAST) will be the largest radio telescope in the world. The innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realizing a huge single dish in the most effective way. Three outstanding features of the telescope are the unique karst depressions as the sites, the active main reflector which corrects spherical aberration on the ground to achieve full polarization and a wide band without involving a complex feed system, and the light focus cabin driven by cables and servomechanism plus a parallel robot as secondary adjustable system to carry the most precise parts of the receivers. Being the most sensitive radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jumpstart many of the science goals, for example, the neutral hydrogen line surveying in distant galaxies out to very large redshifts, looking for the first shining star, detecting thousands of new pulsars, etc. Extremely interesting and exotic objects may yet await discovery by FAST. As a multi-science platform, the telescope will provide treasures to astronomers, as well as bring prosperity to other research, e.g. space weather study, deep space exploration and national security. The construction of FAST itself is expected to promote the development in high technology of relevant fields.

  17. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  18. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  19. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Carlstrom, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Busetti, S.; Chang, C. L.; Chauvin, E; Cho, H. -M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Halverson, N. W.; Heimsath, S.; Holzapfel, W. L.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, multi-color, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2 and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldov...

  20. Astrometry in the Galactic Center with the Thirty Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Yelda, Sylvana; Ghez, Andrea; Do, Tuan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the expected astrometric performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope's InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) as determined using simulated images of the Galactic center. This region of the Galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole and a dense nuclear stellar cluster, thus providing an ideal laboratory for testing crowded-field astrometry with the IRIS imager. Understanding the sources of astrometric error is also important for making precision measurements of the short-period stars orbiting the supermassive black hole in order to probe the curvature of space-time as predicted by General Relativity. Various sources of error are investigated, including read-out and photon noise, spatially variable point spread functions, confusion, static distortion for the IRIS imager, and the quadratic probe arm distortion. Optical distortion is the limiting source of error for bright stars (K < 15), while fainter sources will be limited by the effects of source confusion. A detailed astrometric error budget for t...

  1. The Spacewatch 1.8-meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M. L.; McMillan, R. S.; Barr, L. D.; Bressi, T. H.; Gehrels, T.

    1996-09-01

    The largest telescope in the world dedicated to the search for Earth-approaching asteroids and other previously unknown members of the solar system will soon be operational. Its 1.8-m aperture, large and sensitive CCD, and dedication to surveying will make it possible to find as many as 80,000 new asteroids per year. The mechanical design by Barr is optimized by finite-element analysis to provide high resonant frequencies. The mount is an altitude-azimuth type for compatibility with the mirror support cell contributed by the Multi-Mirror Telescope Observatory. Both axes are driven by DC servo motors directly coupled to friction rollers. The CCD instrument stage will also be rotated under computer control. The telescope was fabricated in the University Research Instrumentation Center (URIC). Construction of the building began on Kitt Peak on July 1, 1996. The optical configuration is f/2.7 folded prime focus with a flat secondary that locates the focal plane in the center of the optical truss near the altitude axis. This shortened the telescope enough to make the dome building affordable, and the flat secondary preserves the fast f/number of the primary mirror. The coma corrector designed by R. A. Buchroeder is a modified Klee design of 5 spherical lens elements plus a filter transmitting longward of the B bandpass. The filter greatly simplifies lens design and reduces sky background while not significantly reducing the brightness of asteroids. The distortion-free, flat, unvignetted field of view is 0.8 deg in diameter and the image scale is 1.0 arcsec/24 micron pixel. Construction of the Spacewatch Telescope has been funded by grants from the DoD Clementine Program, NASA, the University of Arizona Foundation, and other private and corporate donors.

  2. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  3. Deep space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo’s telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. Such information is there for the taking, from millimiter wavelengths to gamma rays. Forty years astronomy from space, covering now most of the e.m. spectrum, have thus given us a better understanding of our physical Universe then t...

  4. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Carlstrom, J E; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Busetti, S; Chang, C L; Chauvin, E; Cho, H -M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vieira, K Vanderlinde J D

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, multi-color, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2 and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect and to measure the high-l angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The data will be used to characterize the primordial matter power spectrum and to place constraints on the equation of state of dark energy.

  5. Hoku Kea - Educational 1meter Telescope on Mauna Kea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John; Fox, R.

    2008-03-01

    Hoku Ke'a is the newest (and smallest) telescope to join the pantheon of great telescopes on Mauna Kea. A one-meter class telescope will be installed at the current site of the University of Hawaii - Manoa (UHM) Institute for Astronomy (IfA) 0.6-meter (24") telescope. The building and dome will be replaced with a similar sized facility and a 0.9-meter (36") reflector installed. Equinox Interscience of Golden Colorado is the manufacturer and installer. Operated by the University of Hawaii - Hilo (UHH), this 0.9 meter reflector will be a remotely operated facility solely dedicated to teaching undergraduate astronomy majors the skills and practices of observational astronomy. This is in contrast to all other observatories on Mauna Kea, where research opportunities to select user communities are made available. Learning by doing: Students (under UHH faculty direction) will perform research on a variety of sources, such as variable stars, supernovae, asteroids, etc. Incorporation of the telescope into the academic curriculum is currently underway, making the telescope a central focus of most of the courses offered by the UHH Department of Physics and Astronomy. Collaborations and instrument sharing with other institutions will be available, as well as time-sharing arrangements. We would like to acknowledge and thank the National Science Foundation for its support and funding of this project.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope, named for the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble, will be the largest and most powerful astronomical instrument ever orbited. Placed above the obscuring effects of the earth's atmosphere in a 600-km orbit, this remotely-controlled, free-flying satellite observatory will expand the terrestrial-equivalent resolution of the universe by a factor of seven, or a volumetric factor of 350. This telescope has a 2.4-m primary mirror and can accommodate five scientific instruments (cameras, spectrographs and photometers). The optics are suitable for a spectral range from 1100 angstrom to 1 mm wavelength. With a projected service life of fifteen years, the spacecraft can be serviced on-orbit for replacement of degraded systems, to insert advanced scientific instruments, and to reboost the telescope from decayed altitudes. The anticipated image quality will be a result of extremely precise lambda/20 optics, stringent cleanliness, and very stable pointing: jitter will be held to less than 0.01 arcsecond for indefinite observation periods, consistent with instrument apertures as small as 0.1 arcsecond.

  7. 32 Meter Radio Telescopes in the Arabian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M.

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents the importance of building two new radio telescopes of diameter 32 meters to work in the frequency range from 1.4 to 43 GHz, one in the South of Egypt (Abu-Simbel), and the other in the South of the Arabian Peninsula. Both telescopes would be of great interest for the International Radio Astronomy Community from the beginning, especially for EVN.

  8. Progress in Space Solar Telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will summarize the progress in the development of the Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) during the past few years. The main scientific objective of SST is to observe the fundamental structure of solar magnetic field with its 1-m optical telescope. The success of 1-m Swedish Solar Telescope and Hinode underscores the importance of this 1-m space telescope. In addition, some key technical problems have been solved.

  9. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Kervin, P.; Hickson, P.

    2013-09-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA-Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of GB of imagery data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Originally planned for the island of Legan, part of the Kwajalein Atoll Islands, recent developments have led to a change in venue. Specifically, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance, or GEODSS, System of telescopes is the United States' major tracking system for deep space. This network consists of telescopes in Maui, Hawaii; Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), and Socorro, New Mexico. A fourth optical telescope, though

  10. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2016-07-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese megascience project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of the People's Republic of China. The National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is in charge of its construction and subsequent operation. Upon its expected completion in September 2016, FAST will surpass the 305 m Arecibo Telescope and the 100 m Green Bank Telescope in terms of absolute sensitivity in the 70 MHz to 3 GHz bands. In this paper, we report on the project, its current status, the key science goals, and plans for early science.

  11. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gary H. Sanders

    2013-06-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy communities of India, Canada, China, Japan and the USA are shaping its science goals, suite of instrumentation and the system design of the TMT observatory. With large and open Nasmyth-focus platforms for generations of science instruments, TMT will have the versatility and flexibility for its envisioned 50 years of forefront astronomy. The TMT design employs the filled-aperture finely-segmented primary mirror technology pioneered with the W.M. Keck 10-meter telescopes. With TMT’s 492 segments optically phased, and by employing laser guide star assisted multi-conjugate adaptive optics, TMT will achieve the full diffraction limited performance of its 30-meter aperture, enabling unprecedented wide field imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. The TMT project is a global effort of its partners with all partners contributing to the design, technology development, construction and scientific use of the observatory. TMT will extend astronomy with extremely large telescopes to all of its global communities.

  12. Spectroradiometry with Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Smith, Peter L; Colina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Radiometry has been of fundamental importance in astronomy from the early beginnings. Initially, astronomers had their own radiometric system, based on extraterrestrial standards, namely the irradiance of stars expressed in visual magnitudes. Observing and comparing magnitudes in specific spectral bands then led to the astronomical spectrophotometry. The advent of astronomical high-resolution spectroscopy offered the possibility to interpret observations through physical models of stellar atmospheres. Such models had to be constructed based on physics-related units, and such units, rather than magnitudes, were then used for observational tests of the models. In this review, we provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration, and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. Recently, the quest for independent calibrations traceable to laboratory standards has become a well-supported aim, and has led to plans for now also launching ...

  13. The NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Anz-Meador, P.; Barker, E.; Stansbery, G.; Kervin, P.

    2016-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has relied on using various ground-based telescopes in Chile to acquire statistical survey data as well as photometric and spectroscopic data of orbital debris in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). The statistical survey data have been used to supply the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v.3.0 with debris detections in GEO to better model the environment at altitudes where radar detections are limited. The data produced for the statistical survey ranged from 30 to 40 nights per year, which only accounted for 10% of the possible observing time. Data collection was restricted by ODPO resources and weather conditions. In order to improve the statistical sampling in GEO, as well as observe and sample other orbits, NASA's ODPO with support from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has constructed a new observatory dedicated to orbital debris - the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island. This location provides MCAT with the unique ability to access targets orbiting at an altitude of less than 1,000 km and low inclinations (< 20 deg). This orbital regime currently has little to no coverage by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Unlike previous ODPO optical assets, the ability to operate autonomously will allow rapid response observations of break-up events, an observing mode that was only available via radar tasking prior to MCAT's deployment. The primary goal of MCAT is to statistically characterize GEO via daily tasking files uploaded from ODPO. These tasking files define which operating mode to follow, providing the field center, rates, and/or targets to observe over the entire observing period. The system is also capable of tracking fast-moving targets in low Earth orbit (LEO), middle Earth orbit (MEO), as well as highly eccentric orbits like geostationary transfer orbits. On 25 August 2015, MCAT successfully acquired scientific first light, imaging the Bug Nebula and

  14. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  15. The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope (CAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Lynch, Dana H.; Vassigh, Kenny K.; Young, Zion

    2016-07-01

    The Configurable Aperture Space Telescope, CAST, is a concept that provides access to a UV/visible-infrared wavelength sub-arcsecond imaging platform from space, something that will be in high demand after the retirement of the astronomy workhorse, the 2.4 meter diameter Hubble Space Telescope. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites. The concept merges existing technology (segmented telescope architecture) with emerging technology (smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures). Requiring identical mirror segments, CAST's optical design is a spherical primary and secondary mirror telescope with modular multi-mirror correctors placed at the system focal plane. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements. We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0.6 meter diameter (3 x 3 segments) growing to a 2.6 meter diameter (13 x 13 segments) primary, with a fixed Rp=13,000 and Rs=8,750 mm curvature, f/22.4 and f/5.6, respectively. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7.4 arcsec/mm platescale, and can support a range of platescales as fine as 0.01 arcsec/mm. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

  16. The Thirty-Meter Telescope project design and development phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Larry M.; Strom, Stephen E.

    2004-07-01

    The U.S. National Observatories have responded to the call of the astronomy decadal survey committee to develop a Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope by forming the AURA New Initiatives Office. Drawing on the engineering and scientific staffs of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory and the Gemini Observatory, NIO has for the past 30 months carried out studies aimed at: understanding the key science drivers for a thirty-meter telescope; developing a feasible point design that is responsive to the science goals; and identifying key technical issues that must be solved in order to successfully build such a telescope. In parallel, NIO has followed the charge of the decadal survey to identify potential private and international partners to fulfill the committee vision of a public-private partnership to build and operate this facility. NIO has now joined with two other groups -- the CELT Development Corporation (a partnership between the University of California and the California Institute of Technology) and the Association of Canadian Unviersities for Research In Astronomy (ACURA) -- to initiate the next step, the design & development (D & D) phase of a joint project that is being called the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) Project. This paper reviews the plans for the TMT D & D phase, including the organizational structure, science requirements, and plans for conceptual design studies, technology development, and site selection.

  17. Analysis of wavefront reconstruction in 8 meter ring solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yichun; Jin, Zhenyu

    2016-07-01

    Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) is the next generation infrared and optical solar telescope of China, which is proposed and pushed by the solar astronomy community of China and listed into the National Plans of Major Science and Technology Infrastructures. CGST is currently proposed to be an 8 meter Ring Solar Telescope (RST) with width of 1 meter, the hollow and symmetric structure of such an annular aperture facilitates the thermal control and high precision magnetic field measurement for a solar telescope. Adaptive optics (AO) is an indispensable tool of RST to obtain diffraction limited observations. How to realize AO involved wavefront sensing and correcting, and the degree of compensating in a narrow annular aperture is the primary problem of AO implementation of RST. Wavefront reconstruction involved problems of RST are first investigated and discussed in this paper using end to end simulation based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing (SHWFS). The simulation results show that performance of zonal reconstruction with measurement noise no more than 0.05 arc sec can meets the requirement of RST for diffraction-limited imaging at wavelength of 1μm, which satisfies most science cases of RST in near infrared waveband.

  18. Segment handling system prototype progress for Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuku, Satoru; Ezaki, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noboru; Nakaoji, Toshitaka; Takaki, Junji; Horiuchi, Yasushi; Saruta, Yusuke; Haruna, Masaki; Kim, Ieyoung; Fukushima, Kazuhiko; Domae, Yukiyasu; Hatta, Toshiyuki; Yoshitake, Shinya; Hoshino, Hayato

    2016-07-01

    Segment Handling System (SHS) is the subsystem that is planned to be permanently implemented on Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) telescope structure that enables fast, efficient, semi-automatic exchange of M1 segments. TMT plans challenging segment exchange (10 segments per 10 hours a day). To achieve these, MELCO develops innovative SHS by accommodating Factory Automation (FA) technology such as force control system and machine vision system into the system. Force control system used for install operation, achieves soft handling by detecting force exerted to mirror segment and automatically compensating the position error between handling segments and primary mirror. Machine vision system used for removal operation, achieves semi-automatic positioning between SHS and mirror segments to be handled. Prototype experience proves soft (extraneous force 300N) and fast ( 3 minutes) segment handling. The SHS will provide upcoming segmented large telescopes for cost-efficient, effortless, and safe segment exchange operation.

  19. California Extremely Large Telescope : conceptual design for a thirty-meter telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following great success in the creation of the Keck Observatory, scientists at the California Institute of Technology and the University of California have begun to explore the scientific and technical prospects for a much larger telescope. The Keck telescopes will remain the largest telescopes in the world for a number of years, with many decades of forefront research ahead after that. Though these telescopes have produced dramatic discoveries, it is already clear that even larger telescopes must be built if we are to address some of the most profound questions about our universe. The time required to build a larger telescope is approximately ten years, and the California community is presently well-positioned to begin its design and construction. The same scientists who conceived, led the design, and guided the construction of the Keck Observatory have been intensely engaged in a study of the prospects for an extremely large telescope. Building on our experience with the Keck Observatory, we have concluded that the large telescope is feasible and is within the bounds set by present-day technology. Our reference telescope has a diameter of 30 meters, the largest size we believe can be built with acceptable risk. The project is currently designated the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT).

  20. Hubble Space Telescope-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This illustration depicts a side view of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  1. Extreme Adaptive Optics for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macintosh, B; al., e

    2006-05-02

    Direct detection of extrasolar Jovian planets is a major scientific motivation for the construction of future extremely large telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). Such detection will require dedicated high-contrast AO systems. Since the properties of Jovian planets and their parent stars vary enormously between different populations, the instrument must be designed to meet specific scientific needs rather than a simple metric such as maximum Strehl ratio. We present a design for such an instrument, the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) for TMT. It has four key science missions. The first is the study of newly-formed planets on 5-10 AU scales in regions such as Taurus and Ophiucus--this requires very small inner working distances that are only possible with a 30m or larger telescope. The second is a robust census of extrasolar giant planets orbiting mature nearby stars. The third is detailed spectral characterization of the brightest extrasolar planets. The final targets are circumstellar dust disks, including Zodiacal light analogs in the inner parts of other solar systems. To achieve these, PFI combines advanced wavefront sensors, high-order MEMS deformable mirrors, a coronagraph optimized for a finely-segmented primary mirror, and an integral field spectrograph.

  2. Novel In-Space Manufacturing Concepts for the Development of Large Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, James T.; Reardon, Patrick; Gregory Don; Manning, Andrew; Blackmon, Jim; Howsman, Tom; Williams, Philip; Brantley, Whitt; Rakoczy, John; Herren, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes. Over the past several decades, we have seen the evolution from launchable 2 meter-class telescopes (such as Hubble), to today s demand for deployable 6 meter-class telescopes (such as JWST), to tomorrow s need for up to 150 meter-class telescopes. As the apertures continue to grow, it will become much more difficult and expensive to launch assembled telescope structures. To address this issue, we are seeing the emergence of new novel structural concepts, such as inflatable structures and membrane optics. While these structural concepts do show promise, it is very difficult to achieve and maintain high surface figure quality. Another potential solution to develop large space telescopes is to move the fabrication facility into space and launch the raw materials. In this paper we present initial in-space manufacturing concepts to enable the development of large telescopes. This includes novel approaches for the fabrication of both the optical elements and the telescope support structure. We will also discuss potential optical designs for large space telescopes and describe their relation to the fabrication methods. These concepts are being developed to meet the demanding requirements of DARPA s LASSO (Large Aperture Space Surveillance Optic) program which currently requires a 150 meter optical aperture with a 17 degree field of view.

  3. Scientific management of Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A historical summay is given on the science management of the Space Telescope, the inception of which began in 1962, when scientists and engineers first recommended the development of a nearly diffraction limited substantial-size optical telescope. Phase A, the feasibility requirements generation phase, began in 1971 and consisted largely of NASA scientists and a NASA design. Phase B, the preliminary design phase, established a tiered structure of scientists, led by the Large Space Telescope operations and Management Work Group. A Mission Operations Working Group headed six instrument definition teams to develop the essential instrument definitions. Many changes took place during Phase B, before design and development, which began in 1978 and still continues today.

  4. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Roderick Allen

    1998-04-20

    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  5. Thirty Meter Telescope science instruments: a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent; Bhatia, Ravinder; Radovan, Matthew; Chisholm, Eric

    2016-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the science instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope is presented. Three first-light instruments as well as a science calibration unit for AO-assisted instruments are under development. Developing instrument collaborations that can design and build these challenging instruments remains an area of intense activity. In addition to the instruments themselves, a preliminary design for a facility cryogenic cooling system based on gaseous helium turbine expanders has been completed. This system can deliver a total of 2.4 kilowatts of cooling power at 65K to the instruments with essentially no vibrations. Finally, the process for developing future instruments beyond first light has been extensively discussed and will get under way in early 2017.

  6. NFIRAOS First Facility AO System for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Herriot, Glen; Atwood, Jenny; Boyer, Corinne; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hill, Alexis; Ljusic, Zoran; Pazder, John; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wevers, Ivan; Wang, Lianqi; Wooff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NFIRAOS, the Thirty Meter Telescope's first adaptive optics system is an order 60x60 Multi-Conjugate AO system with two deformable mirrors. Although most observing will use 6 laser guide stars, it also has an NGS-only mode. Uniquely, NFIRAOS is cooled to -30 C to reduce thermal background. NFIRAOS delivers a 2-arcminute beam to three client instruments, and relies on up to three IR WFSs in each instrument. We present recent work including: robust automated acquisition on these IR WFSs; trade-off studies for a common-size of deformable mirror; real-time computing architectures; simplified designs for high-order NGS-mode wavefront sensing; modest upgrade concepts for high-contrast imaging.

  7. The NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrz, R D; Roellig, T L; Werner, M W; Fazio, G G; Houck, J R; Low, F J; Rieke, G H; Soifer, B T; Levine, D A; Romana, E A

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility) is the fourth and final facility in the Great Observatories Program, joining Hubble Space Telescope (1990), the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (1999). Spitzer, with a sensitivity that is almost three orders of magnitude greater than that of any previous ground-based and space-based infrared observatory, is expected to revolutionize our understanding of the creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of primitive galaxies, the origin of stars and planets, and the chemical evolution of the universe. This review presents a brief overview of the scientific objectives and history of infrared astronomy. We discuss Spitzer's expected role in infrared astronomy for the new millennium. We describe pertinent details of the design, construction, launch, in-orbit checkout, and operations of the observatory and summarize some science highlights from the first two and a half years of Spitzer operations. More information about Spitzer can be found at http://spitzer.caltech.edu/.

  8. Academic Training: Deep Space Telescopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2006-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 February from 11:00 to 12:00 - Council Chamber on 20, 21, 23, 24 February, TH Auditorium, bldg 4 - 3-006, on 22 February Deep Space Telescopes G. BIGNAMI / CNRS, Toulouse, F & Univ. di Pavia, I The short series of seminars will address results and aims of current and future space astrophysics as the cultural framework for the development of deep space telescopes. It will then present such new tools, as they are currently available to, or imagined by, the scientific community, in the context of the science plans of ESA and of all major world space agencies. Ground-based astronomy, in the 400 years since Galileo's telescope, has given us a profound phenomenological comprehension of our Universe, but has traditionally been limited to the narrow band(s) to which our terrestrial atmosphere is transparent. Celestial objects, however, do not care about our limitations, and distribute most of the information about their physics thro...

  9. The James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, and is currently the largest scientific project under construction in the United States. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope falls into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will conclude the talk with a description of recent technical progress in the construction of the observatory.

  10. Design of optical systems for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.

    1995-09-01

    On the basis of long-term experience of LOMO PLC in creating large optical systems for ground and space telescopes, with diameter of primary mirror from 1 to 6 meters, the following issues should be considered: principles of constructing optical systems for space telescopes and selecting their optimum design in respect of dimensions/mass and performance criteria; ensuring the fulfillment of image quality requirements in the process of manufacturing optical systems for controlling ground telescope elements in operating conditions; providing automatic adjustment of telescope secondary mirror, automatic focusing, interferometric control of image quality by means of stellar interferometer with radial shift and internal control with Gartman's test. Description of space telescope equipped with primary mirror of diameter 1.5 m, manufactured in LOMO PLC, is given.

  11. James Webb Space Telescope Primary Mirror Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul; Gallagher, B.; Chaney, D.; Brown, B.

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope has a segmented primary mirror consisting of 18 hexagonal beryllium primary mirror segment assemblies (PMSA) that have a total collecting area greater than 25 square meters. The PMSAs are designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures (39 K) and to be actively controlled to co-phase the segments. This paper discusses the processes and testing utilized in the manufacture of these mirrors including the critical cryogenic testing performed at the XRCF facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The manufacturing team is headed by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp (BATC) with support from Brush Wellman for beryllium blank fabrication, Axsys Technologies for the precision machining, L3-Tinsley for the mirror polishing, and QCI for the reflective coating application.

  12. Detectors for the space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsall, T.

    1978-01-01

    This review of Space Telescope (ST) detectors is divided into two parts. The first part gives short summaries of detector programs carried out during the final planning stage (Phase B) of the ST and discusses such detectors as Photicon, the MAMA detectors, the CODACON, the University of Maryland ICCD, the Goddard Space Flight Center ICCD, and the 70 mm SEC TV sensor. The second part describes the detectors selected for the first ST flight, including the wide field/planetary camera, the faint object and high resolution spectrographs, and the high speed photometer.

  13. Rigid ultralight primary mirror segments for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2000-10-01

    The development of ultra-light fibrous substrate mirrors allows serious contemplation of large multi-mirror space telescopes using rigid segments. Mirrors made of silica and alumina fibers have a small coefficient of thermal expansion and a density competitive with inflatable structures. Furthermore, they are without the imagery problems caused by non parabolic figures, gaseous expansion and contraction, tidal distortion of large gas filled structures, leaks, and long lived transient mirror perturbations caused by intentional pointing and tracking movements, micrometeor and space debris impacts, and mechanical vibrations. Fibrous substrate primary mirrors also have logistical advantages, since segments can be fabricated in orbit from small amounts of dense raw materials. One space shuttle flight, lifting about half its payload capacity, is adequate to transport all the material necessary to fabricate substrates for a one hundred meter telescope whose primary mirror consists of 12,086 hexagonal segments, each having a diameter of 1 meter and an area of 0.6495 square meters.

  14. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing VI: Turbulence Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Els, S G; Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Seguel, J; Bustos, E; Walker, D

    2009-01-01

    The results on the vertical distribution of optical turbulence above the five mountains which were investigated by the site testing for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are reported. On San Pedro Martir in Mexico, the 13 North site on Mauna Kea and three mountains in northern Chile Cerro Tolar, Cerro Armazones and Cerro Tolonchar, MASS-DIMM turbulence profilers have been operated over at least two years. Acoustic turbulence profilers - SODARs - were also operated at these sites. The obtained turbulence profiles indicate that at all sites the lowest 200m are the main source of the total seeing observed, with the Chilean sites showing a weaker ground layer than the other two sites. The two northern hemisphere sites have weaker turbulence at altitudes above 500m, with 13N showing the weakest 16km turbulence, being responsible for the large isoplanatic angle at this site. The influence of the jetstream and wind speeds close to the ground on the clear sky turbulence strength throughout the atmosphere are discussed...

  15. DESTINY, the Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, T. R.; Morse, J. A.; Destiny Science Team

    2003-12-01

    We describe a mission concept for a 1.8-meter near-infrared (NIR) grism-mode space telescope optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SNe) over the redshift range 0.5 the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of dark energy. The central concept for our proposed Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR survey camera. SNe will be discovered by repeated imaging of an area located at the north ecliptic pole. Grism spectra with resolving power l/Dl = R * 100 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SNe classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. Our approach features only a single mode of operation, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared to SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of observing a large field-of-view over a full octave in wavelength simultaneously makes this approach highly competitive.

  16. Far Ultraviolot Space Telescope (FAUST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Space Telescope is a compact, wide field-of-view, far ultraviolet instrument designed for observations of extended and point sources of astronomical interest. It was originally used in sounding rocket work by both French and American investigators. The instrument was modified for flight on the space shuttle and flew on the Spacelab 1 mission as a joint effort between the Laboratoire d'Astronomie Spatiale and the University of California, Berkeley. The prime experiment objective of this telescope on the Atmospheric Laboratory Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission is to observe faint astronomical sources in the far ultraviolet with sensitivities far higher than previously available. The experiment will cover the 1300 to 1800 A band, which is inaccessible to observers on earth. The observing program during the mission consists of obtaining deep sky images during spacecraft nighttime. The targets will include hot stars and nebulae in our own galaxy, faint diffuse galactic features similar to the cirrus clouds seen by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), large nearby galaxies, nearby clusters of galaxies, and objects of cosmological interest such as quasars and the diffuse far ultraviolet background.

  17. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  18. Origins Space Telescope: Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. This poster will outline the ways in which the astronomical community can participate in the STDT activities and a summary of tools that are currently available or are planned for the community during the study. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  19. Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope for Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 m to 28 m. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit photometry and spectroscopy, and direct coronagraphic imaging.

  20. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), The First Light Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Scheduled to begin its 10 year mission after 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world s largest space telescope. This talk reviews science objectives for JWST and how they drive the JWST architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature. Additionally, the talk provides an overview of the JWST primary mirror technology development and fabrication status.

  1. A new telescope control software for the Mayall 4-meter telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abareshi, Behzad; Marshall, Robert; Gott, Shelby; Sprayberry, David; Cantarutti, Rolando; Joyce, Dick; Williams, Doug; Probst, Ronald; Reetz, Kristin; Paat, Anthony; Butler, Karen; Soto, Christian; Dey, Arjun; Summers, David

    2016-07-01

    The Mayall 4-meter telescope recently went through a major modernization of its telescope control system in preparation for DESI. We describe MPK (Mayall Pointing Kernel), our new software for telescope control. MPK outputs a 20Hz position-based trajectory with a velocity component, which feeds into Mayall's new servo system over a socket. We wrote a simple yet realistic servo simulator that let us develop MPK mostly without access to real hardware, and also lets us provide other teams with a Mayall simulator as test bed for development of new instruments. MPK has a small core comprised of prioritized, soft real-time threads. Access to the core's services is via MPK's main thread, a complete, interactive Tcl/Tk shell, which gives us the power and flexibility of a scripting language to add any other features, from GUIs, to modules for interaction with critical subsystems like dome or guider, to an API for networked clients of a new instrument (e.g., DESI). MPK is designed for long term maintainability: it runs on a stock computer and Linux OS, and uses only standard, open source libraries, except for commercial software that comes with source code in ANSI C/C++. We discuss the technical details of how MPK combines the Reflexxes motion library with the TCSpk/TPK pointing library to generically handle any motion requests, from slews to offsets to sidereal or non-sidereal tracking. We show how MPK calculates when the servos have reached a steady state. We also discuss our TPOINT modeling strategy and report performance results.

  2. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N Z; Blain, A W; Calzetti, D; Comastri, A; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Carlstrom, J E; Carollo, C M; Colbert, J; Daddi, E; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Ewald, S P; Fall, M; Franceschini, A; Giavalisco, M; Green, W; Griffiths, R E; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kneib, J P; Koda, J; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mobasher, B; Mould, J; Norman, C; Réfrégier, A; Renzini, A; Rhodes, J; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Shopbell, P L; Taniguchi, Y; Tyson, N; Urry, C M; Van Waerbeke, L; Vettolani, P; White, S D M; Yan, L

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8$\\sq$\\deg) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-F814W exposures with 50% completeness for sources 0.5\\arcsec in diameter at I$_{AB} $ = 26.0 mag. The ACS imaging is a key part of the COSMOS survey, providing very high sensitivity and high resolution (0.09\\arcsec FWHM, 0.05\\arcsec pixels) imaging and detecting a million objects. These images yield resolved morphologies for several hundred thousand galaxies. The small HST PSF also provides greatly enhanced sensitivity for weak lensing investigations of the dark matter distribution.

  3. The Hubble Space Telescope: Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the best understanding of the flaw discovered in the optics of the Hubble Space Telescope and the possible solutions to the problems. The spherical aberration in the telescope's mirror and its effect on the quality of the telescope's imaging ability is discussed. (CW)

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, J P; Clampin, M; Doyon, R; Greenhouse, M A; Hammel, H B; Hutchings, J B; Jakobsen, P; Lilly, S J; Long, K S; Lunine, J I; McCaughrean, M J; Mountain, M; Nella, J; Rieke, G H; Rieke, M J; Rix, H W; Smith, E P; Sonneborn, G; Stiavelli, M; Stockman, H S; Windhorst, R A; Wright, G S; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Mather, John C.; Clampin, Mark; Doyon, Rene; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Hutchings, John B.; Jakobsen, Peter; Lilly, Simon J.; Long, Knox S.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Mountain, Matt; Nella, John; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Smith, Eric P.; Sonneborn, George; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wright, Gillian S.

    2006-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6m), cold (50K), infrared-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-infrared camera, a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 to 5.0 microns, while the mid-infrared instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 to 29 microns. The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-e...

  5. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    1 MODEST is a 0.6m telescope located at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO). Report Documentation Page Form...altitude ( Cerro Paranal) [7]. A 0.5mag increase in extinction increases the smallest detectable size by ~30%. The inland location on Ascension will...This mode follows the method implemented by MODEST for surveying the GEO belt [2]. MODEST is a 0.6m telescope located at Cerro Tololo Interamerican

  6. Spitzer Space Telescope proposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, S.; Silbermann, N. A.; Rebull, L. M.; Storrie-Lombardi, L. J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper discusses the Spitzer Space Telescope General Observer proposal process. Proposals, consisting of the scientific justification, basic contact information for the observer, and observation requests, are submitted electronically using a client-server Java package called Spot. The Spitzer Science Center (SSC) uses a one-phase proposal submission process, meaning that fully-planned observations are submitted for most proposals at the time of submission, not months after acceptance. Ample documentation and tools are available to the observers on SSC web pages to support the preparation of proposals, including an email-based Helpdesk. Upon submission proposals are immediately ingested into a database which can be queried at the SSC for program information, statistics, etc. at any time. Large proposals are checked for technical feasibility and all proposals are checked against duplicates of already approved observations. Output from these tasks is made available to the Time Allocation Committee (TAC) members. At the review meeting, web-based software is used to record reviewer comments and keep track of the voted scores. After the meeting, another Java-based web tool, Griffin, is used to track the approved programs as they go through technical reviews, duplication checks and minor modifications before the observations are released for scheduling. In addition to detailing the proposal process, lessons learned from the first two General Observer proposal calls are discussed.

  7. A project of a two meter telescope in North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhaldoun, Zouhair

    2015-03-01

    Site testing undertaken during the last 20 years by Moroccan researchers through international studies have shown that the Atlas mountains in Morocco has potentialities similar to those sites which host the largest telescopes in world. Given the quality of the sites and opportunities to conduct modern research, we believe that the installation of a 2m diameter telescope will open new horizons for Astronomy in Morocco and north Africa allowing our region to enter definitively into the very exclusive club of countries possessing an instrument of that size. A state of the art astrophysical observatory on any good astronomical observation site should be equipped with a modern 2m-class, robotic telescope and some smaller telescopes. Our plan should be to operate one of the most efficient robotic 2m class telescopes worldwide in order to offer optimal scientific opportunities for researchers and maintain highest standards for the education of students. Beside all categories of astronomical research fields, students will have the possibility to be educated intensively on the design, manufacturing and operating of modern state of the art computer controlled instruments. In the frame of such education and observation studies several PhD and dissertational work packages are possible. Many of the observations will be published in articles worldwide and a number of guest observers from other countries will have the possibility to take part in collaborations. This could be a starting point of an international reputation of our region in the field of modern astronomy.

  8. Beyond the Hubble Space Telescope: Early Development of the Next Generation Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.; Patrick McCray, W.

    In this paper we investigate the early history of what was at first called the Next Generation Space Telescope, later to be renamed the James Webb Space Telescope. We argue that the initial ideas for such a Next Generation Space Telescope were developed in the context of the planning for a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. Much the most important group of astronomers and engineers examining such a successor was based at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore. By the late 1980s, they had fashioned concepts for a successor that would work in optical, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, concepts that would later be regarded as politically unrealistic given the costs associated with them. We also explore how the fortunes of the planned Next Generation Space Telescope were intimately linked to that of its "parent," the Hubble Space Telescope.

  9. Introduction to the Solar Space Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Ai; S. Jin; S. Wang; B. Ye; S. Yang

    2000-09-01

    The design of the space solar telescope (SST) (phase B) has been completed. The manufacturing is under development. At the end of 2000, it will be assembled. The basic aspect will be introduced in this paper.

  10. Multispectral optical telescope alignment testing for a cryogenic space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newswander, Trent; Hooser, Preston; Champagne, James

    2016-09-01

    Multispectral space telescopes with visible to long wave infrared spectral bands provide difficult alignment challenges. The visible channels require precision in alignment and stability to provide good image quality in short wavelengths. This is most often accomplished by choosing materials with near zero thermal expansion glass or ceramic mirrors metered with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) that are designed to have a matching thermal expansion. The IR channels are less sensitive to alignment but they often require cryogenic cooling for improved sensitivity with the reduced radiometric background. Finding efficient solutions to this difficult problem of maintaining good visible image quality at cryogenic temperatures has been explored with the building and testing of a telescope simulator. The telescope simulator is an onaxis ZERODUR® mirror, CFRP metered set of optics. Testing has been completed to accurately measure telescope optical element alignment and mirror figure changes in a cryogenic space simulated environment. Measured alignment error and mirror figure error test results are reported with a discussion of their impact on system optical performance.

  11. A Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alberto; Arenberg, Jonathan; Baldauf, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The “Search for Life” (direct imaging of earth-like planets) will require extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. Such apertures are larger than what can be delivered to space using current or planned future launch vehicles. Building and assembling large telescopes in space is therefore likely to require not only multiple launches but importantly assembly in spce. As a result, space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to our conventional telescope design and architecture.Here we report on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST) to demonstrates the on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of an optical telescope in space. MODEST is a proposed International Space Station (ISS demonstration that will make use of the standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets.MODEST will provides significant risk reduction for the next generation of space observatories, and demonstrates the technology needed to assemble a six-mirror phased telescope. Key modest features include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control to allow on-orbit optimization, and the precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion. Mirrors built from these materials can be rapidly replicated in a highly cost effective manner, making them an excellent candidate for a low cost, high performance Optical Telescope Assembly paving the way for enabling affordable solutions for the next generation of large aperture space-based telescope.MODEST post-assembly value includes space, ground, and

  12. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Brian; Conti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than what can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. Space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to system architectures.The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling and affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This paper reports on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST), which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will also facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, and a testbed for new instruments. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Other key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal

  13. A 1.2 meter balloon-borne telescope for a submillimeter wave sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, R. F.; Hauser, M. G.; Mather, J. C.; Gezari, D. Y.; Kelsall, T.; Cheung, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    A balloon-borne, 1.2 meter Cassegrain telescope designed for diffraction-limited imagery at 100 microns is being developed for a survey of the Galactic plane at submillimeter wavelengths. The telescope pointing system is servocontrolled using a gyroscope for the primary stabilization reference. Extensive use is made of microprocessors for flight sequencing, pointing control and stabilization, and telemetry formatting. A description of the telescope, helium-cooled detectors, and the orientation subsystems are presented together with a brief discussion of the proposed astronomical observations.

  14. Thermal behavior of the Medicina 32-meter radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Tonino; Buffa, Franco; Morsiani, Marco; Pernechele, Claudio; Poppi, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    We studied the thermal effects on the 32 m diameter radio-telescope managed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA), Medicina, Bologna, Italy. The preliminary results show that thermal gradients deteriorate the pointing performance of the antenna. Data has been collected by using: a) two inclinometers mounted near the elevation bearing and on the central part of the alidade structure; b) a non contact laser alignment optical system capable of measuring the secondary mirror position; c) twenty thermal sensors mounted on the alidade trusses. Two series of measurements were made, the first series was performed by placing the antenna in stow position, the second series was performed while tracking a circumpolar astronomical source. When the antenna was in stow position we observed a strong correlation between the inclinometer measurements and the differential temperature. The latter was measured with the sensors located on the South and North sides of the alidade, thus indicating that the inclinometers track well the thermal deformation of the alidade. When the antenna pointed at the source we measured: pointing errors, the inclination of the alidade, the temperature of the alidade components and the subreflector position. The pointing errors measured on-source were 15-20 arcsec greater than those measured with the inclinometer.

  15. The James Webb Space Telescope: Capabilities for Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, stellar and planetary system formation, and the formation and evolution of planetary systems. We will review the design of JWST, and discuss the current status of the project, with emphasis on recent progress in the construction of the observatory. We also review the capabilities of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets and debris disks by means of coronagraphic imaging, and high contrast imaging and spectroscopy. This discussion will focus on the optical and thermal performance of the observatory, and will include the current predictions for the performance of the observatory, with special reference to the demands of exoplanet science observations.

  16. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope optical telescope element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tiffany; Levi, Joshua; Liepmann, Till; Hahn, Walter; Bisson, Gary; Porpora, Dan; Hadjimichael, Theo

    2016-07-01

    The optical telescope element (OTE) of the James Webb Space Telescope has now been integrated and aligned. The OTE comprises the flight mirrors and the structure that supports them - 18 primary mirror segments, the secondary mirror, and the tertiary and fine steering mirrors (both housed in the aft optics subsystem). The primary mirror segments and the secondary mirror have actuators to actively control their positions during operations. This allows the requirements for aligning the OTE subsystems to be in the range of microns rather than nanometers. During OTE integration, the alignment of the major subsystems of the OTE structure and optics were controlled to ensure that, when the telescope is on orbit and at cryogenic temperatures, the active mirrors will be within the adjustment range of the actuators. Though the alignment of this flagship mission was complex and intricate, the key to a successful integration process turned out to be very basic: a clear, concise series of steps employing advanced planning, backup measurements, and cross checks that this multi-organizational team executed with a careful and methodical approach. This approach was not only critical to our own success but has implications for future space observatories.

  17. The Morehead State University 18 Meter Radio Telescope Project: Involving Undergraduates in Observational Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Center at Morehead State University is in the process of developing a large aperture (18-21 meter) cm-wave radio telescope, the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT). The telescope will be located in the mountainous region of Eastern Kentucky. The instrument will serve as a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate astronomy, physics, pre-engineering, and computer science students. The antenna system will be engaged in science programs (in astrophysics) and in satellite mission support services (telemetry, tracking, and control). The benefits to students are based upon a hands-on approach to learning concepts in astrophysics and engineering. Additionally, there are still research contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make including long-term observations of microvariability in AGNs, observations of transient events, and surveys. The MRT will operate three receiver systems including an L-band receiver (1.4-1.7 GHz) covering the "water hole", an S-band receiver (2.2-2.4 GHz) and a Ku-band receiver (11.2- 12.7 GHz) for continuum observations and satellite telemetry. The technical specifications for the instrument have been developed and an RFP has been issued inviting antenna vendors to submit proposals. The reflector will have a surface accuracy of 0.020 inches RMS over the entire surface, which will support relatively high frequency (Ku-band) observations. The antenna system will be full-motion and have a slew speed of 2 deg per second and an acceleration of 2 deg per second2. The HI and OH spatial distribution associated with cosmic phenomena will be investigated as well as dynamics and kinematics (particularly in HI) by observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design will facilitate investigation of a wide variety of cosmic phenomena. The MRT is funded by

  18. Hubble Space Telescope: The Telescope, the Observations & the Servicing Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Today the HST Archives contain more than 260 000 astronomical observations. More than 13 000 astronomical objects have been observed by hundreds of different groups of scientists. Direct proof of the scientific significance of this project is the record-breaking number of papers published : over 2400 to date. Some of HST's most memorable achievements are: * the discovery of myriads of very faint galaxies in the early Universe, * unprecedented, accurate measurements of distances to the farthest galaxies, * significant improvement in the determination of the Hubble constant and thus the age of the Universe, * confirmation of the existence of blacks holes, * a far better understanding of the birth, life and death of stars, * a very detailed look at the secrets of the process by which planets are created. Europe and HST ESA's contribution to HST represents a nominal investment of 15%. ESA provided one of the two imaging instruments - the Faint Object Camera (FOC) - and the solar panels. It also has 15 scientists and computer staff working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (Maryland). In Europe the astronomical community receives observational assistance from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) located in Garching, Munich. In return for ESA's investment, European astronomers have access to approximately 15% of the observing time. In reality the actual observing time competitively allocated to European astronomers is closer to 20%. Looking back at almost ten years of operation, the head of ST-ECF, European HST Project Scientist Piero Benvenuti states: "Hubble has been of paramount importance to European astronomy, much more than the mere 20% of observing time. It has given the opportunity for European scientists to use a top class instrument that Europe alone would not be able to build and operate. In specific areas of research they have now, mainly due to HST, achieved international leadership." One of the major reasons for

  19. Space Telescope Sensitivity and Controls for Exoplanet Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Herein we address design considerations and outline requirements for space telescopes with capabilities for high contrast imaging of exoplanets. The approach taken is to identify the span of potentially detectable Earth-sized terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of the nearest stars within 30 parsecs and estimate their inner working angles, flux ratios, SNR, sensitivities, wavefront error requirements and sensing and control times parametrically versus aperture size. We consider 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16-meter diameter telescope apertures. The achievable science, range of telescope architectures, and the coronagraphic approach are all active areas of research and are all subject to change in a rapidly evolving field. Thus, presented is a snapshot of our current understanding with the goal of limiting the choices to those that appear currently technically feasible. We describe the top-level metrics of inner working angle, contrast and photometric throughput and explore how they are related to the range of target stars. A critical point is that for each telescope architecture and coronagraphic choice the telescope stability requirements have differing impacts on the design for open versus closed-loop sensing and control.

  20. Origins Space Telescope: Telescope Design and Instrument Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Margaret; Carter, Ruth; Leisawitz, David; Dipirro, Mike; Flores, Anel; Staguhn, Johannes; Kellog, James; Roellig, Thomas L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bradford, Charles; Wright, Edward L.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The renaming of the mission reflects Origins science goals that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, nearby galaxies and the Milky Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. This poster will show the preliminary telescope design that will be a large aperture (>8 m in diameter), cryogenically cooled telescope. We will also present the specifications for the spectrographs and imagers over a potential wavelength range of ~10 microns to 1 millimeter. We look forward to community input into this mission definition over the coming year as we work on the concept design for the mission. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  1. The Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) Project

    CERN Document Server

    Nan, Rendong; Jin, Chengjin; Wang, Qiming; Zhu, Lichun; Zhu, Wenbai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yue, Youling; Qian, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in the most effective way. FAST also represents Chinese contribution in the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, for example, surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, looking for the first shining stars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in a karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with three outstanding aspects: the karst depression used as the site, which is large to host the 500-meter telescope and deep to allow a zenith angle of 40 degrees; the active main re...

  2. The meter-class carbon fiber reinforced polymer mirror and segmented mirror telescope at the Naval Postgraduate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Christopher; Fernandez, Bautista; Bagnasco, John; Martinez, Ty; Romeo, Robert; Agrawal, Brij

    2015-03-01

    The Adaptive Optics Center of Excellence for National Security at the Naval Postgraduate School has implemented a technology testing platform and array of facilities for next-generation space-based telescopes and imaging system development. The Segmented Mirror Telescope is a 3-meter, 6 segment telescope with actuators on its mirrors for system optical correction. Currently, investigation is being conducted in the use of lightweight carbon fiber reinforced polymer structures for large monolithic optics. Advantages of this material include lower manufacturing costs, very low weight, and high durability and survivability compared to its glass counterparts. Design and testing has begun on a 1-meter, optical quality CFRP parabolic mirror for the purpose of injecting collimated laser light through the SMT primary and secondary mirrors as well as the following aft optics that include wavefront sensors and deformable mirrors. This paper will present the design, testing, and usage of this CFRP parabolic mirror and the current path moving forward with this ever-evolving technology.

  3. India’s Participation in the Thirty-Meter Telescope Project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. Eswar Reddy

    2013-06-01

    In 2010, the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India, approved astronomers’ proposal of India joining the international consortium of the USA, Japan, Canada and China to build and operate the next generation mega ground based optical and infrared telescope known as the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) after its aperture size of 30-meter diameter. Since then, India is engaged in many aspects of the TMT project, both at technical and policy levels. In this article, I confine to the description of India’s efforts leading up to the decision to join the consortium, and the progress made since then with respect to India’s technical contributions to the project.

  4. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The key driver for a telescope's sensitivityis directly related to the size of t he mirror area that collects light from the objects being observed.The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The HDST envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. The Optical Telescope Assembly for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This reports on the concept for the MODEST, which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, a testbed for new instruments, and a tool for student's exploration of space. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Ceramic Matrix Composite that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion. It has been demonstrated

  5. TeraHertz Space Telescope (TST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Marina Madeline; Lesser, David; O'Dougherty, Stephan; Swift, Brandon; Pat, Terrance; Cortez, German; Smith, Steve; Goldsmith, Paul; Walker, Christopher K.

    2017-01-01

    The Terahertz Space Telescope (TST) utilizes breakthrough inflatable technology to create a ~25 m far-infrared observing system at a fraction of the cost of previous space telescopes. As a follow-on to JWST and Herschel, TST will probe the FIR/THz regime with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, answering fundamental questions concerning the origin and destiny of the cosmos. Prior and planned space telescopes have barely scratched the surface of what can be learned in this wavelength region. TST will pick up where JWST and Herschel leave off. At ~30µm TST will have ~10x the sensitivity and ~3x the angular resolution of JWST. At longer wavelengths it will have ~1000x the sensitivity of Herschel and ~7 times the angular resolution. TST can achieve this at low cost through the innovative use of inflatable technology. A recently-completed NIAC Phase II study (Large Balloon Reflector) validated, both analytically and experimentally, the concept of a large inflatable spherical reflector and demonstrated critical telescope functions. In our poster we will introduce the TST concept and compare its performance to past, present, and proposed far-infrared observatories.

  6. Solar System Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, Heidi B.; Norwood, J.; Chanover, N.; Hines, D. C.; Stansberry, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Milam, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Brown, M.

    2013-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s premier space-based platform for observational astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art imaging, spectroscopic, and coronagraphic instruments. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail (see companion presentation by Sonneborn et al.). This poster features highlights for planetary science applications, extracted from a white paper in preparation. We present a number of hypothetical solar system observations as a means of demonstrating potential planetary science observing scenarios; the list of applications discussed here is far from comprehensive. The goal of this poster and the subsequent white paper is to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community, and to encourage feedback to the JWST Project on any desired observing capabilities, data products, and analysis procedures that would enhance the use of JWST for solar system studies. The upcoming white paper updates and supersedes the solar system white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010), and is based in part on JWST events held at the 2012 DPS, the 2013 LPSC meeting, and this DPS (JWST Town Hall, Thursday, 10 October 2013, 12-1 pm).

  7. Individualized Fatigue Meter for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To ensure mission success, astronauts must maintain a high level of performance even when work-rest schedules result in chronic sleep restriction and circadian...

  8. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Simon, V. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Sveda, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Inneman, A.; Semencova, V. [Center for Advanced X-ray Technologies, Reflex, Prague (Czech Republic); Skulinova, M. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2007-04-15

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science.

  9. A dual-band millimeter-wave kinetic inductance camera for the IRAM 30-meter telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Monfardini, A; Bideaud, A; Swenson, L J; Roesch, M; Desert, F X; Doyle, S; Endo, A; Cruciani, A; Ade, P; Baryshev, A M; Baselmans, J J A; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Camus, P; Ferrari, L; Giordano, C; Hoffmann, C; Leclercq, S; Macias-Perez9, J; Mauskopf, P; Schuster, K F; Tucker, C; Vescovi, C; Yates, S J C

    2011-01-01

    Context. The Neel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) is a fully-integrated measurement system based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) currently being developed for millimeter wave astronomy. In a first technical run, NIKA was successfully tested in 2009 at the Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30-meter telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain. This prototype consisted of a 27-42 pixel camera imaging at 150 GHz. Subsequently, an improved system has been developed and tested in October 2010 at the Pico Veleta telescope. The instrument upgrades included dual-band optics allowing simultaneous imaging at 150 GHz and 220 GHz, faster sampling electronics enabling synchronous measurement of up to 112 pixels per measurement band, improved single-pixel sensitivity, and the fabrication of a sky simulator to replicate conditions present at the telescope. Results. The new dual-band NIKA was successfully tested in October 2010, performing in-line with sky simulator predictions. Initially the sources targeted during the 2009...

  10. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator- NB38 -Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Pictured is MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) that served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown are astronauts Bruce McCandless and Sharnon Lucid being fitted for their space suits prior to entering the NBS to begin training on the space telescope axial scientific instrument changeout.

  11. Neutral Buoyancy Simulator- NB38 -Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a cooperative program of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) to operate a long-lived space-based observatory. It was the flagship mission of NASA's Great Observatories program. The HST program began as an astronomical dream in the 1940s. During the 1970s and 1980s, the HST was finally designed and built becoming operational in the 1990s. The HST was deployed into a low-Earth orbit on April 25, 1990 from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31). The design of the HST took into consideration its length of service and the necessity of repairs and equipment replacement by making the body modular. In doing so, subsequent shuttle missions could recover the HST, replace faulty or obsolete parts and be re-released. Pictured is MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) that served as the test center for shuttle astronauts training for Hubble related missions. Shown are astronauts Bruce McCandless and Sharnon Lucid being fitted for their space suits prior to entering the NBS to begin training on the space telescope axial scientific instrument changeout.

  12. Fate of James Webb Space Telescope murky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next-generation successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, was put on the chopping block by the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies. The subcommittee approved a measure on 7 July that “terminates funding for [JWST], which is billions of dollars over budget and plagued by poor management.” Then, on 13 July, Rep. Adam Schiff (D-Calif.), whose district includes NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, tried to insert a funding amendment—transferring $200 million from NASA's Cross-Agency Support budget to JWST—when the full House Committee on Appropriations voted. That amendment failed in a voice vote.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope: A cosmic time machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, J. A.; Harms, R. J.; Brandt, J. C.; Bless, R. C.; Macchetto, F. D.; Jefferys, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is to explore the expanding and evolving universe. During the 3,000 operating hours every year for the next 15 years or more, the HST will be used to study: galaxies; pulsars; globular clusters; neighboring stars where planets may be forming; binary star systems; condensing gas clouds and their chemical composition; and the rings of Saturn and the swirling ultraviolet clouds of Venus. The major technical achievements - its nearly perfect mirrors, its precise guidance system of rate gyroscopes, reaction wheels, star trackers, and fine guidance sensors are briefly discussed. The scientific instruments on board HST are briefly described. The integration of the equipment and instruments is outlined. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) has approved time for 162 observations from among 556 proposals. The mission operation and data flow are explained.

  14. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  15. Preliminary Multivariable Cost Model for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Parametric cost models are routinely used to plan missions, compare concepts and justify technology investments. Previously, the authors published two single variable cost models based on 19 flight missions. The current paper presents the development of a multi-variable space telescopes cost model. The validity of previously published models are tested. Cost estimating relationships which are and are not significant cost drivers are identified. And, interrelationships between variables are explored

  16. Progression of Stellar Intensity Interferometry techniques using 3 meter telescopes at StarBase-Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Nolan; Kieda, Dave; Lebohec, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of large air Cherenkov telescope arrays have opened up the potential for high-resolution imaging of stellar surfaces using Intensity Interferometry techniques. Stellar Intensity Interferometry (SII) allows coverage into the optical and ultraviolet frequency bands which are traditionally inaccessible to classical Michelson interferometry. The relative insensitivity to atmospheric turbulence allows for unprecedented angular resolution scales as the baselines between telescopes can be made very large (>100m) without the need for precise spatial resolution as required by Michelson interferometry. In this talk I will illustrate the science capabilities of the SII technique and describe the progress achieved in developing a modern Stellar Intensity Interferometry system with a pair of 3 meter diameter optical telescopes located at StarBase-Utah. In particular, I will discuss the current status of the StarBase-Utah observatory and present results from two telescope low frequency optical correlation observations of the optical Crab pulsar. These measurements provide a first step towards actual intensity interferometry observations and establish the working condition of the StarBase-Utah telescopes.

  17. Building the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the scientific successor to the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. It will be a large (6.6m) cold (50K) telescope launched into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. It is a partnership of NASA with the European and Canadian Space Agencies. JWST will make progress In almost every area of astronomy, from the first galaxies to form in the early universe to exoplanets and Solar System objects. Webb will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Near-Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. The observatory Is confirmed for launch in 2018; the design is complete and it is in its construction phase. Innovations that make JWST possible include large-area low-noise infrared detectors, cryogenic ASICs, a MEMS micro-shutter array providing multi-object spectroscopy, a non-redundant mask for interferometric coronagraphy and diffraction-limited segmented beryllium mirrors with active wavefront sensing and control. Recent progress includes the completion of the mirrors, the delivery of the first flight instruments and the start of the integration and test phase.

  18. Investigating Space Weather Events Impacting the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Leo Y.; Hunt, Joseph C. Jr.; Stowers, Kennis; Lowrance, Patrick; Stewart, Andrzej; Travis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the dynamical process in the space environment has increased dramatically. A relatively new field of study called "Space Weather" has emerged in the last few decades. Fundamental to the study of space weather is an understanding of how space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections impact spacecraft in varying orbits and distances around the Sun. Specialized space weather satellite monitoring systems operated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allow scientists to predict space weather events affecting critical systems on and orbiting the Earth. However, the Spitzer Space Telescope is in an orbit far outside the areas covered by those space weather monitoring systems. This poses a challenge for the Spitzer's Mission Operations Team in determining whether space weather events affect Spitzer.

  19. Mechanical conceptual design of 6.5 meter telescope: Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Jorge; Bringas, Vicente; Reyes, Noe; Tovar, Carlos; López, Aldo; Caballero, Xóchitl; Martínez, César; Toledo, Gengis; Lee, William; Carramiñana, Alberto; González, Jesús; Richer, Michael; Sánchez, Beatriz; Lucero, Diana; Manuel, Rogelio; Rubio, Saúl; González, Germán.; Hernández, Obed; Segura, José; Macias, Eduardo; García, Mary; Lazaro, José; Rosales, Fabián.; del Llano, Luis

    2016-07-01

    Telescopio San Pedro Mártir (TSPM) project intends to build a 6.5 meters telescope with alt-azimuth design, currently at the conceptual design. The project is an association between Instituto de Astronomía de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (IA-UNAM) and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica Electrónica (INAOE) in partnership with department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory of University of Arizona and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory of Harvard University. Conceptual design of the telescope is lead and developed by the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI). An overview of the feasibility study and the structural conceptual design are summarized in this paper. The telescope concept is based on telescopes already commissioned such as MMT and the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, building up on these proven concepts. The main differences relative to the Magellan pair are; the elevation axis is located 1 meter above the primary mirror vertex, allowing for a similar field of view at the Cassegrain and both Nasmyth focal stations; instead of using a vane ends to position the secondary mirror TSPM considers an Steward platform like MMT; finally TSPM has a larger floor distance to m1 cell than Magellans and MMT. Initially TSPM will operate with an f/5 Cassegrain station, but the design considers further Nasmyth configurations from a Cassegrain f/5 up to a Gregorian f/11. The telescope design includes 7 focal stations: 1 Cassegrain; 2 Nasmyth; and 4 folded-Cassegrain. The telescope will be designed and manufactured in Mexico, will be design in Queretaro by CIDESI and built between Queretaro and Michoacán manufacturing facilities; it will be preassembled in these facilities and disassembled to send it to the San Pedro Mártir Observatory for final integration. The azimuth and altitude structure is planned to be constructed in modules and transported by truck and shipped to Ensenada and finally to the OAN where is going

  20. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope project and its early science opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2012-01-01

    The National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science (NAOC), has started building the largest antenna in the world. Known as FAST, the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope is a Chinese mega-science project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). FAST also represents part of Chinese contribution to the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Upon its finishing around September of 2016, FAST will be the most sensitive single-dish radio telescope in the low frequency radio bands between 70 MHz and 3 GHz. The design specifications of FAST, its expected capabilities, and its main scientific aspirations were described in an overview paper by Nan et al. (2011). In this paper, we briefly review the design and the key science goals of FAST, speculate the likely limitations at the initial stages of FAST operation, and discuss the opportunities for astronomical discoveries in the so-called early science phase.

  1. Design of a prototype primary mirror segment positioning actuator for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorell, Kenneth R.; Aubrun, Jean-Noël; Clappier, Robert R.; Miller, Scott W.; Sirota, Mark

    2006-06-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a collaborative project between the California Institute of Technology (CIT), the University of California (UC), the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), and the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA). In order for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to achieve the required optical performance, each of its 738 primary mirror segments must be positioned relative to adjacent segments with nanometer-level accuracy. Three in plane degrees of freedom are controlled via a passive Segment Support Assembly which is described in another paper presented at this conference (paper 6273-45). The remaining three out of plane degrees of freedom, tip, tilt, and piston, are controlled via three actuators for each segment. Because of its size and the shear number of actuators, TMT will require an actuator design, departing from that used on the Keck telescopes, its successful predecessor. Sensitivity to wind loads and structural vibrations, the large dynamic range, low operating power, and extremely reliable operation, all achieved at an affordable unit cost, are the most demanding design requirements. This paper describes a concept that successfully meets the TMT requirements, along with analysis and performance predictions. The actuator concept is based on a prototype actuator developed for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) project. It relies on techniques that achieve the required accuracy while providing a substantial amount of vibration attenuation and damping. A development plan consisting of a series of prototype actuators is envisioned to verify cost, reliability, and performance before mass production is initiated. The first prototype (P I) of this development plan is now being built and should complete initial testing by the end of 2 nd QTR 06.

  2. Reverse and concurrent engineering applied of a high resolution equipment Berkut for 1-meter class telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Granados, R.; Farah, A.

    2014-07-01

    Several factors make observational astronomy difficult for astronomers; one of them is the atmosphere. The light that a star emits is refracted when it goes through the earth's atmosphere; the result of this is that the image of a punctual star is not what the physics would lead us to expect. At the Instituto de Astronomia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (IA-UNAM) an instrument has been developed called "Berkut", which uses a high resolution technique to improve these effects and obtain interesting and valuable scientific studies. In this paper we present the mechanical reengineering and acceptance test of Berkut. This instrument was design for taking images of high resolution. Essentially, it is composed by a set basic optics which is aligned and in focus with a 1- meter class telescope. It has its own electronic components for controlling remotely a filter wheel; that allows the exchange of the filters according to the requirements of the observer, a couple of objectives mounted in a translation stage, and a CCD camera for acquiring several images per second that are used in the speckle interferometry technique. A project like Berkut needs to be multidisciplinary; astronomy, engineering, optics, mechanics, electronics, and image processing are some of the areas of knowledge used. Berkut will be used in the telescope of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in Tonantzintla, located in the state of Puebla, Mexico, but it can be used in any telescope 1 meter class. It is pretended to build another Berkuts for being used simultaneously in different telescopes, so it is important to keep the costs as low as possible. With this instrument we pretend to confirm the Hipparcos catalogue of binary stars besides finding exoplanets.

  3. Thirty Meter Telescope: observatory software requirements, architecture, and preliminary implementation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, David R.; Angeli, George; Boyer, Corinne; Sirota, Mark; Trinh, Thang

    2008-07-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be a ground-based, 30-m optical-IR alt-az telescope with a highly segmented primary mirror located in a remote location. Efficient science operations require the asynchronous coordination of many different sub-systems including telescope mount, three independent active optics sub-systems, adaptive optics, laser guide stars, and user-configured science instrument. An important high-level requirement is target acquisition and observatory system configuration must be completed in less than 5 minutes (or 10 minutes if moving to a new instrument). To meet this coordination challenge and target acquisition time requirement, a distributed software architecture is envisioned consisting of software components linked by a service-based software communications backbone. A master sequencer coordinates the activities of mid-layer sequencers for the telescope, adaptive optics, and selected instrument. In turn, these mid-layer sequencers coordinate the activities of groups of sub-systems. In this paper, TMT observatory requirements are presented in more detail, followed by a description of the design reference software architecture and a discussion of preliminary implementation strategies.

  4. The James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, M. A.; Boyce, L. A.; Glazer, S. D.; Johnson, E. L.; McCloskey, J. C.; Sullivan, P. C.; Voyton, M. F.

    2005-12-01

    In this poster, we describe the major design features of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). The JWST mission is under development by NASA in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies for launch during 2013. The JWST is designed to enable a five year science mission that is focused on four themes: [1] observation of the first luminous objects after the Big Bang, [2] the assembly of these objects into galaxies, [3] the birth of stars and planetary systems, and [4] the formation of planets and the origins of life. The above science themes require high sensitivity and HST-like angular resolution over the near- to mid-infrared spectrum. A 40 K cryogenic radiatively cooled telescope with a 25 m2 collecting area was selected to meet these requirments. A mission architecture involving a Lissajous orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point was chosen to meet optical stability and data downlink requirments. A modular flight segment architecture was selected to enable incremental integration and test of the cryogenic payload. The ISIM is one key feature of this modular architecture that enables a feasible cryogenic test program. The ISIM element is the science instrument payload of the observatory. It contains 70 million infrared detector pixels allocated among four science instrument systems and a fine guidance sensor system. Brief instrument descriptions are available at: www.stsci.edu/jwst/docs/flyers. The ISIM also contains a passive 40 K thermal control system, a 6 K cryo-cooler system, a command and data handling system, a flight software system, and an optical metering structure system. The ISIM element is responsible for acquisition of the JWST science data, fine guidance data for telescope pointing control, and wavefront sensing data for in-flight adjustment of the telescope optics. Further information about the JWST mission is available at: www.jwst.nasa.gov.

  5. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  6. Asteroid observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B.; Wells, Eddie N.; Chapman, Clark R.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    The ways that the asteroids can be studied with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are examined. Spectrophotometry of asteroids and the study of asteroid surfaces, shape, spins, configuration, normal reflectance, and limb darkening of asteroids using the HST are addressed along with the detection of asteroid satellites and the discovery of small asteroids using the HST. The relation of the HST to its ground system is described, as are the spectrophotometric instruments of the HST. Imaging with the HST using the Faint Object Camera and the Wide Field and Planetary Camera is examined. Finally, the SIRTF observatory, instrumentation, and capabilities for solar system science are discussed.

  7. A Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Survey at the SDSS 2.5-meter Telescope?

    CERN Document Server

    Skrutskie, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    We are posting this 10-year-old white paper to support an upcoming survey description paper for the SDSS-III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) led by PI Dr. Steven Majewski. The white paper presented here was a contribution to a 2005 "futures" planning process for the Astrophysical Research Consortium led by Dr. Donald York that examined both prospects for extending the work of SDSS and SDSS-II as well as enhancing the capabilities of the Apache Point 3.5-meter telescope and the overall scientific reach of the Consortium. This particular white paper describes the potential for using the Sloan 2.5-meter telescope and its fiber optic infrastructure to conduct a galactic plane chemical abundance survey in the low-extinction 1.6um H-band. The survey would target >1000 red giant stars per night selected from the Two Micron All Sky Survey using a >200 fiber near-infrared spectrograph operating at spectral resolution of R~24,000 with a magnitude limit of H~12 - very close to the final APOGEE implem...

  8. Imaging Simulations for DESTINY, the Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, T. R.; DESTINY Science Team

    2004-12-01

    We describe a mission concept for a 1.8-meter near-infrared (NIR) grism-mode space telescope optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SNe) over the redshift range 0.5 the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of dark energy. The central concept for our proposed Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR survey camera. SNe will be discovered by repeated imaging of an area located at the north ecliptic pole. Grism spectra with resolving power l/Dl = R * 100 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SNe classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. Our approach features only a single mode of operation, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared to SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of observing a large field-of-view over a full octave in wavelength simultaneously makes this approach highly competitive. In this poster we present exposure simulations to demonstrate the efficiency of the DESTINY approach.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  10. Structural Optimization of the Retractable Dome for Four Meter Telescope (FMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Nian; Li, Yuxi; Fan, Yue; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong; Jiang, Ping; Kong, Sijie

    2017-03-01

    Dome seeing degrades the image quality of ground-based telescopes. To achieve dome seeing of the Four Meter Telescope (FMT) less than 0.5 arcsec, structural optimizations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation were proposed. The results of the simulation showed that dome seeing of FMT was 0.42 arcsec, which was mainly caused by the slope angle of the dome when the slope angle was 15° and the wind speed was 10 m/s. Furthermore, the lower the air speed was, the less dome seeing would be. Wind tunnel tests (WT) with a 1:120 scaled model of the retractable dome and FMT indicated that the calculated deviations of the CFD simulation used in this paper were less than 20% and the same variations of the refractive index derived from the WT would be a convincing argument for the validity of the simulations. Thus, the optimization of the retractable dome was reliable and the method expressed in this paper provided a reference for the design of next generation of ground-based telescope dome.

  11. The Research Productivity of Small Telescopes and Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, F A; Lovell, R L; Kays, S A; Torres, Y V A

    2003-01-01

    We present statistics on the research productivity of astronomical telescopes. These were compiled by finding papers in which new data were presented, noting which telescopes were used, and then counting the number of papers, number of pages, and other statistics. The journals used were the Astronomical Journal, the Astrophysical Journal (including the Letters and Supplements), and the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. We also compiled citations from the Science Citation Index. This work was designed to be similar to that of Trimble (1995), except that more recent journals (from 1995) and citations (from 1998) were used. We also did not restrict our sample to large telescopes only: we included all telescopes from which new data were presented, the smallest of which was a 0.1-m. The data were gathered by first-year work-study undergraduates, who were instructed to include data for all telescopes for which they found new data were included in the journals. A by-product of this research wa...

  12. Shaped pupil design for future space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Zimmerman, Neil; Carlotti, Alexis; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Vanderbei, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Several years ago at Princeton we invented a technique to optimize shaped pupil (SP) coronagraphs for any telescope aperture. In the last year, our colleagues at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) invented a method to produce these non-freestanding mask designs on a substrate. These two advances allowed us to design SPs for two possible space telescopes for the direct imaging of exoplanets and disks, WFIRST-AFTA and Exo-C. In December 2013, the SP was selected along with the hybrid Lyot coronagraph for placement in the AFTA coronagraph instrument. Here we describe our designs and analysis of the SPs being manufactured and tested in the High Contrast Imaging Testbed at JPL.We also explore hybrid SP coronagraph designs for AFTA that would improve performance with minimal or no changes to the optical layout. These possibilities include utilizing a Lyot stop after the focal plane mask or applying large, static deformations to the deformable mirrors (nominally for wavefront correction) already in the system.

  13. Origins Space Telescope: Solar System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.In the Solar System, OST will provide km/sec resolution on lines from planet, moons and comets. OST will measure molecular abundances and isotope ratios in planets and comets. OST will be able to do continuum surveys for faint moving sources such as Kuiper Belt Objects, enabling a census of smaller objects in the Kuiper Belt. If the putative Planet IX is massive enough to be self-luminous, then OST will be able to detect it out to thousands of AU from the Sun.

  14. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  15. Cepheid investigations using the Kepler space telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Szabó, R; Ngeow, C -C; Smolec, R; Derekas, A; Moskalik, P; Nuspl, J; Lehmann, H; Fűrész, G; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Bryson, S T; Henden, A A; Kurtz, D W; Stello, D; Nemec, J M; Benkő, J M; Berdnikov, L; Bruntt, H; Evans, N R; Gorynya, N A; Pastukhova, E N; Simcoe, R J; Grindlay, J E; Los, E J; Doane, A; Laycock, S G; Mink, D J; Champine, G; Sliski, A; Handler, G; Kiss, L L; Kolláth, Z; Kovács, J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Kjeldsen, H; Allen, C; Thompson, S E; Van Cleve, J

    2011-01-01

    We report results of initial work done on selected candidate Cepheids to be observed with the Kepler space telescope. Prior to the launch 40 candidates were selected from previous surveys and databases. The analysis of the first 322 days of Kepler photometry, and recent ground-based follow-up multicolour photometry and spectroscopy allowed us to confirm that one of these stars, V1154 Cyg (KIC 7548061), is indeed a 4.9-d Cepheid. Using the phase lag method we show that this star pulsates in the fundamental mode. New radial velocity data are consistent with previous measurements, suggesting that a long-period binary component is unlikely. No evidence is seen in the ultra-precise, nearly uninterrupted Kepler photometry for nonradial or stochastically excited modes at the micromagnitude level. The other candidates are not Cepheids but an interesting mix of possible spotted stars, eclipsing systems and flare stars.

  16. Wavelet Analysis of Space Solar Telescope Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-An Zhu; Sheng-Zhen Jin; Jing-Yu Wang; Shu-Nian Ning

    2003-01-01

    The scientific satellite SST (Space Solar Telescope) is an important research project strongly supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Every day,SST acquires 50 GB of data (after processing) but only 10GB can be transmitted to the ground because of limited time of satellite passage and limited channel volume.Therefore, the data must be compressed before transmission. Wavelets analysis is a new technique developed over the last 10 years, with great potential of application.We start with a brief introduction to the essential principles of wavelet analysis,and then describe the main idea of embedded zerotree wavelet coding, used for compressing the SST images. The results show that this coding is adequate for the job.

  17. Variable stars with the Kepler space telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Molnár, László; Plachy, Emese

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has revolutionised our knowledge about exoplanets and stars and is continuing to do so in the K2 mission. The exquisite photometric precision, together with the long, uninterrupted observations opened up a new way to investigate the structure and evolution of stars. Asteroseismology, the study of stellar oscillations, allowed us to investigate solar-like stars and to peer into the insides of red giants and massive stars. But many discoveries have been made about classical variable stars too, ranging from pulsators like Cepheids and RR Lyraes to eclipsing binary stars and cataclysmic variables, and even supernovae. In this review, which is far from an exhaustive summary of all results obtained with Kepler, we collected some of the most interesting discoveries, and ponder on the role for amateur observers in this golden era of stellar astrophysics.

  18. A Status Report on the Thirty Meter Telescope Adaptive Optics Program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. L. Ellerbroek

    2013-06-01

    We provide an update on the recent development of the adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) since mid-2011. The first light AO facility for TMT consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). This order 60 × 60 laser guide star (LGS) multi-conjugate AO (MCAO) architecture will provide uniform, diffraction-limited performance in the J, H and K bands over 17–30 arcsec diameter fields with 50 per cent sky coverage at the galactic pole, as is required to support TMT science cases. The NFIRAOS and LGSF subsystems completed successful preliminary and conceptual design reviews, respectively, in the latter part of 2011. We also report on progress in AO component prototyping, control algorithm development, and system performance analysis, and conclude with an outline of some possible future AO systems for TMT.

  19. The Thirty-Meter Telescope: Science and Instrumentation for a Next-Generation Observatory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Luc Simard

    2013-06-01

    The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful suite of adaptive optics systems and science instruments. Three science instruments will be available at first light: an optical multi-object spectrometer, a nearinfrared multi-slit spectrometer and a diffraction-limited near-infrared imager and integral field spectrometer. In addition to these three instruments, a diverse set of new instruments under study will bring additional workhorse capabilities to serve the science interests of a broad user community. The development of TMT instruments represents a large, long-term program that offers a wide range of opportunities to all TMT partners.

  20. Primary mirror assemblies for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Evgeny R.; Sokolsky, M. N.

    1995-09-01

    In this report are considered the basic problems which relate to developemnt, manufacture, experimental trying out, and usage of primary mirrors (PM) of the large space telescopes intended to perform distant sounding of the Earth. Attention is concentrated on development of weight-reduced passive mirrors which ensure more reliable operation of the telescope as a whole. In the report we expressed the opinion that it is quite possible to manufacture a passive weight-reduced PM if its diameter is equal approximately to 3 m. Materials which may be used for the manufacturing of PM are beryllium and silicon carbide, physical and mechanical parameters of which are the most preferable ones. But it should be taken into consideration that this is the glass ceramic of CO115M brand which has been mastered by the industry of Russia in the greatest extent. It was confirmed that parameters of this material remain unchanged during a long period of time. Constructions of the PM, made of glass ceramic, as well as constructions of holders intended to fix the mirror, are presented in this report. A holder is used first of all to prevent lowering of a PM surface quality after a mirror has been removed from a machine and fixed in a primary mirror assembly (PMA). At present two-layer construction of a PM is preferable. This construction consists of thick base including weight reduction structure, which is in a radius which is optimum from the standpoint of deformation of a mirror operating surface. In the process of manufacture a mirror is deprived of its weight with the use of special pneumatic off-loading elements. PMA is erected in vertical plane by means of using an interferometric inspection system. In the end of this report we expressed the views on an approach to engineering of a PM by taking into account potentialities both of space ships and of carrier rockets.

  1. Hubble Space Telescope Crew Rescue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 2003 Columbia accident, NASA removed the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) from the Space Shuttle manifest. Reasons cited included concerns that the risk of flying the mission would be too high. The HST SM4 was subsequently reinstated and flown as Space Transportation System (STS)-125 because of improvements in the ascent debris environment, the development of techniques for astronauts to perform on orbit repairs to damaged thermal protection, and the development of a strategy to provide a viable crew rescue capability. However, leading up to the launch of STS-125, the viability of the HST crew rescue capability was a recurring topic. For STS-125, there was a limited amount of time available to perform a crew rescue due to limited consumables (power, oxygen, etc.) available on the Orbiter. The success of crew rescue depended upon several factors, including when a problem was identified; when and what actions, such as powering down, were begun to conserve consumables; and where the Launch on Need (LON) vehicle was in its ground processing cycle. Crew rescue success also needed to be weighed against preserving the Orbiter s ability to have a landing option in case there was a problem with the LON vehicle. This paper focuses on quantifying the HST mission loss of crew rescue capability using Shuttle historical data and various power down strategies. Results from this effort supported NASA s decision to proceed with STS-125, which was successfully completed on May 24th 2009.

  2. Using SPICA Space Telescope to characterize Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, J R; Tinetti, G; Nakagawa, T; Enya, K; Tamura, M; Ferlet, M; Isaak, K G; Wyatt, M; Aylward, A D; Barlow, M; Beaulieu, J P; Boccaletti, A; Cernicharo, J; Cho, J; Claudi, R; Jones, H; Lammer, H; Léger, A; Martín-Pintado, J; Miller, S; Najarro, F; Pinfield, D; Schneider, J; Selsis, F; Stam, D M; Tennyson, J; Viti, S; White, G

    2008-01-01

    We present the 3.5m SPICA space telescope, a proposed Japanese-led JAXA-ESA mission scheduled for launch around 2017. The actively cooled ( 18 um). SPICA is one of the few space missions selected to go to the next stage of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 selection process. In this White Paper we present the main specifications of the three instruments currently baselined for SPICA: a mid-infrared (MIR) coronagraph (~3.5 to ~27 um) with photometric and spectral capabilities (R~200), a MIR wide-field camera and high resolution spectrometer (R~30,000), and a far-infrared (FIR ~30 to ~210 um) imaging spectrometer - SAFARI - led by a European consortium. We discuss their capabilities in the context of MIR direct observations of exo-planets (EPs) and multiband photometry/high resolution spectroscopy observations of transiting exo-planets. We conclude that SPICA will be able to characterize the atmospheres of transiting exo-planets down to the super-Earth size previously detected by ground- or space-based observatorie...

  3. A Scientific Revolution: the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.

  4. Autonomous Scheduling of the 1.3-meter Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Gelderman, Richard; Carini, Michael T.; Davis, Donald R.; Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.; McGruder, Charles H., III; Tedesco, Edward F.; Walter, Donald K.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3-meter telescope at Kitt Peak operates as a fully robotic instrument for optical imaging. An autonomous scheduling algorithm is an essential component of this observatory, and has been designed to manage numerous requests in various imaging modes in a manner similar to how requests are managed at queue-scheduled observatories, but with greater efficiency. Built from the INSGEN list generator and process spawner originally developed for the Berkeley Automatic Imaging Telescope, the RCT scheduler manages and integrates multi-user observations in real time, according to target and exposure information and program-specific constraints (e.g., user assigned priority, moon avoidance, airmass, or temporal constraints), while accounting for instrument limitations, meteorologic conditions, and other technical constraints. The robust system supports time-critical requests, such as with coordinated observations, while also providing short-term (hours) and long-term (days) monitoring capabilities, and one-off observations. We discuss the RCT scheduler, its current decision tree, and future prospects including integration with active partner-share monitoring (which factor into future observation requests) to insure fairness and parity of requests.

  5. The large adaptive reflector: a 200-m diameter wideband centimeter- to meter-wave radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Brent; Bauwens, Luc; Belostotski, Leonid; Cannon, Elizabeth; Chang, Ya-Ying; Deng, Xiaohui; Dewdney, Peter E.; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff T.; Halliday, David; Kuerschner, Kai; Lachapelle, Gerard; Lo, David; Mousavi, Pedram; Nahon, Meyer; Shafai, Lot; Stiemer, Sigfried F.; Taylor, Russell; Veidt, Bruce

    2000-07-01

    The Large Adaptive Reflector (LAR) is a concept for a low- cost, large aperture, wideband, radio telescope, designed to operate over the wavelength range from 2 m to 1.4 cm. It consists of a 200-m diameter actuated-surface parabolic reflector with a focal length of 500 m, mounted flat on the ground. The feed is held in place by a tension-structure, consisting of three or more tethers tensioned by the lift of a large, helium-filled aerostat -- a stiff structure that effectively resists wind forces. The telescope is steered by simultaneously changing the lengths of the tethers with winches (thus the position of the feed) and by modifying the shape of the reflector. At all times the reflector configuration is that of an offset parabolic antenna, with the capability to point anywhere in the sky above approximately 15 degree Elevation Angle. At mid-range wavelengths, the feed is a multi-beam prime-focus phased array, about 5 m diameter; at meter wavelengths, it is a single-beam phased array of up to 10 m diameter. Simulations have shown that in operating wind conditions (10 m/s average speed with 2.5 m/s gusts), the position of the feed platform can be stabilized to within a few cm over time scales of approximately 20 s. Research indicates that the telescope concept is feasible and that an order of magnitude improvement in cost per m2 of collecting area over traditional designs of large parabolic antennas can be achieved.

  6. Origins Space Telescope: Cosmology and Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin D.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.A core science goal of the OST mission is to study the the cosmological history of star, galaxy, and structure formation into the epoch of reionization (EoR). OST will probe the birth of galaxies through warm molecular hydrogen emission during the cosmic dark ages. Utilizing the unique power of the infrared fine-structure emission lines, OST will trace the rise of metals from the first galaxies until today. It will quantify the dust enrichment history of the Universe, uncover its composition and physical conditions, reveal the first cosmic sources of dust, and probe the properties of the earliest star formation. OST will provide a detailed astrophysical probe into the condition of the intergalactic medium at z > 6 and the galaxies which dominate the epoch of reionization.

  7. James Webb Space Telescope: The First Light Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    NASA James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will search for the first luminous objects of the Universe to help answer fundamental questions about how the Universe came to look like it does today. At 6.5 meters in diameter, JWST will be the world's largest space telescope. Its architecture, e.g. aperture, wavelength range and operating temperature, is driven by JWST's science objectives. Introduction: Scheduled to start its 5 year mission after 2018, JWST will study the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. Its science mission is to: Identify the first bright objects that formed in the early Universe, and follow the ionization history. Determine how galaxies form. Determine how galaxies and dark matter, including gas, stars, metals, overall morphology and active nuclei evolved to the present day. Observe the birth and early development of stars and the formation of planets. And, study the physical and chemical properties of solar systems for the building blocks of Life. Principle: To accomplish the JWST science objectives requires a larger aperture infrared cryogenic space telescope. A large aperture is required because the objects are very faint. The infrared spectral range is required because the objects are so far away that their ultraviolet and visible wavelength spectral lines are red-shifted into the infrared. Because the telescope is infrared, it needs to be cryogenic. And, because of the telescope is infrared, it must operate above the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. in space. JWST is probably the single most complicated mission that humanity has attempted. It is certainly the most difficult optical fabrication and testing challenge of our generation. The JWST 6.5 m diameter primary mirror is nearly a parabola with a conic constant of -0.9967 and radius of curvature at 30K of 15.880 m. The primary mirror is divided into 18 segments with 3 different prescriptions; each with its own off-axis distance and aspheric departure. The radius of curvature

  8. Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, active galactic nuclei, stellar populations, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, we review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research. The James Webb Space Telescope was designed to meet science objectives in four themes: The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization, The Assembly of Galaxies, The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems, and Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life. More recently, it has become clear that Webb will also make major contributions to studies of dark energy, dark matter

  9. The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mack, Jennifer; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Borncamp, David; Khandrika, Harish G.; Lucas, Ray A.; Martlin, Catherine; Porterfield, Blair; Sunnquist, Ben; Anderson, Jay; Avila, Roberto J.; Barker, Elizabeth A.; Grogin, Norman A.; Gunning, Heather C.; Hilbert, Bryan; Ogaz, Sara; Robberto, Massimo; Sembach, Kenneth; Flanagan, Kathryn; Mountain, Matt

    2017-08-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program is a large Director's Discretionary program of 840 orbits, to obtain ultra-deep observations of six strong lensing clusters of galaxies, together with parallel deep blank fields, making use of the strong lensing amplification by these clusters of distant background galaxies to detect the faintest galaxies currently observable in the high-redshift universe. The entire program has now completed successfully for all 6 clusters, namely Abell 2744, Abell S1063, Abell 370, MACS J0416.1-2403, MACS J0717.5+3745 and MACS J1149.5+2223,. Each of these was observed over two epochs, to a total depth of 140 orbits on the main cluster and an associated parallel field, obtaining images in ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W) on both the main cluster and the parallel field in all cases. Full sets of high-level science products have been generated for all these clusters by the team at STScI, including cumulative-depth data releases during each epoch, as well as full-depth releases after the completion of each epoch. These products include all the full-depth distortion-corrected drizzled mosaics and associated products for each cluster, which are science-ready to facilitate the construction of lensing models as well as enabling a wide range of other science projects. Many improvements beyond default calibration for ACS and WFC3/IR are implemented in these data products, including corrections for persistence, time-variable sky, and low-level dark current residuals, as well as improvements in astrometric alignment to achieve milliarcsecond-level accuracy. The full set of resulting high-level science products and mosaics are publicly delivered to the community via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to enable the widest scientific use of these data, as well as ensuring a public legacy dataset of the highest possible quality that is of lasting value to the entire community.

  10. Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Bearing Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S.; Esper, J.; Pan, J.; Decker, J.

    1996-01-01

    Early in 1993, a servo motor within one of three Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) reached stall torque levels on several occasions. Little time was left to plan replacement during the first servicing mission, scheduled at the end of '93. Accelerated bearing life tests confirmed that a small angle rocking motion, known as Coarse Track (CT), accelerated bearing degradation. Saturation torque levels were reached after approximately 20 million test cycles, similar to the flight bearings. Reduction in CT operation, implemented in flight software, extended FGS life well beyond the first servicing mission. However in recent years, bearing torques have resumed upward trends and together with a second, recent bearing torque anomaly has necessitated a scheduled FGS replacement during the upcoming second servicing mission in '97. The results from two series of life tests to quantify FGS bearing remaining life, discussion of bearing on-orbit performance, and future plans to service the FGS servos are presented in this paper.

  11. Space Telescope precision pointing control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, G. A.; Crum, R. C.; Dougherty, H. J.; Hegel, D. K.; Kelley, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has the most stringent pointing requirements imposed on any spacecraft to date. The overall HST stability shall not exceed 0.007 arc-seconds rms. The Pointing Control System utilizes fine guidance sensors and rate gyros for attitude reference and rate information. Control torques are provided by reaction wheels. A digital computer collects the sensor data, performs the control law computations, and sends torque commands to the reaction wheels. To attain this precision pointing, improvements were made to the rate gyros to lower their noise characteristics and to the reaction wheels to reduce their emitted vibration levels. The control system design was validated in a test sequence which progressed from model verification tests on an air-bearing to operations-oriented, closed loop testing on the assembled vehicle. A test system is described which allowed the simultaneous production of test case command loads for the flight computer and plots of predicted profiles to assist in test data analysis. Workarounds were required during system test to accommodate gyro biases and noise introduced into the closed loop system. Testing and analysis indicate that the HST will provide the capability to meet the requirements for precision pointing.

  12. DESTINY: The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, T. R.; Destiny Science Team

    2005-08-01

    The Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR 1.8-m survey camera optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SN) over the redshift range 0.5 the Universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of the so-called ``dark energy" component of the Universe. SN will be discovered by repeated imaging of a 7.5-sq.-deg. area located at the north ecliptic poles. Grism spectra with resolving power λ/Δλ = R˜75 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SN classification, and valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. This methodology features only a single mode of operation with no time-critical interactions, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared with SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of being able to observe a large field of view simultaneously over a full octave in wavelength makes this approach highly competitive.

  13. System modeling of the Thirty Meter Telescope alignment and phasing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekens, Frank G.; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Troy, Mitchell

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a system model using the System Modeling Language (SysML) for the Alignment and Phasing System (APS) on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). APS is a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor that will be used to measure the alignment and phasing of the primary mirror segments, and the alignment of the secondary and tertiary mirrors. The APS system model contains the ow-down of the Level 1 TMT requirements to APS (Level 2) requirements, and from there to the APS sub-systems (Level 3) requirements. The model also contains the operating modes and scenarios for various activities, such as maintenance alignment, post-segment exchange alignment, and calibration activities. The requirements ow-down is captured in SysML requirements diagrams, and we describe the process of maintaining the DOORS database as the single-source-of-truth for requirements, while using the SysML model to capture the logic and notes associated with the ow-down. We also use the system model to capture any needed communications from APS to other TMT systems, and between the APS sub-systems. The operations are modeled using SysML activity diagrams, and will be used to specify the APS interface documents. The modeling tool can simulate the top level activities to produce sequence diagrams, which contain all the communications between the system and subsystem needed for that activity. By adding time estimates for the lowest level APS activities, a robust estimate for the total time on-sky that APS requires to align and phase the telescope can be obtained. This estimate will be used to verify that the time APS requires on-sky meets the Level 1 TMT requirements.

  14. Generation of a Near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog for Thirty-Meter Telescope Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smitha Subramanian; Annapurni Subramaniam; Luc Simard; Kim Gillies; A. N. Ramaprakash; G. C. Anupama; C. S. Stalin; Swara Ravindranath; B. Eswar Reddy

    2013-06-01

    The requirements for the production of a near Infra-Red Guide Star Catalog (IRGSC) for Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) observations are identified and presented. A methodology to compute the expected J band magnitude of stellar sources from their optical (, , ) magnitudes is developed. The computed and observed J magnitudes of sources in three test fields are compared and the methodology developed is found to be satisfactory for the magnitude range, JVega = 16–22 mag. From this analysis, we found that for the production of final TMT IRGSC (with a limiting magnitude of JVega = 22 mag), we need , , bands optical data which go up to AB ∼ 23 mag. Fine tuning of the methodology developed, such as using Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) template fitting for optimal classification of stars in the fainter end, incorporating spectral libraries in the model, to reduce the scatter, and modification of the existing colour–temperature relation to increase the source density are planned for the subsequent phase of this work.

  15. Thirty Meter Telescope narrow-field infrared adaptive optics system real-time controller prototyping results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm; Kerley, Dan; Chapin, Edward L.; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-07-01

    Prototyping and benchmarking was performed for the Real-Time Controller (RTC) of the Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). To perform wavefront correction, NFIRAOS utilizes two deformable mirrors (DM) and one tip/tilt stage (TTS). The RTC receives wavefront information from six Laser Guide Star (LGS) Shack- Hartmann WaveFront Sensors (WFS), one high-order Natural Guide Star Pyramid WaveFront Sensor (PWFS) and multiple low-order instrument detectors. The RTC uses this information to determine the commands to send to the wavefront correctors. NFIRAOS is the first light AO system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The prototyping was performed using dual-socket high performance Linux servers with the real-time (PREEMPT_RT) patch and demonstrated the viability of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware approach to large scale AO reconstruction. In particular, a large custom matrix vector multiplication (MVM) was benchmarked which met the required latency requirements. In addition all major inter-machine communication was verified to be adequate using 10Gb and 40Gb Ethernet. The results of this prototyping has enabled a CPU-based NFIRAOS RTC design to proceed with confidence and that COTS hardware can be used to meet the demanding performance requirements.

  16. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Characterizing Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, M; Krist, J; Stapelfeldt, K; Brown, R; Oegerle, W; Lo, A; Clampin, M; Soummer, R; Wiseman, J; Mountain, M

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation UV-Optical-Near Infrared space telescope with an aperture size of 8 to 16 meters. ATLAST, using an internal coronagraph or an external occulter, can characterize the atmosphere and surface of an Earth-sized exoplanet in the Habitable Zone of long-lived stars at distances up to ~45 pc, including its rotation rate, climate, and habitability. ATLAST will also allow us to glean information on the nature of the dominant surface features, changes in cloud cover and climate, and, potentially, seasonal variations in surface vegetation. ATLAST will be able to visit up to 200 stars in 5 years, at least three times each, depending on the technique used for starlight suppression and the telescope aperture. More frequent visits can be made for interesting systems.

  17. A New Astronomical Facility for Peru: Converting a Telecommunication's 32 Meter Parabolic Antenna into a Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, J. K.; Ishitsuka, M.; Inoue, M.; Kaifu, N.; Miyama, S.; Tsuboi, M.; Ohishi, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Kasuga, T.; Kondo, T.; Horiuchi, S.; Umemoto, T.; Miyoshi, M.; Miyazawa, K.; Bushimata, T.; Vidal, E. D.

    2006-08-01

    In 1984 Nippon Electric Company constructed an INTELSAT antenna at 3,370 meters above the sea level on the Peruvian Andes. Entel Peru, the Peruvian telecommunications company, managed the antenna station until 1993. This year the government transferred the station to a private telecommunications company, Telefónica del Peru. Since the satellite communications were rapidly replaced by transoceanic fiber optics, the beautiful 32 meters parabolic antenna has been unused since 2002.. In cooperation with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan we began to convert the antenna into a radio telescope. Because researches on interstellar medium around Young Stellar Objects (YSO) will be able to observe the methanol masers that emit at 6.7 GHz, initially we will monitor the 6.7 GHz methanol masers and survey the southern sky. An ambient temperature receiver with Trx= 60 K was developed at Nobeyama Radio Observatory and is ready to be installed. The antenna control system is the Field System FS9 software installed in a Linux PC. An interface between the antenna and the PC was developed at Kashima Space Research Center in Japan. In the near future we plan to install the 2 GHz, 8 GHz, 12 GHz and 22 GHz receivers. The unique location and altitude of the Peruvian Radio Observatory will be useful for VLBI observations in collaboration with global arrays such as the VLBA array for astronomical observation and geodetic measurements. For Peru where few or almost no astronomical observational instruments are available for research, the implementation of the first radio observatory is a big and challenging step, and foster sciences at graduate and postgraduate levels of universities. Worldwide telecommunications antennas possibly are unused and with relative few investment could be transformed into a useful observational instrument.

  18. Space telescopes capturing the rays of the electromagnetic spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Space telescopes are among humankind’s greatest scientific achievements of the last fifty years. This book describes the instruments themselves and what they were designed to discover about the Solar System and distant stars. Exactly how these telescopes were built and launched and the data they provided is explored. Only certain kinds of radiation can penetrate our planet's atmosphere, which limits what we can observe. But with space telescopes all this changed. We now have the means to "see" beyond Earth using ultraviolet, microwave, and infrared rays, X-rays and gamma rays. In this book we meet the pioneers and the telescopes that were built around their ideas. This book looks at space telescopes not simply chronologically but also in order of the electromagnetic spectrum, making it possible to understand better why they were made.

  19. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Buie, Marc W; Linfield, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner Solar System for objects that may pose some threat to the Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show 1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, 2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, 3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and 4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15-30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 years. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 meters in a 6.5 year survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D=140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacti...

  20. Exo-atmospheric telescopes for deep space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, William J.; MacNeal, Bruce E.; Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Cheng, Edward S.; Moe, Rud V.; Walker, Jon Z.; Fairbrother, Debora A.; Dennis, Michael L.; Eegholm, Bente; Kasunic, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    For deep space optical communications, optical telescopes located above the Earth's atmosphere would have significant performance advantages over telescopes mounted on the Earth's surface. Link outages due to could cover would be eliminated, atmospheric attenuation would be eliminated, and signal degradation due to stray light would be reduced.

  1. Early Scientific Results from the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedner, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    With the complete success of Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) to the Hubble Space Telescope in May, 2009, the Observatory's capabilities are extremely broad and beyond anything it has previously been equipped with. I will present results on the important early science corning out of the telescope and discuss prospects for the future."

  2. Status of Technology Development to enable Large Stable UVOIR Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; MSFC AMTD Team

    2017-01-01

    NASA MSFC has two funded Strategic Astrophysics Technology projects to develop technology for potential future large missions: AMTD and PTC. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is developing technology to make mechanically stable mirrors for a 4-meter or larger UVOIR space telescope. AMTD is demonstrating this technology by making a 1.5 meter diameter x 200 mm thick ULE(C) mirror that is 1/3rd scale of a full size 4-m mirror. AMTD is characterizing the mechanical and thermal performance of this mirror and of a 1.2-meter Zerodur(R) mirror to validate integrate modeling tools. Additionally, AMTD has developed integrated modeling tools which are being used to evaluate primary mirror systems for a potential Habitable Exoplanet Mission and analyzed the interaction between optical telescope wavefront stability and coronagraph contrast leakage. Predictive Thermal Control (PTC) project is developing technology to enable high stability thermal wavefront performance by using integrated modeling tools to predict and actively control the thermal environment of a 4-m or larger UVOIR space telescope.

  3. AMTD: Update of Engineering Specifications Derived from Science Requirements for Future UVOIR Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Mosier, Gary; Smith, W. Scott; Blaurock, Carl; Ha, Kong; Stark, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND provide a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To give the science community options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. A key task is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints. A key finding of this effort is that the science requires an 8 meter or larger aperture telescope

  4. How Long Can the Hubble Space Telescope Operate Reliably?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Lum, G.; Haskins, D. N.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Total ionizing dose exposure of electronic parts in the Hubble Space Telescope is analyzed using 3-D ray trace and Monte Carlo simulations. Results are discussed along with other potential failure mechanisms for science operations.

  5. Novel Materials for Mirror Substrate in Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Technology, Inc (AMTI) responds to the NASA solicitation S2 "Advanced Telescope Systems" under subtopic S2.05, "Optics Manufacturing and Metrology...

  6. Telescopes in Near Space: Balloon Exoplanet Nulling Interferometer (BigBENI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark; Petrone, Peter; Mallik, Udayan; Mauk, Robin

    2012-01-01

    A significant and often overlooked path to advancing both science and technology for direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of exosolar planets is to fly "near space" missions, i.e. balloon borne exosolar missions. A near space balloon mission with two or more telescopes, coherently combined, is capable of achieving a subset of the mission science goals of a single large space telescope at a small fraction of the cost. Additionally such an approach advances technologies toward flight readiness for space flight. Herein we discuss the feasibility of flying two 1.2 meter telescopes, with a baseline separation of 3.6 meters, operating in visible light, on a composite boom structure coupled to a modified visible nulling coronagraph operating to achieve an inner working angle of 60 milli-arcseconds. We discuss the potential science return, atmospheric residuals at 135,000 feet, pointing control and visible nulling and evaluate the state-or-art of these technologies with regards to balloon missions.

  7. CTA telescopes as deep-space lasercom ground receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The amount of scientific data to be transmitted from deep-space probes is very limited due to RF-communications constraints. Free-space optical communication can alleviate this bottleneck, increasing data rate while reducing weight, mass and power of communication onboard equipment. Nevertheless, optimizing the power delivery from spacecraft to Earth is needed. In RF communications, the strategy has been to increase the aperture of ground terminals. Free-space optical communications can also follow it, as they share the limitation of low power received on Earth. As the cost of big telescopes increases exponentially with aperture, new ideas are required to maximize the aperture-to-cost ratio. This work explores the feasibility of using telescopes of the future Cherenkov Telescope Array as optical-communication ground stations. Ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has the same power limitation, hence Cherenkov telescopes are designed to maximize receiver's aperture with minimum cost and some relaxed requirements. B...

  8. A new telescope concept for space communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Peter; Schubert, Hermann

    1990-07-01

    The design concept of an optical transmit-receive antenna telescope developed in the framework of the ESA SILEX program is presented. SILEX involves optical communication between satellites in GEO, using semiconductor laser diodes operating at 825 nm as the light source. The telescope requirements include entrance diameter 250 mm, exit pupil 8 mm, acquisition FOV 8500 microrad, communication FOV 2000 microrad, angular magnification -31.25, retroreflection 3 microW/sq m nm or less, stray light 1.05 microW/sq m nm or less, and alignment stability 10 years with no refocusing in orbit. The present compact two-mirror configuration employs the glass-ceramic Zerodur for all of the major components (primary mirror/baseplate, secondary mirror, tube, front ring, and ocular) for a total mass of only 5760 g. The prototype manufacturing process gave surface errors of 25 nm rms-WF for the primary and 15 nm rms-WF for the secondary.

  9. Augmenting the Funding Sources for Space Science and the ASTRO-1 Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon

    2015-08-01

    The BoldlyGo Institute was formed in 2013 to augment the planned space science portfolio through philanthropically funded robotic space missions, similar to how some U.S. medical institutes and ground-based telescopes are funded. I introduce BoldlyGo's two current projects: the SCIM mission to Mars and the ASTRO-1 space telescope. In particular, ASTRO-1 is a 1.8-meter off-axis (unobscured) ultraviolet-visible space observatory to be located in a Lagrange point or heliocentric orbit with a wide-field panchromatic camera, medium- and high-resolution spectrograph, and high-contrast imaging coronagraph and/or an accompanying starshade/occulter. It is intended for the post-Hubble Space Telescope era in the 2020s, enabling unique measurements of a broad range of celestial targets, while providing vital complementary capabilities to other ground- and space-based facilities such as the JWST, ALMA, WFIRST-AFTA, LSST, TESS, Euclid, and PLATO. The ASTRO-1 architecture simultaneously wields great scientific power while being technically viable and affordable. A wide variety of scientific programs can be accomplished, addressing topics across space astronomy, astrophysics, fundamental physics, and solar system science, as well as being technologically informative to future large-aperture programs. ASTRO-1 is intended to be a new-generation research facility serving a broad national and international community, as well as a vessel for impactful public engagement. Traditional institutional partnerships and consortia, such as are common with private ground-based observatories, may play a role in the support and governance of ASTRO-1; we are currently engaging interested international organizations. In addition to our planned open guest observer program and accessible data archive, we intend to provide a mechanism whereby individual scientists can buy in to a fraction of the gauranteed observing time. Our next step in ASTRO-1 development is to form the ASTRO-1 Requirements Team

  10. Enthusiasm for Europe's space telescope ISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    . Several new candidate Vega-like dust disks are reported in Astronomy and Astrophysics by Harm Habing of Leiden in the Netherlands, and his colleagues. Their preliminary conclusion is that the dust disks are a common feature of ordinary stars as massive as the Sun or heavier, but they are by no means ubiquitous. Further measurements on Vega itself show relatively low emissions at the longest wavelengths, which implies that the dust grains are small. In a related programme, a Belgian-led team has used ISO's Short-Wavelength Spectrometer to probe the composition of dust near very young stars. It reports the discovery of crystals of olivine, a silicate mineral and a major constituent of the Earth's own rocky mantle. The firm detection of olivine crystals builds a bridge from the stars to the minerals of the solar system. Most mineral grains in interstellar space lack the crystalline forms of common minerals, even if they have the same chemical composition. Hints of infrared emissions from olivine crystals, detected by ground-based telescopes at around 11 microns wavelength, are confused by emissions coming also from carbon compounds. ISO, with its unhampered view at longer wavelengths, sees signatures of magnesium-rich olivine crystals at 20, 24 and 34 microns. The minerals crystallize when gravity concentrates them near a young star, and intense radiation from the star modifies the grains. ISO also sees similar materials in the dust shells of old stars, in a project headed by the Dutch astronomer Rens Waters, who is also closely involved in the work on young stars. Apparently the mineral crystals do not survive in interstellar space, but have to be refashioned near young stars. The most clear-cut evidence for olivine crystals comes from the vicinity of HD 100546, a young blue star about 500 light-years away near the Southern Cross. It is thought to be only a few million years old and it is a strong infrared emitter. The star also shows peculiar ultraviolet absorptions

  11. Larger, Lighter Space Telescopes by Implementing In-Space Manufacturing Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, James t.; Gregory, Don; Herren, Ken; Howsman, Tom

    2007-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes from both the astronomical and global surveillance communities one looking up and the other down. Enabling technologies must be developed and implemented that will allow this goal to be financially and technically feasible. The optical systems needed far high spatial resolution surveillance and astronomical applications require large optical, apertures with mention of future systems up to 150 meter in diameter. With traditional optical manufacturing technologies, large optical aperture means high mass and long fabrication lead times with associated high costs. Completely new approaches to optical fabrication must be developed to enable the fabrication of such optical systems. The cost and lead time associated with the fabrication of lightweight, high quality optical systems limits the feasible size of the optics. A primary factor in the launch cost of space optical systems is volume and mass. To minimize the mass of the high quality optics, optical fabricators implement materials with high specific stiffness and use honeycomb, or other structural minimization patterns, to support the optical surface; however, the structure must still be designed to survive launch loads. This sigmficantly adds to the fabrication difficulty and dramatically increases launch costs. One approach to minimizing launch volume and negating the need for the design to survive launch loads is to send the manufacturing facility and raw materials into space and perform the fabrication in-situ. We, are currently performing feasibility studies of initial concepts for inspace manufacturing of optical systems. By utilizing the micro-gravity and vacuum environment of space while eliminating the constraints defined by high launch forces and limited volume of the launch vehicle, the development of large, high quality glass membrane mirrors may be feasible. Several concepts were investigated to address the manufacturing of

  12. Development of 25m deep space telescope in nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kio, Michael; Agboola, Olufemi

    Space though very simple to imagine is one huge complex phenomena, depending from what view point it is looked at. There are two basic views observation telescopes take the first is, region beyond the earth's atmosphere and region within the earth atmosphere. The telescope is undoubtedly the most important investigative tool in astronomy. It provides a means of collecting and analyzing radiation from celestial objects, even those in the far reaches of the universe. For hundreds of years, telescopes were the only instruments available for studying the planets and stars. Even today, space probes can reach only our closest neighbors in the heavens. Scientists continue to rely on telescopes to learn about distant stars, nebulas, and galaxies. Telescopes are the fundamental research instruments that enable the tackling of scien-tific questions about the birth of the universe; the emergence of structure in the early universe; the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies, and planetary systems; and the conditions for the emergence of life itself. This paper will present the effort of Nigeria in the development of a 25m radio spectrum deep space observation telescope for carrying out radio pulsar studies, spectroscopy and planetary research in space science.

  13. Improving active space telescope wavefront control using predictive thermal modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica; Perrin, Marshall D.

    2015-01-01

    Active control algorithms for space telescopes are less mature than those for large ground telescopes due to differences in the wavefront control problems. Active wavefront control for space telescopes at L2, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), requires weighing control costs against the benefits of correcting wavefront perturbations that are a predictable byproduct of the observing schedule, which is known and determined in advance. To improve the control algorithms for these telescopes, we have developed a model that calculates the temperature and wavefront evolution during a hypothetical mission, assuming the dominant wavefront perturbations are due to changes in the spacecraft attitude with respect to the sun. Using this model, we show that the wavefront can be controlled passively by introducing scheduling constraints that limit the allowable attitudes for an observation based on the observation duration and the mean telescope temperature. We also describe the implementation of a predictive controller designed to prevent the wavefront error (WFE) from exceeding a desired threshold. This controller outperforms simpler algorithms even with substantial model error, achieving a lower WFE without requiring significantly more corrections. Consequently, predictive wavefront control based on known spacecraft attitude plans is a promising approach for JWST and other future active space observatories.

  14. Science Driven arguments for a 10 sq.meter, 1 arcsecond X-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, M; Elvis, Martin; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1996-01-01

    X-ray astronomy needs to set bold, science driven goals for the next decade. Only with defined science goals can we know what to work on, and a funding agency appreciate the need for significant technology developments. To be a forefront science the scale of advance must be 2 decades of sensitivity per decade of time. To be stable to new discoveries these should be general, discovery space, goals. A detailed consideration of science goals leads us to propose that a mirror collecting area of 10 sq.meters with arcsecond resolution, good field of view (>10 arcmin), and with high spectral resolution spectroscopy (R=1000-10,000) defines the proper goal. This is about 100 times AXAF, or 30 times XMM. This workshop has shown that this goal is only a reasonable stretch from existing concepts, and may be insufficiently bold. An investment of roughly $10M/year for 5 years in X-ray optics technologies, comparable to NASA's investment in ASTRO-E or a SMEX, is needed, and would pay off hugely more than any small X-ray mis...

  15. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Julie; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated ScienceInstrument Module (ISIM)are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirrorcenter of curvatureoptical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard SpaceFlight Center beforebeing shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparationfor the cryogenicoptical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two OpticalGround SystemEquipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize opticaltest results todate and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  16. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element/Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS) Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lee; Voyton, Mark; Lander, Juli; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Matthews, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are integrated together to form the OTIS. Once integrated, the OTIS undergoes primary mirror center of curvature optical tests, electrical and operational tests, acoustics and vibration testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center before being shipped to the Johnson Space Center for cryogenic optical testing of the OTIS. In preparation for the cryogenic optical testing, the JWST project has built a Pathfinder telescope and has completed two Optical Ground System Equipment (OGSE) cryogenic optical tests with the Pathfinder. In this paper, we will summarize optical test results to date and status the final Pathfinder test and the OTIS integration and environmental test preparations

  17. Telescopes for a Space-Based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Shannon; Livas, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Telescopes are an important part of the science measurement for a space-based gravitational wave observatory. The telescopes should not introduce excess phase noise which might lower the signal-to-noise of the gravitational wave signal. This requirement constrains both the telescope stability and the phase noise due to scattered light. The photoreceiver senses a combination of a local beam, the received beam and scattered light. If the scattered light has significant spatial overlap, and if there is displacement noise in the scatter path, the signal-to-noise of the main measurement can be impacted. We will discuss our approach to addressing this concern. We model the scattered power from the telescope under expected conditions and use these models for evaluating potential telescope designs. We also determine allowable mirror surface roughness and contamination levels from the scattered light models. We implement the best designs by fabricating a series of prototype telescopes of increasing flight readiness, using eLISA as a reference mission for design specifications. Finally, we perform laboratory tests of the fabricated prototype telescope to validate the models and inform our understanding of the eventual flight telescopes.

  18. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors - A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Benedict, G Fritz; Nelan, Edmund P; Harrison, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor interferometric astrometry has produced precise and accurate parallaxes of astrophysical interesting stars and mass estimates for stellar companions. We review parallax results, and binary star and exoplanet mass determinations, and compare a subset of these parallaxes with preliminary Gaia results. The approach to single-field relative astrometry described herein may continue to have value for targets fainter than the Gaia limit in the coming era of 20-30m telescopes.

  19. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-18

    Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope...USA ABSTRACT From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using...two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid

  20. Exo-atmospheric telescopes for Deep Space Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, William J.; Moe, Rud V.; Dennis, Michael L.; MacNeal, Bruce E.; Walker, Jon Z.; Ortiz, Gerardo G.; Eegholm, Bente; Fairbrother, debora A.; Cheng, Edward S.; Kasunic, Keith J.

    2006-01-01

    For deep space optical communications, optical telescopes located above the Earth's atmosphere would have significant performance advantages over telescopes mounted on the Earth's surface. Link outages due to cloud cover would be eliminated, atmospheric attenuation would be eliminated, and signal degradation due to stray light would be reduced. A study has been conducted to compare various exo-atmospheric platforms for the Earth end of the optical link.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Potential for Exoplanet Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 microns to 28 microns. JWST s primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. Recent progress in hardware development for the observatory will be presented, including a discussion of the status of JWST s optical system and Beryllium mirror fabrication, progress with sunshield prototypes, and recent changes in the integration and test configuration. We also review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit imaging and spectroscopy and direct imaging. We also review the recent discovery of Fomalhaut B and implications for debris disk imaging nd exoplanet detection with JWST.

  2. The James Webb Space Telescope and its Capability for for Exoplanet Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large aperture (6.5 .meter), cryogenic space telescope with a suite of near and mid-infrared instruments covering the wavelength range of 0.6 micron to 28 micron. JWST's primary science goal is to detect and characterize the first galaxies. It will also study the assembly of galaxies, star formation, and the formation of evolution of planetary systems. In this presentation we will discuss the status of the JWST project and review the expected scientific performance of the observatory for observations of exosolar planets by means of transit observations, and direct coronagraphic imaging. In particular we will discuss recent simulations of photometric and spectroscopic transit observations that demonstrate the capabilities of JWST to characterize superearth atmospheres in the light of recent Kepler and Corot discoveries

  3. ATLAST-9.2m: a Large-Aperture Deployable Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oergerle, William; Feinberg, Lee D.; Purves, Lloyd R.; Hyde, T. Tupper; Thronson, Harley A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Postman, Marc; Bolear, Matthew R.; Budinoff, Jason G.; Dean, Bruce H.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), designed to operate in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit. The primary mirror of the segmented 9.2-meter aperture has 36 hexagonal 1.315 m (flat to flat) glass mirrors. The architecture and folding of the telescope is similar to JWST, allowing it to fit into the 6.5 m fairing of a modest upgrade to the Delta-IV Heavy version of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). We discuss the overall observatory design, optical design, instruments, stray light, wavefront sensing and control, pointing and thermal control, and in-space servicing options.

  4. Exploring Extrasolar Planetary Systems: New Observations of Extrasolar Planets Enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The search for extrasolar planets has been increasingly success over the last few years. In excess of 700 systems are now known, and Kepler has approx.2500 additional candidate systems, yet to be confirmed. Recently, progress has also been made in directly imaging extrasolar planets, both from the ground and in space. In this presentation will discuss the techniques employed to discover planetary systems, and highlight the capabilities, enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). JWST is a large 6.5 meter aperture infrared telescope that is scheduled for launch in 2018, and will allow us to transition to characterizing the properties of these extrasolar planets and the planetary systems in which they reside.

  5. Research of Telescope Space Particle Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Yu-min; LAN; Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    To meet the needs of space environment detection of high-energy particles,we developed a prototype of space electron-proton flux detector,used in measurements of electronics and proton flux inside and outside the spacecraft.This detection system has the following advantages:

  6. Study on the temperature field effect analysis and test of the five-hundred-meter aperture spherical radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-qiang; Wang, Qi-ming

    2016-10-01

    The thermal problem is one of the important research contents of the design and operation about giant radio antenna. This kind of influence to the antenna has been concerned in the astronomy field. Due to the instantaneous temperature load and uncertainty, it is difficult to accurately analysis and effectively control about its effect. It has important significance to analyze the thermal problem of giant radio antenna to its design and operation. The research of solar cookers and temperature field on Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) were preceded in detail. The tests of temperature distribute about 30 meters antenna in Mi-yun observatory station were performed. The research work including the parameters related to the sun, the flow algorithm of telescope site, mathematical model of solar cooker, analysis results of temperature field and corresponding control strategy, the temperature distribution test of 30 meters model. The results showed that: solar cookers could be weakened and controlled effectively of FAST. This work will provide a reference to design and operation of the FAST and same big antenna. It has certain theory significance, engineering significance and application value.

  7. [A portable impedance meter for monitoring liquid compartments of human body under space flight conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nikolaev, D V; Tuĭkin, S A; Kozharinov, V I; Grachev, V A

    2007-01-01

    A portable two-frequency tetrapolar impedance meter was developed to study the state of liquid compartments of human body under zero-gravity conditions. The portable impedance meter makes it possible to monitor the hydration state of human body under conditions of long-term space flight on board international space station.

  8. The Virtual Space Telescope: A New Class of Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Many science investigations proposed by GSFC require two spacecraft alignment across a long distance to form a virtual space telescope. Forming a Virtual Space telescope requires advances in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) enabling the distribution of monolithic telescopes across multiple space platforms. The capability to align multiple spacecraft to an intertial target is at a low maturity state and we present a roadmap to advance the system-level capability to be flight ready in preparation of various science applications. An engineering proof of concept, called the CANYVAL-X CubeSat MIssion is presented. CANYVAL-X's advancement will decrease risk for a potential starshade mission that would fly with WFIRST.

  9. solar magnetic fiber and space solar telescope in engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, G.

    The solar magnetic fiber and the magnetic element are the most important factor in the solar activity and solar atmosphere. Because the space resolution of measurement of solar magnetic field is much lower than that of the size of the nature solar magnetic fiber and element from the earth atmospheric turbulence. The estimate of the magnetic element nature from various indirect researches shows great difference with several orders. The research results about magnetic elements have been reviewed in the paper.Because the size of the magnetic element has been estimated for 0.1T-0.2T, the space solar magnetic field telescope with big diameter is the most basic choice. For the exploration of solar magnetic fiber and element, a Space Solar Telescope is under development in the phase C and D, there are five payloads which are: 1) MOT, 1 diameter telescope with 8 channels real time 2-D spectrograph and 8 sets CCD with 2K`2K; 2) EUV, 4 tubes of soft X-ray Telescope with 0.252 space resolution; 3) WBS, the wide Band Spectrometer with 256 channel from soft X-ray to Gamma-ray. 4) HAT, Ha and white light telescope; 5) SIRA, Solar and interplanetary Radio Spectrometer, with 100 KHZ-60 MHZ. The assembly and test will be introduced.

  10. Giving Birth to the James Webb Space Telescope: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John

    2013-01-01

    In late October 1995, I found a remarkable message on my answering machine from Ed Weiler, then the Program Scientist for the Hubble Space Telescope. Would I work on the next generation space telescope, the successor to the beautiful HST? It took me mere moments to work out the answer: Of course! At the time, my work on the COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) was finished, I was writing a book about it (The Very First Light, with John Boslough), and I thought NASA might never do anything nearly as spectacular again. Wow, was I happy to be surprised by that call!

  11. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A

    2009-10-09

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration.

  12. TCS and peripheral robotization and upgrade on the ESO 1-meter telescope at La Silla Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropert, S.; Suc, V.; Jordán, A.; Tala, M.; Liedtke, P.; Royo, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we describe the robotization and upgrade of the ESO 1m telescope located at La Silla Observatory. The ESO 1m telescope was the first telescope installed in La Silla, in 1966. It now hosts as a main instrument the FIber Dual EchellE Optical Spectrograph (FIDEOS), a high resolution spectrograph designed for precise Radial Velocity (RV) measurements on bright stars. In order to meet this project's requirements, the Telescope Control System (TCS) and some of its mechanical peripherals needed to be upgraded. The TCS was also upgraded into a modern and robust software running on a group of single board computers interacting together as a network with the CoolObs TCS developed by ObsTech. One of the particularities of the CoolObs TCS is that it allows to fuse the input signals of 2 encoders per axis in order to achieve high precision and resolution of the tracking with moderate cost encoders. One encoder is installed on axis at the telescope and the other on axis at the motor. The TCS was also integrated with the FIDEOS instrument system so that all the system can be controlled through the same remote user interface. Our modern TCS unit allows the user to run observations remotely through a secured internet web interface, minimizing the need of an on-site observer and opening a new age in robotic astronomy for the ESO 1m telescope.

  13. Feasibility of Exoplanet Coronagraphy with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Brown, Robert; Noecker, M. Charley; Cheng, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report on a preliminary study to assess the use of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the direct detection and spectroscopic characterization of exoplanets and debris disks - an application for which HST was not originally designed. Coronagraphic advances may enable the design of a science instrument that could achieve limiting contrasts approx.10deg beyond 275 milli-arcseconds (4 lambda/D at 800 nm) inner working angle, thereby enabling detection and characterization of several known jovian planets and imaging of debris disks. Advantages of using HST are that it already exists in orbit, it's primary mirror is thermally stable and it is the most characterized space telescope yet flown. However there is drift of the HST telescope, likely due to thermal effects crossing the terminator. The drift, however, is well characterized and consists of a larger deterministic components and a smaller stochastic component. It is the effect of this drift versus the sensing and control bandwidth of the instrument that would likely limit HST coronagraphic performance. Herein we discuss the science case, quantifY the limiting factors and assess the feasibility of using HST for exoplanet discovery using a hypothetical new instrument. Keywords: Hubble Space Telescope, coronagraphy, exoplanets, telescopes

  14. Automation of the 1.3-meter Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard; Treffers, Richard R.

    2011-03-01

    This poster describes the automation for the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) Consortium of the 50-inch telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Building upon the work of the previous contractor the telescope, dome and instrument were wired for totally autonomous (robotic) observations. The existing motors, encoders, limit switches and cables were connected to an open industrial panel that allows easy interconnection, troubleshooting and modifications. A sixteen axis Delta Tau Turbo PMAC controller is used to control all motors, encoders, flat field lights and many of the digital functions of the telescope. ADAM industrial I/O bricks are used for additional digital and analog I/O functions. Complex relay logic problems, such as the mirror cover opening sequence and the slit control, are managed using Allen Bradley Pico PLDs. Most of the low level software is written in C using the GNU compiler. The basic functionality uses an ASCII protocol communicating over Berkeley sockets. Early versions of this software were developed at U.C. Berkeley, for what was to become the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory. ASCII communications are useful for control, testing and easy to debug by looking at the log files; C-shell scripts are written to form more complex orchestrations.

  15. Reliability and maintenance simulation of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, F.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical approach is presented which was developed and implemented at MSFC specifically for the Space Telescope Program to provide comparisons of critical item failures, system downstates, on-orbit servicing versus return for ground maintenance, overall system downtime, and to obtain a measure of expected uptime for science functions.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope On-orbit Transfer Function Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, N.; Blair, M. A.; Clapp, B. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the On-orbit Transfer Function Test (TFT) designed for on-orbit vibration testing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The TFT provides means for extracting accurate on-orbit characteristics of HST flexible body dynamics, making it possible to check periodically the state of the vehicle on-orbit and to assess changes in modal parameters.

  17. James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Thermal Vacuum Thermal Balance Test Campaign at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Stuart; Comber, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror, designed as a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope when launched in 2018. Three of the four science instruments contained within the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are passively cooled to their operational temperature range of 36K to 40K with radiators, and the fourth instrument is actively cooled to its operational temperature of approximately 6K. Thermal-vacuum testing of the flight science instruments at the ISIM element level has taken place in three separate highly challenging and extremely complex thermal tests within a gaseous helium-cooled shroud inside Goddard Space Flight Centers Space Environment Simulator. Special data acquisition software was developed for these tests to monitor over 1700 flight and test sensor measurements, track over 50 gradients, component rates, and temperature limits in real time against defined constraints and limitations, and guide the complex transition from ambient to final cryogenic temperatures and back. This extremely flexible system has proven highly successful in safeguarding the nearly $2B science payload during the 3.5-month-long thermal tests. Heat flow measurement instrumentation, or Q-meters, were also specially developed for these tests. These devices provide thermal boundaries o the flight hardware while measuring instrument heat loads up to 600 mW with an estimated uncertainty of 2 mW in test, enabling accurate thermal model correlation, hardware design validation, and workmanship verification. The high accuracy heat load measurements provided first evidence of a potentially serious hardware design issue that was subsequently corrected. This paper provides an overview of the ISIM-level thermal-vacuum tests and thermal objectives; explains the thermal test configuration and thermal balances; describes special measurement instrumentation and monitoring and control software; presents key test thermal results

  18. Measurement of the Radiation Dose Rates of Patients Receiving Treatment with I-131 Using Telescopic Radiation Survey Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Lahfi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to discharge the patients receiving treatment with large radiation doses of 131I for thyroid cancer, it is necessary to measure and evaluate the external dose rates of these patients. The aim of the study was to assess a new method of external dose rate measurement, and to analyze the obtained results as a function of time. Materials and Methods In this study, a telescopic radiation survey meter was utilized to measure the external dose rates of a sample population of 192 patients receiving treatment with high-dose 131I at one, 24, and 48 hours after dose administration. Results The proposed technique could reduce the occupational radiation exposure of the physicist by a factor of 1/16. Moreover, the external dose rates of both genders rapidly decreased with time according to bi-exponential equations, which could be attributed to the additional factors associated with iodine excretion, as well as the physiology of the body in terms of 131I uptake. Conclusion According to the results of this study, telescopic radiation survey meter could be used to measure the external dose rates of patients receiving treatment with 131I. Furthermore, the average difference in the radiation exposure between female and male patients was calculated to be less than 17%.

  19. Tritel: 3D silicon detector telescope used for space dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazmandi, T.; Hirn, A.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Csoke, A. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Bodnar, L. [BL-Electronics, Solymar (Hungary)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long-duration space flights is the excessive exposure to cosmic radiation, which has great importance particularly during solar flares and higher solar activity. Radiation weighting factor, which is a function of the linear energy transfer of the radiation, is used to convert absorbed dose to equivalent dose. Since space radiation mainly consists of charged heavy particles, the equivalent dose differs significantly from the absorbed dose. The objectives of this project are to develop and manufacture a three-axis silicon detector telescope (Tritel), and to develop software for data evaluation of the measured energy deposition spectra. The 3 D silicon telescope should be the first such device used for measuring the dose astronauts are subjected to. Research and development began in the K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute several years ago. The geometric parameters of the 3 D silicon Let telescope were defined, results of previous measurements were used as a benchmark. Features of various types and sizes of telescopes were analyzed. Elements of the Tritel telescope system, issues of the electronic block diagram, requirements for the mechanical construction and possibilities of data handling and data evaluation are analyzed in this paper. First results of the calibrations are presented as well. (authors)

  20. Observing Exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin Mark

    2011-01-01

    The search for exoplanets and characterization of their properties has seen increasing success over the last few years. In excess of 500 exoplanets are known and Kepler has approx. 1000 additional candidates. Recently, progress has been made in direct imaging planets, both from the ground and in space. This presentation will discuss the history and current state of technology used for such discoveries, and highlight the new capabilities that will be enabled by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  1. Characterization of Metering, Merging and Spacing Requirements for Future Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO) is one of the essential paradigm shifts in the NextGen transformation of the National Airspace System. Under TBO, aircraft are managed by 4-dimensional trajectories, and airborne and ground-based metering, merging, and spacing operations are key to managing those trajectories. This paper presents the results of a study of potential metering, merging, and spacing operations within a future TBO environment. A number of operational scenarios for tactical and strategic uses of metering, merging, and spacing are described, and interdependencies between concurrent tactical and strategic operations are identified.

  2. 18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J

    2009-01-01

    After several decades of planning, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in 1990 as the first of NASA's Great Observatories. After a rocky start arising from an error in the fabrication of its main mirror, it went on to change forever many fields of astronomy, and to capture the public's imagination with its images. An ongoing programme of servicing missions has kept the telescope on the cutting edge of astronomical research. Here I review the advances made possible by the HST over the past 18 years.

  3. Multivariable parametric cost model for space and ground telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd

    2016-09-01

    Parametric cost models can be used by designers and project managers to perform relative cost comparisons between major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades; enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment; and, provide a basis for estimating total project cost between related concepts. This paper hypothesizes a single model, based on published models and engineering intuition, for both ground and space telescopes: OTA Cost (X) D (1.75 +/- 0.05) λ (-0.5 +/- 0.25) T-0.25 e (-0.04) Y Specific findings include: space telescopes cost 50X to 100X more ground telescopes; diameter is the most important CER; cost is reduced by approximately 50% every 20 years (presumably because of technology advance and process improvements); and, for space telescopes, cost associated with wavelength performance is balanced by cost associated with operating temperature. Finally, duplication only reduces cost for the manufacture of identical systems (i.e. multiple aperture sparse arrays or interferometers). And, while duplication does reduce the cost of manufacturing the mirrors of segmented primary mirror, this cost savings does not appear to manifest itself in the final primary mirror assembly (presumably because the structure for a segmented mirror is more complicated than for a monolithic mirror).

  4. Solar Sail - Fresnel Zone Plate Lens for a Large Space Based Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J T

    2002-02-13

    A Fresnel zone plate lens made with solar sail material could be used as the primary optic for a very large aperture telescope on deep space probes propelled by solar sails. The large aperture telescope capability could enable significant science on fly-by missions to the asteroids, Pluto, Kuiper belt or the tort cloud and could also enable meaningful interstellar fly-by missions for laser propelled sails. This type of lens may also have some potential for laser communications and as a solar concentrator. The techniques for fabrication of meter size and larger Fresnel phase plate optics are under development at LLNL, and we are extending this technology to amplitude zone plates made from sail materials. Corrector optics to greatly extend the bandwidth of these Fresnel optics will be demonstrated in the future. This novel telescope concept will require new understanding of the fabrication, deployment and control of gossamer space structures. It will also require new materials technology for fabricating these optics and understanding their long term stability in a space environment.

  5. Optical Testing and Verification Methods for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (40K). The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) that contains four science instruments (SI) and the fine guider. The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SI and guider units were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a suite using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wave front error, were evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.

  6. Optical testing and verification methods for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonille, Scott R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rohrbach, Scott O.; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Cofie, Emmanuel; Collins, Nicholas R.; Comber, Brian J.; Eichhorn, William L.; Glasse, Alistair C.; Gracey, Renee; Hartig, George F.; Howard, Joseph M.; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Kirk, Jeffrey R.; Kubalak, David A.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Lindler, Don J.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Sabatke, Derek S.; Smith, Corbett T.; Smith, J. Scott; Sullivan, Joseph F.; Telfer, Randal C.; Te Plate, Maurice; Vila, M. Begoña.; Warner, Gerry D.; Wright, David; Wright, Raymond H.; Zhou, Julia; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2016-09-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), that contains four science instruments (SI) and the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS). The SIs are mounted to a composite metering structure. The SIs and FGS were integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center using the Optical Telescope Element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a full-field, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator. SI performance, including alignment and wavefront error, was evaluated using OSIM. We describe test and analysis methods for optical performance verification of the ISIM Element, with an emphasis on the processes used to plan and execute the test. The complexity of ISIM and OSIM drove us to develop a software tool for test planning that allows for configuration control of observations, implementation of associated scripts, and management of hardware and software limits and constraints, as well as tools for rapid data evaluation, and flexible re-planning in response to the unexpected. As examples of our test and analysis approach, we discuss how factors such as the ground test thermal environment are compensated in alignment. We describe how these innovative methods for test planning and execution and post-test analysis were instrumental in the verification program for the ISIM element, with enough information to allow the reader to consider these innovations and lessons learned in this successful effort in their future testing for other programs.

  7. STS-31 Mission Onboard Photograph-Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this photograph, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was being deployed on April 25, 1990. The photograph was taken by the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) mounted in a container on the port side of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery (STS-31 mission). The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. A scheduled Space Service servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993 permitted scientists to correct the problem. During four spacewalks, new instruments were installed into the HST that had optical corrections. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. Photo Credit: NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Lockheed Corporation.

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope Education and Public Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teays, T. J.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, J.; Amazing Space Team

    2001-05-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has conducted a long-standing and vigorous program in education and public outreach. This program uses a variety of methods to reach a broad spectrum of audiences. Education products are developed in a team environment that partners educators, curriculum experts, scientists, and production experts, such as graphic artists, Web designers, programmers, and education evaluators. A popular Web site is maintained, and has been substantially augmented in the past year. The Amazing Space program consists of a suite of online, interactive modules for use in the kindergarten through 12th grade classroom. The program is rooted in the national education standards and benefits from a robust evaluation process. The HST images and data are used to engage students in learning basic science and mathematics concepts. The activity/lessons include extensive, online assistance for educators, so that they can be readily used in the classroom. Hardcopy products such as posters, lithographs, teacher guides, and trading cards are generally tied to online products, to provide multiple entries to the material. We also provide training for teachers in the use of our products, as appropriate. Informal science education is supported by providing services to museums, planetariums, libraries and related institutions. The very popular ViewSpace, a computer-based video service is being used by many informal science facilities. In addition, HST has supported the creation of both permanent and traveling exhibits about HST. The Space Telescope Science Institute operates the Hubble Space Telescope for NASA.

  9. On-Orbit Performance of the Spitzer Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas; Werner, Michael; Gallagher, David; Irace, William; Fazio, Giovanni; Houck, James; Rieke, George; Wilson, Robert; Soifer, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope (formally known as SIRTF) was successfully launched on August 25, 2003, and has completed its initial in-orbit checkout and science validation and calibration period. The measured performance of the observatory has met or exceeded all of its high-level requirements, it has entered normal operations, and is beginning to return high-quality science data. A superfluid-helium cooled 85 cm diameter telescope provides extremely low infrared backgrounds and feeds three science instruments covering wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 180 microns. The telescope optical quality is excellent, providing diffraction-limited performance down to wavelengths below 6.5 microns. Based on the first helium mass and boil-off rate measurements, a cryogenic lifetime in excess of 5 years is expected. This presentation will provide a summary of the overall performance of the observatory, with an emphasis on those performance parameters that have the greatest impact on its ultimate science return.

  10. Off-disk straylight measurements for the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Löfdahl, Mats G

    2016-01-01

    Context. Accurate photometry with ground based solar telescopes requires characterization of straylight. Scattering in Earth's atmosphere and in the telescope optics are potentially significant sources of straylight, for which the point spread function (PSF) has wings that reach very far. This kind of straylight produces an aureola, extending several solar radii off the solar disk. Aims. Measure such straylight using the ordinary science instrumentation. Methods. We scanned the intensity on and far off the solar disk by use of the science cameras in several different wavelength bands on a day with low-dust conditions. We characterized the far wing straylight by fitting a model to the recorded intensities involving a multi-component straylight PSF and the limb darkening of the disk. Results. The measured scattered light adds an approximately constant fraction of the local granulation intensity to science images at any position on the disk. The fraction varied over the day but never exceeded a few percent. The ...

  11. Large Space Telescopes Using Fresnel Lens for Power Beaming, Astronomy and Sail Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J T

    2002-10-15

    The concept of using Fresnel optics as part of power beaming, astronomy or sail systems has been suggested by several authors. The primary issues for large Fresnel optics are the difficulties in fabricating these structures and deploying them in space and for astronomy missions the extremely narrow frequency range of these optics. In proposals where the telescope is used to transmit narrow frequency laser power, the narrow bandwidth has not been an issue. In applications where the optic is to be used as part of a telescope, only around 10{sup -5} to limited frequency response of a Fresnel optic is addressed by the use of a corrective optic that will broaden the frequency response of the telescope by three or four orders of magnitude. This broadening will dramatically increase the optical power capabilities of the system and will allow some spectroscopy studies over a limited range. Both the fabrication of Fresnel optics as large as five meters and the use of corrector optics for telescopes have been demonstrated at LLNL. For solar and laser sail missions the use of Fresnel amplitude zone plates made of very thin sail material is also discussed.

  12. Origins Space Telescope: Planet-forming disks and exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Klaus; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to planet formation and exoplanets. Leveraging orders of magnitude of improvements in sensitivity, the Origins Telescope will reveal the path of water from the interstellar medium to the inner regions of planet-forming disks, and determine the total masses of disks around stars across the stellar mass range out to distances of 500 pc. It will measure the temperatures and search for basic chemical ingredients for life on rocky planets. Beyond this, the Origins Telescope will open a vast discovery space in the general areas of star formation, protoplanetary and debris disks, and cool exoplanets in habitable zones.

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope from concept to success

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2016-01-01

    The highly successful Hubble Space Telescope was meant to change our view and understanding of the universe. Within weeks of its launch in 1990, however, the space community was shocked to find out that the primary mirror of the telescope was flawed. It was only the skills of scientists and engineers on the ground and the daring talents of astronauts sent to service the telescope in December 1993 that saved the mission. For over two decades NASA had developed the capabilities to service a payload in orbit. This involved numerous studies and the creation of a ground-based infrastructure to support the challenging missions. Unique tools and EVA hardware supported the skills developed in crew training that then enabled astronauts to complete a demanding series of spacewalks. Drawing upon first hand interviews with those closely involved in the project over thirty years ago this story explains the development of the servicing mission concept and the hurdles that had to be overcome to not only launch the telescope...

  14. Hartmann test for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J. Scott; Feinberg, Lee; Howard, Joseph; Acton, D. Scott; Whitman, Tony L.; Smith, Koby

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) end-to-end optical system will be tested in a cryogenic vacuum environment before launch at NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Apollo-era, historic Chamber A thermal vacuum facility. During recent pre-test runs with a prototype "Pathfinder" telescope, the vibration in this environment was found to be challenging for the baseline test approach, which uses phase retrieval of images created by three sub-apertures of the telescope. To address the vibration, an alternate strategy implemented using classic Hartmann test principles combined with precise mirror mechanisms to provide a testing approach that is insensitive to the dynamics environment of the chamber. The measurements and sensitivities of the Hartmann approach are similar to those using phase retrieval over the original sparse aperture test. The Hartmann test concepts have been implemented on the JWST Test Bed Telescope, which provided the rationale and empirical evidence indicating that this Hartmann style approach would be valuable in supplementing the baseline test approach. This paper presents a Hartmann approach implemented during the recent Pathfinder test along with the test approach that is currently being considered for the full optical system test of JWST. Comparisons are made between the baseline phase retrieval approach and the Hartmann approach in addition to demonstrating how the two test methodologies support each other to reduce risk during the JWST full optical system test.

  15. The LATT way towards large active primaries for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Xompero, Marco; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Biasi, Roberto; Patauner, Christian; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; d'Amato, Francesco; Pucci, Mauro; Duò, Fabrizio; Vettore, Christian; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The Large Aperture Telescope Technology (LATT) goes beyond the current paradigm of future space telescopes, based on a deformable mirror in the pupil relay. Through the LATT project we demonstrated the concept of a low-weight active primary mirror, whose working principle and control strategy benefit from two decades of advances in adaptive optics for ground-based telescopes. We developed a forty centimeter spherical mirror prototype, with an areal density lower than 17 kg/m2, controlled through contactless voice coil actuators with co-located capacitive position sensors. The prototype was subjected to thermo-vacuum, vibration and optical tests, to push its technical readiness toward level 5. In this paper we present the background and the outcomes of the LATT activities under ESA contract (TRP programme), exploring the concept of a lightweight active primary mirror for space telescopes. Active primaries will open the way to very large segmented apertures, actively shaped, which can be lightweight, deployable and accurately phased once in flight.

  16. WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraphic Operations: Lessons Learned from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Debes, John H; Choquet, Elodie; Hines, Dean C; Perrin, Marshall; Golimowski, David A; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; van der Marel, Roeland

    2015-01-01

    The coronagraphic instrument currently proposed for the WFIRST-AFTA mission will be the first example of a space-based coronagraph optimized for extremely high contrasts that are required for the direct imaging of exoplanets reflecting the light of their host star. While the design of this instrument is still in progress, this early stage of development is a particularly beneficial time to consider the operation of such an instrument. In this paper, we review current or planned operations on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) with a focus on which operational aspects will have relevance to the planned WFIRST-AFTA coronagraphic instrument. We identify five key aspects of operations that will require attention: 1) detector health and evolution, 2) wavefront control, 3) observing strategies/post-processing, 4) astrometric precision/target acquisition, and 5) polarimetry. We make suggestions on a path forward for each of these items.

  17. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Atwood, W B

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view, high-energy gamma-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. This paper describes the LAT, its pre-flight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4x4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 x,y tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an 8 layer hodoscopic configuration wit...

  18. Feasibility of a 30-Meter Space Based Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    the differential sag at the edge of the aperture is: °sag 16FpDp -1/2 / 1 \\ -3/2 1 + T^f\\ - 1 + 16Fp ) [ x 16Fp The results are...5.0 Segment Diameter (Dg). meters sag 16FpDp 10 -3/2 1 + 16Fp -r 1 + 16F1 Fig. 7 — Asphericity of off-axis mirror segments In...based on fabrication, testing , or dynamic response requirements. 3.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES In studying the faceplate, the more conventional mirror

  19. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Conor A; Adamkovics, Mate; Bezard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon L; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander G; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark T; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas A; Turtle, Elizabeth P; West, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) but with a significantly larger aperture (6.5 m) and advanced instrumentation focusing on infrared science (0.6-28.0 $\\mu$m ). In this paper we examine the potential for scientific investigation of Titan using JWST, primarily with three of the four instruments: NIRSpec, NIRCam and MIRI, noting that science with NIRISS will be complementary. Five core scientific themes are identified: (i) surface (ii) tropospheric clouds (iii) tropospheric gases (iv) stratospheric composition and (v) stratospheric hazes. We discuss each theme in depth, including the scientific purpose, capabilities and limitations of the instrument suite, and suggested observing schemes. We pay particular attention to saturation, which is a problem for all three instruments, but may be alleviated for NIRCam through use of selecting small sub-arrays of the detectors - sufficient to encompass Titan, but with significantly fas...

  20. Observing supernova 1987A with the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen S; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun S J; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John T; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J Craig

    2010-09-24

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 with the use of the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Lyα and Hα lines from shock emission continue to brighten, whereas their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad, blueshifted Lyα, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hot spots on the equatorial ring. We also detect N v λλ1239, 1243 angstrom line emission, but only to the red of Lyα. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of Hα, suggesting that the N4+ ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  1. Precision Attitude Determination for an Infrared Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed performance simulations for a precision attitude determination system using a focal plane star tracker on an infrared space telescope. The telescope is being designed for the Destiny mission to measure cosmologically distant supernovae as one of the candidate implementations for the Joint Dark Energy Mission. Repeat observations of the supernovae require attitude control at the level of 0.010 arcseconds (0.05 microradians) during integrations and at repeat intervals up to and over a year. While absolute accuracy is not required, the repoint precision is challenging. We have simulated the performance of a focal plane star tracker in a multidimensional parameter space, including pixel size, read noise, and readout rate. Systematic errors such as proper motion, velocity aberration, and parallax can be measured and compensated out. Our prediction is that a relative attitude determination accuracy of 0.001 to 0.002 arcseconds (0.005 to 0.010 microradians) will be achievable.

  2. Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 using the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Ly-a and H-a lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad blueshifted Ly-a, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hotspots on the equatorial ring. We also detect NV~\\lambda\\lambda 1239,1243 A line emission, but only to the red of Ly-A. The profiles of the NV lines differ markedly from that of H-a, suggesting that the N^{4+} ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  3. Possible use of the dedicated MARLY one meter telescope for intensive supernovae studies

    CERN Document Server

    Moniez, M

    2001-01-01

    The EROS2 microlensing search will end at the end of 2002. Apart of this microlensing search, EROS has discovered ~70 supernovae during 8 periods partially dedicated to a SN search. In this document, we investigated a new way of using the EROS telescope (The MARLY) after this date, as a dedicated nearby supernovae photometer. The performance of a set-up with two cameras allowing to simultaneously perform BVRI and U photometry have been estimated. Each year, of order of 100 type Ia supernovae at z ~0.05 should be photometrically followed-up during 80 days with a precision of 2% in BVRI and ~3,5% in U.

  4. Teflon FEP Analyzed After Retrieval From the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Banks, Bruce A.; Wang, Len; He, Charles

    1999-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Second Servicing Mission, 6.8 years after the telescope was deployed in low Earth orbit, degradation of unsupported Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene), used as the outer layer of the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets, was evident as large cracks on the telescope light shield. A sample of the degraded outer layer (see the photograph) was retrieved during the second servicing mission and returned to Earth for ground testing and evaluation. Also retrieved was a Teflon FEP radiator surface from a cryogen vent cover that was exposed to the space environment on the aft bulkhead of the HST. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included determining the FEP degradation mechanisms. As part of the investigations into the degradation mechanisms, specimens retrieved from the first and second HST servicing missions, 3.6 and 6.8 years after launch, respectively, were characterized through exhaustive mechanical, optical, and chemical testing. Testing led by Goddard included scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, tensile testing, solar absorptance measurements, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (m-FTIR), attenuated total reflectance infrared microscopy (ATR/FTIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The NASA Lewis Research Center contributed significantly to the analysis of the retrieved HST materials by leading efforts and providing results of bend testing, surface microhardness measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and density measurements. Other testing was conducted by Nano Instruments, Inc., and the University of Akron.

  5. Removing the Fringes from Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Slitless Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumuth, Eliot M.; Hill, Robert S.; Gull, Ted; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Bowers, Charles W.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Plait, Phil; Blouke, Morley

    2003-02-01

    Using what is known about the physical and chemical structure of the CCD detector on the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and over 50 calibration images taken with different wavelength mappings onto the detector, we have devised a model function that allows us to predict the fringing of any spectral image taken with the STIS CCD. This function is especially useful for spectra taken without a slit with the G750L grating. The STIS parallel observing program uses this ``slitless spectroscopy'' mode extensively. The arbitrary mapping of wavelength versus position that results from each source's chance position in the field renders direct calibration of the fringe amplitudes in this mode impossible. However, we find that correcting observed data using our semiempirical fringing model produces a substantial reduction in the fringe amplitudes. Tests using the flux calibration white dwarf standard G191-B2B show that we can reduce the fringe amplitude in the 9000-10000 Å region from about 20% peak to peak (10% rms) to about 4% peak to peak (2% rms) using the model, while a standard calibration using a ``fringe flat'' reduces the fringe amplitudes to 3.3% peak to peak (1.7% rms). The same technique is applicable to other astronomical CCDs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Funding of this activity was through the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Guaranteed Time Observations.

  6. RECENT PROGRESS IN THE PROJECT OF SPACE SOLAR TELESCOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some process of the project of Space Solar Telescope in recent two years. The astronomic requirements have been further identified,the mission and operation requirements have been assessed, and some critical technologies have been performed. According to the time schedule, it is esti mated that the engineering model of the spacecraft would be completed and put into test operation in the end of 2004 and the spacecraft would be launched in about 2007.

  7. Technicians assembly the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    At JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A, technicians install a high gain antenna (HGA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup. On the ground a technician operates the controls for the overhead crane that is lifting the HGA into place on the Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. Others in a cherry picker basket wait for the HGA to near its final position so they can secure it on the mockup.

  8. Super Earth Explorer: Coronagraphic Off-Axis Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J; Mawet, D; Baudoz, P; Beuzit, J L; Doyon, R; Marley, M; Stam, D; Tinetti, G; Traub, W; Trauger, J; Aylward, A; Cho, J Y K; Keller, C U; Udry, S

    2008-01-01

    The Super-Earth Explorer is an Off-Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) designed for high contrast imaging. Its scientific objective is to make the physico-chemical characterization of exoplanets possibly down to 2 Earth radii >. For that purpose it will analyze the spectral and polarimetric properties of the parent starlight reflected by the planets, in the wavelength range 400-1250 nm

  9. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  10. "Amazing Space": Creating Educational Resources from Current Scientific Research Results from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, C. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Teays, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Amazing Space program which is designed to enhance student mathematics, science, and technology skills using recent data and results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope mission. Explains the process of designing multi-media resources in a five-week summer workshop that partners…

  11. KOSMOS and COSMOS: New facility instruments for the NOAO 4-meter telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Paul; Points, S; Sprayberry, D; Derwent, M A; Gonzalez, R; Mason, J A; O'Brien, T P; Pappalardo, D P; Pogge, R W; Stoll, R; Zhelem, R; Daly, P; Fitzpatrick, M; George, J R; Hunten, M; Marshall, R; Poczulp, G; Rath, S; Seaman, R; Trueblood, M; Zelaya, K

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and measured performance of the Kitt Peak Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (KOSMOS) for the 4-m Mayall telescope and the Cerro Tololo Ohio State Multi-Object Spectrograph (COSMOS) for the 4-m Blanco telescope. These nearly identical imaging spectrographs are modified versions of the OSMOS instrument; they provide a pair of new, high-efficiency instruments to the NOAO user community. KOSMOS and COSMOS may be used for imaging, long-slit, and multi-slit spectroscopy over a 100 square arcminute field of view with a pixel scale of 0.29 arcseconds. Each contains two VPH grisms that provide R~2500 with a one arcsecond slit and their wavelengths of peak diffraction efficiency are approximately 510nm and 750nm. Both may also be used with either a thin, blue-optimized CCD from e2v or a thick, fully depleted, red-optimized CCD from LBNL. These instruments were developed in response to the ReSTAR process. KOSMOS was commissioned in 2013B and COSMOS was commissioned in 2014A.

  12. Space-compatible strain gauges as an integration aid for the James Webb Space Telescope Mid-Infrared Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Sykes, Jon; Bicknell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    in operation. The Mid-Infrared Instrument is one of four instruments to be used on the James Webb Space Telescope which is due for launch in 2018. This telescope will be successor to the Hubble Space Telescope and is the largest space-based astronomy project ever to be conceived. Critical to operation...

  13. Technology Requirements for a Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William R.; Freeman, Mark D.; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul B.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey A.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Ramirez, J. Israel; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first super-massive black holes. We have envisioned a mission, the Square Meter Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X), based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, incorporating mirrors with the required small ratio of mass to collecting area. We are pursuing technology which achieves sub-arcsecond resolution by on-orbit adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMART-X will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no requirements more stringent than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  14. Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Antonille, Scott; Aronstein, David L.; Bartoszyk, Andrew; Berrier, Josh; Cofie, Emmanuel; Coulter, Phil; Gracey, Renee; Hayden, Joseph; Howard, Joseph; Hylan, Jason; Kubalak, David; McLean, Kyle; Miskey, Cherie; Redman, Kevin; Rohrbach, Scott; Sabatke, Derek; Telfer, Randal; Wenzel, Greg; Zielinski, Thomas; Sullivan, Joseph; Hartig, George; Eichhorn, William

    2016-10-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SI), including a guider. The SIs and guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer envelope approximate measurements of 2.2x2.2x1.7m. These SI units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using an Optical telescope element SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST simulator that features a 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the flight structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using opto-mechanical metrology and customized interfaces. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors and metrology in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear, pupil roll, boresight, wavefront error, and image quality, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. This work reports on the as-run ambient assembly and ambient alignment steps for the flight ISIM, including SI interface fixtures and customization and kinematic mount adjustment. The ISIM alignment plan consists of multiple steps to meet the "absolute" alignment requirements of the SIs and OSIM to the flight coordinate system. In this paper, we focus on key aspects of absolute, optical-mechanical alignment. We discuss various metrology and alignment techniques. In addition, we summarize our approach for dealing with and the results of ground-test factors, such as gravity.

  15. EMC Test Challenges for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  16. EMC Test Challenges for NASAs James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John

    2016-01-01

    This presentation describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests performed on the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), the science payload of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in August 2015. By its very nature of being an integrated payload, it could be treated as neither a unit level test nor an integrated spacecraft observatory test. Non-standard test criteria are described along with non-standard test methods that had to be developed in order to evaluate them. Results are presented to demonstrate that all test criteria were met in less than the time allocated.

  17. Results of a Hubble Space Telescope Search for Natural Satellites of Dwarf Planet 1 Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMario, Benjamin; Schmidt, Britney E.; Mutchler, Maximilian J.; Li, Jian-Yang; McFadden, Lucy Ann; McLean, Brian; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-10-01

    In order to prepare for the arrival of the Dawn spacecraft at Ceres, a search for satellites was undertaken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to enhance the mission science return and to ensure spacecraft safety. Previous satellite searches from ground-based telescopes have detected no satellites within Ceres' Hill sphere down to a size of 3 km (Gehrels et al. 1987) and early HST investigations searched to a limit of 1-2 km (Bieryla et al. 2011). The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the HST was used to image Ceres between 14 April - 28 April 2014. These images cover approximately the inner third of Ceres' Hill sphere, where the Hill sphere is the region surrounding Ceres where stable satellite orbits are possible. We performed a deep search for possible companions orbiting Ceres. No natural companions were located down to a diameter of 48 meters, over most of the Hill sphere to a distance of 205,000 km (434 Ceres radii) from the surface of Ceres. It was impossible to search all the way to the surface of Ceres because of scattered light, but at a distance of 2865 km (five Ceres radii), the search limit was determined to be 925 meters. The absence of a satellite around Ceres could, in the future, support more refined theories about satellite formation or capture mechanisms in the solar system.

  18. Progress on Space Solar Telescope in 2002-2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Guoxiang; YAN Yihua; JIN Shengzhen

    2004-01-01

    The progress on Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) in 2002-2004 is introduced. The documentations on plans and outlines based on the standards of Chinese aerospace industry for SST mission has been fulfilled. The key technical problems of SST satellite platform and payloads are tackled during pre-study stage of the mission. The laboratory assembly and calibration of the main optical telescope of 1.2 m spherical mirror and 1 m plain mirror have been carried out with the accuracy of λ/40 and λ/30, respectively. The prototype at 17.1 nm for extreme ultraviolet telescope is under development and manufacture with a diameter of 13 cm. Its primary and secondary mirrors have a manufacturing error of 5nm with a roughness degree of less than 0.5 nm and a multiplayer reflection factor of better than 20%. The on-board scientific data processing unit has been developed. Prototypes for other payloads such as H and white light telescope, wide band spectroscopy in high energy and solar and interplanetary radio spectrometer have been developed accordingly.

  19. A Road Map for the Generation of a Near-Infrared Guide Star Catalog for Thirty Meter Telescope Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smitha Subramanian; Annapurni Subramaniam; T Sivarani; Luc Simard; G. C. Anupama; Kim Gillies; A. N. Ramaprakash; B. Eswar Reddy

    2016-09-01

    The near-infrared instruments in the upcoming Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be assisted by a multi conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) system. For the efficient operation of the AO system, during observations, a near-infrared guide star catalog which goes as faint as 22 mag in ${\\rm J}_{{\\rm Vega}}$ band is essential and such a catalog does not exist. A methodology, based on stellar atmospheric models, to compute the expected near-infrared magnitudes of stellar sources from their optical magnitudes is developed. The method is applied and validated in JHKs bands for a magnitude range of ${\\rm J}_{\\rm{Vega}}$ 16--22 mag. The methodology is also applied and validated using the reference catalog of PAN STARRS. We verified that the properties of the final PAN STARRS optical catalog will satisfy the requirements of TMT IRGSC and will be one of the potential sources for the generation of the final catalog. In a broader context, this methodology is applicable for the generation of a guide star catalog for any existing/upcoming near-infrared telescopes.

  20. Zero CTE Glass in the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, H. John

    2008-01-01

    Orbiting high above the turbulence of the Earth's atmosphere, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided breathtaking views of astronomical objects never before seen in such detail. The steady diffraction-limited images allow this medium-size telescope to reach faint galaxies fainter than 30th stellar magnitude. Some of these galaxies are seen as early as 2 billion years after the Big Bang in a 13.7 billion year old universe. Up until recently, astronomers assumed that all of the laws of physics and astronomy applied back then as they do today. Now, using the discovery that certain supernovae are "standard candles," astronomers have found that the universe is expanding faster today than it was back then: the universe is accelerating in its expansion. The Hubble Space Telescope is a two-mirror Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 2.4m aperture in low earth orbit. The mirrors are made of Ultra Low Expansion (ULE) glass by Corning Glass Works. This material allows rapid figuring and outstanding performance in space astronomy applications. The paper describes how the primary mirror was mis-figured in manufacturing and later corrected in orbit. Outstanding astronomical images taken over the last 17 years show how the application of this new technology has advanced our knowledge of the universe. Not only has the acceleration of the expansion been discovered, the excellent imaging capability of HST has allowed gravitational lensing to become a tool to study the distribution of dark matter and dark energy in distant clusters of galaxies. The HST has touched practically every field of astronomy enabling astronomers to solve many long-standing puzzles. It will be a long time until the end of the universe when the density is near zero and all of the stars have long since evaporated. It is remarkable that humankind has found the technology and developed the ability to interpret the measurements in order to understand this dramatic age we live in.

  1. Performance of the Digital Science Partnership Remotely-Operated 0.5-Meter Corrected Dall-Kirkham Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielkopf, John F.; Carter, B.; Brown, C.; Hart, R.; Hay, J.; Waite, I.

    2007-12-01

    The Digital Science Partnership, a collaboration of the University of Louisville and the University of Southern Queensland, operates a pair of 0.5-meter telescopes for teaching, research, and informal education. The instruments were installed at sites near Toowoomba, Australia, and Louisville, Kentucky in 2006. The Planewave Instruments optical systems employ a unique Dall-Kirkham design incorporating a two-element corrector that demagnifies the image, flattens the focal plane, and reduces coma. These instruments have a moderately fast f/6.8 focal ratio and maintain image quality with little vignetting over a field 42 mm in diameter (0.7 degree). With a 9-micron pixel CCD such as the KAF-6303E, the image scale of 0.55 seconds of arc per pixel typically yields seeing-limited image quality at our sites. The telescopes and their enclosure are operated in a live remote observing mode through Linux-based software, including a dome-control system that uses RFID tags for absolute rotation encoding. After several months of testing and development we have examples of images and photometry from both sites that illustrate the performance of the system. We will discuss image quality, as well as practical matters such as pointing accuracy and field acquisition, auto-guiding, communication latency in large file transfer, and our experience with remote observing assisted by teleconferencing. Time-delay-integration (TDI) imaging, in which the telescope is stationary while the CCD is clocked to track in right ascension, is under study. The technique offers wide fields of view with very high signal-to-noise ratio, and can be implemented in robotically operated instruments used in monitoring, rapid-response, and educational programs. Results for conventional and TDI imaging from the dark site in Australia compared to the brighter suburban site in Kentucky show the benefits of access to dark sites through international partnerships that remote operation technology offers.

  2. Optical Correction Of Space-Based Telescopes Using A Deformable Mirror System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Experimental work first studied a severely degraded one-meter carbon fiber reinforced polymer mirror to establish a baseline. Simulations were...telescope. Experimental work first studied a severely degraded one-meter carbon fiber reinforced polymer mirror to establish a baseline. Simulations... INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................1  A.  PURPOSE

  3. The Potential of Small Space Telescopes for Exoplanet Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serabyn, E.

    2010-01-01

    The imaging of faint exoplanets near bright stars requires the development of very high contrast detection techniques, including both precise wavefront control and deep starlight rejection. A system-level proof-of-principle experiment carried out at at the Palomar Observatory has recently demonstrated that exoplanets can be detected very near stars even with a fairly small (1.5 m diameter) telescope aperture, such as someday might be used by a first space-based exoplanet imaging mission. Using fine-scale wavefront correction across this small aperture, together with fine pointing and focus control, pre- and post-detection speckle reduction, and a vector vortex coronagraph, it has been possible to achieve extremely good starlight rejection within a small number of diffractions beams of the stellar position. This performance has recently allowed the imaging of the three HR8799 planets and the HD32297 disk, thus providing a first system-level validation of the steps needed to achieve high-contrast observations at very small angles. These results thus serve to highlight the potential of small space telescopes aiming at high-contrast exoplanet observations. Specifically, a small-angle coronagraph enables the use of smaller telescopes, thus potentially reducing mission cost significantly.

  4. Feedback loops from the Hubble Space Telescope data processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Arquilla, Richard; Ellis, Tracy; Hamilton, Forrest C.; Holm, Albert; Kochte, Mark

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history and technology by which tools placed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data processing pipeline were used to feedback information on observation execution to the scheduling system and observers. Because the HST is in a relatively low orbit, which imposes a number of constraints upon its observations, it operates in a carefully planned, fully automated mode. To substitute for direct observer involvement available at most ground-based observatories and to provide rapid feedback on failures that might affect future visits, the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) gradually evolved a system for screening science and engineering products during pipeline processing. The highly flexible HST data processing system (OPUS) allows tools to be introduced to use the content of FITS keywords to alert production staff to potential telescope and instrument performance failures. Staff members review the flagged data and, if appropriate, notify the observer and the scheduling staff so that they can resolve the problems and possibly repeat the failed observations. This kind of feedback loop represents a case study for other automated data collection systems where rapid response to certain quantifiable events in the data is required. Observatory operations staff can install processes to look for these events either in the production pipeline or in an associated pipeline into which the appropriate data are piped. That process can then be used to notify scientists to evaluate the data and decide upon a response or to automatically initiate a response.

  5. Asteroid Detection Results Using the Space Surveillance Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Jessica D.; Ushomirsky, Gregory; Woods, Deborah F.; Viggh, Herbert E. M.; Varey, Jacob; Cornell, Mark E.; Stokes, Grant

    2015-11-01

    From 1998-2013, MIT Lincoln Laboratory operated a highly successful near-Earth asteroid search program using two 1-m optical telescopes located at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Experimental Test Site (ETS) in Socorro, N.M. In 2014, the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) program successfully transitioned operations from the two 1-m telescopes to the 3.5-m Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) located at Atom Site on White Sands Missile Range, N.M. This paper provides a summary of first-year performance and results for the LINEAR program with SST and provides an update on recent improvements to the moving-object pipeline architecture that increase utility of SST data for NEO discovery and improve sensitivity to fast-moving objects. Ruprecht et al. (2014) made predictions for SST NEO search productivity as a function of population model. This paper assesses the NEO search performance of SST in the first 1.5 years of operation and compares results to model predictions.This work is sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this article/presentation are those of the authors / presenters and should not be interpreted as representing the official views or policies of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited.

  6. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is I.3l5m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  7. ATLAST-9.2: A Deployable Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.; Feinberg, L.; Purves, L.; Hyde, T.; Thronson, H.; Townsend, J.; Postman, M.; Bolcar, M.; Budinoff, J.; Dean, B.; Clampin, M.; Ebbets, D.; Gong, Q.; Gull, T.; Howard, J.; Jones, A.; Lyon, R.; Pasquale, B.; Perrygo, C.; Smith, S.; Thompson, P.; Woodgate, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a deployable version of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) that could be launched on an Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV). ATLAST is a concept for a next-generation UVOIR observatory to follow HST and JWST. The observatory retains significant heritage from JWST, thereby taking advantage of technologies and engineering already developed for that mission. At the same time, we have identified several design changes to the JWST architecture, some of which are required due to the demanding wavefront error requirements at visible wavelengths. The optical telescope assembly has a segmented 9.2-meter aperture and consists of 36 hexagonal glass mirrors, each of which is 1.315m in size (flat-to-flat). The telescope can be folded to fit in the 6.5m fairing on the planned upgrade to the Delta-IV heavy launch vehicle. Near-real time wavefront sensing and control is performed on-board the telescope using stars in the field of view to deliver diffraction limited imaging performance at 500nm wavelength. The optical design of the telescope provides an 8x20 arcmin FOV in which 4-5 instruments can be accommodated, plus fine guidance and wavefront sensors. Unlike JWST, the OTA sits at the end of a multi-gimbaled arm, allowing pitch and roll motion, and is isolated from the sunshield and spacecraft bus by an active isolation system. Our design permits servicing in order to extend the life of the observatory.

  8. PALM-3000: Exoplanet Adaptive Optics for the 5-meter Hale Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Dekany, R; Burruss, R; Bouchez, A; Truong, T; Baranec, C; Guiwits, S; Hale, D; Angione, J; Trinh, T; Zolkower, J; Shelton, J C; Palmer, D; Henning, J; Croner, E; Troy, M; McKenna, D; Tesch, J; Hildebrandt, S; Milburn, J

    2013-01-01

    We describe and report first results from PALM-3000, the second-generation astronomical adaptive optics facility for the 5.1-m Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 has been engineered for high-contrast imaging and emission spectroscopy of brown dwarfs and large planetary mass bodies at near-infrared wavelengths around bright stars, but also supports general natural guide star use to V ~ 17. Using its unique 66 x 66 actuator deformable mirror, PALM-3000 has thus far demonstrated residual wavefront errors of 141 nm RMS under 1 arcsecond seeing conditions. PALM-3000 can provide phase conjugation correction over a 6.4 x 6.4 arcsecond working region at an observing wavelength of 2.2 microns, or full electric field (amplitude and phase) correction over approximately one half of this field. With optimized back-end instrumentation, PALM-3000 is designed to enable as high as 10e-7 contrast at ~1 arc second angular separation, after including post-observation speckle suppression processing. While optimizati...

  9. Lunar Occultation and Speckle Interferomerty of λ Aquarii with the SAO RAS 6-Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, V.; Richichi, A.; Balega, Yu.; Beskakotov, A.; Maksimov, A.; Rastegaev, D.

    2017-06-01

    The results of lunar occultation (LO) and speckle-interferometric (SI) observations of M-giant λ Aqr made on the night of June 25-26, 2016 with the BTA are presented. We used our speckle camera based on EMCCD Andor iXon Ultra DU-897-CS0 to obtain a high-frequency (387.59 Hz) frame rate for LO observations. Filter 694/10 nm was used for LO observations. High frequency and high SNR allowed us to measure the angular diameter of λ Aqr. Adopting the uniform disk (UD) model, the preliminary result is 7.11±0.02 mas. During LO observations a faint component was detected, and we obtained SI observations of the pair. For these observations we used 550/20 and 694/10 nm filters. Measured separations between the components are 526±1 mas and 527 ±1 mas, respectively. The magnitude differences are 4.51±0.03 and 4.95±0.06. These results suggest that the secondary component is probably a main sequence star physically bound to λ Aqr. Our study shows the advantages of different high-resolution observational methods available with the speckle camera of the 6-m SAO telescope.

  10. Feasibility of utilizing Cherenkov Telescope Array gamma-ray telescopes as free-space optical communication ground stations

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo; Cabrero, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The signals that will be received on Earth from deep-space probes in future implementations of free-space optical communication will be extremely weak, and new ground stations will have to be developed in order to support these links. This paper addresses the feasibility of using the technology developed in the gamma-ray telescopes that will make up the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory in the implementation of a new kind of ground station. Among the main advantages that these telescopes provide are the much larger apertures needed to overcome the power limitation that ground-based gamma-ray astronomy and optical communication both have. Also, the large number of big telescopes that will be built for CTA will make it possible to reduce costs by economy-scale production, enabling optical communications in the large telescopes that will be needed for future deep-space links.

  11. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Anderson, B. /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bissaldi, E.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASI, Rome /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3

  12. Unimorph deformable mirror for space telescopes: design and manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Peter; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2015-07-27

    Large space telescopes made of deployable and lightweight structures suffer from aberrations caused by thermal deformations, gravitational release, and alignment errors which occur during the deployment procedure. An active optics system would allow on-site correction of wave-front errors, and ease the requirements on thermal and mechanical stability of the optical train. In the course of a project funded by the European Space Agency we have developed and manufactured a unimorph deformable mirror based on piezoelectric actuation. The mirror is able to work in space environment and is designed to correct for large aberrations of low order with high surface fidelity. This paper discusses design, manufacturing and performance results of the deformable mirror.

  13. Eyes on the Universe: The Legacy of the Hubble Space Telescope and Looking to the Future with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the Hubble Space Telescope has revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. Most recently, the complete refurbishment of Hubble in 2009 has given new life to the telescope and the new science instruments have already produced groundbreaking science results, revealing some of the most distant galaxy candidates ever discovered. Despite the remarkable advances in astrophysics that Hubble has provided, the new questions that have arisen demand a new space telescope with new technologies and capabilities. I will present the exciting new technology development and science goals of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which is currently being built and tested and will be launched this decade.

  14. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Marc W.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Linfield, Roger P.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner solar system for objects that may pose some threat to Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show that (1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, (2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, (3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and (4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15{--}30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 yr. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 m in a 6.5 yr survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D = 140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacting orbits. Sentinel is also more effective at finding objects of interest for human exploration that benefit from lower propulsion requirements. To explore the interaction between space and ground search programs, we also study a case where Sentinel is combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and show the benefit of placing a space-based observatory in an orbit that reduces the overlap in search regions with a ground-based telescope. In this case, Sentinel+LSST can find more than 70% of the impactors larger than 40 m assuming a 6.5 yr lifetime for Sentinel and 10 yr for LSST.

  15. Astronomers Make First Images With Space Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Marking an important new milestone in radio astronomy history, scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, have made the first images using a radio telescope antenna in space. The images, more than a million times more detailed than those produced by the human eye, used the new Japanese HALCA satellite, working in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) ground-based radio telescopes. The landmark images are the result of a long-term NRAO effort supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "This success means that our ability to make detailed radio images of objects in the universe is no longer limited by the size of the Earth," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "Astronomy's vision has just become much sharper." HALCA, launched on Feb. 11 by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), is the first satellite designed for radio astronomy imaging. It is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by NRAO; Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. On May 22, HALCA observed a distant active galaxy called PKS 1519-273, while the VLBA and VLA also observed it. Data from the satellite was received by a tracking station at the NRAO facility in Green Bank, West Virginia. Tape-recorded data from the satellite and from the radio telescopes on the ground were sent to NRAO's Array Operations Center (AOC) in Socorro, NM. In Socorro, astronomers and computer scientists used a special-purpose computer to digitally combine the signals from the satellite and the ground telescopes to make them all work together as a single, giant radio telescope. This dedicated machine, the VLBA Correlator, built as

  16. A Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey of Nearby Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, W; Van Dyk, S D; Hu, J; Qiu, Y; Modjaz, M; Leonard, D C; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Hu, Jingyao; Qiu, Yulei; Modjaz, Maryam; Leonard, Douglas C.

    2002-01-01

    We present photometry of 12 recent supernovae (SNe) recovered in a {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} Snapshot program, and tie the measurements to earlier ground-based observations, in order to study the late-time evolution of the SNe. Many of the ground-based measurements are previously unpublished, and were made primarily with a robotic telescope, the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope. Evidence for circumstellar interaction is common among the core-collapse SNe. Late-time decline rates for Type IIn SNe are found to span a wide range, perhaps due to differences in circumstellar interaction. An extreme case, SN IIn 1995N, declined by only 1.2 mag in $V$ over about 4 years following discovery. Template images of some SNe must therefore be obtained many years after the explosion, if contamination from the SN itself is to be minimized. Evidence is found against a previous hypothesis that the Type IIn SN 1997bs was actually a superoutburst of a luminous blue variable star. The peculiar SN Ic 1997ef, a "hypernova," d...

  17. Innovative focal plane design for large space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Wilfried; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel

    2016-07-01

    Future large drift-scan space telescopes, providing high angular resolution and sensitive observations, require long linear focal planes covering large fields of view. In order to reach higher on-earth spatial resolution while keeping a large field of view, the use of homothetic imaging systems is prohibitive for VIS/IR applications. Based on Integral Field Unit technology developed for ground based instrumentation, we present an innovative optical system reorganizing a 1D field of view on a 2D detector array. Such a solution presents a high gain in terms of volume and weight, allowing compact cryogenic systems for IR observations.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy of OB stars in M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Bianchi, L.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Massey, P.; Morris, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    We have obtained UV spectra of two luminous hot stars in M31 with the Hubble Space Telescope. The stars are of late O and WN spectral type and lie on opposite sides of M31. We derive UV extinction curves for M31 which differ from both the Galaxy and the LMC. We find differences between the IS absorbers in both lines of sight in M31 and in the Galactic halo. The stellar wind-driven mass loss of the stars is found to be 10 times lower than in similar Galactic stars. One star appears to be an eclipsing W-R binary.

  19. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Photometry of the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Richer, Harvey B.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Bolte, Michael; Bond, Howard E.; Hesser, James E.; Pryor, Carlton; Stetson, Peter B.

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of the acquisition and processing of a large body of imaging data for three fields in the globular cluster M4 taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis with the ALLFRAME package yielded the deepest photometry yet obtained for this cluster. The resulting data set for 4708 stars (positions and calibrated photometry in V, I, and, in two fields, U) spanning approximately six cluster core radii is presented. The scientific analysis is deferred to three companion papers, which investigate the significant white dwarf population discovered and the main-sequence population.

  20. Progress on Space Solar Telescope in 2004 - 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Guoxiang; YAN Yihua; YANG Shimo; JIN Shengzhen

    2006-01-01

    The progress on Chinese Space Solar Telescope (SST) in 2004-2006 is introduced. The scientific objectives are further clarified and the ground operation system has been planned. The 7 key technical problems of SST satellite platform and payloads have been tackled, which lay solid scientific and technological foundations for engineering prototype phase of the SST project. At present the SST project undergoes evaluation by CNSA and CAS so as to enter the engineering prototype phase of the SST project if it is finally approved.

  1. Giant Planet Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Norwood, James; Fletcher, Leigh N; Orton, Glenn; Irwin, Patrick G J; Atreya, Sushil; Rages, Kathy; Cavalié, Thibault; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This white paper examines the benefit of the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope for studies of the Solar System's four giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. JWST's superior sensitivity, combined with high spatial and spectral resolution, will enable near- and mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of these objects with unprecedented quality. In this paper we discuss some of the myriad scientific investigations possible with JWST regarding the giant planets. This discussion is preceded by the specifics of JWST instrumentation most relevant to giant planet observations. We conclude with identification of desired pre-launch testing and operational aspects of JWST that would greatly benefit future studies of the giant planets.

  2. Engineering Specification for Large-aperture UVO Space Telescopes Derived from Science Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Mark; Smith, W. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is a three year effort initiated in FY12 to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 to 8 meter UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. A key accomplishment is deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicles and their mass and volume constraints.

  3. New Frontiers for Massive Star Winds: Imaging and Spectroscopy with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large, infrared-optimized space telescope scheduled for launch in 2013. JWST will find the first stars and galaxies that formed in the early universe, connecting the Big Bang to our own Milky Way galaxy. JWST will peer through dusty clouds to see stars forming planetary systems, connecting the Milky Way to our own Solar System. JWST's instruments are designed to work primarily in the infrared range of 1 - 28 microns, with some capability in the visible range. JWST will have a large mirror, 6.5 meters in diameter, and will be diffraction-limited at 2 microns (0.1 arcsec resolution). JWST will be placed in an L2 orbit about 1.5 million km from the Earth. The instruments will provide imaging, coronography, and multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy across the full 1 - 28 micron wavelength range. The breakthrough capabilities of JWST will enable new studies of massive star winds from the Milky Way to the early universe.

  4. GESE: A Small UV Space Telescope to Conduct a Large Spectroscopic Survey of Z-1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z is approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-meter space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers at a spectral resolving power, R approximately 500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next- Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  5. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Ádámkovics, Máté; Bézard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander G.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark T.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; West, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) but with a significantly larger aperture (6.5 m) and advanced instrumentation focusing on infrared science (0.6-28.0 μm). In this paper, we examine the potential for scientific investigation of Titan using JWST, primarily with three of the four instruments: NIRSpec, NIRCam, and MIRI, noting that science with NIRISS will be complementary. Five core scientific themes are identified: (1) surface (2) tropospheric clouds (3) tropospheric gases (4) stratospheric composition, and (5) stratospheric hazes. We discuss each theme in depth, including the scientific purpose, capabilities, and limitations of the instrument suite and suggested observing schemes. We pay particular attention to saturation, which is a problem for all three instruments, but may be alleviated for NIRCam through use of selecting small sub-arrays of the detectors—sufficient to encompass Titan, but with significantly faster readout times. We find that JWST has very significant potential for advancing Titan science, with a spectral resolution exceeding the Cassini instrument suite at near-infrared wavelengths and a spatial resolution exceeding HST at the same wavelengths. In particular, JWST will be valuable for time-domain monitoring of Titan, given a five- to ten-year expected lifetime for the observatory, for example, monitoring the seasonal appearance of clouds. JWST observations in the post-Cassini period will complement those of other large facilities such as HST, ALMA, SOFIA, and next-generation ground-based telescopes (TMT, GMT, EELT).

  6. The Next Generation UV-Visible-IR Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    1990-01-01

    A large 10-16 m passively-cooled, diffraction-limited, filled-aperture space telescope would have unprecedented power for tackling a wide range of the most fundamental astrophysical problems, from the detection of earth-like planets to the structure of galaxies and protogalaxies at redshifts z > 1. The telescope would have a lightweight, segmented primary with active wavefront sensing and control for diffraction-limited performance into the UV. The structure and optics would be passively-cooled to 100 K, lowering the background in the 3-4 micron zodiacal "window" to less than 10-6 of that from the ground. State-of-the-art mosaics of detectors would give diffraction-limited imaging and spectroscopy over a field of > 2 arcmin from 0.3 microns to beyond 10 microns, and nearly 1 arcmin in the UV. The observatory would combine remarkable imaging performance, with resolutions ranging from a few mas in the UV to some 40-60 mas in the zodiacal "window" at 3 microns, and with even greater capability for spectrographic observations of faint and/or low surface brightness objects at the highest spatial resolution. The rationale for such an observatory is discussed in the light of HST and the other Great Observatories, and of expected gains in ground-based telescopes and computing capability. The importance of moving into concept development, and to technology development and evaluation programs, is highlighted within the context of the very long lead times for such missions to come to fruition. The importance of the new optics and structures technologies in breaking away from our current cost curve for large missions, and the potential gains from an enhanced national commitment to space are noted.

  7. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope: Presentation to the Freedom Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The Freedom Museum, located in Manassas, VA, requested a speaker through the NASA Speakers Bureau, on the topic of the Hubble Space Telescope. A public outreach presentation has been prepared. Many of the facts are drawn from a public source, the Wikipedia article on the Hubble Space Telescope. This covers the history of the development of the HST, as well as the initial flaw and its repair, and the subsequent series of servicing missions, for which I was involved in the last three. This has been the topic of numerous books. This has been supplemented mostly by facts known to the author, such as names of individuals who played key roles, but not any technical information. Because the reqeustor asked for a significant part of the talk to address major science findings and discoveries, significant portions of a public presentation on this topic developed by Kenneth Carpenter of GSFC were obtained and incorporated, with credit. I have confirmed that this material is also available through public sources.

  8. Pupil Alignment Considerations for Large, Deployable Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent J.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kubalak, Daivd A.

    2011-01-01

    For many optical systems the properties and alignment of the internal apertures and pupils are not critical or controlled with high precision during optical system design, fabrication or assembly. In wide angle imaging systems, for instance, the entrance pupil position and orientation is typically unconstrained and varies over the system s field of view in order to optimize image quality. Aperture tolerances usually do not receive the same amount of scrutiny as optical surface aberrations or throughput characteristics because performance degradation is typically graceful with misalignment, generally only causing a slight reduction in system sensitivity due to vignetting. But for a large deployable space-based observatory like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), we have found that pupil alignment is a key parameter. For in addition to vignetting, JWST pupil errors cause uncertainty in the wavefront sensing process that is used to construct the observatory on-orbit. Furthermore they also open stray light paths that degrade the science return from some of the telescope s instrument channels. In response to these consequences, we have developed several pupil measurement techniques for the cryogenic vacuum test where JWST science instrument pupil alignment is verified. These approaches use pupil alignment references within the JWST science instruments; pupil imaging lenses in three science instrument channels; and unique pupil characterization features in the optical test equipment. This will allow us to verify and crosscheck the lateral pupil alignment of the JWST science instruments to approximately 1-2% of their pupil diameters.

  9. Spitzer Space Telescope Mid-IR Light Curves of Neptune

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, J R; Gizis, J E; Rebull, L M; Carey, S J; Krick, J; Ingalls, J G; Lowrance, P; Glaccum, W; Kirkpatrick, J D; Simon, A A; Wong, M H

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in February 2016 to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17-hour duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 $\\mu$m. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 0.6 mag at 4.5 $\\mu$m. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18-hour light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 $\\mu$m) and W2 (4.6 $\\mu$m) from the WISE/NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010-2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler/K2 in the visible (amplitude $\\sim$0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude $\\sim$ 0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in N...

  10. Cometary Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael S P; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L; Gudipati, Murthy S; Harker, David E; Hines, Dean C; Knight, Matthew M; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Li, Aigen; de Pater, Imke; Protopapa, Silvia; Russell, Ray W; Sitko, Michael L; Wooden, Diane H

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as the largest space-based astronomical observatory with near- and mid-infrared instrumentation, will elucidate many mysterious aspects of comets. We summarize four cometary science themes especially suited for this telescope and its instrumentation: the drivers of cometary activity, comet nucleus heterogeneity, water ice in comae and on surfaces, and activity in faint comets and main-belt asteroids. With JWST, we can expect the most distant detections of gas, especially CO2, in what we now consider to be only moderately bright comets. For nearby comets, coma dust properties can be studied with their driving gases, measured simultaneously with the same instrument or contemporaneously with another. Studies of water ice and gas in the distant Solar System will help us test our understanding of cometary interiors and coma evolution. The question of cometary activity in main-belt comets will be further explored with the possibility of a direct detection of coma gas. We explo...

  11. Measurement of Cosmic Shear with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason; Refregier, Alexandre; Collins, Nicholas R.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Groth, Edward J.; Hill, Robert S.

    2004-04-01

    Weak lensing by large-scale structure allows a direct measure of the dark matter distribution. We have used parallel images taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to measure weak lensing, or cosmic shear. We measure the shapes of 26,036 galaxies in 1292 STIS fields and measure the shear variance at a scale of 0.51m. The charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of STIS has degraded over time and introduces a spurious ellipticity into galaxy shapes during the readout process. We correct for this effect as a function of signal-to-noise ratio and CCD position. We further show that the detected cosmic shear signal is nearly constant in time over the approximately 4 yr of observation. We detect cosmic shear at the 5.1 σ level, and our measurement of the shear variance is consistent with theoretical predictions in a ΛCDM universe. This provides a measure of the normalization of the mass power spectrum σ8=(1.02+/-0.16)(0.3/Ωm)0.46(0.21/Γ)0.18. The 1 σ error includes noise, cosmic variance, systematics, and the redshift uncertainty of the source galaxies. This is consistent with previous cosmic shear measurements, but tends to favor those with a high value of σ8. It is also consistent with the recent determination of σ8 from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) experiment.

  12. Cepheids with the eyes of photometric space telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnár László

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Space photometric missions have been steadily accumulating observations of Cepheids in recent years, leading to a flow of new discoveries. In this short review we summarize the findings provided by the early missions such as WIRE, MOST, and CoRoT, and the recent results of the Kepler and K2 missions. The surprising and fascinating results from the high-precision, quasi-continuous data include the detection of the amplitude increase of Polaris, and exquisite details about V1154 Cyg within the original Kepler field of view. We also briefly discuss the current opportunities with the K2 mission, and the prospects of the TESS space telescope regarding Cepheids.

  13. Integrated Laboratory Demonstrations of Multi-Object Adaptive Optics on a Simulated 10-Meter Telescope at Visible Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ammons, S Mark; Laag, Edward A; Kupke, Renate; Gavel, Donald T; Bauman, Brian J; Max, Claire E

    2009-01-01

    One important frontier for astronomical adaptive optics (AO) involves methods such as Multi-Object AO and Multi-Conjugate AO that have the potential to give a significantly larger field of view than conventional AO techniques. A second key emphasis over the next decade will be to push astronomical AO to visible wavelengths. We have conducted the first laboratory simulations of wide-field, laser guide star adaptive optics at visible wavelengths on a 10-meter-class telescope. These experiments, utilizing the UCO/Lick Observatory's Multi-Object / Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics (MOAO/LTAO) testbed, demonstrate new techniques in wavefront sensing and control that are crucial to future on-sky MOAO systems. We (1) test and confirm the feasibility of highly accurate atmospheric tomography with laser guide stars, (2) demonstrate key innovations allowing open-loop operation of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (with errors of ~30 nm) as will be needed for MOAO, and (3) build a complete error budget model describing sy...

  14. Europe's latest space telescope is off to a good start

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The world's most powerful observatory for X-ray astronomy, the European Space Agency's XMM satellite, set off into space from Kourou, French Guiana, at 15:32 Paris time on 10 December. The mighty Ariane 5 launcher, making its very first commercial launch, hurled the 3.9-tonne spacecraft into a far-ranging orbit. Within one hour of lift-off the European Space Operations Centre at Darmstadt, Germany, confirmed XMM was under control with electrical power available from the solar arrays. "XMM is the biggest and most innovative scientific spacecraft developed by ESA so far," said Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. "The world's space agencies now want the new technology that ESA and Europe's industries have put into XMM's amazingly sensitive X-ray telescopes. And the world's astronomers are queuing up to use XMM to explore the hottest places in the universe. We must ask them to be patient while we get XMM fully commissioned." XMM's initial orbit carries it far into space, to 114,000 kilometres from the Earth at its most distant point. On its return the satellite's closest approach, or perigee, will be at 850 kilometres. The next phase of the operation, expected to take about a week, will raise that perigee to 7000 kilometres by repeated firing of XMM's own thrusters. The spacecraft will then be on its intended path, spending 40 hours out of every 48-hour orbit clear of the radiation belts which spoil the view of the X-ray universe. Technical commissioning and verification of the performance of the telescopes and scientific instruments will then follow. XMM should be fully operational for astronomy in the spring of 2000. All of ESA's science missions present fresh technological challenges to Europe's aerospace industries. In building XMM, the prime contractor Dornier Satellitensysteme in Friedrichshafen in Germany (part of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace) has led an industrial consortium involving 46 companies from 14 European countries and one in the United States. XMM

  15. Absolute Flux Calibration of the IRAC Instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope using Hubble Space Telescope Flux Standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlin, R C; Rieke, G H; Ardila, D; Carey, S; Deustua, S; Engelbracht, C; Ferguson, H C; Flanagan, K; Kalirai, J; Meixner, M; Noriega-Crespo, A; Su, K Y L; Tremblay, P -E

    2011-01-01

    The absolute flux calibration of the James Webb Space Telescope will be based on a set of stars observed by the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. In order to cross-calibrate the two facilities, several A, G, and white dwarf (WD) stars are observed with both Spitzer and Hubble and are the prototypes for a set of JWST calibration standards. The flux calibration constants for the four Spitzer IRAC bands 1-4 are derived from these stars and are 2.3, 1.9, 2.0, and 0.5% lower than the official cold-mission IRAC calibration of Reach et al. (2005), i.e. in agreement within their estimated errors of ~2%. The causes of these differences lie primarily in the IRAC data reduction and secondarily in the SEDs of our standard stars. The independent IRAC 8 micron band-4 fluxes of Rieke et al. (2008) are about 1.5 +/- 2% higher than those of Reach et al. and are also in agreement with our 8 micron result.

  16. Utilizing 1-meter Landcover Data to Assess Associations between Green Space and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: When using remotely-sensed data to study health, researchers must identify an appropriate spatial resolution to capture potential exposures. Investigations into urban green space are often limited by the unavailability of fine-scale landcover data. We analyzed 1-meter gr...

  17. Utilizing 1-meter Landcover Data to Assess Associations between Green Space and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: When using remotely-sensed data to study health, researchers must identify an appropriate spatial resolution to capture potential exposures. Investigations into urban green space are often limited by the unavailability of fine-scale landcover data. We analyzed 1-meter gr...

  18. The Morehead State University 21 M Space Tracking Antenna and Radio Telescope: an Instrument for Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, B. K.

    2004-12-01

    The Space Science Center at Morehead State University has developed a full motion 21-meter class radio telescope which is engaged in a rigorous research program in radio astronomy and also serves as a ground station with the capability to track low earth orbiting (LEO) satellites and as a test-bed for advanced RF systems. The new instrument achieved "First Light" in December 2004 and provides a unique educational tool that will serve as an active laboratory for students to have hands-on learning experiences with the intricacies of satellite telecommunications and radio astronomy. The instrument provides a state-of-the art laboratory for researchers and students in astrophysics, satellite telecommunications, engineering (including electrical, mechanical, and computer architecture), and software development. The 21 m telescope has achieved excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution and supports operations over a number of frequency regimes including: L-Band, S-Band, X-Band, Ku-Band, and ultimately Ka-Band. The gain of the large 21 meter antenna combined with a variety of state-of-the-art receivers and back-end electronics together provide a powerful telescope for teaching and research in radio frequency astrophysics. The 21 m telescope operates primarily in the radio regime at a central frequency of 1420 MHz (HI line) and ultimately at higher frequencies that will incorporate transition lines of hydroxyl, ammonia, and water. The sensitivity and versatility of the telescope design facilitate the investigation of a wide variety of astrophysically interesting phenomena. These objects include galactic sources such as supernova remnants, emission nebula, planetary nebula, extended HI emission from the Milky Way, and the sun. Extragalactic sources such as quasars, radio galaxies, and supernova remnants (SNRs) will also be observed. A long-term AGN monitoring campaign will be undertaken, beginning in 2005. Funding for the 21m telescope has been provided by NASA, the SBA

  19. Recent Developments in the Alignment and Test Plans for the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy (approximately 40K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SI) including a Guider. The SIs and Guider are mounted to a composite metering structure with outer dimensions of 2.1 x 2.2 x 1.9m. The SI and Guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using an OTE SIMulator (OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a approximately 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using laser tracker and theodolite metrology. Temperature-induced mechanical SI alignment and structural changes are measured using a photogrammetric measurement system at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear and wavefront error, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. We present an updated plan for the assembly and ambient and cryogenic optical alignment, test and verification of the ISIM element.

  20. Origins Space Telescope: Interstellar Medium, Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cara; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to the Interstellar Medium (ISM), the Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies. Origins will enable a comprehensive view of magnetic fields, turbulence, and the multi-phase ISM; connecting physics at all scales, from galaxies to protostellar cores. With unprecedented sensitivity, Origins will measure and characterize the mechanisms of feedback from star formation and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) over cosmic time and trace the trail of water from interstellar clouds, to protoplanetary disks, to Earth itself in order to understand the abundance and availability of water for habitable planets.

  1. PANGU: A High Resolution Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xin; Bravar, Alessandro; Chang, Jin; Fan, Yizhong; Pohl, Martin; Walter, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We describe the instrument concept of a high angular resolution telescope dedicated to the sub-GeV (from $\\gtrsim$10 MeV to $\\gtrsim$1 GeV) gamma-ray photon detection. This mission, named PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit), has been suggested as a candidate for the joint small mission between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). A wide range of topics of both astronomy and fundamental physics can be attacked with PANGU, covering Galactic and extragalactic cosmic-ray physics, extreme physics of a variety of extended (e.g. supernova remnants, galaxies, galaxy clusters) and compact (e.g. black holes, pulsars, gamma-ray bursts) objects, solar and terrestrial gamma-ray phenomena, and searching for dark matter decay and/or annihilation signature etc. The unprecedented point spread function can be achieved with a pair-production telescope with a large number of thin active tracking layers to precisely reconstruct the pair-produced electron and positron tracks. Scintillating f...

  2. Lyot coronagraph design study for large, segmented space telescope apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Neil T.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; St. Laurent, Kathryn E.; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Stark, Christopher C.; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Perrin, Marshall; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Kasdin, N. J.; Shaklan, Stuart; Carlotti, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Recent efforts combining the optimization techniques of apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs (APLC) and shaped pupils have demonstrated the viability of a binary-transmission mask architecture for extremely high contrast (10-10) exoplanet imaging. We are now building on those innovations to carry out a survey of Lyot coronagraph performance for large, segmented telescope apertures. These apertures are of the same kind under considera- tion for NASA's Large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) observatory concept. To map the multi-dimensional design parameter space, we have developed a software toolkit to manage large sets of mask optimization programs and execute them on a computing cluster. Here we summarize a preliminary survey of 500 APLC solutions for 4 reference hexagonal telescope apertures. Several promising designs produce annular, 10-10 contrast dark zones down to inner working angle 4λ0=D over a 15% bandpass, while delivering a half-max PSF core throughput of 18%. We also report our progress on devising solutions to the challenges of Lyot stop alignment/fabrication tolerance that arise in this contrast regime.

  3. Pulsar Timing for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D A; Camilo, F; Cognard, I; Dumora, D; Espinoza, C; Freire, P C C; Gotthelf, E V; Harding, A K; Hobbs, G B; Johnston, S; Kaspi, V M; Krämer, M; Livingstone, M A; Lyne, A G; Manchester, R N; Marshall, F E; McLaughlin, M A; Noutsos, A; Ransom, S M; Roberts, M S E; Romani, R W; Stappers, B W; Theureau, G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Wang, N; Weltevrede, P

    2008-01-01

    We describe a comprehensive pulsar monitoring campaign for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the {\\em Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} (formerly GLAST). The detection and study of pulsars in gamma rays give insights into the populations of neutron stars and supernova rates in the Galaxy, into particle acceleration mechanisms in neutron star magnetospheres, and into the ``engines'' driving pulsar wind nebulae. LAT's unprecedented sensitivity between 20 MeV and 300 GeV together with its 2.4 sr field-of-view makes detection of many gamma-ray pulsars likely, justifying the monitoring of over two hundred pulsars with large spin-down powers. To search for gamma-ray pulsations from most of these pulsars requires a set of phase-connected timing solutions spanning a year or more to properly align the sparse photon arrival times. We describe the choice of pulsars and the instruments involved in the campaign. Attention is paid to verifications of the LAT pulsar software, using for example giant radio pulses from the Cra...

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Snapshot Survey of 3CR Quasars: The Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; Miley, George K.; Sparks, William B.; Baum, Stefi A.; Biretta, John; Golombek, Daniel; de Koff, Sigrid; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    1999-08-01

    We present images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of 43 quasars selected from the 3CR radio catalog. The redshift range of the targets is large--0.3Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  5. Thermal management for CCD peformance of one space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wengang; Wang, Yinghao; Feng, Liangjie; Wang, Chenjie; Ren, Guorui; Wang, Wei; Li, Chuang; Gao, Wei; Fan, Xuewu

    2012-10-01

    A space telescope containing two CCD cameras is being built for scientific observation. The CCD detectors need to operate at a temperature below -65°C in order to avoid unacceptable dark current. This cooling is achieved through detailed thermal design which minimizes the parasitic load to 2K×4K array with 13.5 micron pixels and cools this detector with a combination of thermo electric cooler(TEC). This paper will describe detailed thermal design necessary to maintain the CCD at its cold operating temperature while providing the means to reject the heat generated by the TECs. It will focus on optimized techniques developed to manage parasitic loads including material selection, surface finishes and thermal insulation. The paper will also address analytical techniques developed to characterize TEC performance. Finally, analysis results have been shown the temperature of key parts.

  6. Characterizing Exoplanet Atmospheres with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have numerous modes for acquiring photometry and spectra of stars, planets, galaxies, and other astronomical objects over wavelengths of 0.6 - 28 microns. Several of these modes are well-suited for observing atomic and molecular features in the atmospheres of transiting or spatially resolved exoplanets. I will present basic information on JWST capabilities, highlight modes that are well-suited for observing exoplanets, and give examples of what may be learned from JWST observations. This will include simulated spectra and expected retrieved chemical abundance, composition, equilibrium, and thermal information and uncertainties. JWST Cycle 1 general observer proposals are expected to be due in March 2018 with launch in October 2018, and the greater scientific community is encouraged to propose investigations to study exoplanet atmospheres and other topics.

  7. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  8. Reed Solomon error correction for the space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, S.; Cameron, K.; Canaris, J.; Vincent, P.; Liu, N.; Owsley, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a single 8.2mm by 8.4mm, 200,000 transistor CMOS chip implementation of the Reed Solomon code required by the Space Telescope. The chip features a 10 MHz sustained byte rate independent of error pattern. The 1.6 micron CMOS integrated circuit has complete decoder and encoder functions and uses a single data/system clock. Block lengths up to 255 bytes as well as shortened codes are supported with no external buffering. Erasure corrections as well as random error corrections are supported with programmable corrections of up to 10 symbol errors. Correction time is independent of error pattern and the number of errors.

  9. Detection prospects of the Telescope Array hotspot by space observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semikoz, D.; Tinyakov, P.; Zotov, M.

    2016-05-01

    In the present-day cosmic ray data, the strongest indication of anisotropy of the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays is the 20-degree hotspot observed by the Telescope Array with the statistical significance of 3.4 σ . In this work, we study the possibility of detecting such a spot by space-based all-sky observatories. We show that if the detected luminosity of the hotspot is attributed to a physical effect and not a statistical fluctuation, the KLYPVE and JEM-EUSO experiments would need to collect ˜300 events with E >57 EeV in order to detect the hotspot at the 5 σ confidence level with the 68% probability. We also study the dependence of the detection prospects on the hotspot luminosity.

  10. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  11. Putting the James Webb Space Telescope to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric P.; JWST Project Science Team, STScI JWST Mission Office

    2017-06-01

    The time for community members to submit their initial observing proposals for using the James Webb Space Telescope is rapidly approaching. The Early Release Science proposals are due in two months (18-August) and cycle 1 General Observer proposals will be due 2-March 2018. This meeting-in-a-meeting is designed to show how the guaranteed time observing teams have navigated this process of turning science questions into valid Webb proposal files. We hope the lessons they have learned can be passed to you, making your proposals better and the process more efficient. Before presentations from the science team members I will give a status of the mission and look forward to the remaining activities prior to the activation of the first cycle of your observations.

  12. Development of space telescope non-ORU hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K. B.; Henderson, D. E.

    1985-12-01

    Since 1979 work has progressed in the development of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup. Underwater simulations to evaluate proposed on-orbit servicing tasks have also been done. These tasks involve the planned changeout of scientific instruments and the unscheduled changeout of other orbital replacement units (ORUs) such as batteries and computers. The HST components and subsystems that originally were designated ORUs were the items that were mission critical and were designed for easy changeout. Mockups of 14 non-ORU items were designed and fabricated for the purpose of evaluating the EVA changetasks in the MSFC Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). The objectives of this design/fabrication/test activity were to design and fabricate the potential ORUs so they contained realistic interfaces and were compatible with the NBS environments. The attachment of the mockup hardware to the spacecraft mockup was similar to the flight version. Also, the hardware connectors were flight-like.

  13. Observing Supernova 1987A with the Refurbished Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P.; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The young remnant of supernova 1987A (SN 1987A) offers an unprecedented glimpse into the hydrodynamics and kinetics of fast astrophysical shocks. We have been monitoring SN 1987A with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since it was launched. The recent repair of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) allows us to compare observations in 2004, just before its demise, with those in 2010, shortly after its resuscitation by NASA astronauts. We find that the Ly-alpha and H-alpha lines from shock emission continue to brighten, while their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We report evidence for nearly coherent, resonant scattering of Lya photons (to blueshifts approximately -12,000 km /s) from hotspots on the equatorial ring. We also report emission to the red of Ly-alpha that we attribute to N v lambda lambda 1239,1243 Angstrom line emission. These lines are detectable because, unlike hydrogen atoms, N4+ ions emit hundreds of photons before they are ionized. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of H-alpha. We attribute this to scattering of N4+ ions by magnetic fields in the ionized plasma. Thus, N v emission provides a unique probe of the isotropization zone of the collisionless shock. Observations with the recently installed Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) will enable us to observe the N v lambda lambda 1239,1243 Angstrom line profiles with much higher signal-to-noise ratios than possible with STIS and may reveal lines of other highly ionized species (such as C IVlambda lambda 1548,1551 Angstrom) that will test our explanation for the N v emission

  14. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the HD 202628 Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, John E.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Plavchan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A ring-shaped debris disk around the G2V star HD 202628 (d = 24.4 pc) was imaged in scattered light at visible wavelengths using the coronagraphic mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ring is inclined by approx.64deg from face-on, based on the apparent major/minor axis ratio, with the major axis aligned along PA = 130deg. It has inner and outer radii (> 50% maximum surface brightness) of 139 AU and 193 AU in the northwest ansae and 161 AU and 223 AU in the southeast ((Delta)r/r approx. = 0.4). The maximum visible radial extent is approx. 254 AU. With a mean surface brightnesses of V approx. = 24 mag arcsec.(sup -2), this is the faintest debris disk observed to date in reflected light. The center of the ring appears offset from the star by approx.28 AU (deprojected). An ellipse fit to the inner edge has an eccentricity of 0.18 and a = 158 AU. This offset, along with the relatively sharp inner edge of the ring, suggests the influence of a planetary-mass companion. There is a strong similarity with the debris ring around Fomalhaut, though HD 202628 is a more mature star with an estimated age of about 2 Gyr. We also provide surface brightness limits for nine other stars in our study with strong Spitzer excesses around which no debris disks were detected in scattered light (HD 377, HD 7590, HD 38858, HD 45184, HD 73350, HD 135599, HD 145229, HD 187897, and HD 201219).

  15. Spitzer Space Telescope Mid-IR Light Curves of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Marley, Mark S.; Gizis, John E.; Rebull, Luisa; Carey, Sean J.; Krick, Jessica; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.

    2016-11-01

    We have used the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2016 February to obtain high cadence, high signal-to-noise, 17 hr duration light curves of Neptune at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. The light curve duration was chosen to correspond to the rotation period of Neptune. Both light curves are slowly varying with time, with full amplitudes of 1.1 mag at 3.6 μm and 0.6 mag at 4.5 μm. We have also extracted sparsely sampled 18 hr light curves of Neptune at W1 (3.4 μm) and W2 (4.6 μm) from the Wide-feld Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)/NEOWISE archive at six epochs in 2010-2015. These light curves all show similar shapes and amplitudes compared to the Spitzer light curves but with considerable variation from epoch to epoch. These amplitudes are much larger than those observed with Kepler/K2 in the visible (amplitude ˜0.02 mag) or at 845 nm with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2015 and at 763 nm in 2016 (amplitude ˜0.2 mag). We interpret the Spitzer and WISE light curves as arising entirely from reflected solar photons, from higher levels in Neptune’s atmosphere than for K2. Methane gas is the dominant opacity source in Neptune’s atmosphere, and methane absorption bands are present in the HST 763 and 845 nm, WISE W1, and Spitzer 3.6 μm filters.

  16. 15 GHz Monitoring of Gamma-ray Blazars with the OVRO 40 Meter Telescope in Support of Fermi

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, J L; Pavlidou, V; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Stevenson, M A; Healey, S E; Romani, R W; Shaw, M S; Fuhrmann, L; Angelakis, E; Zensus, J A; Grainge, K; Taylor, G B

    2009-01-01

    We present results from the first two years of our fast-cadence 15 GHz gamma-ray blazar monitoring program, part of the F-GAMMA radio monitoring project. Our sample includes the 1158 blazars north of -20 degrees declination from the Candidate Gamma-Ray Blazar Survey (CGRaBS), which encompasses a significant fraction of the extragalactic sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We introduce a novel likelihood analysis for computing a time series variability amplitude statistic that separates intrinsic variability from measurement noise and produces a quantitative error estimate. We use this method to characterize our radio light curves. We also present results indicating a statistically significant correlation between simultaneous average 15 GHz radio flux density and gamma-ray photon flux.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope solar cell module thermal cycle test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Alexander; Edge, Ted; Willowby, Douglas; Gerlach, Lothar

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules. The thermal cycle test was interrupted after 2,577 cycles, and a 'cold-roll' test was performed on one of the modules in order to evaluate the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit. A posttest static shadow test was performed on one of the modules in order to analyze temperature gradients across the module. Finally, current in-flight electrical performance data from the actual HST flight solar array will be tested.

  18. Design and Status of the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): An Interferometer at the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.; Barclay, Richard B.; Barry, R. K.; Benford, D. J.; Calhoun, P. C.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gorman, E. T.; Jackson, M. L.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Maher, S. F.; Mentzell, J. E.; Mundy, L. G.; Rizzo, M. J.; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infraredinterferometer designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer tosimultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline permits subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  19. Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) real-time controller preliminary architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Dan; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) is the first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A critical component of NFIRAOS is the Real-Time Controller (RTC) subsystem which provides real-time wavefront correction by processing wavefront information to compute Deformable Mirror (DM) and Tip/Tilt Stage (TTS) commands. The National Research Council of Canada - Herzberg (NRC-H), in conjunction with TMT, has developed a preliminary design for the NFIRAOS RTC. The preliminary architecture for the RTC is comprised of several Linux-based servers. These servers are assigned various roles including: the High-Order Processing (HOP) servers, the Wavefront Corrector Controller (WCC) server, the Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server, the Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server, and additional testing and spare servers. There are up to six HOP servers that accept high-order wavefront pixels, and perform parallelized pixel processing and wavefront reconstruction to produce wavefront corrector error vectors. The WCC server performs low-order mode processing, and synchronizes and aggregates the high-order wavefront corrector error vectors from the HOP servers to generate wavefront corrector commands. The Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server is the RTC interface to TMT and other subsystems. The TED server receives all external commands and dispatches them to the rest of the RTC servers and is responsible for aggregating several offloading and telemetry values that are reported to other subsystems within NFIRAOS and TMT. The TED server also provides the engineering GUIs and real-time displays. The Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server contains fault tolerant data storage that receives and stores telemetry data, including data for Point-Spread Function Reconstruction (PSFR).

  20. Cryogenic optical test planning using the Optical Telescope Element Simulator with the James Webb Space Telescope Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Timothy A.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Greeley, Bradford W.; Malumuth, Eliot M.; Melendez, Marcio; Shiri, Ron; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Antonille, Scott R.; Birkmann, Stephan; Davis, Clinton; Dixon, William V.; Martel, André R.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Sabatke, Derek; Sullivan, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5 m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic infrared space astronomy ( 40 K). The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element that contains four science instruments (SIs), including a guider. The SI and guider units are integrated to the ISIM structure and optically tested at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as an instrument suite using a telescope simulator (Optical Telescope Element SIMulator; OSIM). OSIM is a high-fidelity, cryogenic JWST telescope simulator that features a 1.5m diameter powered mirror. The SIs are aligned to the flight structure's coordinate system under ambient, clean room conditions using optomechanical metrology and customized interfaces. OSIM is aligned to the ISIM mechanical coordinate system at the cryogenic operating temperature via internal mechanisms and feedback from alignment sensors and metrology in six degrees of freedom. SI performance, including focus, pupil shear, pupil roll, boresight, wavefront error, and image quality, is evaluated at the operating temperature using OSIM. The comprehensive optical test plans include drafting OSIM source configurations for thousands of exposures ahead of the start of a cryogenic test campaign. We describe how we predicted the performance of OSIM light sources illuminating the ISIM detectors to aide in drafting these optical tests before a test campaign began. We also discuss the actual challenges and successes of those exposure predictions encountered during a test campaign to fulfill the demands of the ISIM optical performance verification.

  1. Self-deployable structure designed for space telescope for microsatellite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Li, Chuang; Zhou, Nan; Liao, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual development of micro-satellite technology and the extension of application field of earth observation technology, researchers show more concern and attention on how to obtain high-resolution images with microsatellite platform equipped with space telescope. Such microsatellites require the space telescopes with small volume, low mass, and low cost. Deployable telescope is a good choice to meet these requirements, and it has the same capabilities as the traditional space telescope. We investigate a space telescope with smart self-deployable structure. The telescope is folded before launch, the distance between primary mirror and secondary mirror becomes short and the volume of the telescope becomes small, and the telescope extends to its working configuration after it is in orbit. The deployable structure is one of the key techniques of deployable space telescope, and this paper focuses on the design of a self-deployable structure of the secondary mirror. There are mainly three parts in this paper. Firstly, the optics of the telescope is presented, and a Ritchey-Chretien (RC) type optical system is designed. Secondly, the self-deployable structure is designed and the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze dynamics of the extended telescope. Thirdly, an adjusting mechanism with six degrees of freedom to correct the misalignment of the secondary mirror is investigated, and the kinematics is discussed.

  2. Design, construction, and utilization of a space station assembled from 5-meter erectable struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Bush, Harold G.

    1987-01-01

    The primary characteristics of the 5-meter erectable truss is presented, which was baselined for the Space Station. The relatively large 5-meter truss dimension was chosen to provide a deep beam for high bending stiffness yet provide convenient mounting locations for space shuttle cargo bay size payloads which are approx. 14.5 ft (4.4 m) in diameter. Truss nodes and quick attachment erectable joints are described which provide for evolutionary three dimensional growth and for simple maintenance and repair. A mobile remote manipulator system is described which is provided to assist in station construction and maintenance. A discussion is also presented of the construction of the Space Station and the associated extravehicular active (EVA) time.

  3. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  4. Astronomy from Space: The Hubble, Herschel and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Space-based astronomy is going through a renaissance, with three Great Observatories currently flying: Hubble in the visible and ultraviolet, Spitzer in the infrared and Chandra in X-rays. The future looks equally bright. The final servicing mission to Hubble will take place in February 2009 and promises to make the observatory more capable than ever with two new cameras, and refurbishment that will allow it to last at least five years. The upcoming launch of the Herschel Space Telescope will open the far-infrared to explore the cool and dusty Universe. Finally, we look forward to the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope in 2013, which wil provide a successor to both Hubble and Spitzer. In this talk, the author discusses some of the highlights of scientific discovery in the last 10 years and reveals the promise to the next 10 years.

  5. Space Astronomy for the mid-21st Century: Robotically Maintained Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Schartel, N

    2012-01-01

    The historical development of ground based astronomical telescopes leads us to expect that space-based astronomical telescopes will need to be operational for many decades. The exchange of scientific instruments in space will be a prerequisite for the long lasting scientific success of such missions. Operationally, the possibility to repair or replace key spacecraft components in space will be mandatory. We argue that these requirements can be fulfilled with robotic missions and see the development of the required engineering as the main challenge. Ground based operations, scientifically and technically, will require a low operational budget of the running costs. These can be achieved through enhanced autonomy of the spacecraft and mission independent concepts for the support of the software. This concept can be applied to areas where the mirror capabilities do not constrain the lifetime of the mission.

  6. XML: James Webb Space Telescope Database Issues, Lessons, and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detter, Ryan; Mooney, Michael; Fatig, Curtis

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the current concept using extensible Markup Language (XML) as the underlying structure for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) database. The purpose of using XML is to provide a JWST database, independent of any portion of the ground system, yet still compatible with the various systems using a variety of different structures. The testing of the JWST Flight Software (FSW) started in 2002, yet the launch is scheduled for 2011 with a planned 5-year mission and a 5-year follow on option. The initial database and ground system elements, including the commands, telemetry, and ground system tools will be used for 19 years, plus post mission activities. During the Integration and Test (I&T) phases of the JWST development, 24 distinct laboratories, each geographically dispersed, will have local database tools with an XML database. Each of these laboratories database tools will be used for the exporting and importing of data both locally and to a central database system, inputting data to the database certification process, and providing various reports. A centralized certified database repository will be maintained by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. One of the challenges for the database is to be flexible enough to allow for the upgrade, addition or changing of individual items without effecting the entire ground system. Also, using XML should allow for the altering of the import and export formats needed by the various elements, tracking the verification/validation of each database item, allow many organizations to provide database inputs, and the merging of the many existing database processes into one central database structure throughout the JWST program. Many National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) projects have attempted to take advantage of open source and commercial technology. Often this causes a greater reliance on the use of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS), which is often limiting

  7. The Scientific Capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The scientific capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and dark matter, gas, stars, metals morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and investigate the potential for life in those systems. A comprehensive, top-level review of JWST sciences was published in the journal Space Science Reviews (Gardner et al. 2006, SSR, 123, 485). That paper gives details of the 4 JWST science themes, and describes the design of the observatory and ground system. Since that paper was published, the JWST Science Working Group, working with members of the astronomical community, has continued to develop the science case for JWST, giving more details in a series of white papers. In this poster, the main science themes and white papers are reviewed.

  8. Titan Science with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Achterberg, Richard; Adamkovics, Mate; Bezard, Bruno; Bjoraker, Gordon; Cornet, Thomas; Hayes, Alexander; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lemmon, Mark; Lopez Puertas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Sotin, Christophe; Teanby, Nicholas; Turtle, Elizabeth; West, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), scheduled for launch in 2018, is an ambitious next-generation large-aperture (6.5 m) space observatory focused on pushing the boundaries of infrared astronomy (0.6-28.0 μm). This long-wavelength focus gives it very substantial potential for solar system science, since the thermal emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of many planets, moons and small bodies peak in this part of the spectrum. Here we report the findings of a task team convened to examine the potential for Titan science using JWST. These can be divided into five broad areas: (i) the surface, especially the rotational lightcurve; (ii) clouds in the lower atmosphere from direct imaging and near-IR spectroscopy; (iii) composition of the lower atmosphere, especially methane relative humidity; (iv) composition of the middle atmosphere, including thermal and fluorescent emissions from gases; (v) hazes in the middle atmosphere, including seasonal changes in hemispheric contrast. The capability of the major JWST instruments in each area is considered, and limitations such as potential saturation is noted and mitigation strategies (such as sub-arraying) discussed. Overall we find that JWST can make significant contributions to Titan science in many areas, not least in temporal monitoring of seasonal change after the end of the Cassini mission in 2017, in partnership with other next-generation observing facilities (TMT, GMT, EELT, ALMA).

  9. Science drivers and requirements for an Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): Implications for technology development and synergies with other future facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc; Sembach, Kenneth; Giavalisco, Mauro; Traub, Wesley; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Calzetti, Daniela; Oegerle, William; Rich, R Michael; Stahl, H Phillip; Tumlinson, Jason; Mountain, Matt; Soummer, Rémi; Hyde, Tupper; 10.1117/12.857044

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a concept for an 8-meter to 16-meter UVOIR space observatory for launch in the 2025-2030 era. ATLAST will allow astronomers to answer fundamental questions at the forefront of modern astronphysics, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We present a range of science drivers that define the main performance requirements for ATLAST (8 to 16 milliarcsec angular resolution, diffraction limited imaging at 0.5 {\\mu}m wavelength, minimum collecting area of 45 square meters, high sensitivity to light wavelengths from 0.1 {\\mu}m to 2.4 {\\mu}m, high stability in wavefront sensing and control). We will also discuss the synergy between ATLAST and other anticipated future facilities (e.g., TMT, EELT, ALMA) and the priorities for technology development that will enable the construction for a cost that is comparable to current generation observatory-class space missions.

  10. A 16-m Telescope for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Telescope (ATLAST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D. R.; Polidan, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Future space observatories will require increasingly large telescopes to study the earliest stars and galaxies, as well as faint nearby objects. Technologies now under development will enable telescopes much larger than the 6.5-meter diameter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to be developed at comparable costs. Current segmented mirror and deployable optics technology enables the 6.5 meter JWST telescope to be folded for launch in the 5-meter diameter Ariane 5 payload fairing, and deployed autonomously after reaching orbit. Late in the next decade, when the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle payload fairing becomes operational, even larger telescope can be placed in orbit. In this paper we present our concept for a 16-meter JWST derivative, chord-fold telescope which could be stowed in the 10-m diameter Ares V fairing, plus a description of the new technologies that enable ATLAST to be developed at an affordable price.

  11. The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics : SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Nakagawa, Takao; Wild, Wolfgang

    The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will

  12. The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics : SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Nakagawa, Takao; Wild, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will a

  13. The space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics : SPICA A joint mission between JAXA and ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinyard, Bruce; Nakagawa, Takao; Wild, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is planned to be the next space astronomy mission observing in the infrared. The mission is planned to be launched in 2017 and will feature a 3.5 m telescope cooled to <5 K through the use of mechanical coolers. These coolers will a

  14. Hubble Space Telescope: Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Hubble Space Telescope and its mission. Topics include design changes, flight performance, and initial problems encountered. The Hubble's solar arrays and observations of space are discussed.

  15. Space solar telescope in soft X-ray and EUV band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have reviewed our achievements in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics. Up to now, the research system of soft X-ray and EUV optics has been established, including light sources, detectors, calibrations, optical testing and machining of super smooth mirrors, and fabrications of multilayer film mirrors. Based on our achievements, we have developed two types of solar space telescopes for the soft X-ray and EUV space solar observations. One is an EUV multilayer normal incident telescope array including 4 different operation wavelength telescopes. The operation wavelengths of the EUV telescope are 13.0, 17.1, 19.5 and 30.4 nm. The other is a complex space solar telescope, which is composed of an EUV multilayer normal incident telescope and a soft X-ray grazing incident telescope. The EUV multilayer normal incident telescope stands in the central part of the soft X-ray grazing incident telescope. The normal incident telescope and the grazing incident telescope have a common detector. The different operation wavelengths can be changed by rotating a filter wheel.

  16. Space solar telescope in soft X-ray and EUV band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; LIU Zhen; YANG Lin; GAO Liang; HE Fei; WANG XiaoGuang; NI QiLiang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we have reviewed our achievements in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optics. Up to now, the research system of soft X-ray and EUV optics has been established, including light sources, detectors, calibrations, optical testing and machining of super smooth mirrors, and fabrications of multilayer film mirrors. Based on our achievements, we have developed two types of solar space tele-scopes for the soft X-ray and EUV space solar observations. One is an EUV multilayer normal incident telescope array including 4 different operation wavelength telescopes. The operation wavelengths of the EUV telescope are 13.0, 17.1, 19.5 and 30.4 nm. The other is a complex space solar telescope, which is composed of an EUV multilayer normal incident telescope and a soft X-rey grazing incident telescope. The EUV multilayer normal incident telescope stands in the central part of the soft X-ray grazing inci-dent telescope. The normal incident telescope and the grazing incident telescope have a common de-tector. The different operation wavelengths can be changed by rotating a filter wheel.

  17. Use of the moon and the large space telescope as an extrasolar planet detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloff, G. L.; Fennelly, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Roman (1959), Spitzer (1962), and Huang (1973) have discussed photometric detection of extrasolar planets using a 3-m space telescope such as the Large Space Telescope (LST). A space telescope could be an extrasolar planet detection system if used in conjunction with an occulter placed 10,000 km in front of the telescope. The occulter would reduce the amount of light received from the star under observation. For a semi-infinite plane occulter 10,000 km in front of the telescope, Spitzer and Huang's results indicate that a Jupiter-like planet would be observed with a signal/noise of 1.00, for observations at 0.4 micron using a 3-m telescope like the LST.

  18. A flat array large telescope concept for use on the moon, earth, and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    An astronomical optical telescope concept is described which can provide very large collecting areas, of order 1000 sq m. This is an order of magnitude larger than the new generation of telescopes now being designed and built. Multiple gimballed flat mirrors direct the beams from a celestial source into a single telescope of the same aperture as each flat mirror. Multiple images of the same source are formed at the telescope focal plane. A beam combiner collects these images and superimposes them into a single image, onto a detector or spectrograph aperture. This telescope could be used on the earth, the moon, or in space.

  19. A flat array large telescope concept for use on the moon, earth, and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    An astronomical optical telescope concept is described which can provide very large collecting areas, of order 1000 sq m. This is an order of magnitude larger than the new generation of telescopes now being designed and built. Multiple gimballed flat mirrors direct the beams from a celestial source into a single telescope of the same aperture as each flat mirror. Multiple images of the same source are formed at the telescope focal plane. A beam combiner collects these images and superimposes them into a single image, onto a detector or spectrograph aperture. This telescope could be used on the earth, the moon, or in space.

  20. Custom CMOS Reed Solomon coder for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, S.; Cameron, K.; Owsley, P.; Maki, G.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI coder is presented that can function either as an encoder or decoder for Reed-Solomon codes. VLSI is one approach to implementing high-performance Reed-Solomon decoders. There are three VLSI technologies that could be used: gate arrays, standard cells, and full custom. The first two approaches are relatively easy to implement, but are limited in both performance and density. Full-custom VLSI is used to achieve both circuit density and speed, and allows control of the amount of interconnect. Speed, which is a function of capacitance, which is a function of interconnect, is an important parameter in high-performance VLSI. A single 8.2 mm x 8.4 mm, 200,000 transistor CMOS chip implementation of the Reed-Solomon code required by the Hubble Space Telescope is reported. The chip features a 10-MHz sustained byte rate independent of error pattern. The 1.6-micron CMOS integrated circuit has complete decoder and encoder functions and uses a single data/system clock. Block lengths up to 255 bytes and shortened codes are supported with no external buffering. Erasure corrections and random error corrections are supported with programmable correction of up to 10 symbol errors. Correction time is independent of error pattern and the number of errors in the incoming message.

  1. The James Webb Space Telescope: Extending the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    The science objectives of the James Webb Space Telescope fall into four themes. The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme seeks to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the universe. The Assembly of Galaxies theme seeks to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and black holes within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present. The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme seeks to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall onto dust-enshrouded protostars, to the genesis of planetary systems. The Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme seeks. to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems around nearby stars and of our own, and to investigate the potential for life in those systems. These four science themes were used to establish the design requirements for the observatory and instrumentation. Since Webb's capabilities are unique, those science themes will remain relevant through launch and operations and goals contained within these themes will continue to guide the design and implementation choices for the mission. More recently, it has also become clear that Webb will make major contributions to other areas of research, including dark energy, dark matter, exoplanet characterization and Solar System objects. In this paper, I review the original four science themes and discuss how the scientific output of Webb will extend to these new areas of research.

  2. SHIELD: Distance Estimates from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Ian; Cannon, J. M.; Larson, E.; Marshall, M.; Moody, S.; Adams, E. A.; Dolphin, A. E.; Elson, E. C.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; McQuinn, K. B.; Ott, J.; Saintonge, A.; Salzer, J. J.; Skillman, E. D.

    2013-01-01

    The Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD) is an ongoing study of twelve galaxies with HI masses between 106 and 107 Solar masses, detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. Here we present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the SHIELD galaxies. The primary goal is to determine the distance of each galaxy. We apply two techniques to measure the apparent magnitude of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) feature in the HST color magnitude diagrams. First, a custom designed edge detection filter was written to determine the TRGB magnitude based on a user-selected region of the color magnitude diagram. Second, we apply the maximum likelihood technique implemented in the "TRGBtool" software package (Makarov et al. 2006). In addition to the distances based on the TRGB feature, we also use the MATCH software (Dolphin 2002) to determine the best-fit distance based on the overall CMD morphology. We compare these distance estimates for all members of the SHIELD galaxies, and present a final table of distances that is used in each of the companion SHIELD presentations.

  3. The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy range 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to 30 MeV. The very large field of view will make it possible to observe 20% of the sky at any instant, and the entire sky on a timescale of a few hours. With its upcoming launch, GLAST will open a new and important window on a wide variety of phenomena, including black holes and active galactic nuclei; the optical-UV extragalactic background light, gamma-ray bursts; the origin of cosmic rays and supernova remnants; and searches for hypothetical new phenomena such as supersymmetric dark matter annihilations and Lorentz invariance violation. In addition to the science opportunities, this talk includes a description of the instruments, the opportunities for guest investigators, and the mission status.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE View of the Heart of Ursa Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battinelli, Paolo; Demers, Serge

    1999-04-01

    Hubble Space Telescope F606W observations to 26th magnitude are used to investigate the stellar distribution in the center of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The central surface density is found to be low, less than 700 stars arcmin^-2, with no sign of a pronounced cusp. The maximum of the surface density is not found at our adopted center but in a ringlike structure some 13" from it. We identify this feature with the subclustering identified by Olszewski & Aaronson, who believed that it was off-center. The currently accepted King's structural parameters, r_c and r_t, of Ursa Minor are found to be unsuitable to represent the stellar surface density near the center. Our star counts are used to obtain a lower limit of the central stellar density without the use of the velocity dispersion. We find a lower limit of 1.7+/-1.1 M_solar pc^-3 from stars that were counted. By extrapolating the mass function to lower masses, we estimate that the true density could increase be a factor of 7.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry of the Procyon System

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Howard E; Schaefer, Gail H; Demarque, Pierre; Girard, Terrence M; Holberg, Jay B; Gudehus, Donald; Mason, Brian D; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Burleigh, Matthew R; Barstow, Martin A; Nelan, Edmund P

    2015-01-01

    The nearby star Procyon is a visual binary containing the F5 IV-V subgiant Procyon A, orbited in a 40.84 yr period by the faint DQZ white dwarf Procyon B. Using images obtained over two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope, and historical measurements back to the 19th century, we have determined precise orbital elements. Combined with measurements of the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 1.478 +/- 0.012 Msun and 0.592 +/- 0.006 Msun for A and B, respectively. The mass of Procyon A agrees well with theoretical predictions based on asteroseismology and its temperature and luminosity. Use of a standard core-overshoot model agrees best for a surprisingly high amount of core overshoot. Under these modeling assumptions, Procyon A's age is ~2.7 Gyr. Procyon B's location in the H-R diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for white dwarfs of its dynamical mass. Its position in the mass-radius plane is also consistent with theory, assuming ...

  6. Reliability models applicable to space telescope solar array assembly system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    A complex system may consist of a number of subsystems with several components in series, parallel, or combination of both series and parallel. In order to predict how well the system will perform, it is necessary to know the reliabilities of the subsystems and the reliability of the whole system. The objective of the present study is to develop mathematical models of the reliability which are applicable to complex systems. The models are determined by assuming k failures out of n components in a subsystem. By taking k = 1 and k = n, these models reduce to parallel and series models; hence, the models can be specialized to parallel, series combination systems. The models are developed by assuming the failure rates of the components as functions of time and as such, can be applied to processes with or without aging effects. The reliability models are further specialized to Space Telescope Solar Arrray (STSA) System. The STSA consists of 20 identical solar panel assemblies (SPA's). The reliabilities of the SPA's are determined by the reliabilities of solar cell strings, interconnects, and diodes. The estimates of the reliability of the system for one to five years are calculated by using the reliability estimates of solar cells and interconnects given n ESA documents. Aging effects in relation to breaks in interconnects are discussed.

  7. Fermi: The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Following its launch in June 2008, high-energy gamma-ray observations by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have unveiled over 1000 new sources and opened an important and previously unexplored window on a wide variety of phenomena. These have included the discovery of an population of pulsars pulsing only in gamma rays; the detection of photons up to 10s of GeV from gamma-ray bursts, enhancing our understanding of the astrophysics of these powerful explosions; the detection of hundreds of active galaxies; a measurement of the high energy cosmic-ray electron spectrum which may imply the presence of nearby astrophysical particle accelerators; the determination of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with unprecedented accuracy and the constraints on phenomena such as supersymmetric dark-matter annihilations and exotic relics from the Big Bang. Continuous monitoring of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has uncovered numerous outbursts from active galaxies and the discovery of transient sources in our galaxy. In this talk I will describe the current status of the Fermi observatory and review the science highlights from Fermi.

  8. Interferometric Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, G. F.; McArthur, B. E.; Franz, O. G.; Wasserman, L. H.; Henry, T. J.; Takato, T.; Strateva, I.

    2000-05-01

    We review recent results from fringe tracking (POS) and fringe scanning (TRANS) mode astrometry using Fine Guidance Sensor 3 aboard Hubble Space Telescope. The relatively large field of regard, faint limiting magnitude, and raw resolution of FGS 3 have allowed us to obtain sub-millisecond of arc precision parallaxes for several Cataclysmic Variables ( RW Tri & TV Col), a fundamental distance scale calibrator (RR Lyr), a Planetary Nebula central star (NGC 6853), and a hot White Dwarf binary (Feige 24). We have determined parallaxes, orbital parameters, and masses for low-mass binaries critical to the lower main sequence Mass-Luminosity Relationship (Gl 791.2, Wolf 1062, Gl 623). The Astrometry Science Team presently consists of W. H. Jefferys, P.I., G. F. Benedict, Deputy P.I., B. McArthur, O.G. Franz, L. H. Wasserman, L. W. Fredrick, W. van Altena, E. Nelan, R. Duncombe, P. J. Shelus, and P. D. Hemenway. This research had the support of NASA Grants NAS5-1603 (GSFC), and GO-06036.01-94A, GO-07491.01-97A (STScI).

  9. DESTINY: The dark energy space telescope [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2005-11-01

    The Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) is an all-grism NIR 1.8 m survey camera optimized to return richly sampled Hubble diagrams of Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SN) over the redshift range 0.5 the universe as a function of time, and characterizing the nature of the so-called "dark energy" component of the universe. SN will be discovered by repeated imaging of a 7.5 square-degree area located at the north ecliptic poles. Grism spectra with resolving power λ/Δ λ = R ˜ 75 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SN classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. This methodology features only a single mode of operation with no time-critical interactions, a single detector technology, and a single instrument. Although grism spectroscopy is slow compared to SN detection in any single broad-band filter for photometry, or to conventional slit spectra for spectral diagnostics, the multiplex advantage of being able to observe a large field-of-view simultaneously over a full octave in wavelength makes this approach highly competitive.

  10. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    The 6.5-m aperture James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool for studying and advancing numerous areas of astrophysics. Its Fine Guidance Sensor, Near-Infrared Camera, Near-Infrared Spectrograph, and Mid-Infrared Instrument will be capable of making very sensitive, high angular resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations spanning 0.7 - 28 ?m wavelength. These capabilities are very well suited for probing the conditions of star formation in the distant and local Universe. Indeed, JWST has been designed to detect first light objects as well as to study the fine details of jets, disks, chemistry, envelopes, and the central cores of nearby protostars. We will be able to use its cameras, coronagraphs, and spectrographs (including multi-object and integral field capabilities) to study many aspects of star forming regions throughout the galaxy, the Local Group, and more distant regions. I will describe the basic JWST scientific capabilities and illustrate a few ways how they can be applied to star formation issues and conditions with a focus on Galactic regions.

  11. Characterizing Rocky and Gaseous Exoplanets with 2-meter Class Space-based Coronagraphs: General Considerations

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Tyler D; Marley, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Several concepts now exist for small, space-based missions to directly characterize exoplanets in reflected light. Here, we develop an instrument noise model suitable for studying the spectral characterization potential of a coronagraph-equipped, space-based telescope. We adopt a baseline set of telescope and instrument parameters, including a 2 m diameter primary aperture, an operational wavelength range of 0.4-1.0 um, and an instrument spectral resolution of 70, and apply our baseline model to a variety of spectral models of different planet types, including Earth twins, Jupiter twins, and warm and cool Jupiters and Neptunes. With our exoplanet spectral models, we explore wavelength-dependent planet-star flux ratios for main sequence stars of various effective temperatures, and discuss how coronagraph inner and outer working angle constraints will influence the potential to study different types of planets. For planets most favorable to spectroscopic characterization---cool Jupiters and Neptunes as well as ...

  12. Segmented X-Ray Optics for Future Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of approx.17 sq cm/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  13. DEEP HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING IN NGC 6397: STELLAR DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyl, J. S.; Richer, H.; Woodley, K. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Anderson, J.; Dotter, A.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fahlman, G.; Stetson, P. [Herzberg Institute for Astrophysics, National Research Council, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hurley, J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Rich, R. M. [Division of Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Shara, M.; Zurek, D. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Multi-epoch observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope provide a unique and comprehensive probe of stellar dynamics within NGC 6397. We are able to confront analytic models of the globular cluster with the observed stellar proper motions. The measured proper motions probe well along the main sequence from 0.8 to below 0.1 M{sub Sun} as well as white dwarfs younger than 1 Gyr. The observed field lies just beyond the half-light radius where standard models of globular cluster dynamics (e.g., based on a lowered Maxwellian phase-space distribution) make very robust predictions for the stellar proper motions as a function of mass. The observed proper motions show no evidence for anisotropy in the velocity distribution; furthermore, the observations agree in detail with a straightforward model of the stellar distribution function. We do not find any evidence that the young white dwarfs have received a natal kick in contradiction with earlier results. Using the observed proper motions of the main-sequence stars, we obtain a kinematic estimate of the distance to NGC 6397 of 2.2{sup +0.5}{sub -0.7} kpc and a mass of the cluster of 1.1 {+-} 0.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} at the photometric distance of 2.53 kpc. One of the main-sequence stars appears to travel on a trajectory that will escape the cluster, yielding an estimate of the evaporation timescale, over which the number of stars in the cluster decreases by a factor of e, of about 3 Gyr. The proper motions of the youngest white dwarfs appear to resemble those of the most massive main-sequence stars, providing the first direct constraint on the relaxation time of the stars in a globular cluster of greater than or about 0.7 Gyr.

  14. Segmented X-ray optics for future space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, R. S.

    Lightweight and high resolution mirrors are needed for future space-based X-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. The slumped glass mirror technology in development at NASA GSFC aims to build X-ray mirror modules with an area to mass ratio of ~17 cm2/kg at 1 keV and a resolution of 10 arc-sec Half Power Diameter (HPD) or better at an affordable cost. As the technology nears the performance requirements, additional engineering effort is needed to ensure the modules are compatible with space-flight. This paper describes Flight Mirror Assembly (FMA) designs for several X-ray astrophysics missions studied by NASA and defines generic driving requirements and subsequent verification tests necessary to advance technology readiness for mission implementation. The requirement to perform X-ray testing in a horizontal beam, based on the orientation of existing facilities, is particularly burdensome on the mirror technology, necessitating mechanical over-constraint of the mirror segments and stiffening of the modules in order to prevent self-weight deformation errors from dominating the measured performance. This requirement, in turn, drives the mass and complexity of the system while limiting the testable angular resolution. Design options for a vertical X-ray test facility alleviating these issues are explored. An alternate mirror and module design using kinematic constraint of the mirror segments, enabled by a vertical test facility, is proposed. The kinematic mounting concept has significant advantages including potential for higher angular resolution, simplified mirror integration, and relaxed thermal requirements. However, it presents new challenges including low vibration modes and imperfections in kinematic constraint. Implementation concepts overcoming these challenges are described along with preliminary test and analysis results demonstrating the feasibility of kinematically mounting slumped glass mirror segments.

  15. LGS adaptive optics system with long-pulsed sodium laser on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope 2014-2016 observation campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Min; Jiang, Changchun; Wei, Ling; Zheng, Wenjia; Li, Wenru; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Luchun; Jin, Kai; Bo, Yong; Zuo, Junwei; Wang, Pengyuan; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Donghong; Deng, Jijiang; Gao, Yang; Shen, Yu; Bian, Qi; Yao, Ji; Huang, Jiang; Dong, Ruoxi; Deng, Keran; Peng, Qinjun; Rao, Changhui; Xu, Zuyan; Zhang, Yudong

    2016-07-01

    During 2014-2016, the Laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics (AO) system observation campaign has been carried out on Lijiang 1.8 meter telescope. During the campaign, two generation LGS AO systems have been developed and installed. In 2014, a long-pulsed solid Sodium prototype laser with 20W@400Hz, a beam transfer optical (BTO) system, and a laser launch telescope (LLT) with 300mm diameter were mounted onto the telescope and moved with telescope azimuth journal. At the same time, a 37-elements compact LGS AO system had been mounted on the Bent-Cassegrain focus and got its first light on observing HIP43963 (mV= 8.18mv) and reached Sr=0.27 in J Band after LGS AO compensation. In 2016, the solid Sodium laser has been upgrade to stable 32W@800Hz while D2a plus D2b repumping is used to increase the photon return, and a totally new LGS AO system with 164-elements Deformable Mirror, Linux Real Time Controller, inner closed loop Tip/tilt mirror, Multiple-PMT tracking detector is established and installed on the telescope. And the throughput for the BTO/LLT is improved nearly 20%. The campaign process, the performance of the two LGS AO systems especially the latter one, the characteristics of the BTO/LLT system and the result are present in this paper.

  16. Evaluation of particle acceptance for space particle telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun-Long; WANG Xiao-Lian; XU Zi-Zong

    2011-01-01

    The particle acceptance instead of the G-factors has been introduced for a particle telescope. The particle acceptance of a telescope module TEST is simulated by using the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo package.The results are presented and explained.

  17. Metrology for Trending Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Before and After Ambient Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Berrier, Joshua; Gum, Jeffery; Hayden, Joseph; Khreishi, Manal; McLean, Kyle; Redman, Kevin; Sullivan, Joseph; Wenzel, Greg; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SIs). Prior to integration with the spacecraft, theJWST optical assembly is put through rigorous launch condition environmental testing. This work reports on the metrology operations conducted to determine any changes in subassembly alignment, including primary mirror segments with respect to each other, the secondary mirror to its support structure, the tertiary mirror assembly to the backplane of the telescope and ultimately to the ISIM.

  18. The Fabra-ROA Telescope at Montsec (TFRM): A Fully Robotic Wide-field Telescope for Space Surveillance and Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Montojo, F J; Muinos, J L; Nunez, J; Lopez-Morcillo, R; Baena, R; Boloix, J; Lopez-Moratalla, T; Merino, M

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Age optical sensors have been one of the main instruments for positioning and tracking known space objects. Nowadays, the unrelenting growth of man-made objects together with the overcrowding of the useful satellite orbits, and the real space debris and NEO hazards, has made necessary to carry out surveys of the space looking for uncatalogued objects. Optical telescopes play a key role in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) as a primary Space Situational Awareness element and, it is known, that the best instrument for this task is a fully robotic wide-field telescope with a minimum aperture of 40cm. The Baker-Nunn Cameras (BNCs) were produced by the Smithsonian Institution during the late 50s as an optical tracking system for artificial satellites. These wide-field telescopes of 50cm of aperture were manufactured by Perkin- Elmer (optics) and Boller & Chivens (mechanics) with the highest quality specifications. The TFRM is a fully robotic refurbished BNC that exploit...

  19. Cosmic water traced by Europe's space telescope ISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In retracing this history, ISO also observes water in the form of ice in cooler regions around the stars, and in the dust surrounding young stars, from which planets could evolve. Comets represent an intermediate stage in planet-building, and they contain much water ice. According to one hypothesis the newly formed Earth received some of its water directly from impacting comets. Water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere has prevented telescopes on the ground from detecting the water vapour among the stars, except in very unusual circumstances. ISO orbiting in space escapes the impediment of the atmosphere. Excellent onboard instruments register the characteristic infrared signatures of water vapour, water ice and many other materials. When ISO scrutinizes selected objects, it detects emissions or absorptions of infrared rays at particular wavelengths, or "lines" in a spectrum, which reveal the presence of identifiable atoms, molecules and solids. The Short Wavelength Specrometer and the Long Wavelength Spectrometer provide detailed chemical diagnoses, and the photometer ISOPHOT and camera ISOCAM also have important spectroscopic capabilities. Examples of water detection were among many topics reviewed at the First ISO Science Workshop held at ESA's Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands (29-31 May) when 300 astronomers from Europe, the USA and Japan gathered to assess results from ISO since its launch on 17 November 1995. The Long Wavelength Spectrometer has made remarkable observations of water-vapour lines in the vicinity of dying stars and in star-forming regions. So has the Short Wavelength Spectrometer, which also detects water ice. The photometer lSOPHOT has registered water ice in a large number of objects. Although fascinated by the natural history of water in the cosmos, astronomers have more technical reasons for welcoming ISO's observations. They can use thc details in a spectrum to reduce the abundance of water and its

  20. Evaluation of particle acceptance for space particle telescope%Evaluation of particle acceptance for space particle telescope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云龙; 汪晓莲; 许咨宗

    2011-01-01

    The particle acceptance instead of the G-factors has been introduced for a particle telescope. The particle acceptance of a telescope module TEST is simulated by using the GEANT4 Monte-Carlo package. The results are presented and explained.

  1. Thick Disks in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Tompkins, Brittany; Jenks, Leah G.

    2017-09-01

    Thick disk evolution is studied using edge-on galaxies in two Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels. The galaxies were separated into 72 clumpy types and 35 spiral types with bulges. Perpendicular light profiles in F435W, F606W, and F814W (B, V, and I) passbands were measured at 1 pixel intervals along the major axes and fitted to sech2 functions convolved with the instrument line spread function (LSF). The LSF was determined from the average point spread function of ∼20 stars in each passband and field, convolved with a line of uniform brightness to simulate disk blurring. A spread function for a clumpy disk was also used for comparison. The resulting scale heights were found to be proportional to galactic mass, with the average height for a 1010±0.5 M ⊙ galaxy at z = 2 ± 0.5 equal to 0.63 ± 0.24 kpc. This value is probably the result of a blend between thin and thick disk components that cannot be resolved. Evidence for such two-component structure is present in an inverse correlation between height and midplane surface brightness. Models suggest that the thick disk is observed best between the clumps, and there the average scale height is 1.06 ± 0.43 kpc for the same mass and redshift. A 0.63 ± 0.68 mag V ‑ I color differential with height is also evidence for a mixture of thin and thick components.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry of the Procyon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Demarque, Pierre; Girard, Terrence M.; Holberg, Jay B.; Gudehus, Donald; Mason, Brian D.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Burleigh, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The nearby star Procyon is a visual binary containing the F5 IV-V subgiant Procyon A, orbited in a 40.84-year period by the faint DQZ white dwarf (WD) Procyon B. Using images obtained over two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope, and historical measurements back to the 19th century, we have determined precise orbital elements. Combined with measurements of the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 1.478 plus or minus 0.012M and 0.592 plus or minus 0.006M for A and B, respectively. The mass of Procyon A agrees well with theoretical predictions based on asteroseismology and its temperature and luminosity. Use of a standard core-overshoot model agrees best for a surprisingly high amount of core overshoot. Under these modeling assumptions, Procyon A's age is approximately 2.7 Gyr. Procyon B's location in the H-R diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for WDs of its dynamical mass. Its position in the mass-radius plane is also consistent with theory, assuming a carbon-oxygen core and a helium-dominated atmosphere. Its progenitor's mass was 1.9-2.2M, depending on its amount of core overshoot. Several astrophysical puzzles remain. In the progenitor system, the stars at periastron were separated by only approximately AU, which might have led to tidal interactions and even mass transfer; yet there is no direct evidence that these have occurred. Moreover the orbital eccentricity has remained high (approximately 0.40). The mass of Procyon B is somewhat lower than anticipated from the initial-to-final-mass relation seen in open clusters. The presence of heavy elements in its atmosphere requires ongoing accretion, but the place of origin is uncertain.

  3. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Juërgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ∼10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  4. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ASTROMETRY OF THE PROCYON SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gilliland, Ronald L.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Nelan, Edmund P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Demarque, Pierre; Girard, Terrence M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Holberg, Jay B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gudehus, Donald [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Mason, Brian D. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Burleigh, Matthew R.; Barstow, Martin A., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-10

    The nearby star Procyon is a visual binary containing the F5 IV-V subgiant Procyon A, orbited in a 40.84-year period by the faint DQZ white dwarf (WD) Procyon B. Using images obtained over two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope, and historical measurements back to the 19th century, we have determined precise orbital elements. Combined with measurements of the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 1.478 ± 0.012 M{sub ⊙} and 0.592 ± 0.006 M{sub ⊙} for A and B, respectively. The mass of Procyon A agrees well with theoretical predictions based on asteroseismology and its temperature and luminosity. Use of a standard core-overshoot model agrees best for a surprisingly high amount of core overshoot. Under these modeling assumptions, Procyon A’s age is ∼2.7 Gyr. Procyon B’s location in the H-R diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for WDs of its dynamical mass. Its position in the mass–radius plane is also consistent with theory, assuming a carbon–oxygen core and a helium-dominated atmosphere. Its progenitor’s mass was 1.9–2.2 M{sub ⊙}, depending on its amount of core overshoot. Several astrophysical puzzles remain. In the progenitor system, the stars at periastron were separated by only ∼5 AU, which might have led to tidal interactions and even mass transfer; yet there is no direct evidence that these have occurred. Moreover the orbital eccentricity has remained high (∼0.40). The mass of Procyon B is somewhat lower than anticipated from the initial-to-final-mass relation seen in open clusters. The presence of heavy elements in its atmosphere requires ongoing accretion, but the place of origin is uncertain.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Astrometry of the Procyon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Demarque, Pierre; Girard, Terrence M.; Holberg, Jay B.; Gudehus, Donald; Mason, Brian D.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Burleigh, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    The nearby star Procyon is a visual binary containing the F5 IV-V subgiant Procyon A, orbited in a 40.84-year period by the faint DQZ white dwarf (WD) Procyon B. Using images obtained over two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope, and historical measurements back to the 19th century, we have determined precise orbital elements. Combined with measurements of the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 1.478 plus or minus 0.012M and 0.592 plus or minus 0.006M for A and B, respectively. The mass of Procyon A agrees well with theoretical predictions based on asteroseismology and its temperature and luminosity. Use of a standard core-overshoot model agrees best for a surprisingly high amount of core overshoot. Under these modeling assumptions, Procyon A's age is approximately 2.7 Gyr. Procyon B's location in the H-R diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for WDs of its dynamical mass. Its position in the mass-radius plane is also consistent with theory, assuming a carbon-oxygen core and a helium-dominated atmosphere. Its progenitor's mass was 1.9-2.2M, depending on its amount of core overshoot. Several astrophysical puzzles remain. In the progenitor system, the stars at periastron were separated by only approximately AU, which might have led to tidal interactions and even mass transfer; yet there is no direct evidence that these have occurred. Moreover the orbital eccentricity has remained high (approximately 0.40). The mass of Procyon B is somewhat lower than anticipated from the initial-to-final-mass relation seen in open clusters. The presence of heavy elements in its atmosphere requires ongoing accretion, but the place of origin is uncertain.

  6. Update on Multi-Variable Parametric Cost Models for Ground and Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Luedtke, Alexander; West, Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Parametric cost models can be used by designers and project managers to perform relative cost comparisons between major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades; enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment; and, provide a basis for estimating total project cost between related concepts. This paper reports on recent revisions and improvements to our ground telescope cost model and refinements of our understanding of space telescope cost models. One interesting observation is that while space telescopes are 50X to 100X more expensive than ground telescopes, their respective scaling relationships are similar. Another interesting speculation is that the role of technology development may be different between ground and space telescopes. For ground telescopes, the data indicates that technology development tends to reduce cost by approximately 50% every 20 years. But for space telescopes, there appears to be no such cost reduction because we do not tend to re-fly similar systems. Thus, instead of reducing cost, 20 years of technology development may be required to enable a doubling of space telescope capability. Other findings include: mass should not be used to estimate cost; spacecraft and science instrument costs account for approximately 50% of total mission cost; and, integration and testing accounts for only about 10% of total mission cost.

  7. The Development and Mission of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, David B.; Irace, William R.; Werner, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the SIRTF mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, orbit, operations and project management approach; and this paper serves as an introduction to the accompanying set of detailed papers about specific aspects of SIRTF.

  8. Development of a Multivariable Parametric Cost Analysis for Space-Based Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Courtnay

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 400 years, the telescope has proven to be a valuable tool in helping humankind understand the Universe around us. The images and data produced by telescopes have revolutionized planetary, solar, stellar, and galactic astronomy and have inspired a wide range of people, from the child who dreams about the images seen on NASA websites to the most highly trained scientist. Like all scientific endeavors, astronomical research must operate within the constraints imposed by budget limitations. Hence the importance of understanding cost: to find the balance between the dreams of scientists and the restrictions of the available budget. By logically analyzing the data we have collected for over thirty different telescopes from more than 200 different sources, statistical methods, such as plotting regressions and residuals, can be used to determine what drives the cost of telescopes to build and use a cost model for space-based telescopes. Previous cost models have focused their attention on ground-based telescopes due to limited data for space telescopes and the larger number and longer history of ground-based astronomy. Due to the increased availability of cost data from recent space-telescope construction, we have been able to produce and begin testing a comprehensive cost model for space telescopes, with guidance from the cost models for ground-based telescopes. By separating the variables that effect cost such as diameter, mass, wavelength, density, data rate, and number of instruments, we advance the goal to better understand the cost drivers of space telescopes.. The use of sophisticated mathematical techniques to improve the accuracy of cost models has the potential to help society make informed decisions about proposed scientific projects. An improved knowledge of cost will allow scientists to get the maximum value returned for the money given and create a harmony between the visions of scientists and the reality of a budget.

  9. The space telescope: A study of NASA, science, technology, and politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert William

    1989-01-01

    Scientific, technological, economic, and political aspects of NASA efforts to orbit a large astronomical telescope are examined in a critical historical review based on extensive interviews with participants and analysis of published and unpublished sources. The scientific advantages of large space telescopes are explained; early plans for space observatories are summarized; the history of NASA and its major programs is surveyed; the redesign of the original Large Space Telescope for Shuttle deployability is discussed; the impact of the yearly funding negotiations with Congress on the development of the final Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is described; and the implications of the HST story for the future of large space science projects are explored. Drawings, photographs, a description of the HST instruments and systems, and lists of the major contractors and institutions participating in the HST program are provided.

  10. Observations of Blazar S5 0716+714 With Ground Based Telescopes and the Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jeffery; Lacy, M.; Morton, A.; Travagli, T.; Mulaveesala, M.; Santiago, J.; Rapp, S.; Stefaniak, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) to be launched in 2007 has a proposed observing list that includes AGNs and Polars bright enough to be observed optically by amateurs and students. This observing list is maintained by the Global Telescope Network (GTN). One of our targets, S5 0716+714, was observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS and IRAC instruments and also using ground based telescopes. Observations were made in seven infrared bands with Spitzer. Additional observations made from the ground by students, amateur astronomers, and college observatories in R,V, and I were nearly simultaneous with the Spitzer observations. This data were used to construct light curves over the course of the observation and the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of the target using all the sources. These data were compared to models of the dust emission from the torus, synchrotron emission from the radio core, and thermal emission from the accretion disk to determine the relative importance of the different emission mechanisms in this object as a function of wavelength. Results were compared to observations of 4C 29.45 made last year. This research was supported by the Spitzer Science Center, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and the California Department of Education's Specialized Secondary Program.

  11. Coordinated observations using the world largest low-frequency radio telescopes and space misiions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Zarka, Ph.; Kolyadin, V. L.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Stepkin, S. V.; Panchenko, M.; Lecacheux, A.; Rucker, H. O.; Fischer, G.; Ulyanov, O. M.; Melnik, V. N.; Litvinenko, G. V.; Sidorchuk, M. A.; Bubnov, I. N.; Vasilyeva, Ya. Yu.; Bojko, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, V.; Mann, G.; Kalinichenko, N. N.; Falkovich, I. S.; Koval, A. A.; Mylostna, K.; Pylaev, O. S.; Shepelev, V. A.; Reznik, A. P.

    2013-09-01

    The positive possibilities of astrophysical objects studies(including the Solar system investigations) using coordinated observations with the largest existing and coming low frequency radio telescopes are shown. The observations of the Sun, Jupiter, Saturn, ant others with UTR-2, URAN, NDA radio telescopes, and WIND, Cassini and STEREO space missions at frequencies lower than 40 MHz have been carried out.

  12. European astronomers' successes with the Hubble Space Telescope*

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    can bend the light from more distant objects, so magnifying and intensifying their images. In one spectacular case, cluster Abell 2218 creates in Hubble's WFPC2 camera more than a hundred images of galaxies lying beyond it. Without the magnifying effect of the cluster, many of these remote objects would be too faint to study in detail. Compared with man-made optics, the gravitational lenses are complex. They produce multiple images (as many as seven or more views of the same object) and they also smear the images into arcs. Team-member Jean-Paul Kneib, who is now at Toulouse, uses the distortions as a guide to distance. The more distorted the image, the farther off a galaxy is. The galaxies imaged by Abell 2218 are 5 to 8 billion light-years away, and Kneib's estimates have been confirmed by Tim Ebbels of Cambridge using the William Herschel Telescope located on the Spanish island of La Palma. Seen as they were early in the history of the Universe, the objects seem surprisingly similar to nearer and more mature galaxies. The cosmic scale Gustav Tammann of Basel and his collaborators use the Hubble Space Telescope to measure the Hubble Constant. Both are named after Edwin Hubble who discovered, almost 70 years ago, that the galaxies are spreading apart. The Hubble Constant is the rate of expansion -- and the most important number in cosmology, because it fixes the size and the maximum age of the observable Universe. Since the launch of the space telescope in 1990, two independent teams have tried to fix the constant but their answers disagree. A high expansion rate, which makes the Universe relatively young, is preferred by Wendy Freedman's team consisting largely of American astronomers. A lower value for Hubble's Constant, implying an older Universe, comes from a mainly European team led by the American astronomer Allan Sandage. Tammann belongs to the latter, "old Universe" camp and he is philosophical about the delay in reaching a consensus. "I've been waiting

  13. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Polarization Measurements of OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Burton, Michael G.; Schultz, A. S. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 micrometer polarization measurements of positions in the BN region of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) made with NICMOS Camera 2 (0.2" resolution) on Hubble Space Telescope. Our goals are to seek the sources of heating for IRc2, 3, 4, and 7, identify possible young stellar objects (YSOs), and characterize the grain alignment in the dust clouds along the lines-of-sight to the stars. Our results are as follows: BN is approximately 29% polarized by dichroic absorption and appears to be the illuminating source for most of the nebulosity to its north and up to approximately 5" to its south. Although the stars are probably all polarized by dichroic absorption, there are a number of compact, but non-point-source, objects that could be polarized by a combination of both dichroic absorption and local scattering of star light. We identify several candidate YSOs, including an approximately edge-on bipolar YSO 8.7" east of BN, and a deeply-embedded IRc7, all of which are obviously self-luminous at mid-infrared wavelengths and may be YSOs. None of these is a reflection nebula illuminated by a star located near radio source I, as was previously suggested. Other IRc sources are clearly reflection nebulae: IRc3 appears to be illuminated by IRc2-B or a combination of the IRc2 sources, and IRc4 and IRc5 appear to be illuminated by an unseen star in the vicinity of radio source I, or by Star n or IRc2-A. Trends in the magnetic field direction are inferred from the polarization of the 26 stars that are bright enough to be seen as NICMOS point sources. Their polarization ranges from N less than or equal to 1% (all stars with this low polarization are optically visible) to greater than 40%. The most polarized star has a polarization position angle different from its neighbors by approximately 40 degrees, but in agreement with the grain alignment inferred from millimeter polarization measurements of the cold dust cloud in the southern part of OMC-1. The polarization

  14. In-space assembly and servicing infrastructures for the Evolvable Space Telescope (EST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; MacEwen, Howard A.

    2016-07-01

    The concept for EST presented in past SPIE forums will benefit significantly from the current efforts of DARPA, NASA and several commercial organizations to develop an in-space infrastructure that will enable on-orbit assembly, servicing, repair and repurposing of space vehicles. Two documents provide particularly relevant discussions: "NASA's Journey to Mars: Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration" provides a recent (2015) outline of NASA's thoughts on human deep space exploration and the tools that will enable it, while the "On-Orbit Satellite Servicing Study: Project Report" details a number of the concepts and technologies that must be developed. In this paper we examine the concepts in these and related documents to explore how systems such as EST will shape and support the infrastructure needed by future space vehicles. In so doing, we address previous examples of on-orbit assembly and servicing of space vehicles; the lessons learned from these efforts and the existing systems and facilities available to execute servicing missions; the EST concept for an LUVOIR telescope designed for in-orbit assembly and servicing and the resulting requirements for a servicing vehicle; the use of heavy lift launch vehicles, including the SLS and Exploration Upper Stage to co-manifest other large payloads along with a crewed Orion mission; Deep Space Habitats (DSHs) in cislunar space as a site for assembly and servicing spacecraft vehicles, and a base for Maneuverable Servicing Vehicles; and how space vehicles need to be designed for in-space assembly and servicing (i.e., commonality of parts, systems, modularity, accessibility, and stable maneuverability).

  15. The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics and Pending US Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Charles; SPICA Consortium; SAFARI Consortium

    2017-01-01

    SPICA is a cryogenic space-borne observatory designed for optimal sensitivity in the mid-infrared through submillimeter range: 17-250 microns. The mission is an ESA / JAXA collaboration, now under review in the ESA Cosmic Visions M5 opportunity, which has final approval in 2019, and launch in the late 2020 decade. SPICA will feature a 2.5-meter telescope cooled to below 8K, this offers the potential for 100-1000-fold advances in sensitivity beyond that obtained with Herschel and SOFIA in the far-IR. With a line sensitivity of ~5x10^-20 W/m^2 (1 h, 5 sigma), SPICA will be a complement to JWST and ALMA for deep spectroscopic observations. Integrated over cosmic history, star formation has occurred predominantly in dust-obscured regions which are inaccessible in the rest-frame UV and optical. Both the luminosity history and the detailed physics that govern it can only be directly measured in the mid-IR-submillimeter. Similarly, forming stars and planetary systems cool primarily through the far-IR. By taking advantage of the low-background platform, the SPICA instruments are designed for these investigations. The SPICA mid-IR instrument (SMI) will provide R~50 imaging spectroscopy and R~1,000 full-band slit-fed spectroscopy from 17 to 36 microns, with a high-resolution (R=25,000) capability from 12-18 microns. The SPICA far-IR instrument (SAFARI) will cover 34 to at least 250 microns with multiple R~300 wide-band grating spectrometer modules coupling to high-sensitivity far-IR detectors. A R~3,000 scanned-etalon module will also be available for Galactic targets with bright continua and/or dense line spectra. In the current SPICA division of responsibilities, ESA will take the lead role, provide the telescope, the fine-attitude sensor, and the spacecraft bus. JAXA will provide the cryogenic system, the SMI instrument, integrate the telescope and instruments, and provide the launch vehicle. The SAFARI instrument will be provided by a consortium funded by the European

  16. Analyses of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Insulation Retrieved After 19 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Waters, Deborah L.; Mohammed, Jelila S.; Perry, Bruce A.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has made many important observations from its vantage point in low Earth orbit (LEO). However, as seen during five servicing missions, the outer layer of multilayer insulation (MLI) has become successively more embrittled and has cracked in many areas. In May 2009, during the 5th servicing mission (called SM4), two MLI blankets were replaced with new insulation pieces and the space-exposed MLI blankets were retrieved for degradation analyses by teams at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The MLI blankets were from Equipment Bay 8, which received direct sunlight, and Equipment Bay 5, which received grazing sunlight. Each blanket contained a range of unique regions based on environmental exposure and/or physical appearance. The retrieved MLI blanket s aluminized-Teflon (DuPont) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) outer layers have been analyzed for changes in optical, physical, and mechanical properties, along with space induced chemical and morphological changes. When compared to pristine material, the analyses have shown how the Al-FEP was severely affected by the space environment. This paper reviews tensile properties, solar absorptance, thermal emittance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data and atomic oxygen erosion values of the retrieved HST blankets after 19 years of space exposure.

  17. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future UV/Optical telescopes will require increasingly large apertures to answer the questions raised by HST, JWST, Planck and Hershel, and to complement the = 30-m...

  18. Estimation of Satellite Orientation from Space Surveillance Imagery Measured with an Adaptive Optics Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    SATELLITE ORIENTATION FROM SPACE SURVEILLANCE IMAGERY MEASURED WITH AN ADAPTIVE OPTICS TELESCOPE THESIS Gregory E. Wood Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GSO/ENP...the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U. S. Government. AFIT/GSO/ENP/96D-02 ESTIMATION OF SATELLITE ORIENTATION FROM...surveillance operations. xii ESTIMATION OF SATELLITE ORIENTATION FROM SPACE SURVEILLANCE IMAGERY MEASURED WITH AN ADAPTIVE OPTICS TELESCOPE

  19. Experience with the Hubble Space Telescope: 20 years of an archetype

    CERN Document Server

    Lallo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's mission is summarized, with special emphasis placed on the Space Telescope Science Institute's unique experience with Hubble's behavior as an astronomical telescope in the environment of low earth orbit for over two decades. Historical context and background are given, and the project's early scientific expectations are described. A general overview of the spacecraft is followed by a more detailed look at the optical design, both as intended and as built. Basic characteristics of the complete complement of science instruments are also summarized. Experience with the telescope on-orbit is reviewed, starting with the major initial problems, solutions, human servicing missions, and the associated expansion of the observatory's capabilities over this time. Specific attention is then given to understanding Hubble's optical quality and pointing/jitter performance, two fundamental characteristics of a telescope. Experience with-and the important mitigation of-radiation damage and contami...

  20. Telescope technology for space-borne submillimeter astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, David H.; Helou, George

    1990-01-01

    The Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project which is developing telescope technology needed for future spaceborne submillimeter astronomy missions is described. Four major technical areas are under development. Lighweight composite mirrors and associated materials, precision structures and segmented reflector figure sensing and control are discussed. The objectives of the PSR project, approaches, and project technology status, are reported.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Optically Polished Aluminum Panels on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, V.

    2011-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground?based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation is to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34?meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by state of?the?art polished aluminum panels. Theoretical analyses of receiving antenna pointing, temporal synchronization and data detection have been addressed in previous papers. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. Two polished aluminum panels (a standard DSN panel polished to high reflectance, and a custom designed aluminum panel with much better surface quality) have been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep?Space Station 13 (DSS?13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather?proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. The point?spread function (PSF) generated by the Vertex polished panel has been determined to be smaller than the sensor of the CCD camera, hence a detailed picture of the PSF can be obtained every few seconds, and the sensor array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution. In addition to estimating the center coordinates, expected communications performance can also been evaluated with the recorded data. The results of preliminary pointing experiments with the Vertex polished panel receiver using the planet Jupiter to simulate the PSF generated by a deep?space optical transmitter are presented and discussed in this paper.

  2. Status of the scientific data acquisition system for the GAMMA-400 space telescope mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, S. G.; Serdin, O. V.; Gorbunov, M. S.; Bakaldin, A. V.; Timina, A.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Topchiev, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    The present status of scientific data acquisition system (SDAQ) developed by SRISA for the GAMMA-400 space gamma-ray telescope mission is presented. SDAQ provides the collection of the data from telescope detector subsystems (up to 100 GB per day), the preliminary processing of scientific information and its accumulation in mass memory, transferring the information from mass memory to the satellite radio line for its transmission to the ground station, the control and monitoring of the telescope subsystems. SDAQ includes special space qualified chipset designed by SRISA and has scalable modular net structure based on fast and high-reliable SerialRapidIO 1.25 Gbit/s interface.

  3. Measurements of Tilt and Focus for Sodium Beacon Adaptive Optics on the Starfire 3.5 Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    beacon and natural guide star operation. This approach, and a more complicated approach, are described in detail by Link and Foucault [3]. They show these...Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, 21–25 June 2004. 3. Link D. and Foucault B., "Investigation of focus control

  4. HYPATIA and STOIC: an active optics system for a large space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Nicholas; Reinlein, Claudia; Lange, Nicolas; Goy, Matthias; Goncharov, Alexander; Hallibert, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The next generation of UVOIR space telescopes will be required to provide excellent wavefront control despite perturbations due to thermal changes, gravity release and vibrations. The STOIC project is a response to an ESA Invitation to Tender to develop an active optics correction chain for future space telescopes. The baseline space telescope being considered is a two-mirror, 4m telescope with a monolithic primary mirror - we refer to this concept as Hypatia. The primary mirror diameter could be extended, but is limited in the near future by launch vehicle dimensions. A deformable mirror (pupil diameter 110mm) will be an integral part of the telescope design; it is being designed for high precision and the ability to maintain a stable form over long periods of time. The secondary mirror of the telescope will be activated to control tip-tilt, defocus and alignment with the primary. Wavefront sensing will be based on phase diversity and a dedicated Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The project will develop a laboratory prototype to demonstrate key aspects of the active correction chain. We present the current state of the preliminary design for both the Hypatia space telescope and the laboratory breadboard.

  5. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project.I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B.M.; Ely, J.; Kriss, G.A.; Crenshaw, D.M.; Horne, K.; Korista, K.T.; Netzer, H.; Pogge, R.W.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A.J.; Bentz, M.C.; Brandt, W.N.; Breeveld, A.A.; Brewer, B.J.; Dalla Bontà, E.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Denney, K.D.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Evans, P.A.; Fausnaugh, M.M.; Gehrels, N.; Gelbord, J.M.; Goad, M.R.; Grier, C.J.; Grupe, D.; Hall, P.B.; Kaastra, J.; Kelly, B.C.; Kennea, J.A.; Kochanek, C.S.; Lira, P.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I.M.; Nousek, J.A.; Pancoast, A.; Papadakis, I.; Pei, L.; Schimoia, J.S.; Siegel, M.; Starkey, D.; Treu, T.; Uttley, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vestergaard, M.; Villforth, C.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 171 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and

  6. Swimming with ShARCS: Comparison of On-sky Sensitivity With Model Predictions for ShaneAO on the Lick Observatory 3-meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Srinath, Srikar; Rockosi, Constance; Kupke, Renate; Gavel, Donald; Cabak, Gerald; Cowley, David; Peck, Michael; Ratliff, Christopher; Gates, Elinor; Peck, Michael; Dillon, Daren; Norton, Andrew; Reining, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The Lick Observatory's Shane 3-meter telescope has been upgraded with a new infrared instrument (ShARCS - Shane Adaptive optics infraRed Camera and Spectrograph) and dual-deformable mirror adaptive optics (AO) system (ShaneAO). We present first-light measurements of imaging sensitivity in the Ks band. We compare measured results to predicted signal-to-noise ratio and magnitude limits from modeling the emissivity and throughput of ShaneAO and ShARCS. The model was validated by comparing its results to the Keck telescope adaptive optics system model and then by estimating the sky background and limiting magnitudes for IRCAL, the previous infra-red detector on the Shane telescope, and comparing to measured, published results. We predict that the ShaneAO system will measure lower sky backgrounds and achieve 20\\% higher throughput across the $JHK$ bands despite having more optical surfaces than the current system. It will enable imaging of fainter objects (by 1-2 magnitudes) and will be faster to reach a fiducial ...

  7. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Harrison, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor interferometric astrometry has produced precise and accurate parallaxes of astrophysical interesting stars and mass estimates for stellar companions. We review parallax results, and binary star and exoplanet mass determinations, and compare a subset of these parallaxes with preliminary {Gaia} results. The approach to single-field relative astrometry described herein may continue to have value for targets fainter than the {Gaia} limit in the coming era of 20-30 m telescopes. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. Prime focus architectures for large space telescopes: reduce surfaces to save cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Lillie, C. F.

    2016-07-01

    Conceptual architectures are now being developed to identify future directions for post JWST large space telescope systems to operate in the UV Optical and near IR regions of the spectrum. Here we show that the cost of optical surfaces within large aperture telescope/instrument systems can exceed $100M/reflection when expressed in terms of the aperture increase needed to over come internal absorption loss. We recommend a program in innovative optical design to minimize the number of surfaces by considering multiple functions for mirrors. An example is given using the Rowland circle imaging spectrometer systems for UV space science. With few exceptions, current space telescope architectures are based on systems optimized for ground-based astronomy. Both HST and JWST are classical "Cassegrain" telescopes derived from the ground-based tradition to co-locate the massive primary mirror and the instruments at the same end of the metrology structure. This requirement derives from the dual need to minimize observatory dome size and cost in the presence of the Earth's 1-g gravitational field. Space telescopes, however function in the zero gravity of space and the 1- g constraint is relieved to the advantage of astronomers. Here we suggest that a prime focus large aperture telescope system in space may have potentially have higher transmittance, better pointing, improved thermal and structural control, less internal polarization and broader wavelength coverage than Cassegrain telescopes. An example is given showing how UV astronomy telescopes use single optical elements for multiple functions and therefore have a minimum number of reflections.

  9. The role of space telescopes in the characterization of transiting exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzes, Artie P

    2014-09-18

    Characterization studies now have a dominant role in the field of exoplanets. Such studies include the measurement of an exoplanet's bulk density, its brightness temperature and the chemical composition of its atmosphere. The use of space telescopes has played a key part in the characterization of transiting exoplanets. These facilities offer astronomers data of exquisite precision and temporal sampling as well as access to wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum that are inaccessible from the ground. Space missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope, Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST), Spitzer Space Telescope, Convection, Rotation and Planetary Transits (CoRoT), and Kepler have rapidly advanced our knowledge of the physical properties of exoplanets and have blazed a trail for a series of future space missions that will help us to understand the observed diversity of exoplanets.

  10. STS-31 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array (SA) mockup at MSFC, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A close-up shot shows an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU)-suited astronaut inspecting a solar array (SA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC managed the design and development of the telescope. The weightlessness simulator was used to practice SA contingency procedures that might be used in space. Astronauts also practiced SA servicing missions in the simulator which they will perform on the telescope in space. The solar arrays which supply electrical power to the space telescope were developed and contributed by the European Space Agency (ESA). ESA's two prime contractors were British Aerospace in England and AEG in West Germany. The two wing-like solar arrays contain 48,000 solar cells. They convert the sun's energy to electricity during that portion of an orbit when they are exposed to sunlight. The power is stored in six batteries to support the telescope during

  11. Planetary system, star formation, and black hole science with non-redundant masking on space telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaramakrishna, Anand; Ireland, Michael; Lloyd, James; Perrin, Marshall; Soummer, Remi; McKernan, Barry; Ford, Saavik

    2009-01-01

    Non-redundant masking (NRM) is a high contrast, high resolution technique relevant to future space missions concerned with extrasolar planetary system and star formation, as well as general high angular resolution galactic and extragalactic astronomy. NRM enables the highest angular resolution science possible given the telescope's diameter and operating wavelength. It also provides precise information on a telescope's optical state. We must assess NRM contrast limits realistically to understand the science yield of NRM in space, and, simultaneously, develop NRM science for planet and star formation and extragalactic science in the UV-NIR, to help steer high resolution space-based astronomy in the coming decade.

  12. Results from a prototype telescope for a space-based gravitational-wave observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Shannon; Livas, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Space-based gravitational-wave observatories will enable the study of a multitude of astrophysical sources emitting gravitational waves at frequencies between 0.1 mHz and 1Hz. These long-baseline laser interferometers rely on specifically-designed telescopes to efficiently exchange laser beams between spacecraft housing freely floating proof masses. Each telescope simultaneously transmits and receives the laser light at the ends of the million kilometer arms. The telescopes are in the measurement path, and so must be dimensionally stable within the observatory measurement band. Furthermore, simultaneous transmission and reception introduces constraints on the permissible scattered light. We discuss our efforts to design, simulate, construct and measure the performance of a prototype telescope for a future gravitational-wave observatory in space. We also outline key lessons learned from this study.

  13. Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST): A Technology Roadmap for the Next Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Postman, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is a set of mission concepts for the next generation of UVOIR space observatory with a primary aperture diameter in the 8-m to 16-m range that will allow us to perform some of the most challenging observations to answer some of our most compelling questions, including "Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy?" We have identified two different telescope architectures, but with similar optical designs, that span the range in viable technologies. The architectures are a telescope with a monolithic primary mirror and two variations of a telescope with a large segmented primary mirror. This approach provides us with several pathways to realizing the mission, which will be narrowed to one as our technology development progresses. The concepts invoke heritage from HST and JWST design, but also take significant departures from these designs to minimize complexity, mass, or both. Our report provides details on the mission concepts, shows the extraordinary s...

  14. Cameras a Million Miles Apart: Stereoscopic Imaging Potential with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Joel D; Stansberry, John A; Meinke, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    The two most powerful optical/IR telescopes in history -- NASA's Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes -- will be in space at the same time. We have a unique opportunity to leverage the 1.5 million kilometer separation between the two telescopic nodal points to obtain simultaneously captured stereoscopic images of asteroids, comets, moons and planets in our Solar System. Given the recent resurgence in stereo-3D movies and the recent emergence of VR-enabled mobile devices, these stereoscopic images provide a unique opportunity to engage the public with unprecedented views of various Solar System objects. Here, we present the technical requirements for acquiring stereoscopic images of Solar System objects, given the constraints of the telescopic equipment and the orbits of the target objects, and we present a handful of examples.

  15. A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high-energy x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; WESTERGAARD, NJ

    1992-01-01

    A high energy telescope design is presented which combines grazing incidence geometry with Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multilayer coating to obtain significant sensitivity up to --6O keV. The concept utilizes total reflection and first order Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multi...

  16. Hubble Space Telescope mock-up in use in the MDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    View of helium filled mock-up of the Hubble Space Telescope in use in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) in bldg 9A. The mock-up is being maneuvered on the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm. The Space Shuttle full fuselage trainer is seen in the background, to the left.

  17. Cryogenic Far-IR Laser Absorptivity Measurements of the Herschel Space Observatory Telescope Mirror Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Fischer; T.O. Klaassen; J.W. Hovenier; G. Jakob; A. Poglitsch; O. Sternberg

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared laser calorimetry was used to measure the absorptivity, and thus the emissivity, of aluminum-coated silicon carbide mirror samples produced during the coating qualification run of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope to be launched by the European Space Agency in 2007. The samples w

  18. Cryogenic Far-IR Laser Absorptivity Measurements of the Herschel Space Observatory Telescope Mirror Coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, J.; Klaassen, T.O.; Hovenier, J.W.; Jakob, G.; Poglitsch, A.; Sternberg, O.

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared laser calorimetry was used to measure the absorptivity, and thus the emissivity, of aluminum-coated silicon carbide mirror samples produced during the coating qualification run of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope to be launched by the European Space Agency in 2007. The samples

  19. Galileo's Telescope and the Birth of Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, A.

    2002-01-01

    The age of telescopic astronomy began in December 1609, when Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) began the first telescopic astronomical research project, an extended series of observations of the Moon. Over the next 18 months, he discovered the earth-like nature of the Moon, four satellites of Jupiter, the strange appearances of Saturn, the phases of Venus, and sunspots. His discoveries cut at the roots of the Aristotelian cosmological system with its central, corrupt, Earth and perfect heavens; and they provided important evidence for the Copernican heliocentric system. The instruments that provided the turning point in this great transition were by modern standards exceedingly primitive, and there is no question about the fact that Galileo must have been an exceptional observer to discover what he did. But he was also a great communicator. His scientific arguments for the new world system were models of logic and rigor; they were also rhetorical masterpieces. Galileo never needed a popularizer to bring his ideas to a wide audience. For that he paid a price.

  20. Silicon Carbide Corrugated Mirrors for Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) proposes technology development to manufacture monolithic, lightweight silicon carbide corrugated mirrors (SCCM) suitable for...

  1. Technology Requirements For a Square-Meter, Arcsecond-Resolution Telescope for X-Rays: The SMART-X Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.; Allured, Ryan; Bookbinder, Jay; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Forman, William; Freeman, Mark; McMuldroch, Stuart; Reid, Paul; Tananbaum, Harvey; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; O'Dell, Steve; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the astrophysical problems of the 2020's requires sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with square meter effective area. Such requirements can be derived, for example, by considering deep x-ray surveys to find the young black holes in the early universe (large redshifts) which will grow into the first supermassive black holes. We have envisioned a mission based on adjustable x-ray optics technology, in order to achieve the required reduction of mass to collecting area for the mirrors. We are pursuing technology which effects this adjustment via thin film piezoelectric "cells" deposited directly on the non-reflecting sides of thin, slumped glass. While SMARTX will also incorporate state-of-the-art x-ray cameras, the remaining spacecraft systems have no more stringent requirements than those which are well understood and proven on the current Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  2. The Deep Blue Color of HD189733b: Albedo Measurements with Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at Visible Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Thomas M; Sing, David K; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale; Heng, Kevin; Knutson, Heather A; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des

    2013-01-01

    We present a secondary eclipse observation for the hot Jupiter HD189733b across the wavelength range 290-570nm made using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure geometric albedos of Ag = 0.40 \\pm 0.12 across 290-450nm and Ag < 0.12 across 450-570nm at 1-sigma confidence. The albedo decrease toward longer wavelengths is also apparent when using six wavelength bins over the same wavelength range. This can be interpreted as evidence for optically thick reflective clouds on the dayside hemisphere with sodium absorption suppressing the scattered light signal beyond ~450nm. Our best-fit albedo values imply that HD189733b would appear a deep blue color at visible wavelengths.

  3. A Search for Rapidly Spinning Pulsars and Fast Transients in Unidentified Radio Sources with the NRAO 43-Meter Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Deborah; Langston, Glen; Gilpin, Claire

    2013-01-01

    We have searched 75 unidentified radio sources selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) catalog for the presence of rapidly spinning pulsars and short, dispersed radio bursts. The sources are radio bright, have no identifications or optical source coincidences, are more than 5% linearly polarized, and are spatially unresolved in the catalog. If these sources are fast-spinning pulsars (e.g. sub-millisecond pulsars), previous large-scale pulsar surveys may have missed detection due to instrumental and computational limitations, eclipsing effects, or diffractive scintillation. The discovery of a sub-millisecond pulsar would significantly constrain the neutron star equation of state and would have implications for models predicting a rapid slowdown of highly recycled X-ray pulsars to millisecond periods from, e.g., accretion disk decoupling. These same sources were previously searched unsuccessfully for pulsations at 610 MHz with the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank. This new search was conducted at a differe...

  4. A SEARCH FOR RAPIDLY SPINNING PULSARS AND FAST TRANSIENTS IN UNIDENTIFIED RADIO SOURCES WITH THE NRAO 43 METER TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Deborah; Crawford, Fronefield; Gilpin, Claire [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Langston, Glen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We have searched 75 unidentified radio sources selected from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalog for the presence of rapidly spinning pulsars and short, dispersed radio bursts. The sources are radio bright, have no identifications or optical source coincidences, are more than 5% linearly polarized, and are spatially unresolved in the catalog. If these sources are fast-spinning pulsars (e.g., sub-millisecond pulsars), previous large-scale pulsar surveys may have missed detection due to instrumental and computational limitations, eclipsing effects, or diffractive scintillation. The discovery of a sub-millisecond pulsar would significantly constrain the neutron star equation of state and would have implications for models predicting a rapid slowdown of highly recycled X-ray pulsars to millisecond periods from, e.g., accretion disk decoupling. These same sources were previously searched unsuccessfully for pulsations at 610 MHz with the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank. This new search was conducted at a different epoch with a new 800 MHz backend on the NRAO 43 m Telescope at a center frequency of 1200 MHz. Our search was sensitive to sub-millisecond pulsars in highly accelerated binary systems and to short transient pulses. No periodic or transient signals were detected from any of the target sources. We conclude that diffractive scintillation, dispersive smearing, and binary acceleration are unlikely to have prevented detection of the large majority of the sources if they are pulsars, though we cannot rule out eclipsing, nulling or intermittent emission, or radio interference as possible factors for some non-detections. Other (speculative) possibilities for what these sources might include radio-emitting magnetic cataclysmic variables or older pulsars with aligned magnetic and spin axes.

  5. Servicing Mission 4 and the Extraordinary Science of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Just two years ago, NASA astronauts performed a challenging and flawless final Space Shuttle servicing mission to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. With science instruments repaired on board and two new ones installed, the observatory. is more powerful now than ever before. I will show the dramatic highlights of the servicing mission and present some of the early scientific results from the refurbished telescope. Its high sensitivity and multi-wavelength capabilities are revealing the highest redshift galaxies ever seen, as well as details of the cosmic web of intergalactic medium, large scale structure formation, solar system bodies, and stellar evolution. Enlightening studies of dark matter, dark energy, and exoplanet atmospheres add to the profound contributions to astrophysics that are being made with Hubble, setting a critical stage for future observatories such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

  6. Asteroseismology of the Transiting Exoplanet Host HD 17156 with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; McCullough, Peter R.; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2011-01-01

    Observations conducted with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) providing high cadence and precision time-series photometry were obtained over 10 consecutive days in 2008 December on the host star of the transiting exoplanet HD 17156b. During this time, 1.0 × 1012 photons...... light curve. Using the density constraint from asteroseismology, and stellar evolution modeling results in M * = 1.285 ± 0.026 M sun, R * = 1.507 ± 0.012 R sun, and a stellar age of 3.2 ± 0.3 Gyr. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science...

  7. The Space Telescope. A study of NASA, science, technology, and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. W.; Hanle, P. A.; Kargon, R. H.; Tatarewicz, J. N.

    Complete with a new Afterword detailing the project's problems since its 1990 launch, Robert Smith's "The Space Telescope" (for the first edition see 50.003.047) sets the fascinating and disturbing history of this massive venture within the context of "Big Science". Launched at a cost of more than $2 billion, the Space Telescope turned out to be seriously flawed by imperfections in the construction of its lenses and by solar panels that caused it to shudder when moving from daylight to darkness. Smith analyzes how the processes of Big Science, especially those involving the government's funding process for large-scale projects, contributed to those failures. He reveals the astonishingly complex interactions that took place among the scientific community, government, and industry and describes the great range of personalities and forces - scientific, technical, political, social, institutional, and economic - that played roles in the Space Telescope's history.

  8. Cryogenic Vibration Damping Mechanisms for Space Telescopes and Interferometers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In its mission to understand how galaxies, stars, and planetary systems form, NASA's Origins Technology Program calls for advances in "enabling component and...

  9. A Cryogenic Space Telescope for Far-Infrared Astrophysics: A Vision for NASA in the 2020 Decade

    CERN Document Server

    Bradford, C M; Bolatto, A; Armus, L; Bauer, J; Appleton, P; Cooray, A; Casey, C; Dale, D; Uzgil, B; Aguirre, J; Smith, J D; Sheth, K; Murphy, E J; McKenney, C; Holmes, W; Rizzo, M; Bergin, E; Stacey, G

    2015-01-01

    Many of the transformative processes in the Universe have taken place in regions obscured by dust, and are best studied with far-IR spectroscopy. We present the Cryogenic-Aperture Large Infrared-Submillimeter Telescope Observatory (CALISTO), a 5-meter class, space-borne telescope actively cooled to 4 K, emphasizing moderate-resolution spectroscopy in the crucial 35 to 600 micron band. CALISTO will enable NASA and the world to study the rise of heavy elements in the Universe's first billion years, chart star formation and black hole growth in dust-obscured galaxies through cosmic time, and conduct a census of forming planetary systems in our region of the Galaxy. CALISTO will capitalize on rapid progress in both format and sensitivity of far-IR detectors. Arrays with a total count of a few 100,000 detector pixels will form the heart of a suite of imaging spectrometers in which each detector reaches the photon background limit. This document contains a large overview paper on CALISTO, as well as six 2-3 page sc...

  10. Hubble Space Telescope - Scientific, Technological and Social Contributions to the Public Discourse on Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has unified the world with a sense of awe and wonder for 2 I years and is currently more scientifically powerful than ever. I will present highlights of discoveries made with the Hubble Space Telescope, including details of planetary weather, star formation, extra-solar planets, colliding galaxies, and a universe expanding with the acceleration of dark energy. I will also present the unique technical challenges and triumphs of this phenomenal observatory, and discuss how our discoveries in the cosmos affect our sense of human unity, significance, and wonder.

  11. A 1.2m Deployable, Transportable Space Surveillance Telescope Designed to Meet AF Space Situational Awareness Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, J.; Ackermann, M.

    Recent years have seen significant interest in optical-infrared (OIR) space surveillance capabilities to complement and supplement radar-based sensors. To address this legitimate need for OIR sensors, the Air Force Research Laboratory has been working on several projects intended to meet SSA requirements in practical, fieldable and affordable packages. In particular, while the PanStarrs system is primarily an astronomy project, their well-designed telescope(s) will have substantial SSA capability, but the system, based on four 1.8m apertures on the same mount, will be a fixed location asset. For world-wide deployment, we are studying a smaller "PanStarrs derived" system which would be replicable and inexpensive. A fixed set of telescope arrays would provide substantial SSA search and monitor capability. These telescopes are also designed to be deployed in pairs in a standard cargo container package for theater SSA. With a 1.2m aperture and a 4.5deg FOV, each telescope would have the same etendue as its big brother PanStarrs telescope, but with image quality optimized for space surveillance rather than astronomy. The telescope is even scaled to use production PanStarrs focal plane arrays. A single 1.2m system has almost the same search rate for dim targets as any other system in development. Two such telescopes working together will exceed the performance of any SSA asset either in production or on the drawing boards. Because they are small they can be designed to be replicable and inexpensive and thus could be abandoned in place should the political climate at their deployment sites change for the worse.

  12. Proposed conversion of the McMath telescope to 4.0 meter aperture for solar observations in the IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, William

    1991-09-01

    Located on a 2076 m summit in Arizona, the present all-reflective McMath optical system consists of a 2.0-m CERVIT flat mounted as a heliostat to follow the sun, a 1.6-m 86.4 m focal-length quartz concave positioned within an inclined underground tunnel, and a 1.5-m CERVIT flat which directs the image to different fixed instrument stations. The building is adequate to accommodate a 6.0-m tracking feed and a 4.0-m concave, resulting in an f/22 beam. A 4.0 m aperture is desirable for adequate flux and resolution at 12 microns where a number of Zeeman sensitive atomic lines are found, lines which are a diagnostic for solar magnetism. At 12 microns, the diffraction limit is 0.75 arcsec, and this resolution might be realized a significant fraction of time because of improved seeing at these IR wavelengths. Direct vector measurements of solar magnetic fields would become possible because effective Zeeman splitting is proportional to wavelength, both the linear and circular Stokes amplitudes are proportional to their vector field components, and instrumental polarization becomes negligible at 12 microns. The telescope would also be used at night by the solar/stellar community.

  13. Testing and characterization of a prototype telescope for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, S.; Livas, J.

    2016-07-01

    We describe our efforts to fabricate, test and characterize a prototype telescope for the eLISA mission. Much of our work has centered on the modeling and measurement of scattered light performance. This work also builds on a previous demonstration of a high dimensional stability metering structure using particular choices of materials and interfaces. We will discuss ongoing plans to merge these two separate demonstrations into a single telescope design demonstrating both stray light and dimensional stability requirements simultaneously.

  14. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed I: Overview and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Marshall D; Choquet, Élodie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Levecq, Olivier; Lajoie, Charles-Phillipe; Ygouf, Marie; Leboulleux, Lucie; Egron, Sylvain; Anderson, Rachel; Long, Chris; Elliott, Erin; Hartig, George; Pueyo, Laurent; van der Marel, Roeland; Mountain, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop workbench to study aspects of wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing optomechanical testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope, TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science & Operations Center. We have developed an optical design that reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat using three aspheric lenses; it provides similar image quality as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at HeNe wavelength. A segmented deformable mirror stands in for the segmented primary mirror and allows control of the 18 segments in piston, tip, and tilt, while the secondary can be controlled in tip, tilt and x, y, z position. This will be sufficient to model many commissioning activities, to investigate field depende...

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations of Neptune

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    across the planet's disk, revealing wind speeds as large as 325 meters per second (730 miles per hour). The largest of the giant, dark storm systems, called the 'Great Dark Spot', received special attention because it resembled Jupiter's Great Red Spot, a storm that has persisted for more than three centuries. The lifetime of Neptune's Great Dark Spot could not be determined from the Voyager data alone, however, because the encounter was too brief. Its evolution was impossible to monitor with ground-based telescopes, because it could not be resolved on Neptune's tiny disk, and its contribution to the disk-integrated brightness of Neptune confused by the presence of a rapidly-varying bright cloud feature, called the 'Bright Companion' that usually accompanied the Great Dark spot.The repaired Hubble Space Telescope provides new opportunities to monitor these and other phenomena in the atmosphere of the most distant planet. Images taken with WFPC-2's Planetary Camera (PC) can resolve Neptune's disk as well as most ground-based telescopes can resolve the disk of Jupiter. The spatial resolution of the HST WFPC-2 images is not as high as that obtained by the Voyager-2 Narrow-Angle Camera during that spacecraft's closest approach to Neptune, but they have a number of other assets that enhance their scientific value, including improved ultra-violet and infrared sensitivity, better signal-to-noise, and, and greater photometric accuracy.The images of Neptune acquired by the WFPC-2 Science team in late June clearly demonstrate these capabilities. The side of the planet facing the Earth at the start of the program (11:36 Universal Time on July 27) was imaged in color filters spanning the ultraviolet (255 and 300-nm), visible (467, 588, 620, and 673- nm), and near-infrared (890-nm) parts of the spectrum. The planet then rotated 180 degrees in longitude, and the opposite hemisphere was imaged in a subset of these colors (300, 467, 588, 620, and 673-nm). The HST/WFPC-2 program more

  16. High-fidelity cryothermal test of a subscale large space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPirro, M.; Tuttle, J.; Ollendorf, S.; Mattern, A.; Leisawitz, D.; Jackson, M.; Francis, J.; Hait, T.; Cleveland, P.; Muheim, D.; Mastropietro, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    To take advantage of the unique environment of space and optimize infrared observations for faint sources, space telescopes must be cooled to low temperatures. The new paradigm in cooling large space telescopes is to use a combination of passive radiative cooling and mechanical cryocoolers. The passive system must shield the telescope from the Sun, Earth, and the warm spacecraft components while providing radiative cooling to deep space. This shield system is larger than the telescope itself, and must attenuate the incoming energy by over one million to limit heat input to the telescope. Testing of such a system on the ground is a daunting task due to the size of the thermal/vacuum chamber required and the degree of thermal isolation necessary between the room temperature and cryogenic parts of the shield. These problems have been attacked in two ways: by designing a subscale version of a larger sunshield and by carefully closing out radiation sneak paths. The 18% scale (the largest diameter shield was 1.5 m) version of the SPIRIT Origins Probe telescope shield was tested in a low cost helium shroud within a 3.1 m diameter x 4.6 m long LN II shrouded vacuum chamber. Thermal straps connected from three shield stages to the liquid helium cooled shroud were instrumented with heaters and thermometers to simulate mechanical cryocooler stages at 6 K, 18-20 K, and 45-51 K. Performance data showed that less than 10 microwatts of radiative heat leaked from the warm to cold sides of the shields during the test. The excellent agreement between the data and the thermal models is discussed along with shroud construction techniques.

  17. Detecting the Beacons of Life with Exo-Life Beacon Space Telescope (ELBST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, V. S.; Danchi, W. C.; Chen, P. C.; Rabin, D. M.; Carpenter, K. G.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2017-02-01

    We propose a new observational strategy, the “Exo-Life Beacon Space Telescope,” for detecting the signatures of “beacons” of life defined as high signal and low spectral resolution thermal emission from molecules associated with life signatures.

  18. Nuclei of nearby disk galaxies .1. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, AC; Illingworth, GD; MacKenty, JW; Franx, M

    We present deconvolved images of the central regions of 20 nearby disk galaxies, obtained with the original Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. The galaxies span a range in Hubble type from SO to Sm. We have measured surface brightness profiles, and inverted these to estimate

  19. Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS observations of the host galaxies of powerful radio sources : Does size matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, WH; O'Dea, CP; Barthel, PD; Fanti, C; Fanti, R; Lehnert, MD

    2000-01-01

    We present near-infrared J- and K-band imaging of a sample of powerful radio source host galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS2 camera. These sources have been selected on their double-lobed radio structure and include a wide range of projected radio source sizes. The largest projected

  20. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures.

  1. Spitzer Space Telescope spectroscopy of ices toward low-mass embedded protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, ACA; Pontoppidan, KM; Lahuis, F; Jorgensen, JK; Augereau, JC; Blake, GA; Brooke, TY; Dullemond, CP; Evans, NJ; Geers, [No Value; Hogerheijde, MR; Kessler-Silacci, J; Knez, C; Morris, P; Noriega-Crespo, A; Schoier, FL; van Dishoeck, EF; Allen, LE; Harvey, PM; Koerner, DW; Mundy, LG; Myers, PC; Padgett, DL; Sargent, AI; Stapelfeldt, KR

    2004-01-01

    Sensitive 5-38 mum Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based 3-5 mum spectra of the embedded low-mass protostars B5 IRS1 and HH 46 IRS show deep ice absorption bands superposed on steeply rising mid-infrared continua. The ices likely originate in the circumstellar envelopes. The CO2 bending mode at 1

  2. 25+ Years of the Hubble Space Telescope and a Simple Error that Cost Millions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerin, Said

    2016-11-01

    A simple mistake in properly setting up a measuring device caused millions of dollars to be spent in correcting the initial optical failure of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This short article is intended as a lesson for a physics laboratory and discussion of errors in measurement.

  3. The CFRP primary structure of the MIRI instrument onboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels Christian; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Schroll, J

    2004-01-01

    The design of the Primary Structure of the Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI) onboard the NASA/ESA James Webb Space Telescope will be presented. The main design driver is the energy flow from the 35 K "hot" satellite interface to the 7 K "cold" MIRI interface. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP...

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet spectroscopy of 14 low-redshift quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, R.; Kaastra, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    We present low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of 14 low-redshift quasars observed with the Hubble Space Telescope STIS as part of a Snapshot project to understand the relationship between quasar outflows and luminosity. The quasar is radio-loud but has a steep spectral index and a lobe-dominated

  5. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28: 5 µm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R similar...

  6. The James Webb Space Telescope: Inspiration and Context for Physics and Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Dan; Johnston, Tania; Davies, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design, delivery, evaluation and impact of a CPD course for physics and chemistry teachers. A key aim of the course was to use the context of the James Webb Space Telescope project to inspire teachers and lead to enriched teaching of STEM subjects. (Contains 1 box and 3 figures.)

  7. An Atlas of Hubble Space Telescope Spectra and Images of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Axon, D.; Scarlata, C.; Atkinson, J.; Batcheldor, D.; Binney, J.; Capetti, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Dressel, L.; Gerssen, J.; Macchetto, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Marconi, A.; Merrifield, M.; Ruiz, M.; Sparks, W.; Stiavelli, M.; Tsvetanov, Z.; van der Marel, R.

    2003-08-01

    We have observed 54 nearby spiral galaxies with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain optical long-slit spectra of nuclear gas disks and STIS optical (~R band) images of the central 5''×5'' of the galaxies. These spectra are being used to determine the velocity field of nuclear disks and hence to detect the presence of central massive black holes. Here we present the spectra for the successful observations. Dust obscuration can be significant at optical wavelengths, and so we also combine the STIS images with archival Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer H-band images to produce color maps to investigate the morphology of gas and dust in the central regions. We find a great variety in the different morphologies, from smooth distributions to well-defined nuclear spirals and dust lanes. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  8. A guide to hubble space telescope objects their selection, location, and significance

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2015-01-01

    From the authors of "How to Find the Apollo Landing Sites," this is a guide to connecting the view above with the history of recent scientific discoveries from the Hubble Space Telescope. Each selected HST photo is shown with a sky map and a photograph or drawing to illustrate where to find it and how it should appear from a backyard telescope. Here is the casual observer's chance to locate the deep space objects visually, and appreciate the historic Hubble photos in comparison to what is visible from a backyard telescope. HST objects of all types are addressed, from Messier objects, Caldwell objects, and NGC objects, and are arranged in terms of what can be seen during the seasons. Additionally, the reader is given an historical perspective on the work of Edwin Hubble, while locating and viewing the deep space objects that changed astronomy forever.  Countless people have seen the amazing photographs taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. But how many people can actually point out where in the sky ...

  9. Scientific Research with the Space Telescope: International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 54. [conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longair, M. S.; Warner, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope for extragalactic astronomy, planetary research, and stellar, interstellar, and galactic structural problems is discussed. Topics include investigations of small solar system objects, the physical characteristics of ionized gaseous nebulae, the central regions of active galaxies and quasars, problems of cosmology, and the distribution and composition of interstellar matter.

  10. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures. F

  11. The Mid-Infrared Instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope, II: Design and Build

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, G. S.; Wright, David; Goodson, G. B.; Rieke, G. H.; Aitink-Kroes, Gabby; Amiaux, J.; Aricha-Yanguas, Ana; Azzollini, Ruymán; Banks, Kimberly; Barrado-Navascues, D.; Belenguer-Davila, T.; Bloemmart, J. A. D. L.; Bouchet, Patrice; Brandl, B. R.; Colina, L.; Detre, Örs; Diaz-Catala, Eva; Eccleston, Paul; Friedman, Scott D.; García-Marín, Macarena; Güdel, Manuel; Glasse, Alistair; Glauser, Adrian M.; Greene, T. P.; Groezinger, Uli; Grundy, Tim; Hastings, Peter; Henning, Th.; Hofferbert, Ralph; Hunter, Faye; Jessen, N. C.; Justtanont, K.; Karnik, Avinash R.; Khorrami, Mori A.; Krause, Oliver; Labiano, Alvaro; Lagage, P.-O.; Langer, Ulrich; Lemke, Dietrich; Lim, Tanya; Lorenzo-Alvarez, Jose; Mazy, Emmanuel; McGowan, Norman; Meixner, M. E.; Morris, Nigel; Morrison, Jane E.; Müller, Friedrich; rgaard-Nielson, H.-U. Nø; Olofsson, Göran; O'Sullivan, Brian; Pel, J.-W.; Penanen, Konstantin; Petach, M. B.; Pye, J. P.; Ray, T. P.; Renotte, Etienne; Renouf, Ian; Ressler, M. E.; Samara-Ratna, Piyal; Scheithauer, Silvia; Schneider, Analyn; Shaughnessy, Bryan; Stevenson, Tim; Sukhatme, Kalyani; Swinyard, Bruce; Sykes, Jon; Thatcher, John; Tikkanen, Tuomo; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Waelkens, C.; Walker, Helen; Wells, Martyn; Zhender, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) provides measurements over the wavelength range 5 to 28.5 μm. MIRI has, within a single "package," four key scientific functions: photometric imaging, coronagraphy, single-source low-spectral resolving power (R ~ 100) spectr

  12. The James Webb Space Telescope: Inspiration and Context for Physics and Chemistry Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Dan; Johnston, Tania; Davies, John

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the design, delivery, evaluation and impact of a CPD course for physics and chemistry teachers. A key aim of the course was to use the context of the James Webb Space Telescope project to inspire teachers and lead to enriched teaching of STEM subjects. (Contains 1 box and 3 figures.)

  13. Investigations into Generalization of Constraint-Based Scheduling Theories with Applications to Space Telescope Observation Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

    1996-01-01

    This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

  14. Weak lensing analysis of C1 1358+62 using Hubble Space Telescope observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, H; Franx, M; Kuijken, K; Squires, G

    1998-01-01

    We report on the detection of weak gravitational lensing of faint, distant background objects by Cl 1358+62, a rich cluster of galaxies at a redshift of z = 0.33. The observations consist of a large, multicolor mosaic of Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images. The number density of approximately 50 bac

  15. Multiple asteroid systems : Dimensions and thermal properties from Spitzer Space Telescope and ground-based observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J. E.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Baek, M.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Vieira Martins, R.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Lim, L. F.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; LaCluyze, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    We collected mid-IR spectra from 5.2 to 38 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph of 28 asteroids representative of all established types of binary groups. Photometric lightcurves were also obtained for 14 of them during the Spitzer observations to provide the context of the

  16. Advances in the archiving and distribution facilities at the Space Telescope Science Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Robert J.; Postman, Marc; Pollizzi, Joseph; Richon, J.

    1998-07-01

    The Hubble Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute contains over 4.3 TB of data, primarily for the Hubble Space Telescope, but also from complementary space- based and ground-based facilities. We are in the process of upgrading and generalizing many of the HDA's component system, developing tools to provide more integrated access to the HDA holdings, and working with other major data providing organizations to implement global data location services for astronomy and other space science disciplines. This paper describes the key elements of our archiving and data distribution systems, including a planned transition to DVD media, data compression, data segregation, on-the-fly calibration, an engineering data warehouse, and distributed search and retrieval facilities.

  17. A New Concept for Spectrophotometry of Exoplanets with Space-borne Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Taro; Itoh, Satoshi; Shibai, Hiroshi; Sumi, Takahiro; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new concept for the spectral characterization of transiting exoplanets with future space-based telescopes. This concept, called densified pupil spectroscopy, allows us to perform high, stable spectrophotometry against telescope pointing jitter and deformation of the primary mirror. This densified pupil spectrometer comprises the following three roles: division of a pupil into a number of sub-pupils, densification of each sub-pupil, and acquisition of the spectrum of each sub-pupil with a conventional spectrometer. Focusing on the fact that the divided and densified sub-pupil can be treated as a point source, we discovered that a simplified spectrometer allows us to acquire the spectra of the densified sub-pupils on the detector plane-an optical conjugate with the primary mirror-by putting the divided and densified sub-pupils on the entrance slit of the spectrometer. The acquired multiple spectra are not principally moved on the detector against low-order aberrations such as the telescope pointing jitter and any deformation of the primary mirror. The reliability of the observation result is also increased by statistically treating them. Our numerical calculations show that because this method suppresses the instrumental systematic errors down to 10 ppm under telescopes with modest pointing accuracy, next generation space telescopes with more than 2.5 m diameter potentially provide opportunities to characterize temperate super-Earths around nearby late-type stars through the transmission spectroscopy and secondary eclipse.

  18. Common-Path Interferometric Wavefront Sensing for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James Kent

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an optical configuration for a common-path phase-shifting interferometric wavefront sensor.1 2 This sensor has a host of attractive features which make it well suited for space-based adaptive optics. First, it is strictly reflective and therefore operates broadband, second it is common mode and therefore does not suffer from systematic errors (like vibration) that are typical in other interferometers, third it is a phase-shifting interferometer and therefore benefits from both the sensitivity of interferometric sensors as well as the noise rejection afforded by synchronous detection. Unlike the Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, it has nearly uniform sensitivity to all pupil modes. Optical configuration, theory and simulations for such a system will be discussed along with predicted performance.

  19. Challenges with Electrical, Electronics, and Electromechanical Parts for James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar A.; Jeffers, Basil S.

    2016-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the space-based observatory that will extend the knowledge gained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Hubble focuses on optical and ultraviolet wavelengths while JWST focuses on the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, to see the earliest stars and galaxies that formed in the Universe and to look deep into nearby dust clouds to study the formation of stars and planets. JWST, which commenced creation in 1996, is scheduled to launch in 2018. It includes a suite of four instruments, the spacecraft bus, optical telescope element, Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM, the platform to hold the instruments), and a sunshield. The mass of JWST is approximately 6200 kg, including observatory, on-orbit consumables and launch vehicle adaptor. Many challenges were overcome while providing the electrical and electronic components for the Goddard Space Flight Center hardware builds. Other difficulties encountered included developing components to work at cryogenic temperatures, failures of electronic components during development and flight builds, Integration and Test electronic parts problems, and managing technical issues with international partners. This paper will present the context of JWST from a EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) perspective with examples of challenges and lessons learned throughout the design, development, and fabrication of JWST in cooperation with our associated partners including the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA), Lockheed Martin and their respective associated partners. Technical challenges and lessons learned will be discussed.

  20. Hot Star Extension to the Hubble Space Telescope Stellar Spectral Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Islam; Worthey, Guy

    2017-01-01

    CCD spectra of 36 stars were obtained from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using three low resolution gratings - G230LB, G430L, and G750L, combined in processing to make single, continuous spectra from 0.2 to 1.0 micrometers. These spectra will be added to the Next Generation Stellar Library (NGSL) after completing the data analysis, reduction, and the required corrections. The stars include normal O-type stars, helium-burning stars, and post-asymptotic giant branch (PAGB) stars. Difficult steps in the data reduction process were removing the cosmic rays from the raw images and defringing of the G750L spectra using fringe flats. Most stars have detectable dust extinction. To aid in analysis, synthetic spectra were generated with various effective temperatures and surface gravities. A five parameter analytic model for the dust extinction correction was adopted. The parameters were varied in order to fit especially the ultraviolet portion of the observed and comparison synthetic spectra. Cross-correlation was used to bring the spectra to a common, final, zero velocity wavelength scale. Some star temperatures obtained from fitting synthetic versus observed spectra vary significantly from literature values. The dust extinction correction parameters also varied for several stars, mostly O stars, indicating variations in dust properties for different lines of sight. Analysis of scattered light effects showed that it was significant only for our two coolest stars.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant number HST-GO-14141 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. An Automated SVD for Alignment and Control of James Webb Space Telescope Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Sharam; Howard, Joseph M.; Aronstein, David L.; Ha, Kong; Smith, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a three-mirror anastigmatic telescope. The alignment of the segmented primary and secondary mirrors in the wavefront sensing and control process involves a series of actuators to control the six degrees-of-freedom motion on each surface in addition to the radius of curvature. The control matrix developed from the alignment parameters is over-determined and singular value decomposition (SVD) method is used to solve it in the least square sense. An automated SVD scheme has been developed to identify the most contributing modes in a typical alignment process and reduce the impact of error-prone modes from the control process.

  2. Nonlinear research of an image motion stabilization system embedded in a space land-survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somov, Yevgeny; Butyrin, Sergey; Siguerdidjane, Houria

    2017-01-01

    We consider an image motion stabilization system embedded into a space telescope for a scanning optoelectronic observation of terrestrial targets. Developed model of this system is presented taking into account physical hysteresis of piezo-ceramic driver and a time delay at a forming of digital control. We have presented elaborated algorithms for discrete filtering and digital control, obtained results on analysis of the image motion velocity oscillations in the telescope focal plane, and also methods for terrestrial and in-flight verification of the system.

  3. High Stability Low Scatter Telescope for a Space-based Gravitational Wave Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livas, Jeffrey; Sankar, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    A laser interferometer space-based gravitational wave observatory requires an optical telescope to efficiently transfer laser light between pairs of widely-separated sciencecraft. The application is precision interferometric metrology, and therefore requires the telescope to have high optical pathlength stability, and low scattered light performance. We discuss the expected on-orbit environment and present the latest design, including materials choice trades, surface roughness and cleanliness requirements, and an optical prescription optimized to reduce scattered light. We will also discuss some of the remaining system-level trades. This work is supported by NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant 14-SAT14-0014.

  4. Exploring the Extreme Universe with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.; Digel, Seth W.; Racusin, Judith L.

    2012-01-01

    In ways similar to experiments in nuclear and particle physics, high-energy astrophysics usesgamma rays and energetic charged particles toprobe processes that involve large energy transfers.Since its launch in 2008, the international Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has been exploringnatural particle accelerators and the interactionsof high-energy particles in the universe. Withsources ranging from thunderstorms on Earth to galaxies and exploding stars in distant parts of the cosmos, the telescopes subjects of study are almostas diverse as were those of the scientist whose name it bears.

  5. Free-space laser communication system with rapid acquisition based on astronomical telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianmin; Lv, Junyi; Zhao, Guang; Wang, Gang

    2015-08-10

    The general structure of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on astronomical telescopes is proposed. The light path for astronomical observation and for communication can be easily switched. A separate camera is used as a star sensor to determine the pointing direction of the optical terminal's antenna. The new system exhibits rapid acquisition and is widely applicable in various astronomical telescope systems and wavelengths. We present a detailed analysis of the acquisition time, which can be decreased by one order of magnitude compared with traditional optical communication systems. Furthermore, we verify software algorithms and tracking accuracy.

  6. Towards a Multi-Variable Parametric Cost Model for Ground and Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Parametric cost models can be used by designers and project managers to perform relative cost comparisons between major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades; enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment; and, provide a basis for estimating total project cost between related concepts. This paper hypothesizes a single model, based on published models and engineering intuition, for both ground and space telescopes: OTA Cost approximately (X) D(exp (1.75 +/- 0.05)) lambda(exp(-0.5 +/- 0.25) T(exp -0.25) e (exp (-0.04)Y). Specific findings include: space telescopes cost 50X to 100X more ground telescopes; diameter is the most important CER; cost is reduced by approximately 50% every 20 years (presumably because of technology advance and process improvements); and, for space telescopes, cost associated with wavelength performance is balanced by cost associated with operating temperature. Finally, duplication only reduces cost for the manufacture of identical systems (i.e. multiple aperture sparse arrays or interferometers). And, while duplication does reduce the cost of manufacturing the mirrors of segmented primary mirror, this cost savings does not appear to manifest itself in the final primary mirror assembly (presumably because the structure for a segmented mirror is more complicated than for a monolithic mirror).

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  8. Note: Silicon Carbide Telescope Dimensional Stability for Space-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuah, J.; Korytov, D.; Mueller, G.; Spannagel, R.; Braxmaier, C.; Preston, A.; Livas, J.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based gravitational wave detectors are conceived to detect gravitational waves in the low frequency range by measuring the distance between proof masses in spacecraft separated by millions of kilometers. One of the key elements is the telescope which has to have a dimensional stability better than 1 pm Hz(exp -1/2) at 3 mHz. In addition, the telescope structure must be light, strong, and stiff. For this reason a potential telescope structure consisting of a silicon carbide quadpod has been designed, constructed, and tested. We present dimensional stability results meeting the requirements at room temperature. Results at -60 C are also shown although the requirements are not met due to temperature fluctuations in the setup.

  9. Comparing Dawn, Hubble Space Telescope, and Ground-Based Interpretations of (4) Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Scully, Jennifer E C; Gaskell, Robert; Russell, Christopher T; Park, Ryan S; Nathues, Andreas; Raymond, Carol; Gaffey, Michael J; Sierks, Holger; Becker, Kris J; McFadden, Lucy A

    2013-01-01

    Observations of asteroid 4 Vesta by NASA's Dawn spacecraft are interesting because its surface has the largest range of albedo, color and composition of any other asteroid visited by spacecraft to date. These hemispherical and rotational variations in surface brightness and composition have been attributed to impact processes since Vesta's formation. Prior to Dawn's arrival at Vesta, its surface properties were the focus of intense telescopic investigations for nearly a hundred years. Ground-based photometric and spectroscopic observations first revealed these variations followed later by those using Hubble Space Telescope. Here we compare interpretations of Vesta's rotation period, pole, albedo, topographic, color, and compositional properties from ground-based telescopes and HST with those from Dawn. Rotational spectral variations observed from ground-based studies are also consistent with those observed by Dawn. While the interpretation of some of these features was tenuous from past data, the interpretati...

  10. Small-Scale Mechanical Characterization of Space-Exposed Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene Recovered from the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. S.; Sharon, J. A.; Mohammed, J.; Hemker, K. J.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-layer insulation panels from the Hubble Space Telescope have been recovered after 19.1 years of on-orbit service and micro-tensile experiments have been performed to characterize the effect of space exposure on the mechanical response of the outermost layer. This outer layer, 127 m thick fluorinated ethylene propylene with a 100 nm thick vapor deposited aluminum reflective coating, maintained significant tensile ductility but exhibited a degradation of strength that scales with severity of space exposure. This change in properties is attributed to damage from incident solar flux, atomic oxygen damage, and thermal cycling.

  11. AsteroidFinder - The Space-Borne Telescope to Search for NEO Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, M.; Mosebach, H.; Schubert, J.; Michaelis, H.; Mottola, S.; Kührt, E.; Schindler, K.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the mission profile as well as the optical configuration of the space-borne AsteroidFinder telescope. Its main objective is to retrieve asteroids with orbits interior to the earth's orbit. The instrument requires high sensitivity to detect asteroids with a limiting magnitude of equal or larger than 18.5mag (V-Band) and astrometric accuracy of 1arcsec (1σ). This requires a telescope aperture greater than 400cm2, high image stability, detector with high quantum efficiency (peak > 90%) and very low noise, which is only limited by zodiacal background. The telescope will observe the sky between 30° and 60° in solar elongation. The telescope optics is based on a Cook type TMA. An effective 2°×2° field of view (FOV) is achieved by a fast F/3.4 telescope with near diffraction-limited performance. The absence of centre obscuration or spiders in combination with an accessible intermediate field plane and exit pupil allow for efficient stray light mitigation. Design drivers for the telescope are the required point spread function (PSF) values, an extremely efficient stray light suppression (due to the magnitude requirement mentioned above), the detector performance, and the overall optical and mechanical stability for all orientations of the satellite. To accommodate the passive thermal stabilization scheme and the necessary structural stability, the materials selection for the telescope main structure and the mirrors are of vital importance. A focal plane with four EMCCD detectors is envisaged. The EMCCD technology features shorter integration times, which is in favor regarding the pointing performance of the satellite. The launch of the mission is foreseen for the year 2013 with a subsequent mission lifetime of at least 1 year.

  12. Mechanical cooler system for the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Keisuke; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Takao; Sato, Yoichi; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Toshihiko; Mizutani, Tadahito; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Okabayashi, Akinobu; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Shibai, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a pre-project of JAXA in collaboration with ESA to be launched in the 2020s. The SPICA mission is to be launched into a halo orbit around the second Lagrangian point in the Sun-Earth system, which allows us to use effective radiant cooling in combination with a mechanical cooling system in order to cool a 2.5m-class large IR telescope below 8K. Recently, a new system design in particular thermal structure of the payload module has been studied by considering the technical feasibility of a cryogenic cooled telescope within current constraints of the mission in the CDF (Concurrent Design Facility) study of ESA/ESTEC. Then, the thermal design of the mechanical cooler system, for which the Japanese side is responsible, has been examined based on the CDF study and the feasible solution giving a proper margin has been obtained. As a baseline, 4K / 1K-class Joule-Thomson coolers are used to cool the telescope and thermal interface for Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs). Additionally, two sets of double stirling coolers (2STs) are used to cool the Telescope shield. In this design, nominal operation of FPIs can be kept when one mechanical cooler is in failure.

  13. First results of functioning of the Ukraine-China Telescope Network on Space Debris Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, A. V.; Kozyrev, E. S.; Sibiryakova, E. S.; Koshkin, N. I.; Blagodyr, Ya. T.; Epishev, V. P.; Blagodyr, Ya. T.; Epishev, V. P.; Mao, Yi; Li, Y.; Chen, Zh.; Tang, Zh.

    2010-05-01

    Substantial growth of space debris (SD) on the near-Earth orbits is caused by increasing launch number of the Earth artificial satellites (EAS). Leading space countries assign considerable efforts and contributions for creation, maintenance and development of space control systems (SCS). Effective work of SCS is achieved by usage of radio and optical means based both on the ground and space. Control system of space environment (CSSE) developed by National Space Agency is working in Ukraine. CSSE provides space tracking of up to 300 objects and supplies information about them to customers. Usage of optical telescopes belonging to Ukrainian research institutes and universities of Ministry of Education and Science (MES) is a prospective way to enlarge number of information sources about the SD at low orbits (less than 2500 km) for CSSE. The network of the MES telescopes has a perspective in international cooperation in particular with People's Republic of China. Ukraine and China are members of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on Space Debris; and in accordance with the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly #61/11, they are responsible for collection and distribution of data on SD. This project is directed towards creation of the first Ukrainian-Chinese network of optical telescopes for observations of the SD on the low orbits. The telescopes are equipped with the short focus objectives and sensitive TV CCD Watec cameras. A list of telescope features, such as an institution name, telescope abbreviation, focal length, f-number, field of view are given below: 1) RI NAO, FRT, 85 mm, 1.8, 4.2° x 3.2°; 2) RI AOONU, KT-50, 250 mm, 2.5, 1.5° x 1.1°; 3) AOLNU, TPL1M, 250 mm, 2.5, 1.5° x 1.1°; 4) LSRUNU, TPL1M, 85 mm, 1.5, 4.2° x3.2°; 5) ShAO, TV,85 mm, 1.8, 4.2° x 3.2°. An original method of TV observations of the low orbit objects with a static telescope was tested at all the telescopes. This method was developed and successfully used in RI NAO in

  14. New Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Heavy Elements in Four Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Beers, Timothy C; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Ivans, Inese I; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Thompson, Ian B

    2012-01-01

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements hea...

  15. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER MOTION AND IMPLIED ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Besla, Gurtina [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Cosmology, University of California, 4129 Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Majewski, Steven R., E-mail: tsohn@stsci.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We present the first absolute proper motion measurement of Leo I, based on two epochs of Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC images separated by {approx}5 years in time. The average shift of Leo I stars with respect to {approx}100 background galaxies implies a proper motion of ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) = (0.1140 {+-} 0.0295, -0.1256 {+-} 0.0293) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied Galactocentric velocity vector, corrected for the reflex motion of the Sun, has radial and tangential components V{sub rad} = 167.9 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1} and V{sub tan} = 101.0 {+-} 34.4 km s{sup -1}, respectively. We study the detailed orbital history of Leo I by solving its equations of motion backward in time for a range of plausible mass models for the Milky Way (MW) and its surrounding galaxies. Leo I entered the MW virial radius 2.33 {+-} 0.21 Gyr ago, most likely on its first infall. It had a pericentric approach 1.05 {+-} 0.09 Gyr ago at a Galactocentric distance of 91 {+-} 36 kpc. We associate these timescales with characteristic timescales in Leo I's star formation history, which shows an enhanced star formation activity {approx}2 Gyr ago and quenching {approx}1 Gyr ago. There is no indication from our calculations that other galaxies have significantly influenced Leo I's orbit, although there is a small probability that it may have interacted with either Ursa Minor or Leo II within the last {approx}1 Gyr. For most plausible MW masses, the observed velocity implies that Leo I is bound to the MW. However, it may not be appropriate to include it in models of the MW satellite population that assume dynamical equilibrium, given its recent infall. Solution of the complete (non-radial) timing equations for the Leo I orbit implies an MW mass M{sub MW,vir} = 3.15{sub -1.36}{sup +1.58} x 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with the large uncertainty dominated by cosmic scatter. In a companion paper, we compare the new observations to the properties of Leo I subhalo analogs extracted from cosmological

  16. Creating the Thermal Environment for Safely Testing the James Webb Space Telescope at the Johnson Space Center's Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jonathan L.; Lauterbach, John; Garcia, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at the Johnson Space Center and is one of the largest space environment chambers in the world. The chamber is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 36.6 m (120 ft) tall and is equipped with cryogenic liquid nitrogen panels (shrouds) and gaseous helium shrouds to create a simulated space environment. The chamber was originally built to support testing of the Apollo Service and Command Module for lunar missions, but underwent major modifications to be able to test the James Webb Space Telescope in a simulated deep space environment. To date seven tests have been performed in preparation of testing the flight optics for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Each test has had a uniquie thermal profile and set of thermal requirements for cooling down and warming up, controlling contamination, and releasing condensed air. These range from temperatures from 335K to 15K, with tight uniformity and controllability for maintining thermal stability and pressure control. One unique requirement for two test was structurally proof loading hardware by creating thermal gradients at specific temperatures. This paper will discuss the thermal requirements and goals of the tests, the original requirements of the chamber thermal systems for planned operation, and how the new requirements were met by the team using the hardware, system flexiblilty, and engineering creativity. It will also discuss the mistakes and successes to meet the unique goals, especially when meeting the thermal proof load.

  17. The Space Telescope SI C&DH system. [Scientific Instrument Control and Data Handling Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadwal, Govind R.; Barasch, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Scientific Instrument Control and Data Handling Subsystem (SI C&DH) is designed to interface with five scientific instruments of the Space Telescope to provide ground and autonomous control and collect health and status information using the Standard Telemetry and Command Components (STACC) multiplex data bus. It also formats high throughput science data into packets. The packetized data is interleaved and Reed-Solomon encoded for error correction and Pseudo Random encoded. An inner convolutional coding with the outer Reed-Solomon coding provides excellent error correction capability. The subsystem is designed with the capacity for orbital replacement in order to meet a mission life of fifteen years. The spacecraft computer and the SI C&DH computer coordinate the activities of the spacecraft and the scientific instruments to achieve the mission objectives.

  18. Finding our Origins with the Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning a successor to the Hubble Space Telescope designed to study the origins of galaxies, stars, planets and life in the universe. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss the origin and evolution of galaxies, beginning with the Big Bang and tracing what we have learned with Hubble through to the present day. He will show that results from studies with Hubble have led to plans for its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Webb is scheduled to launch in 2014, and is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the distant past and to penetrate the dusty clouds of gas where stars are still forming today. He will compare Webb to Hubble, and discuss recent progress in the construction of the observatory.

  19. How Long Can the Hubble Space Telescope Operate Reliably? A Total Dose Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Jordan, T.; Poivey, C.; Haskins, D. N.; Lum, G.; Pergosky, A. M.; Smith, D. C.; LaBel, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has been at the forefront of discoveries in the field of astronomy for more than 20 years. It was the first telescope designed to be serviced in space and the last such servicing mission occurred in May 2009. The question of how much longer this valuable resource can continue to return science data remains. In this paper a detailed analysis of the total dose exposure of electronic parts at the box level is performed using solid angle sectoring/3-dimensional ray trace and Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations. Results are related to parts that have been proposed as possible total dose concerns. The spacecraft subsystem that appears to be at the greatest risk for total dose failure is identified. This is discussed with perspective on the overall lifetime of the spacecraft.

  20. Sensitivity of the space-based CHerenkov from Astrophysical Neutrinos Telescope (CHANT)

    CERN Document Server

    Neronov, A; Anchordoqui, L A; Adams, J; Olinto, A V

    2016-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies in the PeV to EeV range produce upgoing extensive air showers when they interact underground close enough to the surface of the Earth. We study the possibility for detection of such showers with a system of very wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, named CHANT for CHerenkov from Astrophysical Neutrinos Telescope, pointing down to a strip below the Earth's horizon from space. We find that CHANT provides sufficient sensitivity for the study of the astrophysical neutrino flux in a wide energy range, from 10~PeV to 10~EeV. A space-based CHANT system can discover and study in detail the cosmogenic neutrino flux originating from interactions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium.

  1. Sensitivity of a proposed space-based Cherenkov astrophysical-neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neronov, Andrii; Semikoz, Dmitri V.; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Adams, James H.; Olinto, Angela V.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies in the PeV to EeV range produce upgoing extensive air showers when they interact underground close enough to the surface of the Earth. We study the possibility for detection of such showers with a system of very wide field-of-view imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, named CHANT (Cherenkov from astrophysical neutrinos telescope), pointing down to a strip below the Earth's horizon from space. We find that CHANT provides sufficient sensitivity for the study of the astrophysical neutrino flux in a wide energy range, from 10 PeV to 10 EeV. A space-based CHANT system can discover and study in detail the cosmogenic neutrino flux originating from interactions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium.

  2. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Simulation Testbed II. Design of a Three-Lens Anastigmat Telescope Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet, Élodie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Perrin, Marshall D; Soummer, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to reproduce the main aspects of wavefront sensing and control (WFSC) for JWST. To replicate the key optical physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) design at optical wavelengths we have developed a three-lens anastigmat optical system. This design uses custom lenses (plano-convex, plano-concave, and bi-convex) with fourth-order aspheric terms on powered surfaces to deliver the equivalent image quality and sampling of JWST NIRCam at the WFSC wavelength (633~nm, versus JWST's 2.12~micron). For active control, in addition to the segmented primary mirror simulator, JOST reproduces the secondary mirror alignment modes with five degrees of freedom. We present the testbed requirements and its optical and optomechanical design. We study the linearity of the main aberration modes (focus, astigmatism, coma) both as a function of field point and level of misalignments of the secondary mirror. We find that t...

  3. Characterization of exoplanet atmospheres using future space-based infrared telescopes: challenges in detecting biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enya, Keigo

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of exoplanet atmospheres with space-based infrared telescopes is important to detect biomarkers. A promising method is temporary differential observation. For this method, designs of a wideband infrared spectral disperser are presented. A design using a CdTe prism simultaneously covers λ=1-30 μm. Designing binary pupil masks for segmented pupils to be used in spatially resolved observations are also shown for another observational method.

  4. Active correction of aperture discontinuities (ACAD) for space telescope pupils: a parametic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shaklan, Stuart; Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; Choquet, Élodie; Carlotti, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    As the performance of coronagraphs improves, the achievable contrast is more and more dependent of the shape of the pupil. The future generation of space and ground based coronagraphic instruments will have to achieve high contrast levels on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes. To correct for the high amplitude aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror, we explore a two deformable mirror (DM) method. The major difficulty of several DM methods...

  5. Evidence for Type Ia Supernova Diversity from Ultraviolet Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lifan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Baron, Eddie; Kromer, Markus; Jack, Dennis; Zhang, Tianmeng,; Aldering, Greg; Antilogus, Pierre; Arnett, David; Baade, Dietrich; Barris, Brian J.; Benetti, Stefano; Bouchet, Patrice; Burrows, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    We present ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M, and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. This dataset provides unique spectral time series down to 2000 Angstrom. Significant diversity is seen in the near maximum-light spectra (~ 2000--3500 Angstrom) for this small sample. The corresponding photometric data, together with archival data from Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Te...

  6. A deployment mechanism for the double roll-out flexible solar array on the space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawsey, T. R.

    1982-01-01

    A roll-out flexible array which provides more than 4 kW of power for the space telescope was developed. The Array is configured as two wings. The deployment mechanism for each wing is based on flight-proven FRUSA design. Modifications have been incorporated to accommodate an increase in size and mission requirements. The assembly and operation of the deployment mechanism are described together with environmental and functional tests results.

  7. Photometry using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Joseph L; Surace, Jason; Marengo, Massimo; Lowrance, Patrick; Glaccum, William J; Lacy, Mark; Reach, William T; Hoffmann, William F; Barmby, Pauline; Willner, S P; Fazio, Giovanni G; Megeath, S Thomas; Allen, Lori E; Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Quijada, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We present several corrections for point source photometry to be applied to data from the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These corrections are necessary because of characteristics of the IRAC arrays and optics and the way the instrument is calibrated in-flight. When these corrections are applied, it is possible to achieve a ~2% relative photometric accuracy for sources of adequate signal to noise in an IRAC image.

  8. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  9. The design, fabrication and delivery of a manipulator foot restraint mockup for space telescope development testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) is a subsystem of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) which plays a major role in servicing the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in orbit. Flight drawings were used to construct the MFR to guarantee that the mockup components were functionally equivalent to the flight MFR. Material surface finishes and tolerances that were compatible to the Neutral Buoyance Simulator (NBS) environment were used. Recommendation for improvements are discussed.

  10. Technicians complete assembly of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A technician listens to instructions as he operates the controls for the overhead crane that is lifting one of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) high gain antennas (HGAs) into place on the HST Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. Others in a cherry picker basket wait to install the HGA on the SSM mockup. The HST mockup will be used for astronaut training and is being assembled in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  11. Matlab based Toolkits used to Interface with Optical Design Software for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation provides an introduction to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first part provides a brief overview of Matlab toolkits including CodeV, OSLO, and Zemax Toolkits. The toolkit overview examines purpose, layout, how Matlab gets data from CodeV, function layout, and using cvHELP. The second part provides examples of use with JWST, including wavefront sensitivities and alignment simulations.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of the Expanding Nebular Remnant of the 2006 Outburst of RS Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, D J; Darnley, M J; O'Brien, T J; Bond, H E; Starrfield, S; Evans, A; Eyres, S P S; Ribeiro, V A R M; Echevarria, J M

    2008-01-01

    We report {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} imaging obtained 155 days and 449 days after the 2006 outburst of RS Ophiuchi. Both epochs show evidence of extended emission, consistent with that seen in earlier radio observations, and a maximum expansion rate of $3200\\pm300$ km s$^{-1}$ (in the plane of the sky). The extended structure is consistent with the remnant having a bipolar morphology with an inclination similar to that determined for the binary.

  13. From Flapping Birds to Space Telescopes: The Modern Science of Origami (BNL Women in Science Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Robert J

    2010-06-24

    During the 1990s, the development and application of mathematical techniques to origami revolutionized this centuries-old Japanese art of paper folding. In his talk, Lang will describe how geometric concepts led to the solution of a broad class of origami-folding problems. Conversely, algorithms and theorems of origami design have shed light on long-standing mathematical questions and have solved practical engineering problems. Lang will discuss how origami has led to huge space telescopes, safer airbags, and more.

  14. Deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging of IC 1613. II. The star formation history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skillman, ED; Tolstoy, E; Cole, AA; Dolphin, AE; Saha, A; Gallagher, JS; Dohm-Palmer, RC; Mateo, M

    2003-01-01

    We have taken deep images of an outlying field in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 with the WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the standard broadband F555W (V, 8 orbits) and F814W (I,16 orbits) filters. The photometry reaches to V=27.7 (M-V=+3.4) and I=27.1 (M-I=+2.8) at the 50

  15. Ground-based gamma-ray telescopes as ground stations in deep-space lasercom

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Vergaz, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of information to be transmitted from deep-space rapidly increases, the radiofrequency technology has become a bottleneck in space communications. RF is already limiting the scientific outcome of deep-space missions and could be a significant obstacle in the developing of manned missions. Lasercom holds the promise to solve this problem, as it will considerably increase the data rate while decreasing the energy, mass and volume of onboard communication systems. In RF deep-space communications, where the received power is the main limitation, the traditional approach to boost the data throughput has been increasing the receiver's aperture, e.g. the 70-m antennas in the NASA's Deep Space Network. Optical communications also can benefit from this strategy, thus 10-m class telescopes have typically been suggested to support future deep-space links. However, the cost of big telescopes increase exponentially with their aperture, and new ideas are needed to optimize this ratio. Here, the use of ground-...

  16. Standardization of XML Database Exchanges and the James Webb Space Telescope Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Detter, Ryan; Jones, Ron; Fatig, Curtis C.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project have been working with various standard communities such the Object Management Group (OMG) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) to assist in the definition of a common extensible Markup Language (XML) for database exchange format. The CCSDS and OMG standards are intended for the exchange of core command and telemetry information, not for all database information needed to exercise a NASA space mission. The mission-specific database, containing all the information needed for a space mission, is translated from/to the standard using a translator. The standard is meant to provide a system that encompasses 90% of the information needed for command and telemetry processing. This paper will discuss standardization of the XML database exchange format, tools used, and the JWST experience, as well as future work with XML standard groups both commercial and government.

  17. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the univerre, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the Jarnes Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where rtars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  18. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA s Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein s biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA s plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  19. An in-orbit Thermal Design of Optical Window in Space Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R.; Zhang, H. Y.

    2016-09-01

    The complex space environment will influence the space solar telescope during its in-orbit operation, and the imaging quality of optical system which behind the telescope will be affected directly by the temperature change of the optical window. The purpose of the thermal design is to ensure that all the parts of the optical window keep their temperature in a normal range, what is more, is able to keep the telescope in the working condition rapidly and complete the operation of the whole cycle after the earth shadow is ended. In order to obtain the temperature distribution and the variation tendency of the window under the space thermal load in the whole cycle, steady state simulation analysis and transient state simulation analysis of the window with and without heating during the earth shadow are needed. A good thermal control result is obtained via comparing the two kinds of transient state simulation analysis results of the temperature distribution, and the appropriate thermal control measures are applied to the window.

  20. Image processing improvement for optical observations of space debris with the TAROT telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, C.; Theron, S.; Richard, P.; Blanchet, G.; Klotz, A.; Boër, M.

    2016-07-01

    CNES is involved in the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and is observing space debris with two robotic ground based fully automated telescopes called TAROT and operated by the CNRS. An image processing algorithm devoted to debris detection in geostationary orbit is implemented in the standard pipeline. Nevertheless, this algorithm is unable to deal with debris tracking mode images, this mode being the preferred one for debris detectability. We present an algorithm improvement for this mode and give results in terms of false detection rate.

  1. Perkinelmer Lamda 950 Measurements in Support of Nasa's Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    We present visible spectroscopy measurements using the PerkinElmer Lambda 950 grating monochromator in support of two projects at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The first and primary project to be discussed is the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 as an upgrade to the Hubble Space Telescope. Numerous optical filters were measured in the visible and near-infrared regions to experimentally vet the theoretical prediction upon which the filters were engineered. The second topic of our presentation will cover the measurement of SNAP prototype filters from three venders (ASAHI, BARR and JDSU) with applications towards NASAs the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM).

  2. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  3. A Novel Lateral Deployment Mechanism for Segmented Mirror/Solar Panel of Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesiya, Dignesh; Srinivas, A. R.; Shukla, Piyush

    2015-09-01

    Space telescopes require large aperture primary mirrors to capture High Definition (HD) ground image while orbiting around the Earth. Fairing Volume of launch vehicles is limited and thus the size of monolithic mirror is limited to fairing size and solar panels are arranged within a petal formation in order to provide a greater power to volume ratio. This generates need for deployable mirrors for space use. This brings out a method for designing new deployment mechanism for segmented mirror. Details of mechanism folding strategy, design of components, FE simulations, realization and Lab model validation results are discussed in order to demonstrate the design using prototype.

  4. Detection Performance of Upgraded "Polished Panel" Optical Receiver Concept on the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Research Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a "polished panel" optical receiver concept on the 34 meter research antenna of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been the subject of recent papers. This concept would enable simultaneous reception of optical and microwave signals by retaining the original shape of the main reflector for microwave reception, but with the aluminum panels polished to high reflectivity to enable focusing of optical signal energy as well. A test setup has been installed on the DSN's 34 meter research antenna at Deep Space Station 13 (DSS-13) of NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex in California, and preliminary experimental results have been obtained. This paper describes the results of our latest efforts to improve the point-spread function (PSF) generated by a custom polished panel, in an attempt to reduce the dimensions of the PSF, thus enabling more precise tracking and improved detection performance. The design of the new mechanical support structure and its operation are described, and the results quantified in terms of improvements in collected signal energy and optical communications performance, based on data obtained while tracking the planet Jupiter with the 34 meter research antenna at DSS-13.

  5. Detection Performance of Upgraded "Polished Panel" Optical Receiver Concept on the Deep-Space Network's 34 Meter Research Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a "polished panel" optical receiver concept on the 34 meter research antenna of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been the subject of recent papers. This concept would enable simultaneous reception of optical and microwave signals by retaining the original shape of the main reflector for microwave reception, but with the aluminum panels polished to high reflectivity to enable focusing of optical signal energy as well. A test setup has been installed on the DSN's 34 meter research antenna at Deep Space Station 13 (DSS-13) of NASA's Goldstone Communications Complex in California, and preliminary experimental results have been obtained. This paper describes the results of our latest efforts to improve the point-spread function (PSF) generated by a custom polished panel, in an attempt to reduce the dimensions of the PSF, thus enabling more precise tracking and improved detection performance. The design of the new mechanical support structure and its operation are described, and the results quantified in terms of improvements in collected signal energy and optical communications performance, based on data obtained while tracking the planet Jupiter with the 34 meter research antenna at DSS-13.

  6. Space telescope design to directly image the habitable zone of Alpha Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Bendek, Eduardo; Lozi, Julien; Thomas, Sandrine; Males, Jared; Weston, Sasha; McElwain, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The scientific interest in directly image and identifying Earth-like planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) around nearby stars is driving the design of specialized direct imaging mission such as ACESAT, EXO-C, EXO-S and AFTA-C. The inner edge of Alpha Cen A and B Habitable Zone is found at exceptionally large angular separations of 0.7 and 0.4 arcseconds respectively. This enables direct imaging of the system with a 0.3m class telescope. Contrast ratios in the order of 1e-10 are needed to image Earth-brightness planets. Low-resolution (5-band) spectra of all planets, will allow establishing the presence and amount of an atmosphere. This star system configuration is optimal for a specialized small, and stable space telescope, that can achieve high-contrast but has limited resolution. This paper describes an innovative instrument design and a mission concept based on a full Silicon Carbide off-axis telescope, which has a Phase Induce Amplitude Apodization coronagraph embedded in the telescope. This architectur...

  7. STS 31 PAYLOAD HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ENCLOSED IN AN AIR-TIGHT PLASTIC BAG FOR PROTECTION IN VERTICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Preparations are made to enclose the Hubble Space Telescope [HST] inside an air-tight plastic bag in the VPF. Processing of the 94- inch primary mirror telescope for launch on the Discovery in March 1990, involves working within strict controls to prevent contamination.

  8. The development and mission of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, David B.; Irace, William R.; Werner, Michael W.

    2004-10-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) was successfully launched on August 25, 2003. SIRTF is an observatory for infrared astronomy from space. It has an 85cm diameter beryllium telescope operating at 5.5 K and a projected cryogenic lifetime of 4 to 6 years based on early flight performance. SIRTF has completed its in-orbit checkout and has become the first mission to execute astronomical observations from a solar orbit. SIRTF's three instruments with state of the art detector arrays provide imaging, photometry, and spectroscopy over the 3-180 micron wavelength range. SIRTF is achieving major advances in the study of astrophysical phenomena from the solar system to the edge of the Universe. SIRTF completes NASA's family of Great Observatories and serves as a cornerstone of the Origins program. Over 75% of the observing time will be awarded to the general scientific community through the usual proposal and peer review cycle. SIRTF has demonstrated major advances in technology areas critical to future infrared missions. These include lightweight cryogenic optics, sensitive detector arrays, and a high performance thermal system, combining radiative and cryogenic cooling, which allows a telescope to be launched warm and to be cooled in space. These thermal advances are enabled by the use of an Earth-trailing solar orbit which will carry SIRTF to a distance of ~0.6 AU from Earth in 5 years. The SIRTF project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory which employs a novel JPL-industry team management approach. This paper provides an overview of the SIRTF mission, telescope, cryostat, instruments, spacecraft, orbit, operations and project management approach; and this paper serves as an introduction to the accompanying set of detailed papers about specific aspects of SIRTF.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Constraints on the Winds and Astrospheres of Red Giant Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian E.; Müller, Hans-Reinhard; Harper, Graham M.

    2016-10-01

    We report on an ultraviolet spectroscopic survey of red giants observed by the Hubble Space Telescope, focusing on spectra of the Mg ii h and k lines near 2800 Å in order to study stellar chromospheric emission, winds, and astrospheric absorption. We focus on spectral types between K2 III and M5 III, a spectral type range with stars that are noncoronal, but possessing strong, chromospheric winds. We find a very tight relation between Mg ii surface flux and photospheric temperature, supporting the notion that all K2-M5 III stars are emitting at a basal flux level. Wind velocities (V w ) are generally found to decrease with spectral type, with V w decreasing from ˜40 km s-1 at K2 III to ˜20 km s-1 at M5 III. We find two new detections of astrospheric absorption, for σ Pup (K5 III) and γ Eri (M1 III). This absorption signature had previously only been detected for α Tau (K5 III). For the three astrospheric detections, the temperature of the wind after the termination shock (TS) correlates with V w , but is lower than predicted by the Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions, consistent with the idea that red giant TSs are radiative shocks rather than simple hydrodynamic shocks. A full hydrodynamic simulation of the γ Eri astrosphere is provided to explore this further. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-13462. This paper also presents observations obtained with the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  10. Combining Social Media with Innovative Ways of Communicating about the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.

  11. Preparing the Public for the James Webb Space Telescope and its Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; Smith, Denise A.; Meinke, Bonnie K.; Jirdeh, Hussein; Office of Public Outreach

    2016-10-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. The challenges in ensuring the high profile of JWST (understanding the infrared, the vast distance to the telescope's final position, and the unfamiliar science territory) requires us to lay the proper background. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing outreach programs: for example, simulated, scientifically-inspired but aesthetic JWST scenes (illustrating the differences between JWST and previous missions); partnering with high impact science communicators such as MinutePhysics to produce timely and concise content; incorporating JWST science into activities at large scale events. JWST has unique observational capabilities that optimize its ability ot study the Solar System: monitoring weather, tracking and measuring dusty objects, collaborative parallax observations with other observatories, and more. We discuss some of the ways we engage the public on these concepts.

  12. James Webb Space Telescope optical simulation testbed III: first experimental results with linear-control alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, Sylvain; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Leboulleux, Lucie; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Pueyo, Laurent; Choquet, Élodie; Perrin, Marshall D.; Ygouf, Marie; Michau, Vincent; Bonnefois, Aurélie; Fusco, Thierry; Escolle, Clément; Ferrari, Marc; Hugot, Emmanuel; Soummer, Rémi

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Optical Simulation Testbed (JOST) is a tabletop experiment designed to study wavefront sensing and control for a segmented space telescope, including both commissioning and maintenance activities. JOST is complementary to existing testbeds for JWST (e.g. the Ball Aerospace Testbed Telescope TBT) given its compact scale and flexibility, ease of use, and colocation at the JWST Science and Operations Center. The design of JOST reproduces the physics of JWST's three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) using three custom aspheric lenses. It provides similar quality image as JWST (80% Strehl ratio) over a field equivalent to a NIRCam module, but at 633 nm. An Iris AO segmented mirror stands for the segmented primary mirror of JWST. Actuators allow us to control (1) the 18 segments of the segmented mirror in piston, tip, tilt and (2) the second lens, which stands for the secondary mirror, in tip, tilt and x, y, z positions. We present the full linear control alignment infrastructure developed for JOST, with an emphasis on multi-field wavefront sensing and control. Our implementation of the Wavefront Sensing (WFS) algorithms using phase diversity is experimentally tested. The wavefront control (WFC) algorithms, which rely on a linear model for optical aberrations induced by small misalignments of the three lenses, are tested and validated on simulations.

  13. Cost Effective Space Science Telescopes for Astrophysics Mission in the Upcoming Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Astrophysics programs are dealing with an exciting but challenging dichotomy. On one hand, there has been and will continue to be countless advances in scientific discovery, but on the other the astronomical community is faced with what unfortunately is considered by many to be an insurmountable budgetary impasse for the foreseeable future. The National Academy of Sciences’ Astro2010: Decadal Survey was faced with the difficult challenge of prioritizing sciences and missions for the upcoming decade while still allowing room for new, yet to be discovered opportunities to receive funding. To this end, we propose the consideration of a paradigm shift to the astronomical community that may enable more cost efficient space-based telescope missions to be funded and still provide a high science return per dollar invested. The discussion will provide high level parameters that drive cost and complexity of a telescope system in order to help guide potential PI's in the early concept development for future missions.

  14. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, on Behalf of the Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays can be produced by processes that also produce neutrinos, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi (Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of potential targets for neutrino observations. Gamma-ray bursts. Active Galactic Nuclei, and supernova remnants are all sites where hadronic, neutrino-producing interactions are plausible. Pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and binary sources are all phenomena that reveal leptonic particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. While important to gamma-ray astrophysics, such sources are of less interest to neutrino studies. This talk will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT)on the Fermi spacecraft.

  15. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope: Highlights of the GeV Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomspon, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays can be produced by processes that also produce neutrinos. the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of potenl ial targds for neutrino observations. Gamma-ray bursts. active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants are all sites where hadronic, neutrino-producing interactions are plausible. Pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and binary sources are all phenomena that reveal leptonic particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. \\Vhile important to gamma-ray astrophysics. such sources are of less interest to neutrino studies. This talk will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  16. The James Webb Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam): Making Models, Building Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2011-09-01

    Since 2003, the Near Infrared Camear (NIRCam) science team for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has conducted "Train the Trainer" workshops for adult leaders of the Girl Scout of the USA (GSUSA), engaging them in the process of scientific inquiry and equipping them to host astronomy-related activities at the troop level. Training includes topics in basic astronomy (night sky, phases of the Moon, the scale of the Solar System and beyond, stars, galaxies, telescopes, etc.) as well as JWST-specific research areas in extra-solar planetary systems and cosmology, to pave the way for girls and women to understand the first images from JWST. Participants become part of our world-wide network of 160 trainers teaching young women essential STEM-related concepts using astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, engineering, and critical thinking.

  17. NEW HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN FOUR METAL-POOR STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Thompson, Ian B. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lawler, James E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sobeck, Jennifer S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schatz, Hendrik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Elements heavier than the iron group are found in nearly all halo stars. A substantial number of these elements, key to understanding neutron-capture nucleosynthesis mechanisms, can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We report the results of an observing campaign using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope to study the detailed heavy-element abundance patterns in four metal-poor stars. We derive abundances or upper limits from 27 absorption lines of 15 elements produced by neutron-capture reactions, including seven elements (germanium, cadmium, tellurium, lutetium, osmium, platinum, and gold) that can only be detected in the near-ultraviolet. We also examine 202 heavy-element absorption lines in ground-based optical spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle Spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory and the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer on the Keck I Telescope on Mauna Kea. We have detected up to 34 elements heavier than zinc. The bulk of the heavy elements in these four stars are produced by r-process nucleosynthesis. These observations affirm earlier results suggesting that the tellurium found in metal-poor halo stars with moderate amounts of r-process material scales with the rare earth and third r-process peak elements. Cadmium often follows the abundances of the neighboring elements palladium and silver. We identify several sources of systematic uncertainty that must be considered when comparing these abundances with theoretical predictions. We also present new isotope shift and hyperfine structure component patterns for Lu II and Pb I lines of astrophysical interest.

  18. Technology Development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a Candidate Large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10?10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing & control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 µm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  19. The universe in a mirror the saga of the Hubble Space Telescope and the visionaries who built it

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has produced the most stunning images of the cosmos humanity has ever seen. It has transformed our understanding of the universe around us, revealing new information about its age and evolution, the life cycle of stars, and the very existence of black holes, among other startling discoveries. But it took an amazing amount of work and perseverance to get the first space telescope up and running. The Universe in a Mirror tells the story of this telescope and the visionaries responsible for its extraordinary accomplishments. Robert Zimmerman takes readers beh

  20. Deep UV to NIR Space Telescopes and Exoplanet Coronagraphs: A Trade Study on Throughput, Polarization, Mirror Coating Options and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Shaklan, Stuart; Give'on, Amir; Cady, Eric; Marchen, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Exoplanet program and the Cosmic Origins program are exploring technical options to combine the visible to NIR performance requirements of a space coronagraph with the general astrophysics requirements of a space telescope covering the deep UV spectrum. Are there compatible options in terms of mirror coatings and telescope architecture to satisfy both goals? In this paper, we address some of the main concerns, particularly relating to polarization in the visible and throughput in the UV. Telescope architectures employing different coating options compatible with current technology are considered in this trade study.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of the "Polished Panel Optical Receiver" Concept on the Deep Space Network's 34 Meter Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential development of large aperture ground-based "photon bucket" optical receivers for deep space communications has received considerable attention recently. One approach currently under investigation proposes to polish the aluminum reflector panels of 34-meter microwave antennas to high reflectance, and accept the relatively large spotsize generated by even state-of-the-art polished aluminum panels. Here we describe the experimental effort currently underway at the Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Communications Complex in California, to test and verify these concepts in a realistic operational environment. A custom designed aluminum panel has been mounted on the 34 meter research antenna at Deep-Space Station 13 (DSS-13), and a remotely controlled CCD camera with a large CCD sensor in a weather-proof container has been installed next to the subreflector, pointed directly at the custom polished panel. Using the planet Jupiter as the optical point-source, the point-spread function (PSF) generated by the polished panel has been characterized, the array data processed to determine the center of the intensity distribution, and expected communications performance of the proposed polished panel optical receiver has been evaluated.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Bright CEMP-s Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan; Imig, Julie A.; Roederer, Ian U.; Abate, Carlo; Hansen, Terese; Cowan, John J.; Frebel, Anna; Lawler, James E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Aoki, Wako; Smith, Verne V.; Bolte, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the bright carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars HD 196944 (V=8.40, [Fe/H] = -2.41) and HD 201626 (V=8.16, [Fe/H] = -1.51), based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Both of these stars belong to the sub-class CEMP-s, and exhibit clear over-abundances of heavy elements associated with production by the slow neutron-capture process. HD 196944 has been well-studied in the optical region, but we add abundance results for six species (Ge, Nb, Mo, Lu, Pt, and Au) that are only accessible in the NUV. In addition, we provide the first determination of its orbital period, P = 1325 days. HD 201626 has only a limited number of abundance results based on previous optical work—here we add five new species from the NUV, including Pb. We compare these results with models of binary-system evolution and s-process element production in stars on the asymptotic giant branch, with the goal of explaining their origin and evolution. Our best-fitting models for HD 196944 ({M}1,i=0.9{M}⊙ , {M}2,i=0.86{M}⊙ , for [Fe/H] = -2.2), and HD 201626 ({M}1,i=0.9{M}⊙ , {M}2,i=0.76{M}⊙ , for [Fe/H] = -2.2; {M}1,i=1.6{M}⊙ , {M}2,i=0.59{M}⊙ , for [Fe/H] = -1.5) are consistent with the current accepted scenario for the formation of CEMP-s stars. The data presented herein were obtained with the (i) NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. (These observations are associated with program GO-12554, data sets OBQ601010-30 and OBQ602010-30.); and (ii) W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (The Observatory was made

  4. A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high-energy x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; WESTERGAARD, NJ

    1992-01-01

    A high energy telescope design is presented which combines grazing incidence geometry with Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multilayer coating to obtain significant sensitivity up to --6O keV. The concept utilizes total reflection and first order Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing...... multilayer structure in a way that higher energies are reflected from the deepest layers in the stack. The specific design presented in this paper is based on Ni/C and Mo/C structures with dspacings ranging from 25A to 100 A. X-ray reflectivity data obtained with Cu Kc1 (8. 05 keV) are presented from...... the first graded d-spacing structures of this kind....

  5. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, K. M.; Simonnet, A.; Fermi E/PO Team

    2013-04-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission’s science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: ● Higher Education: Fermi E/PO promotes STEM careers through the use of NASA data including research experiences for students and teachers (Global Telescope Network), education through STEM curriculum development projects (Cosmology curriculum) and through enrichment activities (Large Area Telescope simulator). ● Elementary and Secondary education: Fermi E/PO links the science objectives of the Fermi mission to well-tested, customer-focused and NASA-approved standards-aligned classroom materials (Black Hole Resources, Active Galaxy Education Unit and Pop-up book, TOPS guides, Supernova Education Unit). These materials have been distributed through (Educator Ambassador and on-line) teacher training workshops and through programs involving under-represented students (after-school clubs and Astro 4 Girls). ● Informal education and public outreach: Fermi E/PO engages the public in sharing the experience of exploration and discovery through high-leverage multi-media experiences (Black Holes planetarium and PBS NOVA shows), through popular websites (Gamma-ray Burst Skymap, Epo's Chronicles), social media (Facebook, MySpace), interactive web-based activities (Space Mysteries, Einstein@Home) and activities by

  6. Active correction of aperture discontinuities (ACAD) for space telescope pupils: a parametic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; Choquet, Élodie; Carlotti, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    As the performance of coronagraphs improves, the achievable contrast is more and more dependent of the shape of the pupil. The future generation of space and ground based coronagraphic instruments will have to achieve high contrast levels on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes. To correct for the high amplitude aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror, we explore a two deformable mirror (DM) method. The major difficulty of several DM methods is the non-linear relation linking actuator strokes to the point spread function in the coronagraph focal plane. The Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) method is achieving this minimization by solving a non linear differential Monge Ampere equation. Once this open loop method have reached the minimum, a close-loop stroke minimization method can be applied to correct for phase and amplitude aberrations to achieve the ultimate contrast. In this paper, I describe the results of the parametric analysis that that I have undertaken on this method. After recalling the principle of the method, I will described the explored parameter space (deformable mirror set-up, shape of the pupil, bandwidth, coronagraph designs). I will precisely described the way I simulated the Vortex coronagraph for this numerical simulation. Finally I will present the preliminary results of this parametric analysis for space telescope pupils only.

  7. Proper Motion of the Leo II Dwarf Galaxy Based On Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Piatek, Slawomir; Olszewski, Edward W

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a measurement of the proper motion of Leo II, a dwarf galaxy that is a likely satellite of the Milky Way, based on imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope and Wide Field Camera 3. The measurement uses compact background galaxies as standards of rest in both channels of the camera for two distinct pointings of the telescope and a QSO in one channel for each pointing, resulting in the weighted average of six measurements. The measured proper motion in the the equatorial coordinate system is (mu_alpha, mu_delta) = (-6.9 +- 3.7, -8.7 +- 3.9) mas/century and in the Galactic coordinate system is (mu_l, mu_b) = (6.2 +- 3.9, -9.2 +- 3.7) mas/century. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Pi, Theta, Z) = (-37 +- 38, 117 +- 43, 40 +- 16) km/s or, expressed in Galactocentric radial and tangential components, (V_r, V_tan) = (21.9 +- 1.5, 127 +- 42) km/s. The space velocity implies that the instantaneous orbital inclination is 68 degrees, with a 95% confidence interval of ...

  8. From Single Pixels to Many Megapixels: Progress in Astronomical Infrared Imaging from Space-borne Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipher, Judith

    2017-01-01

    In the 1960s, rocket infrared astronomy was in its infancy. The Cornell group planned a succession of rocket launches of a small cryogenically cooled telescope above much of the atmosphere. Cornell graduate students were tasked with hand-making single pixel detectors for the focal plane at wavelengths ranging from ~5 microns to just short of 1 mm. “Images” could only be constructed from scans of objects such as HII regions/giant molecular clouds, the galactic center, and of diffuse radiation from the various IR backgrounds. IRAS and COBE, followed by the KAO utilized ever more sensitive single IR detectors, and revolutionized our understanding of the Universe. The first IR arrays came onto the scene in the early 1970s - and in 1983 several experiments for the space mission SIRTF (later named Spitzer Space Telescope following launch 20 years later) were selected, all boasting (relatively small) arrays. Europe’s ISO and Herschel also employed arrays to good advantage, as has SOFIA, and now, many-megapixel IR arrays are sufficiently well-developed for upcoming space missions.

  9. Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Engineering Model Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, D J; Williams, S; Grove, J E; Mizuno, T; Sadrozinski, H F W

    2002-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-production high-energy (>20 MeV) gamma-ray telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006, designed to study a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. As part of the development effort, the collaboration has built a Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) for flight on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The BFEM is approximately the size of one of the 16 GLAST-LAT towers and contains all the components of the full instrument: plastic scintillator anticoincidence system (ACD), high-Z foil/Si strip pair-conversion tracker (TKR), CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), triggering and data acquisition electronics (DAQ), commanding system, power distribution, telemetry, real-time data display, and ground data processing system. The principal goal of the balloon flight was to demonstrate the performance of this instrument configuration under c...

  10. The Extreme Ultraviolet Imagers (EUVIs): Earth-observing telescopes on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uji, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Murakami, Go; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2012-11-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Imagers (EUVIs) were launched on 21st July 2012 as payloads to the Exposed Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF) on the International Space Station. The EUVIs are parts of the IMAP (Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere, and Plasmasphere mapping) mission to observe the Earth's upper atmosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and plasmasphere. The other part of IMAP is a visible and near-infrared spectral imager (VISI). In this mission, we install two independent and identical telescopes. One telescope detects the terrestrial EUV emission from O+ (at the wavelength of 83.4 nm), and the other one detects He+ (30.4 nm). At the altitude of approximately 400 km, the two telescopes direct towards the Earth's limb to look at the ionosphere and plasmasphere from the inside-out. The maximum spatial resolution is 0.1° and time resolution is 1 minute. The optical instruments consist of multilayer coated mirrors which are optimized for 30.4 nm, metallic thin filters and 5-stage microchannel plates to pick up photon events efficiently. In our presentation, we report the mission overview, the instruments and the result of ground calibrations.

  11. Transient internally driven aurora at Jupiter discovered by Hisaki and the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Badman, S. V.; Tao, C.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Bonfond, B.; Steffl, A. J.; Masters, A.; Kasahara, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.; Clarke, J. T.

    2015-03-01

    Jupiter's auroral emissions reveal energy transport and dissipation through the planet's giant magnetosphere. While the main auroral emission is internally driven by planetary rotation in the steady state, transient brightenings are generally thought to be triggered by compression by the external solar wind. Here we present evidence provided by the new Hisaki spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope that shows that such brightening of Jupiter's aurora can in fact be internally driven. The brightening has an excess power up to ~550 GW. Intense emission appears from the polar cap region down to latitudes around Io's footprint aurora, suggesting a rapid energy input into the polar region by the internal plasma circulation process.

  12. The Sirius System and Its Astrophysical Puzzles: Hubble Space Telescope and Ground-based Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Holberg, Jay B.; Mason, Brian D.; Lindenblad, Irving W.; Seitz-McLeese, Miranda; Arnett, W. David; Demarque, Pierre; Spada, Federico; Young, Patrick A.; Barstow, Martin A.; Burleigh, Matthew R.; Gudehus, Donald

    2017-05-01

    Sirius, the seventh-nearest stellar system, is a visual binary containing the metallic-line A1 V star Sirius A, the brightest star in the sky, orbited in a 50.13 year period by Sirius B, the brightest and nearest white dwarf (WD). Using images obtained over nearly two decades with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), along with photographic observations covering almost 20 years and nearly 2300 historical measurements dating back to the 19th century, we determine precise orbital elements for the visual binary. Combined with the parallax and the motion of the A component, these elements yield dynamical masses of 2.063+/- 0.023 {M}⊙ and 1.018+/- 0.011 {M}⊙ for Sirius A and B, respectively. Our precise HST astrometry rules out third bodies orbiting either star in the system, down to masses of ˜15-25 {M}{Jup}. The location of Sirius B in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical cooling tracks for WDs of its dynamical mass, and implies a cooling age of ˜126 Myr. The position of Sirius B on the mass-radius plane is also consistent with WD theory, assuming a carbon-oxygen core. Including the pre-WD evolutionary timescale of the assumed progenitor, the total age of Sirius B is about 228 ± 10 Myr. We calculated evolutionary tracks for stars with the dynamical mass of Sirius A, using two independent codes. We find it necessary to assume a slightly subsolar metallicity, of about 0.85 {Z}⊙ , to fit its location on the luminosity-radius plane. The age of Sirius A based on these models is about 237-247 Myr, with uncertainties of ±15 Myr, consistent with that of the WD companion. We discuss astrophysical puzzles presented by the Sirius system, including the probability that the two stars must have interacted in the past, even though there is no direct evidence for this and the orbital eccentricity remains high. Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, and from

  13. Unveiling the nature of bright z ~ 7 galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R A A; McLure, R J; McLeod, D J

    2016-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging of 25 extremely luminous (-23.2 600A). We find that irregular, multiple-component morphologies suggestive of clumpy or merging systems are common (f_multi > 0.4) in bright z ~ 7 galaxies, and ubiquitous at the very bright end (M_UV 1000 similarly bright galaxies at z ~ 7. Our new HST imaging suggests that the vast majority of these galaxies will be spatially resolved by Euclid, mitigating concerns over dwarf star contamination.

  14. Wide Field Camera 3: A Powerful New Imager for the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is a powerful UV/visible/near-infrared camera in development for installation into the Hubble Space Telescope during upcoming Servicing Mission 4. WFC3 provides two imaging channels. The UVIS channel incorporates a 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD focal plane with sensitivity from 200 to 1000 nm. The IR channel features a 1024 x 1024 pixel HgCdTe focal plane covering 850 to 1700 nm. We report here on the design of the instrument, the performance of its flight detectors, results of the ground test and calibration program, and the plans for the Servicing Mission installation and checkout.

  15. Evidence for Type Ia Supernova Diversity from Ultraviolet Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. EVIDENCE FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA DIVERSITY FROM ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Xiaofeng Wang1,2,3...DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evidence for Type Ia Supernova Diversity from Ultraviolet Observations with the...spectroscopy and photometry of four Type Ia supernovae (SNe 2004dt, 2004ef, 2005M and 2005cf) obtained with the UV prism of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on

  16. Proper Motions of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope Imaging: III. Measurement for URSA Minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The orbit is retrograde and inclined by 124 (94 , 136 ) to the Galactic plane . Ursa Minor is not a likely member of a proposed stream of galaxies...on similar orbits around the Milky Way, nor is the plane of its orbit coincident with a recently proposed planar alignment of galaxies around the...Hubble Space Telescope (HST ). However, Carrera et al. (2002) determine (mM )0 ¼ 19:4 0:1, which gives a distance of 76 4 kpc (note an erroneous

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Studies of Exposed White Dwarfs in Dwarf Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sion, Edward M.

    Coordinated AAVSO optical observations and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) far ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic observations of cataclysmic variables, during dwarf nova quiescence when the underlying white dwarf is exposed in the far UV, have yielded a number of new insights into accretional heating, photospheric abundances of the accreted atmosphere, and rotational velocities of the underlying degenerates. Recent results of synthetic spectral analyses of HST spectra are highlighted. Their impact on our understanding of accretion physics and the effect of accretion on the white dwarf are discussed.

  18. The Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Hirayama, Masaharu; Johnson, R.P.; Kroeger, Wilko; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Rando, Riccardo; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Spencer, E.N.; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /Maryland

    2006-02-27

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm strips using only 160 W of power, and it achieves close to 100% detection efficiency with noise occupancy sufficiently low to allow it to self trigger. The design of the readout system is described, and results are presented from ground-based testing of the completed detector system.

  19. Artificial neural network for the determination of Hubble Space Telescope aberration from stellar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Todd K.; Sandler, David G.

    1993-01-01

    An artificial-neural-network method, first developed for the measurement and control of atmospheric phase distortion, using stellar images, was used to estimate the optical aberration of the Hubble Space Telescope. A total of 26 estimates of distortion was obtained from 23 stellar images acquired at several secondary-mirror axial positions. The results were expressed as coefficients of eight orthogonal Zernike polynomials: focus through third-order spherical. For all modes other than spherical the measured aberration was small. The average spherical aberration of the estimates was -0.299 micron rms, which is in good agreement with predictions obtained when iterative phase-retrieval algorithms were used.

  20. Updated Status and Performance of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Mees Bernard; De Rosa, Gisella; Fox, Andrew; Indriolo, Nick; James, Bethan; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Rafelski, Marc; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Snyder, Elaine M.; Taylor, Joanna M.; White, James

    2017-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May 2009. COS was designed to perform high-sensitivity medium and low-resolution spectroscopy of astronomical objects in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelength regimes. Here, we present updates on the time-dependent sensitivities (TDS) for the NUV and FUV detectors, NUV wavelength calibration, and the FUV and NUV dark rates. Additionally, we discuss the move to lifetime position four (LP4) planned for July 2017, including the detector location and impact on resolution.

  1. Collimator equipment of the Large Optical Test Facility Vertical for testing space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Pavel A.; Gogolev, Yuri A.; Zvonkova, V. V.; Kobozev, I. R.; Ostapenko, S. V.; Malamed, Evgeny R.; Demidov, V. V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the collimator equipment of the large optical test facility (LOTF) 'vertical' designed for testing space telescopes. It is being created in the Research Center 'S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute' in Russia. The optical scheme and special structural features of the vacuum vertical-type double-mirror collimator will be covered here. This paper deals with technical data and potentials of collimator focal equipment. Estimations of the collimator thermal aberrations caused by temperature fields coming from thermal simulators are put forward.

  2. United Kingdom Infrared Telescope's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckalew, Brent; Abercromby, Kira; Lederer, Susan; Frith, James; Cowardin, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UIST infrared spectrograph cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near the geosynchronous (GEO) regime. Thirteen of the objects are spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and four are cataloged as debris pieces. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials; thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons and silicon. The spacecraft show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give excellent indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include more materials, noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. A comparison conducted between objects observed previously with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) shows similar materials and trends from the two telescopes and from the two distinct data sets. However, based on the current state of the model, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft, rocket bodies, or debris.

  3. United Kingdom Infrared Telescope's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckalew, Brent; Abercromby, Kira; Lederer, Susan; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UKIRT 1-5 micron Imager Spectrometer (UIST) cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Two of the objects are controlled spacecraft, twelve are non-controlled spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and three are cataloged as debris. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials; thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons and silicon. The spacecraft, both the controlled and non-controlled, show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels whereas the rocket bodies do not. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give well-correlated indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. A comparison conducted between objects observed previously with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) shows similar materials and trends from the two telescopes and different times. However, based on the current state of the model, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft

  4. Space Telescope Design to Directly Image the Habitable Zone of Alpha Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendek, Eduardo A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Lozi, Julien; Thomas, Sandrine; Males, Jared; Weston, Sasha; McElwain, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The scientific interest in directly imaging and identifying Earth-like planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) around nearby stars is driving the design of specialized direct imaging missions such as ACESAT, EXO-C, EXO-S and AFTA-C. The inner edge of Alpha Cen A&B Habitable Zone is found at exceptionally large angular separations of 0.7" and 0.4" respectively. This enables direct imaging of the system with a 0.3m class telescope. Contrast ratios on the order of 10(exp 10) are needed to image Earth-brightness planets. Low-resolution (5-band) spectra of all planets may allow establishing the presence and amount of an atmosphere. This star system configuration is optimal for a specialized small, and stable space telescope that can achieve high-contrast but has limited resolution. This paper describes an innovative instrument design and a mission concept based on a full Silicon Carbide off-axis telescope, which has a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph embedded in the telescope. This architecture maximizes stability and throughput. A Multi-Star Wave Front algorithm is implemented to drive a deformable mirror controlling simultaneously diffracted light from the on-axis and binary companion star. The instrument has a Focal Plane Occulter to reject starlight into a high precision pointing control camera. Finally we utilize a Orbital Differential Imaging (ODI) post-processing method that takes advantage of a highly stable environment (Earth-trailing orbit) and a continuous sequence of images spanning 2 years, to reduce the final noise floor in post processing to approximately 2e-11 levels, enabling high confidence and at least 90% completeness detections of Earth-like planets.

  5. Space Telescope Design to Directly Image the Habitable Zone of Alpha Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendek, Eduardo A.; Belikov, Ruslan; Lozi, Julien; Thomas, Sandrine; Males, Jared; Weston, Sasha; McElwain, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The scientific interest in directly imaging and identifying Earth-like planets within the Habitable Zone (HZ) around nearby stars is driving the design of specialized direct imaging missions such as ACESAT, EXO-C, EXO-S and AFTA-C. The inner edge of Alpha Cen A&B Habitable Zone is found at exceptionally large angular separations of 0.7" and 0.4" respectively. This enables direct imaging of the system with a 0.3m class telescope. Contrast ratios on the order of 10(exp 10) are needed to image Earth-brightness planets. Low-resolution (5-band) spectra of all planets may allow establishing the presence and amount of an atmosphere. This star system configuration is optimal for a specialized small, and stable space telescope that can achieve high-contrast but has limited resolution. This paper describes an innovative instrument design and a mission concept based on a full Silicon Carbide off-axis telescope, which has a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph embedded in the telescope. This architecture maximizes stability and throughput. A Multi-Star Wave Front algorithm is implemented to drive a deformable mirror controlling simultaneously diffracted light from the on-axis and binary companion star. The instrument has a Focal Plane Occulter to reject starlight into a high precision pointing control camera. Finally we utilize a Orbital Differential Imaging (ODI) post-processing method that takes advantage of a highly stable environment (Earth-trailing orbit) and a continuous sequence of images spanning 2 years, to reduce the final noise floor in post processing to approximately 2e-11 levels, enabling high confidence and at least 90% completeness detections of Earth-like planets.

  6. Evolving design criteria for very large aperture space-based telescopes and their influence on the need for intergrated tools in the optimization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William R.

    2015-09-01

    NASA's Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) program has been developing the means to design and build the future generations of space based telescopes. With the nearing completion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the astrophysics community is already starting to define the requirements for follow on observatories. The restrictions of available launch vehicles and the possibilities of planned future vehicles have fueled the competition between monolithic primaries (with better optical quality) and segmented primaries (with larger apertures, but with diffraction, costs and figure control issues). Regardless of the current shroud sizes and lift capacities, these competing architectures share the need for rapid design tools. As part of the AMTD program a number of tools have been developed and tested to speed up the design process. Starting with the Arnold Mirror Modeler (which creates Finite Element Models (FEM) for structural analysis) and now also feeds these models into thermal stability analyses. They share common file formats and interchangeable results. During the development of the program, numerous trade studies were created for 4 meter and 8 meter monolithic primaries, complete with support systems. Evaluation of these results has led to a better understanding of how the specification drives the results. This paper will show some of the early trade studies for typical specification requirements such as lowest mirror bending frequency and suspension system lowest frequency. The results use representative allowable stress values for each mirror substrate material and construction method and generic material properties. These studies lead to some interesting relationships between feasible designs and the realities of actually trying to build these mirrors. Much of the traditional specifications were developed for much smaller systems, where the mass and volume of the primary where a small portion of the overall satellite. JWST shows us that as

  7. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. I. Ultraviolet Observations of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    De Rosa, G; Ely, J; Kriss, G A; Crenshaw, D M; Horne, Keith; Korista, K T; Netzer, H; Pogge, R W; Arevalo, P; Barth, A J; Bentz, M C; Brandt, W N; Breeveld, A A; Brewer, B J; Bonta, E Dalla; De Lorenzo-Caceres, A; Denney, K D; Dietrich, M; Edelson, R; Evans, P A; Fausnaugh, M M; Gehrels, N; Gelbord, J M; Goad, M R; Grier, C J; Grupe, D; Hall, P B; Kaastra, J; Kelly, B C; Kennea, J A; Kochanek, C S; Lira, P; Mathur, S; McHardy, I M; Nousek, J A; Pancoast, A; Papadakis, I; Pei, L; Schimoia, J S; Siegel, M; Starkey, D; Treu, T; Uttley, P; Vaughan, S; Vestergaard, M; Villforth, C; Yan, H; Young, S; Zu, Y

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first results from a six-month long reverberation-mapping experiment in the ultraviolet based on 170 observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. Significant correlated variability is found in the continuum and broad emission lines, with amplitudes ranging from ~30% to a factor of two in the emission lines and a factor of three in the continuum. The variations of all the strong emission lines lag behind those of the continuum, with He II 1640 lagging behind the continuum by ~2.5 days and Lyman alpha 1215, C IV 1550, and Si IV 1400 lagging by ~5-6 days. The relationship between the continuum and emission lines is complex. In particular, during the second half of the campaign, all emission-line lags increased by a factor of 1.3-2 and differences appear in the detailed structure of the continuum and emission-line light curves. Velocity-resolved cross-correlation analysis shows coherent structure in lag versus line-of-sight veloc...

  8. CHARACTERIZING THE ATMOSPHERES OF TRANSITING PLANETS WITH A DEDICATED SPACE TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessenyi, M.; Tinetti, G.; Swinyard, B.; Aylward, A.; Tennyson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Ollivier, M. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite de Paris-Sud and CNRS (UMR 8617), IAS UMR8617, Orsay F-91405 (France); Beaulieu, J. P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR7095, Universite Paris VI, 98bis Boulevard Arago, Paris (France); Coude du Foresto, V.; Encrenaz, T. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, Meudon (France); Micela, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy); Ribas, I. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Swain, M. R.; Vasisht, G.; Deroo, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Sozzetti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, 10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)

    2012-02-10

    Exoplanetary science is one of the fastest evolving fields of today's astronomical research, continuously yielding unexpected and surprising results. Ground-based planet-hunting surveys, together with dedicated space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT, are delivering an ever-increasing number of exoplanets, over 690, and ESA's Gaia mission will escalate the exoplanetary census into the several thousands. The next logical step is the characterization of these new worlds. What is their nature? Why are they as they are? Use of the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope to probe the atmospheres of transiting hot, gaseous exoplanets has opened perspectives unimaginable even just 10 years ago, demonstrating that it is indeed possible with current technology to address the ambitious goal of characterizing the atmospheres of these alien worlds. However, these successful measurements have also shown the difficulty of understanding the physics and chemistry of these exotic environments when having to rely on a limited number of observations performed on a handful of objects. To progress substantially in this field, a dedicated facility for exoplanet characterization, able to observe a statistically significant number of planets over time and a broad spectral range will be essential. Additionally, the instrument design (e.g., detector performances, photometric stability) will be tailored to optimize the extraction of the astrophysical signal. In this paper, we analyze the performance and tradeoffs of a 1.2/1.4 m space telescope for exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the visible to the mid-IR. We present the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of integration time and stellar magnitude/spectral type for the acquisition of spectra of planetary atmospheres for a variety of scenarios: hot, warm, and temperate planets orbiting stars ranging in spectral type from hot F- to cooler M-dwarfs. Our results include key examples of known planets (e.g., HD 189733b, GJ

  9. Transit infrared spectroscopy of the hot neptune around GJ 436 with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Pont, F; Knutson, H; Holman, M; Charbonneau, D

    2008-01-01

    The nearby transiting system GJ 436b offers a unique opportunity to probe the structure and atmosphere of an extra-solar "hot Neptune". In this Letter, we present the main results of observations covering two transit events with the NICMOS camera on the Hubble Space Telescope. The data consist in high-cadence time series of grism spectra covering the 1.1-1.9 micron spectral range. We find Rpl=4.04 +- 0.10 R_earth and R_*= 0.446 +- 0.011 R_sun for the planet and star radius, confirming and improving earlier measurements with ground-based photometry and a Spitzer lightcurve at 8 microns, as opposed to a much higher value obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure no departure from strict periodicity in the transits to the level of ~7 seconds. This strongly disfavours the proposed explanation of the orbital eccentricity of GJ 436b in terms of the perturbation by another close-by planet. We measure a flat transmission spectrum at the level of a few parts per 10'000 in flux, w...

  10. Space-quality data from balloon-borne telescopes: the High Altitude Lensing Observatory (HALO)

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, Jason; Booth, Jeffrey; Massey, Richard; Liewer, Kurt; Smith, Roger; Amara, Adam; Aldrich, Jack; Berge, Joel; Bezawada, Naidu; Brugarolas, Paul; Clark, Paul; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M; Ellis, Richard; Frenk, Carlos; Gallie, Angus; Heavens, Alan; Henry, David; Jullo, Eric; Kitching, Thomas; Lanzi, James; Lilly, Simon; Lunney, David; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morris, David; Paine, Christopher; Peacock, John; Pellegrino, Sergio; Pittock, Roger; Pool, Peter; Refregier, Alexandre; Seiffert, Michael; Sharples, Ray; Smith, Alexandra; Stuchlik, David; Taylor, Andy; Teplitz, Harry; Vanderveld, R Ali; Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for attaining sub-arcsecond pointing stability during sub- orbital balloon flights, as designed for in the High Altitude Lensing Observatory (HALO) concept. The pointing method presented here has the potential to perform near-space quality optical astronomical imaging at 1-2% of the cost of space-based missions. We also discuss an architecture that can achieve sufficient thermomechanical stability to match the pointing stability. This concept is motivated by advances in the development and testing of Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights which promise to allow observation campaigns lasting more than three months. The design incorporates a multi-stage pointing architecture comprising: a gondola coarse azimuth control system, a multi-axis nested gimbal frame structure with arcsecond stability, a telescope de-rotator to eliminate field rotation, and a fine guidance stage consisting of both a telescope mounted angular rate sensor and guide CCDs in the focal plane to drive a fast-steering ...

  11. Hubble Space Telescope Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Bright CEMP-s Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Ivans, Inese I; Filler, Dan; Imig, Julie A; Roederer, Ian U; Abate, Carlo; Hansen, Terese; Cowan, John J; Frebel, Anna; Lawler, James E; Schatz, Hendrik; Sneden, Christopher; Sobeck, Jennifer S; Aoki, Wako; Smith, Verne V; Bolte, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present an elemental-abundance analysis, in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectral range, for the bright carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars HD196944 (V = 8.40, [Fe/H] = -2.41) and HD201626 (V = 8.16, [Fe/H] = -1.51), based on data acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Both of these stars belong to the sub-class CEMP-s, and exhibit clear over-abundances of heavy elements associated with production by the slow neutron-capture process. HD196944 has been well-studied in the optical region, but we are able to add abundance results for six species (Ge, Nb, Mo, Lu, Pt, and Au) that are only accessible in the NUV. In addition, we provide the first determination of its orbital period, P=1325 days. HD201626 has only a limited number of abundance results based on previous optical work -- here we add five new species from the NUV, including Pb. We compare these results with models of binary-system evolution and s-process element production in stars on the asympt...

  12. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z greater than 6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z greater than 10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (less than 50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and discuss recent progress in constructing the observatory.

  13. Studying Galaxy Formation and Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z>6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will review the current status of the project.

  14. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Mclean, Kyle F.; McMann, Joseph; Melf, Markus; Miner, Linda; Ohl, Raymond G.; Redman, Kevin; Roedel, Andreas; Schweiger, Paul; Plate, Maurice T.; Wells, Martyn; Wenzel, Greg W.; Williams, Patrick K.; Young, Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  15. Research on lightweight passive deployment mechanism for the secondary mirror in the deployable space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peifeng; Li, Chuang; Jing, Nan; Chong, Yaqin; Ren, Guorui

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a new type of lightweight passive deployment mechanism based on the tape spring and the shape memory alloy is presented for the secondary mirror of a deployable space telescope. In this passive deployment mechanism for the secondary mirror, the high elastic potential energy of the folded tape springs is used as driving force when the support structure is extended, and the high stiffness characteristics of the circular arc cross section of the tape spring can be used to achieve structure self-locking after deployment. Then a deployable space telescope combined with lightweight passive deployable mechanism for the secondary mirror is designed for applying to nanosatellite imaging. Furthermore, a lock-release device is designed to achieve the function of locking the folded structure and releasing on orbit by taking advantage of the phase transformation characteristics of shape memory alloy with temperature changing. Finally, the correction method for the deployment error of secondary mirror is discussed. The temperature of the tape springs is controlled respectively to make a required length change. This can achieve the purpose of adjusting the position of the secondary mirror and improve the deployment accuracy.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Interstellar ^12CO/^13CO in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffer, Y; Federman, S R; Lambert, D L; Gredel, R

    2007-01-01

    We examine 20 diffuse and translucent Galactic sight lines and extract the column densities of the ^12CO and ^13CO isotopologues from their ultraviolet A--X absorption bands detected in archival Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data with lambda/Deltalambda geq 46,000. Five more targets with Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph data are added to the sample that more than doubles the number of sight lines with published Hubble Space Telescope observations of ^13CO. Most sight lines have 12-to-13 isotopic ratios that are not significantly different from the local value of 70 for ^12C/^13C, which is based on mm-wave observations of rotational lines in emission from CO and H_2CO inside dense molecular clouds, as well as on results from optical measurements of CH^+. Five of the 25 sight lines are found to be fractionated toward lower 12-to-13 values, while three sight lines in the sample are fractionated toward higher ratios, signaling the predominance of either isotopic charge exchange or selective photodissoc...

  17. Warm molecular Hydrogen at high redshift with the James Webb Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Guillard, P; Lehnert, M D; Appleton, P N; Forêts, G Pineau des

    2015-01-01

    The build-up of galaxies is regulated by a complex interplay between gravitational collapse, galaxy merging and feedback related to AGN and star formation. The energy released by these processes has to dissipate for gas to cool, condense, and form stars. How gas cools is thus a key to understand galaxy formation. \\textit{Spitzer Space Telescope} infrared spectroscopy revealed a population of galaxies with weak star formation and unusually powerful H$_2$ line emission. This is a signature of turbulent dissipation, sustained by large-scale mechanical energy injection. The cooling of the multiphase interstellar medium is associated with emission in the H$_2$ lines. These results have profound consequences on our understanding of regulation of star formation, feedback and energetics of galaxy formation in general. The fact that H$_2$ lines can be strongly enhanced in high-redshift turbulent galaxies will be of great importance for the \\textit{James Webb Space Telescope} observations which will unveil the role tha...

  18. Investigation of the telescope back-reflection for space-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Aaron Dean

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) represents a class of space-based gravitational wave observatories that will attempt to measure gravitational waves in the frequency range from 0.01 mHz to 1 Hz. These missions are all characterized by a constellation of three spacecraft housing proof masses in heliocentric orbits. Using laser interferometry, changes in the distances between these proof masses that are induced by gravitational waves can be measured with pm precision. A reflecting telescope is used to transfer the lasers between adjacent spacecraft. Using an on-axis telescope design with the secondary and primary mirror axially aligned would be ideal to save volume and mass onboard the spacecraft, however there exists concerns about light reflected directly back from the secondary mirror to the optical bench. This light must be attenuated or it can corrupt the measurement signal. This thesis details a number of different attenuation schemes for the back-reflected light using anti-reflective regions at the center of the secondary mirror. Several secondary prototypes were manufactured and an experimental testbed was built to measure the back-re ected distributions from these prototypes.

  19. Deep Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 Photometry of NGC 288. I. Binary Systems and Blue Stragglers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, Michele; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Messineo, Maria; Monaco, Lorenzo; Rood, Robert T.

    2002-03-01

    We present the first results of a deep WFPC2 photometric survey of the loose galactic globular cluster NGC 288. The fraction of binary systems is estimated from the color distribution of objects near the main sequence (MS) with a method analogous to that introduced by Rubenstein & Bailyn. We have unequivocally detected a significant population of binary systems with a radial distribution that has been significantly influenced by mass segregation. In the inner region of the cluster (r=1rh), fb must be less than 0.10, and the most likely value is 0.0, independently of the adopted F(q). The detected population of binaries is dominated by primordial systems. The specific frequency of blue stragglers (BSs) is exceptionally high, suggesting that the BS production mechanism via binary evolution can be very efficient. A large population of BSs is possible even in low-density environments if a sufficient reservoir of primordial binaries is available. The observed distribution of BSs in the color-magnitude diagram is not compatible with a rate of BS production that has been constant in time, if it is assumed that all the BSs are formed by the merging of two stars. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal GO-6804.

  20. Laboratory demonstration of a primary active mirror for space with the LATT: large aperture telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vettore, Christian; d'Amato, Francesco; Xompero, Marco; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Patauner, Christian; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Duò, Fabrizio; Pucci, Mauro; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Maresi, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The LATT project is an ESA contract under TRP programme to demonstrate the scalability of the technology from ground-based adaptive mirrors to space active primary mirrors. A prototype spherical mirror based on a 40 cm diameter 1 mm thin glass shell with 19 contactless, voice-coil actuators and co-located position sensors have been manufactured and integrated into a final unit with an areal density lower than 20 kg/m2. Laboratory tests demonstrated the controllability with very low power budget and the survival of the fragile glass shell exposed to launch accelerations, thanks to an electrostatic locking mechanism; such achievements pushes the technology readiness level toward 5. With this prototype, the LATT project explored the feasibility of using an active and lightweight primary for space telescopes. The concept is attractive for large segmented telescopes, with surface active control to shape and co-phase them once in flight. In this paper we will describe the findings of the technological advances and the results of the environmental and optical tests.