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Sample records for metastatic pattern surgical

  1. Surgical management of metastatic lesions at the cervicothoracic junction

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    Joseph F Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The cervicothoracic junction (CTJ represents a transition from the semirigid thoracic spine to the mobile subaxial cervical spine. Pathologic lesions are prone to kyphotic deformity. The aim of this study was to review our experience with surgical stabilization of metastatic lesions affecting the CTJ (C7-T2. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all surgical stabilizations of metastatic spine lesions over the preceding 4 years in our institution. A total of 14 patients with CTJ lesions were identified. Case notes and radiology were reviewed to determine the presentation, outcomes, and specific complications. Results: The mean survival was 405 days (standard deviation [s.d.] 352. 8/14 died at a mean time from surgery of 193 days (s.d. 306. Most cases were a result of either lung or breast primary tumors. Half were stabilized with an anterior only approach and two had staged anterior-posterior. There were no cases of neurologic deterioration in this cohort as a result of surgery. There were two cases of deep surgical site infection and two documented cases of pulmonary embolus. There were no reported construct failures over the follow-up period. Conclusion: Patients with cervicothoracic metastatic lesions can be treated with either anterior or posterior approaches or a combination after considering each individual′s potential instability and disease burden.

  2. Surgical management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakih, A.R.; Mistry, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiated management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with lymph node and/or systemic metastases is very much a treatable cancer. Interaction between the surgeon and the nuclear medicine specialist is essential to ensure quality survival in these patient. This review is confined to surgical aspects and is based on experience with 417 patients who were operated for DTC at the Tata Memorial Hospital between 1971 and 1985

  3. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

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    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Relationship between preoperative breast MRI and surgical treatment of non-metastatic breast cancer.

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    Onega, Tracy; Weiss, Julie E; Goodrich, Martha E; Zhu, Weiwei; DeMartini, Wendy B; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ozanne, Elissa; Tosteson, Anna N A; Henderson, Louise M; Buist, Diana S M; Wernli, Karen J; Herschorn, Sally D; Hotaling, Elise; O'Donoghue, Cristina; Hubbard, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    More extensive surgical treatments for early stage breast cancer are increasing. The patterns of preoperative MRI overall and by stage for this trend has not been well established. Using Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registry data from 2010 through 2014, we identified women with an incident non-metastatic breast cancer and determined use of preoperative MRI and initial surgical treatment (mastectomy, with or without contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), reconstruction, and breast conserving surgery ± radiation). Clinical and sociodemographic covariates were included in multivariable logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 13 097 women, 2217 (16.9%) had a preoperative MRI. Among the women with MRI, results indicated 32% higher odds of unilateral mastectomy compared to breast conserving surgery and of mastectomy with CPM compared to unilateral mastectomy. Women with preoperative MRI also had 56% higher odds of reconstruction. Preoperative MRI in women with DCIS and early stage invasive breast cancer is associated with more frequent mastectomy, CPM, and reconstruction surgical treatment. Use of more extensive surgical treatment and reconstruction among women with DCIS and early stage invasive cancer whom undergo MRI warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Metastatic clear cell eccrine hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva: survival after primary surgical resection.

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    Massad, L S; Bitterman, P; Clarke-Pearson, D L

    1996-05-01

    A case of clear cell eccrine hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva metastatic to regional lymph nodes with long survival after surgical resection is presented. Like the only other case reported to date, this suggests that surgical therapy alone may be adequate, even when metastasis is present.

  6. Surgical management of prostate cancer metastatic to the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J; Fox, Benjamin D; Sciubba, Daniel M; Suki, Dima; Tu, Shi Ming; Kuban, Deborah; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Rhines, Laurence D; Rao, Ganesh

    2009-05-01

    Significant improvements in neurological function and pain relief are the benefits of aggressive surgical management of spinal metastatic disease. However, there is limited literature regarding the management of tumors with specific histological features. In this study, a series of patients undergoing spinal surgery for metastatic prostate cancer were reviewed to identify predictors of survival and functional outcome. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who were treated with surgery for prostate cancer metastases to the spine between 1993 and 2005 at a single institution. Particular attention was given to initial presentation, operative management, clinical and neurological outcomes, and factors associated with complications and overall survival. Forty-four patients underwent a total of 47 procedures. The median age at spinal metastasis was 66 years (range 50-84 years). Twenty-four patients had received previous external-beam radiation to the site of spinal involvement, with a median dose of 70 Gy (range 30-74 Gy). Frankel scores on discharge were significantly improved when compared with preoperative scores (p = 0.001). Preoperatively, 32 patients (73%) were walking and 33 (75%) were continent. On discharge, 36 (86%) of 42 patients were walking, and 37 (88%) of 42 were continent. Preoperatively, 40 patients (91%) were taking narcotics, with a median morphine equivalent dose of 21.5 mg/day, and 28 patients (64%) were taking steroids, with a median dose of 16 mg/day. At discharge, the median postoperative morphine equivalent dose was 12 mg/day, and the median steroid dose was 0 mg/day (p or = 65 years at the time of surgery was an independent predictor of a postoperative complication (p = 0.005). In selected patients with prostate cancer metastases to the spine, aggressive surgical decompression and spinal reconstruction is a useful treatment option. The results show that on average, neurological outcome is improved and use of analgesics

  7. Surgical Management of Advanced and Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Shinder

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen a rapid proliferation in the number and types of systemic therapies available for renal cell carcinoma. However, surgery remains an integral component of the therapeutic armamentarium for advanced and metastatic kidney cancer. Cytoreductive surgery followed by adjuvant cytokine-based immunotherapy (predominantly high-dose interleukin 2 has largely given way to systemic-targeted therapies. Metastasectomy also has a role in carefully selected patients. Additionally, neoadjuvant systemic therapy may increase the feasibility of resecting the primary tumor, which may be beneficial for patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Several prospective trials examining the role of adjuvant therapy are underway. Lastly, the first immune checkpoint inhibitor was approved for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC in 2015, providing a new treatment mechanism and new opportunities for combining systemic therapy with surgery. This review discusses current and historical literature regarding the surgical management of patients with advanced and mRCC and explores approaches for optimizing patient selection.

  8. Metastatic Patterns of Myxoid/Round Cell Liposarcoma: A Review of a 25-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Asano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL, unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, has been associated with unusual pattern of metastasis to extrapulmonary sites. In an attempt to elucidate the clinical features of MRCL with metastatic lesions, 58 cases, from the medical database of Keio University Hospital were used for the evaluation. 47 patients (81% had no metastases, whereas 11 patients (11% had metastases during their clinical course. Among the 11 patients with metastatic lesions, 8 patients (73% had extrapulmonary metastases and 3 patients (27% had pulmonary metastases. Patients were further divided into three groups; without metastasis, with extrapulmonary metastasis, and with pulmonary metastasis. When the metastatic patterns were stratified according to tumor size, there was statistical significance between the three groups (P=0.028. The 8 cases with extrapulmonary metastases were all larger than 10 cm. Similarly, histological grading had a significant impact on metastatic patterns (P=0.027. 3 cases with pulmonary metastatic lesions were all diagnosed as high grade. In conclusion, large size and low histological grade were significantly associated with extrapulmonary metastasis.

  9. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  10. Differentiation of Metastatic and Non-Metastatic Mesenteric Lymph Nodes by Strain Elastography in Surgical Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havre, R F; Leh, S M; Gilja, O H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate if strain elastography could differentiate between metastatic and non-metastatic mesenteric lymph nodes ex-vivo. Materials and Methods: 90 mesenteric lymph nodes were examined shortly after resection from 25 patients including 17 patients with colorectal cancer and 8...... patients with Crohn's disease. Ultrasound-based strain elastography was performed with a linear probe. Tissue hardness in lymph nodes was assessed using visual scales and measuring the strain ratio. B-mode characteristics were also recorded. Pathological diagnosis with grading of fibrosis served...... non-metastatic nodes, but the difference was not significant (65.5 vs. 55.0, p = 0.055). There was no difference between lymph nodes in Crohn's and non-metastatic cancer specimens. The metastatic lymph nodes were significantly more fibrotic than the non-metastatic lymph nodes by the ordinal fibrosis...

  11. Preoperative embolization in surgical treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression.

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    Clausen, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    An increasing number of patients develop symptomatic spinal metastasis and increasing evidence supports the benefit of surgical decompression and spinal stabilization combined with radiation therapy. However, surgery for metastatic spinal disease is known to be associated with a risk of substantial intraoperative blood loss and perioperative allogenic blood transfusion. Anemia is known to increase morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery, but studies also indicate that transfusion with allogenic red blood cells (RBC) may lead to worse outcomes. To reduce intraoperative bleeding preoperative embolization has been used in selected cases suspected for hypervascular spinal metastases, but no randomized trial has examined the effect. The final decision on whether preoperative embolization should be performed is based on the preoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) tumor blush, and as such considered the "gold standard" for determining the vascularity of spinal metastases. Reliability studies evaluating vascularity ratings of DSA tumor blush have not been published before. This PhD thesis is based on three studies with the following aims: I. To assess whether perioperative allogenic blood transfusions in patients undergoing surgical treatment for spinal metastases independently influence patient survival (Study 1). II. To assess whether preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization of spinal metastases reduces blood loss, the need for transfusion with allogenic RBC and surgery time in the surgical treatment of patients with symptomatic metastatic spinal cord compression (Study 2). III. To describe the vascularity of metastasis causing spinal cord compression (Study 2). IV. To evaluate inter- and intra-observer agreement in the assessment of the vascularity of spinal metastases using DSA tumor blush (Study 3). In conclusion the findings of this thesis demonstrate that preoperative embolization in patients with symptomatic spinal metastasis

  12. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: Factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG-ACRIN's Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.

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    Tevaarwerk, Amye J; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary E; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles S; Fisch, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. A better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step toward the development of tools for assisting survivors in this important realm. The ECOG-ACRIN Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study was analyzed to investigate what factors were associated with the employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working with patients no longer working. There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in the analysis: 236 (35%) worked full- or part-time, whereas 302 (45%) had stopped working because of illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. A better performance status and non-Hispanic white ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis in the multivariate analysis. The disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. A significant percentage of the metastatic patients remained employed; increased symptom burden was associated with a change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working if this is desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address workplace difficulties have promise for improving this aspect of survivorship. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  13. Working after a metastatic cancer diagnosis: factors affecting employment in the metastatic setting from ECOG’s Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP) study

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    Tevaarwerk, Amye; Lee, Ju-Whei; Terhaar, Abigail; Sesto, Mary; Smith, Mary Lou; Cleeland, Charles; Fisch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved survival for individuals with metastatic cancer accentuates the importance of employment for cancer survivors. Better understanding of how metastatic cancer affects employment is a necessary step towards the development of tools to assist survivors in this important realm. Methods We analyzed the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group’s “Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP)” study to investigate what factors were associated with employment of 680 metastatic cancer patients. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare patients stably working (Group A) to patients no longer working (Group B). Results There were 668 metastatic working-age participants in our analysis; 236 (35%) worked full or part-time while 302 (45%) stopped working due to illness. Overall, 58% reported some change in employment due to illness. Better performance status and non-Hispanic White ethnicity/race were significantly associated with continuing to work despite a metastatic cancer diagnosis on multivariable analysis. Disease type, time since metastatic diagnosis, number of metastatic sites, location of metastatic disease, and treatment status had no significant impact. Among the potentially modifiable factors, receiving hormonal treatment (if a viable option) and decreasing symptom interference were associated with continuing to work. Conclusions A significant percentage of metastatic patients remain employed; symptom burden was associated with change to no longer working. Modifiable factors resulting in work interference should be minimized so that patients with metastatic disease may continue working, if desired. Improvements in symptom control and strategies developed to help address work place difficulties have promise to improve this aspect of survivorship. PMID:26687819

  14. Surgical resection of synchronously metastatic adrenocortical cancer.

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    Dy, Benzon M; Strajina, Veljko; Cayo, Ashley K; Richards, Melanie L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Harmsen, William S; Evans, Doug B; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Bible, Keith C; Young, William F; Perrier, Nancy D; Que, Florencia G; Nagorney, David M; Lee, Jeffrey E; Thompson, Geoffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rapidly fatal, with few options for treatment. Patients with metachronous recurrence may benefit from surgical resection. The survival benefit in patients with hematogenous metastasis at initial presentation is unknown. A review of all patients undergoing surgery (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors) stage IV ACC between January 2000 and December 2012 from two referral centers was performed. Kaplan-Meier estimates were analyzed for disease-free and overall survival (OS). We identified 27 patients undergoing surgery for stage IV ACC. Metastases were present in the lung (19), liver (11), and brain (1). A complete resection (R0) was achieved in 11 patients. The median OS was improved in patients undergoing R0 versus R2 resection (860 vs. 390 days; p = 0.02). The 1- and 2-year OS was also improved in patients undergoing R0 versus R2 resection (69.9 %, 46.9 % vs. 53.0 %, 22.1 %; p = 0.02). Patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy (eight patients) had a trend towards improved survival at 1, 2, and 5 years versus no neoadjuvant therapy (18 patients) [83.3 %, 62.5 %, 41.7 % vs. 56.8 %, 26.6 %, 8.9 %; p = 0.1]. Adjuvant therapy was associated with improved recurrence-free survival at 6 months and 1 year (67 %, 33 % vs. 40 %, 20 %; p = 0.04) but not improved OS (p = 0.63). Sex (p = 0.13), age (p = 0.95), and location of metastasis (lung, p = 0.51; liver, p = 0.67) did not correlate with OS after operative intervention. Symptoms of hormonal excess improved in 86 % of patients. Operative intervention, especially when an R0 resection can be achieved, following systemic therapy may improve outcomes, including OS, in select patients with stage IV ACC. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be of use in defining which patients may benefit from surgical intervention. Adjuvant therapy was associated with decreased recurrence but did not improve OS.

  15. Metastatic pattern and DNA ploidy in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis. Relation to response and survival.

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    De Lena, M; Romero, A; Rabinovich, M; Leone, B; Vallejo, C; Machiavelli, M; Cuevas, M; Rodriguez, R; Lacava, J; Perez, J

    1993-06-01

    Sixty-nine patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) at initial diagnosis were analyzed to verify if metastatic pattern and clinical outcome are related to DNA ploidy determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Characteristics of 55 fully evaluable patients were as follows: median age: 61 years; postmenopausal: 75%; bone-only metastases (BM): 60%; extraosseous-only metastases (EM): 40%. Overall response rates (CR + PR) obtained with different chemotherapies and/or hormonal therapies were 58% and 68% for patients with BM and EM, respectively. Sixty percent of specimens resulted aneuploid, and the mean coefficient of variation of the complete series was 5.1%. In the whole group of patients DNA ploidy of primary tumor did not predict the metastatic pattern and had no influence upon response to treatment, duration of response, time to progression, and overall survival. When analyses were carried out according to metastatic pattern, those patients with BM showed similar results. However, within the group with EM, those with diploid tumors presented a significantly better survival (median 18 vs 13 months, p = .04). FCM-DNA analysis seems to identify a subgroup of patients with poor prognosis constituted by those who had aneuploid primary tumors and metastases to extraosseous sites.

  16. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Surgical Resection on Survival in Patients With Limited Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

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    Homann, Nils; Pauligk, Claudia; Illerhaus, Gerald; Martens, Uwe M.; Stoehlmacher, Jan; Schmalenberg, Harald; Luley, Kim B.; Prasnikar, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Probst, Stephan; Messmann, Helmut; Moehler, Markus; Fischbach, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Jörg T.; Mayer, Frank; Höffkes, Heinz-Gert; Koenigsmann, Michael; Arnold, Dirk; Kraus, Thomas W.; Grimm, Kersten; Berkhoff, Stefan; Post, Stefan; Jäger, Elke; Bechstein, Wolf; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Mönig, Stefan; Hofheinz, Ralf D.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Surgical resection has a potential benefit for patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction. Objective To evaluate outcome in patients with limited metastatic disease who receive chemotherapy first and proceed to surgical resection. Design, Setting, and Participants The AIO-FLOT3 (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie–fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel) trial is a prospective, phase 2 trial of 252 patients with resectable or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Patients were enrolled from 52 cancer care centers in Germany between February 1, 2009, and January 31, 2010, and stratified to 1 of 3 groups: resectable (arm A), limited metastatic (arm B), or extensive metastatic (arm C). Data cutoff was January 2012, and the analysis was performed in March 2013. Interventions Patients in arm A received 4 preoperative cycles of fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel (FLOT) followed by surgery and 4 postoperative cycles. Patients in arm B received at least 4 cycles of neoadjuvant FLOT and proceeded to surgical resection if restaging (using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) showed a chance of margin-free (R0) resection of the primary tumor and at least a macroscopic complete resection of the metastatic lesions. Patients in arm C were offered FLOT chemotherapy and surgery only if required for palliation. Patients received a median (range) of 8 (1-15) cycles of FLOT. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary end point was overall survival. Results In total, 238 of 252 patients (94.4%) were eligible to participate. The median (range) age of participants was 66 (36-79) years in arm A (n = 51), 63 (28-79) years in arm B (n = 60), and 65 (23-83) years in arm C (n = 127). Patients in arm B (n = 60) had only retroperitoneal lymph node involvement (27 patients [45%]), liver involvement (11 [18.3%]), lung involvement (10 [16.7%]), localized

  17. Unusual Metastatic Patterns of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    OpenAIRE

    Sobinsky, Justin D.; Willson, Thomas D.; Podbielski, Francis J.; Connolly, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast has similar patterns of metastatic disease when compared to invasive ductal carcinoma; however, lobular carcinoma metastasizes to unusual sites more frequently. We present a 65-year-old female with a history of invasive lobular breast carcinoma (T3N3M0) treated with modified radical mastectomy and aromatase-inhibitor therapy who underwent a surveillance PET scan, which showed possible sigmoid cancer. Colonoscopy with biopsy revealed a 3?cm sigmoid aden...

  18. Characteristics and Patterns of Metastatic Disease from Chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordoma is a rare, slow-growing malignant tumor arising from notochordal remnants. A retrospective review of patient records at two major referral centers was undertaken to assess the incidence, location, and prognostic factors of metastatic disease from chordoma. 219 patients with chordoma (1962–2009 were identified. 39 patients (17.8% developed metastatic disease, most frequently to lung (>50%. Median survival from the time of initial diagnosis was 130.4 months for patients who developed metastatic disease and 159.3 months for those who did not (P=0.05. Metastatic disease was most common in the youngest patients (P=0.07, and it was 2.5 times more frequent among patients with local recurrence (26.3% than in those without (10.8% (P=0.003. Patient survival with metastatic disease was highly variable, and it was dependent on both the location of the tumor primary and the site of metastasis. Metastasis to distal bone was the most rapid to develop and had the worst prognosis.

  19. Pattern strabismus and torsion needs special surgical attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekunnaya, R; Mendonca, T; Sachdeva, V

    2015-01-01

    Pattern strabismus is relatively common in strabismus practice. Although it is classically used to include A and V patterns, the term has been expanded to include additional vertically incomitant horizontal strabismus. This article reviews the clinical features, etiopathogenesis, and surgical options for the patients with pattern strabismus. PMID:25412718

  20. Curable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hochster, Howard S.

    2010-01-01

    Colon cancer, though already metastatic, may still be curable through multi-modality approaches, which require combined planning between medical and surgical oncologists. Retrospective surgical series have historically shown 5-year survival or “cures” for 30% to 50% of patients with solitary or a few resectable liver metastases. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting has been poorly defined. A recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study randomize...

  1. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Surgical Resection on Survival in Patients With Limited Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: The AIO-FLOT3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Homann, Nils; Pauligk, Claudia; Illerhaus, Gerald; Martens, Uwe M; Stoehlmacher, Jan; Schmalenberg, Harald; Luley, Kim B; Prasnikar, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Probst, Stephan; Messmann, Helmut; Moehler, Markus; Fischbach, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Jörg T; Mayer, Frank; Höffkes, Heinz-Gert; Koenigsmann, Michael; Arnold, Dirk; Kraus, Thomas W; Grimm, Kersten; Berkhoff, Stefan; Post, Stefan; Jäger, Elke; Bechstein, Wolf; Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Mönig, Stefan; Hofheinz, Ralf D

    2017-09-01

    Surgical resection has a potential benefit for patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction. To evaluate outcome in patients with limited metastatic disease who receive chemotherapy first and proceed to surgical resection. The AIO-FLOT3 (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel) trial is a prospective, phase 2 trial of 252 patients with resectable or metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Patients were enrolled from 52 cancer care centers in Germany between February 1, 2009, and January 31, 2010, and stratified to 1 of 3 groups: resectable (arm A), limited metastatic (arm B), or extensive metastatic (arm C). Data cutoff was January 2012, and the analysis was performed in March 2013. Patients in arm A received 4 preoperative cycles of fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel (FLOT) followed by surgery and 4 postoperative cycles. Patients in arm B received at least 4 cycles of neoadjuvant FLOT and proceeded to surgical resection if restaging (using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) showed a chance of margin-free (R0) resection of the primary tumor and at least a macroscopic complete resection of the metastatic lesions. Patients in arm C were offered FLOT chemotherapy and surgery only if required for palliation. Patients received a median (range) of 8 (1-15) cycles of FLOT. The primary end point was overall survival. In total, 238 of 252 patients (94.4%) were eligible to participate. The median (range) age of participants was 66 (36-79) years in arm A (n = 51), 63 (28-79) years in arm B (n = 60), and 65 (23-83) years in arm C (n = 127). Patients in arm B (n = 60) had only retroperitoneal lymph node involvement (27 patients [45%]), liver involvement (11 [18.3%]), lung involvement (10 [16.7%]), localized peritoneal involvement (4 [6.7%]), or other (8 [13.3%]) incurable sites. Median overall survival was 22

  2. Metastatic melanoma of mesentery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, M. S.; Ali, S.A.; Shirazi, B.; Shamim, M.

    2004-01-01

    A case of malignant melanoma metastatic to small bowel mesentery in an old female is reported. Her primary malignant melanoma of nasal mucosa was already treated. She presented with intestinal obstruction, underwent surgical excision of the tumour and was tumour-free postoperatively. (author)

  3. Distribution pattern of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The pattern of distribution of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs has been published, though scantily, especially in males. We decided to look at our own series, compare and contrast ours with some of those published. Materials and Methods: We treated 88 locations ...

  4. Bone-only versus visceral-only metastatic pattern in breast cancer: analysis of 150 patients. A GOCS study. Grupo Oncológico Cooperativo del Sur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J E; Machiavelli, M; Leone, B A; Romero, A; Rabinovich, M G; Vallejo, C T; Bianco, A; Rodriguez, R; Cuevas, M A; Alvarez, L A

    1990-08-01

    The medical records of 510 patients with metastatic breast cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Seventy-seven patients with metastases confined to skeleton and 73 patients bearing visceral-only disease were identified. All patients had a disease-free interval greater than or equal to 6 months and received systemic therapy with any of the following modalities: chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, or chemohormonotherapy. The clinical features, response to treatment, and survival were analyzed and compared for both groups. Median survival of patients with osseous metastases was 28 months, while it was 13 months for those patients with a visceral pattern (p less than 0.001). Response rates to first and second line systemic therapy for both metastatic patterns showed no significant differences, suggesting a similar degree of sensitivity or resistance in both groups. Objective regression to first therapy was 45% in the group with bony disease and 41% among patients with visceral involvement; median duration of response was 16 months and 13 months, respectively. In both groups progressive disease conserved the original metastatic pattern in most patients. We conclude that although a superiority in survival was evident for the osseous metastatic pattern, for these patients efforts should be made to select the least aggressive therapy in order to avoid excessive toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  5. Patterns of metastatic progression after definitive radiation therapy for early-stage and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Garrett L; Tang, Chad; Hess, Kenneth R; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel R

    2017-06-01

    Current preclinical models of metastatic disease (particularly oligometastases) suggest that metastases appear in a hierarchical order. We attempted to identify systematic patterns of metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after radiation therapy (XRT). We analyzed 1074 patients treated from 12/21/1998 through 8/20/2012 with ≥60 Gy definitive radiation for initially non-metastatic NSCLC. Location and time of metastases were recorded. Regional nodal failure was noted, as was subsequent distal failure. For further analysis, we considered only the five most common sites of metastasis (bone, brain, liver, adrenal, and lung). Metastatic progression over time was defined and patterns elucidated with Chi square tests. Histologic findings were analyzed with Wilcoxon rank sum tests. A significant multistep linear progression was not apparent. Having a first metastasis in lung or bone was associated with respective 16% (median 2.4 months) and 15% likelihoods (median 7.9 months) of secondary brain metastasis. Initial metastasis in the brain led to metastasis in another organ 29.3% of the time, most often in the lung, bone, and liver (medians 3.6, 7.9, and 3.1 months). Adenocarcinoma was more likely than squamous to metastasize to the brain (18 vs. 9%) and any of the five major sites (41 vs. 27%). We did not appreciate dominant patterns suggesting a multi-step hierarchical order of metastasis. Rather, our findings suggest that certain subgroups may develop different patterns of spread depending on a variety of factors.

  6. Metastatic papillary craniopharyngioma: case study and study of tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaci, Lhan; Kurtkaya-Yapicier, Ozlem; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Sav, Aydin; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Vidal, Sergio; Kovacs, Kalman; Scheithauer, Bernd W.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of suprasellar papillary craniopharyngioma metastatic to the temporoparietal region 2 years after its initial resection. The literature documents examples of craniopharyngioma recurrences along the surgical tract, as well as remote ipsi- and contralateral metastases via cerebrospinal fluid seeding. Ours is the second report of a craniopharyngioma of papillary type to exhibit metastatic behavior. The tumor spread opposite the side of craniotomy. Although a rare occurrence, it confirms the limited capacity of histologically benign craniopharyngiomas to undergo meningeal seeding, likely the result of surgical manipulation. Immunohistochemical demonstration of increased microvascular density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression, as well as a high vascular endothelial growth receptor (VEGFR2) signal by in situ hybridization, suggests that tumor vascularity facilitated angiogenesis and may have been involved in the establishment and growth of the metastatic deposit. PMID:11916504

  7. Remote multiple intracranial hemorrhage in multiple metastatic lung adenocarcinoma following decompression of posterior fossa lesion: Unknown cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas Konar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastasis can present with hemorrhage. However, multiple hemorrhages in metastatic lesions following surgical decompression of a single lesion are never reported. We report a case of cerebral metastasis from lung cancer that developed multiple hemorrhages in supratentorial metastatic lesions following surgical resection of an infratentorial lesion.

  8. Local recurrence of metastatic brain tumor after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Yamada, Ryoji; Okamoto, Koichiro; Nakamura, Osamu; Shitara, Nobuyuki; Karasawa, Katsuyuki

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed factors associated with the local recurrence of brain metastases after surgery. Forty-seven patients with 67 metastatic brain tumors underwent surgery between 1994 and 2001. The survival time in the ''no recurrence'' group (34.7 months) was significantly longer than that in the recurrence group (21.9 months) (p=0.0008; log rank test). The factors affecting the local recurrence of brain metastases after surgery were as follows: cyst (p=0.0156), dural invasion (p=0.0029) of tumors, failure to totally remove tumors (p=0.0040), and lack of post-surgical irradiation (p<0.0001). Sex, age, tumor histology, tumor size, pre-surgical radiation, dose (≥45 vs <45, ≥50 vs <50 Gy) and the method (local vs whole brain) of post-surgical radiation did not affect the local recurrence rate of brain metastases after surgery. To avoid early recurrences of metastatic brain tumors, the factors associated with local recurrence should be considered in providing optimal treatment of tumors by surgery. (author)

  9. Pattern and Management Outcomes of Neonatal Acute Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and Management Outcomes of Neonatal Acute Surgical Conditions in Alexandria, Egypt. HI Wella, SMM Farahat. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. Pattern and Management Outcomes of Neonatal Acute Surgical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    July/August 2015 Volume 20 (2). Patterns and Management Outcomes of Neonatal cute Surgical Conditions in lexandria, ... Permission to carry out this study was obtained from the hospital management. Results. A total of 156 newborns ..... and financial constraints were the predominant reasons. This indicates good heath ...

  11. Patterns and outcome of surgical management of anorectal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anorectal malformations (ARM) are common congenital abnormalities in most parts of the world and its management remains a challenge to surgeons practicing in resource-limited setting such as Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the patterns and outcome of surgical management of ARM at a ...

  12. A Worldwide Survey on Peyronie's Disease Surgical Practice Patterns Among Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Wang, Run; Ralph, David; Levine, Laurence; Brock, Gerald

    2018-04-01

    Despite published guidelines on Peyronie's disease (PD), there are limited data on actual surgical practice among surgeons. To evaluate the surgical practice patterns in PD among surgeons from different continents and members of various sexual medicine societies. An anonymous survey on various pre-, intra-, and postoperative aspects of PD surgical care was distributed in printed format during International Society of Sexual Medicine meetings and as an online survey to International Society of Sexual Medicine members. 390 surgeons responded to the survey, with great variations in pre-, intra-, and postoperative strategies in PD surgical care. Most surgeons performed fewer than 10 penile plications and 10 graft surgeries per year. Modified Nesbit plication was the preferred option by most surgeons. Surgeons who received fellowship training were more likely to perform autologous than allograft surgery (odds ratio = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.13-2.82, P = .01). The use of penile color duplex ultrasound was inconsistently performed, with higher-volume surgeons (ie, >20 cases operated a year) more likely to use this diagnostic modality (odds ratio = 70.18, 95% CI = 20.99-234.6, P worldwide survey study has the potential to assist in the formation of a new practice guideline and serve as the basis for future prospective multinational studies. This is one of the largest surveys on PD practice and, to our knowledge, the only survey conducted across various sexual medicine societies, with the inclusion of many high-volume and experienced PD surgeons. This also is the 1st study to comprehensively evaluate many key aspects in surgical practice patterns for PD. However, the categorization on the questionnaire used in this survey was not designed to allow for direct comparison given the possibility of some surgeons with dual society memberships, reporting biases, large CIs in outcomes, different patient demographics, and cultural acceptance. There is great variation in surgical

  13. Should Aggressive Surgical Local Control Be Attempted in All Patients with Metastatic or Pelvic Ewing's Sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Steven W.; Weiss, Kurt R.; Goodman, Mark A.; Heyl, Alma E.; McGough, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In previous reports, patients with Ewing's sarcoma received radiation therapy (XRT) for definitive local control because metastatic disease and pelvic location were thought to preclude aggressive local treatment. We sought to determine if single-site metastatic disease should be treated differently from multicentric-metastatic disease. We also wanted to reinvestigate the impact of XRT, pelvic location, and local recurrence on outcomes. Our results demonstrated a significant difference in overall survival (OS) between patients with either localized disease or a single-metastatic site and patients with multicentric-metastatic disease (P = 0.004). Local control was also found to be an independent predictor of outcomes as demonstrated by a significant difference in OS between those with and without local recurrence (P = 0.001). Axial and pelvic location did not predict a decreased OS. Based on these results, we concluded that pelvic location and the diagnosis of metastatic disease at diagnosis should not preclude aggressive local control, except in cases of multicentric-metastatic disease. PMID:22550427

  14. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  15. Metastatic craniopharyngioma: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Evan Mark; Tynan, Jennifer Ruth; Robinson, Christopher Adam; Ogieglo, Lissa Marie; Vitali, Aleksander Michal

    2009-09-01

    Distant spread of craniopharyngioma is a rare but important complication. Most cases are a result of spread along the surgical path. We describe a rare case of metastatic leptomeningeal craniopharyngioma as a result of dissemination along CSF pathways in a child. A review of previously described cases is provided. A 14-year-old male was diagnosed with metastatic craniopharyngioma on routine follow-up imaging after multiple surgeries and radiation for locally recurrent craniopharyngioma. The lesion was erosive through the right parietal bone, but had remained clinically silent. The lesion was distant from previous surgical paths. The patient underwent right parietal craniotomy and resection of the lesion. Duraplasty and cranioplasty were necessary for closure. Histopathology confirmed adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. One-year follow-up demonstrated no recurrence. A review of reported cases suggests that leptomeningeal implantation may be an important step in metastases of craniopharyngioma, although the mechanism is poorly understood. Attention to tumor spillage at the time of surgery may be important in preventing distant recurrences.

  16. Surgical treatment options following chemotherapy plus cetuximab or bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer-central evaluation of FIRE-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modest, D P; Denecke, T; Pratschke, J; Ricard, I; Lang, H; Bemelmans, M; Becker, T; Rentsch, M; Seehofer, D; Bruns, C J; Gebauer, B; Modest, H I; Held, S; Folprecht, G; Heinemann, V; Neumann, U P

    2018-01-01

    The FIRE-3 trial investigated combination chemotherapy plus either cetuximab or bevacizumab in patients with untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) not scheduled for upfront surgery. We aimed to determine the number of patients who present with potentially resectable disease during systemic first-line therapy and to compare the findings with study reports concerning resections and outcome. This evaluation of 448 patients was performed as central review blinded for treatment, other reviewers' evaluations and conducted interventions. Resectability was defined if at least 50% of the reviewers recommended surgical-based intervention. Overall survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Resectability increased from 22% (97/448) at baseline before treatment to 53% (238/448) at best response (P < 0.001), compared with an actual secondary resection rate for metastases of 16% (72/448). At baseline (23% versus 20%) and best response (53% versus 53%), potential resectability of metastases in this molecular unselected population was similar in cetuximab-treated patients versus bevacizumab-treated patients and not limited to patients with one-organ disease. The actual resection rate of metastases was significantly associated with treatment setting (P = 0.02; university hospital versus hospital/practice). Overall survival was 51.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 35.9-66.7) in patients with resectable disease who received surgery, 30.8 months (95% CI 26.6-34.9) in patients with resectable disease without surgery and 18.6 months (95% CI 15.8-21.3) in patients with unresectable disease (P < 0.001). Our findings illustrate the potential for conversion to resectability in mCRC, certain reluctance towards metastatic resections in clinical practice and the need for pre-planned and continuous evaluation for metastatic resection in high-volume centres. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00433927. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined endoscopic and laparoscopic approach for palliative resection of metastatic melanoma of the stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritchard SA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic tumours of the stomach present a clinical dilemma for the surgeon. Palliative surgical resection can alleviate symptoms and prolong survival in selected patients. However, previous studies have used open methods of surgical resection with potentially high morbidity and mortality. We describe the use of laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach for palliative resection of metastatic melanoma to highlight the benefits of this technique. Case presentation A 58 year old male was investigated for iron deficiency anaemia while under treatment for pulmonary metastatic malignant melanoma. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 5 cm diameter ulcer on the anterior wall of the stomach, biopsies from the ulcer confirmed metastatic melanoma. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach lesion was performed without complication. Conclusion Laparoscopic approach has many benefits and is useful for the palliative resection of rare tumours of the stomach in order to preserve the quality of life. Its use should be considered in selected patients.

  18. Prognostic impact of metastatic pattern in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro; Romero, Alberto Omar; Machiavelli, Mario Raúl; Pérez, Juan Eduardo; Leone, Julieta; Leone, José Pablo

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the prognostic influence of metastatic pattern (MP) compared with other biologic and clinical factors in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis (BCID) and evaluate factors associated with specific sites of metastases (SSM). We evaluated women with stage IV BCID with known metastatic sites, reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2013. MP was categorized as bone-only, visceral, bone and visceral (BV), and other. Univariate and multivariate analyses determined the effects of each variable on overall survival (OS). Logistic regression examined factors associated with SSM. We included 9143 patients. Bone represented 37.5% of patients, visceral 21.9%, BV 28.8%, and other 11.9%. Median OS by MP was as follows: bone 38 months, visceral 21 months, BV 19 months, and other 33 months (P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis showed that higher number of metastatic sites had worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio 1.9), black race (hazard ratio 1.17), grade 3/4 tumors (hazard ratio 1.6), triple-negative (hazard ratio 2.24), BV MP (hazard ratio 2.07), and unmarried patients (hazard ratio 1.25) had significantly shorter OS. As compared with HR+/HER2- tumors, triple-negative and HR-/HER2+ had higher odds of brain, liver, lung, and other metastases. HR+/HER2+ had higher odds of liver metastases. All three subtypes had lower odds of bone metastases. There were substantial differences in OS according to MP. Tumor subtypes have a clear influence among other factors on SSM. We identified several prognostic factors that could guide therapy selection in treatment naïve patients.

  19. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP) on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Qin, Tingting; Slate, Elizabeth H; Zheng, W Jim

    2011-11-11

    To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP), to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray

  20. The Patterns Of Surgical Thyroid Diseases And Operative Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Patterns Of Surgical Thyroid Diseases And Operative Treatment. In Gondar College of Medical sciences, North-western Ethiopia. Abebe B. M.D. Lecturer and General practitioner,. Girmaye T. M.D. Assistant professor of surgery,. Mensur 0. M.D. Assistant professor of surgery,. Sentayehu T. M.D. General practitioner,.

  1. Incidence, causes and pattern of cancellation of Elective surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the incidence, causes and pattern of cancellation of elective surgical operations in our setting and to find the appropriate solutions for better patient management. Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study which was conducted in a teaching hospital at Bugando medical ...

  2. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ORGANISMS CAUSING SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS (SSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Murlidhar Gajbhiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND CDC defines surgical site infection as ‘Infections related to operative procedure that occurs at or near surgical incision within 30 days of operative procedure or within one year if the implant is left in situ’. Surgical site infection (SSI is 3 rd most frequently reported nosocomial infection (12%-16% as per National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of organisms causing SSI. MATERIALS AND METHODS During a two year study period in a tertiary care hospital, 19,127 patients underwent surgeries in various surgical departments. Of these 517 (2.7% developed surgical site infection. The surgical wounds were classified by CDC & NNIS criteria into 4 classes. Two wound swabs were taken and processed by standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility along with testing of ESBLs, MBLs, AmpCβ lactamases was done for all isolates causing SSI. RESULTS Among 19,127 patients, 517 (2.7% developed SSI. It was highest in patients of perforation peritonitis (11.99%.Among 517 specimens, 340 (65.76% showed growth and 177 (34.23% were culture negative. E.coli (23.33% was the commonest organism isolated followed by Acinetobacter spp. (16%, Klebsiella spp. (15.66%, Pseudomonas spp. (15.33%, S. aureus (10.33%, S. epidermidis(7.3%, Proteus spp. (6.00% and Citrobacter spp. (2.66%.Staphylococcus spp. were 100 % sensitive to Vancomycin & Linezolid. (27.5% S. aureus were MRSA and (17.5% were Inducible Clindamycin resistant (ICR. Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed maximum sensitivity towards Imipenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Amikacin. Klebsiella spp. (40.62%, E.coli (35.89%, Citrobacter spp. (33.33%, Proteus spp. (26.08% were ESBL producers. Klebsiella spp. (17.18%, E.coli (10.25%, Proteus spp. (11.11% and Citrobacter spp. (8.69% were AmpC producers. Acinetobacter spp. (28.57% was commonest MBL producer followed by Klebsiella spp. (20

  3. Surgical Site Infection among Patients Undergone Orthopaedic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    with surgical site infection at Muhimbili Orthopedic Institute. ... Determination of the relationship between outcome and exposure variables ... determined by more than 2 hours length of surgical procedure (AOR= 1.4; 95%CI 1.14-6.69; ... hospital, those with metastatic fractures, back, spine were not included as they fall under.

  4. Nurses experiences regarding staffing patterns in the surgical wards of a private hospital in Gauteng South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloko Malatji

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore and describe nurses' experiences regarding staffing patterns in the surgical wards of a private hospital in Gauteng in order to develop recommendations for staffing patterns in these wards. Methodology: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was used. Data was collected by means of in-depth semi structured individual interviews from a purposive sample of professional nurses working in the surgical wards of this hospital. Data was analysed using Tesch's method of qualitative thematic analysis. Principles of trustworthiness and ethical principles to ensure the protection of human rights were applied throughout the study. Results: The findings of the study revealed one central theme which reflected that participants experienced the staffing patterns of the surgical wards negatively. Two main themes emerged as, nurses had negative experiences in the surgical wards as well as negative emotional experiences related to the staffing patterns. Conclusion: It is evident from the findings of the study that nurses are experiencing staffing patterns negatively.

  5. MIBG scans in patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma reveal two metastatic patterns, one is associated with MYCN amplification and in MYCN-amplified tumours correlates with a better prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, Gitta; Eck-Smit, Berthe L. van; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Versteeg, Rogier; Noesel, Max M. van; Kam, Boen L.; Kaspers, Gertjan J.; Schie, Annelies van; Kreissman, Susan G.; Yanik, Gregory; Hero, Barbara; Schmidt, Matthias; Laureys, Genevieve; Lambert, Bieke; Oera, Ingrid; Schulte, Johannes H.; Caron, Huib N.; Tytgat, Godelieve A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find clinically relevant MIBG-avid metastatic patterns in patients with newly diagnosed stage 4 neuroblastoma. Diagnostic 123 I-MIBG scans from 249 patients (123 from a European and 126 from the COG cohort) were assessed for metastatic spread in 14 body segments and the form of the lesions: ''focal'' (clear margins distinguishable from adjacent background) or ''diffuse'' (indistinct margins, dispersed throughout the body segment). The total numbers of diffuse and focal lesions were recorded. Patients were then categorized as having lesions exclusively focal, lesions more focal than diffuse, lesions more diffuse than focal, or lesions exclusively diffuse. Diffuse lesions affected a median of seven body segments and focal lesions a median of two body segments (P < 0.001, both cohorts). Patients with a focal pattern had a median of 2 affected body segments and those with a diffuse pattern a median of 11 affected body segments (P < 0.001, both cohorts). Thus, two MIBG-avid metastatic patterns emerged: ''limited-focal'' and ''extensive-diffuse''. The median numbers of affected body segments in MYCN-amplified (MNA) tumours were 5 (European cohort) and 4 (COG cohort) compared to 9 and 11, respectively, in single-copy MYCN (MYCNsc) tumours (P < 0.001). Patients with exclusively focal metastases were more likely to have a MNA tumour (60 % and 70 %, respectively) than patients with the other types of metastases (23 % and 28 %, respectively; P < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, focal metastases were associated with a better event-free and overall survival than the other types of metastases in patients with MNA tumours in the COG cohort (P < 0.01). Two metastatic patterns were found: a ''limited and focal'' pattern found mainly in patients with MNA neuroblastoma that correlated with prognosis, and an ''extensive and diffuse'' pattern found mainly in patients with MYCNsc neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  6. Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma: Surgery and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, Trabelsi; Olfa, Gharbi; Faten, Hammedi; Makrem, Hochlef; Slim, Ben Ahmed; Moncef, Mokni

    2009-12-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma of high malignant potential. It most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera. We report a case of 52-year-old woman who presented with an invasive hidradenocarcinoma of the finger, treated with surgical excision. The patient presented with skin and lymph node metastases four years after, treated by chemotherapy. Hidradenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor. It seems important to use adjuvant therapies particularly for recurrent and metastatic forms.

  7. Carotid body paraganglioma metastatic to bone: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, A.; Healey, J.H.; Wilson, S.C.; Huvos, A.G.; Yeh, S.D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Two patients with carotid body paraganglioma developed bone metastases 3 and 6 years respectively after surgical excision of the primary tumors. Plain radiographs showed ill-defined metastatic lesions. Scintigram using radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine, an analogue of noradrenaline that is taken up by neurosecretary granules, showed an abnormal accumulation in the corresponding metastatic lesion. Histologically, nests of epithelioid cells with clear cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei and abundant collagen fibers were observed within destroyed trabeculae. Treatment including external radiation and surgery provided pain relief and early local disease control. (orig.)

  8. The Pattern of Surgical Admissions in University of Nigeria Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestive system and genitourinary systems were the most commonly affected systems. Emergency admission accounted for 18.1% of all surgical admissions while elective admissions accounted for the rest. Conclusion: More detailed research on the pattern of admissions is important in planning and should be carried ...

  9. Definition and scope of the surgical treatment in patients with pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Ahmedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in lungs is a relatively new trend of modern oncology. In this connection, still there are no clearly formulated criteria for patient selection for this type of intervention, approaches to repeated resections and scope of the surgical operation in case of multiple lesions. Established key prognostic factors include lesion of intrathoracic lymph nodes, timing of the development of metastatic disease, baseline level of carcinoembryonic antigen, number of foci and the volume of metastatic lesion, stage of the disease. Options for surgical access include lateral thoracotomy, sternotomy, thoracoscopy and thoracoscopy combined with additional minithoracotomy.If a patient has a single peripheral metastatic lesions, physician should prefer thoracoscopic operations. One of their advantages include minimum development of adhesions and possibility of subsequent re-thoracoscopy. Resection of pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer (R0 resection rate allows to achieve persistent healing of the tumor process in a significant number of patients.

  10. Associations between primary tumor RAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutation status and metastatic site in patients with chemo-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Palshof, Jesper Andreas; Larsen, Finn Ole

    2018-01-01

    investigated the association between RAS (KRAS or NRAS), BRAF, PIK3CA mutations and metastatic pattern in patients with metastatic (m) CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study reviewed Danish biobank and database of patients with mCRC who received cetuximab and irinotecan, independent of RAS mutation status...

  11. Metastatic spinal cord compression from basal cell carcinoma of the skin treated with surgical decompression and vismodegib: case report and review of Hedgehog signalling pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, J; Carswell, S; Talbot, T

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old man with locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) causing spinal cord compression, which was treated with spinal surgery and subsequent vismodegib. The patient presented with a large fungating chest wall lesion and a metastasis in T8 that was causing cord compression. He had neurosurgical decompression of the T8 lesion and fixation of the spine. Punch biopsy from the fungating chest wall lesion showed a BCC with some malignant squamous differentiation (basosquamous). Histopathological examination of the metastatic lesion in T8 at the time of surgical decompression identified features identical to the punch biopsy. The patient was referred to the oncology clinic for adjuvant treatment. In light of his metastatic disease and the large area over his chest wall that could not fully be covered by radiotherapy, he was treated with the novel oral Hedgehog signalling pathway (HHSP) inhibitor vismodegib, which led to marked improvement. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. The Pattern and Surgical Management of Diabetic Foot at Muhimbili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at determining the pattern and the surgical management of patients with Diabetic Foot at Muhimbili National Hospital, from March to December 2008. Methods: All in-patients with diabetic foot who were admitted in the hospital during the study period were included into the study. Results: A total of 67 ...

  13. Patterns of Daily Costs Differ for Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Garland, Allan; Gong, Michelle N

    2015-12-01

    Published studies suggest hospital costs on Day 1 in the intensive care unit (ICU) far exceed those of subsequent days, when costs are relatively stable. Yet, no study stratified patients by ICU type. To determine whether daily cost patterns differ by ICU type. We performed a retrospective study of adults admitted to five ICUs (two surgical: quaternary surgical ICU [SICU quat] and quaternary cardiac surgical ICU [CSICU quat]; two medical: tertiary medical ICU [MICU tertiary] and quaternary medical ICU [MICU quat]; one general: community medical surgical ICU [MSICU comm]) at Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, New York during 2013. After excluding costs clearly accrued outside the ICU, daily hospital costs were merged with clinical data. Patterns of daily unadjusted costs were evaluated in each ICU using median regression. Generalized estimating equations with first-order autocorrelation were used to identify factors independently associated with daily costs. Unadjusted daily costs were higher on Day 1 than on subsequent days only for surgical ICUs-SICU quat (median [interquartile range], $2,636 [$1,834-$4,282] on Day 1 vs. $1,840 [$1,501-$2,332] on Day 2; P cost from Days 1 to 2. After multivariate adjustment, there remained a significant decrease in cost from ICU Day 1 to 2 in surgical units with statistically similar Day 1 and 2 costs for other ICUs. Higher Day 1 costs are not seen in patients admitted to medical/nonsurgical ICUs.

  14. A comparative analysis of primary and secondary Gleason pattern predictive ability for positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfoungaristos, S; Kavouras, A; Kanatas, P; Polimeros, N; Perimenis, P

    2011-01-01

    To compare the predictive ability of primary and secondary Gleason pattern for positive surgical margins in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and a preoperative Gleason score ≤ 6. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients undergone a radical prostatectomy between January 2005 and October 2010 was conducted. Patients' age, prostate volume, preoperative PSA, biopsy Gleason score, the 1st and 2nd Gleason pattern were entered a univariate and multivariate analysis. The 1st and 2nd pattern were tested for their ability to predict positive surgical margins using receiver operating characteristic curves. Positive surgical margins were noticed in 56 cases (38.1%) out of 147 studied patients. The 2nd pattern was significantly greater in those with positive surgical margins while the 1st pattern was not significantly different between the 2 groups of patients. ROC analysis revealed that area under the curve was 0.53 (p=0.538) for the 1st pattern and 0.60 (p=0.048) for the 2nd pattern. Concerning the cases with PSA <10 ng/ml, it was also found that only the 2nd pattern had a predictive ability (p=0.050). When multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted it was found that the 2nd pattern was the only independent predictor. The second Gleason pattern was found to be of higher value than the 1st one for the prediction of positive surgical margins in patients with preoperative Gleason score ≤ 6 and this should be considered especially when a neurovascular bundle sparing radical prostatectomy is planned, in order not to harm the oncological outcome.

  15. MIBG scans in patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma reveal two metastatic patterns, one is associated with MYCN amplification and in MYCN-amplified tumours correlates with a better prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, Gitta [Academic Medical Centre/Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Centre, Department of Oncogenomics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, Berthe L. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zwinderman, Koos H. [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Versteeg, Rogier [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Oncogenomics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Noesel, Max M. van [Erasmus Medical Centre/Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology/Haematology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kam, Boen L. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kaspers, Gertjan J. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schie, Annelies van [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreissman, Susan G. [Duke University Medical Centre, Durham, NC (United States); University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group (COG), Gainesville, FL (United States); Yanik, Gregory [University of Florida, Children' s Oncology Group (COG), Gainesville, FL (United States); University of Michigan, Department of Paediatrics, Division of Haematology and Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hero, Barbara [University Hospital of Cologne, Children' s Hospital, Cologne (Germany); Schmidt, Matthias [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cologne (Germany); Laureys, Genevieve [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Ghent (Belgium); Lambert, Bieke [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Oera, Ingrid [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Oncogenomics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lund University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Lund (Sweden); Schulte, Johannes H. [University Children' s Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany); Caron, Huib N.; Tytgat, Godelieve A. [Academic Medical Centre/Emma Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2014-09-30

    The aim of this study was to find clinically relevant MIBG-avid metastatic patterns in patients with newly diagnosed stage 4 neuroblastoma. Diagnostic {sup 123}I-MIBG scans from 249 patients (123 from a European and 126 from the COG cohort) were assessed for metastatic spread in 14 body segments and the form of the lesions: ''focal'' (clear margins distinguishable from adjacent background) or ''diffuse'' (indistinct margins, dispersed throughout the body segment). The total numbers of diffuse and focal lesions were recorded. Patients were then categorized as having lesions exclusively focal, lesions more focal than diffuse, lesions more diffuse than focal, or lesions exclusively diffuse. Diffuse lesions affected a median of seven body segments and focal lesions a median of two body segments (P < 0.001, both cohorts). Patients with a focal pattern had a median of 2 affected body segments and those with a diffuse pattern a median of 11 affected body segments (P < 0.001, both cohorts). Thus, two MIBG-avid metastatic patterns emerged: ''limited-focal'' and ''extensive-diffuse''. The median numbers of affected body segments in MYCN-amplified (MNA) tumours were 5 (European cohort) and 4 (COG cohort) compared to 9 and 11, respectively, in single-copy MYCN (MYCNsc) tumours (P < 0.001). Patients with exclusively focal metastases were more likely to have a MNA tumour (60 % and 70 %, respectively) than patients with the other types of metastases (23 % and 28 %, respectively; P < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, focal metastases were associated with a better event-free and overall survival than the other types of metastases in patients with MNA tumours in the COG cohort (P < 0.01). Two metastatic patterns were found: a ''limited and focal'' pattern found mainly in patients with MNA neuroblastoma that correlated with prognosis, and an ''extensive and

  16. Molecular Subgroup of Primary Prostate Cancer Presenting with Metastatic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven M; Knight, Laura A; McCavigan, Andrena M; Logan, Gemma E; Berge, Viktor; Sherif, Amir; Pandha, Hardev; Warren, Anne Y; Davidson, Catherine; Uprichard, Adam; Blayney, Jaine K; Price, Bethanie; Jellema, Gera L; Steele, Christopher J; Svindland, Aud; McDade, Simon S; Eden, Christopher G; Foster, Chris; Mills, Ian G; Neal, David E; Mason, Malcolm D; Kay, Elaine W; Waugh, David J; Harkin, D Paul; Watson, R William; Clarke, Noel W; Kennedy, Richard D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 4-25% of patients with early prostate cancer develop disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. To identify a molecular subgroup of prostate cancers with metastatic potential at presentation resulting in a high risk of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed using gene expression data from 70 primary resections, 31 metastatic lymph nodes, and 25 normal prostate samples. Independent assay validation was performed using 322 radical prostatectomy samples from four sites with a mean follow-up of 50.3 months. Molecular subgroups were identified using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. A partial least squares approach was used to generate a gene expression assay. Relationships with outcome (time to biochemical and metastatic recurrence) were analysed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analysis. A molecular subgroup of primary prostate cancer with biology similar to metastatic disease was identified. A 70-transcript signature (metastatic assay) was developed and independently validated in the radical prostatectomy samples. Metastatic assay positive patients had increased risk of biochemical recurrence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 1.62 [1.13-2.33]; p=0.0092) and metastatic recurrence (multivariable HR=3.20 [1.76-5.80]; p=0.0001). A combined model with Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post surgical (CAPRA-S) identified patients at an increased risk of biochemical and metastatic recurrence superior to either model alone (HR=2.67 [1.90-3.75]; pmolecular subgroup of primary prostate cancers with metastatic potential. The metastatic assay may improve the ability to detect patients at risk of metastatic recurrence following radical prostatectomy. The impact of adjuvant therapies should be assessed in this higher-risk population. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The surgical manegement of metastases to humerus-clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrobok, Adam; Spindel, Jerzy; Miszczyk, Leszek; Koczy, Bogdan; Pilecki, Bogdan; Jarosz, Adam; Mrozek, Tomasz

    2003-06-30

    Background. The humerus is a common localisation of cancer metastases. The restoration of anatomical order and tumor resection within humerus is important for patients quality of everyday life and for their pain relief. The surgical treatment is one of the most important part of the whole oncological ways of tratment. The study objective was a clinical assesment of tumor resection and reconstruction within humerus according to matastasis localisation and the choice of surgical technique. Material and methods. In the years 1999-2002 19 patients underwent surgery due to pathological fracture or/and cancer metastasis within humerus. The shaft localisation of the tumor was found in 8 cases and in 11 patients the metastatic foci were found in proximnal diaphysis. In patients with proximal diaphysis localisation of the tumor the partial resection with subsequent joint exchange procedure was made. The humeral shaft metastatic cancer changes were treated by the segmental resection with subsequent surgical cement filling or auto/allogenical bone grafting combined with intramedullary nail or AO/ASIF plate stabilisation. The average follow-up period was 8,5 months. Results. In patients after resection with shoulder joint alloplasty according to the Enneking test a very good result was found in 7 and very good in 4 cases. In patients with femoral shaft metastatic tumor locaslisation, 6 good and 2 fair results were found. In 1 patient after 2 months rehabilitation a reoperation was needed due to the mechanical destabilisation. The best results were found in patients after intramedullary nailing.An acute soft tissue inflamation requiering surgical treatment was found in 1 patient after shoulder joint replacement. Conclusions. After clinical analysis of the material we highly recomend the partial humeral bone resection with subsequent shoulder alloplasty in patients with proximal humeral diaphysis metastatic localisation. In cases with shaft localisation a better results were

  18. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  19. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases including Graves' disease is a known phenomenon. However, the management of these patients remains an issue of concern and controversy for those who care for them. We report a case of metastatic paillary carcinoma of ...

  20. Hospital Blood Transfusion Patterns During Major Noncardiac Surgery and Surgical Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alicia; Trivedi, Amal N; Jiang, Lan; Vezeridis, Michael; Henderson, William G; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2015-08-01

    We retrospectively examined intraoperative blood transfusion patterns at US veteran's hospitals through description of national patterns of intraoperative blood transfusion by indication for transfusion in the elderly; assessment of temporal trends in the use of intraoperative blood transfusion; and relationship of institutional use of intraoperative blood transfusion to hospital 30-day risk-adjusted postoperative mortality rates.Limited data exist on the pattern of intraoperative blood transfusion by indication for transfusion at the hospital level, and the relationship between intraoperative transfusion rates and institutional surgical outcomes.Using the Department of Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we assigned 424,015 major noncardiac operations among elderly patients (≥65 years) in 117 veteran's hospitals, from 1997 to 2009, into groups based on indication for intraoperative blood transfusion according to literature and clinical guidelines. We then examined institutional variations and temporal trends in surgical blood use based on these indications, and the relationship between these institutional patterns of transfusion and 30-day postoperative mortality.Intraoperative transfusion occurred in 38,056/424,015 operations (9.0%). Among the 64,390 operations with an indication for transfusion, there was wide variation (median: 49.9%, range: 8.7%-76.2%) in hospital transfusion rates, a yearly decline in transfusion rates (average 1.0%/y), and an inverse relationship between hospital intraoperative transfusion rates and hospital 30-day risk-adjusted mortality (adjusted mortality of 9.8 ± 2.8% vs 8.3 ± 2.1% for lowest and highest tertiles of hospital transfusion rates, respectively, P = 0.02). In contrast, for the 225,782 operations with no indication for transfusion, there was little variation in hospital transfusion rates (median 0.7%, range: 0%-3.4%), no meaningful temporal change in transfusion (average 0.0%/y), and

  1. Outcomes of colon resection in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Patterns of Chemotherapy Use in a U.S.-Based Cohort of Patients with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Thomas A; Meyer, Gary; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Wolpin, Brian M; Schrag, Deborah; Fuchs, Charles S

    2017-08-01

    Few population studies have examined patterns of systemic therapy administration in metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) or the predictors associated with specific treatment choices. We assessed 4,011 consecutive MPC patients who received chemotherapy between January 2005 and December 2015 at academic, private, and community-based oncology practices subscribing to a U.S.-wide chemotherapy order entry system capturing disease, patient, provider, and treatment data. Multivariate analyses of these prospectively recorded characteristics identified significant predictors of specific therapeutic choices. Overall, 100 different regimens were used in first-line treatment of MPC. First-line gemcitabine monotherapy usage fell steadily from 72% in 2006 to 16% in 2015. This steep decline mirrored increases in first-line usage of both 5 fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel. Younger male patients were more likely to receive FOLFIRINOX as first-line treatment, whereas patients treated at community practices and by oncologists with lower MPC patient volume were more likely to receive gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (all p  ≤ .05). Among all patients receiving first-line chemotherapy for MPC, 49% went on to receive second-line therapy and 19% received third-line therapy; administration of second- and third-line therapies increased steadily over the time course of follow-up. Younger patients and those treated by oncologists with higher MPC patient volume were more likely to receive second- and third-line therapies. This population-based study provides insight into treatment patterns of MPC in the U.S. Usage patterns varied greatly according to patient and provider characteristics. This study examined real world metastatic pancreatic cancer treatment patterns in the United States with the goals of understanding changes in chemotherapy treatment frequencies over time and determining the individual predictors that

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Finding of Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Ovary: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Soon Hyuk; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho; Lee, Seung Young; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Sung Jin; Choi, Song Yi

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of liver. Metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma occurs in various organs, but metastasis to the ovary is extremely rare. We report MRI finding of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma of the ovary in a 37-year-old woman who was treated hepatocellular carcinoma transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation a year ago. Pelvic MRI revealed a mass in pelvic cavity with heterogeneous signal intensity and centripetal enhancement. Surgical excision and pathologic examination confirmed metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in the ovary.

  4. HIV-1 Evolutionary Patterns Associated with Metastatic Kaposi’s Sarcoma during AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L. Lamers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS in HIV-infected individuals can have a wide range of clinical outcomes, from indolent skin tumors to a life-threatening visceral cancer. KS tumors contain endothelial-related cells and inflammatory cells that may be HIV-infected. In this study we tested if HIV evolutionary patterns distinguish KS tumor relatedness and progression. Multisite autopsies from participants who died from HIV-AIDS with KS prior to the availability of antiretroviral therapy were identified at the AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR. Two patients (KS1 and KS2 died predominantly from non-KS-associated disease and KS3 died due to aggressive and metastatic KS within one month of diagnosis. Skin and visceral tumor and nontumor autopsy tissues were obtained (n=12. Single genome sequencing was used to amplify HIV RNA and DNA, which was present in all tumors. Independent HIV tumor clades in phylogenies differentiated KS1 and KS2 from KS3, whose sequences were interrelated by both phylogeny and selection. HIV compartmentalization was confirmed in KS1 and KS2 tumors; however, in KS3, no compartmentalization was observed among sampled tissues. While the sample size is small, the HIV evolutionary patterns observed in all patients suggest an interplay between tumor cells and HIV-infected cells which provides a selective advantage and could promote KS progression.

  5. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of a metastatic lung nodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highland, Adrian M. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom); Mack, Paul [Diana Princess of Wales Hospital, Scartho Road, Grimsby, DN33 2BA (United Kingdom); Breen, David J. [Department of Radiology, Southampton University Hospitals, Tremona Road, Southampton, SO16 6YD (United Kingdom)

    2002-07-01

    Pulmonary metastases are a common finding in patients with colonic adenocarcinoma. We report the treatment of a metastatic lung nodule with radiofrequency (RF) ablation under CT guidance. This case illustrates the use of RF ablation in a patient in whom surgical resection was no longer possible and where chemotherapy was unlikely to produce benefit. This technique may offer a viable method of cytoreduction when other treatments have not succeeded. (orig.)

  6. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of a metastatic lung nodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highland, Adrian M.; Mack, Paul; Breen, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Pulmonary metastases are a common finding in patients with colonic adenocarcinoma. We report the treatment of a metastatic lung nodule with radiofrequency (RF) ablation under CT guidance. This case illustrates the use of RF ablation in a patient in whom surgical resection was no longer possible and where chemotherapy was unlikely to produce benefit. This technique may offer a viable method of cytoreduction when other treatments have not succeeded. (orig.)

  7. Metastatic Mantle Cell Lymphoma to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of a metastatic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL to the pituitary gland. The patient had a known history of MCL for which she previously received chemotherapy. She presented with new-onset diplopia and confusion, and reported a history of progressive vision blurriness associated with headache, nausea, and vomiting. MRI of the brain showed an enhancing lesion within the sella turcica involving the cavernous sinuses bilaterally, extending into Meckel's cave on the left, and abutting the optic nerves bilaterally. Following surgical excision, histopathology revealed the tumor to be a MCL. Metastatic pituitary tumors are rare and have been estimated to make up 1% of tumors discovered in the sellar region. The two most common secondary metastatic lesions to the sella are breast and lung carcinoma followed by prostate, renal cell, and gastrointestinal carcinoma. Metastatic lymphoma to the pituitary gland is especially rare and is estimated to constitute 0.5% of all metastatic tumors to the sella turcica. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MCL metastasizing to the pituitary gland.

  8. Retrospective assessment of thoracic radiographic findings in metastatic canine hemangiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, A.S.; Bailey, M.Q.; Sagartz, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one dogs with histopathologically confirmed hemangiosarcoma were evaluated by thoracic radiography for metastatic disease. All dogs had histopathologic examinations of the lungs within two weeks of thoracic radiography. Fourteen dogs had histopathologic evidence of pulmonary hemangiosarcoma; metastatic disease was detected radiographically in eleven of these dogs. The most common radiographic pattern was that of poorly defined small coalescing nodules (8 dogs); other radiographic patterns included well-circumscribed nodules (3 dogs) and alveolar infiltrates secondary to hemorrhage (2 dogs). Differential diagnoses for diffuse, poorly defined, coalescing pulmonary opacities should include hemangiosarcoma in addition to edema, lymphoma, systemic mycoses, fibrosis, allergy, toxicosis, and carcinomas

  9. The role of radiotherapy in the local treatment of a straightaway metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, D.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is diagnosed when it is already metastatic in about 6 per cent of cases. The author discusses comparative studies which showed that a surgical treatment of the primitive tumour resulted in a global survival benefit for the patients. As the role of radiotherapy in such a situation, either alone or with surgery, is not well documented, he intends to discuss the interest of radiotherapy within the frame of the local treatment of a straightaway metastatic breast cancer. Short communication

  10. Nationwide Database of Surgical Treatment Pattern for Patients With Stress Urinary Incontinence in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yong Cho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeNationwide database regarding stress urinary incontinence (SUI is important for evaluating treatment patterns for SUI and for establishing appropriate national policies regarding SUI management. The purpose of this present study was to investigate surgical treatment patterns for women with SUI and analyze the current status of SUI management in Korea by using a nationwide database.MethodsData used for investigating the surgical trends and changes in Korea were retrieved from the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service from 2008 to 2011.ResultsThe number of surgical cases of SUI decreased continuously from 2008 to 2011. The proportion of transvaginal surgery using a midurethral sling increased continuously. Sling procedures were most commonly performed for women in their 40s followed by women in their 50s. Transvaginal surgery using a single sling or a readjustable sling was performed from 5.6% to 6.1%, which showed no significant change in the number of surgical cases.ConclusionsThere is a growing need for an appropriate national welfare policy and budget to care for aged and super-aged women in Korea. The early detection and intervention of silent SUI should be actively considered as an important preventive strategy to improve the quality of life in younger women.

  11. Metastatic pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast-Emphasis on gastric metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hage, Ali; Ruel, Carolanne; Afif, Wahiba; Wissanji, Hussein; Hogue, Jean-Charles; Desbiens, Christine; Leblanc, Guy; Poirier, Éric

    2016-10-01

    Breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have different metastatic patterns, but the exact pattern of metastases from ILC is poorly known. This study aimed to determine the frequency of ILC metastases in atypical locations, with an emphasis on gastric metastases. Patients with ILC treated at the Saint-Sacrement Hospital (Quebec City, Canada) and the Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital (Montreal, Canada) between January 2003 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, clinical, and follow-up data were retrieved from the medical charts. Metastases that were diagnosed during follow-up were recorded. Among the 481 patients with ILC, 74 (15.4%) were diagnosed with metastases after a median follow-up of 46 months. Among these 74 patients, 41.9% had metastases in atypical sites. Five patients were diagnosed with histologically confirmed gastric metastases of ILC. Metastases of breast ILC to atypical sites might be more frequent than previously reported. Clinicians should keep a high level of suspicion when a patient with a history of ILC develops digestive symptoms. It is important to differentiate metastases from a primary GI tumor by using immunohistochemical markers. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:543-547. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Use of a machine learning algorithm to classify expertise: analysis of hand motion patterns during a simulated surgical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robert A

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that machine learning algorithms increase the predictive power to classify surgical expertise using surgeons' hand motion patterns. In 2012 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 14 surgical attendings and 10 first- and second-year surgical residents each performed two bench model venous anastomoses. During the simulated tasks, the participants wore an inertial measurement unit on the dorsum of their dominant (right) hand to capture their hand motion patterns. The pattern from each bench model task performed was preprocessed into a symbolic time series and labeled as expert (attending) or novice (resident). The labeled hand motion patterns were processed and used to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification algorithm. The trained algorithm was then tested for discriminative/predictive power against unlabeled (blinded) hand motion patterns from tasks not used in the training. The Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity metric was also measured from each hand motion pattern, with an optimal threshold calculated to separately classify the patterns. The LZ metric classified unlabeled (blinded) hand motion patterns into expert and novice groups with an accuracy of 70% (sensitivity 64%, specificity 80%). The SVM algorithm had an accuracy of 83% (sensitivity 86%, specificity 80%). The results confirmed the hypothesis. The SVM algorithm increased the predictive power to classify blinded surgical hand motion patterns into expert versus novice groups. With further development, the system used in this study could become a viable tool for low-cost, objective assessment of procedural proficiency in a competency-based curriculum.

  13. CLINICAL CASE OF A MASSIVE ISOLA TED METASTATIC ADRENAL LESION IN COLORECT AL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Moshurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe liver, lungs, parietal and visceral peritoneum have traditionally been considered to be the main target organs of metastatic colorectal cancer. The isolated adrenal metastasis in colorectal cancer is rare, in the literature there are single observations of clinical cases of successful surgical treatment of such patients. This article presents the clinical observation of successful surgical treatment of patients with colorectal cancer with massive isolated adrenal metastases.

  14. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Young Rhee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  15. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Soo Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Se Hoon

    2018-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  16. 67Gallium citrate scintigraphy to assess metastatic spread in a dog with an oral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuti, T; de Vos, J; Bosman, T; van de Wiele, C; Grinwis, G C M; van Bree, H; Peremans, K

    2009-01-01

    Gallium scintigraphy was used to evaluate therapeutic response in a 10-year-old, male, Dutch sheepdog, suffering from an oral melanoma. Treatment was performed with a combination of carboplatin and hypofractionated radiation. Nineteen weeks after radiation therapy, the left submandibular lymph node was surgically removed because of metastatic disease. Thirty weeks after radiation therapy, 67Gallium scintigraphy was performed to assess for residual disease and metastasis. Increased uptake in the right submandibular lymph node area was noted and identified as a melanoma metastasis on cytology. Surgical excision was performed. Twenty-one weeks later, the dog was euthanased because of advanced pulmonary metastases. This report of a case of oral melanoma illustrates the advantages of 67Gallium scintigraphy in monitoring for the presence of metastatic disease and effectiveness of therapy.

  17. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma versus Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor in von Hippel-Lindau Disease: Treatment with Interleukin-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Williams

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiating between clear cell neuroendocrine tumor (NET of the pancreas and renal cell carcinoma (RCC metastatic to the pancreas can be challenging in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL. The clear cell features of both NET and RCC in VHL patients may lead to misdiagnosis, inaccurate staging, and alternative treatment. We present a patient in which this occurred. As clear cell NETs closely resembling metastatic RCC are distinctive neoplasms of VHL and metastatic RCC to the pancreas in the VHL population is rare, careful pathologic examination should be performed prior to subjecting patients to definitive surgical or medical therapies.

  18. Re-irradiation of metastatic disease in the neck from xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C C; Sanfilippo, N J; Myssiorek, D

    2010-06-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum, an autosomal recessive disease that occurs with a frequency of 1:250,000, is caused by a genetic defect in nucleotide excision repair enzymes. Mutation of these enzymes leads to the development of multiple basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. We present a case of xeroderma pigmentosum in a patient with cervical and intraparotid metastatic disease from recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the face and scalp, treated with neck dissection and re-irradiation. With the illustrative case report, we include a literature review of diagnosis, prognostic factors, and treatment, with emphasis on surgical and radiation treatment of cervical metastatic disease from recurrent skin carcinomas. A xeroderma pigmentosum patient presented to our clinic with a 2-cm right submental and 1-cm right infra-auricular mass after resection of multiple squamous cell carcinomas of the scalp and face, and external-beam radiation therapy to the right face and neck. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the submental mass revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was brought to the operating room for a right modified radical neck dissection and excision of the right submental and intraparotid mass. Surgical pathology revealed 3 level ia and supraclavicular lymph nodes that were positive for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Re-irradiation to the entire right hemi-neck and left submandibular nodal region was performed using opposed oblique portals for the upper neck and a low anterior en face hemi-neck portal. The left parotid region was also included in the re-irradiation volume. Treatment was completed without delayed complications or recurrences to date. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature of a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum who subsequently developed metastatic disease from recurrent cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the rarity of xeroderma pigmentosum, this case report is also the first

  19. Metastatic Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast to the Vulva: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaioannou, N.; Zervoudis, S.; Grammatikakis, I.; Peitsidis, P.; Palvakis, K.; Youssef, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    Primary breast-like vulva cancer, as well as metastatic disease of breast cancer to the vulva are described to be very rare, especially many years after the treatment of the primary breast tumor. Breast cancer rarely metastasizes to the vulva without finding other metastatic sites. We report a case of a 93-year-old woman with an isolated metastatic vulva nodule thirteen years after the surgical treatment of primary breast cancer. The prior histology was a node negative invasive lobular breast cancer. The histology of the vulva nodule was similar to the primary breast cancer. No other metastatic sites were found by both clinical examination and imaging. When isolated metastasis to the vulva is found, a primary cancer in the gynaecological area should be excluded first

  20. Pattern of failure following surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref, I.; Bociek, G.; Salhani, D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/objective: To identify the pattern of failure in patients with resected renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods: The records of 116 patients with unilateral non-metastatic RCC, who were treated with definitive surgery and referred to the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre between 1977 and 1988, were reviewed. Distribution by stage included: T1 = 3 patients, T2 = 42 patients, T3 =71 patients. The median follow-up was 44 months, with a range of 4-267 months. Results: Loco-regional failure (LRF) developed in 8 patients, yielding a 7-year actuarial incidence of 8% for LRF, as first event. Nine patients developed local or regional recurrence + distant failure, and 58 patients had distant metastases only. Seven-year actuarial incidence of distant failure was 55%. The overall 7-year actuarial survival rate was 40%, and cause-specific survival was 45%. Conclusion: LRF was rare following nephrectomy. This data does not support the role of adjuvant radiation therapy in this disease

  1. Metastatic anal sac carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and associated hypertrophic osteopathy in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giuliano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male neutered Irish setter was treated for a metastatic anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASAC and hypercalcaemia by complete surgical excision of the primary tumour and partial excision of the sublumbar lymph nodes. Further enlargement of the sublumbar lymph nodes was linked to recurrent hypercalcaemia 3 months after surgical treatment. Medical treatment with Toceranib and Clodronate showed modest results in the treatment of the tumour and the hypercalcaemia. Radiotherapy of the sublumbar lymph nodes and later concurrent carboplatin chemotherapy resulted in partial tumour remission with marked reduction in size of the lymph nodes and normalization of the calcaemia. Unfortunately, concurrently with subsequent relapse of the hypercalaemia, the dog developed hypertrophic osteopathy (HO and lumbar spinal metastasis and the dog was euthanized. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the second case of metastatic apocrine gland carcinoma of the anal sac associated with HO and the first case that describe the development of HO late in the stage of the disease.

  2. Patterns of somatic alterations between matched primary and metastatic colorectal tumors characterized by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao; Cho, Yong Beom; Wang, Kai; Huang, Donghui; Hong, Hye Kyung; Choi, Yoon-La; Ko, Young Hyeh; Nam, Do-Hyun; Jin, Juyoun; Yang, Heekyoung; Fernandez, Julio; Deng, Shibing; Rejto, Paul A; Lee, Woo Yong; Mao, Mao

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients have poor prognosis after formation of distant metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which genetic changes facilitate metastasis is critical for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at controlling disease progression while minimizing toxic side effects. A comprehensive portrait of somatic alterations in CRC and the changes between primary and metastatic tumors has yet to be developed. We performed whole genome sequencing of two primary CRC tumors and their matched liver metastases. By comparing to matched germline DNA, we catalogued somatic alterations at multiple scales, including single nucleotide variations, small insertions and deletions, copy number aberrations and structural variations in both the primary and matched metastasis. We found that the majority of these somatic alterations are present in both sites. Despite the overall similarity, several de novo alterations in the metastases were predicted to be deleterious, in genes including FBXW7, DCLK1 and FAT2, which might contribute to the initiation and progression of distant metastasis. Through careful examination of the mutation prevalence among tumor cells at each site, we also proposed distinct clonal evolution patterns between primary and metastatic tumors in the two cases. These results suggest that somatic alterations may play an important role in driving the development of colorectal cancer metastasis and present challenges and opportunities when considering the choice of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing choice of chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Rossi, Foteini Vakiarou, Federica Zoratto, Loredana Bianchi, Anselmo Papa, Enrico Basso, Monica Verrico, Giuseppe Lo Russo, Salvatore Evangelista, Guilia Rinaldi, Francesca Perrone-Congedi, Gian Paolo Spinelli, Valeria Stati, Davide Caruso, Alessandra Prete, Silverio TomaoDepartment of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Oncology Unit, ICOT, Latina, ItalyAbstract: Management of metastatic colorectal cancer requires a multimodal approach and must be performed by an experienced, multidisciplinary expert team. The optimal choice of the individual treatment modality, according to disease localization and extent, tumor biology, and patient clinical characteristics, will be one that can maintain quality of life and long-term survival, and even cure selected patients. This review is an overview of the different therapeutic approaches available in metastatic colorectal cancer, for the purpose of defining personalized therapeutic algorithms according to tumor biology and patient clinical features.Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer, patient clinical features, tumor biology, multidisciplinary approach

  4. Non-surgical management of a pediatric "intoed" gait pattern - a systematic review of the current best evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Hayley; Kumar, Saravana

    2012-01-01

    An intoed gait pattern is one of the most common referrals for children to an orthopedic consultation. Parental concern as to the aesthetics of the child's gait pattern and/or its symptomatic nature will primarily drive these referrals during a child's early developmental years. Whilst some of these referrals prove to be the result of a normal growth variant, some children will present with a symptomatic intoed gait pattern. Various treatments, both conservative and surgical, have been proposed including: braces, wedges, stretches and exercises, shoe modifications, and surgical procedures. However, which treatments are effective and justified in the management of this condition is not clear within the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to therefore identify and critique the best available evidence for the non-surgical management of an intoed gait pattern in a pediatric population. A systematic review was conducted of which only experimental studies investigating a management option for an intoeing gait pattern were included. Studies needed to be written in English, pertaining to a human pediatric population, and published within a peer reviewed journal. Electronic databases were searched: Ovid (Medline), EMBASE, AMED, PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. The National Health and Medical Research Council's designation of levels of hierarchy and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme cohort studies critical appraisal tool were used. Five level IV studies were found. The studies were of varied quality and with mixed results. Gait plates, physiologic/standardized shoes, and orthotic devices (with gate plate extension) were shown to produce a statistically significant improvement to an intoed gait pattern. Shoe wedges, torqheels, and a leather counter splint were not able to reduce an intoed gait pattern. There is limited evidence to inform the non-surgical management of a pediatric intoed gait pattern. The body of evidence that does exist

  5. Effect of artificial hyperglycemia and dissection of the primary focus on metastatic spreading of carcinoma RL-67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Yu.P.; Furmanchuk, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    In the experiments on the C57B1 mice the authors studied the effect of artificial hyperglycemia (AH), amputation of the extremities with tumors as well as combinations of these effects on the intensity of metastatic spreading of carcinoma RL-67 to the lungs. AH did not prove to intensify the process of metastatic spreading if it was conducted on the 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11th days. The average number of metastases did not differ from that in the control group. AH which was conducted one day before amputation of the extremety with the tumor caused a more significant inhibition of metastatic spreading than a surgical intervention

  6. Metastases but not cardiovascular mortality reduces life expectancy following surgical resection of apparently benign pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, H J L M; Brouwers, F M; Hermus, A R M M; Sweep, F C G J; Verhofstad, A A J; Verbeek, A L M; Pacak, K; Lenders, J W M

    2008-12-01

    The treatment of choice for non-metastatic pheochromocytoma is surgical resection. Its goals are to abolish catecholamine hypersecretion, normalize blood pressure, and prevent further tumor growth or progression to metastatic disease. Data on long-term mortality and morbidity after pheochromocytoma surgery are limited. We here report a retrospective study on the long-term outcome after surgery for apparently benign pheochromocytoma at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Data on clinical presentation, treatment, post-surgical blood pressure and recurrence, metastasis and death were collected of 69 consecutive patients (January 1966-December 2000; follow-up: until death or January 2006). Survival was compared with survival of a matched reference population. Two patients died of surgical complications. All ten patients with metastatic disease (including three diagnosed at first surgery) died. At follow-up, 40 patients were alive and recurrence free and three patients were lost to follow up. Two patients experienced a benign recurrence. Mean+/-s.d. follow-up was 10.2+/-7.5 (median 9, range 1-38) years. Kaplan-Meier estimates for 5- and 10-year survival since surgery were 85.8% (95% CI: 77.2-94.4%) and 74.2% (95% CI: 62.0-86.4%) for patients versus 95.5 and 89.4% in the reference population (Prisk of developing metastatic disease. Only one-third becomes normotensive without antihypertensive medication. Therefore, lifelong follow-up is warranted.

  7. 18-F-FDG PET-CT in Monitoring of Chemotherapeutic Effect in a Case of Metastatic Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shamim Ahmed; Tripathy, Sarthak; Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Roy, Shambo Guha

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare variant of mesenchymal tumor. Surgical resection or partial hepatectomy is the treatment of choice in the case of localized disease. However, in metastatic cases, chemotherapeutic drugs targeting the tyrosine kinase are being used. We hereby present 18-F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography findings in a case of a 35-year old woman with metastatic HEHE showing significant response to Sorafenib therapy after 6 months.

  8. Need for intraoperative ultrasound and surgical recommendation for partial nephrectomy: correlation with tumor imaging features and urologist practice patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Maryellen R M; Wagner, Andrew A; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Brook, Alexander; Kavoussi, Louis; Russo, Paul; Steele, Graeme; Viterbo, Rosalia; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the need for intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) and recommendation for surgical approach in the resection of renal tumors through a survey of practicing urologists, with correlation to tumor imaging features and urologist practice pattern. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review, compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, of 44 renal tumors that underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy at the study institution was performed. The numeric component of the RENAL nephrometry score (radius [diameter], % exophytic, nearness [to collecting system/renal sinus], location) was calculated for each case using preoperative computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Five anonymized images of each tumor were presented to 4 academic urologists with varying practice patterns. Reviewers independently scored each case for its need for IOUS, for recommendation of a surgical technique, and for the difficulty of the proposed surgery. The RENAL scores were as follows: RENAL 1 (low complexity, score 4-6; n = 19); RENAL 2 (moderate complexity, score 7-9; n = 23); RENAL 3 (high complexity, score 10-12; n = 2). The only RENAL score component significantly influencing need for IOUS was percentage exophytic (P = 0.00002). There was an inverse relationship between normalized and averaged need for IOUS and percentage exophytic (P recommendation of surgical method was the reviewer him/herself, with each reviewer's recommendations closely matching his/her practice pattern. Size and percentage exophytic represented the only tumor features significantly (P = 0.03) influencing surgical recommendation. There was a significant difference in the perceived need for IOUS and surgical recommendation when 4 academic urologists reviewed a series of renal masses requiring resection. Percentage exophytic correlated inversely with need for IOUS. Urologist's practice pattern and tumor size and percentage exophytic were most

  9. Gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Toru; Ono, Junichi; Iuchi, Toshihiko [Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan). Chiba Cancer Center] (and others)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) alone for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer. Two hundred thirty-one consecutive patients with metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer filling the following 4 criteria were analyzed for this study; no prior brain tumor treatment, 25 or fewer lesions, a maximum 5 tumors with diameter of 2 cm or more, no surgically inaccessible tumor 3 cm or greater in diameter. According to the same treatment protocol, large tumors ({>=} 3 cm) were surgically removed and all the other small lesions (<3 cm) were treated with GKS. New lesions were treated with repeated GKS. The tumor-progression-free, overall, neurological, lowered-QOL (quality of life)-free and new-lesion-free survivals were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The poor prognostic factors for each survival were also analyzed with the Cox's proportional hazard model. The tumor control rate at 1 year was 96.5%. The estimated median overall survival time was 7.7 months. The first-year survival rates were 83.0% in neurological survival and 76.0% in lowered-QOL-free survival. The new-lesion-free survival at 1 year was 27.9%. Multivariate analysis revealed significant poor prognostic factors for neurological and lowered-QOL-free survivals were carcinomatous meningitis and >10 brain lesions. This study suggests the results of GKS for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer are quite satisfactory considering prevention of neurological death and maintenance of QOL. But cases with carcinomatous meningitis and/or >10 brain lesions are not good candidates for GKS alone. (author)

  10. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma Presenting as a Sigmoid Stricture: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nikkar-Esfahani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic spread of breast carcinoma to the colon and rectum is rare. We report the case of a patient treated for lobular breast carcinoma presenting 17 years later with metastatic breast cancer of the colon. A 63-year-old lady with a past history of right-sided invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast presented with persistent diarrhoea. Colonoscopy with biopsies revealed a benign-looking stricture at the rectosigmoid junction. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a benign-looking stricture in keeping with a probable diverticular stricture. A Hartmann procedure was performed and histology revealed a metastatic lobular carcinoma with oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive status. Treatment was commenced with letrozole and the patient remains well under clinical surveillance. In a patient with a history of breast carcinoma who presents with gastrointestinal symptoms the possibility of gastrointestinal tract spread should always be considered. Endoscopic diagnosis may be misleading with pathological diagnosis only being made following surgical resection. A history of breast carcinoma must be declared to the histopathologist following surgical resection so that an accurate diagnosis is made and appropriate treatment is commenced.

  11. The RENAISSANCE (AIO-FLOT5) trial: effect of chemotherapy alone vs. chemotherapy followed by surgical resection on survival and quality of life in patients with limited-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction - a phase III trial of the German AIO/CAO-V/CAOGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Goetze, Thorsten O; Mueller, Daniel W; Vogel, Arndt; Winkler, Michael; Lorenzen, Sylvie; Novotny, Alexander; Pauligk, Claudia; Homann, Nils; Jungbluth, Thomas; Reissfelder, Christoph; Caca, Karel; Retter, Steffen; Horndasch, Eva; Gumpp, Julia; Bolling, Claus; Fuchs, Karl-Hermann; Blau, Wolfgang; Padberg, Winfried; Pohl, Michael; Wunsch, Andreas; Michl, Patrick; Mannes, Frank; Schwarzbach, Matthias; Schmalenberg, Harald; Hohaus, Michael; Scholz, Christian; Benckert, Christoph; Knorrenschild, Jorge Riera; Kanngießer, Veit; Zander, Thomas; Alakus, Hakan; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter; Roedel, Claus; Shah, Manish A; Sasako, Mitsuru; Lorenz, Dietmar; Izbicki, Jakob; Bechstein, Wolf O; Lang, Hauke; Moenig, Stefan P

    2017-12-28

    Historical data indicate that surgical resection may benefit select patients with metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer. However, randomized clinical trials are lacking. The current RENAISSANCE trial addresses the potential benefits of surgical intervention in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer with limited metastases. This is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, investigator-initiated phase III trial. Previously untreated patients with limited metastatic stage (retroperitoneal lymph node metastases only or a maximum of one incurable organ site that is potentially resectable or locally controllable with or without retroperitoneal lymph nodes) receive 4 cycles of FLOT chemotherapy alone or with trastuzumab if Her2+. Patients without disease progression after 4 cycles are randomized 1:1 to receive additional chemotherapy cycles or surgical resection of primary and metastases followed by subsequent chemotherapy. 271 patients are to be allocated to the trial, of which at least 176 patients will proceed to randomization. The primary endpoint is overall survival; main secondary endpoints are quality of life assessed by EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire, progression free survival and surgical morbidity and mortality. Recruitment has already started; currently (Feb 2017) 22 patients have been enrolled. If the RENAISSANCE concept proves to be effective, this could potentially lead to a new standard of therapy. On the contrary, if the outcome is negative, patients with gastric or GEJ cancer and metastases will no longer be considered candidates for surgical intervention. The article reports of a health care intervention on human participants and is registered on October 12, 2015 under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02578368 ; EudraCT: 2014-002665-30.

  12. Metastatic tumours to hypophysis: a report of three cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Šmigoc

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metastatic tumours to pituitary are rare. The most frequent are metastases from breast and lung.Methods. In this paper, three cases of metastatic tumours to the pituitary are presented with panhypopituitarism as a common symptom: I a 60-year-old gentleman with metastasis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, who presented with diabetes insipidus, II a 54-year-old lady with metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma and consequent disturbances in visual acuity, brain nerve paresis and III a 57-year-old lady with breast cancer metastasis, visual impairment and brain nerve paresis.Results. A transnasal endoscopic resection of the tumours was performed in all cases, followed by oncological treatment. All patients improved after the treatment.Conclusions. Despite the rarity of the disease, a metastatic tumour to the pituitary gland must be included in the differential diagnosis when symptoms such as diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegy due to brain nerve palsies, rapid course of the disease and headache are observed. In 20% to 30%, pituitary metastases are the first manifestation of a tumour of unknown origin. Surgical and adjuvant therapy may improve the quality of life. The survival and prognosis are generally poor.

  13. Patterns of failure following bone marrow transplantation for metastatic breast cancer: the role of consolidative local therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amit B.; Hartsell, William F.; Ghalie, Richard; Kaizer, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the patterns of failure and the role of local therapy in conjunction with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for metastatic or recurrent breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between June 1986 and November 1991, 46 patients with hormone unresponsive metastatic or recurrent breast cancer underwent high dose chemotherapy (HDC) with hematopoietic stem cell support. The most commonly used preparative regimen consisted of thiotepa (750 mg/m 2 ), cisplatin (150 mg/m 2 ), and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) followed by autologous BMT. Consolidative surgery or irradiation was considered in patients whose cancer responded to BMT and had localized sites of disease. Results: Six patients (13%) died of BMT-related complications. Of the remaining 40 patients, 22 were candidates for consolidative therapy, and 18 of those patients received consolidative irradiation (17 patients) or surgery (1 patient) to one or more sites. At median follow-up of 27 months (range, 20-78), 12 of 18 (67%) patients have continuous local control at the 22 consolidated sites (1 of 4 controlled at chest wall sites, 7 of 8 at regional nodal sites, 7 of 7 at localized bone sites, and 1 of 3 at lung/mediastinal sites). Toxicity of consolidative irradiation was mainly limited to myelosuppression in 6 of 17 patients. Two patients did not complete the consolidative local therapy, one because of hematologic toxicity and one because of rapid systemic tumor progression during treatment. Conclusion: In patients with localized areas of extravisceral metastases, consolidative irradiation is feasible with acceptable hematologic toxicity. Consolidative irradiation can result in continuous local control, especially in isolated bone metastases and in regional nodal sites; however, the advantage is less clear in patients undergoing consolidative irradiation for chest wall failures. Because distant visceral metastases still remain a major site of failure after this HDC

  14. Metastatic breast disease from cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Lucarelli, Nicola Maria; Martino, Gianluigi; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancer in the world. Breast metastases from melanoma are uncommon but could reflect a widespread disease. We report a case of malignant widespread melanoma presenting with bilateral breast nodules in a 39 year-old pre-menopausal Caucasian woman with an history of cutaneous melanoma of the trunk. Breast clinical examination revealed the presence of a hard and mobile lump located on the left breast. Ultrasound detected two bilateral nodules corresponding to oval opacities with well-defined edges and without calcifications or architectural distortion on mammography. Fine needle aspiration cytology performed on both breast nodules confirmed that the breast lesions were metastases from primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. A total-body CT examination detected brain, lung and abdominal lymph nodes metastases. The breast represents an uncommon site of metastatic disease from extra-mammary tumors. Imaging features of breast metastases from melanoma usually do not allow a differential diagnosis with breast primary tumors. Breast metastases may be asymptomatic or palpable as dense and well-circumscribed nodules. Breast metastases indicate a widespread disease and should lead to avoid aggressive surgical procedures because of the poor prognosis of patients affected by metastatic melanoma. The detection of bilateral breast metastases from melanoma is highly suggestive of metastatic multi-organ disease and could be useful to address the therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene expression profiles help identify the Tissue of Origin for metastatic brain cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VandenBerg Scott R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic brain cancers are the most common intracranial tumor and occur in about 15% of all cancer patients. In up to 10% of these patients, the primary tumor tissue remains unknown, even after a time consuming and costly workup. The Pathwork® Tissue of Origin Test (Pathwork Diagnostics, Redwood City, CA, USA is a gene expression test to aid in the diagnosis of metastatic, poorly differentiated and undifferentiated tumors. It measures the expression pattern of 1,550 genes in these tumors and compares it to the expression pattern of a panel of 15 known tumor types. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Tissue of Origin Test in the diagnosis of primary sites for metastatic brain cancer patients. Methods Fifteen fresh-frozen metastatic brain tumor specimens of known origins met specimen requirements. These specimens were entered into the study and processed using the Tissue of Origin Test. Results were compared to the known primary site and the agreement between the two results was assessed. Results Fourteen of the fifteen specimens produced microarray data files that passed all quality metrics. One originated from a tissue type that was off-panel. Among the remaining 13 cases, the Tissue of Origin Test accurately predicted the available diagnosis in 12/13 (92.3% cases. Discussion This study demonstrates the accuracy of the Tissue of Origin Test when applied to predict the tissue of origin of metastatic brain tumors. This test could be a very useful tool for pathologists as they classify metastatic brain cancers.

  16. Cardiac Murmur Prompting Diagnosis of Metastatic Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Testicular Neoplasia in an 18-Year-Old Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Y. Chung

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most retroperitoneal tumors such as renal cell carcinoma have been associated with tumor thrombus extending into the renal vein, inferior vena cava (IVC, and heart. The retroperitoneal metastatic potential of testicular tumors is well known. We report here the first instance of a cardiac murmur prompting diagnosis of metastatic testicular neoplasia in an 18-year-old patient. Chemotherapy was delayed and after successful surgical resection of the ventricular mass, the patient recovered uneventfully. This case underscores the need to pursue abnormal cardiac exams in newly diagnosed testicular cancer patients.

  17. RT-06GAMMA KNIFE SURGERY AFTER NAVIGATION-GUIDED ASPIRATION FOR CYSTIC METASTATIC BRAIN TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yasuyoshi; Mori, Kanji; Toyota, Shingo; Kumagai, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Shota; Sugano, Hirofumi; Taki, Takuyu

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic brain tumors over 3 cm in diameter (volume of 14.1ml) are generally considered poor candidates for Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). We retrospectively assessed the method and efficacy of GKS for large cystic metastatic brain tumors after navigation-guided aspiration under local anesthesia. From September 2007 to April 2014, 38 cystic metastatic brain tumors in 32 patients (12 males, 20 females; mean age, 63.2 years) were treated at Kansai Rosai Hospital. The patients were performed navigation-guided cyst aspiration under local anesthesia, then at the day or the next day, were performed GKS and usually discharged on the day. The methods for preventing of leptomeningeal dissemination are following: 1) puncture from the place whose cerebral thickness is 1 cm or more; 2) avoidance of Ommaya reservoir implantation; and 3) placement of absorbable gelatin sponge to the tap tract. Tumor volume, including the cystic component, decreased from 25.4 ml (range 8.7-84.7 ml) to 11.4 ml (range 2.9-36.7 ml) following aspiration; the volume reduction was approximately 51.6%. Follow-up periods in the study population ranged from 0 to 24 months (median 3.5 months). The overall median survival was 6.7 months. There was no leptomeningeal dissemination related to the aspiration. One patient experienced radiation necrosis after GKS, one patient experienced re-aspiration by failure of aspiration, and two patients experienced surgical resections and one patient experienced re-aspiration by cyst regrowth after GKS. Long-term hospitalization is not desirable for the patients with brain metastases. In japan, Long-term hospitalization is required for surgical resection or whole brain radiation therapy, but only two days hospitalization is required for GKS after navigation-guided aspiration at our hospital. This GKS after navigation-guided aspiration is more effective and less invasive than surgical resection or whole brain radiation therapy.

  18. Metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma to the kidney in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, M; Gomez, Pablo; Reyes, Martha A; Soloway, Mark S

    2006-12-01

    The incidence of an adenoid cystic carcinoma on major salivary glands is low, constituting only about 10% to 15% of all parotid malignancies. Cases of delayed metastasis have been reported, but reports of specific renal involvement have not been extensively found. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with a left renal metastasis from an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland that had been surgically treated 7 years previously. The patient underwent successful left radical nephrectomy. During follow-up, the patient developed pulmonary nodules that were metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma and were surgically excised. At last follow-up, the patient was doing well with no evidence of disease.

  19. Adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) expression and metastatic potential in prostatic adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinjens, W N; Ten Kate, J; Kirch, J A; Tanke, H J; Van der Linden, E P; Van den Ingh, H F; Van Steenbrugge, G J; Meera Khan, P; Bosman, F T

    1990-03-01

    The expression of the adenosine deaminase complexing protein (ADCP) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the normal and hyperplastic human prostate, in 30 prostatic adenocarcinomas, and in seven human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines grown as xenografts in athymic nude mice. In the normal and hyperplastic prostate, ADCP was localized exclusively in the apical membrane and the apical cytoplasm of the glandular epithelial cells. In prostatic adenocarcinomas, four distinct ADCP expression patterns were observed: diffuse cytoplasmic, membranous, both cytoplasmic and membranous, and no ADCP expression. The expression patterns were compared with the presence of metastases. We found an inverse correlation between membranous ADCP immunoreactivity and metastatic propensity. Exclusively membranous ADCP immunoreactivity occurred only in non-metastatic tumours. In contrast, the metastatic tumours showed no or diffuse cytoplasmic ADCP immunoreactivity. This suggests that immunohistochemical detection of ADCP might predict the biological behaviour of prostatic cancer. However, the occurrence of membranous ADCP immunoreactivity in the xenograft of a cell line (PC-EW), derived from a prostatic carcinoma metastasis, indicates that not only the tendency to metastasize modulates ADCP expression.

  20. Radiosurgery for metastatic disease at the craniocervical junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Alexander; Yu, Cheng; Chang, Eric L; Kim, Paul E; Rusch, Mairead C; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2014-12-01

    Metastatic disease of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) can cause pain, cranial nerve deficits, occipitocervical instability, or brainstem/spinal cord compression if left untreated. Many patients with metastasis in this region have a high burden of systemic disease and short life expectancy, making them poor candidates for aggressive surgical resections and fusion procedures. Traditionally, symptom palliation and local disease control in these patients has been achieved through conventional radiation therapy. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has the advantage of precisely delivering radiation to a target in fewer fractions. To our knowledge, we report the results of the largest series of patients with CVJ metastasis treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. We performed a retrospective review of 9 consecutive patients with 10 tumors of the CVJ treated with SRS at the Keck Medical Center of the University of Southern California. Two tumors were treated with Gamma Knife, whereas the other 8 received CyberKnife. The median marginal dose was 20 Gy (16-24 Gy) over 1-5 fractions. Point maximal dose to the brainstem or spinal cord ranged between 8 and 18.9 Gy. Median survival was 4 months (1-51 months). Five of six patients presenting with pain had at least partial symptom resolution. No patient went on to require surgical decompression or fusion, and there were no complications directly related to SRS. In well-selected patients, SRS for metastatic lesions of the CVJ has a low risk for complications or treatment failure, while achieving a high rate of palliation of pain symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ESMO consensus guidelines for the management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Cutsem, E; Cervantes, A; Adam, R

    2016-01-01

    for and undergoing surgical resection of their localised metastatic disease but also to a more strategic approach to the delivery of systemic therapy and an expansion in the use of ablative techniques. This reflects the increase in the number of patients that are being managed within a multidisciplinary team...... based on the current available evidence to provide a series of evidence-based recommendations to assist in the treatment and management of patients with mCRC in this rapidly evolving treatment setting.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in Western countries. Over the last 20 years, and the last decade in particular, the clinical outcome for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) has improved greatly due not only to an increase in the number of patients being referred...

  2. Chyle fistula in advanced and metastatic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos S; Sánchez, Juan Guillermo; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Chyle fistula (CF) is a rare but challenging condition for the surgeon and the patient's health. A retrospective review of single surgeon's case load in a 12-year period is presented, reviewing the case of those patients presenting with a CF. Three patients were found during this study period from more than 1,050 surgeries performed due to thyroid cancer. Patients underwent extensive lymph node dissection for advanced, metastatic and infiltrative disease. In all patients, a long hospital stay and surgical re-interventions were required. A description of the management of CF is presented along with a review of current Literature.

  3. Non-surgical management of a pediatric “intoed” gait pattern – a systematic review of the current best evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uden H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hayley Uden1, Saravana Kumar21Podiatry Department, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 2Post Doctoral Senior Research Fellow, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaBackground: An intoed gait pattern is one of the most common referrals for children to an orthopedic consultation. Parental concern as to the aesthetics of the child’s gait pattern and/or its symptomatic nature will primarily drive these referrals during a child’s early developmental years. Whilst some of these referrals prove to be the result of a normal growth variant, some children will present with a symptomatic intoed gait pattern. Various treatments, both conservative and surgical, have been proposed including: braces, wedges, stretches and exercises, shoe modifications, and surgical procedures. However, which treatments are effective and justified in the management of this condition is not clear within the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to therefore identify and critique the best available evidence for the non-surgical management of an intoed gait pattern in a pediatric population.Method: A systematic review was conducted of which only experimental studies investigating a management option for an intoeing gait pattern were included. Studies needed to be written in English, pertaining to a human pediatric population, and published within a peer reviewed journal. Electronic databases were searched: Ovid (Medline, EMBASE, AMED, PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. The National Health and Medical Research Council’s designation of levels of hierarchy and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme cohort studies critical appraisal tool were used.Results: Five level IV studies were found. The studies were of varied quality and with mixed results. Gait plates, physiologic/standardized shoes, and orthotic devices (with gate plate extension

  4. Increased Expression and Aberrant Localization of Mucin 13 in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Brij K.; Maher, Diane M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Sundram, Vasudha; Koch, Michael D.; Lynch, Douglas W.; Bohlmeyer, Teresa; Watanabe, Akira; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Puumala, Susan E.; Jaggi, Meena

    2012-01-01

    MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin. Although MUC13 is known to be overexpressed in ovarian and gastric cancers, limited information is available regarding the expression of MUC13 in metastatic colon cancer. Herein, we investigated the expression profile of MUC13 in colon cancer using a novel anti-MUC13 monoclonal antibody (MAb, clone ppz0020) by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A cohort of colon cancer samples and tissue microarrays containing adjacent normal, non-metastatic colon cancer, metastatic colon cancer, and liver metastasis tissues was used in this study to investigate the expression pattern of MUC13. IHC analysis revealed significantly higher (pcolon cancer samples compared with faint or very low expression in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, metastatic colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue samples demonstrated significantly (pcolon cancer and adjacent normal colon samples. Moreover, cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression correlated with larger and poorly differentiated tumors. Four of six tested colon cancer cell lines also expressed MUC13 at RNA and protein levels. These studies demonstrate a significant increase in MUC13 expression in metastatic colon cancer and suggest a correlation between aberrant MUC13 localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear expression) and metastatic colon cancer. PMID:22914648

  5. Pattern of pathogens and their sensitivity isolated from superficial surgical site infections in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.A.; Tahir, S.M.; Shaikh, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Rapidly emerging nosocomial pathogens and the problem of multi-drug resistance necessitates periodic review of isolation patterns and sensitivity in surgical practice. Surgical site infections (SSI) are defined as an infections that occurs at the incision site within thirty days after surgery. Objectives of the study were to determine the pattern of pathogens involved and their antibiotic sensitivity isolated from superficial surgical site infections in a teaching hospital. This observational study was conducted for 1 year from January 2008 to December 2008 in all 4 surgical units of Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad which caters to patients from low socioeconomic status. Pus culture and sensitivity reports were collected prospectively from hospitalised patients who developed postoperative wound infection. The patients who developed fecal/biliary/urinary fistula or operated for malignancies, and with negative cultures were excluded from the study. Analysis was carried out using SPSS 10. During the study period 112 pus culture and sensitivity reports were analyzed. E. coli 68 (60.7%) was the most common organism isolated followed by Klebsiella 23 (20.5%). The least frequent organism was staph. Epidermidis 1 (0.9%). All isolates were sensitive to penicillin derivatives and carbapenem. Quinolones, Aminoglycosides and Monobactum were also showing some promise in our study. However, Cephalosporins were ineffective against most of the important isolates in our study. E. coli and klebsiella were the most important isolates form SSI in our study, and penicillin derivatives and carbapenem were showing 100% antibiotic sensitivity to all of the isolates. (author)

  6. Prognostic factors derived from recursive partition analysis (RPA) of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) brain metastases trials applied to surgically resected and irradiated brain metastatic cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agboola, Olusegun; Benoit, Brien; Cross, Peter; Silva, Vasco da; Esche, Bernd; Lesiuk, Howard; Gonsalves, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: (a) To identify the prognostic factors that determine survival after surgical resection and irradiation of tumors metastatic to brain. (b) To determine if the prognostic factors used in the recursive partition analysis (RPA) of brain metastases cases from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) studies into three distinct survival classes is applicable to surgically resected and irradiated patients. Method: The medical records of 125 patients who had surgical resection and radiotherapy for brain metastases from 1985 to 1997 were reviewed. The patients' disease and treatment related factors were analyzed to identify factors that independently determine survival after diagnosis of brain metastasis. The patients were also grouped into three classes using the RPA-derived prognostic parameters which are: age, performance status, state of the primary disease, and presence or absence of extracranial metastases. Class 1: patients ≤ 65 years of age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) of ≥70, with controlled primary disease and no extracranial metastases; Class 3: patients with KPS < 70. Patients who do not qualify for Class 1 or 3 are grouped as Class 2. The survival of these patients was determined from the time of diagnosis of brain metastases to the time of death. Results: The median survival of the entire group was 9.5 months. The three classes of patients as grouped had median survivals of 14.8, 9.9, and 6.0 months respectively (p = 0.0002). Age of < 65 years, KPS of ≥ 70, controlled primary disease, absence of extracranial metastases, complete surgical resection of the brain lesion(s) were found to be independent prognostic factors for survival; the total dose of radiation was not. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the patients and disease characteristics have significant impact on the survival of patients with brain metastases treated with a combination of surgical resection and radiotherapy. These parameters could be used in selecting

  7. Metastatic pituitary carcinoma in a patient with acromegaly: a case report

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    Sreenan Seamus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Asymptomatic pituitary abnormalities occur in about 10% of cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans, but metastatic carcinoma of the pituitary gland is rare: 133 cases have been reported. Two thirds secreted either prolactin or adrenocorticotropic hormone, and another 24% were non-secreting. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man lived for 30 years after the diagnosis of a pituitary tumor whose clinical and biochemical features were those of acromegaly and hypogonadism. Radiotherapy, totaling 7300 rad, was administered to the sella over two courses. Growth hormone levels normalized, but he developed both thyroid and adrenal insufficiency, and replacement therapy was commenced. Fourteen years later, growth hormone levels again became elevated, and bromocriptine was commenced but led to side effects that could not be tolerated. An attempted surgical intervention failed, and octreotide and pergolide were used in succession. Twenty-seven years after the diagnosis, a mass from an excisional biopsy of below the angle of the mandible proved to be metastatic pituitary carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin, growth hormone, and prolactin. One year later, an octreotide scan showed uptake at the sella, neck, and spleen. Our patient declined further active oncology treatment. Conclusions Metastatic pituitary carcinoma associated with acromegaly is particularly rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the eighth such case and is the first report of growth hormone and prolactin present in the metastatic mass.

  8. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with renal vein involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Hatsuko; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Megumi; Nagata, Masao; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi

    2015-02-01

    The common sites of breast cancer metastases include bones, lung, brain, and liver. Renal metastasis from the breast is rare. We report a case of breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with extension into the renal vein. A 40-year-old woman had undergone left mastectomy for breast cancer at the age of 38. A gastric tumor, which was later proved to be metastasis from breast cancer, was detected by endoscopy. Computed tomography performed for further examination of the gastric tumor revealed a large left renal tumor with extension into the left renal vein. It mimicked a primary renal tumor. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal tumor confirmed metastasis from breast cancer. Surgical intervention of the stomach and the kidney was avoided, and she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney may present a solitary renal mass with extension into the renal vein, which mimics a primary renal tumor.

  9. Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Ureter Metastatic to the Thoracic Spine Presenting as a Spinal Cord Compression

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    J. O. Larkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a left nephroureterectomy for a gentleman with transitional cell carcinoma of the upper ureter. Histological analysis revealed it to be a T1 lesion, but to be highly mitotically active. The gentleman defaulted on adjuvant therapy and defaulted on follow-up. He represented with symptoms of acute spinal cord compression and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a lesion at T6/7. Neurosurgical resection of the lesion showed it to be a metastatic deposit from the ureteric primary. Despite surgical debulking and subsequent radiotherapy to the lesion, the patient died secondary to metastatic complications. This case report is of interest to the surgeon as it demonstrates both the high metastatic potential of upper tract carcinomas and educates the surgeon on the presentation of acute spinal cord compression.

  10. Treatment of Regional Metastatic Melanoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke J. A. H. van Beek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the recurrence and survival rates of metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin (MUP, in order to further refine current recommendations for the surgical treatment; (2 Methods: Medical data of all MUP patients registered between 2000 and 2011, were analyzed. Seventy-eight patients were categorized in either lymph node (axilla, groin, head-and neck or subcutaneous MUP. Axillary node MUPs were generally treated with dissections of levels I-III, inguinal node MUPs with combined superficial and deep groin dissections, and head-and-neck node MUPs with neck dissections to various extents, based on lymph drainage patterns. Subcutaneous lesions were excised with 1–2 cm margins. The primary outcome was treatment outcomes in terms of (locoregional recurrence and survival rates; (3 Results: Lymph node MUP recurred regionally in 11% of patients, with an overall recurrence rate of 45%. In contrast, subcutaneous MUP recurred locally in 65% of patients with an overall recurrence rate of 78%. This latter group had a significantly shorter disease-free interval than patients with lymph node MUP (p = 0.000. In the entire study population, 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 56% and 47% respectively, with no differences observed between the various subgroups; (4 Conclusion: The relatively low regional recurrence rate after regional lymph node dissection (11% supports its current status as standard surgical treatment for lymph node MUP. Subcutaneous MUP, on the contrary, appears to recur both locally (65% and overall (78% at a significantly higher rate, suggesting a different biological behavior. However, wide local excision remains the best available option for this specific group.

  11. Predicting survival in patients with metastatic kidney cancer by gene-expression profiling in the primary tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, James R; Shih, Joanna H; Iyengar, Shuba R; Maranchie, Jodi; Riss, Joseph; Worrell, Robert; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Tabios, Ray; Mariotti, Andra; Stearman, Robert; Merino, Maria; Walther, McClellan M; Simon, Richard; Klausner, Richard D; Linehan, W Marston

    2003-06-10

    To identify potential molecular determinants of tumor biology and possible clinical outcomes, global gene-expression patterns were analyzed in the primary tumors of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer by using cDNA microarrays. We used grossly dissected tumor masses that included tumor, blood vessels, connective tissue, and infiltrating immune cells to obtain a gene-expression "profile" from each primary tumor. Two patterns of gene expression were found within this uniformly staged patient population, which correlated with a significant difference in overall survival between the two patient groups. Subsets of genes most significantly associated with survival were defined, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was the gene most predictive for survival. Therefore, despite the complex biological nature of metastatic cancer, basic clinical behavior as defined by survival may be determined by the gene-expression patterns expressed within the compilation of primary gross tumor cells. We conclude that survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer can be correlated with the expression of various genes based solely on the expression profile in the primary kidney tumor.

  12. Macular detachment associated with an optic pit: optical coherence tomography patterns and surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaat, Alon; Moroz, Iris; Moisseiev, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To describe the different optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns in macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit and their long-term evolution following vitrectomy.
 The data of 5 patients (9-43 years of age) with unilateral macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, who had at least 1 year of follow-up, were compiled. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with gas tamponade was performed as the primary procedure in all patients. The OCT scans, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and anatomic outcomes were documented.
 Two main OCT patterns were identified: a multilayer schisis pattern and a serous detachment pattern. Patients with multilayer schisis pattern were older and demonstrated worse mean preoperative (20/160) and postoperative (20/50) BCVA compared to serous detachment pattern patients (20/30 and 20/20, respectively). An average of 2.3 procedures per patient was needed in the multilayer schisis pattern compared to just one procedure in the serous detachment pattern. In 3 patients, additional pneumatic retinopexy was performed with full resolution of the subretinal fluid achieved.
 Two distinct OCT patterns were observed in eyes with macular detachments with an optic pit, with different clinical features and prognoses. Excellent final visual acuity was obtained in all eyes, including those that required several surgical procedures.

  13. Asymptomatic primary tumour in incurable metastatic colorectal cancer: is there a role for surgical resection prior to systematic therapy or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalavicius, Narimantas E; Dulskas, Audrius; Baltruskeviciene, Edita; Smailyte, Giedre; Skuciene, Marija; Mikelenaite, Rasa; Venslovaite, Rasa; Aleknavicius, Eduardas; Samalavicius, Almantas; Lunevicius, Raimundas

    2016-01-01

    The role of the resection of asymptomatic primary colorectal cancer in patients with incurable disease is questionable. To evaluate the impact of the resection of asymptomatic primary tumour on overall survival in patients with unresectable distant metastases. Patients treated in the National Cancer Institute, Lithuania, in the period 2008-2012, were selected retrospectively. The main inclusion criteria were: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), endoscopically and histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma, without any symptoms for urgent operation, and at least one cycle of palliative chemotherapy administered. Information on patients' age, gender, tumour histology, localization of the tumour, regional lymph node involvement, number of metastatic sites, surgery and systemic treatment was collected prospectively. Eligible patients for the study were divided into two groups according to the initial treatment - surgery (patients who underwent primary tumour resection) and chemotherapy (patients who received chemotherapy without surgery). The impact of initial treatment strategy, tumour size and site, regional lymph nodes, grade of differentiation of adenocarcinoma and application of biotherapy on overall cumulative survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. To compare survival between groups the log-rank test was used. Cox regression analysis was employed to assess the effects of variables on patient survival. The study group consisted of 183 patients: 103 men and 80 women. The median age was 66 years (range: 37-91). There were no notable imbalances with regard to age, gender, number of metastatic sites, metastases (such as pulmonary, peritoneal, liver, metastases into non-regional lymph nodes and other metastases), the number of received cycles of chemotherapy, first line chemotherapy type or biological therapy. Only 27 (14.8%) patients received biological therapy and the majority of them (n = 25, 92.6%) were treated with bevacizumab. For surgically treated

  14. Surgical Management of Familial Trigeminal Neuralgia With Different Inheritance Patterns: A Case Report

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    Claudia Cervera-Martinez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTrigeminal neuralgia is a disorder characterized by unilateral electric shock-like pain, distributed in one or more trigeminal nerve branches and triggered by usually innocuous stimuli. Among the few case reports and literature reviews on familial trigeminal neuralgia (FTN, the results of several suggest the involvement of genes associated with biochemical alterations or atherosclerotic vascular malformations.BackgroundWe present four cases of FTN within two families (family A: two brothers; family B: two sisters. All patients were submitted to surgical treatment by the same surgeon.DiscussionCases 1 and 2 (family A exhibited FTN with an uncommon autosomal recessive pattern and clinical features consistent with previous literature reviews and case reports. However, in cases 3 and 4 (family B, we found FTN with a dominant autosomal pattern and an unusual physiopathology characterized by arachnoid adhesions.ConclusionWe conclude, in this case report, that there are several inheritance patterns as well as physiopathology that may be involved in FTN, and that both patterns described in our reported cases were successfully managed with surgery.

  15. Clinicopathological Features and Metastatic Pattern of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Autopsy Study of 398 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, Manuel; Quagliata, Luca; Matter, Matthias; Perrina, Valeria; Tornillo, Luigi; Terracciano, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of a large local autopsy collective to gather epidemiological and histopathological data on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We examined a large dataset of 44,104 autopsies performed at the Institute of Pathology, Basel, Switzerland, including 2 autopsy collectives (1969-1983 and 1988-2012) to gather current data on HCC in the advanced stage. A total of 398 HCC were diagnosed, accounting for around 1% of all autopsies. As expected, most patients developing HCC had advanced stages of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis (F3/F4). However, in the more recent autopsy collective (1988-2012), our data also show an increase of HCC arising in livers without or with only mild to moderate fibrosis (F0-F2). Extrahepatic metastasis was found in 156 of 398 HCC (39.1%), with lung metastasis (74.5%) being the most common, followed by the bones (24.8%) and adrenal glands (19.1%). Our data therefore seem to suggest that, in the last 2 decades, despite the introduction of new therapeutic modalities for HCC, no significant changes have been observed regarding the metastatic pattern of advanced HCC. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette; Krag, Christen

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant...... of malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has...... survived 26 years without recurrence, thus representing an uplifting case of long-term survival of childhood melanoma....

  17. Pattern of Care Study in Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma in the Preimmunotherapy Era in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmeier, Nadja; Rothschild, Sacha I; Rothermundt, Christian; Cathomas, Richard; Schardt, Julian; Berthold, Dominik; von Burg, Philippe; Müller, Beat; Beyer, Jörg; Vogt, Deborah R; Stenner, Frank

    2018-02-02

    In metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC), physicians have a plethora of therapeutic choices, with the latest addition of checkpoint inhibitors. However, many questions regarding the best use of the respective drugs remain unanswered. Therefore, it is important to examine and summarize the outcome of real-world experiences to understand the practical value of the various drugs in daily use and foster optimal treatment algorithms for patients with renal-cell carcinoma. We sought to describe the pattern of care in mRCC under circumstances with access to all therapeutic options for patients. We examined the outcome of patients with mRCC who were treated at 8 major centers in Switzerland, mainly with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Data from 110 patients with mRCC who had undergone more than one systemic therapy were collected and analyzed. We assessed the pattern of care for patients with mRCC in an unrestricted health care system and outcomes with regard to the respective treatment sequences. We also studied the compliance of individual therapies with published guidelines and correlated the adherence to outcome. Finally, immediate versus deferred treatment and the number of received therapeutic drug lines were analyzed. Median survival of patients treated with targeted agents for mRCC was 2.0 years. Exposure to more than 2 lines of systemic drugs did not improve outcome of patients with mRCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-metastatic niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peinado, Héctor; Zhang, Haiying; Matei, Irina R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that organs of future metastasis are not passive receivers of circulating tumour cells, but are instead selectively and actively modified by the primary tumour before metastatic spread has even occurred. Sowing the 'seeds' of metastasis requires the action of tumour......-secreted factors and tumour-shed extracellular vesicles that enable the 'soil' at distant metastatic sites to encourage the outgrowth of incoming cancer cells. In this Review, we summarize the main processes and new mechanisms involved in the formation of the pre-metastatic niche....

  19. Endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment and adjuvant therapy for metastatic lesions of airway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okitsu, Hiroshi; Oho, Kenkichi; Naitoh, Jun; Tajika, Eishiro; Amemiya, Ryuta; Hayata, Yoshihiro [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    Endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment and adjuvant therapy were performed in 44 cases with metastatic lesions of airway. The best results were obtained in 31 cases (93.9%) out of 33 cases complaining of ventilatory disturbance in which endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment was indicated as an emergency procedure. In most of these cases with metastatic lesions of airway consisted of respiratory tract invasion from mediastinal lymph nodes in cases of esophageal cancer or lung cancer. In these cases, after laser treatment for ventilatory disturbance, the patients condition improved to the extent that adjuvant therapy could be performed. Adjuvant therapy was performed in 38 cases, there were 7 cases treated surgically resection of the metastatic lesions of airway in 3 cases, tracheal tube stent operation in 4 cases 0, 28 radiotherapy in 28 cases Linac irradiation in 24 cases, /sup 60/Co intraluminal irradiation of the trachea in 4 cases 0, and 32 cases were treated with chemotherapy. Tracheal tube stent operation was useful for maintenance of the tracheal lumen following laser treatment, and /sup 60/Co intraluminal irradiation was effective for the residual intratracheal tumor. The 1-year survival rate of 44 cases with metastatic lesions of airway was 42% and the 2-year survival rate was 22%, so this result suggested endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment and adjuvant therapy for metastatic lesions of airway was useful to prolong survival time. However the main value of this modality is for the rapid relief of severe ventilatory disturbance due to obstructive airway lesions. (author).

  20. Comparative proteomic investigation of metastatic and non-metastatic osteosarcoma cells of human and canine origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnabi Roy

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in dogs and people. In order to improve clinical outcomes, it is necessary to identify proteins that are differentially expressed by metastatic cells. Membrane bound proteins are responsible for multiple pro-metastatic functions. Therefore characterizing the differential expression of membranous proteins between metastatic and non-metastatic clonal variants will allow the discovery of druggable targets and consequently improve treatment methodology. The objective of this investigation was to systemically identify the membrane-associated proteomics of metastatic and non-metastatic variants of human and canine origin. Two clonal variants of divergent in vivo metastatic potential from human and canine origins were used. The plasma membranes were isolated and peptide fingerprinting was used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Selected proteins were further validated using western blotting, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Over 500 proteins were identified for each cell line with nearly 40% of the proteins differentially regulated. Conserved between both species, metastatic variants demonstrated significant differences in expression of membrane proteins that are responsible for pro-metastatic functions. Additionally, CD147, CD44 and vimentin were validated using various biochemical techniques. Taken together, through a comparative proteomic approach we have identified several differentially expressed cell membrane proteins that will help in the development of future therapeutics.

  1. Comparative proteomic investigation of metastatic and non-metastatic osteosarcoma cells of human and canine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jahnabi; Wycislo, Kathryn L; Pondenis, Holly; Fan, Timothy M; Das, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in dogs and people. In order to improve clinical outcomes, it is necessary to identify proteins that are differentially expressed by metastatic cells. Membrane bound proteins are responsible for multiple pro-metastatic functions. Therefore characterizing the differential expression of membranous proteins between metastatic and non-metastatic clonal variants will allow the discovery of druggable targets and consequently improve treatment methodology. The objective of this investigation was to systemically identify the membrane-associated proteomics of metastatic and non-metastatic variants of human and canine origin. Two clonal variants of divergent in vivo metastatic potential from human and canine origins were used. The plasma membranes were isolated and peptide fingerprinting was used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Selected proteins were further validated using western blotting, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Over 500 proteins were identified for each cell line with nearly 40% of the proteins differentially regulated. Conserved between both species, metastatic variants demonstrated significant differences in expression of membrane proteins that are responsible for pro-metastatic functions. Additionally, CD147, CD44 and vimentin were validated using various biochemical techniques. Taken together, through a comparative proteomic approach we have identified several differentially expressed cell membrane proteins that will help in the development of future therapeutics.

  2. Differential Expression of Ccn4 and Other Genes Between Metastatic and Non-metastatic EL4 Mouse Lymphoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    S. CHAHAL, MANPREET; TERESA KU, H.; ZHANG, ZHIHONG; M. LEGASPI, CHRISTIAN; LUO, ANGELA; M. HOPKINS, MANDI; E. MEIER, KATHRYN

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous work characterized variants of the EL4 murine lymphoma cell line. Some are non-metastatic, and others metastatic, in syngenic mice. In addition, metastatic EL4 cells were stably transfected with phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which further enhanced metastasis. Materials and Methods: Microarray analyses of mRNA expression was performed for non-metastatic, metastatic, and PLD2-expressing metastatic EL4 cells. Results: Many differences were observed between non-metastatic and meta...

  3. Solitary metastatic cancer to the thyroid: a report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology

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    Batoroev Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three men and 2 women with ages ranging from 37 to 70 years, clinically and histologically confirmed solitary, palpable metastatic cancers to the thyroid (SMCT and preoperative cytologic investigation of their thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration (FNA, were reviewed. Four patients were known to have a solid cancer treated by radical surgery 1 to 4 years prior [1 bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma, 1 parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 renal cell carcinoma (RCC and 1 cutaneous melanoma], and 1 patient had no past history of cancer. Direct smears prepared from the patients' thyroid FNAs were fixed in 95% ethanol and stained with the Papanicolaou method. In 3 cases, immunostaining of the aspirated tumor cells with thyroglobulin antibody was performed, and in 1 case an aspiration smear was stained with commercial HMB-45 antibody. A correct cytodiagnosis of metastatic cancer to the thyroid was made in all 5 cases. In 1 patient the thyroid FNA revealed a metastatic RCC that led to the discovery of a clinically occult RCC. All 5 patients died of metastatic disease 27 to 40 months after surgical resection of their SMCTs.

  4. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  5. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Atar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient′s clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  6. Metastatic Breast Cancer in Medication-Related Osteonecrosis Around Mandibular Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favia, Gianfranco; Tempesta, Angela; Limongelli, Luisa; Crincoli, Vito; Piattelli, Adriano; Maiorano, Eugenio

    2015-09-15

    Many authors have considered dental implants to be unrelated to increased risk of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). Nevertheless, more recently, more cases of peri-implant MRONJ (PI-MRONJ) have been described, thus becoming a challenging health problem. Also, metastatic cancer deposits are not infrequently found at peri-implant sites and this may represent an additional complication for such treatments. We present the case of a breast cancer patient with PI-MRONJ, presenting a clinically and radiologically undetected metastasis within the necrotic bone, and highlight the necessity of an accurate histopathological analysis. A 66-year-old female patient, who had received intravenous bisphosphonates for bone breast cancer metastases, came to our attention for a non-implant surgery-triggered PI-MRONJ. After surgical resection of the necrotic bone, conventional and immunohistochemical examinations were performed, which showed breast cancer deposits within the necrotic bone. Cancer patients with metastatic disease, who are undergoing bisphosphonate treatment, may develop unusual complications, including MRONJ, which is a site at risk for hosting additional metastatic deposits that may be clinically and radiologically overlooked. Such risk is increased by previous or concomitant implant procedures. Consequently, clinicians should be prudent when performing implant surgery in cancer patients with advanced-stage disease and consider the possible occurrence of peri-implant metastases while planning adequate treatments in such patients.

  7. Modified Harrington Procedure for Acetabular Insuficiency Due to Metastatic Malignant Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WI Faisham

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive peri-acetabular osteolysis caused by malignant disease process is a major surgical challenge as conventional hip arthroplasty is not adequate. We describe a modified use of the Harrington procedure for acetabular insufficiency secondary to metastatic disease in twelve patients. The procedures include application of multiple threaded pins to bridge the acetabular columns, anti-protrusio cage and cemented acetabular cup. Eleven patients were able to walk pain free and achieved a mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Functional Score of 80 (range, 68 to 86.

  8. Myxoid Liposarcoma: Prognostic Factors and Metastatic Pattern in a Series of 148 Patients Treated at a Single Institution

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    Francesco Muratori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The authors reported a retrospective study on myxoid liposarcomas (MLs, evaluating factors that may influence overall survival (OS, local recurrence-free survival (LRFS, metastasis-free survival (MFS, and analyzing the metastatic pattern. Methods. 148 MLs were analyzed. The sites of metastases were investigated. Results. Margins (p = 0.002, grading (p = 0,0479, and metastasis (p < 0,0001 were significant risk factors affecting overall survival (OS. Type of presentation (p = 0.0243, grading (p = 0,0055, margin (p = 0.0001, and local recurrence (0.0437 were risk factors on metastasis-free survival (MFS. Authors did not observe statistically significant risk factors for local recurrence-free survival (LRFS and reported 55% extrapulmonary metastases and 45% pulmonary metastases. Conclusion. Margins, grading, presentation, local recurrence, and metastasis were prognostic factors. Extrapulmonary metastases were more frequent in myxoid liposarcoma.

  9. Study of multiparameter respiratory pattern complexity in surgical critically ill patients during weaning trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maglaveras Nikos K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Separation from mechanical ventilation is a difficult task, whereas conventional predictive indices have not been proven accurate enough, so far. A few studies have explored changes of breathing pattern variability for weaning outcome prediction, with conflicting results. In this study, we tried to assess respiratory complexity during weaning trials, using different non-linear methods derived from theory of complex systems, in a cohort of surgical critically ill patients. Results Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study. There were 22 who passed and 10 who failed a weaning trial. Tidal volume and mean inspiratory flow were analyzed for 10 minutes during two phases: 1. pressure support (PS ventilation (15-20 cm H2O and 2. weaning trials with PS: 5 cm H2O. Sample entropy (SampEn, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA exponent, fractal dimension (FD and largest lyapunov exponents (LLE of the two respiratory parameters were computed in all patients and during the two phases of PS. Weaning failure patients exhibited significantly decreased respiratory pattern complexity, reflected in reduced sample entropy and lyapunov exponents and increased DFA exponents of respiratory flow time series, compared to weaning success subjects (p 0.1, SampEn and LLE predicted better weaning outcome compared with RSBI, P0.1 and RSBI* P0.1 (conventional model, R2 = 0.874 vs 0.643, p Conclusions We suggest that complexity analysis of respiratory signals can assess inherent breathing pattern dynamics and has increased prognostic impact upon weaning outcome in surgical patients.

  10. Differential Expression of Ccn4 and Other Genes Between Metastatic and Non-metastatic EL4 Mouse Lymphoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Manpreet S; Ku, H Teresa; Zhang, Zhihong; Legaspi, Christian M; Luo, Angela; Hopkins, Mandi M; Meier, Kathryn E

    Previous work characterized variants of the EL4 murine lymphoma cell line. Some are non-metastatic, and others metastatic, in syngenic mice. In addition, metastatic EL4 cells were stably transfected with phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which further enhanced metastasis. Microarray analyses of mRNA expression was performed for non-metastatic, metastatic, and PLD2-expressing metastatic EL4 cells. Many differences were observed between non-metastatic and metastatic cell lines. One of the most striking new findings was up-regulation of mRNA for the matricellular protein WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (CCN4) in metastatic cells; increased protein expression was verified by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Other differentially expressed genes included those for reproductive homeobox 5 (Rhox5; increased in metastatic) and cystatin 7 (Cst7; decreased in metastatic). Differences between PLD2-expressing and parental cell lines were limited but included the signaling proteins Ras guanyl releasing protein 1 (RGS18; increased with PLD2) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2; decreased with PLD2). The results provide insights into signaling pathways potentially involved in conferring metastatic ability on lymphoma cells. Copyright© 2016, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment of metastatic brain lesion

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    A. M. Zaytsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increasing survival in patients with secondary brain damage, and identifying the factors of favorable and adverse prognosis.Material and method. In P. A. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute from 2007 to 2013 there were treated 268 patients with brain metastases. The mean age was 55.8 years (from 24 to 81 years. Metastases of colorectal cancer identified in 7.8%, cases of lung cancer in 34%, melanoma 9.3 %, breast cancer in 26%, kidney cancer in 11%, with non-identified primary tumor in 4.5%, other tumors accounted for 6.7%. Solitary metastasis was diagnosed in 164 (61,19% patients, oligometastasis (2-3 - 72 (26,87% patients with polymetastasis (more than 3 – 32 (11,94% patients. In 106 (39,55% of patients with brain metastases it was the only manifestation of the generalization process. To control the radical removal of the tumor in 93 (34,7% patients we used the method of fluorescence navigation (FN with the drug Alasens. In 66 (24,6% patients intraoperatively was held a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT. In 212 (79,1% cases, the removal of metastasis performed totally, 55 (20,9% patients stated Subtotal removal.Results. The observation period for the patients ranged from 3 to 79 months. Survival median among the entire group of patients with metastatic brain lesion was 12 months. Overall survival was significantly dependent on RPA class, the volume of postoperative treatment, histological type of primary tumor, number of intracerebral metastases and the timing of the relapse-free period.Conclusions. Factors that affects the overall survival are the features of the histology of the primary lesion, multiplicity of metastatic lesions, RPA class and the synchronous nature of the metastasis. The median of overall survival of patients who did not receive after surgical treatment of a particular type of therapy was only 4 months. If to use the combined treatment (surgical treatment with the irradiation of the whole brain median

  12. Prognostic Factors and Decision Tree for Long-term Survival in Metastatic Uveal Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Ochoa, María; Piulats, Josep Maria; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Arias, Luis; Català, Jaum; Grau, María; Peñafiel, Judith; Cobos, Estefanía; Garcia-Bru, Pere; Rubio, Marcos Javier; Padrón-Pérez, Noel; Dias, Bruno; Pera, Joan; Caminal, Josep Maria

    2017-12-04

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the existence of a bimodal survival pattern in metastatic uveal melanoma. Secondary aims were to identify the characteristics and prognostic factors associated with long-term survival and to develop a clinical decision tree. The medical records of 99 metastatic uveal melanoma patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified as either short (≤ 12 months) or long-term survivors (> 12 months) based on a graphical interpretation of the survival curve after diagnosis of the first metastatic lesion. Ophthalmic and oncological characteristics were assessed in both groups. Of the 99 patients, 62 (62.6%) were classified as short-term survivors, and 37 (37.4%) as long-term survivors. The multivariate analysis identified the following predictors of long-term survival: age ≤ 65 years (p=0.012) and unaltered serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (p=0.018); additionally, the size (smaller vs. larger) of the largest liver metastasis showed a trend towards significance (p=0.063). Based on the variables significantly associated with long-term survival, we developed a decision tree to facilitate clinical decision-making. The findings of this study demonstrate the existence of a bimodal survival pattern in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. The presence of certain clinical characteristics at diagnosis of distant disease is associated with long-term survival. A decision tree was developed to facilitate clinical decision-making and to counsel patients about the expected course of disease.

  13. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  14. Imaging of Spinal Metastatic Disease

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    Lubdha M. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the spine can involve the bone, epidural space, leptomeninges, and spinal cord. The spine is the third most common site for metastatic disease, following the lung and the liver. Approximately 60–70% of patients with systemic cancer will have spinal metastasis. Materials/Methods. This is a review of the imaging techniques and typical imaging appearances of spinal metastatic disease. Conclusions. Awareness of the different manifestations of spinal metastatic disease is essential as the spine is the most common site of osseous metastatic disease. Imaging modalities have complimentary roles in the evaluation of spinal metastatic disease. CT best delineates osseous integrity, while MRI is better at assessing soft tissue involvement. Physiologic properties, particularly in treated disease, can be evaluated with other imaging modalities such as FDG PET and advanced MRI sequences. Imaging plays a fundamental role in not only diagnosis but also treatment planning of spinal metastatic disease.

  15. Rate of PSA rise predicts metastatic versus local recurrence after definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, C.I.; Strawderman, M.H.; Lin, X.; Kish, K.E.; McLaughlin, P.W.; Lichter, A.S.; Sandler, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: A rising PSA following treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate indicates eventual clinical failure, but the rate of rise can be quite different from patient to patient, as can the pattern of clinical failure. We sought to determine whether the rate of PSA rise could differentiate future local vs. metastatic failure. Materials and Methods: PSA values from our series of 671 patients treated between 1987 and 1994 with 3-D conformal radiotherapy for localized adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Patients who had a pre-treatment PSA and >4 post-treatment PSA values available, had received no hormonal therapy, and had information detailing clinical outcome were used in this analysis. First site of failure was determined by abnormal DRE or biopsy, abnormal bone scan or radiographic evidence of metastasis as directed by clinical symptoms or follow-up clinical exam. Each patient's PSA pattern was defined by the function PSA(t)=C 1 e - a 1 (t) + C 2 e a 2 (t) where -a 1 relates to the rate of decline and a 2 to the rate of rise, if any. Univariate analysis was used to determine the correlation between initial PSA or rising PSA and clinical failure. Adjacent category logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the rate of rise and pattern of clinical failure. Results: 671 patients were reviewed; 401 patients met the requirements and 2667 PSA values were analyzed. We confirmed the finding of others that pre-treatment PSA is a prognostic indicator: patients presenting with PSA 3-20ng/ml had a relative risk of 9 (p=0.03) and PSA>20ng/ml had a RR of 26 (p=0.002) for clinical failure when compared to presenting PSA 2 >1.5/year predicted metastatic as opposed to local failure when compared to PSA rise with a 2 between 0.5-1.5/yr or 1.5 log(ng/ml)/year vs. 0.5-1.5 log(ng/ml)/yr or <0.5 log(ng/ml)/yr. Conclusions: The rate of rise of PSA following definitive radiotherapy can predict clinical failure patterns, with a rapidly rising PSA indicating metastatic as opposed to

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-07-01

    Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics.

  17. Australian contemporary management of synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Phillip; Gibbs, Peter; Shapiro, Jeremy; Sockler, Jim; Bell, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines the current Australian multidisciplinary treatment of synchronous metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and assesses the factors that influence patient outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of the prospective 'Treatment of Recurrent and Advanced Colorectal Cancer' registry, describing the patient treatment pathway and documenting the extent of disease, resection of the colorectal primary and metastases, chemotherapy and biological therapy use. Cox regression models for progression-free and overall survival were constructed with a comprehensive set of clinical variables. Analysis was intentionn-ton-treat, quantifying the effect of treatment intent decided at the multidisciplinary team meeting (MDT). One thousand one hundred and nine patients presented with synchronous metastatic disease between July 2009 and November 2015. Median follow-up was 15.8 months; 4.4% (group 1) had already curative resections of primary and metastases prior to MDT, 22.2% (group 2) were considered curative but were referred to MDT for opinion and/or medical oncology treatment prior to resection and 70.2% were considered palliative at MDT (group 3). Overall, 83% received chemotherapy, 55% had their primary resected and 23% had their metastases resected; 13% of resections were synchronous, 20% were staged with primary resected first and 62% had only the colorectal primary managed surgically. Performance status, metastasis resection (R0 versus R1 versus R2 versus no resection), resection of the colorectal primary and treatment intent determined at MDT were the most significant factors for progression-free and overall survival. This is the largest Australian series of synchronous metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and offers insight into the nature and utility of contemporary practice. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. [Ambulatory surgical treatment for breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillari, P; Leuzzi, R; Bassiri-Gharb, A; D'Angelo, F; Aurello, P; Naticchioni, E

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the feasibility and the oncologic effectiveness of quadrantectomy plus sentinel node biopsy performed under local anesthesia, and to demonstrate the economic and psychologic advantages. From October 1996 to March 2000, 71 patients affected with clinical T1 N0 breast cancer, underwent quadrantectomy or tumor resection plus sentinel node biopsy and clinically suspicion axillary nodes biopsy, under local anesthesia at the Casa di Cura "Villa Mafalda" in Rome. Twenty tumors were T1a, 26 T1b e 25 T1c. A mean of 2 sentinel nodes (range 1-4) and a mean of 8 axillary nodes were removed during the procedure. In 2 cases sentinel nodes were not identified. Intraoperative histologic examination showed metastatic sentinel nodes in 11 cases. An axillary node dissection was performed in all cases (>12 nodes) and no other metastatic nodes were found. In all patients clinically suspected nodes were removed. In two cases no evidence of metastasis was found in sentinel nodes, while histologic examination revealed in a patient micrometastasis in one node, and in another patient two metastatic nodes. Fifty-three patients rated the overall surgical, anesthetic and recovery experience as "very satisfactory", 13 "satisfactory" and 5 "unsatisfactory". Patients typically expressed their pleasure at the possibility to return home and stressed the ease of recovery.

  19. Differentiation of specific ripple patterns helps to identify epileptogenic areas for surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Karolin; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Schelter, Björn; Le Van, Pierre; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia

    2014-07-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) at 80-500 Hz are promising markers of epileptic areas. Several retrospective studies reported that surgical removal of areas generating HFOs was associated with a good seizure outcome. Recent reports suggested that ripple (80-200 Hz) HFO patterns co-existed with different background EEG activities. We hypothesized that the coexisting background EEG pattern may distinguish physiological from epileptic ripples. Rates of HFOs were analyzed in intracranial EEG recordings of 22 patients. Additionally, ripple patterns were classified for each channel depending either as coexisting with a flat or oscillatory background activity. A multi-variate analysis was performed to determine whether removal of areas showing the above EEG markers correlated with seizure outcome. Removal of areas generating high rates of 'fast ripples (>200 Hz)' and 'ripples on a flat background activity' showed a significant correlation with a seizure-free outcome. In contrast, removal of high rates of 'ripples' or 'ripple patterns in a continuously oscillating background' was not significantly associated with seizure outcome. Ripples occurring in an oscillatory background activity may be suggestive of physiological activity, while those on a flat background reflect epileptic activity. Consideration of coexisting background patterns may improve the delineation of the epileptogenic areas using ripple oscillations. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Surgical Site Infection Risk Score (SSIRS: A Model to Predict the Risk of Surgical Site Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl van Walraven

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections (SSI are an important cause of peri-surgical morbidity with risks that vary extensively between patients and surgeries. Quantifying SSI risk would help identify candidates most likely to benefit from interventions to decrease the risk of SSI.We randomly divided all surgeries recorded in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2010 into a derivation and validation population. We used multivariate logistic regression to determine the independent association of patient and surgical covariates with the risk of any SSI (including superficial, deep, and organ space SSI within 30 days of surgery. To capture factors particular to specific surgeries, we developed a surgical risk score specific to all surgeries having a common first 3 numbers of their CPT code.Derivation (n = 181 894 and validation (n = 181 146 patients were similar for all demographics, past medical history, and surgical factors. Overall SSI risk was 3.9%. The SSI Risk Score (SSIRS found that risk increased with patient factors (smoking, increased body mass index, certain comorbidities (peripheral vascular disease, metastatic cancer, chronic steroid use, recent sepsis, and operative characteristics (surgical urgency; increased ASA class; longer operation duration; infected wounds; general anaesthesia; performance of more than one procedure; and CPT score. In the validation population, the SSIRS had good discrimination (c-statistic 0.800, 95% CI 0.795-0.805 and calibration.SSIRS can be calculated using patient and surgery information to estimate individual risk of SSI for a broad range of surgery types.

  1. Whole exome sequencing of a patient with metastatic hidradenocarcinoma and review of the literature

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    Eva Gupta

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy of the sweat glands with only a few cases reported in literature. The management of these tumors is based on the extent of disease with local disease managed with surgical resection. These can tumors carry a high potential of lymphatic and vascular spread and local and distant metastases are not uncommon. Given the rarity of the tumor and lack of genetic and clinical data about these tumors, there is no consensus on the proper management of metastatic disease. Here in we report the first case of metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with detailed molecular profiling including whole exome sequencing. We identified mutations in multiple genes including two that are potentially targetable: PTCH1 and TCF7L1. Further work is necessary to not only confirm the presence of these mutations but also to confirm the clinical significance.

  2. Whole exome sequencing of a patient with metastatic hidradenocarcinoma and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Eva; Guthrie, Kimberly J; Krishna, Murli; Asmann, Yan; Parker, Alexander S; Joseph, Richard W

    2015-02-11

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy of the sweat glands with only a few cases reported in literature. The management of these tumors is based on the extent of disease with local disease managed with surgical resection. These can tumors carry a high potential of lymphatic and vascular spread and local and distant metastases are not uncommon. Given the rarity of the tumor and lack of genetic and clinical data about these tumors, there is no consensus on the proper management of metastatic disease. Here in we report the first case of metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with detailed molecular profiling including whole exome sequencing. We identified mutations in multiple genes including two that are potentially targetable: PTCH1 and TCF7L1. Further work is necessary to not only confirm the presence of these mutations but also to confirm the clinical significance.

  3. Metastatic Colonic Adenocarcinoma in Breast: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiten P. Kothadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic adenocarcinoma to the breast from an extramammary site is extremely rare. In the literature, the most current estimate is that extramammary metastases account for only 0.43% of all breast malignancies and that, of these extramammary sites, colon cancer metastases form a very small subset. Most commonly seen metastasis in breast is from a contralateral breast carcinoma, followed by metastasis from hematopoietic neoplasms, malignant melanoma, sarcoma, lung, prostate, and ovary and gastric neoplasms. Here we present two rare cases, in which colonic adenocarcinomas were found to metastasize to the breast. In both cases, core biopsies were obtained from the suspicious areas identified on mammogram. Histopathology revealed neoplastic proliferation of atypical glandular components within benign breast parenchyma which were morphologically consistent with metastatic adenocarcinoma. By immunohistochemical staining, it was confirmed that the neoplastic components were immunoreactive to colonic markers and nonreactive to breast markers, thus further supporting the morphologic findings. It is extremely important to make this distinction between primary breast cancer and a metastatic process, in order to provide the most effective and appropriate treatment for the patient and to avoid any harmful or unnecessary surgical procedures.

  4. The SystHERs registry: an observational cohort study of treatment patterns and outcomes in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, Debu; Lai, Catherine; Masaquel, Anthony; Hurvitz, Sara; Rugo, Hope S; Kaufman, Peter A; Swain, Sandra; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce; Jahanzeb, Mohammad; Mason, Ginny; Beattie, Mary; Yoo, Bongin

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene occurs in approximately 20% of invasive breast cancer cases and is associated with a more aggressive disease course than HER2-negative breast cancer. HER2-targeted therapies have altered the natural history of HER2-positive breast cancer, a trend that will likely further improve with the recent approval of new agents. A prospective, observational cohort study was designed and initiated to provide real-world insights into current treatment patterns, long-term survival, and patients’ experiences with initial and subsequent treatments for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The Systematic Therapies for HER2-positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Study (SystHERs) is a US-based prospective observational cohort study enrolling patients ≥18 years of age with recently diagnosed HER2-positive MBC not previously treated with systemic therapy in the metastatic setting. The primary objective of the study is to identify treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in recently diagnosed patients in a variety of practice settings. Secondary objectives include comparative efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Healthcare resource utilization is an exploratory end point. Tumor tissue and blood sample collection is optional. The SystHERs registry will enroll approximately 1000 patients over a 3-year period, after which the study will continue for ≥5 years, allowing for a maximum follow-up of 8 years. The treating physician will determine all care and the frequency of visits. PRO measures will be completed at study enrollment and every 90 days. Clinical data will be abstracted quarterly from patient records. The first patient was enrolled in June 2012, and preliminary descriptive data based on 25% to 30% of the final study population are expected at the end of 2013, and as of April 25, 2014, 386 patients are enrolled. SystHERs is expected to provide in-depth data on demographic

  5. Interhospital Variability in Perioperative Red Blood Cell Ordering Patterns in United States Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel M; Thurm, Cary W; Rothstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate perioperative red blood cell (RBC) ordering and interhospital variability patterns in pediatric patients undergoing surgical interventions at US children's hospitals. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study of children aged blood type and crossmatch were included when done on the day before or the day of the surgical procedure. The RBC transfusions included were those given on the day of or the day after surgery. The type and crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio (TCTR) was calculated for each surgical procedure. An adjusted model for interhospital variability was created to account for variation in patient population by age, sex, race/ethnicity, payer type, and presence/number of complex chronic conditions (CCCs) per patient. A total of 357 007 surgical interventions were identified across all participating hospitals. Blood type and crossmatch was performed 55 632 times, and 13 736 transfusions were provided, for a TCTR of 4:1. There was an association between increasing age and TCTR (R(2) = 0.43). Patients with multiple CCCs had lower TCTRs, with a stronger relationship (R(2) = 0.77). There was broad variability in adjusted TCTRs among hospitals (range, 2.5-25). The average TCTR in US children's hospitals was double that of adult surgical data, and was associated with wide interhospital variability. Age and the presence of CCCs markedly influenced this ratio. Studies to evaluate optimal preoperative RBC ordering and standardization of practices could potentially decrease unnecessary costs and wasted blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes. Quantification and different distribution of iodine uptake assessed by dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Stefania [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Radice, Davide [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy); Femia, Marco; Vigorito, Raffaella [Universita di Milano, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy); De Marco, Paolo; Origgi, Daniela [Medical Physics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Preda, Lorenzo [Division of Radiology, National Centre of Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO Foundation), Pavia (Italy); University of Pavia, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, Pavia (Italy); Barberis, Massimo [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Pathology, Milan (Italy); Mauri, Giovanni [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Interventional Radiology, Milan (Italy); Mauro, Alberto [GE Medical Systems Italia SpA, Milan (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Universita di Milano, Department of Oncology, Milan (Italy)

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate quantification of iodine uptake in metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) by dual-energy CT (DECT) and to assess if the distribution of iodine within LNs at DECT correlates with the pathological structure. Ninety LNs from 37 patients (23 with lung and 14 with gynaecological malignancies) were retrospectively selected. Information of LNs sent for statistical analysis included Hounsfield units (HU) at different energy levels; decomposition material densities fat-iodine, iodine-fat, iodine-water, water-iodine. Statistical analysis included evaluation of interobserver variability, material decomposition densities and spatial HU distribution within LNs. Interobserver agreement was excellent. There was a significant difference in iodine-fat and iodine-water decompositions comparing metastatic and non-metastatic LNs (p < 0.001); fat-iodine and water-iodine did not show significant differences. HU distribution showed a significant gradient from centre to periphery within non-metastatic LNs that was significant up to 20-30% from the centre, whereas metastatic LNs showed a more homogeneous distribution of HU, with no significant gradient. DECT demonstrated a lower iodine uptake in metastatic compared to non-metastatic LNs. Moreover, the internal iodine distribution showed an evident gradient of iodine distribution from centre to periphery in non-metastatic LNs, and a more homogeneous distribution within metastatic LNs, which corresponded to the pathological structure. (orig.)

  7. Risk Factors for Preoperative Seizures and Loss of Seizure Control in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Adela; Weingart, Jon D; Gallia, Gary L; Lim, Michael; Brem, Henry; Bettegowda, Chetan; Chaichana, Kaisorn L

    2017-08-01

    Metastatic brain tumors are the most common brain tumors in adults. Patients with metastatic brain tumors have poor prognoses with median survival of 6-12 months. Seizures are a major presenting symptom and cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, risk factors for the onset of preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control are examined. Adult patients who underwent resection of one or more brain metastases at a single institution between 1998 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Of 565 patients, 114 (20.2%) patients presented with seizures. Factors independently associated with preoperative seizures were preoperative headaches (P = 0.044), cognitive deficits (P = 0.031), more than 2 intracranial metastatic tumors (P = 0.013), temporal lobe location (P = 0.031), occipital lobe location (P = 0.010), and bone involvement by tumor (P = 0.029). Factors independently associated with loss of seizure control after surgical resection were preoperative seizures (P = 0.001), temporal lobe location (P = 0.037), lack of postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.010), subtotal resection of tumor (P = 0.022), and local recurrence (P = 0.027). At last follow-up, the majority of patients (93.8%) were seizure-free. Thirty patients (5.30%) in total had loss of seizure control, and only 8 patients (1.41%) who did not have preoperative seizures presented with new-onset seizures after surgical resection of their metastases. The brain is a common site for metastases from numerous primary cancers, such as breast and lung. The identification of factors associated with onset of preoperative seizures as well as seizure control postoperatively could aid management strategies for patients with metastatic brain tumors. Patients with preoperative seizures who underwent resection tended to have good seizure control after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgical treatment of a Pattern I Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome individual - clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cavalcante Feitoza

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA is a multifactorial disease that highly alters a persons quality of life. It is characterized by the repeated interruption of breathing during sleep, due to an obstruction or the collapse of the upper airways. Since it is a multifactorial etiological disorder, it requires a thorough diagnosis and treatment with an interdisciplinary team, which comprises several professionals such as a surgical dentist, phonoaudiologist, otorhinolaryngologist, sleep doctor, neurologist and physiotherapist. The diagnosis and the degree of severity of the syndrome is determined through a polysomnography examination. After that, the best form of treatment is devised depending on the gravity of the case. In cases of moderate to severe apnea, invasive treatment through surgical procedures such as maxillomandibular advancement remains the preferred option as it increases the posterior air space, reducing and/or eliminating the obstruction. Thus, improving the patients respiratory function and, consequently, his quality of life as it is shown in the clinical case at hand. In which the male patient, facial pattern type I, 41 years of age, diagnosed with moderate OSA (Apnea-Hypopnea Index - AHI of 23.19, decided to have a surgical treatment instead of a conservative one, resulting in the cure of apnea (AHI of 0.3.

  9. Detection of pulmonary metastatic nodules: usefulness of low-dose multidetector CT in comparison with chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Nam; Lee, Ki Nam; Yang, Doo Kyung; Lee, Soo Keol

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of low-dose multidetector CT for the detection and follow-up of pulmonary metastatic nodules in patients suffering with malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed the conventional chest radiographs and low-dose multidetector CT (low-dose CT) scans of 81 patients who had been under the diagnosis of malignancy. We reviewed the detection of pulmonary nodules and we counted the number of nodules detected by each method. The nodules were confirmed by surgical operation and by the radiologic criteria. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of each method for detecting metastatic nodules were compared with χ 2 tests. Low-dose CT depicted more nodules than did chest radiograph, and the indeterminate nodules seen on chest radiograph may be clearly benign on low-dose CT (eg. calcified granulomas or bony lesions). The accuracy of low-dose CT (75.3%) was significantly higher than that of chest radiograph (49.4%) for the detection for metastatic nodules (ρ < 0.05). Low-dose CT may provide better information than does chest radiograph for diagnosing pulmonary metastasis

  10. Elevated serum cytokines correlated with altered behavior, serum cortisol rhythm, and dampened 24-hour rest-activity patterns in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Tyvin; Innominato, Pasquale F; Boerner, Julie; Mormont, M Christine; Iacobelli, Stefano; Baron, Benoit; Jasmin, Claude; Lévi, Francis

    2005-03-01

    Incapacitating symptom burden in cancer patients contributes to poor quality of life (QOL) and can influence treatment outcomes because of poor tolerance to therapy. In this study, the role of circulating cytokines in the production symptoms in cancer patients is evaluated. Eighty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with either normal (group I, n = 40) or dampened (group II, n = 40) 24-hour rest/activity patterns measured by actigraphy were identified. Actigraphy patterns were correlated with QOL indices, serum cortisol obtained at 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. and with serum levels of transforming growth factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) obtained at 8:00 a.m. and analyzed in duplicate by ELISA. Cytokine levels and survival were also correlated. Group II patients had significantly higher pre treatment levels of all three cytokines, displayed significantly poorer emotional and social functioning, had higher fatigue, more appetite loss, and poorer performance status compared with group I patients. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and IL-6 were significantly increased in the patients with WHO performance status >1 and in those with appetite loss. Fatigue was significantly associated with elevated TGF-alpha only. IL-6 was increased in those patients with extensive liver involvement and multiple organ replacement, and it was significantly correlated with dampened cortisol rhythm. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 was correlated with poor treatment outcome. Significant correlations were found between serum levels of TGF-alpha and IL-6, circadian patterns in wrist activity and serum cortisol and tumor-related symptoms in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. These data support the hypothesis that some cancer patient's symptoms of fatigue, poor QOL, and treatment outcome are related to tumor or host generated cytokines and could reflect cytokine effects on the circadian timing system. This interplay between cytokine

  11. Leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkasap, N.; Ozkurt, M. [Department of Physiology, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Erkasap, S.; Yasar, F. [Department of General Surgery, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Uzuner, K. [Department of Physiology, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ihtiyar, E. [Department of General Surgery, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Uslu, S.; Kara, M. [Department of Biochemistry, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey); Bolluk, O. [Department of Biostatistics, Osmangazi University Medical Faculty, Meselik, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-03-19

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases) and metastatic colon (13 cases) cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis.

  12. Leptin receptor (Ob-R) mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkasap, N.; Ozkurt, M.; Erkasap, S.; Yasar, F.; Uzuner, K.; Ihtiyar, E.; Uslu, S.; Kara, M.; Bolluk, O.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases) and metastatic colon (13 cases) cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis

  13. Leptin receptor (Ob-R mRNA expression and serum leptin concentration in patients with colorectal and metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Erkasap

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin on the progression of colorectal carcinoma to metastatic disease by analyzing the serum leptin concentration and Ob-R gene expression in colon cancer tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from 31 patients who underwent surgical resection for colon (18 cases and metastatic colon (13 cases cancer. Serum leptin concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Ob-R mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both groups. ELISA data were analyzed by the Student t-test and RT-PCR data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. RT-PCR results demonstrated that mRNA expression of Ob-R in human metastatic colorectal cancer was higher than in local colorectal cancer tissues. On the other hand, mean serum leptin concentration was significantly higher in local colorectal cancer patients compared to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The results of the present study suggest a role for leptin in the progression of colon cancer to metastatic disease without weight loss. In other words, significantly increased Ob-R mRNA expression and decreased serum leptin concentration in patients with metastatic colon cancer indicate that sensitization to leptin activity may be a major indicator of metastasis to the colon tissue and the determination of leptin concentration and leptin gene expression may be used to aid the diagnosis.

  14. Evaluation of dual energy spectral CT in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huanhuan [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (China); Yan, Fuhua; Pan, Zilai; Lin, Xiaozhu; Luo, Xianfu; Shi, Cen [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Xiaoyan [Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Baisong [Department of Biomedical Statistics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Huan, E-mail: huanzhangy@126.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer and the status of the regional lymph nodes in rectal cancer is considered to be one of the most powerful prognostic factor in the absence of distant metastatic disease. Detecting LNs metastasis is still a challenging problem due to the presence of microscopic metastasis or inflammatory swelling of LNs. • We investigated the value of dual energy spectral CT in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Our study demonstrated that the quantitative normalized iodine concentration (nIC) could be useful for differentiating metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes. The combination of nIC in portal venous phase and conventional size criterion could improve the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of rectal cancer. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the value of dual energy spectral CT (DEsCT) imaging in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Methods: Fifty-five patients with rectal cancer underwent the arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP) contrast-enhanced DEsCT imaging. The virtual monochromatic images and iodine-based material decomposition images derived from DEsCT imaging were interpreted for lymph nodes (LNs) measurement. The short axis diameter and the normalized iodine concentration (nIC) of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs were measured. The two-sample t test was used to compare the short axis diameters and nIC values of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: One hundred and fifty two LNs including 92 non-metastatic LNs and 60 metastatic LNs were matched using the radiological-pathological correlation. The mean short axis diameter of metastatic LNs was significantly larger than that of the non-metastatic LNs (7.28 ± 2.28 mm vs. 4.90 ± 1.64 mm, P < 0.001). The mean n

  15. Approaches to radiotherapy in metastatic spinal cord compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppl, Morten Hiul

    2018-04-01

    Metastatic spinal cord compression is caused by the progression of metastatic lesions within the vicinity of the spinal cord. The consequences are very severe with loss of neurological function and severe pain. The standard treatment is surgical intervention followed by radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. However, the majority of patients are treated with radiotherapy only due to contraindications to surgery and technical inoperability. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is a technology to deliver higher radiation dose to the radiotherapy target with the use of spatial coordinates. This modality has shown positive results in treating lesions in brain and lungs. Hence, it could prove beneficial in metastatic spinal cord compression. We designed and planned a trial to investigate this method in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression. The method was usable but the trial was stopped prematurely due to low accrual that made comparison with surgery impossible. Low accrual is a known problem for trials evaluating new approaches in radiotherapy. Target definition in radiotherapy of metastatic spinal cord compression is defined by patient history, examination and imaging. Functional imaging could provide information to guide target definition with the sparring of normal tissue e.g. spinal cord and hematopoietic tissue of the bone marrow. In future trials this may be used for dose escalation of spinal metastases. The trial showed that PET/MRI was feasible in this group of patients but did not change the radiotherapy target in the included patients. Neurological outcome is similar irrespective of course length and therefore single fraction radiotherapy is recommended for the majority of patients. In-field recurrence is a risk factor of both short and long fractionation schemes and re-irradiation have the potential risk of radiation-induced myelopathy. In a retrospective study of re-irradiation, we investigated the incidence of radiation-induced myelopathy. In our study

  16. Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott; Allen, Benjamin; Robbins, Chris; Bedi, Asheesh; Gagnier, Joel J; Miller, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    Limited literature exists regarding the influence of rotator cuff tear morphology on patient outcomes. To determine the effect of rotator cuff tear pattern (crescent, U-shape, L-shape) on patient-reported outcomes after rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of known full-thickness rotator cuff tears were observed prospectively at regular intervals from baseline to 1 year. The tear pattern was classified at the time of surgery as crescent, U-shaped, or L-shaped. Primary outcome measures were the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The tear pattern was evaluated as the primary predictor while controlling for variables known to affect rotator cuff outcomes. Mixed-methods regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the effects of tear morphology on patient-reported outcomes after surgical repair from baseline to 1 year. A total of 82 patients were included in the study (53 male, 29 female; mean age, 58 years [range, 41-75 years]). A crescent shape was the most common tear pattern (54%), followed by U-shaped (25%) and L-shaped tears (21%). There were no significant differences in outcome scores between the 3 groups at baseline. All 3 groups showed statistically significant improvement from baseline to 1 year, but analysis failed to show any predictive effect in the change in outcome scores from baseline to 1 year for the WORC, ASES, or VAS when tear pattern was the primary predictor. Further ANOVA also failed to show any significant difference in the change in outcome scores from baseline to 1 year for the WORC ( P = .96), ASES ( P = .71), or VAS ( P = .86). Rotator cuff tear pattern is not a predictor of functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

  17. Instituting a Surgical Skills Competition Increases Technical Performance of Surgical Clerkship Students Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leraas, Harold J; Cox, Morgan L; Bendersky, Victoria A; Sprinkle, Shanna S; Gilmore, Brian F; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka M; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Sudan, Ranjan

    2017-10-04

    Surgical skills training varies greatly between institutions and is often left to students to approach independently. Although many studies have examined single interventions of skills training, no data currently exists about the implementation of surgical skills assessment as a component of the medical student surgical curriculum. We created a technical skills competition and evaluated its effect on student surgical skill development. Second-year medical students enrolled in the surgery clerkship voluntarily participated in a surgical skills competition consisting of knot tying, laparoscopic peg transfer, and laparoscopic pattern cut. Winning students were awarded dinner with the chair of surgery and a resident of their choice. Individual event times and combined times were recorded and compared for students who completed without disqualification. Disqualification included compromising cutting pattern, dropping a peg out of the field of vision, and incorrect knot tying technique. Timed performance was compared for 2 subsequent academic years using Mann-Whitney U test. Overall, 175 students competed and 71 students met qualification criteria. When compared by academic year, 2015 to 2016 students (n = 34) performed better than 2014 to 2015 students (n = 37) in pattern cut (133s vs 167s, p = 0.040), peg transfer (66s vs 101s, p skills competition improves student technical performance. Further research is needed regarding long-term benefits of surgical competitions for medical students. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FOLFOXIRI Plus Bevacizumab as Conversion Therapy for Patients With Initially Unresectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Gianluca; Petrelli, Fausto; Ghidini, Michele; Russo, Alessandro; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Barni, Sandro

    2017-07-13

    The combination of fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan plus bevacizumab (FOLFOXIRI-Bev) is an established and effective first-line chemotherapy regimen for metastatic colorectal cancer. However, resection rates of metastases and overall survival with this schedule have never been systematically evaluated in published studies including, but not limited to, the TRIBE (TRIplet plus BEvacizumab) trial. To assess the clinical efficacy of FOLFOXIRI-Bev, including outcomes and rates of surgical conversions. A systematic review was conducted in October 2016 in concordance with the PRISMA guidelines of PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Ovid, and EMBASE using the terms FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab and (colorectal cancer). Clinical trials, retrospective case series, and prospective case series that used FOLFOXIRI-Bev for the treatment of initially unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer in humans were included. Individual case reports and retrospective case series with fewer than 10 patients were excluded. Data were extracted independently by 2 reviewers on a predesigned, standardized form. Ultimately, data were aggregated to obtain the pooled effect size of efficacy, according to the random-effects model and weighted for the number of patients included in each trial. Median overall survival and progression-free survival, overall response rates, and rates of R0 surgical conversions and overall surgical conversions. Eleven FOLFOXIRI-Bev studies published between 2010 and 2016 met the inclusion criteria and were pooled for analysis. The studies included 889 patients, with 877 patients clinically evaluable for overall response rates. The objective response rate to FOLFOXIRI-Bev was 69% (95% CI, 65%-72%; I2 = 25%). The rate of overall surgical conversions was 39.1% (95% CI, 26.9%-52.8%), and the rate of R0 surgical conversions was 28.1% (95% CI, 18.1%-40.8%). Median pooled overall survival was 30

  19. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Breast Identified by Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claimon, Apichaya; Chuthapisith, Suebwong; Samarnthai, Norasate; Pusuwan, Pawana

    2015-08-01

    The authors reported an uncommon presentation of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma to the breast detected by Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC SPECT/CT in a 49 years old woman who, previously, had carcinoid tumor of left main bronchus and invasive ductal carcinoma of the right breast. Later, the patient developed left breast mass. Core needle biopsy of the mass revealed poorly differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. The disease remained stable for 12 years without any treatment on that left breast (due to patient's rejection). On the later investigation using Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy examination, rather than invasive ductal carcinoma, metastatic neuroendocrine cancer was suggested. The final diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination after surgical excision. Multiple metastatic lesions of neuroendocrine carcinoma at lung, liver, ovaries, and bones were also depicted. Due to the good behavior of the disease, patient had been doing well for eight months, without specific treatment. This report confirmed the advantage and the accuracy of Tc-99m-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in detection of neuroendocrine carcinoma. Furthermore, metastatic neuroendocrine tumor should be in differential diagnosis for patient with breast mass together with history of neuroendocrine tumor

  20. VEIL Surgical Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, S K; Nagaraja, H; Srivatsa, N

    2017-03-01

    Inguinal lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for metastatic nodal disease in cases of penile, urethral, vulval and vaginal cancers. Outcomes, including cure rates and overall and progression-free survivals, have progressively improved in these diseases with extending criteria to offer inguinal lymph node dissection for patients 'at-risk' for metastasis or loco-regional recurrence. Hence, despite declining incidence of advanced stages of these cancers, many patients will still need to undergo lymphadenectomy for optimal oncological outcomes. Inguinal node dissection is a morbid procedure with operative morbidity noted in almost two third of the patients. Video endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (VEIL) was described and currently practiced with proven equivalent oncological outcomes. We describe our technique of VEIL using laparoscopic and robotic access as well as various new surgical strategies.

  1. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatic resection: Patterns of uptake and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peungjesada, Silanath [University New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aloia, Thomas A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 444, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411, Houston, TX (United States); Chasen, Beth [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Unit 1483, Houston, TX (United States); Shin, Sooyoung; Loyer, Evelyne M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States); Baiomy, Ali [Cairo University, National Cancer Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the patterns of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatectomy to identify features that may differentiate benign and malignant uptake. Patients who had undergone a PET/CT after hepatectomy were identified. Delay between resection and PET/CT, presence of uptake at the surgical margin, pattern of uptake, and maximal standardized value were recorded. The PET/CT findings were correlated with contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. There were 26 patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake; uptake was diffuse in seven and focal in 19. Diffuse uptake was due to inflammation in all cases. Focal uptake was due to recurrence in 12 and inflammation in seven cases. Defining a focal pattern only as a positive for malignancy yielded 100 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, 37 % false positive rate. As expected, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher for recurrence than inflammation, but did overlap. Contrast-enhanced CT allowed differentiation between malignant and benign uptake in all cases. F-FDG uptake after hepatectomy does not equate to recurrence and yields a high false positive rate. Diffuse uptake did not require additional evaluation in our sample. Focal uptake, however, may be due to recurrence; differentiating benign and malignant nodular uptake relies on optimal contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. (orig.)

  2. The Impact of Laparoscopic Approaches on Short-term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Liver Surgery for Metastatic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagkounis, Georgios; Seicean, Andreea; Berber, Eren

    2015-06-01

    To compare the perioperative outcomes associated with open and laparoscopic (LAP) surgical approaches for liver metastases. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify all adult patients who underwent surgical therapy for metastatic liver tumors between 2006 and 2012 (N=7684). Patients who underwent >1 procedure were excluded. Logistic regression after matching on propensity scores was used to assess the association between surgical approaches and perioperative outcomes. A total of 4555 patients underwent open resection, 387 LAP resection, 297 open radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and 265 LAP RFA. In propensity-matched samples (over 95% of patients successfully matched), there was no significant difference between LAP resection and LAP RFA in perioperative complications and length of stay and both compared favorably with their open counterparts. Minimally invasive approaches for secondary hepatic malignancies were associated with improved postoperative morbidity and length of stay and should be preferred in appropriate patients.

  3. Surgical outcomes for liposarcoma of the lower limbs with synchronous pulmonary metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria Antonietta; Calio, Francesco G; Migliano, Francesco; Mercurio, Valentina; Pizzardi, Giulia; Nigri, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    Surgical resection of pulmonary metastases from soft tissues sarcomas has typically yielded disparate results, owing to the histologic heterogeneity of various series and the presentation times relative to primary tumor discovery. It was our hypothesis that with expeditious, curative surgical resection of both, primary and metastatic disease, patients with liposarcoma of the lower limb and synchronous, resectable, pulmonary metastases might achieve satisfactory outcomes. A consecutive sample clinical study, with a mean follow-up duration of 30 months. Twenty-two patients (mean age, 50 years), each presenting with a liposarcoma of the lower limb and synchronous, resectable, pulmonary metastases, underwent curative resection of both the primary mass and all pulmonary metastases within a mean of 18 days from presentation (range 9-32 days). Mean overall survival was 28 months, disease-related survival (SE) was 9% at 5 years (±9.7%), and disease-free survival was 9% at 5 years (±7.6%). Expeditious, curative resection of both--primary and metastatic lesions--yields acceptable near-term results, with potential for long-term survival, in patients with liposarcoma of the lower limb and synchronous pulmonary metastases. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. COMPLEX CORONARY PATTERN AFFECTING THE SURGICAL OUTCOME OF ARTERIAL SWITCH OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Arterial switch operation (ASO has become the procedure of choice for the transposition of great arteries as well as for Taussig-Bing anomaly. Relocation of coronary arteries remains a technical problem in anatomic correction of the transposed great arteries. The present prospective study is designed to analyse the effect of coronary artery pattern on surgical outcome of arterial switch operation. METHOD From August 2014 to November 2015, total 60 patients underwent ASO. The patients are divided in three groups. Group-A 21 patients with d-TGA with intact ventricle septum (d-TGA intact IVS, in Group-B 33 patients d-TGA with ventricular septal defect (d-TGA, VSD, and in Group C 6 Taussig Bing anomaly. The coronary pattern and outcome is analyzed. RESULTS The overall mortality related to coronary pattern was 5%. The 2 patients died due to Intramural coronary artery leading to post-operative ventricular dysfunction, another patient with single retro pulmonary coronary artery died secondary to low coronary implant leading to kinking in coronary artery and myocardial dysfunction. On 12 monthly follow up, one of the Patients in group A had right pulmonary artery stenosis with gradient of 30 mm of Hg. Another patient in group B had supravalvular gradient of 20 mm of Hg. CONCLUSION The ASO for TGA and Taussig-Bing anomaly has low early and late mortality. However, the mortality is still seen in the patients with Intramural coronary artery and in the patient with single coronary artery with retro pulmonary course.

  5. Contemporary surgical management of synchronous colorectal liver metastases [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Collins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the 5-year survival rates for patients with stage 4 (metastatic colorectal cancer were extremely poor (5%; however, with advances in systemic chemotherapy combined with an ability to push the boundaries of surgical resection, survival rates in the range of 25–40% can be achieved. This multimodal approach of combining neo-adjuvant strategies with surgical resection has raised a number of questions regarding the optimal management and timing of surgery. For the purpose of this review, we will focus on the treatment of stage 4 colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases.

  6. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans undergo differential expression alterations in right sided colorectal cancer, depending on their metastatic character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Vega, Iván; García-Suárez, Olivia; García, Beatriz; Crespo, Ainara; Astudillo, Aurora; Quirós, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are complex molecules involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. This study analyses the alterations in the expression patterns of these molecules in right sided colorectal cancer (CRC), both metastatic and non-metastatic. Twenty right sided CRCs were studied. A transcriptomic approach was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in heparan sulfate (HS) chains biosynthesis, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains, we include the study of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Immunohistochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissue expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest. Changes in proteoglycan core proteins differ depending on their location; those located intracellularly or in the extracellular matrix show very similar alteration patterns, while those located on the cell surface vary greatly depending on the nature of the tumor: glypicans 1, 3, 6 and betaglycan are affected in the non-metastatic tumors, whereas in the metastatic, only glypican-1 and syndecan-1 are modified, the latter showing opposing alterations in levels of RNA and of protein, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation in these tumors. Furthermore, in non-metastatic tumors, polymerization of glycosaminoglycan chains is modified, particularly affecting the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker and the initiation and elongation of CS chains, HS chains being less affected. Regarding the enzymes responsible for the modificaton of the HS chains, alterations were only found in non-metastatic tumors, affecting N-sulfation and the isoforms HS6ST1, HS3ST3B and HS3ST5. In contrast, synthesis of the CS chains suggests changes in epimerization and sulfation of the C4 and C2 in both types of tumor. Right sided CRCs show

  7. Surgical management of metastatic tumors of the cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarski, Atanas N; Kitov, Borislav D; Zhelyazkov, Christo B; Raykov, Stefan D; Kehayov, Ivo I; Koev, Ilyan G; Kalnev, Borislav M

    2013-01-01

    To present the results from the clinical presentation, the imaging diagnostics, surgery and postoperative status of 17 patients with cervical spine metastases, to analyse all data and make the respective conclusions and compare them with the available data in the literature. The study analysed data obtained by patients with metastatic cervical tumours treated in St George University Hospital over a period of seven years. All patients underwent diagnostic imaging tests which included, separately or in combination, cervical x-rays, computed tomography scan and magnetic-resonance imaging. Severity of neurological damage and its pre- and postoperative state was graded according to the Frankel Scale. For staging and operating performance we used the Tomita scale and Harrington classification. Seven patients had only one affected vertebra, 4 patients--two vertebrae, one patient--three vertebrae, 2 patients--four vertebrae, and in the other 3 patients more than one segment was affected. Surgery was performed in 12 patients. One level anterior corpectomy was performed in 6 patients, three patients had two-level surgery, and one patient--three-level corpectomy; in the remaining 2 cases we used posterior approach in surgery. Complete corpectomy was performed in 4 patients, subtotal corpectomy was used in 6 patients and partial--in 2 patients. Anterior stabilization system ADD plus (Ulrich GmbH & Co. KG, Ulm, Germany) was implanted in 2 patients; in 8 patients anterior titanium plate and bone graft were used, and in 1 patient--posterior cervical stabilization system. Because of the pronounced pain syndrome and frequent neurological lesions as a result of the cervical spine metastases use of surgery is justified. The main purpose is to maximize tumor resection, achieve optimal spinal cord and nerve root decompression and stabilize the affected segment.

  8. Cytoreductive nephrectomy vs medical therapy as initial treatment: a rational approach to the sequence question in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Philippe E; Fishman, Mayer N

    2010-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can be considered as two distinct entities: localized and metastatic disease. We conducted a review of the scientific literature published within the past decade pertaining to cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic RCC. Retrospective data and historical prospective series have demonstrated the survival benefit of debulking nephrectomy in well-selected RCC patients. New medical therapies, including vascular endothelial growth factor and mTOR pathway blocking drugs, are active biological agents, with survival improvement and potential regression of metastatic and primary tumors. Our current therapeutic challenge is the optimal integration of multimodal therapy consisting of systemic therapy and surgery including cytoreductive nephrectomy, debulking, and metastasectomy. Empiric data to guide this decision are limited. The decision concerning whether medical or surgical therapy should be the primary treatment approach selected must be made on an individual basis, taking into account patient performance status, clinical parameters, and physician expertise and recommendations, thus making each case a unique therapeutic challenge.

  9. Lower testosterone levels with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy than with surgical castration: new insights attained by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Tim M.; Bui, Hong N.; Meuleman, Eric J. H.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Hartman, Jeroen F.; van Adrichem, Nick; Boevé, Egbert; de Ronde, Willem; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; Vis, André N.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy by bilateral orchiectomy (surgical castration) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy (medical castration) is recommended for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Both methods aim at reducing serum testosterone concentrations to a castrate level

  10. Gastric cancer metastatic to neck lipoma. A case report with imaging consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Shuko [Tohoku University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); National Sendai Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kurihara, Noriko [National Sendai Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Ishikawa, Tomohiko; Tateda, Masaru [National Sendai Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Sakurada, Junko [National Sendai Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2018-04-15

    A 71-year-old man visited our hospital for examination of a soft neck mass. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a well-circumscribed large lipomatous tumor with multiple nodules inside. Atypical lipomatous tumor or lipoma involving the lymph nodes was considered. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen suggested typical lipoma including multiple metastatic foci from gastric cancer. Subsequent endoscopy revealed a gastric tumor, which was histologically proven to be signet-ring cell carcinoma. Considering these findings, this case was diagnosed as tumor-to-tumor metastasis to lipoma. We present the first such case with imaging and clinical characteristics. (orig.)

  11. Primary and metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harake, Marie D.J.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Sukumar, Sathi A.

    2001-01-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is the second most common type of primary breast cancer, accounting for 8-14% of cases, but is often difficult to diagnose early. It typically shows a diffuse pattern of infiltration within the breast, resulting in a variety of often subtle radiological appearances. A similar infiltrative pattern is seen in its metastatic form, with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, retroperitoneum, bone marrow, meninges and uterus occurring more frequently than with the more common infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. This pictorial essay illustrates the spectrum of radiological appearances which may be encountered with both primary and secondary lobular carcinoma. Harake, M.D.J., Maxwell, A.J. and Sukumar, S.A. (2001). Clinical Radiology 56, 621-630

  12. Primary and metastatic lobular carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harake, Marie D.J.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Sukumar, Sathi A

    2001-08-01

    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is the second most common type of primary breast cancer, accounting for 8-14% of cases, but is often difficult to diagnose early. It typically shows a diffuse pattern of infiltration within the breast, resulting in a variety of often subtle radiological appearances. A similar infiltrative pattern is seen in its metastatic form, with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, retroperitoneum, bone marrow, meninges and uterus occurring more frequently than with the more common infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. This pictorial essay illustrates the spectrum of radiological appearances which may be encountered with both primary and secondary lobular carcinoma. Harake, M.D.J., Maxwell, A.J. and Sukumar, S.A. (2001). Clinical Radiology 56, 621-630.

  13. Optical imaging of metabolic adaptability in metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Lisa; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2018-02-01

    Accurate methods for determining metastatic risk from the primary tumor are crucial for patient survival. Cell metabolism could potentially be used as a marker of metastatic risk. Optical imaging of the endogenous fluorescent molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) provides a non-destructive and label-free method for determining cell metabolism. The optical redox ratio (FAD/FAD+NADH) is sensitive to the balance between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We have previously established that hypoxia-reoxygenation stress leads to metastatic potential-dependent changes in optical redox ratio. The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in optical redox ratio in breast cancer cells in response to different periods of hypoxic stress as well various levels of hypoxia to establish an optimal protocol. We measured the optical redox ratio of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells under normoxic conditions and after exposure to 30, 60, and 120 minutes of 0.5% O2. This was followed by an hour of reoxygenation. We found an increase in the optical redox ratio following reoxygenation from hypoxia for all durations. Statistically significant differences were observed at 60 and 120 minutes (p˂0.01) compared with normoxia, implying an ability to adapt to OXPHOS after reoxygenation. The switch to OXPHOS has been shown to be a key promoter of cell invasion. We will present our results from these investigations in human breast cancer cells as well as non-metastatic breast cancer cells exposed to various levels of hypoxia.

  14. Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan J.; Srivastava, Anurag; Bal, ChandraSekhar; Malhotra, Arun

    2014-01-01

    This case highlights the importance of recognition of the pattern of metastatic brachialplexopathy in breast cancer patients undergoing 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluation of recurrent disease.This pattern can be appreciated on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and coronal 18 F-FDG PET/CT images as a linear extension of tracer activity from superomedial aspect(supra/infraclavicular) to lateral aspect of the axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast had undergone six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by wide local incision and radiotherapy. She had local recurrence, for which she was operated upon and given chemotherapy. She presented to her oncologist with pain and swelling in the right breast, nodules in the right axilla and restriction of movement of the right upper limb. The patient was referred for 18 F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent/metastatic disease. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 1 h following the intravenous injection of 296 MBq of 18 F-FDG on a Biograph mCT scanner (Siemens). Evaluation of the MIP image revealed abnormal FDG accumulation at multiple sites in the thorax, along with a linear pattern of FDG uptake in the right lateral aspect of the upper chest (Fig. 1a, arrow). The coronal fused PET/CT image revealed a linear pattern of FDG uptake corresponding to an ill-defined mass extending from just behind the right clavicle into the right axilla (arrow). In addition, abnormal FDG accumulation was seen in a soft tissue density mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast, skin of the right breast laterally, both pectoral muscles (discrete foci) and in a few subpectoral nodes. Soft tissue nodular opacities in both lungs showed FDG accumulation suggestive of pulmonary metastasis (Fig. 1b, thick arrow). The patient was referred for magnetic

  15. Group B streptococcal metastatic endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelberg, H P; Petashnick, D E; To, K W; Woodcome, H A

    1994-04-15

    Reports of invasive Group B Streptococcus infection in adults with underlying medical conditions have been increasing. Ocular infection with this organism is unusual. Metastatic endophthalmitis in adults caused by this organism has been reported rarely and has only been associated with endocarditis. We encountered two cases of Group B streptococcal metastatic endophthalmitis in adults who did not have endocarditis. These cases reflect the increasing incidence of invasive Group B Streptococcus infection with its varying manifestations. Additionally, they emphasize the importance of considering this pathogen as a cause of metastatic endophthalmitis in adults with predisposing illnesses.

  16. The role of appendectomy in surgical procedures for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanelli, R; Paladini, D; Raspagliesi, F; di Re, E

    1992-07-01

    To assess the role of appendectomy in the surgical procedures for ovarian cancer, we evaluated retrospectively the clinical charts of 435 patients who underwent surgery after diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The appendix was removed in 160 cases and pathological examination revealed 37 with metastatic implants (23%). All the patients with appendiceal metastases showed advanced disease (stages III-IV) with an incidence of 43%. Ninety-one percent (31/34) of the tumors with appendiceal involvement at the staging operation were of the serous cell type and grade II or III. No case with early stage, right ovary carcinoma showed appendiceal metastatic foci, denying the existence of a preferential lymphatic pathway. Microscopic involvement was found only in 4 patients with advanced disease (11.7%). No intra- or postoperative complication directly related to the appendectomy was recorded. We conclude, with these results, that appendectomy should be part of the cytoreductive operation for ovarian cancer.

  17. Survival analysis in patients with metastatic spinal disease: the influence of surgery, histology, clinical and neurologic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Fernandes de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spine is the most common site for skeletal metastasis in patients with malignancy. Vertebral involvement quantification, neurological status, general health status and primary tumor histology are factors to set surgical planning and therapeutic targets. We evaluated the impact of general clinical and neurological status, histologic type and surgery in survival. Method : The study sample consisted of consecutive patients admitted from July 2010 to January 2013 for treatment. Results : Sixty eight patients were evaluated. 23 were female and 45 were male. Main primary neoplasic sites were: breast, prostate, lung/pleura and linfoproliferative. Thirty three out of 68 received surgical treatment, 2 received percutaneous biopsy and 33 had nonsurgical treatment. Survival : Log Rank curves revealed no statistical significant difference according to histological type, surgical approach and Frankel Score. Karnofsky Score was statistically different. Conclusion : Histological type and clinical status were statistically associated with life expectancy in vertebral metastatic disease.

  18. A case study on the design of a modular surgical instrument for removing metastases using engineering design tools

    OpenAIRE

    Preca, George; Farrugia, Philip; Casha, Aaron; International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic cancer is a form of cancer stemming from a primary tumour that propagates to different organs and/or to different sites within the same organ. Studies have indicated that the chances of survival improve upon surgical removal of metastases. The overall goal of this research was to develop a modular surgical instrument that would be easy to use and manipulate and hence facilitate resection of metastases. This research forms part of a final year project carried out by a mechanical eng...

  19. Intracardiac Metastatic Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man who visited Samsung Medical Center reported experiencing palpitation for 2 weeks. He had undergone excision of a mass in the right buttock due to rhabdomyosarcoma 7 years prior to this visit. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a pedunculated mass in the left ventricle, which was thought to be a vegetation of infective endocarditis, metastasis of the primary tumor, or thrombus. He underwent removal of the cardiac tumor, and the pathologic report was metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma. Thus, here, we report a rare case of metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma in the left ventricle.

  20. Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Aritro; Chan, Christina

    2016-01-04

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

  1. Computed tomography scans of metastatic hepatic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Nemoto, Yutaka [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography scans of 114 metastatic hepatic tumors were reviewed. Central low density was found in 82 cases (71.9%) and seems to be characteristic to metastatic hepatic tumors. Dynamic CT was performed on 34 cases, and 21 (61.8%) of these had ring enhancement at the arterial phase. Most of metastatic hepatic tumors could be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma. However, metastatic hepatic tumors from renal cell carcinoma, renal rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant melanoma and leiomyosarcoma could not be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, even with use of dynamic study.

  2. Patterns of intracranial glioblastoma recurrence after aggressive surgical resection and adjuvant management. Retrospective analysis of 43 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    The present retrospective study evaluated the recurrence patterns after aggressive surgical removal of intracranial glioblastomas in 43 consecutive adult patients. The resection rate of the enhanced lesion on magnetic resonance imaging was 100% and 95-99% in 22 and 21 cases, respectively. All patients received postoperative fractionated radiotherapy (60 Gy in 30 fractions) with additional chemotherapy (25 cases) or vaccine therapy (18 cases). During follow-up (median 17 months), tumor recurrence was identified in 33 patients, most frequently regional within the wall of the resection cavity (20 cases). No clinical factor differed significantly between the groups of patients with regional or marginal tumor progression (N=22) and patients with distant or multiple recurrences (N=8). Progression-free survival did not differ significantly between these two groups (p=0.27). However, overall survival was significantly longer (p=0.04) in patients with regional or marginal tumor progression, and constituted 90% and 54% at 1 and 2 years after surgery, respectively, compared to 75% and 0% in patients with distant or multiple recurrences. Aggressive surgical resection and adjuvant management of intracranial glioblastoma may change its recurrence pattern. Tumor progression appears in the wall of the resection cavity or within 2 cm from its margin in approximately half of patients. (author)

  3. Treatment patterns and real world clinical outcomes in ER+/HER2- post-menopausal metastatic breast cancer patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Giovanni; Hunger, Matthias; Perkins, Julia J; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Martin, Monique

    2017-06-02

    With several new therapies becoming available, treatment of metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is evolving. The objective of this study is to describe patient characteristics, treatment patterns and real-world clinical outcomes in post-menopausal women with ER+, HER2- mBC and to obtain insight into patient outcomes and potential unmet needs with current therapies. The current study is a physician survey followed by a retrospective chart review of patient medical records by physicians in the US between March and April 2015. One hundred three physicians were asked to complete an online survey aiming to understand their satisfaction and expectations with current available treatments and potential areas of unmet need for mBC patients. Medical records from 178 females were extracted for the chart review. Using these data from medical records, patient characteristics and treatment patterns were analyzed descriptively. Time to progression (TTP) on first line, and progression-free survival (PFS) on second and third line of therapy were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Sixty-seven percent (n = 119) of patients had metastatic disease at initial diagnosis of breast cancer. Mean age at chart data extraction was 65.8 (SD: 9.4) years. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) were prescribed for 58% and around 13% of patients in first line and second line, respectively. Chemotherapy was prescribed to 14% in first line and 31% in second line. Median TTP on first line therapy was 12 months for patients receiving AIs as compared to 7.9 months for patients receiving chemotherapy. Across all treatment lines, bone pain and fatigue were reported as the main symptoms associated with disease progression which had an impact on patient quality of life. Physicians expressed that prolonging life was deemed the most important treatment goal, followed by preservation or improvement of quality of life. In this study the majority of patients received endocrine therapy as first line treatment and current

  4. Emerging Therapies in Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Daniel W; Morgans, Alicia K

    2018-04-11

    In the last decade, there have been multiple landmark therapeutic advances for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, both in the castration-resistant and hormone-sensitive setting. In this review, we highlight recent progress and ongoing trials for metastatic prostate cancer, including advances in chemotherapy, androgen receptor-directed therapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy. Several landmark studies for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer demonstrated improvement in overall survival with the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy or abiraterone acetate to standard androgen deprivation therapy. A single-arm phase 2 study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib demonstrated high response rates and more favorable progression-free and overall survival for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and DNA repair defects treated with olaparib compared with men without DNA repair defects. Multiple ongoing clinical trials are investigating novel hormonal therapies and combinations of chemotherapy, targeted small molecules, immunotherapy, and radiopharmaceuticals. Progress continues to be made in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, and ongoing clinical trials continue to investigate novel agents and approaches to treatment.

  5. Impact of ethnicity on the outcome of men with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Brandon; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Chen, Yu-Hui; Sridhar, Srikala S; Mitchell, Edith P; Pettaway, Curtis A; Carducci, Michael A; Nguyen, Paul L; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes are impacted by socioeconomic and biologic factors. Ethnicity plays a role in the former, but little is known about the responsiveness of metastatic PCa to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) among races. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry was used to identify men who were diagnosed with distant, de novo, metastatic PCa from 2004 to 2012. Patterns of presentation, overall survival (OS), and PCa-specific mortality (PCSM) were determined for each race. E3805 clinical trial data also were retrospectively reviewed to assess outcomes of ADT and ADT plus docetaxel by race. Of all PCa diagnoses in SEER, distant, de novo, metastatic disease was diagnosed in 4.2% of non-Hispanic whites, 5.8% of Hispanic whites, 5.7% of blacks, 5.5% of Asians/Pacific Islanders, and 8.8% of American Indians/Alaska Natives (P blacks, respectively. Few Asians participated in the E3805 trial. Asian men have superior median OS and PCSM for distant, de novo, metastatic PCa than men of other race. Non-Hispanic whites and blacks who receive treatment with ADT or chemohormonal therapy have comparable outcomes. Cancer 2017;123:1536-1544. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Association between gene expression profile of the primary tumor and chemotherapy response of metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savci-Heijink, Cemile Dilara; Halfwerk, Hans; Koster, Jan; van de Vijver, Marc Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: To better predict the likelihood of response to chemotherapy, we have conducted a study comparing the gene expression patterns of primary tumours with their corresponding response to systemic chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Methods: mRNA expression profiles of breast carcinomas

  7. Changing costs of metastatic non small cell lung cancer in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keusters, W R; de Weger, V A; Hövels, A; Schellens, J H M; Frederix, G W J

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify the total intramural cost of illness of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Netherlands between 2006-2012. Secondary objective was to identify whether changes in cost patterns of metastatic NSCLC have occurred over the last years. Patients diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC between 1-1-2006 and 31-12-2012, who had follow-up to death or the date of data cut-off and no trial participation were included. A structured chart review was performed using a case report form. Data collection started after diagnosis of metastatic NSCLC and ended at death or April first, 2015. Data regarding outpatient visits, clinical attendance, oncolytic drug use, imaging, lab tests, radiotherapy and surgery were collected. Sixty-seven patients were included with a median age of 67 years. The median follow-up was 234days. On average patients had 28 outpatient visits and 11 inpatient days. Oncolytic drugs were administered to 76% of the patients. Mean per patient expenditures amounted up to €17,463, with oncolytic drugs (€6,390) as the main cost driver. In comparison with the time-period of 2003-2005 total per patient per year expenses decreased by 44%. The contribution to total yearly costs of oncolytic drugs increased from 18% to 35%, while costs for inpatient stay decreased from 52% to 28% of total expenditures. Outcomes in this study demonstrate that average treatment costs for metastatic NSCLC in the Netherlands Cancer Institute amount to €17,463. Compared to a prior study the average cost for metastatic NSCLC over time in the Netherlands has decreased. A shift of main cost drivers seems to have occurred from inpatient stay, to oncolytic drugs as main contributor. The shift towards treatment cost might become more visible with the introduction of immunotherapy. These results mark the importance of up-to-date cost of illness studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cutaneous metastatic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Arun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5.5-year-old male presented with asymptomatic nodules and plaques on his scalp and pubic region of 2 months′ duration. He was having productive cough, haemoptysis, chest pain, anorexia and weight loss and receiving antitubercular treatment for these symptoms for last 3 months. Clinical diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic disease was made. Chest x-ray revealed multiple coin shaped shadows on both sides with pleural effusion. Routine investigations were normal except for anemia and hyperuricemia. Biopsy of skin nodules showed features of metastatic adenocarcinoma. Features and significance of cutaneous metastases are discussed.

  9. Unusual metastatic localizations of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rais, N.; Ghfir, I.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The majority of thyroid cancers have a slow evolution, a more often loco-regional extension, and a good forecast. Remote metastases, when they exist, generally touch the osseous skeleton and/or pulmonary tissue. However, unusual metastatic localizations much more exceptional are possible. The authors report through these work five cases of atypical metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma followed in Nuclear Medicine department of Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat under the directives of Professor N Ben Rais. Materials and methods: Our five patients had initially undergone a total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma histologically confirmed. They had profited 4 weeks after the surgical gesture from a reference isotopic exploration (131 Iodine whole body scan and thyroglobulin dosage). The paraclinic assessment was supplemented by a computed tomography (CT). Results: Revealing symptomatology in the first 69 year old patient was dominated by blindness associated with an elective up-take of radioactive 131-Iodine on the level of hypophyseal gland extending to the sphenoid bone. The second 55 year old patient reported right basithoracic pains resisting to the usual antalgic treatment with a bulky mass driving back the kidney right to the bottom at CT with and important up-take 131-Iodine at whole body scan; a surrenalectomy was thus carried out with conservation of the kidney. The three other patients presented at the clinical examination dermohypodermic nodular lesions of various localizations whose anatomopathologic study had confirmed their thyroid metastatic origin. In the 5 patients the rate of thyroglobulin was considerably high. An activity of 3,7 GBq 131-Iodine was managed with the 5 patients. The evolution was marked, in the short run, at the first patient by a recovery partial of the sight, the disappearance of pain in the second patient and a remarkable reduction of thyroglobulin level for all our patients. Conclusion

  10. Pleiotropic function of ezrin in human metastatic melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Cristina; Brambilla, Daria; Lozupone, Francesco; Matarrese, Paola; de Milito, Angelo; Lugini, Luana; Iessi, Elisabetta; Cecchetti, Serena; Marino, Marialucia; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Spada, Massimo; Malorni, Walter; Fais, Stefano

    2009-06-15

    The membrane cytoskeleton cross-linker, ezrin, has recently been depicted as a key regulator in the progression and metastasis of several pediatric tumors. Less defined appears the role of ezrin in human adult tumors, especially melanoma. We therefore addressed ezrin involvement in the metastatic phenotype of human adult metastatic melanoma cells. Our results show that cells resected from melanoma metastatic lesions of patients, display marked metastatic spreading capacity in SCID mice organs. Stable transfection of human melanoma cells with an ezrin deletion mutant comprising only 146 N-terminal aminoacids led to the abolishment of metastatic dissemination. In vitro experiments revealed ezrin direct molecular interactions with molecules related to metastatic functions such as CD44, merlin and Lamp-1, consistent with its participation to the formation of phagocitic vacuoles, vesicular sorting and migration capacities of melanoma cells. Moreover, the ezrin fragment capable of binding to CD44 was shorter than that previously reported, and transfection with the ezrin deletion mutant abrogated plasma membrane Lamp-1 recruitment. This study highlights key involvement of ezrin in a complex machinery, which allows metastatic cancer cells to migrate, invade and survive in very unfavorable conditions. Our in vivo and in vitro data reveal that ezrin is the hub of the metastatic behavior also in human adult tumors. Copyright 2008 UICC.

  11. Disappearance of electrocardiographic abnormalities associated with the arrhythmic pattern of a Barlow disease after surgical mitral valve repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Augello

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 46-year old female with a Barlow’s disease (MVP characterized by systolic curling of posterior left ventricular (LV wall + significant mitral annular disjunction + complex ventricular arrhythmias + syncope + inverted T waves in inferolateral leads in whom a successful surgical mitral valve rapair determined the disappearance not only of the echocardiographic but also the electrocardiographic abnormalities (in particular the inferolateral T waves inversion on basal electrocardiogram and the complex basal arrhythmic pattern. This case demonstrates that electrocardiographic abnormalities may disappear after the surgical correction of the mechanical stretch imposed on the inferior LV free wall by the prolapsing mitral valve leaflets. Electrocardiographic changes remain an important and easy marker to recognize for the identification of a high-risk subgroup of MVP patients.

  12. The effect of pre-vertebroplasty tumor ablation using laser-induced thermotherapy on biomechanical stability and cement fill in the metastatic spine

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Henry; Mousavi, Payam; Chin, Lee; Roth, Sandra; Finkelstein, Joel; Vitken, Alex; Whyne, Cari

    2007-01-01

    A biomechanical study comparing simulated lytic vertebral metastases treated with laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and vertebroplasty versus vertebroplasty alone. To investigate the effect of tumor ablation using LITT prior to vertebroplasty on biomechanical stability and cement fill patterns in a standardized model of spinal metastatic disease. Vertebroplasty in the metastatic spine is aimed at reducing pain, but is associated with risk of cement extravasation in up to 10%. Six pairs of fr...

  13. Ipilimumab: A First-in-Class T-Cell Potentiator for Metastatic Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielowski, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, a fully human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody that potentiate s antitumor T-cell responses, has demonstrated improved survival in previously treated and treatment-naive patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma. Survival benefit has also been shown in diverse patient populations, including those with brain metastases. In 2011, ipilimumab (3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for unresectable or metastatic melanoma. Ipilimumab can induce novel response patterns for which immune-related response criteria have been proposed. irAEs are common but are usually low grade; higher grades can be severe and life-threatening. irAEs are usually manageable using established guidelines emphasizing vigilance and prompt intervention. This agent provides an additional therapeutic option in metastatic melanoma, and guidelines for management of adverse events facilitate clinical implementation of this new agent.

  14. [10]-gingerol induces apoptosis and inhibits metastatic dissemination of triple negative breast cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ana Carolina B M; Fuzer, Angelina M; Becceneri, Amanda B; da Silva, James Almada; Tomasin, Rebeka; Denoyer, Delphine; Kim, Soo-Hyun; McIntyre, Katherine A; Pearson, Helen B; Yeo, Belinda; Nagpal, Aadya; Ling, Xiawei; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S; Vieira, Paulo Cézar; Cominetti, Marcia R; Pouliot, Normand

    2017-09-22

    There is increasing interest in the use of non-toxic natural products for the treatment of various pathologies, including cancer. In particular, biologically active constituents of the ginger oleoresin ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) have been shown to mediate anti-tumour activity and to contribute to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiemetic properties of ginger. Here we report on the inhibitory properties of [10]-gingerol against metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in vitro and in vivo . We show that [10]-gingerol concentration-dependently induces apoptotic death in mouse and human TNBC cell lines in vitro . In addition, [10]-gingerol is well tolerated in vivo , induces a marked increase in caspase-3 activation and inhibits orthotopic tumour growth in a syngeneic mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis. Importantly, using both spontaneous and experimental metastasis assays, we show for the first time that [10]-gingerol significantly inhibits metastasis to multiple organs including lung, bone and brain. Remarkably, inhibition of brain metastasis was observed even when treatment was initiated after surgical removal of the primary tumour. Taken together, these results indicate that [10]-gingerol may be a safe and useful complementary therapy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and warrant further investigation of its efficacy, either alone or in combination with standard systemic therapies, in pre-clinical models of metastatic breast cancer and in patients.

  15. Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic cancer is cancer that spreads from its site of origin to another part of the body. Learn how cancer spreads, possible symptoms, common sites where cancer spreads, and how to find out about treatment options.

  16. Importance of Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio in Non-Metastatic, Lymph Node-Invaded Colon Cancer: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Arda; Peker, Kemal; Firat, Deniz; Yilmaz, Bahri; Sayar, Ilyas; Idiz, Oguz; Cakir, Coskun; Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ismayil

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of the metastatic lymph node ratio for stage III colon cancer patients and to find a cut-off value at which the overall survival and disease-free survival change. Material/Methods Patients with pathological stage III colon cancer were retrospectively evaluated for: age; preoperative values of Crp, Cea, Ca 19-9, and Afp; pathologic situation of vascular, perineural, lymphatic, and serosal involvement; and metastatic lymph node ratio values were calculated. Results The study included 58 stage III colon cancer patients: 20 (34.5%) females and 38 (65.5%) males were involved in the study. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following variables to evaluate significance for overall survival and disease-free survival: age, Crp, Cea, perineural invasion, and metastatic lymph node ratio. The metastatic lymph node ratio (<0.25 or ≥0.25) is the only independent variable significant for overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions Metastatic lymph node ratio is an ideal prognostic marker for stage III colon cancer patients, and 0.25 is the cut-off value for prognosis. PMID:25087904

  17. Ambulation and survival following surgery in elderly patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itshayek, Eyal; Candanedo, Carlos; Fraifeld, Shifra; Hasharoni, Amir; Kaplan, Leon; Schroeder, Josh E; Cohen, José E

    2017-12-28

    Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) is a disabling consequence of disease progression. Surgery can restore/preserve physical function, improving access to treatments that increase duration of survival; however, advanced patient age may deter oncologists and surgeons from considering surgical management. Evaluate the duration of ambulation and survival in elderly patients following surgical decompression of MESCC. Retrospective file review of a prospective database, under IRB waiver of informed consent, of consecutive patients treated in an academic tertiary care medical center from 8/2008-3/2015. Patients ≥65 years presenting neurological and/or radiological signs of cord compression due to metastatic disease, who underwent surgical decompression. Duration of ambulation and survival. Patients underwent urgent multidisciplinary evaluation and surgery. Ambulation and survival were compared with age, pre- and postoperative neurological (American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] Impairment Scale [AIS]) and performance status (Karnofsky Performance Status [KPS], and Tokuhashi Score using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, Cox regression model, log rank analysis, and Kaplan Meir analysis. 40 patients were included (21 male, 54%; mean age 74 years, range 65-87). Surgery was performed a mean 3.8 days after onset of motor symptoms. Mean duration of ambulation and survival were 474 (range 0-1662) and 525 days (range 11-1662), respectively; 53% of patients (21/40) survived and 43% (17/40) retained ambulation for ≥1 year. There was no significant relationship between survival and ambulation for patients aged 65-69, 70-79, or 80-89, although Kaplan Meier analysis suggested stratification. There was a significant relationship between duration of ambulation and pre- and postoperative AIS (p=0.0342, p=0.0358, respectively) and postoperative KPS (p=0.0221). Tokuhashi score was not significantly related to duration of

  18. Effect of two tumors (metastatic and non-metastatic) on tissue distribution of Ga-67 citrate in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durakovic, A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of metastatic and non-metastatic mammary adenocarcinoma on tissue distribution of Ga-67 citrate in Fischer female rats was studied. The homogenate (0.1 ml) of each tumor was injected subcutaneously in separate groups of rats and the animals were studied from day 2-30 after tumor homogenate implantation. All animals were injected with 30 μCi of Ga-67 citrate and sacrificed by halothane anethesia 48 hours later. Tissue samples of blood, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, stomach, small and large intestine, ovaries, and lymph nodes (popliteal, lumbar, and mediastinal) were obtained and counted in a gamma well counter. The control group consisted of four animals and tumor bearing groups of seven to eight animals at each time. Ga-67 uptake was increased in the liver (24 days) and in the popliteal lymph nodes on days 7, 10, and 18 in the metastatic tumor group (P<0.05). This probably represents Ga-67 uptake in the metastatic deposits in these organs. No difference was observed in non-metastatic tumor group

  19. Primary renal angiosarcoma with progressive clinical course despite surgical and adjuvant treatment: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    CELEBI, FILIZ; PILANCI, KEZBAN NUR; SAGLAM, SEZER; BALCI, NUMAN CEM

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is an extremely rare, high-grade malignancy, which accounts for <2% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Cases of primary renal angiosarcoma represent 1% of these. Angiosarcomas involving the kidney usually originate from metastatic skin lesions or primary visceral lesions and most often occur in the sixth and seventh decades of life. The present study describes a case of primary renal angiosarcoma that presented as a large right-sided renal mass with symptoms of flank pain. Despite surgical removal of the tumor, recurrent disease with associated lung metastases was identified at the surgical site following adjuvant chemotherapy. The patient succumbed to the disease 13 months after the diagnosis. PMID:25789072

  20. Metastatic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in a 67-year-old female with underlying triple primary cancers

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    Chia-Yen Hung

    2016-06-01

    A 67-year-old Taiwanese female presented to our institution in November 1997 with gastric signet ring cell carcinoma, pT2N0M0, status post subtotal gastrectomy. In February 2003 she was diagnosed with left breast invasive lobular carcinoma status post modified radical mastectomy, pT2N2M0. Further examination in January 2005 revealed proximal transverse colon cancer, Dukes' C2, with status post right hemicolectomy. She achieved disease-free status from all three malignancies after surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for breast and colon cancers sequentially. In November 2011, she complained about sudden onset of gross hematuria for several days. Diagnostic cystoscopy showed a mass lesion over her urinary bladder. Cystoscope-assisted biopsy showed metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring appearance. Herein we have discussed the pathologic role in the diagnosis of metastatic tumor involving a patient with multiple primary cancers. We also explored the epidemiologic risk and potential causal mechanism of patients with multiple primary cancers.

  1. A simultaneous minimally invasive approach to treat a patient with coronary artery disease and metastatic lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Lufeng; Ji, Ling; Xu, Chenyang

    2016-01-01

    Concurrent lung cancer and coronary artery disease requiring treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting is not rare. An individualized perioperative anticoagulation regimen and minimal surgical trauma will benefit the patient's postoperative recovery. We successfully treated a 68-year-old female patient with a lesion in the left anterior descending artery and metastatic right lung carcinoma by simultaneous minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting via a small left thoracotomy and thoracoscopic wedge resection of the lung lesion. She recovered and was discharged on the eighth postoperative day. The patient showed no symptoms of myocardial ischemia postoperatively. Computed tomography scan did not indicate metastatic lesion of lung carcinoma at 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting combined with thoracoscopic wedge resection is an effective minimally invasive treatment for concurrent lung cancer and coronary artery disease. This technique eliminates the risk of perioperative bleeding and provides satisfactory mid-term follow-up results.

  2. Metastatic spread pattern after curative colorectal cancer surgery. A retrospective, longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augestad, K M; Bakaki, P M; Rose, J; Crawshaw, B P; Lindsetmo, R O; Dørum, L M; Koroukian, S M; Delaney, C P

    2015-10-01

    The most common sites of colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence are the local tissues, liver or lungs. The objective was to identify risk factors associated with the primary CRC tumor and cancer recurrence in these anatomical sites. Retrospective, longitudinal analyses of data on CRC survivors. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the association between possible cofounders with recurrence to various anatomical sites. Data for 10,398CRC survivors (tumor location right colon=3870, left colon=2898, high rectum=2569, low rectum=1061) were analyzed; follow up time was up to five years. Mean age at curative surgery was 71.5 (SD 11.8) years, 20.2% received radio-chemotherapy, stage T3 (64.4%) and N0 (65.1%) were most common. Overall 1632 (15.7%) had cancer recurrence (Isolated liver n=412, 3,8%;  isolated lung n=252, 2,4%; isolated local n=223, 2.1%). Risk factors associated with recurrent CRC were identified, i.e. isolated liver metastases (male: Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1,45; colon left: AHR 1,63; N2 disease: AHR 3,35; T2 disease: AHR 2,82), isolated lung metastases (colon left: AHR 1,53; rectum high: AHR 2,48; rectum low: AHR 2,65; N2 disease 3,76), and local recurrence (glands examined<12: AHR 1,51; CRM <3mm: AHR 1,60; rectum high: AHR 2,15; N2 disease: AHR 2,58) (all p values <0001). Our study finds that the site of the primary CRC tumor is associated with location of subsequent metastasis. Left sided colon cancers have increased risk of metastatic spread to the liver, whereas rectal cancers have increased risk of local recurrence and metastatic spread to the lungs. These results, in combination with other risk factors for CRC recurrence, should be taken into consideration when designing risk adapted post-treatment CRC surveillance programs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms of the breast. A three-case report

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    Raquel Garza-Guajardo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastases to the breast are unusual lesions that make up approximately 2% of all malignant mammary neoplasms and may mimic both benign and malignant primary neoplasms from a clinical point of view, as well as in imaging studies. Arriving at a correct diagnosis is therefore essential in order to establish appropriate management. We present three cases of metastatic neoplasms diagnosed through fine needle aspiration biopsy and immunocytochemistry. The cytological diagnoses were: medulloblastoma in an 18-year-old woman, melanoma in a 26-year-old man, and an exceptional case of ovarian sarcoma originating from a granulosa cell tumor with metastases to both breasts. A metastatic disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a palpable mass in the breast, especially if there is a history of an extramammary malignant neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is the method of choice for the management of these cases. Whenever possible the exam of the material obtained should be compared to the previous biopsy, which is usually enough to arrive at a correct diagnosis, thus preventing unnecessary surgical procedures.

  4. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

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    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  5. Surgical aspects of imaging in pediatric oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Surgeons share an interest with other physicians in establishing the diagnosis and prognosis of solid tumors in pediatric patients. This is in addition to the specific concern with the techniques of biopsy, staging, and excision of localized or metastatic disease. The surgeon is interested in all studies which predict the success or failure of attempts at total excision, which facilitate or increase the safety of complete or partial tumor removal, as well as those studies which clarify the overall prognosis. Within each of the following sections the surgeon's interests are discussed as follows: (1) relative to general studies and (2) relative to specific studies which influence techniques of biopsy and surgical staging or excision

  6. Tetrofosmin in metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghammer, P.; Obwegeser, R.; Ulm, M.; Wiltschke, C.; Kubista, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Zielinski, C.

    1997-01-01

    Tetrofosmin (1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethan) is currently under investigation for its tumor seeking properties, encouraged by the incidental finding of a malignant breast-lesion on myocardial scintigraphy in 1995 (Rambaldi et al, Clin Nucl Med 1995) using tetrofosmin. Recent reports have confirmed tetrofosmins role in detecting primary tumors in breast cancer. To investigate whether tetrofosmin significantly helps detect metastatic lesions in such patients we performed tetrofosmin scintigraphy in 21 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients and methods: Median age of patients was 61 years. In one patient the primary site was unknown. All patients had at least one distant metastasis. 550 MBq of 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin was administered ten minutes before imaging was begun. After obtaining a planar image, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done of every suspected distant lesion. CT-scans or MRI were used to confirm positive correlation with tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Results: Tetrofosmin scintigraphy correctly diagnosed metastatic disease in 71 % of patients with no false negative and two false positive results. In each of the two patients a mediastinal hot spot suggestive of malignancy was found, but none of those lesions could be proven using CT scans. Excluding patients with liver metastasis from the present analysis, 91 % of all metastasis would have been correctly diagnosed. The first patient in our department had a large metastasis in the upper mediastinum which could not be seen on regular chest films. In the patient in whom the primary site of cancer was unknown, tetrofosmin scintigraphy showed three consecutive nodules in the left mammary, gland in a coronary fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging then confirmed two single nodules of 0.8 cm in diameter. Conclusions: Evaluating 21 patients, the present study was performed to investigate tetrofosmins properties of detecting metastatic lesions in patients with breast cancer. A 91

  7. Metastatic Brachial Plexopathy in a Case of Recurrent Breast Carcinoma Demonstrated on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

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    Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan J.; Srivastava, Anurag; Bal, ChandraSekhar; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2014-03-15

    This case highlights the importance of recognition of the pattern of metastatic brachialplexopathy in breast cancer patients undergoing {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluation of recurrent disease.This pattern can be appreciated on maximum intensity projection (MIP) and coronal {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images as a linear extension of tracer activity from superomedial aspect(supra/infraclavicular) to lateral aspect of the axilla closely related to the subclavian/axillary vessels). A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast had undergone six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by wide local incision and radiotherapy. She had local recurrence, for which she was operated upon and given chemotherapy. She presented to her oncologist with pain and swelling in the right breast, nodules in the right axilla and restriction of movement of the right upper limb. The patient was referred for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate the extent of recurrent/metastatic disease. Whole-body PET/CT was acquired 1 h following the intravenous injection of 296 MBq of {sup 18}F-FDG on a Biograph mCT scanner (Siemens). Evaluation of the MIP image revealed abnormal FDG accumulation at multiple sites in the thorax, along with a linear pattern of FDG uptake in the right lateral aspect of the upper chest (Fig. 1a, arrow). The coronal fused PET/CT image revealed a linear pattern of FDG uptake corresponding to an ill-defined mass extending from just behind the right clavicle into the right axilla (arrow). In addition, abnormal FDG accumulation was seen in a soft tissue density mass in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast, skin of the right breast laterally, both pectoral muscles (discrete foci) and in a few subpectoral nodes. Soft tissue nodular opacities in both lungs showed FDG accumulation suggestive of pulmonary metastasis (Fig. 1b, thick arrow). The patient was

  8. Gene expression profiles in primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions of Ela-c-myc transgenic mice

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    Liao Dezhong J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic carcinoma usually is a fatal disease with no cure, mainly due to its invasion and metastasis prior to diagnosis. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of paired primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions from Ela-c-myc transgenic mice in order to identify genes that may be involved in the pancreatic cancer progression. Differentially expressed selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR. To further evaluate the relevance of some of the selected differentially expressed genes, we investigated their expression pattern in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials. Results Data indicate that genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation were a major functional category of upregulated genes in both primary pancreatic tumors (PT and liver metastatic lesions (LM compared to normal pancreas (NP. In particular, differential expression for splicing factors, RNA binding/pre-mRNA processing factors and spliceosome related genes were observed, indicating that RNA processing and editing related events may play critical roles in pancreatic tumor development and progression. High expression of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1 and Serine proteinase inhibitor A1 (Serpina1, and low levels or absence of Wt1 gene expression were exclusive to liver metastatic lesion samples. Conclusion We identified Igfbp1, Serpina1 and Wt1 genes that are likely to be clinically useful biomarkers for prognostic or therapeutic purposes in metastatic pancreatic cancer, particularly in pancreatic cancer where c-Myc is overexpressed.

  9. Gene expression profiles in primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions of Ela-c-myc transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Archana; Bollig, Aliccia; Wu, Jiusheng; Liao, Dezhong J

    2008-01-24

    Pancreatic carcinoma usually is a fatal disease with no cure, mainly due to its invasion and metastasis prior to diagnosis. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of paired primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions from Ela-c-myc transgenic mice in order to identify genes that may be involved in the pancreatic cancer progression. Differentially expressed selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR. To further evaluate the relevance of some of the selected differentially expressed genes, we investigated their expression pattern in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials. Data indicate that genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation were a major functional category of upregulated genes in both primary pancreatic tumors (PT) and liver metastatic lesions (LM) compared to normal pancreas (NP). In particular, differential expression for splicing factors, RNA binding/pre-mRNA processing factors and spliceosome related genes were observed, indicating that RNA processing and editing related events may play critical roles in pancreatic tumor development and progression. High expression of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1) and Serine proteinase inhibitor A1 (Serpina1), and low levels or absence of Wt1 gene expression were exclusive to liver metastatic lesion samples. We identified Igfbp1, Serpina1 and Wt1 genes that are likely to be clinically useful biomarkers for prognostic or therapeutic purposes in metastatic pancreatic cancer, particularly in pancreatic cancer where c-Myc is overexpressed.

  10. Does Secondary Inflammatory Breast Cancer Represent Post-Surgical Metastatic Disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, Salman; Zolfaghari, Ladan; Levine, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of accelerated tumor growth following surgery has been observed repeatedly and merits further study. Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is widely recognized as an extremely aggressive malignancy characterized by micrometastasis at the time of diagnosis, with one interesting subgroup defined as secondary IBC where pathologically identifiable IBC appears after surgical treatment of a primary non-inflammatory breast cancer. One possible mechanism can be related to the stimulation of dormant micrometastasis through local angiogenesis occurring as part of posttraumatic healing. In this report, we review cases of secondary IBC and others where localized trauma was followed by the appearance of IBC at the traumatized site that have been identified by our IBC Registry (IBCR) and hypothesize that angiogenesis appearing as part of the healing process could act as an accelerant to an otherwise latent breast malignancy. It is therefore possible that secondary IBC can be used as a model to support local angiogenesis as an important contributor to the development of an aggressive cancer

  11. Does Secondary Inflammatory Breast Cancer Represent Post-Surgical Metastatic Disease?

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    Salman Hashmi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of accelerated tumor growth following surgery has been observed repeatedly and merits further study. Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC is widely recognized as an extremely aggressive malignancy characterized by micrometastasis at the time of diagnosis, with one interesting subgroup defined as secondary IBC where pathologically identifiable IBC appears after surgical treatment of a primary non-inflammatory breast cancer. One possible mechanism can be related to the stimulation of dormant micrometastasis through local angiogenesis occurring as part of posttraumatic healing. In this report, we review cases of secondary IBC and others where localized trauma was followed by the appearance of IBC at the traumatized site that have been identified by our IBC Registry (IBCR and hypothesize that angiogenesis appearing as part of the healing process could act as an accelerant to an otherwise latent breast malignancy. It is therefore possible that secondary IBC can be used as a model to support local angiogenesis as an important contributor to the development of an aggressive cancer.

  12. Metastatic Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix Presenting with Chest Mass

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    Lilit Karapetyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive form of cervical cancer. We report a case of metastatic sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC of cervix that presented with an anterior chest wall mass. Case. A 43-year-old Hispanic female presented with a two-month history of a central chest wall mass. The patient’s only past medical history was SSCC of the cervix, stage IIB, diagnosed two years priorly. She underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT with cisplatin followed by radical hysterectomy. Surgical margins were positive which led to adjuvant CRT with carboplatin and paclitaxel. PET scan 4 months after the postoperative treatment was negative for recurrence and metastatic disease. On current presentation, the CT chest revealed anterior mediastinal destructive soft tissue mass involving sternum, and the biopsy showed SSCC. The patient received palliative radiation therapy to her chest with improvement in pain and ability to swallow. After discussing the prognosis she refused further chemotherapy and decided on hospice care. Conclusion. Despite good response to first-line therapy, SSCC tends to recur early and does not respond to second-line therapy. Radiation therapy seems to be the most effective modality for treatment, but randomized controlled trials of therapy are impractical.

  13. CD147 and matrix-metalloproteinase-2 expression in metastatic and non-metastatic uveal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüke, Julia; Vukoja, Vlatka; Brandenbusch, Tim; Nassar, Khaled; Rohrbach, Jens Martin; Grisanti, Salvatore; Lüke, Matthias; Tura, Aysegül

    2016-06-03

    Extracellular matrix remodelling regulated by matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) inducer (CD147) is a crucial process during tumor cell invasion and regulation of blood supply. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of CD147 and MMP-2 expression with major prognostic factors for uveal melanoma and the development of metastasis. The expression of CD147 and MMP-2 was analyzed in 49 samples of uveal melanomas. Triple immunofluorescence stainings using markers against glial cells (GFAP), endothelial cells (CD34) and macrophages (CD68) were performed to further analyse the exact localisation of CD147 and MMP-2 positivity. In 28 cases clinical metastatic disease were found. The remaining 21 cases showed no signs of metastatic disease for an average follow-up of 10 years. Correlation analysis (Pearson correlation) was performed to analyse the association of CD147 and MMP-2 expression with known prognostic factors, vasculogenic mimicry (VM), the mature vasculature (von Willebrand Factor) and tumor induced angiogenesis (by means of Endoglin expression). CD147 and MMP-2 were expressed in 47 (96.0 %) of the uveal melanomas. CD147 up-regulation was significantly correlated with a higher MMP-2 expression. The overall expression analysis revealed no significant difference in the metastatic (p = 0.777) and non-metastatic subgroup (p = 0.585). No correlation of CD147 expression and any system of blood supply was evident. In the non-metastatic sub-group a significant correlation of clustered CD147 positive cells with largest basal diameter (p = 0.039), height (p = 0.047) and TNM-stage (p = 0.013) was evident. These data may indicate that CD147 regulates MMP-2 expression in uveal melanoma cells.

  14. Functionalization of nanotextured substrates for enhanced identification of metastatic breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Nuzhat; Raziul Hasan, Mohammad; Kim, Young-tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2017-09-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of low survival rates among cancer patients. Once cancer cells metastasize, it is extremely difficult to contain the disease. We report on a nanotextured platform for enhanced detection of metastatic cells. We captured metastatic (MDA-MDB-231) and non-metastatic (MCF-7) breast cancer cells on anti-EGFR aptamer modified plane and nanotextured substrates. Metastatic cells were seen to change their morphology at higher rates when captured on nanotextured substrates than on plane substrates. Analysis showed statistically different morphological behaviors of metastatic cells that were very pronounced on the nanotextured substrates. Several distance matrices were calculated to quantify the dissimilarity of cell shape change. Nanotexturing increased the dissimilarity of the metastatic cells and as a result the contrast between metastatic and non-metastatic cells increased. Jaccard distance measurements found that the shape change ratio of the non-metastatic and metastatic cells was enhanced from 1:1.01 to 1:1.81, going from plane to nanotextured substrates. The shape change ratio of the non-metastatic to metastatic cells improved from 1:1.48 to 1:2.19 for the Hausdorff distance and from 1:1.87 to 1:4.69 for the Mahalanobis distance after introducing nanotexture. Distance matrix analysis showed that nanotexture increased the shape change ratios of non-metastatic and metastatic cells. Hence, the detectability of metastatic cells increased. These calculated matrices provided clear and explicit measures to discriminate single cells for their metastatic state on functional nanotextured substrates.

  15. A Histomorphological Pattern Analysis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lung Autopsy and Surgically Resected Specimens

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    Mamta Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many cases are diagnosed on autopsy and a subset of patients may require surgical intervention either due to the complication or sequelae of TB. Materials and Methods. 40 cases of resected lung specimens following surgery or autopsy in which a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis was made were included. Histopathological pattern analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis along with associated nonneoplastic changes and identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli was done. Results. The mean age of diagnosis was 41 years with male predominance (92.5%. Tuberculosis was suspected in only 12.1% of cases before death. Seven cases were operated upon due to associated complications or suspicion of malignancy. Tubercular consolidation was the most frequent pattern followed by miliary tuberculosis. The presence of necrotizing granulomas was seen in 33 cases (82.5%. Acid fast bacilli were seen in 57.5% cases on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Conclusion. Histopathology remains one of the most important methods for diagnosing tuberculosis, especially in TB prevalent areas. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all respiratory diseases because of its varied clinical presentations and manifestations.

  16. Epidemiology and therapies for metastatic sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Conley, Anthony P; Reed, Damon R

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomas are cancers arising from the mesenchymal layer that affect children, adolescents, young adults, and adults. Although most sarcomas are localized, many display a remarkable predilection for metastasis to the lungs, liver, bones, subcutaneous tissue, and lymph nodes. Additionally, many sarcoma patients presenting initially with localized disease may relapse at metastatic sites. While localized sarcomas can often be cured through surgery and often radiation, controversies exist over optimal management of patients with metastatic sarcoma. Combinations of chemotherapy are the most effective in many settings, and many promising new agents are under active investigation or are being explored in preclinical models. Metastatic sarcomas are excellent candidates for novel approaches with additional agents as they have demonstrated chemosensitivity and affect a portion of the population that is motivated toward curative therapy. In this paper, we provide an overview on the common sarcomas of childhood (rhabdomyosarcoma), adolescence, and young adults (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor) and older adults (leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, and undifferentiated high grade sarcoma) in terms of the epidemiology, current therapy, promising therapeutic directions and outcome with a focus on metastatic disease. Potential advances in terms of promising therapy and biologic insights may lead to more effective and safer therapies; however, more clinical trials and research are needed for patients with metastatic sarcoma. PMID:23700373

  17. Trastuzumab and survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Schoffer, Olaf; Link, Theresa; Forberger, Almuth; Petzold, Andrea; Niedostatek, Antje; Werner, Carmen; Klug, Stefanie J; Werner, Andreas; Gatzweiler, Axel; Richter, Barbara; Baretton, Gustavo; Wimberger, Pauline

    2017-08-01

    Prognosis of Her2-positive breast cancer has changed since the introduction of trastuzumab for treatment in metastatic and early breast cancer. It was described to be even better compared to prognosis of Her2-negative metastatic breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of trastuzumab in our cohort. Besides the effect of adjuvant pretreatment with trastuzumab on survival of patients with metastatic Her2-positive breast cancer was analyzed. All patients with primary breast cancer of the Regional Breast Cancer Center Dresden diagnosed during the years 2001-2013 were analyzed for treatment with or without trastuzumab in the adjuvant and in the metastatic treatment setting using Kaplan-Meier survival estimation and Cox regression. Age and tumor stage at time of first diagnosis of breast cancer as well as hormone receptor status, grading, time, and site of metastasis at first diagnosis of distant metastatic disease were analyzed. Of 4.481 female patients with primary breast cancer, 643 presented with metastatic disease. Her2-positive status was documented in 465 patients, including 116 patients with primary or secondary metastases. Median survival of patients with Her2-positive primary metastatic disease was 3.0 years (95% CI 2.3-4.0). After adjustment for other factors, survival was better in patients with Her2-positive breast cancer with trastuzumab therapy compared to Her2-negative metastatic disease (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.58-2.79). Analysis of influence of adjuvant therapy with and without trastuzumab by Kaplan-Meier showed a trend for better survival in not pretreated patients. Median survival was highest in hormone receptor-positive Her2-positive (triple-positive) primary metastatic breast cancer patients with 3.3 years (95% CI 2.3-4.6). Prognosis of patients with Her2-positive metastatic breast cancer after trastuzumab treatment is more favorable than for Her2-negative breast cancer. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy with or without

  18. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces, Part V: Surgical applications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneum is crucial for surgery of the retroperitoneal organs. Surgery is essential for treatment of retroperitoneal pathologies. The list of these diseases is extensive and comprises acute and chronic inflammatory processes (abscess, injury, hematoma, idiopathic fibrosis), metastatic neoplasms, and primary neoplasms from fibroadipose tissue, connective tissue, smooth and striated muscle, vascular tissue, somatic and sympathetic nervous tissue, extraadrenal chromaffin tissue, and lymphatic tissue. The retroperitoneum can be approached and explored by several routes, including the transperitoneal route and the extraperitoneal route. The retroperitoneal approach to the iliac fossa is used for ectopic renal transplantation. Safe and reliable primary retroperitoneal access can be performed for laparoscopic exploration. The anatomic complications of retroperitoneal surgery are the complications of the organs located in several compartments of the retroperitoneal space. Complications may arise from incisions to the somatic wall, somatic nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, visceral autonomous plexuses, and neighboring splanchna.

  19. Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) of Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, K; Hamaloğlu, E

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, agressive, neurocutaneous malignancy with a high potential to metastasize. We present a 59 year-old woman referred to general surgery department with a complaint of epigastric pain. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed and revealed amass of 3 cm in the head of the pancreas. The significant debate in the patient's medical history was that she had a MCC in size of 5 cm removed from the left gluteal region 7 months ago. Following preoperative preparation a pancreatic oduodenectomy with Whipple procedure was performed fort hepancreatic head mass. As the tumor showed morphologically similar properties with the patient's primary neoplasm, it was accepted as a metastatic MCC. Following the operation the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and at a 30 months follow-up it was observed that the patient is disease free and has no complications related to the disease progression or recurrence. Although MCC is an aggresive and poor prognostic tumor, good results can be obtained with correct diagnosis and proper surgical treatment. Celsius.

  20. Orbitofacial Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of 10 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Sara V; McClintic, Elysa; Ozgur, Omar; Esmaeli, Bita; Yeatts, R Patrick

    To explore the clinical features, management, and prognosis of metastatic basal cell carcinoma originating in the orbitofacial region. Ten cases of orbitofacial metastatic basal cell carcinoma were identified by searching databases at 2 institutions from 1995 to 2015. A retrospective chart review was performed. Main outcome measures included patient demographics, lesion size, location of metastases, histologic subtype, recurrence rate, time between primary tumor diagnosis and metastasis, perineural invasion, treatment modalities, and survival from time of metastasis. The median tumor size at largest dimension was 3.3 cm (range, 1.9-11.5 cm), and 6 of 10 patients had at least 1 local recurrence before metastasis (range, 0-2 recurrences). The most common sites of metastasis included the ipsilateral parotid gland (n = 6) and cervical lymph nodes (n = 5). Histologic subtypes included infiltrative (n = 5), basosquamous (n = 2), nodular (n = 1), and mixed (n = 1). The median time from primary tumor diagnosis to metastasis was 7.5 years (range, 0-13). The median survival time from diagnosis of metastasis to last documented encounter or death was 5.3 years (range, 7 months-22.8 years). Treatment regimens included surgical excision, radiotherapy, and hedgehog inhibitors. Based on our findings, the following features may be markers of high risk orbitofacial basal cell carcinoma: 1) increasing tumor size, 2) local recurrence of the primary tumor, 3) aggressive histologic subtype, and 4) perineural invasion. Screening should include close observation of the primary site and tissues in the distribution of regional lymphatics, particularly the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes.

  1. Immunotherapy of distant metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadendorf, D; Algarra, S M; Bastholt, L

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma consists of various approaches leading to specific or non-specific immunomodulation. The use of FDA-approved interleukin (IL)-2 alone, in combination with interferon alpha, and/or with various chemotherapeutic agents (biochemotherapy) is associated with signif......Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma consists of various approaches leading to specific or non-specific immunomodulation. The use of FDA-approved interleukin (IL)-2 alone, in combination with interferon alpha, and/or with various chemotherapeutic agents (biochemotherapy) is associated...

  2. Can intraoperative electrocorticography patterns predict surgical outcome in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro A L; Garzon, Eliana; Caboclo, Luís O S F; Sousa, Patrícia S; Carrete, Henrique; Centeno, Ricardo S; Costa, José M P; Machado, Hélio R; Yacubian, Elza M T; Bianchin, Marino M; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2006-10-01

    Intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) can be performed in cases of temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS). However, its significance and correlation with surgical outcome are still controversial. To analyze the electrophysiological characteristics of temporal lobe structures during ECoG of patients with TLE-HS, with emphasis on the comparison between pre- and post-resection recordings and surgical outcome. Seventeen patients with refractory TLE-HS submitted to corticoamigdalohipocampectomy were included in the study. Clinical variables included age at the onset, duration of epilepsy and seizure outcome. The post-operative follow-up ranged from 24 to 36 months. According to outcome subjects were divided in two subgroups: (A) individuals free of seizures (Engel 1A), and (B) individuals not-free of seizures (Engel 1B-IV). Four patterns of ECoG findings were identified: isolated discharges; high frequency spikes (HFS); continuous discharges; combination of isolated discharges and HFS. According to predominant topography ECoG was classified as mediobasal, lateral (or neocortical), mediobasal and lateral. The progressive removal of the temporal pole and the hippocampus was associated with significant decrease of neocortical spikes. No correlation between clinical variables and seizure outcome was observed. Patients who only had isolated spikes on intraoperative ECoG presented a statistical trend for excellent surgical control. Patients who presented temporal pole blurring on MRI also had better post-surgical seizure outcome. This study showed that out of diverse clinical and laboratory variables, only isolated discharges on intraoperative ECoG and temporal pole blurring on MRI predicted excellent post-surgical seizure outcome. However, other studies with larger number of patients are still necessary to confirm these findings.

  3. The Use of Re-irradiation in Locally Recurrent, Non-metastatic Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Matthew; Lee, Jason; Salama, Joseph; Thomas, Samantha; Uronis, Hope; Hsu, David; Migaly, John; Willett, Christopher; Czito, Brian; Palta, Manisha

    2016-10-01

    The optimal approach to patients with locally recurrent, non-metastatic rectal cancer is unclear. This study evaluates the outcomes and toxicity associated with pelvic re-irradiation. Patients undergoing re-irradiation for locally recurrent, non-metastatic, rectal cancer between 2000 and 2014 were identified. Acute and late toxicities were assessed using common terminology criteria for adverse events version 4.0. Disease-related endpoints included palliation of local symptoms, surgical outcomes, and local progression-free survival (PFS), distant PFS and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Thirty-three patients met the criteria for inclusion in this study. Two (6 %) experienced early grade 3+ toxicity and seven (21 %) experienced late grade 3+ toxicity. Twenty-three patients presented with symptomatic local recurrence and 18 (78 %) reported symptomatic relief. Median local PFS was 8.7 (95 % CI 3.8-15.2) months, with a 2-year rate of 15.7 % (4.1-34.2), and median time to distant progression was 4.4 (2.2-33.3) months, with a 2-year distant PFS rate of 38.9 % (20.1-57.3). Median OS time for patients was 23.1 (11.1-33.0) months. Of the 14 patients who underwent surgery, median survival was 32.3 (13.8-48.0) months compared with 13.3 (2.2-33.0) months in patients not undergoing surgery (p = 0.10). A margin-negative (R0) resection was achieved in 10 (71 %) of the surgeries. Radiation treatment modality (intensity-modulated radiation therapy, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, intraoperative radiation therapy) did not influence local or distant PFS or OS. Re-irradiation is a beneficial treatment modality for the management of locally recurrent, non-metastatic rectal cancer. It is associated with symptom improvement, low rates of toxicity, and similar benefits among radiation modalities.

  4. Bone metastasis pattern in initial metastatic breast cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Z

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhenchong Xiong,1–3,* Guangzheng Deng,1–3,* Xinjian Huang,1–3,* Xing Li,1–3 Xinhua Xie,1–3 Jin Wang,1–3 Zeyu Shuang,1–3 Xi Wang1–3 1Department of Breast Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, China; 3Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Bone is one of the most common sites of breast cancer metastasis, and population-based studies of patients with bone metastasis in initial metastatic breast cancer (MBC are lacking. Materials and methods: From 2010 to 2013, 245,707 breast cancer patients and 8901 patients diagnosed with initial bone metastasis were identified by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the National Cancer Institute. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression were used to identify predictive factors for the presence of bone metastasis and prognosis factors. Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. Results: Eight thousand nine hundred one patients with initial MBC had bone involvement, accounting for 3.6% of the entire cohort and 62.5% of the patients with initial MBC. Also, 70.5% of patients with bone metastasis were hormone receptor (HR positive (HR+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]−: 57.6%; HR+/HER2+: 12.9%. Patients with initial bone metastasis had a better 5-year survival rate compared to those with initial brain, liver, or lung metastasis. HR+/HER2− and HR+/HER2+ breast cancer had a propensity of bone metastasis in the entire cohort and were correlated with better prognosis in patients with initial bone metastasis. Local surgery had significantly improved overall survival in initial MBC patients with bone metastasis. Conclusion: Our study has provided population-based estimates of epidemiologic characteristics and prognosis in patients with bone metastasis at the time of

  5. An in vitro correlation of mechanical forces and metastatic capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indra, Indrajyoti; Undyala, Vishnu; Kandow, Casey; Thirumurthi, Umadevi; Beningo, Karen A; Dembo, Micah

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical forces have a major influence on cell migration and are predicted to significantly impact cancer metastasis, yet this idea is currently poorly defined. In this study we have asked if changes in traction stress and migratory properties correlate with the metastatic progression of tumor cells. For this purpose, four murine breast cancer cell lines derived from the same primary tumor, but possessing increasing metastatic capacity, were tested for adhesion strength, traction stress, focal adhesion organization and for differential migration rates in two-dimensional and three-dimensional environments. Using traction force microscopy (TFM), we were surprised to find an inverse relationship between traction stress and metastatic capacity, such that force production decreased as the metastatic capacity increased. Consistent with this observation, adhesion strength exhibited an identical profile to the traction data. A count of adhesions indicated a general reduction in the number as metastatic capacity increased but no difference in the maturation as determined by the ratio of nascent to mature adhesions. These changes correlated well with a reduction in active beta-1 integrin with increasing metastatic ability. Finally, in two dimensions, wound healing, migration and persistence were relatively low in the entire panel, maintaining a downward trend with increasing metastatic capacity. Why metastatic cells would migrate so poorly prompted us to ask if the loss of adhesive parameters in the most metastatic cells indicated a switch to a less adhesive mode of migration that would only be detected in a three-dimensional environment. Indeed, in three-dimensional migration assays, the most metastatic cells now showed the greatest linear speed. We conclude that traction stress, adhesion strength and rate of migration do indeed change as tumor cells progress in metastatic capacity and do so in a dimension-sensitive manner

  6. Multiple urinary bladder masses from metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Choo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that manifested with multiple exophytic intravesical masses, mimicking a multifocal primary bladder tumor. Biopsy with immunohistochemical analysis confirmed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated palliatively with external beam radiotherapy to prevent possible symptoms from local tumor progression. This case illustrates that when a patient with known prostate cancer presents with multifocal bladder tumors, the possibility of metastatic prostate cancer should be considered.

  7. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  8. Non-vascular surgical mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavon, S.; Trenaghi, P.; Nardini, S.; Pagan, V.

    1989-01-01

    A review was made of the chest X-ray features of 120 patients who underwent surgical treatment for mediastinal non-vascular pathologies over the past 12 years in the Mestre Hospital. A method of analysis is proposed which takes into account not only the differences between the immediate post-operative period and the follow-up, but also the anatomotopographic partition and the surgical practice. Normal and pathological patterns for both of the above periods are described. The ''dimness'' of the arial tracheogram is emphasized as a usefull and early sign of mediastinal recurrence

  9. Distinct patterns of HIV-1 evolution within metastatic tissues in patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Salemi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, AIDS related lymphoma (ARL occurs at a significantly higher rate in patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV than in the general population. HIV-infected macrophages are a known viral reservoir and have been shown to have lymphomagenic potential in SCID mice; therefore, there is an interest in determining if a viral component to lymphomagenesis also exists. We sequenced HIV-1 envelope gp120 clones obtained post mortem from several tumor and non-tumor tissues of two patients who died with AIDS-related Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL-NH. Similar results were found in both patients: 1 high-resolution phylogenetic analysis showed a significant degree of compartmentalization between lymphoma and non-lymphoma viral sub-populations while viral sub-populations from lymph nodes appeared to be intermixed within sequences from tumor and non-tumor tissues, 2 a 100-fold increase in the effective HIV population size in tumor versus non-tumor tissues was associated with the emergence of lymphadenopathy and aggressive metastatic ARL, and 3 HIV gene flow among lymph nodes, normal and metastatic tissues was non-random. The different population dynamics between the viruses found in tumors versus the non-tumor associated viruses suggest that there is a significant relationship between HIV evolution and lymphoma pathogenesis. Moreover, the study indicates that HIV could be used as an effective marker to study the origin and dissemination of lymphomas in vivo.

  10. Results after surgical treatment of liver metastases in patients with high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galleberg, R B; Knigge, U; Tiensuu Janson, E

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC) are generally characterized by synchronous metastases, high aggressiveness and a dismal prognosis. Current international guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment of liver metastases, however the existing data are scarce......., particularly for the group with a Ki-67 in the relatively lower G3 range. Our findings indicate a possible role for surgical treatment of liver metastases in the management of this patient population.......Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NEC) are generally characterized by synchronous metastases, high aggressiveness and a dismal prognosis. Current international guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment of liver metastases, however the existing data are scarce....... The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of curatively intended resection/radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases in patients with metastatic GEP-NEC. Methods: 32 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (Ki-67 > 20%) and with intended...

  11. Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator''s preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.

  12. Radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Akio; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Taniguchi, Shuji; Sakai, Kazuaki

    2000-01-01

    The results of radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors were evaluated in terms of pain relief, improvement of neurological impairment, and survival. Between 1986 and 1995, 52 symptomatic patients with metastatic spinal tumors treated with radiation therapy were evaluated. The patients all received irradiation of megavoltage energy. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in terms of pain relief and improvement of neurological impairment. Pain relief was observed in 29 (61.7%) of 47 patients with pain. Therapy was effective for 17 (70.8%) of 24 patients without neurological impairment, and efficacy was detected in 12 (52.2%) of 23 patients with neurological impairment. Improvement of neurological symptoms was obtained in seven (25.0%) of 28 patients with neurological impairment. Radiation therapy was effective for pain relief in patients with metastatic spinal tumors. In patients with neurological impairment, less pain relief was observed than in those without impairment. Improvement of neurological impairment was restricted, but radiation therapy was thought to be effective in some cases in the early stage of neurological deterioration. Radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors contraindicated for surgery was considered effective for improvement of patients' activities of daily living. (author)

  13. Outcome and cervical metastatic spread of squamous cell cancer of the buccal mucosa, a retrospective analysis of the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheb, Keyvan; Blatt, Sebastian; Kraft, Ina Sophie; Zimmer, Stefanie; Rahimi-Nedjat, Roman-Kia; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Walter, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Because of the low proportion of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the buccal mucosa within the carcinomas of the oral cavity in the Western population, data concerning metastatic pattern are sparse. Therefore, this retrospective study is focusing on the occurrence of cervical metastases (CM) and the overall outcome of this tumor entity. From January 1988 to October 2013, 113 patients were treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mainz, for an oral SCC of the cheek. Metastatic pattern and clinical parameters that are possibly associated with an increased risk for CM as well as overall outcome were analyzed. The average follow-up was 48 months (range: 1-248 months). A total of 55 (49%) patients were female and 58 (51%) male, with an average age of 65 ± 13 years (♀68 ± 14 years; ♂63 ± 11 years). In total, 55% of the patients either smoked and/or consumed alcohol. In total, 34% of the patients had a stage III or IV tumor, with overall 23% having CM at the time of diagnosis. During the follow-up, 50% (n = 56) of the patients developed a relapse after 12 months (median). Tumor size (P = 0.002*) and grading (P cervical metastatic pattern, a selective, ipsilateral neck dissection for this patient group is recommended as the primary management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L.

    1999-01-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.)

  15. REPORT OF SEVEN CASES OF METASTATIC TUMOURS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major Adebayo

    Metastatic lesions may mimic odontogenic infections and other disease conditions in the oral cavity in presentation leading to late diagnosis by the unwary clinician. In Nigeria, reports on jaw tumours from metastasis elsewhere are quite scarce. This report presents a series of histologically verified metastatic tumours to the ...

  16. New insights into the metastatic behavior after breast cancer surgery, according to well-established clinicopathological variables and molecular subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Claudio Buonomo

    Full Text Available Despite advances in treatment, up to 30% of patients with early breast cancer (BC experience distant disease relapse. However, a comprehensive understanding of tumor spread and site-specific recurrence patterns remains lacking. This retrospective case-control study included 103 consecutive patients with metastatic BC admitted to our institution (2000-2013. Cases were matched according to age, tumor biology, and clinicopathological features to 221 patients with non-metastatic BC (control group. The median follow-up period among the 324 eligible patients was 7.3 years. While relatively low values for sensitivity (71% and specificity (56% were found for axillary lymph node (ALN involvement as an indicator of risk and pattern of distant relapse, nodal status remained the most powerful predictor of metastases (OR: 3.294; CL: 1.9-5.5. Rates of dissemination and metastatic efficiency differed according to molecular subtype. HER2-positive subtypes showed a stronger association with systemic spread (OR: 2.127; CL: 1.2-3.8 than other subgroups. Classification as Luminal or Non-Luminal showed an increased risk of lung and distant nodal recurrence, and a decreased risk in bone metastases in the Non-Luminal group (OR: 2.9, 3.345, and 0.2, respectively. Tumors with HER2 overexpression had a significantly high risk for distant relapse (OR: 2.127 compared with HER2-negative tumors and also showed higher central nervous system (CNS and lung metastatic potential (OR: 5.6 and 2.65, respectively and low risk of bone disease progression (OR: 0.294. Furthermore, we found significant associations between biological profiles and sites of recurrence. A new process of clinical/diagnostic staging, including molecular subtypes, could better predict the likelihood of distant relapses and their anatomical location. Recognition and appreciation of clinically distinct molecular subtypes may assist in evaluation of the probability of distant relapses and their sites. Our

  17. Metachronous Lung Cancer: Clinical Characteristics and Effects of Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzechonek, Adam; Błasiak, Piotr; Muszczyńska-Bernhard, Beata; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pniewski, Grzegorz; Ornat, Maciej; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Brzecka, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of a second lung tumor after surgical removal of lung cancer usually indicates a lung cancer metastasis, but sometimes a new lesion proves to be a new primary lung cancer, i.e., metachronous lung cancer. The goal of the present study was to conduct a clinical evaluation of patients with metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis, and to compare the early and distant outcomes of surgical treatment in both cancer types. There were 26 age-matched patients with lung cancer metastases and 23 patients with metachronous lung cancers, who underwent a second lung cancer resection. We evaluated the histological type of a resected cancer, the extent of thoracosurgery, the frequency of early postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after the second operation. The findings were that metachronous lung cancer was adenocarcinoma in 52% of patients, with a different histopathological pattern from that of the primary lung cancer in 74% of patients. In both cancer groups, mechanical resections were the most common surgery type (76% of all cases), with anatomical resections such as segmentectomy, lobectomy, or pneumectomy being much rarer conducted. The incidence of early postoperative complications in metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis (30% vs. 31%, respectively) and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of either cancer tumor (60.7% vs. 50.9%, respectively) were comparable. In conclusion, patients undergoing primary lung cancer surgery require a long-term follow-up due to the risk of metastatic or metachronous lung cancer. The likelihood of metachronous lung cancer and pulmonary lung cancer metastases, the incidence of postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of metachronous lung cancer or lung cancer metastasis are similar.

  18. Ultrasonic imaging of metastatic carcinoma in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the ultrasonic findings of metastatic thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic imaging for patients with metastatic thyroid neoplasm. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of ten patients who were diagnosed with metastatic thyroid carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. In all the cases, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid was performed during the clinical diagnosis. Results: The ultrasonic images of the ten patients fell into four types: multiple nodules in the thyroid, single nodule in the thyroid, diffuse calcification and heterogeneous echo. Seven cases showed speckled calcific foci. Abnormal blood flow signal was found in 9 cases. Conclusion: The ultrasonic findings of metastatic carcinoma in the thyroid gland are various and non-specific. Color Doppler ultrasound may provide ample evidence. The diagnosis depends on FNAC. (authors)

  19. Palliative care and pediatric surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, Alessandro; Narciso, Alessandra; Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Messina, Raffaella; Crocoli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Survival rate for childhood cancer has increased in recent years, reaching as high as 70% in developed countries compared with 54% for all cancers diagnosed in the 1980s. In the remaining 30%, progression or metastatic disease leads to death and in this framework palliative care has an outstanding role though not well settled in all its facets. In this landscape, surgery has a supportive actor role integrated with other welfare aspects from which are not severable. The definition of surgical palliation has moved from the ancient definition of noncurative surgery to a group of practices performed not to cure but to alleviate an organ dysfunction offering the best quality of life possible in all the aspects of life (pain, dysfunctions, caregivers, psychosocial, etc.). To emphasize this aspect a more modern definition has been introduced: palliative therapy in whose context is comprised not only the care assistance but also the plans of care since the onset of illness, teaching the matter to surgeons in training and share paths. Literature is very poor regarding surgical aspects specifically dedicated and all researches (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane) with various meshing terms result in a more oncologic and psychosocial effort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pattern of Maxillofacial Surgical Conditions in North Central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    com on Wednesday, February 7, 2018, IP: 197.89.67.237] ... Table 2: Profile of orofacial surgical conditions seen and treated over 5 years during outreach programmes in ..... The North Central zone of the country, with a population of 20.2 ...

  1. The Effect of Overweight Status on Total and Metastatic Number of Harvested Lymph Nodes During Colorectal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Zeren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the rela­tionship between higher body mass index (BMI and har­vested total or metastatic lymph node numbers in patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancers. Methods: Between March 2014 and January 2016, totally 71patients who underwent laparoscopic or conventional surgery for colorectal cancer were evaluated retrospec­tively. The data of age, gender, BMI, surgical procedure, tumor localization , postoperative mortality status, total number of harvested and metastatic lymph node were collected. The patients having 24.9 (kg/m2 or lower BMI values were classified as normal (Group 1 and patients having BMI values of 25 or over were overweight (Group 2. Afterwards, the parameters between groups and the effect of higher BMI were analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.5 ± 14 years. The average BMI value in group 1 was 22.3 (kg/m2 and 27.0 (kg/m2 in group 2. According to localisation of tumor, transverse colon was the rare region for both groups. The common regions for tumor localisation in group 1 were right colon, sigmoid colon and rectum. In group 2 the common localisation for tumors were rectum, right colon and sigmoid colon. There was no difference between groups about postoperative mortality rates (p > 0.05. The mean of the total number of harvested lymph nodes were 14 in group 1 and 12 in group 2. There were no relationship between BMI and tumor diameter, total or metastatic number of harvested lymph nodes. Conclusion: Higher BMI values does not effect the num­ber of excised total or metastatic lymph nodes and tumor diameters. Therefore, the surgeons should not hesitate in overweight patients cancer surgery for dissecting ad­equate number of lymph nodes.

  2. Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Gok Durnali

    Full Text Available Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9% were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14-74. Thirty-nine patients (41.9% had synchronous lung metastases (Group A and 54 patients (58.1% had metachronous lung metastases (Group B. The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010, number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020, presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007 and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001 were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst.

  3. Diagnostic Benefit of Thyroglobulin Measurement in Fine-Needle Aspiration for Diagnosing Metastatic Cervical Lymph Nodes from Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Correlations with US Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Se Jeong; Kim, Eun Hee; Son, Kyu Ri; Park, Do Joon; Cho, Bo Youn; Na, Dong Gyu; Park, Jeong Seon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2009-01-01

    Our goals were to determine the added value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB)-thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements over FNAB-cytology alone for diagnosing metastatic nodes, and to determine whether the ultrasound features of lymph nodes can be used to identify lymph nodes that may benefit from FNAB-Tg measurement in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 76 surgically proven cervical lymph nodes. Twenty-nine patients were awaiting surgery and 18 patients had undergone thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid cancer. Ultrasound-guided FNAB and Tg measurements were performed and the ultrasound features were evaluated. The accuracies, sensitivities, and specificities of FNAB-cytology, FNAB-Tg, and combined FNAB-Tg/cytology were 90%, 80%, and 100%; 92%, 95%, and 90%; and 93%, 96%, and 90%, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNAB-Tg for metastatic nodes was significantly higher than that of FNAB-cytology (p = 0.011). Furthermore, combined FNAB-Tg/cytology significantly increased sensitivity (p = 0.002) and accuracy (p = 0.03) as compared with FNAB-cytology. Combined FNAB-Tg/cytology is significantly more sensitive and accurate at detecting metastatic nodes than FNAB-cytology alone. FNAB-Tg was better at diagnosing metastases in small lymph nodes

  4. Epidemiology and therapies for metastatic sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankwah EK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ernest K Amankwah,1 Anthony P Conley,2 Damon R Reed2 1Department of Cancer Epidemiology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA; 2Sarcoma Department, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Sarcomas are cancers arising from the mesenchymal layer that affect children, adolescents, young adults, and adults. Although most sarcomas are localized, many display a remarkable predilection for metastasis to the lungs, liver, bones, subcutaneous tissue, and lymph nodes. Additionally, many sarcoma patients presenting initially with localized disease may relapse at metastatic sites. While localized sarcomas can often be cured through surgery and often radiation, controversies exist over optimal management of patients with metastatic sarcoma. Combinations of chemotherapy are the most effective in many settings, and many promising new agents are under active investigation or are being explored in preclinical models. Metastatic sarcomas are excellent candidates for novel approaches with additional agents as they have demonstrated chemosensitivity and affect a portion of the population that is motivated toward curative therapy. In this paper, we provide an overview on the common sarcomas of childhood (rhabdomyosarcoma, adolescence, and young adults (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and older adults (leiomyosarcoma, liposarcoma, and undifferentiated high grade sarcoma in terms of the epidemiology, current therapy, promising therapeutic directions and outcome with a focus on metastatic disease. Potential advances in terms of promising therapy and biologic insights may lead to more effective and safer therapies; however, more clinical trials and research are needed for patients with metastatic sarcoma. Keywords: chemotherapy, pediatric sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma

  5. Identification of an Immunogenic Subset of Metastatic Uveal Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Luke D; Sabesan, Arvind C; Stephens, Daniel J; Chandran, Smita S; Paria, Biman C; Srivastava, Abhishek K; Somerville, Robert; Wunderlich, John R; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Xi, Liqiang; Pham, Trinh H; Raffeld, Mark; Jailwala, Parthav; Kasoji, Manjula; Kammula, Udai S

    2016-05-01

    Uveal melanoma is a rare melanoma variant with no effective therapies once metastases develop. Although durable cancer regression can be achieved in metastatic cutaneous melanoma with immunotherapies that augment naturally existing antitumor T-cell responses, the role of these treatments for metastatic uveal melanoma remains unclear. We sought to define the relative immunogenicity of these two melanoma variants and determine whether endogenous antitumor immune responses exist against uveal melanoma. We surgically procured liver metastases from uveal melanoma (n = 16) and cutaneous melanoma (n = 35) patients and compared the attributes of their respective tumor cell populations and their infiltrating T cells (TIL) using clinical radiology, histopathology, immune assays, and whole-exomic sequencing. Despite having common melanocytic lineage, uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma metastases differed in their melanin content, tumor differentiation antigen expression, and somatic mutational profile. Immunologic analysis of TIL cultures expanded from these divergent forms of melanoma revealed cutaneous melanoma TIL were predominantly composed of CD8(+) T cells, whereas uveal melanoma TIL were CD4(+) dominant. Reactivity against autologous tumor was significantly greater in cutaneous melanoma TIL compared with uveal melanoma TIL. However, we identified TIL from a subset of uveal melanoma patients which had robust antitumor reactivity comparable in magnitude with cutaneous melanoma TIL. Interestingly, the absence of melanin pigmentation in the parental tumor strongly correlated with the generation of highly reactive uveal melanoma TIL. The discovery of this immunogenic group of uveal melanoma metastases should prompt clinical efforts to determine whether patients who harbor these unique tumors can benefit from immunotherapies that exploit endogenous antitumor T-cell populations. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2237-49. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Management of metastatic apocrine hidradenocarcinoma with chemotherapy and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare aggressive form of cutaneous adnexal skin carcinoma originating from the sweat gland. Due to its low incidence, prognostic and treatment strategies are still being explored both for primary and advanced disease. This tumor most often presents as either solid or cystic appearing subcutaneous nodules, which may be associated with pruritus or ulceration. To date the mainstay of treatment for local disease has been surgical excision; however, the paucity of historical data available has shown that these tumors often behave aggressively with high rates of local recurrence, metastasis, and poor overall outcomes. There are few case reports describing the utility of radiation therapy in the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma. Herein, we present a case of metastatic apocrine hidradenocarcinoma in a 32-year-old Caucasian male. The patient initially underwent excisional biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated, highly infiltrative, apocrine hidradenocarcinoma. He received systemic chemotherapy for metastatic disease, followed by radiation therapy to areas of grossly palpable adenopathy. Prior to radiation therapy the patient had an enlarged hypermetabolic conglomerate of lymph nodes in the right axilla, and borderline enlarged low activity nodes within the left axilla. He received 3 cycles of chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen and radiation therapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to areas of progressive disease in the bilateral axilla, lower neck, and axillary skin. Following treatment, the patient had complete resolution of skin nodules and improvement of his pruritus. While the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma has not been well established, this case report demonstrated the potential benefit of external beam radiotherapy in the management of this rare disease

  7. Management of Metastatic Apocrine Hidradenocarcinoma with Chemotherapy and Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel H; Peterson, Jennifer L; Buskirk, Steven J; Vallow, Laura A; Ta, Randy; Joseph, Richard; Krishna, Murli; Ko, Stephen J; Tzou, Katherine S

    2015-09-07

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare aggressive form of cutaneous adnexal skin carcinoma originating from the sweat gland. Due to its low incidence, prognostic and treatment strategies are still being explored both for primary and advanced disease. This tumor most often presents as either solid or cystic appearing subcutaneous nodules, which may be associated with pruritus or ulceration. To date the mainstay of treatment for local disease has been surgical excision; however, the paucity of historical data available has shown that these tumors often behave aggressively with high rates of local recurrence, metastasis, and poor overall outcomes. There are few case reports describing the utility of radiation therapy in the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma. Herein, we present a case of metastatic apocrine hidradenocarcinoma in a 32-year-old Caucasian male. The patient initially underwent excisional biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated, highly infiltrative, apocrine hidradenocarcinoma. He received systemic chemotherapy for metastatic disease, followed by radiation therapy to areas of grossly palpable adenopathy. Prior to radiation therapy the patient had an enlarged hypermetabolic conglomerate of lymph nodes in the right axilla, and borderline enlarged low activity nodes within the left axilla. He received 3 cycles of chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen and radiation therapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) to areas of progressive disease in the bilateral axilla, lower neck, and axillary skin. Following treatment, the patient had complete resolution of skin nodules and improvement of his pruritus. While the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma has not been well established, this case report demonstrated the potential benefit of external beam radiotherapy in the management of this rare disease.

  8. Reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in metastatic deposits of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the upper gastrointestinal system: a potential anchor for metastatic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yihong R; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-06-01

    To examine the expression of E-cadherin in paired primary and metastatic signet-ring cell carcinomas (SRCC) of various organ systems in order to explore the potential role of the molecule in metastatic dissemination of this unique tumour type. Thirty-seven consecutive cases of SRCC from various organs with paired primary and metastatic tumorous tissue available were retrieved. The intensity of membranous E-cadherin expression was semiquantitatively scored on a scale of 0-3+. Reduced E-cadherin expression was a distinct feature of primary SRCC and was observed in 78% of primary tumours. Interestingly, the E-cadherin reduction was less frequently seen in metastatic SRCC when compared with their primary counterparts, and was only found in 57% of tumours in lymph node metastases or at distant sites of relapse. Furthermore, the mean score of E-cadherin expression of primary SRCC was significantly lower than that of their metastatic counterparts (2.3 vs 1.8; p=0.008). When divided by organ systems, the reacquisition of E-cadherin expression in the metastatic deposits was most remarkable in the SRCC of upper gastrointestinal tract origin (2.3 vs 1.4; p=0.003), whereas no significant difference was observed in other organ systems. While the reduction of E-cadherin in primary SRCC supports its pivotal role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process crucial in tumour progression and metastatic dissemination, the re-expression of this molecule in metastatic SRCC cells implies a reversal to their epithelial phenotype (thus mesenchymal-epithelial transition) which, in turn, theoretically helps tumour cells to anchor and form cohesive metastatic deposits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. A Mouse Tumor Model of Surgical Stress to Explore the Mechanisms of Postoperative Immunosuppression and Evaluate Novel Perioperative Immunotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Lee-Hwa; Tanese de Souza, Christiano; Sahi, Shalini; Zhang, Jiqing; Alkayyal, Almohanad A; Ananth, Abhirami Anu; Auer, Rebecca A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical resection is an essential treatment for most cancer patients, but surgery induces dysfunction in the immune system and this has been linked to the development of metastatic disease in animal models and in cancer patients. Preclinical work from our group and others has demonstrated a profound suppression of innate immune function, specifically NK cells in the postoperative period and this plays a major role in the enhanced development of metastases following surgery. Relatively few animal studies and clinical trials have focused on characterizing and reversing the detrimental effects of cancer surgery. Using a rigorous animal model of spontaneously metastasizing tumors and surgical stress, the enhancement of cancer surgery on the development of lung metastases was demonstrated. In this model, 4T1 breast cancer cells are implanted in the mouse mammary fat pad. At day 14 post tumor implantation, a complete resection of the primary mammary tumor is performed in all animals. A subset of animals receives additional surgical stress in the form of an abdominal nephrectomy. At day 28, lung tumor nodules are quantified. When immunotherapy was given immediately preoperatively, a profound activation of immune cells which prevented the development of metastases following surgery was detected. While the 4T1 breast tumor surgery model allows for the simulation of the effects of abdominal surgical stress on tumor metastases, its applicability to other tumor types needs to be tested. The current challenge is to identify safe and promising immunotherapies in preclinical mouse models and to translate them into viable perioperative therapies to be given to cancer surgery patients to prevent the recurrence of metastatic disease. PMID:24686980

  10. Surgical and Pathological Characteristics of Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Dzepina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid carcinoma is a relatively rare pediatric pathology, comprising around 3% of all childhood tumors. We investigated parameters of tumor aggressiveness, multicentricity, and locoregional metastatic spread patterns in patients up to 18 years of age and made comparison with the older group. All patients were operated upon with total thyroidectomy, with or without lymph-node neck dissection. Results. Patients with papillary carcinoma present with more advanced stage, larger primary tumor, and more commonly present with palpable thyroid and/or neck node. Overall, papillary cancer demonstrated pathological aggressiveness as defined by our criteria in 60%, multicentricity in 40%, and locoregional metastatic foci in 77% of cases. Multicentric tumor foci in both thyroid lobes and tumor aggressiveness were identified as a risk factor for metastatic development. Conclusion. By observing clinicopathological parameters, we demonstrated that papillary thyroid cancer behaves more aggressively in the younger group. We recommend total thyroidectomy with careful intraoperative exploration of thyroid bed and lateral neck in search for possible metastatic spread. In case of positive findings, it is obligatory to perform a standard neck dissection, keeping in mind that neck lymphonodes are primary site of locoregional recurrence. With meticulous attention to technical aspects of operation, perioperative morbidity should be minimal.

  11. Povidone-iodine induced post-surgical irritant contact dermatitis localized outside of the surgical incision area. Report of 27 cases and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Leopoldo; Hernández, Noelia; Hernández, Zaida; Peñate, Yeray

    2016-05-01

    Povidone-iodine solution is an antiseptic that is used worldwide as surgical paint and is considered to have a low irritant potential. Post-surgical severe irritant dermatitis has been described after the misuse of this antiseptic in the surgical setting. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 27 consecutive patients with post-surgical contact dermatitis localized outside of the surgical incision area were evaluated. Thirteen patients were also available for patch testing. All patients developed dermatitis the day after the surgical procedure. Povidone-iodine solution was the only liquid in contact with the skin of our patients. Most typical lesions were distributed in a double lumbar parallel pattern, but they were also found in a random pattern or in areas where a protective pad or an occlusive medical device was glued to the skin. The patch test results with povidone-iodine were negative. Povidone-iodine-induced post-surgical dermatitis may be a severe complication after prolonged surgical procedures. As stated in the literature and based on the observation that povidone-iodine-induced contact irritant dermatitis occurred in areas of pooling or occlusion, we speculate that povidone-iodine together with occlusion were the causes of the dermatitis epidemic that occurred in our surgical setting. Povidone-iodine dermatitis is a problem that is easily preventable through the implementation of minimal routine changes to adequately dry the solution in contact with the skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Hippocampal atrophy on MRI is predictive of histopathological patterns and surgical prognosis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Anaclara Prada; Corso, Jeana Torres; Garcia, Maria Teresa Fernandes Castilho; Gaça, Larissa Botelho; Comper, Sandra Mara; Lancellotti, Carmen Lúcia Penteado; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Carrete, Henrique; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Scorza, Carla Alessandra; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2016-12-01

    To correlate hippocampal volumes obtained from brain structural imaging with histopathological patterns of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), in order to predict surgical outcome. Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with HS were selected. Clinical data were assessed pre-operatively and surgical outcome in the first year post surgery. One block of mid hippocampal body was selected for HS classification according to ILAE criteria. NeuN-immunoreactive cell bodies were counted within hippocampal subfields, in four randomly visual fields, and cell densities were transformed into z-score values. FreeSurfer processing of 1.5T brain structural images was used for subcortical and cortical volumetric estimation of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Univariate analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation test were applied for statistical analyses. Sixty-two cases (31 female, 32 right HS) were included. ILAE type 1 HS was identified in 48 patients, type 2 in eight, type 3 in two, and four had no-HS. Better results regarding seizure control, i.e. ILAE 1, were achieved by patients with type 1 HS (58.3%). Patients with types 1 and 2 had smaller hippocampal volumes compared to those with no-HS (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Positive correlation was encountered between hippocampal volumes and CA1, CA3, CA4, and total estimated neuronal densities. CA2 was the only sector which did not correlate its neuronal density with hippocampal volume (p=0.390). This is the first study correlating hippocampal volume on MRI submitted to FreeSurfer processing with ILAE patterns of HS and neuronal loss within each hippocampal subfield, a fundamental finding to anticipate surgical prognosis for patients with drug-resistant MTLE and HS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preoperative embolization in surgical treatment of spinal metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Dahl, Benny; Frevert, Susanne Christiansen

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess whether preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization of spinal metastases reduces blood loss, the need for transfusion with allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs), and surgery time in the surgical treatment of patients with symptomatic metastatic spinal cord compression. MATERIALS......L) versus 902 mL (SD, 416 mL). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative embolization in patients with symptomatic spinal metastasis independent of primary tumor diagnosis did not reduce intraoperative blood loss and allogeneic RBC transfusion significantly but did reduce the surgery time. A small reduction...... instrumentation and randomly assigned to either preoperative embolization (n = 23) or a control group (n = 22). The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes were perioperative blood loss, allogeneic RBC transfusion, and surgery time. Analyses were performed by intention-to-treat. RESULTS...

  14. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L. [Department of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    1999-09-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.) With 11 figs., 12 refs.

  15. Differential expression of metabolic genes in tumor and stromal components of primary and metastatic loci in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V Chaika

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States with a five-year survival rate of 6%. It is characterized by extremely aggressive tumor growth rate and high incidence of metastasis. One of the most common and profound biochemical phenotypes of animal and human cancer cells is their ability to metabolize glucose at high rates, even under aerobic conditions. However, the contribution of metabolic interrelationships between tumor cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment to the progression of cancer is not well understood. We evaluated differential expression of metabolic genes and, hence, metabolic pathways in primary tumor and metastases of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.We analyzed the metabolic gene (those involved in glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid pathway, pentose-phosphate pathway and fatty acid metabolism expression profiles of primary and metastatic lesions from pancreatic cancer patients by gene expression arrays. We observed two principal results: genes that were upregulated in primary and most of the metastatic lesions; and genes that were upregulated only in specific metastatic lesions in a site-specific manner. Immunohistochemical (IHC analyses of several metabolic gene products confirmed the gene expression patterns at the protein level. The IHC analyses also revealed differential tumor and stromal expression patterns of metabolic enzymes that were correlated with the metastasis sites.Here, we present the first comprehensive studies that establish differential metabolic status of tumor and stromal components and elevation of aerobic glycolysis gene expression in pancreatic cancer.

  16. The Pattern of Surgically Treatable Anorectal Diseases in University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a 4 year retrospective study of all adult patients with anorectal diseases who were admitted into the surgical wards of University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Relevant data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty cases were seen over the 4 year period.

  17. Enhanced bilateral somatostatin receptor expression in mediastinal lymph nodes (''chimney sign'') in occult metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a typical site of tumour manifestation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, T.M.; Gratz, S.; Markus, P.M.; Dunn, R.M.; Huefner, M.; Becker, H.; Becker, W.

    1997-01-01

    In medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), post-surgically elevated plasma calcitonin and/or carcinoembryonic antigen levels frequently indicate persisting metastatic disease, although conventional diagnostic procedures fail to localize the responsible lesions (occult disease). Somatostatin analogues have been used successfully in disease localization, but recently concerns have been raised that increased thoracic uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide in patients with previous external beam irradiation may represent a false-positive finding, caused by post-irradiation pulmonary fibrosis. We recently examined seven patients with metastatic MTC by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (six with occult and one with established disease). In four patients, all of whom had stable or slowly rising tumour marker levels over several years, a chimney-like bilateral mediastinal uptake of indium-111 pentetreotide was found. In two patients with persisting hypercalcitonaemia immediately after primary surgery, supraclavicular lymph node metastases were identified as the responsible lesions. None of these seven patients had prior external beam radiation therapy. In two cases, histological confirmation was obtained. In one patient, disease progression could be shown during follow-up. These data suggest that bilateral mediastinal lymph node involvement is a typical site of disease in slowly progressing occult metastatic MTC; the ''chimney sign'' may represent a typical finding with somatostatin analogues in such cases. Therefore, we believe that even in the case of prior external beam irradiation, mediastinal uptake of octreotide might represent metastatic MTC rather than radiation fibrosis. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Factors Associated with Life Expectancy in Patients with Metastatic Spine Disease from Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Khattab, Mohamed H.; Sankey, Eric W.; Elder, Benjamin D.; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Bydon, Ali; Witham, Timothy F.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Our objective was to identify preoperative prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with spinal metastasis from lung carcinoma. Methods A retrospective analysis of 26 patients diagnosed with lung carcinoma metastatic to the spinal column was performed to determine factors associated with survival. We used 3 months survival as the clinical cutoff for whether surgical intervention should be performed. We analyzed patients who survived less than 3 months compared with those who survived more than 3 months. Demographic, preoperative, operative, and postoperative factors including functional scores were collected for analysis. Results The median survival for all patients in our study was 3.5 months. We found a statistically significant difference between the group that survived less than 3 months and the group that survived greater than 3 months in terms of extrathoracic metastasis, visceral metastasis, and average postoperative modified Rankin score. Conclusion Determining which patients with lung cancer spinal metastases will benefit from surgical intervention is often dictated by the patient's predicted life expectancy. Factors associated with poorer prognosis include age, functional status, visceral metastases, and extrathoracic metastases. Although the prognosis for patients with lung cancer spinal metastases is poor, some patients may experience long-term benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:26430597

  19. Differential diagnosis between metastatic tumors and nonsolid benign lesions of the liver using ferucarbotran-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashihara, Hiroki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan)], E-mail: h-higashihara@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Murakami, Takamichi [Department of Radiology, Kinki University School of Medicine 377-2 Oonohigashi, Osakasayama, Osaka 5898511 (Japan); Kim, Tonsok; Hori, Masatoshi; Onishi, Hiromitsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan); Nakata, Saki [Department of Radiology, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, 4-14-1 Shibahara Chou, Toyonaka, Osaka 5608565 (Japan); Osuga, Keigo; Tomoda, Kaname; Nakamura, Hironobu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate ability of ferucarbotran-enhanced MR imaging (MRI) in differentiating metastases from nonsolid benign lesions of the liver according to signal-intensity characteristics. Materials and methods: Sixty-six consecutive patients, who had 138 focal hepatic lesions (26 cysts, 11 hemangiomas, and 101 metastases), underwent ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI. The signal-intensity pattern of each kind of lesion relative to the liver parenchyma on ferucarbotran-enhanced T2* and heavily T1-weighted gradient-echo images were assessed and categorized into the following three categories: high-intensity and iso-intensity, respectively (category A), high and low (category B), and iso- and low-intensity (category C). For category B, lesions were subdivided into two groups based on single-shot half-Fourier RARE images: category B1 (not significantly high-intensity) and category B2 (significantly high-intensity). Results: Category A had 11 hemangiomas and 2 metastatic tumors, category B1 had 97 metastatic tumors, category B2 had 2 metastatic tumors and 9 cysts, and category C had 17 cysts. When a tumor with a signal intensity of category A was considered to be hemangioma, category B1 metastasis, and category B2 and C cyst, the diagnostic accuracy for differentiating these lesions was 97% (134/138). Conclusion: The combination of signal-intensity pattern on ferucarbotran-enhanced T2*- and heavily T1-weighted gradient-echo MRI has ability to differentiate liver metastases from nonsolid benign lesions. However, T2-weighted single-shot half-Fourier RARE imaging should also be employed to achieve better performance.

  20. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  1. Development of Hemolytic Anemia in a Nivolumab-Treated Patient with Refractory Metastatic Squamous Cell Skin Cancer and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Schwab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer, refractory to initial therapy with standard chemotherapy and radiation protocols, remains difficult with poor overall prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Recently, promising response rates with nivolumab, a programmed death receptor-1-blocking antibody, in squamous cancer of the head and neck have been demonstrated. Considering the similar histological patterns of squamous cell cancer of the skin and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, we assumed that nivolumab could also be effective in our patients with refractory metastatic squamous cell cancer of the skin. So far, there have been no clinical data on the therapeutic efficacy of nivolumab in squamous cell skin cancer. We here present a case of a patient with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer refractory to previous therapies, who showed a good response to nivolumab over a period of 5 months, but developed a serious hemolytic crisis under nivolumab treatment after eight applications.

  2. Virilisation during Pregnancy in a Patient with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the case of a 25-year-old woman with virilisation occurring during pregnancy in the presence of metastatic colorectal cancer. Virilisation during pregnancy is rare. The potential causes include adrenal, foetal, or ovarian pathologies. The most common causes during pregnancy are pregnancy luteoma and hyperreactio luteinalis. The incidence of cancer during pregnancy is rare and the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in pregnancy is even rarer. The presenting signs and symptoms of CRC can be confused with symptoms commonly encountered during pregnancy, thereby delaying diagnosis and commencement of treatment. Diagnosis and staging also proves more problematic in the pregnant patient as the usual modalities of colonoscopy with biopsy and imaging with CT are relatively contraindicated. Treatment is dependent on gestational age of the foetus. There is currently no agreed best practice as to the role of prophylactic oophorectomy in the prevention of metachronous ovarian metastases. Surgical and adjuvant treatments have implications for females of child-bearing age.

  3. Use of trastuzumab for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in daily practice : a population-based study focusing on the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Johan M.; de Munck, Linda; Teeuwen, Guusje M.; de Graaf, Jacques C.; Jansman, Frank G.; Boers, James E.; Siesling, Sabine

    The addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) prolongs overall survival (OS) in clinical trials. However, treatment patterns and survival in daily practice are unknown. This study aims to compare trastuzumab use

  4. Use of trastuzumab for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in daily practice: a population-based study focusing on the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Johan M.; de Munck, Linda; Teeuwen, Guusje M.; de Graaf, Jacques C.; Jansman, Frank G.; Boers, James E.; Siesling, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) prolongs overall survival (OS) in clinical trials. However, treatment patterns and survival in daily practice are unknown. This study aims to compare trastuzumab use

  5. [Metastatic lung cancer origin from osteosarcoma of mandible invading tracheal lumen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, K; Noriyuki, T; Furonaka, O; Kuroda, Y; Akimoto, E; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Okuda, H; Hashimoto, M; Yonehara, S

    2009-07-01

    A 52-year-old woman underwent the surgical treatment for osteosarcoma of the left mandible in 2003 and was followed up afterward. She suffered from dry cough and bloody sputum, and was admitted to our hospital in April 2007. Computed tomography (CT) revealed several nodules in bilateral lung, and bronchofiberscopy showed the endobronchial tumor obstructing in the right main bronchus. The metastatic tumor progressed in the right main bronchus from the right S6 lung segment. The tumor rapidly progressed in the right bronchus in comparison with the CT findings in about 2 weeks, and the possibility of the tracheal obstruction was considered. She underwent the right middle and lower lobectomy, and the endobronchial tumor was pulled through the right main bronchus. The postoperative course was uneventful, the patient was discharged on 14th postoperative day, and the chemotherapy using cisplatin (CDDP) and adriamycin (ADR) is on-going.

  6. Successful resection of metachronous para-aortic, Virchow lymph node and liver metastatic recurrence of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Hoshino, Isamu; Ota, Takumi; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-11-28

    continue capecitabine administration with extension of interval period and dose reduction. After 2 years and 2 mo from starting capecitabine plus bevacizumab regimen, Virchow lymph nodes had slowly grown up to 17 mm. Because no recurrence had been detected besides Virchow lymph nodes for this follow up period, considering the side effects and quality of life, surgical resection was selected. We performed left supraclavicular lymph node dissection. Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma as a metastatic rectal cancer. After the fourth operation, the patient selected follow up without chemotherapy. Now we follow up her without recurrence and keep her quality of life high.

  7. Pattern of Presentation and Outcome of Surgical Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    presentation and modality of surgical treatment in our environment. Methods: ... irréversible, et prévention du glaucome est l'une des priorités de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. (OMS) ... some point in the disease (although 15% or more of .... Age and sex distribution of 63 patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

  8. A False Positive I-131 Metastatic Survey Caused by Radioactive Iodine Uptake by a Benign Thymic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avneet K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy in the United States with increasing incidence and diagnosis but stable mortality. Differentiated thyroid cancer rarely presents with distant metastases and is associated with a low risk of morbidity and mortality. Despite this, current protocols recommend remnant ablation with radioactive iodine and evaluation for local and distant metastasis in some patients with higher risk disease. There are several case reports of false positive results of metastatic surveys that are either normal physiologic variants or other pathological findings. Most false positive findings are associated with tissue that has physiologic increased uptake of I-131, such as breast tissue or lung tissue; pathological findings such as thymic cysts are also known to have increased uptake. Our case describes a rare finding of a thymic cyst found on a false positive I-131 metastatic survey. The patient was taken for surgical excision and the final pathology was a benign thymic cyst. Given that pulmonary metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer are rare, thymic cysts, though also rare, must be part of the differential diagnosis for false positive findings on an I-131 survey.

  9. Phase-contrast MR assessment of pulmonary venous blood flow in children with surgically repaired pulmonary veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsangiacomo, Emanuela R.; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Barrea, Catherine; Smallhorn, Jeffrey F.; Macgowan, Christopher K.; Coles, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Pulmonary venous (PV) obstruction may complicate surgical repair of PV abnormalities. By combining phase-contrast cine (PC) imaging and contrast-enhanced angiography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide physiological information complementing anatomical diagnosis. To compare the PV flow pattern observed after surgical repair of PV abnormalities with normal PV flow pattern and to investigate the changes occurring in the presence of PV stenosis by using PC MR in children. By using PC MR, PV flow was evaluated in 14 patients (3 months-14 years) who underwent surgical repair for PV abnormalities. Eleven children (8-18 years) were studied as normal controls. Peak flow velocities and patterns were compared among three groups: normal veins (n=23), surgically repaired veins without (n=44) and with stenosis (n=10). Normal and unobstructed pulmonary veins after surgery showed a biphasic or triphasic flow pattern with one or two systolic peaks and a diastolic peak. Unobstructed surgically repaired veins showed decreased peak systolic velocity (P =0.001) and an increased peak diastolic velocity (P=0.005) when compared to normal values. Obstructed veins showed decreased systolic and diastolic velocities when measured upstream from the stenosis. PC MR shows different flow patterns among normal, surgically repaired pulmonary veins with and without stenosis. (orig.)

  10. Relationship between intrinsic radiation sensitivity and metastatic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Anne M.; Mei, Su; Doty, Jay; Chen Yi; Pardo, Francisco S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Prior studies emphasized genetic modulation of tumorigenicity, and experimental metastatic potential in cells transfected with oncogenes. Whether the intrinsic radiation sensitivity of cells might correlate with parallel changes in metastatic potential is unknown. Methods and Materials: Rat embryo cells (REC) were transfected with the following oncogenes, and where appropriate, with corresponding selection markers: pCMV neopEJ6.6ras, pEJ6.6ras/v-myc, pE1a, and pEJ6-.6ras/E1a. Individual transfectant clones and corresponding pooled cellular populations were propagated in selective medium. In vitro cellular radiation sensitivity was determined via clonogenic assays, a minimum of three, by standard techniques and individual SF 2 and MID parameters determined. Tumorigenicity was defined as the number of tumors forming following the injection of 1 x 10 5 - 1 x 10 6 cells into the axillary pouch of three different strains of immune-deficient mice. Animals were killed once resultant tumors reached a maximum size of 1.5-2.0 cm in maximum diameter. For determination of experimental metastatic potential, between 1 x 10 5 -1 x 10 6 cells were injected into the tail veins of litter-matched sibling mice in parallel to the tumorigenicity studies. Results: Radiobiologic studies indicate similar levels of radiation sensitivity among REC, mock-transfected REC, E1a, and combined E1a/ras transfectants. pEJ6.6ras, and combined ras/myc transfected pooled cellular populations demonstrated increases in radiation resistance when compared to the pooled radiobiologic data from untransfected and mock-transfected corresponding pooled cellular populations (p 2 , MID). Rat embryo cells, E1a, and mock-transfectants were relatively radiation sensitive and nontumorigenic. pE1a/ras was tumorigenic but demonstrated relatively low experimental metastatic potential. Ras, and ras/myc transfectants, demonstrated similar levels of experimental metastatic potential on lung colonization assays

  11. Avelumab: A Review in Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt

    2018-05-24

    Avelumab (Bavencio ® ) is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that is directed against programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Avelumab functions as an immune checkpoint inhibitor and has recently been approved in the USA, the EU and Japan for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). It is thus the first therapeutic agent specifically approved for use in this indication, and is approved for use independent of line of treatment. Approval for avelumab in metastatic MCC was based on the two-part, single-arm, phase II trial, JAVELIN Merkel 200. In Part A of the study, confirmed objective responses were observed in approximately one-third of patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic MCC treated with avelumab. The responses were observed early and appeared to be durable, with an estimated 74% of responses having a duration ≥ 12 months. Furthermore, interim results from a separate cohort of patients (Part B) indicate an objective response rate for avelumab of > 60% in patients who were chemotherapy-naïve in the metastatic disease setting. Avelumab is associated with a risk of immune-related adverse events but, overall, has an acceptable and manageable safety and tolerability profile. In conclusion, currently available data suggest that avelumab presents a clinically beneficial new treatment option for metastatic MCC, a rare but aggressive cancer associated with a poor prognosis.

  12. Blocking Surgically Induced Lysyl Oxidase Activity Reduces the Risk of Lung Metastases

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    Chen Rachman-Tzemah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgery remains the most successful curative treatment for cancer. However, some patients with early-stage disease who undergo surgery eventually succumb to distant metastasis. Here, we show that in response to surgery, the lungs become more vulnerable to metastasis due to extracellular matrix remodeling. Mice that undergo surgery or that are preconditioned with plasma from donor mice that underwent surgery succumb to lung metastases earlier than controls. Increased lysyl oxidase (LOX activity and expression, fibrillary collagen crosslinking, and focal adhesion signaling contribute to this effect, with the hypoxic surgical site serving as the source of LOX. Furthermore, the lungs of recipient mice injected with plasma from post-surgical colorectal cancer patients are more prone to metastatic seeding than mice injected with baseline plasma. Downregulation of LOX activity or levels reduces lung metastasis after surgery and increases survival, highlighting the potential of LOX inhibition in reducing the risk of metastasis following surgery.

  13. Subsequent Chemotherapy and Treatment Patterns After Abiraterone Acetate in Patients with Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Post Hoc Analysis of COU-AA-302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bono, Johann S; Smith, Matthew R; Saad, Fred; Rathkopf, Dana E; Mulders, Peter F A; Small, Eric J; Shore, Neal D; Fizazi, Karim; De Porre, Peter; Kheoh, Thian; Li, Jinhui; Todd, Mary B; Ryan, Charles J; Flaig, Thomas W

    2017-04-01

    Treatment patterns for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have changed substantially in the last few years. In trial COU-AA-302 (chemotherapy-naïve men with mCRPC), abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AA) significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) when compared to placebo plus prednisone (P). This post hoc analysis investigated clinical responses to docetaxel as first subsequent therapy (FST) among patients who progressed following protocol-specified treatment with AA, and characterized subsequent treatment patterns among older (≥75 yr) and younger (AA arm received subsequent treatment with one or more agents approved for mCRPC. Efficacy analysis was performed for patients for whom baseline and at least one post-baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values were available. Baseline and at least one post-baseline PSA values were available for 100 AA patients who received docetaxel as FST. While acknowledging the limitations of post hoc analyses, 40% (40/100) of these patients had an unconfirmed ≥50% PSA decline with first subsequent docetaxel therapy, and 27% (27/100) had a confirmed ≥50% PSA decline. The median docetaxel treatment duration among these 100 patients was 4.2 mo. Docetaxel was the most common FST among older and younger patients from each treatment arm. However, 43% (79/185) of older patients who progressed on AA received no subsequent therapy for mCRPC, compared with 17% (60/361) of younger patients. Patients with mCRPC who progress with AA treatment may still derive benefit from subsequent docetaxel therapy. These data support further assessment of treatment patterns following AA treatment for mCRPC, particularly among older patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00887198. Treatment patterns for advanced prostate cancer have changed substantially in the last few years. This additional analysis provides evidence of clinical benefit for subsequent chemotherapy in men with advanced

  14. Gamma-knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors from primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Bine; Satoh, Ken; Saijo, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    Forty patients with metastatic brain tumors from primary lung cancer underwent radiosurgery (γ-knife). We retrospectively compared their prior treatment history, number of metastatic foci, and performance status, to evaluate the effects of, and indications for, γ-knife therapy. After both the primary and the metastatic tumors were controlled, performance status could be used as an index in the choice of γ-knife therapy. Our results demonstrate that repeated γ-knife radiosurgeries prolonged survival time. Gamma-knife radiosurgery improves quality of life and prognosis of patients with metastatic brain tumors. (author)

  15. A Novel Differentiation Therapy Approach to Reduce the Metastatic Potential of Basal, Highly Metastatic, Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    metastatic process (Condeelis and Pollard 2006), we quantitated macrophage recruitment in the lungs of mice injected with 231-Empty or 231-GATA3 cells by...image quantitation of Ki-67 expression and H&E staining of metastatic lung lesions using Apirio Image Analysis software (Figure 9) which demonstrated...expression in MD A-MB-231 and in another triple negative breast cancer cell line, Hs578T Transient knock down of GATA3 in the lum inal GATA3 positiv

  16. Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn G Marsden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation in the bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during

  17. Control of Metastatic Progression by microRNA Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, Nora; Tavazoie, Sohail F.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is a defining feature of human malignancy. Specific miRNAs have been identified as promoters or suppressors of metastatic progression. These miRNAs control metastasis through divergent or convergent regulation of metastatic gene pathways. Some miRNA regulatory networks govern cell-autonomous cancer phenotypes, while others modulate the cell-extrinsic composition of the metastatic microenvironment. The use of small RNAs as probes into the molecular and cellular underpinnings of metastasis holds promise for the identification of candidate genes for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:23728460

  18. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in an Indian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous malignancy encountered in the dark skin population. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous metastatic melanoma which can mimic primary melanoma on histopathology. Hence its differentiation is of immense prognostic importance. The occurrence of rim of depigmentation around the primary cutaneous melanoma has previously been reported to portend a bad prognosis. The occurrence of vitiligo like lesions in patients with metastatic melanoma in comparison has a better prognosis. However the occurrence of depigmentation around the secondaries is rare and its importance is not well known. Hence we wish to report a case of epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in a 78 year old Indian male.

  19. WITHDRAWN: Systemic treatments for metastatic cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Tom; Fish, Reg; Coles, Bernadette; Mason, Malcolm

    2018-02-07

    Systemic therapies for metastatic cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive of all skin cancers, remain disappointing. Few lasting remissions are achieved and the therapeutic aim remains one of palliation.Many agents are used alone or in combination with varying degrees of toxicity and cost. It is unclear whether evidence exists to support these complex regimens over best supportive care / placebo. To review the benefits from the use of systemic therapies in metastatic cutaneous melanoma compared to best supportive care/placebo, and to establish whether a 'standard' therapy exists which is superior to other treatments. Randomised controlled trials were identified from the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CCTR/CENTRAL databases. References, conference proceedings, and Science Citation Index/Scisearch were also used to locate trials. Cancer registries and trialists were also contacted. Randomised controlled trials of adults with histologically proven metastatic cutaneous melanoma in which systemic anti-cancer therapy was compared with placebo or supportive care. Study selection was performed by two independent reviewers. Data extraction forms were used for studies which appeared to meet the selection criteria and, where appropriate, full text articles were retrieved and reviewed independently. No randomised controlled trials were found comparing a systemic therapy with placebo or best supportive care in metastatic cutaneous melanoma. There is no evidence from randomised controlled clinical trials to show superiority of systemic therapy over best supportive care / placebo in the treatment of malignant cutaneous melanoma.Given that patients with metastatic melanoma frequently receive systemic therapy, it is our pragmatic view that a future systematic review could compare any systemic treatment, or combination of treatments, to single agent dacarbazine.

  20. Clinical Description of Metastatic Cutaneous Hemangiosarcoma (HSA in a Greyhound Dog: Clinical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Marie Weinborn Astudillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiosarcoma (HSA is a type of cancer that has different clinical presentations and therefore different effects, since, depending on each case, different treatment options will exist. While in the case of cutaneous HSA the first line of treatment is always surgical removal of the tumor, metastatic foci should be sought and then perform chemotherapy, despite them having a low metastatic potential. Moreover, the low survival that exists in this type of cancer is a factor that should be communicated to those responsible for the pets, so that, with all available information, they can make a free and informed choice about the treatment they want for their pet, considering the financial commitment, survival time and quality of life associated with chemotherapy. This article describes the clinical case of a female greyhound dog of eight years of age that was brought to consultation for a skin tumor on the right hind limb in the distal tibia. She was diagnosed with noninvasive cutaneous HSA through histopathology, reason why the owners chose not to do the chemotherapy; however, 10 months later she presented recurrent skin lesions and a popliteal lymph node corresponding to hemangiosarcoma and hemangioma respectively, and three weeks later the patient developed cardiac tamponade due to a cardiac mass with associated spill, which resulted in her euthanasia.

  1. Pattern of surgical periodontal treatment in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital: A 37 month review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Chinedu Azodo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Periodontal abscess and gingival enlargement constituted the main indications for surgical periodontal treatment while incision and drainage and gingivectomy were the main surgical periodontal treatments in this study.

  2. Caught in the act: revealing the metastatic process by live imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam R. Fein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of metastatic cancer in patients is poor. Interfering with metastatic spread is therefore important for achieving better survival from cancer. Metastatic disease is established through a series of steps, including breaching of the basement membrane, intravasation and survival in lymphatic or blood vessels, extravasation, and growth at distant sites. Yet, although we know the steps involved in metastasis, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of dissemination and colonization of distant organs are incompletely understood. Here, we review the important insights into the metastatic process that have been gained specifically through the use of imaging technologies in murine, chicken embryo and zebrafish model systems, including high-resolution two-photon microscopy and bioluminescence. We further discuss how imaging technologies are beginning to allow researchers to address the role of regional activation of specific molecular pathways in the metastatic process. These technologies are shedding light, literally, on almost every step of the metastatic process, particularly with regards to the dynamics and plasticity of the disseminating cancer cells and the active participation of the microenvironment in the processes.

  3. [Complications of surgical stage of treatment in patients with cancer of cervix uteri stage IIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie

    2013-11-01

    The results of treatment of 127 patients, suffering cervix uteri cancer stage IIB in period of 1998 - 2012 yrs, were analyzed. Complications of surgical stage of the combined treatment have had occurred in 40.9% patients, including 40.5% patients, to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy was conducted and in 41.5%--radiation therapy (RTH). The main postoperative complications--retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts--were revealed in 35.4% patients. The factors, raising the risk of postoperative complications occurrence, are following: the primary tumor spreading, metastatic affection of lymphatic nodes of pelvic cavity, preoperative conduction of RTH or chemotherapy.

  4. Integrative Genome Comparison of Primary and Metastatic Melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Nazarian, Rosalynn M.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Wu, Min; Scott, Kenneth L.; Kwong, Lawrence N.; Xiao, Yonghong; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Granter, Scott R.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Golub, Todd; Duncan, Lyn M.; Wagner, Stephan N.; Brennan, Cameron; Chin, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    A cardinal feature of malignant melanoma is its metastatic propensity. An incomplete view of the genetic events driving metastatic progression has been a major barrier to rational development of effective therapeutics and prognostic diagnostics for melanoma patients. In this study, we conducted global genomic characterization of primary and metastatic melanomas to examine the genomic landscape associated with metastatic progression. In addition to uncovering three genomic subclasses of metastastic melanomas, we delineated 39 focal and recurrent regions of amplification and deletions, many of which encompassed resident genes that have not been implicated in cancer or metastasis. To identify progression-associated metastasis gene candidates, we applied a statistical approach, Integrative Genome Comparison (IGC), to define 32 genomic regions of interest that were significantly altered in metastatic relative to primary melanomas, encompassing 30 resident genes with statistically significant expression deregulation. Functional assays on a subset of these candidates, including MET, ASPM, AKAP9, IMP3, PRKCA, RPA3, and SCAP2, validated their pro-invasion activities in human melanoma cells. Validity of the IGC approach was further reinforced by tissue microarray analysis of Survivin showing significant increased protein expression in thick versus thin primary cutaneous melanomas, and a progression correlation with lymph node metastases. Together, these functional validation results and correlative analysis of human tissues support the thesis that integrated genomic and pathological analyses of staged melanomas provide a productive entry point for discovery of melanoma metastases genes. PMID:20520718

  5. Metastatic spinal tumor. Assessment with fat-saturation T1-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Toshifumi; Sugimura, Kazuro; Uchida, Nobue; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Komatsu, Akio; Okui, Shouji; Kimino, Katsuji.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1-WI) and chemical shift fat-saturation T1-weighted imaging (fat-sat T1-WI) by a diagnosis of the bone metastases. Thirty-two patients (143 vertebrae) with non-neoplastic lesions (normal group) and 32 patients (82 vertebrae) with spinal metastases (metastatic group) were evaluated using both images. The signal intensity (SI) distribution of both groups regarding T1-WI provided various patterns, and the SI measurements were not significantly different between the two groups ; however, the metastases which were mixed, showed a low SI. Regarding fat-sat T1-WI, all non-neoplastic lesions had a low-intensity homogeneous appearance ; however, the metastases were mixed to a high SI. The SI measurement data of the metastatic group was significantly higher than that of the normal group. In conclusion, fat-sat T1-WI was useful for evaluating the vertebral metastases. When fat-sat T1-WI demonstrated a mixed to high SI in patients suspected of having vertebral metastasis, Gd-DTPA enhancement was thought to be the problem. (author)

  6. Toxocariasis masquerading as liver and lung metastatic nodules in patents with gastrointestinal cancer: clinicopathologic study of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghui; Kim, Yun Soo; Kim, Yu Jin; Kyung, Sun Young; Park, Jeong-Woong; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Lee, Sang Pyo

    2012-01-01

    There are sporadic reports in the literature in which radiologic liver and lung lesions found incidentally during follow-up metastatic surveillance were shown to be caused by toxocariasis. The objective of the work discussed in this report was to identify common clinical and histopathological features of toxocariasis resembling metastatic nodules in five patients with gastrointestinal cancer. We retrospectively analyzed clinical features of five gastrointestinal cancer patients with liver or lung nodules mimicking metastasis. Serologic tests for parasitic infestations and pathologic examinations were performed. All five patients were males and three patients had gastric cancer and two had colorectal cancer. All the cases of toxocariasis were confirmed serologically. On follow-up imaging, the lesions improved or resolved, suggestive of the phenomenon of visceral larva migrans. In two patients, liver biopsy was performed and showed eosinophilic abscess. Serologic tests and liver or lung biopsy should be performed aggressively to exclude toxocariasis when patients with underlying gastrointestinal cancer present with hepatic or pulmonary nodules associated with eosinophilia, particularly if the patients have a clinical history of raw animal liver ingestion. Curative surgical intervention should not be excluded just because of multiple nodules in the liver or the lungs.

  7. Development of an online morbidity, mortality, and near-miss reporting system to identify patterns of adverse events in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl Y; Kmiecik, Thomas E; DaRosa, Debra A; Halverson, Amy; Eskandari, Mark K; Bell, Richard H; Soper, Nathaniel J; Wayne, Jeffrey D

    2009-04-01

    To design a Web-based system to track adverse and near-miss events, to establish an automated method to identify patterns of events, and to assess the adverse event reporting behavior of physicians. A Web-based system was designed to collect physician-reported adverse events including weekly Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) entries and anonymous adverse/near-miss events. An automated system was set up to help identify event patterns. Adverse event frequency was compared with hospital databases to assess reporting completeness. A metropolitan tertiary care center. Identification of adverse event patterns and completeness of reporting. From September 2005 to August 2007, 15,524 surgical patients were reported including 957 (6.2%) adverse events and 34 (0.2%) anonymous reports. The automated pattern recognition system helped identify 4 event patterns from M&M reports and 3 patterns from anonymous/near-miss reporting. After multidisciplinary meetings and expert reviews, the patterns were addressed with educational initiatives, correction of systems issues, and/or intensive quality monitoring. Only 25% of complications and 42% of inpatient deaths were reported. A total of 75.2% of adverse events resulting in permanent disability or death were attributed to the nature of the disease. Interventions to improve reporting were largely unsuccessful. We have developed a user-friendly Web-based system to track complications and identify patterns of adverse events. Underreporting of adverse events and attributing the complication to the nature of the disease represent a problem in reporting culture among surgeons at our institution. Similar systems should be used by surgery departments, particularly those affiliated with teaching hospitals, to identify quality improvement opportunities.

  8. The HDAC inhibitor Vorinostat diminishes the in vitro metastatic behavior of Osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaodong; Brynien, Daniel; Weiss, Kurt R

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone and affects patients in the first two decades of life. The greatest determinant of survival is the presence of pulmonary metastatic disease. The role of epigenetic regulation in OS, specifically the biology of metastases, is unknown. Our previous study with the murine OS cell populations K7M2 and K12 demonstrated a significant correlation of metastatic potential with the DNA methylation level of tumor suppressor genes. In the current study, we investigated if the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, vorinostat, could regulate the metastatic potential of highly metastatic OS cells. Our results revealed that vorinostat treatment of highly metastatic K7M2 OS cells was able to greatly reduce the proliferation and metastatic potential of the cells. Morphological features related to cell motility and invasion were changed by vorinostat treatment. In addition, the gene expressions of mTOR, ALDH1, and PGC-1 were downregulated by vorinostat treatment. These data suggest that vorinostat may be an effective modulator of OS cell metastatic potential and should be studied in preclinical models of metastatic OS.

  9. The HDAC Inhibitor Vorinostat Diminishes the In Vitro Metastatic Behavior of Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignancy of bone and affects patients in the first two decades of life. The greatest determinant of survival is the presence of pulmonary metastatic disease. The role of epigenetic regulation in OS, specifically the biology of metastases, is unknown. Our previous study with the murine OS cell populations K7M2 and K12 demonstrated a significant correlation of metastatic potential with the DNA methylation level of tumor suppressor genes. In the current study, we investigated if the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, vorinostat, could regulate the metastatic potential of highly metastatic OS cells. Our results revealed that vorinostat treatment of highly metastatic K7M2 OS cells was able to greatly reduce the proliferation and metastatic potential of the cells. Morphological features related to cell motility and invasion were changed by vorinostat treatment. In addition, the gene expressions of mTOR, ALDH1, and PGC-1 were downregulated by vorinostat treatment. These data suggest that vorinostat may be an effective modulator of OS cell metastatic potential and should be studied in preclinical models of metastatic OS.

  10. Menopausal status dependence of the timing of breast cancer recurrence after surgical removal of the primary tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Romano; Bonadonna, Gianni; Hrushesky, William JM; Retsky, Michael W; Valagussa, Pinuccia

    2004-01-01

    Information on the metastasis process in breast cancer patients undergoing primary tumour removal may be extracted from an analysis of the timing of clinical recurrence. The hazard rate for local-regional and/or distant recurrence as the first event during the first 4 years after surgery was studied in 1173 patients undergoing mastectomy alone as primary treatment for operable breast cancer. Subset analyses were performed according to tumour size, axillary nodal status and menopausal status. A sharp two-peaked hazard function was observed for node-positive pre-menopausal patients, whereas results from node-positive post-menopausal women always displayed a single broad peak. The first narrow peak among pre-menopausal women showed a very steep rise to a maximum about 8–10 months after mastectomy. The second peak was considerably broader, reaching its maximum at 28–30 months. Post-menopausal patients displayed a wide, nearly symmetrical peak with maximum risk at about 18–20 months. Peaks displayed increasing height with increasing axillary lymph node involvement. No multi-peaked pattern was evident for either pre-menopausal or post-menopausal node-negative patients; however, this finding should be considered cautiously because of the limited number of events. Tumour size influenced recurrence risk but not its timing. Findings resulting from the different subsets of patients were remarkably coherent and each observed peak maintained the same position on the time axis in all analysed subsets. The risk of early recurrence for node positive patients is dependent on menopausal status. The amount of axillary nodal involvement and the tumour size modulate the risk value at any given time. For pre-menopausal node-positive patients, the abrupt increase of the first narrow peak of the recurrence risk suggests a triggering event that synchronises early risk. We suggest that this event is the surgical removal of the primary tumour. The later, broader, more symmetrical risk

  11. Malignant Mesothelioma Versus Metastatic Carcinoma of the Pleura: A CT Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhshayesh Karam, Mehrdad; Karimi, Shirin; Mosadegh, Leila; Chaibakhsh, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignant neoplasm of the pleura that typically affects individuals occupationally exposed to asbestos through a variety of industries. MPM presents with several CT features similar to more common pleural diseases such as metastatic pleural malignancy. The aim of this study is to differentiate malignant pleural mesothelioma from metastatic carcinoma of the pleura by pathological and radiological assessment in order to investigate accuracy of CT scan in this regard and to compare CT features of these two malignancies. Chest CT scans of 55 pleural malignancy patients including MPM and metastatic pleural malignancy were evaluated in this retrospective study. The pathologist made the definite diagnosis based on immunohistochemistry. A chest radiologist unaware of the pathology diagnosis observed all CT scans. Several parameters including pleural thickening, pleural effusion, thickening of inter lobar fissure, contralateral extension, contraction of involved hemithorax, parenchymal involvement (infiltration, nodules, fibrosis), pleural mediastinal involvement, lymphadenopathy, extrapleural invasion (hepatic, chest wall, diaphragm, intraperitoneal), and pericardial involvement were checked. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16, and the ability of CT scan to differentiate malignant pleural mesothelioma and metastatic pleural diseases was investigated. Totally 29 males and 26 females were assessed in this study. Based on pathology, 17 MPM and 38 metastatic pleural malignancies were diagnosed. According to CT study, about 82% of the patients with MPM and about 79% of the patients with metastatic pleural diseases were correctly diagnosed by a radiologist. The most common findings suggestive of MPM were pleural thickening (88.2%), loculated effusion (58.8%), and thickening of the interlobar fissure (47.1%). Whereas free pleural effusion (71.7%), parenchymal infiltration (65.8%) and pleural thickening (63.2%) were

  12. HMB-45, S-100, NK1/C3, and MART-1 in metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubovits, Judit; Buzney, Elizabeth; Yu, Lawrence; Duncan, Lyn M

    2004-02-01

    The diagnosis of melanoma metastatic to lymph node remains a difficult problem given its histological diversity. We examined the staining patterns of S-100, NK1/C3, HMB-45, and MART-1 (DC10) in melanoma metastases to lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on tissue sections of 126 formalin-fixed lymph nodes from 126 patients with an established diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. A total of 98% of cases (123 of 126) stained positive for S-100, 93% (117 of 125) stained positive for NK1/C3, 82% (103 of 126) stained positive for MART-1, and 76% (95 of 125) stained positive for HMB-45. The distribution and intensity of staining varied among these markers. A diffuse staining pattern, defined as >50% of tumor cells stained, was observed in 83% of MART-1-positive cases but in only 56% of S-100-positive cases, 48% of NK1/C3-positive cases, and 34% of HMB-45-positive cases. A maximally intense signal was almost always observed for MART-1 (83% of positive cases) but was rarely observed for NK1/C3 (20%). S-100 and HMB-45 showed maximally intense staining in 50% and 54% of cases, respectively. S-100 and NK1/C3 stained both histiocytes and melanocytes, whereas MART-1 and HMB-45 stained only melanocytes. Seventy-eight cases (63%) stained positive for all 4 markers, 17 cases (14%) stained for all markers except HMB-45, 13 cases (10%) stained for all markers except MART-1, 6 cases (5%) stained only with S-100 and NK1/C3, 4 cases (3%) stained only with S-100 and HMB-45, and 2 cases stained for all markers except S-100. One case each stained for the following: only S-100, only S-100 and HMB-45, and all markers except NK1/C3. One case exhibited absence of staining for any of these markers. We demonstrate that lymph node metastases of melanoma are heterogeneous with regard to tumor marker expression. S-100 and NK1/C3 were the most sensitive stains for detecting metastatic melanoma; however, they both also stain other nontumor cells in lymph nodes. MART-1 did not stain

  13. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and survival differences in prospectively registered metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per; Cavalli-Björkman, Nina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trial accrual patterns were examined to determine whether metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients enrolled in trials are representative of a general cancer population concerning patient characteristics and survival. METHODS: A total of 760 mCRC patients referred for their first...... oncological consideration at 3 hospitals in Scandinavia covering defined populations were registered consecutively during 2003 to 2006. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and treatment were recorded prospectively, and the follow-up was complete. RESULTS: Palliative chemotherapy was initiated...

  14. Comparative exome sequencing of metastatic lesions provides insights into the mutational progression of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gartner Jared J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastasis is characterized by spreading of neoplastic cells to an organ other than where they originated and is the predominant cause of death among cancer patients. This holds true for melanoma, whose incidence is increasing more rapidly than any other cancer and once disseminated has few therapeutic options. Here we performed whole exome sequencing of two sets of matched normal and metastatic tumor DNAs. Results Using stringent criteria, we evaluated the similarities and differences between the lesions. We find that in both cases, 96% of the single nucleotide variants are shared between the two metastases indicating that clonal populations gave rise to the distant metastases. Analysis of copy number variation patterns of both metastatic sets revealed a trend similar to that seen with our single nucleotide variants. Analysis of pathway enrichment on tumor sets shows commonly mutated pathways enriched between individual sets of metastases and all metastases combined. Conclusions These data provide a proof-of-concept suggesting that individual metastases may have sufficient similarity for successful targeting of driver mutations.

  15. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha in early-stage and in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maisa; Teixeira, Sarah R; Azevedo, Monarko N; Fraga, Ailton C; Gontijo, Antônio Pm; Vêncio, Eneida F

    2017-04-01

    To investigate hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression in distinct oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies and correlate with clinicopathological data. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 93 cases of OSCC. Clinical and histopathological data were reviewed from medical records. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha status was distinct according to tumor location, subtype and topography affect. In superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas, most tumor cells overexpressed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, whereas hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha was restricted to the intratumoral region in conventional squamous cell carcinomas. All basaloid squamous cell carcinomas exhibited downregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha. Interestingly, metastatic lymph nodes (91.7%, p = 0.001) and the intratumoral regions of corresponding primary tumors (58.3%, p = 0.142) showed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-positive tumor cells. Overall survival was poor in patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha has distinct expression patterns in different oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies, suggesting that low oxygen tension promotes the growth pattern of superficial and conventional squamous cell carcinoma, but not basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, a hypoxic environment may facilitate regional metastasis, making it a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in primary tumors.

  16. Stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    First, this paper reviewed the latest findings of stereotactic irradiation (STI) for metastatic brain tumors. Then, it described the results of randomized controlled trials for single or a few (2-4) metastasis in the following comparison tests: (1) comparison between whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) alone group and (WBRT + STI) group, (2) comparison between STI alone group and (STI + WBRT) group, (3) comparison between STI alone group and (tumorectomy + WBRT) group, (4) comparison between (STI + WBRT) group and (tumorectomy + WBRT) group, and (5) between (tumorectomy + WBRT) group and (tumorectomy + STI) group. Among these, STI alone without WBRT has obtained a certain consensus. Against multiple metastatic brain tumors of 5 or more, when considering cognitive impairment and QOL loss by adding WBRT, it is general consensus that STI alone may be sufficient. At the authors' institution, cyber knife (CK) was introduced in 2008 and nearly 300 stereotactic radiotherapy for metastatic brain tumors have been performed annually. By adopting a robot arm and development of a lesion tracking system, the positional correction against the deviation of the bone margin of the skull is guaranteed in real time to ensure accuracy during irradiation, and hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation becomes easier. (A.O.)

  17. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  18. Metastatic melanoma masquerading as a furuncle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Aslam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma metastasizes to the skin in about 10-17% of patients. Although there are reports of metastatic melanoma masquerading as panniculitis and erysipelas, it is very uncommon for it to present as an inflammatory skin lesion. When malignant melanoma cells invade the superficial dermal lymphatic vessels it can result in erythema, edema and induration of the overlying skin. This presentation can be problematic for clinicians if they do not suspect melanoma and choose not to biopsy the lesion. We report a case of an elderly man with a history of invasive melanoma who presented with a furuncle-like lesion that was found to be in-transit metastatic melanoma.

  19. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Jejunum: An Unusual Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Medic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The small intestine is a very uncommon and peculiar site for metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC. We present a clinical presentation of insidious and unusual development of a jejunal metastasis while having stable disease in a remainder of metastatic sites, in a patient undergoing immunotherapy with nivolumab. Due to the extreme rarity of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the lumen of the small bowel, it is easy to overlook and misdiagnose symptoms of this pathologic entity, particularly when the remainder of metastatic disease responds well to ongoing therapy.

  20. Pre-surgical register of tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Eva; Moreno, Montse; Pérez, Àngels; Castellano, Yolanda; Fernández, Esteve; Martínez, Cristina

    2018-03-24

    Smoking cessation before surgery decreases the risk of complications. The aim of this study was to analyse the smoking register, associated variables and a short talk given to smokers in pre-surgical visits. Cross-sectional study. The pre-surgical records of 680 patients were assessed. We selected patient sociodemographic variables, surgical intervention characteristics, smoking status and consumption pattern. Logistic regression was used to study the variables association with smoking. A percentage of 97.2 of the pre-surgical records include information on tobacco consumption. Overall 20% of surgical patients are smokers. The probability of smoking is higher among men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-4.0) and≤60 years (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 3.2-9.1). None of the records had information regarding a short talk given to patients to give up smoking. Smoking consumption was prevalent, but the characterisation of a smoker's profile and short talk given to patient before surgery was practically nonexistent. Ensuring that patients who smokes receives a short talk to give up smoking before surgery is necessary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of bilateral maxillary canine impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year-old female patient reported with the chief complaint of irregular front teeth. She had a skeletal Class III and Angle's Class I malocclusion with hyperdivergent growth pattern and bilateral impaction of maxillary canines. Surgical exposure of the impacted teeth and orthodontic alignment was planned. The surgical exposure was done by a minimally invasive modified window technique. Orthodontic treatment of impacted canines without causing significant morbidity to the adjacent teeth an...

  2. Docetaxel-related fatigue in men with metastatic prostate cancer: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, A R T; Hovey, E; Lloyd, A; Marx, G; Parente, P; Rapke, T; de Souza, P

    2017-09-01

    Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating side effect of docetaxel chemotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer. A better understanding of the kinetics and nature of docetaxel-related fatigue may provide a framework for intervention. This secondary analysis was performed using the MOTIF database, from a phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of modafinil (200 mg/day for 15 days) for docetaxel-related fatigue in men with metastatic prostate cancer [1]. The pattern of fatigue was analysed using the MDASI (MD Anderson Symptom Inventory) score. The impact of modafinil, cumulative docetaxel exposure, age and smoking status on fatigue kinetics were explored. Fatigue-related symptoms were assessed using the SOMA6 (fatigue and related symptoms) subset of the SPHERE (Somatic and Psychological Health Report). Mood was tracked using the short form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36). Across four docetaxel cycles, fatigue scores were higher in the first week and decreased over weeks two and three. Whilst men randomised to modafinil had reduced fatigue scores, cumulative docetaxel had little impact. Younger men (55-68 years) had significantly reduced fatigue scores, whereas current and ex-smokers had higher scores. There was no significant change in mood status or haemoglobin across treatment cycles. Men described both 'somnolence' and 'muscle fatigue' contributing significantly to their symptom complex. Assessment and management of docetaxel-related fatigue remains an important challenge. Given the complex, multifactorial nature of fatigue, identification through structured interview and interventions targeted to specific 'at risk' groups may be the most beneficial. Understanding the temporal pattern (kinetics) and nature of fatigue is critical to guide this process.

  3. Collision tumours, squamous cell carcinoma of larynx, papillary thyroid carcinoma, metastatic lymphatic node. Clinical Presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, V; Gomez, R; Yoffe, I.; Liu, T.; Arias, J.; Quiroz, J.; Gonzalez, M; Ayala, E.

    2010-01-01

    the opening of the stoma. Papillary carcinoma compromises peritiroideo deep surgical limits and mucous upper right margin. Squamous cell carcinoma committed focally vocal cord left. Foci of vascular and perineural invasion papillary carcinoma. Two papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph nodes perilaringeos. Right middle yugulocarotidea 2-Chain: papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph node conglomerate (9.3 cm.) And tissue extension adipose periganglionar and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of two lymph nodes (macro metastasis with capsule intact). 3-Chain yugulocarotidea middle and lower left: papillary carcinoma metastatic lymph node conglomerate in (7.2 cm.) And metastatic squamous cell carcinoma four lymph nodes (macro metastases with capsule intact). In two of said nodes simultaneously both tumor metastases is observed. Starts radiation therapy (65Gy) weekly concurrent CDDP, after which there is no evidence of tumor. Six months later, treatment is performed with ablative doses of iodine 131 scintigraphy showed that the remaining thyroid nodular captante in glandular bed. The patient progresses with lung and liver metastases died at 10 months after surgery. Although the literature we found other cases of tumors in collision, we have not found a case with two metastatic tumors in a single node with these histologist

  4. Clinicopathologic factors associated with de novo metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tiansheng; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2016-12-01

    While breast cancers with distant metastasis at presentation (de novo metastasis) harbor significantly inferior clinical outcomes, there have been limited studies analyzing the clinicopathologic characteristics in this subset of patients. In this study, we analyzed 6126 breast cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 to identify factors associated with de novo metastatic breast cancer. When compared to patients without metastasis at presentation, race, histologic grade, estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) and HER2 statuses were significantly associated with de novo metastasis in the entire cohort, whereas age, histologic grade, PR and HER2 status were the significant parameters in the subset of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIB/III). The patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer had a significant older mean age and a lower proportion of HER2-positive tumors when compared to those with metastatic recurrence. Further, the HER2-rich subtype demonstrated a drastically higher incidence of de novo metastasis when compared to the luminal and triple-negative breast cancers in the entire cohort [odds ratio (OR)=5.68 and 2.27, respectively] and in the patients with locally advanced disease (OR=4.02 and 2.12, respectively), whereas no significant difference was seen between de novo metastatic cancers and those with metastatic recurrence. Moreover, the luminal and HER2-rich subtypes showed bone-seeking (OR=1.92) and liver-homing (OR=2.99) characteristics, respectively, for the sites of de novo metastasis, while the latter was not observed in those with metastatic recurrence. Our data suggest that an algorithm incorporating clinicopathologic factors, especially histologic grade and receptor profile, remains of significant benefit during decision making in newly diagnosed breast cancer in the pursuit of precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: clinical study and therapeutic results of 95 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanfir, A.; Frikha, M.; Ghorbel, A.; Drira, M.M.; Karray, H.; Daoud, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. -- The objective of this retrospective study was to discuss the epidemio-clinical criteria and the therapeutic results of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients and methods. - The current study concerned 95 patients with histologically proven nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were metastatic at diagnosis or who had developed late metastasis. We reviewed the epidemio-clinical records of all the patients. Patients were treated with chemotherapy (BEC regimen: bleomycin, epirubicin and cisplatin or PBF regimen: bleomycin, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) and radiotherapy of pauci metastatic localizations (single or double) or bone metastasis with high risk of compression or fracture ±associated with locoregional radiotherapy for patients who were metastatic at diagnosis. Response was assessed according to the WHO criteria. Overall survival was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. A long-term disease-free survival was defined from 36 months. Results. - There were 34 patients who were metastatic at diagnosis and 61 patients who had developed late metastasis. The mean age was 41.5 years (sex-ratio: 3.1). Bone metastases were the most frequent (83%). Objective and complete response rates were respectively 75% and 70%, and 32% and 16% for BEC and PBF regimens. Twenty-five patients received radiotherapy for pauci metastatic localizations, among whom 19 patients who were metastatic at diagnosis received locoregional irradiation. The overall survival probability was of 15% for three years. Eleven patients were long survivors (extremes: 36 and 134 months). Conclusion. - Therapeutic results were comparable to those reported in other series using platin combination chemotherapy. Radiotherapy of metastasis yielded to long-term survival. (authors)

  6. Development and validation of prognostic models in metastatic breast cancer: a GOCS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, M; Vallejo, C; Bianco, A; Perez, J; Machiavelli, M; Leone, B; Romero, A; Rodriguez, R; Cuevas, M; Dansky, C

    1992-01-01

    The significance of several prognostic factors and the magnitude of their influence on response rate and survival were assessed by means of uni- and multivariate analyses in 362 patients with stage IV (UICC) breast carcinoma receiving combination chemotherapy as first systemic treatment over an 8-year period. Univariate analyses identified performance status and prior adjuvant radiotherapy as predictors of objective regression (OR), whereas the performance status, prior chemotherapy and radiotherapy (adjuvants), white blood cells count, SGOT and SGPT levels, and metastatic pattern were significantly correlated to survival. In multivariate analyses favorable characteristics associated to OR were prior adjuvant radiotherapy, no prior chemotherapy and postmenopausal status. Regarding survival, the performance status and visceral involvement were selected by the Cox model. The predictive accuracy of the logistic and the proportional hazards models was retrospectively tested in the training sample, and prospectively in a new population of 126 patients also receiving combined chemotherapy as first treatment for metastatic breast cancer. A certain overfitting to data in the training sample was observed with the regression model for response. However, the discriminative ability of the Cox model for survival was clearly confirmed.

  7. Molecular alterations as target for therapy in metastatic osteosarcoma: a review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma de Boer, J.; Witlox, M.A.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; van Royen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Treating metastatic osteosarcoma (OS) remains a challenge in oncology. Current treatment strategies target the primary tumour rather than metastases and have a limited efficacy in the treatment of metastatic disease. Metastatic cells have specific features that render them less sensitive to therapy

  8. The complicated management of a patient following transarterial chemoembolization for metastatic carcinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Manisha H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE has been recognized as a successful way of managing symptomatic and/or progressive hepatic carcinoid metastases not amenable to surgical resection. Although it is a fairly safe procedure, it is not without its complications. Case presentation This is a case of a 53 year-old woman with a patent foramen ovale (PFO and mild pulmonary hypertension who underwent TACE for progressive carcinoid liver metastases. She developed acute heart failure, due to a severe inflammatory response; this resulted in pneumatosis intestinalis due to non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. We describe the successful non-operative management of her pneumatosis intestinalis and the role of a PFO in this patient's heart failure. Conclusion TACE remains an effective and safe treatment for metastatic carcinoid not amenable to resection, this case illustrates the complexity of complications that can arise. A multi-disciplinary approach including ready access to advanced critical care facilities is recommended in managing such complex patients.

  9. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  10. Targeted Approaches Applied to Uncommon Diseases: A Case of Salivary Duct Carcinoma Metastatic to the Brain Treated with the Multikinase Inhibitor Neratinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Karl R; Piovezani Ramos, Guilherme; Villasboas Bisneto, Jose Caetano; Price, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression. Local surgical control is the cornerstone of therapy, but a subset of patients develops metastatic disease portending a poor prognosis and limited management options. Intracranial metastases are an uncommon manifestation and present a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with facial pain and swelling subsequently diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma. Our patient underwent extensive locoregional resection and analysis of the tumor tissue demonstrated evidence of androgen receptor expression and HER2 overexpression. His course was complicated by metastatic extra- and intracranial recurrence despite combined modality treatment with radiation and chemotherapy followed by anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy and androgen deprivation therapy. After exhausting standard treatment options, he received experimental therapy with a new small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, neratinib, with evidence of a transient clinical response and no significant adverse effects. This case exemplifies the potential and limitations of targeted therapy, particularly when applied to patients with rare diseases and presentations.

  11. P12.01 Epidemiology in spinal tumors treated surgically at the South Central Hospital of High Specialty from PEMEX in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Resendiz, R.; Cordoba Mosqueda, M.; Guerra Mora, J.; Loya Aguilar, I.; Garcia Gonzalez, U.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The spinal tumors are rare neoplasms, they can be primary or metastatic; in the literature they are divided in extradural and intradural, extramedullary and intramedullary, from which extradural tumors are the most frequent and are usually metastatic, the intramedullary are generally gliomas. From the primary tumors up to 78% are benign and 22% malign, the histological stripe and the involvement to the spinal compartments are of great importance for the results and the treatment which is mainly surgical, individualized and meticulously planned with the support of technological resources such as the electrophysiological monitoring during the surgery. Methods and Materials: Observational study with a range of patients from March 1999- March 2016 to whom surgical resection of the spinal tumor was performed and reported on the Electronic Files of the South Central Hospital of High Specialty PEMEX. A Statistical analysis is made with the SPSS Statistic of disease of the Institution program. Results: 23 patients with spinal tumor surgical resection were found. The median age was 53 ± 10 years. The most common clinical manifestation was radiculopathy (65%). The Karnofsky scale was used for initial evaluation where a 43% of patients had a 90 score at the moment of the diagnosis, while 65% had an ECOG 1. The most frequent tumor was the Spinal Shwannoma (39%), followed in prevalence by the Condroid Cordoma (17%), where the intradural extramedullary location was the most prevalent (78%). The medium rate of survival after the surgical procedure was from 11 months. Conclusions: Our cases and the international statistics coincide. Radiculopathy as high prevalence initial manifestation conceals us to dismiss in the sixth decade of life any possibility for spinal tumor presentation. Most of spinal tumor patients do not have any clinical deterioration in their basal state, which indicates that performing a successful surgical procedure and the right

  12. Representability of metastatic bone lesions in magnification radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Takashi

    1981-01-01

    Magnification radiography, bone scintigraphy, and normal roentgenography were performed on patients with malignant tumors to detect their bone metastases, and from the results obtained, these diagnostic procedures were evaluated for the detectability and representability of metastatic bone lesions. Bone scan and normal roentgenography were performed on 90 metastatic bone lesions in 37 patients, and magnification radiography was done on 14 bone lesions noted in 10 of the 37 and another with benign osseous change. Among the three, bone scintigraphy was best, and magnification radiography and normal roentgenography did not differ significantly in detectability. In magnification radiography, some metastatic bone lesions were represented more clearly than by normal roentgeography, but some were not. As regards the representability of the ribs, magnification radiography was very useful. One case of bone destruction was detected by magnification radiography, but not by normal roentgenography. (author)

  13. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Leyuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Zhiming [Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Gao Yabo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Lingyan [Experimental Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  14. A Unique Case of Muscle Invasive Metastatic Breast Cancer Mimicking Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-28

    TYPE 08/ 03/20 17 Publ ication/Journal 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A unique case of muscle-invasive metastatic breast cancer mimicking myositis 6...Rev. 8/98) Prescnbed by ANSI Std Z39. 18 Adobe Profes11on11 7.0 Title: A Unique Case of M uscle-Invasive Metastatic Breast Cancer M imicking...an 84-year-old female who presented with neck swelling and upper airway obstruction due to metastatic breast cancer invading the sternocleidomastoid

  15. Exosomes from metastatic cancer cells transfer amoeboid phenotype to non-metastatic cells and increase endothelial permeability: their emerging role in tumor heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Odessa; Fontana, Simona; Monteleone, Francesca; Taverna, Simona; Di Bella, Maria Antonietta; Di Vizio, Dolores; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2017-07-05

    The goal of this study was to understand if exosomes derived from high-metastatic cells may influence the behavior of less aggressive cancer cells and the properties of the endothelium. We found that metastatic colon cancer cells are able to transfer their amoeboid phenotype to isogenic primary cancer cells through exosomes, and that this morphological transition is associated with the acquisition of a more aggressive behavior. Moreover, exosomes from the metastatic line (SW620Exos) exhibited higher ability to cause endothelial hyperpermeability than exosomes from the non metastatic line (SW480Exos). SWATH-based quantitative proteomic analysis highlighted that SW620Exos are significantly enriched in cytoskeletal-associated proteins including proteins activating the RhoA/ROCK pathway, known to induce amoeboid properties and destabilization of endothelial junctions. In particular, thrombin was identified as a key mediator of the effects induced by SW620Exos in target cells, in which we also found a significant increase of RhoA activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that in a heterogeneous context exosomes released by aggressive sub-clones can contribute to accelerate tumor progression by spreading malignant properties that affect both the tumor cell plasticity and the endothelial cell behavior.

  16. Targeted agents for patients with advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer: A protocol for systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Baoshan; Pan, Bei; Ge, Long; Ma, Jichun; Wu, Yiting; Guo, Tiankang

    2018-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a devastating malignant tumor. Although surgical resection may offer a good prognosis and prolong survival, approximately 80% patients with PC are always diagnosed as unresectable tumor. National Comprehensive Cancer Network's (NCCN) recommended gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as efficient treatment. While, according to recent studies, targeted agents might be a better available option for advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis will be to examine the differences of different targeted interventions for advanced/metastatic PC patients. We will conduct this systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian method and according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. To identify relevant studies, 6 electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of science, CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), and CBM (Chinese Biological Medical Database) will be searched. The risk of bias in included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be assessed using the Cochrane Handbook version 5.1.0. And we will use GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence from network meta-analysis. Data will be analyzed using R 3.4.1 software. To the best of our knowledge, this systematic review and network meta-analysis will firstly use both direct and indirect evidence to compare the differences of different targeted agents and targeted agents plus chemotherapy for advanced/metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. This is a protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis, so the ethical approval and patient consent are not required. We will disseminate the results of this review by submitting to a peer-reviewed journal.

  17. Is Total Femur Replacement a Reliable Treatment Option for Patients With Metastatic Carcinoma of the Femur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevelda, Florian; Waldstein, Wenzel; Panotopoulos, Joannis; Kaider, Alexandra; Funovics, Philipp Theodor; Windhager, Reinhard

    2018-05-01

    The majority of metastatic bone lesions to the femoral bone can be treated without surgery or with minimally invasive intramedullary nailing. In rare patients with extensive metastatic disease to the femur, total femur replacement may be the only surgical alternative to amputation; however, little is known about this approach. In a highly selected small group of patients with metastatic carcinoma of the femur, we asked: (1) What was the patient survivorship after this treatment? (2) What was the implant survivorship free from all-cause revision and amputation, and what complications were associated with this treatment? (3) What functional outcomes were achieved by patients after total femur replacement for this indication? Eleven patients (three men, eight women) with a mean age of 64 years (range, 41-78 years) received total femur replacements between 1986 and 2016; none were lost to followup. The most common primary disease was breast cancer. In general, during this period, our indications for this procedure were extensive metastatic disease precluding internal fixation or isolated proximal or distal femur replacement, and an anticipated lifespan exceeding 6 months. Our contraindication for this procedure during this time was expected lifespan less than 6 months. Patient survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis; implant survival free from revision surgery and amputation were assessed by competing risk analysis. Function was determined preoperatively and 6 to 12 weeks postoperatively with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score normalized to a 100-point scale, with higher scores representing better function from a longitudinally maintained institutional database. Eleven patients died at a median of 5 months (range, 1-31 months) after surgery. One-year revision-free and limb survival were 82% (95% CI, 51%-98%) and 91% (95% CI, 61%-99%), respectively. Reasons for reoperation were hip dislocation, infection and local recurrence in one patient each. The

  18. Alpha Particle Therapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality among men in western countries. Although nearly 85% of patients present with localised disease, up to 40% will eventually develop metastatic disease during the course of illness. Of men dying from prostate cancer, more than 90% have bone metastases many with no other significant metastatic sites. Symptoms related to bone metastases and skeletal related events (SREs) account for the major cause of morbidity in these patients. Bone-seeking radionuclides have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases for many years. The first bone seeking radionuclide drug approved by the FDA was Strontium-89. Other agents have also been used including Samarium-153 EDTMP, Rhenium-186 (-188)-HEDP. These radionuclides are all emit shortrange therapeutic beta radiation with bone marrow as the dose limiting toxicity. There is strong clinical trial evidence of benefit for these radionuclides in reducing pain in advanced prostate cancer; however, none of the drugs has been shown to improve survival, albeit none of the clinical trials were powered to detect differences in survival

  19. Sorafenib for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared sorafenib (Nexavar®) and a placebo for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is no longer responding to treatment with radioactive iodine

  20. Metastatic tumor of the pancreas: helical CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo Keun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Choi, Sang Hee; Jang, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ji Yeon

    2000-01-01

    To analyze the helical computed tomographic (CT) findings of distant metastatic tumors to the pancreas and to determine the differential points between these and primary pamcreatic carcinomas. We sruveyed 22 patients with metastatic tumor of the pancreas, proven on the basis of clinical and pathological findings. Seventeen patients were men, and five were women, and their ages ranged between 36 and 83 years. Their primary conditions were lung cancer (n=3D15), rectal cancer (n=3D2), melanoma of the foot, chondrosarcoma of the sacrum, cervical cancer, leiomyosarcoma of the uterus, and extragonadal choriocarcinoma of the mediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed the abdominal helical CT findings, analysing the number, location, size and attenuation of masses, as well as secondary change, which included dilatation of the pancreatic and biliary ducts and invasion of peripancreatic tissue or vessels. We also evaluated the differential findings of primary pancreatic cancer. Sixteen patients had a solitary focal mass, while in five, two masses were present. Among the 22 patients, low-density nodular masses were present in 21; in the other, in whom multiple metastasis from chondrosarcoma had occurred, there was dense calcification. The size of metastatic masses varied, ranging from 0.6 to 6 cm in diameter. The pancreatic duct proximal to the mass was dilated in ten cases, while the bile duct was dilated in six. The metastatic masses masses demonstrated no peripancreatic or vascular invasion, though they showed a discrete margin and contour bulging. Single metastasis to the pancreas was most common, and metastatic masses had a discrete margin, with contour bulging. There was no peripancreatic or vascular invasion. If the metastasis involved a single low-attenuated mass, however, with pancreatic or biliary dilatation, it was difficult to differentiate this from primary pancreatic cancer. (author)

  1. Salvage Lenvatinib Therapy in Metastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Ryder, Mabel M; Hilger, Crystal R; Bible, Keith C

    2017-07-01

    Historical anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) outcomes have been terrible, with a median survival of only five months and <20% one-year survival. Improved outcomes are now achieved with aggressive initial therapy in stages IVA and IVB disease, but patients with distant metastatic disease (stage IVC) still do poorly; improved therapies are sorely needed. Kinase inhibitors have emerged as promising agents in the therapy of advanced medullary and differentiated thyroid cancer, but there are limited data regarding the use of lenvatinib in ATC. The aim of this study was to delineate clinical outcomes in a series of patients with advanced ATC in response to lenvatinib therapy. A retrospective analysis was conducted involving all lenvatinib-treated Mayo Clinic ATC patients in 2015. Of 28 distinct ATC patients seen in 2015, three (11%) with metastatic disease of ECOG performance status 2-3 were treated with lenvatinib. Two patients were male; age range at ATC diagnosis was 57-84 years. All three patients attained successful local control of their disease with surgery and/or combined chemoradiotherapy. Lenvatinib was offered as the second, third, or fourth line of therapy at the time of metastatic disease progression. Two patients incurred minor responses to therapy, with structural regression of distant metastatic tumor disease soon after starting lenvatinib treatment (at one to two months), while one patient achieved stable disease, but no Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors partial responses resulted. Overall survival after starting lenvatinib was two, six, and seven months. Fatigue and hypertension were prominent, and one patient developed pulmonary emboli while on lenvatinib. This initial single-institution experience suggests that lenvatinib may have some disease-modifying activity in metastatic ATC that is otherwise refractory to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Unfortunately, observed benefits were transient, and toxicities were prominent. Clinical trials are required

  2. Temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis: hippocampal neuronal loss as a predictor of surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Anaclara Prada; Neves, Rafael Scarpa da Costa; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Lancellotti, Carmen Lucia Penteado; Marinho, Murilo Martinez; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Scorza, Carla Alessandra; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2012-05-01

    To analyze retrospectively a series of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), and the association of patterns of hippocampal sclerosis with clinical data and surgical prognosis. Sixty-six patients with medically refractory TLE with unilateral MTS after anterior temporal lobectomy were included. Quantitative neuropathological evaluation was performed on NeuN-stained hippocampal sections. Patient's clinical data and surgical outcome were reviewed. Occurrence of initial precipitating insult (IPI), as well as better postoperative seizure control (i.e. Engel class 1), were associated with classical and severe patterns of hippocampal sclerosis (MTS type 1a and 1b, respectively). Quantitative evaluation of hippocampal neuronal loss patterns predicts surgical outcome in patients with TLE-MTS.

  3. L5 vertebrectomy for the surgical treatment of tumoral and traumatic lesions of L5 vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Kaner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and the surgical results of seven patients treated with L5 vertebrectomy. The pathologies, clinical characteristics, preoperative and postoperative radiological findings, surgical techniques, and instrumentation for seven patients operated on between 1998 and 2009 are presented in this article. Biopsies were performed on all patients except those involving trauma. Patients were followed up at three-month intervals in the first year, at 6- month intervals in the second year, and on a regular basis afterward. One patient had a traumatic L5 burst fracture; the other six had tumoral pathologies in the L5 vertebrae. One tumoral lesion was a chordoma, another was a hemangioma, and the remaining four were metastatic lesions. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed for the metastatic tumor patients during the postoperative period. Patients with renal cancer and chordoma survived for 3 years; patients with lung cancer and bladder cancer survived for 1 year; and patients with breast cancer survived for 16 months. The lumbosacral region presents significant stabilization problems because of the presence of sacral slope. In our opinion, if the lesion involves only the L5 vertebra, anterior cage-filled bone cement or bone graft should be performed, as dictated by the pathology and posterior transpedicular instrumentation. If the lesion involves the L4 vertebra or the sacrum and the L5 vertebra, the instrumentation can be extended to cover other segments with sacral attachments. The present cases involved only L5 vertebra and treatment with short-segment stabilization covering the anterior and posterior columns.

  4. Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC is often curable by surgery alone. However, metastatic RCC is generally incurable. In the 1990s, immunotherapy in the form of cytokines was the mainstay of treatment for metastatic RCC. However, responses were seen in only a minority of highly selected patients with substantial treatment-related toxicities. The advent of targeted agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors VEGF-TKIs and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors led to a change in this paradigm due to improved response rates and progression-free survival, a better safety profile, and the convenience of oral administration. However, most patients ultimately progress with about 12% being alive at 5 years. In contrast, durable responses lasting 10 years or more are noted in a minority of those treated with cytokines. More recently, an improved overall survival with newer forms of immunotherapy in other malignancies (such as melanoma and prostate cancer has led to a resurgence of interest in immune therapies in metastatic RCC. In this review we discuss the rationale for immunotherapy and recent developments in immunotherapeutic strategies for treating metastatic RCC.

  5. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, Mark F; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion. (paper)

  6. Ixabepilone: a new chemotherapeutic option for refractory metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Puhalla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Shannon Puhalla, Adam BrufskyUPMC Magee-Womens Cancer Program, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Taxane therapy is commonly used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, most patients will eventually become refractory to these agents. Ixabepilone is a newly approved chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Although it targets microtubules similarly to docetaxel and paclitaxel, ixabepilone has activity in patients that are refractory to taxanes. This review summarizes the pharmacology of ixapebilone and clinical trials with the drug both as a single agent and in combination. Data were obtained using searches of PubMed and abstracts of the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium from 1995 to 2008. Ixapebilone is a semi-synthetic analog of epothilone B that acts to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the stabilization of microtubules. Phase I clinical trials have employed various dosing schedules ranging from daily to weekly to 3-weekly. Dose-limiting toxicites included neuropathy and neutropenia. Responses were seen in a variety of tumor types. Phase II studies verified activity in taxane-refractory metastatic breast cancer. The FDA has approved ixabepilone for use as monotherapy and in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ixabepilone is an efficacious option for patients with refractory metastatic breast cancer. The safety profile is similar to that of taxanes, with neuropathy and neutropenia being dose-limiting. Studies are ongoing with the use of both iv and oral formulations and in combination with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents.Keywords: ixabepilone, epothilone, metastatic breast cancer, taxane-refractory

  7. Regorafenib Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Metastatic Potential of Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fei-Ting; Sun, Cho-Chin; Wu, Chia-Hsing; Lee, Yen-Ju; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Wei-Shu

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of regorafenib on apoptosis and metastatic potential in TSGH 8301 human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro. Cells were treated with different concentration of regorafenib for different periods of time. Effects of regorafenib on cell viability, apoptosis pathways, metastatic potential, and expression of metastatic and anti-apoptotic proteins were evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, cell migration and invasion assay, and western blotting. We found regorafenib significantly reduced cell viability, cell migration and invasion, and expression of metastatic and anti-apoptotic proteins. In addition, regorafenib significantly induced accumulation of sub-G 1 phase cells, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of active caspase-3 and caspase-8. These results show that regorafenib not only induces apoptosis, but also inhibits metastatic potential in bladder cancer TSGH 8301 cells in vitro. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Metastatic skeletal leiomyomatosis (leiomyomatosis ossea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Jose Raimundo; De Almeida, Ana Luzia Brito; Aymore, Ierece Lins; Pinto, Edna Pottes; Osthoff, Laura; Smith, Julius

    2002-01-01

    We present a unique case of metastatic leiomyomatosis to the skeleton. The very extensive involvement of the axial and peripheral skeleton with ''ring'' lesions and associated cyclical premenstrual pain eventually led to the correct diagnosis and total relief with hormonal therapy. (orig.)

  9. Carboplatin AUC 10 for IGCCCG good prognosis metastatic seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tookman, Laura; Rashid, Sukaina; Matakidou, Athena; Phillips, Melissa; Wilson, Peter; Ansell, Wendy; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Chowdhury, Simon; Harland, Stephen; Sarwar, Naveed; Oliver, Timothy; Powles, Thomas; Shamash, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Metastatic seminoma is a highly curable disease. Standard treatment comprises of combination chemotherapy. The short- and long-term toxicities of this treatment are increasingly recognised and the possibility of over treatment in such a curable disease should be considered. We have therefore assessed the use of single agent carboplatin at a dose of AUC 10 in patients with good prognosis metastatic seminoma. Patients with good prognosis metastatic seminoma treated with carboplatin (AUC 10) were identified at our institution and affiliated institutions. Treatment was three weekly for a total of three or four cycles. Outcome and toxicities were analysed. With a median follow-up of 36 months, 61 patients in total were treated with carboplatin AUC 10, all good prognosis by the IGCCCG criteria. Forty-eight percent had stage IIA/IIB disease and 52% had greater than stage IIB disease. Thirty-one patients (51%) had a complete response following treatment. Three-year survival was 96.3% with a three-year progression free survival of 93.2%. The main treatment toxicity was haematological with 46% having grade 3, 24% having grade 4 neutropenia and 54% experiencing grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia. There were no treatment related deaths. Single agent carboplatin at a dose of AUC 10 is an effective treatment for good prognosis metastatic seminoma. The outcome compares favourably to previously published outcomes of combination chemotherapy. Although haematological toxicity is a concern, single agent carboplatin treatment for good prognosis metastatic seminoma could be considered a treatment option and is associated with less toxicity than combination regimens currently used.

  10. Cytologic assessment of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status in metastatic breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Murray, Melissa P; Jean, Ryan Des; Konno, Fumiko; Friedlander, Maria; Lin, Oscar; Edelweiss, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Discordance in the receptor status between primary breast carcinomas (PBC) and corresponding metastasis is well documented. Interrogation of the receptor status of metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) in cytology material is common practice; however, its utility has not been thoroughly validated. We studied patients with MBC, and evaluated the concordance rates of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) between PBC surgical specimens and corresponding MBC cell blocks (CBs). We correlated the findings with clinicopathologic variables and with the fixation methods used. We searched for patients with MBC diagnosed on cytology from 2007 to 2009 and selected those with ER, PR and HER2 tested in both the PBC surgical specimens and the MBC CBs. We included CBs fixed in formalin and methanol based solution (CytoLyt®). All slides were reevaluated by cytopathologists. Clinical information was retrieved from the medical records. We studied 65 patients with PBC and MBC paired specimens. The concordance rates between PBC and MBC were 78.5%, 58.5% and 96.9%, for ER, PR and HER2, respectively. When discordant, PR status switched from positive (PBC) to negative (MBC) in most cases (23/27). The PR concordance rate was 45.2% for CBs fixed in formalin and 70.6% for those fixed with CytoLyt® (p=0.047). The ER, PR and HER2 concordance rates between the PBC and MBC CBs are similar to those reported in paired surgical specimens. PR status was the most prevalent discordance and was not accompanied by a switch in ER.

  11. Geographic variation in the surgical management of lumbar spondylolisthesis: characterizing practice patterns and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Tej D; Vail, Daniel; O'Connell, Chloe; Han, Summer S; Veeravagu, Anand; Ratliff, John K

    2018-05-07

    The role of arthrodesis in the surgical management of lumbar spondylolisthesis remains controversial. We hypothesized that practice patterns and outcomes for this patient population may vary widely. To characterize geographic variation in surgical practices and outcomes for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. Retrospective analysis on a national longitudinal database between 2007 and 2014. We calculated arthrodesis rates, inpatient and long term costs, and key quality indicators (e.g. reoperation rates). Using linear and logistic regression models, we then calculated expected quality indicator values, adjusting for patient-level demographic factors, and compared these values to the observed values, to assess quality variation apart from differences in patient populations. We identified a cohort of 67,077 patients (60.7% female, mean age of 59.8 years (SD, 12.0) with lumbar spondylolisthesis who received either laminectomy or laminectomy with arthrodesis. The majority of patients received arthrodesis (91.8%). Actual rates of arthrodesis varied from 97.5% in South Dakota to 81.5% in Oregon. Geography remained a significant predictor of arthrodesis even after adjusting for demographic factors (pgeographic variation was also observed in initial costs ($32,485 in Alabama to $78,433 in Colorado), two-year post-operative costs ($15,612 in Arkansas to $34,096 in New Jersey), length of hospital stay (2.6 days in Arkansas to 4.5 in Washington, D.C.), 30-day complication rates (9.5% in South Dakota to 22.4% in Maryland), 30-day readmission rates (2.5% in South Dakota to 13.6% in Connecticut), and reoperation rates (1.8% in Maine to 12.7% in Alabama). There is marked geographic variation in the rates of arthrodesis in treatment of spondylolisthesis within the United States. This variation remains pronounced after accounting for patient-level demographic differences. Costs of surgery and quality outcomes also vary widely. Further study is necessary to understand the drivers

  12. Metastatic ocular melanoma to the liver exhibits infiltrative and nodular growth patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossniklaus, Hans E; Zhang, Qing; You, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    We examined liver specimens from 15 patients with uveal melanoma (UM) who had died of their disseminated disease. We found 2 distinct growth patterns of UM metastasis: infiltrative (n = 12) and nodular (n = 3). In the infiltrative pattern, individual UM cells with a CD133+ cancer stem cell-like p...

  13. Concomitant endometrial and gallbladder metastasis in advanced multiple metastatic invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezpalko, Kseniya; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Mercer, Leo; McCann, Michael; Elghawy, Karim; Wilson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    At time of presentation, fewer than 10% of patients have metastatic breast cancer. The most common sites of metastasis in order of frequency are bone, lung, pleura, soft tissue, and liver. Breast cancer metastasis to the uterus or gallbladder is rare and has infrequently been reported in the English literature. A 47 year old female with a recent history of thrombocytopenia presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasound revealed multiple uterine fibroids and endometrial curettings revealed cells consistent with lobular carcinoma of the breast. Breast examination revealed edema and induration of the lower half of the right breast. Biopsy of the right breast revealed invasive lobular carcinoma. Bone marrow aspiration obtained at a previous outpatient visit revealed extensive involvement by metastatic breast carcinoma. Shortly after discharge, the patient presented with acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. Microscopic examination of the gallbladder revealed metastatic infiltrating lobular carcinoma. The final diagnosis was invasive lobular carcinoma of the right breast with metastasis to the bone marrow, endometrium, gallbladder, regional lymph nodes, and peritoneum. The growth pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is unique and poses a challenge in diagnosing the cancer at an early stage. Unlike other types of breast cancer, it tends to metastasize more to the peritoneum, ovary, and gastrointestinal tract. Metastasis to the endometrium or gallbladder is rare. Metastatic spread should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with invasive lobular breast carcinoma presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding or acute cholecystitis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Practical consensus recommendations on management of triple-negative metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rangarao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with breast cancer along with metastatic estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR- and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2-negative tumors are referred to as having metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC disease. Resistance to current standard therapies such as anthracyclines or taxanes limits the available options for previously treated patients with metastatic TNBC to a small number of non-cross-resistant regimens, and there is currently no preferred standard chemotherapy. Clinical experience suggests that many women with triple-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC relapse quickly. Expert oncologist discussed about new chemotherapeutic strategies and agents used in treatment of mTNBC and the expert group used data from published literature, practical experience and opinion of a large group of academic oncologists to arrive at this practical consensus recommendations for the benefit of community oncologists.

  15. Intra-operative blood transfusion among adult surgical patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective study was designed to audit the pattern of intra-operative whole blood transfusion among adult surgical patients over a two-year period. Data were collected on the rate of intra-operative transfusion, estimated blood loss, units of donor blood transfused, pattern of use of autologous blood and circumstances ...

  16. The Refusal of Palliative Radiation in Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Prognostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavas, Mark J; Arneson, Kyle O; Ning, Matthew S; Attia, Albert A; Phillips, Sharon E; Perkins, Stephanie M; Shinohara, Eric T

    2015-06-01

    Patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have limited survival. Population studies have evaluated the impact of radiation refusal in the curative setting; however, no data exist concerning the prognostic impact of radiation refusal in the palliative care setting. To investigate the patterns of radiation refusal in newly diagnosed patients with metastatic NSCLC. Patients with Stage IV NSCLC diagnosed between 1988 and 2010 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify predictors for refusal of radiation and the impact of radiation and refusal on survival in the palliative setting. A total of 285,641 patients were initially included in the analysis. Palliative radiation was recommended in 42% and refused by 3.1% of patients. Refusal rates remained consistent across included years of study. On multivariate analysis, older, nonblack/nonwhite, unmarried females were more likely to refuse radiation (P refusing radiation was three months vs. five months for those receiving radiation and two months for those whom radiation was not recommended. Patients with metastatic NSCLC who refuse recommended palliative radiation have a poor survival. Radiation refusal or the recommendation against treatment can serve as a trigger for integrating palliative care services sooner and contributes greatly to prognostic awareness. Further investigation into this survival difference and the factors behind refusal are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pattern of postoperative pain management among adult surgical patients in a low-resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogboli-Nwasor E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Ogboli-Nwasor,1 Sa’adatu T Sule,2 Lazarus MD Yusufu31Department of Anaesthesia, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, NigeriaObjective: Postoperative pain is one of the most common complications of surgery. The pattern of management varies between centers. The current study aimed to study the prescription pattern and the common drugs used in the management of postoperative pain in adult surgical patients at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH; Zaria, Nigeria.Methods: Following ethical approval, a prospective observational study of consecutive adult patients who had surgery at the ABUTH Zaria was performed from January to December 2005. The data were entered into a proforma and analyzed using the Minitab statistical package.Results: One hundred and thirty-eight patients were included in the study. The age range was 17 to 80 years, with a mean age of 41 years. One hundred and thirty-two (95.7% of the prescriptions were written solely by the surgeon or surgical resident; passive suggestions were given by the anesthetists for only six patients (4.3%. Intermittent intramuscular injections of opioids/opiates were prescribed for 126 patients (91.3%, while nine patients (6.5% received intermittent intramuscular injections with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Oral paracetamol was prescribed for six patients (4.3%, while three patients (2.1% received no postoperative analgesic. Moderate pain was recorded in 48 patients (34.8%, and 90 patients (65.2% had mild pain 8 hours after their operation before subsequent doses of analgesics were given. More females (81 patients [58.7%], than males (42 patients [29.7%] suffered moderate to severe pain. The reported side effects were nausea (reported by 32.6% of patients, dry mouth (21

  18. Metastatic myxoid liposarcomas: imaging and histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheah, Kenneth; Ouellette, Hugue A.; Torriani, Martin; Kattapuram, Susan; Bredella, Miriam A.; Nielsen, G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to describe the imaging and histopathologic characteristics of metastatic myxoid liposarcomas. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and complied with HIPAA guidelines. The study group comprised 12 patients with metastatic myxoid liposarcoma who underwent MRI, CT, or FDG-PET. The location and imaging characteristics of the metastatic lesions were recorded, and the histopathology of all metastatic lesions was reviewed. There were 23 histologically proven metastases in 12 patients. Based on imaging criteria, there were 41 metastases. The mean time from the diagnosis of primary tumor to the first metastasis was 4.4 years. Sixty-seven percent of patients had bone and soft tissue metastases, 33% had pulmonary metastases, 33% had liver metastases, 25% had intra-abdominal, and 16% retroperitoneal metastases. CT demonstrated well-defined lobulated masses with soft tissue attenuation in all cases, without macroscopic fat component. In cases of osseous metastases, CT showed mixed lytic and sclerotic foci, with bone destruction in advanced cases. MRI demonstrated fluid-like signal intensity with mild heterogeneous enhancement in cases of soft tissue metastases. In osseous metastases, MRI showed avid heterogeneous enhancement. FDG-PET showed no significant FDG uptake for all metastases. MRI was the most useful imaging modality for osseous and soft tissue metastases. Myxoid liposarcomas are soft tissue sarcomas, with a high prevalence of extrapulmonary metastases. The bones and soft tissues were the most common site of involvement, followed by the lungs and liver. MRI was the most sensitive modality in the detection of osseous and soft tissue metastases, and is the recommended modality for the diagnosis and follow-up of bone and soft tissue involvement. (orig.)

  19. The effect of pre-vertebroplasty tumor ablation using laser-induced thermotherapy on biomechanical stability and cement fill in the metastatic spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Henry; Mousavi, Payam; Chin, Lee; Roth, Sandra; Finkelstein, Joel; Vitken, Alex; Whyne, Cari

    2007-08-01

    A biomechanical study comparing simulated lytic vertebral metastases treated with laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and vertebroplasty versus vertebroplasty alone. To investigate the effect of tumor ablation using LITT prior to vertebroplasty on biomechanical stability and cement fill patterns in a standardized model of spinal metastatic disease. Vertebroplasty in the metastatic spine is aimed at reducing pain, but is associated with risk of cement extravasation in up to 10%. Six pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric thoracolumbar spinal motion segments were tested in axial compression intact, with simulated metastases and following percutaneous vertebroplasty with or without LITT. Canal narrowing under load, pattern of cement fill, load to failure, and LITT temperature and pressure generation were collected. In all LITT specimens, cement filled the defect without extravasation. The canal extravasation rate was 33% in specimens treated without LITT. LITT and vertebroplasty yielded a trend toward improved posterior wall stability (P = 0.095) as compared to vertebroplasty alone. Moderate rises in temperature and minimal pressure generation was seen during LITT. In this model, elimination of tumor by LITT, facilitates cement fill, enhances biomechanical stability and reduces the risk of cement extravasation.

  20. Androgen receptor expression on circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujii

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor (AR is frequently detected in breast cancers, and AR-targeted therapies are showing activity in AR-positive (AR+ breast cancer. However, the role of AR in breast cancers is still not fully elucidated and the biology of AR in breast cancer remains incompletely understood. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can serve as prognostic and diagnostic tools, prompting us to measure AR protein expression and conduct genomic analyses on CTCs in patients with metastatic breast cancer.Blood samples from patients with metastatic breast cancer were deposited on glass slides, subjected to nuclear staining with DAPI, and reacted with fluorescent-labeled antibodies to detect CD45, cytokeratin (CK, and biomarkers of interest (AR, estrogen receptor [ER], and HER2 on all nucleated cells. The stained slides were scanned and enumerated by non-enrichment-based non-biased approach independent of cell surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM using the Epic Sciences CTC platform. Data were analyzed using established digital pathology algorithms.Of 68 patients, 51 (75% had at least 1 CTC, and 49 of these 51 (96% had hormone-receptor-positive (HR+/HER2-negative primary tumors. AR was expressed in CK+ CTCs in 10 patients. Of these 10 patients, 3 also had ER expression in CK+ CTCs. Single cell genomic analysis of 78 CTCs from 1 of these 3 patients identified three distinct copy number patterns. AR+ cells had a lower frequency of chromosomal changes than ER+ and HER2+ cells.CTC enumeration and analysis using no enrichment or selection provides a non-biased approach to detect AR expression and chromosomal aberrations in CTCs in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The heterogeneity of intrapatient AR expression in CTCs leads to the new hypothesis that patients with AR+ CTCs have heterogeneous disease with multiple drivers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical applicability of AR+ CTCs and their heterogeneity.

  1. Temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis: hippocampal neuronal loss as a predictor of surgical outcome

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    Anaclara Prada Jardim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze retrospectively a series of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS, and the association of patterns of hippocampal sclerosis with clinical data and surgical prognosis. METHOD: Sixty-six patients with medically refractory TLE with unilateral MTS after anterior temporal lobectomy were included. Quantitative neuropathological evaluation was performed on NeuN-stained hippocampal sections. Patient's clinical data and surgical outcome were reviewed. RESULTS: Occurrence of initial precipitating insult (IPI, as well as better postoperative seizure control (i.e. Engel class 1, were associated with classical and severe patterns of hippocampal sclerosis (MTS type 1a and 1b, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quantitative evaluation of hippocampal neuronal loss patterns predicts surgical outcome in patients with TLE-MTS.

  2. The value of positron emission tomography/computed tomography for evaluating metastatic disease in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jin; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Kyu Taek; Lee, Jong Kyun; Ku, Bon-Ho; Oh, Cho-Rong; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Seong-Ho; Choi, Dong Wook

    2012-08-01

    Routine application of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for pancreatic cancer staging remains a controversial approach. The purpose of this study was to reassess the clinical impact of PET/CT for the detection of distant metastasis of pancreatic cancer. From January 2006 to June 2009, 125 patients with histologically proven pancreatic cancer that had undergone PET/CT at our hospital were retrospectively reviewed. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of PET/CT on the management plan, the post-PET/CT management plans were compared with the pre-PET/CT management plans. After the conventional staging workup, we determined that 76 patients (60.8%) had resectable lesions, whereas 48 patients had unresectable lesions. One patient underwent explorative laparotomy due to equivocal resectability. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography diagnosed distant metastasis in only 2 (2.6%) of the 76 patients with resectable lesions, and these patients did not undergo unnecessary surgical treatment. Complete resection was not performed in 8 of the 74 operative patients because they had distant metastasis detected during the operative procedure. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography diagnosed distant metastasis in 32 of the 44 patients with metastatic lesions that were histologically shown to have sensitivity of 72.7%. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography has a limited role in the evaluation of metastatic disease from pancreatic cancer.

  3. Comparison of surgical and non-surgical orthodontic treatment approaches on occlusal and cephalometric outcomes in patients with Class II Division I malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Daniels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine end-of-treatment outcomes of severe Class II Division I malocclusion patients treated with surgical or non-surgical approaches. This study tests the hypotheses that occlusal outcomes (ABO-OGS and cephalometric outcomes differ between these groups. Methods A total of 60 patients were included: 20 of which underwent surgical correction and 40 of which did not. Cast grading of initial and final study models was performed and information was gathered from pre- to post-treatment cephalometric radiographs. The end-of-treatment ABO-OGS and cephalometric outcomes were compared to Mann-Whitney U tests and multivariable linear regression models. Results Following adjustment for multiple confounders (age, gender, complexity of case, and skeletal patterns, the final deband score (ABO-OGS was similar for both groups (23.8 for surgical group versus 22.5 for non-surgical group. Those treated surgically had a significantly larger reduction in ANB angle, 3.4° reduction versus 1.5° reduction in the non-surgical group (p = 0.002. The surgical group also showed increased maxillary incisor proclination (p = 0.001 compared to the non-surgical group. This might be attributed to retroclination of maxillary incisors during treatment selection in the non-surgical group—namely, extraction of premolars to mask the discrepancy. Conclusions Those treated surgically had a significantly larger reduction in ANB angle and increased maxillary incisor proclination compared to those treated non-surgically with no significant changes in occlusal outcomes.

  4. Consistency of performance of robot-assisted surgical tasks in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, I H; Siu, K-C; Mukherjee, M; Monk, E; Oleynikov, D; Stergiou, N

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate consistency of performance of robot-assisted surgical tasks in a virtual reality environment. Eight subjects performed two surgical tasks, bimanual carrying and needle passing, with both the da Vinci surgical robot and a virtual reality equivalent environment. Nonlinear analysis was utilized to evaluate consistency of performance by calculating the regularity and the amount of divergence in the movement trajectories of the surgical instrument tips. Our results revealed that movement patterns for both training tasks were statistically similar between the two environments. Consistency of performance as measured by nonlinear analysis could be an appropriate methodology to evaluate the complexity of the training tasks between actual and virtual environments and assist in developing better surgical training programs.

  5. Diagnosis the metastatic sentinel node with Tc-99m-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev-Predic, M.; Predic, P.; Karner, I.; Dodig, D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of visualisation malignancy of sentinel node during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer. To precisely diagnose the metastatic sentinel node is very difficult. Material and Methods:Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 47 patients with breast cancer after injection of Tc-99m-MIBI. We injected 20-40 MBq Tc-99m-MIBI peritumoral. Anterior and prone lateral planar images were obtained 2h, 4h, 6h and 20h after injection. The uptake were in region of sentinel node calculed. The sentinel node was intraoperatively identified and histologically analysed. Results: In 27 patients with intraoperatively detected metastatic sentinel node was in 25 patients increased uptake in sentinel node on scintigrams after 20h detected. In 20 patients with intraoperatively non detected metastatic sentinel node was in 19 patients increased uptake on scintigrams ower 2h-6h detected. Conclusion: The results indicated that is lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-99m-MIBI is a new method for detection the preoperatively metastatic sentinel node

  6. Metastatic melanoma causing double small intestinal intussusception: diagnosis by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolucci, G.; Garcia, M.; Dalcim, L.; Dias, I.; Teshirogi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Metastases from malignant melanoma to the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Often found in jejunum and ileum, they are responsible for up to 7% of complications pre mortem. These metastases manifest with bleeding, perforation, obstruction or intussusception and require immediate surgery. Intussusception is a rare finding in the report described and is presented in a double into distinct segments. History and Physical Examination: M.H.C.S, female, 50 years, presenting 3 cm ulcerated lesion in the calcaneous region of the right foot with two years of evolution, no signs of infection or neoplastic permeation shores. Surgical excision of the lesion was performed and histopathologic analysis showed non-classifiable malignant melanoma. Submitted material to immunohistochemistry showed that markers of antigens Melan A and HMB45 positive, favoring the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Tumor resection with expanding margins and selective inguinal lymphadenectomy through the technique of sentinel node, with rates equal to V Clark and Breslow thickness of 1.3 cm. Patient presented with acute abdominal obstruction treated surgically. Despite an uneventful post-operative, brain metastases developed, and patient is currently undergoing chemotherapy. Complementary Exams: Contrasted abdominal CT showing distension of the small bowel and an image suggestive of double intussusception. Treatment and Results: Indicated that laparotomy confirmed the presence of double intussusception in small intestine, the first being 110 cm from the angle of Treitz with a palpable tumor mass and dilatation of the upstream and the second character equal to 220 cm of the same, treated with bowel resection followed by end anastomosis. The diagnosis of malignant melanoma was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of surgical specimens. Discussion/Conclusion: Metastatic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract are often asymptomatic or nonspecific. The diagnosis should be

  7. Metastatic skeletal leiomyomatosis (leiomyomatosis ossea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Jose Raimundo [Radiologic Clinic Felippe Mattoso, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); De Almeida, Ana Luzia Brito; Aymore, Ierece Lins [Claudio Lemos Surgical Pathology Laboratory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pinto, Edna Pottes [Edna Pottes Pinto Clinic, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osthoff, Laura [Basilio Clinic, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Smith, Julius [National Cancer Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2002-01-01

    We present a unique case of metastatic leiomyomatosis to the skeleton. The very extensive involvement of the axial and peripheral skeleton with ''ring'' lesions and associated cyclical premenstrual pain eventually led to the correct diagnosis and total relief with hormonal therapy. (orig.)

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Ahmad, Bilal B; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-11-10

    Regorafenib is a standard-care option for treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that increases median overall survival by 6 weeks compared with placebo. Given this small incremental clinical benefit, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib in the third-line setting for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the US payer perspective. We developed a Markov model to compare the cost and effectiveness of regorafenib with those of placebo in the third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2014. Model robustness was addressed in univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provided an additional 0.04 QALYs (0.13 life-years) at a cost of $40,000, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $900,000 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regorafenib was > $550,000 per QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in the third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer. The cost-effectiveness of regorafenib could be improved by the use of value-based pricing. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Enzalutamide for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Kabbara, Wissam K; Al Basiouni Al Masri, Hiba S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review and evaluate current literature on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug enzalutamide (XTANDI®) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Data sources Literature search was done through PubMed using the terms enzalutamide, MDV3100, abiraterone, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Data from FDA product labels were also used. Study selection and data extraction Recent and relevant studies were included in the review. Collected clinical trials were screened and evaluated. Data synthesis Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor with high selectivity and affinity to the AR. It was approved by the FDA to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in patients previously treated with docetaxel, after a Phase III trial (AFFIRM) that showed a 4.8-month survival benefit in this population. Recently, the FDA expanded the approval of enzalutamide as first-line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who did not receive chemotherapy. Moreover, enzalutamide is shown to be associated with an acceptable safety profile. Conclusion Enzalutamide has been shown to be both safe and effective in improving overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer postchemotherapy with docetaxel and as a first line treatment before initiation of chemotherapy. However, additional studies and head-to-head trials are needed. PMID:25945058

  10. Soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R) mediates colonic tumor cell adherence to the vascular endothelium: a mechanism for metastatic initiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowdall, J F

    2012-02-03

    The mechanisms by which surgery increases metastatic proliferation remain poorly characterized, although endotoxin and immunocytes play a role. Recent evidence suggests that endothelial adherence of tumor cells may be important in the formation of metastases. Soluble receptors of interleukin-6 (sIL-6R) shed by activated neutrophils exert IL-6 effects on endothelial cells, which are unresponsive under normal circumstances. This study examined the hypothesis that sIL-6R released by surgical stress increases tumor cell adherence to the endothelium. Neutrophils (PMN) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Soluble IL-6R release was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Colonic tumor cells transfected with green fluorescent protein and endothelial cells were exposed to sIL-6R, and tumor cell adherence and transmigration were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Basal release of sIL-6R from PMN was 44.7 +\\/- 8.2 pg\\/ml at 60 min. This was significantly increased by endotoxin and CRP (131 +\\/- 16.8 and 84.1 +\\/- 5.3, respectively; both P < 0.05). However, tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not significantly alter sIL-6R release. Endothelial and tumor cell exposure to sIL-6R increased tumor cell adherence by 71.3% within 2 h but did not significantly increase transmigration, even at 6 h. Mediators of surgical stress induce neutrophil release of a soluble receptor for IL-6 that enhances colon cancer cell endothelial adherence. Since adherence to the endothelium is now considered to be a key event in metastatic genesis, these findings have important implications for colon cancer treatment strategies.

  11. m-RNA mammaglobin expression in metastatic breast cancer patient at Medan city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbun, S.; Siregar, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common causes of women’s death in the world. Metastatic spread presents a major clinical problem in about 30% of the patients. The study aims to investigate the clinical reliability of mammaglobin mRNA as a marker of circulating cancer cells in breast cancer patients. The positivity of blood was analyzed in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics. This study was on 29 breast cancer patients (13 metastatic, 16 non- metastatic patients), where28 were invasive intraductal carcinoma type and 1 was invasive lobular carcinoma type. Breast cancer patients were according to the histologic grade into grade I (7 patients),grade II (6 patients) and grade III (15 patients). All individuals included in this study were subjected to detection of mammaglobin m-RNA of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood using RT-PCR technique. Positivity for mammaglobin in blood samples was in 38% of patients with metastatic but not in the non-metastatic patients. The presence of mammaglobin correlated with metastatic tumor (P = 0.011). Mammaglobin overexpression in breast tissue was significantly positive in low-grade tumors (I and II).

  12. Entire hemithorax irradiation for Masaoka stage IVa thymomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, André; Louro, Luís Vasco; Almeida, Marta; Sousa, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Thymomas are rare neoplasms that have an indolent growth with a preferentially intra-thoracic dissemination pattern. Surgery is currently the standard treatment of thymomas; however radiotherapy is often used in an adjuvant setting due to a high sensitivity of these tumors to such treatment. Postoperative entire hemithoracic irradiation has been used in selected Masaoka stage IVa cases after complete surgical excision of metastatic lesions. In the present article, the authors report three cases of Masaoka stage IVa thymoma that underwent entire hemithorax irradiation after surgical excision of metastatic lesions. The first two patients presented as stage IVa thymomas. The third case consisted of a pleural recurrence of a thymoma. Hemithoracic irradiation with low doses has been used by different authors; the available data shows that it is a well-tolerated treatment that could potentially lead to better loco-regional control and increased overall survival. PMID:24377042

  13. Medical image of the week: metastatic testicular cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debo M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year-old man with metastatic embryonal testicular cancer was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain. A contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen demonstrated large metastatic burden throughout the liver and the left adrenal gland (Figures 1 and 2. The mass arising from the left adrenal gland caused significant mass effect. The left kidney was compressed, though without hydronephrosis, and the spleen was displaced laterally. Renal and hepatic functions were preserved. His pain was controlled with opioids and oral steroids with significant improvement.

  14. Pattern of surgical procedures performed in the orthopaedic units of a tertiary hospital in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas O Adekoya-Cole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH is one of the foremost teaching institutions in Nigeria. It is a recognized training institution for residency training in Nigeria. However, a thorough evaluation of the procedures being undertaken by the orthopaedic teams in this centre and the impact on the type of training being passed on to the resident doctors in training is the focus of this paper. Objectives: To determine the pattern of procedures performed by the orthopaedic units of the Department of Surgery, LUTH with a view to import the findings in re-organizing its structure based on service requirement, manpower allocation and to make recommendation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data including age, sex, procedures and leading surgeons retrieved from all our operating theatres over a period from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011. The data retrieved was analyzed. Results: A total 741 procedures were performed over the 2 year period. More male patients (58.5% had procedures performed on them than the female patients. The mean age of patients treated was 37.2±15.5 years. Trauma related procedures accounted for 68.8% of the total procedures. Open reduction and internal fixation surgical operations were the most common trauma related procedure while ablative surgical operations following Diabetic Mellitus foot syndrome were the most common non-trauma related procedure performed. Conclusion: Trauma related surgery remains the most common procedures in our teaching hospital. Efforts should be made to increase the number of elective operations like Arthroplasties, Arthroscopic operations and Spinal axis correction operations being performed.

  15. Reproducibility analysis of the stability and treatment of vertebral metastatic lesions

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    Raphael de Rezende Pratali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the reproducibility among spine surgeons in defining the treatment of vertebral metastatic lesions, taking into account the mechanical stability of injuries. METHODS: Twenty cases of isolated vertebral metastatic lesions were presented to ten experts. Their opinion was then asked about the stability of the lesion, as well as their treatment option. RESULTS: The interobserver Kappa coefficient obtained both for stability analysis as to the decision of the treatment was poor (0.334 and 0.248, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Poor interobserver reproducibility was observed in deciding the treatment of vertebral metastatic lesions when considering the stability of the lesions.

  16. Comparison of treatment patterns and economic outcomes among metastatic pancreatic cancer patients initiated on nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine versus FOLFIRINOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ali; Bonafede, Machaon; Cai, Qian; Princic, Nicole; Tran, Oth; Pelletier, Corey; Parisi, Monika; Patel, Manish

    2017-10-01

    The economic burden of metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) is substantial while treatment options are limited. Little is known about the treatment patterns and healthcare costs among mPC patients who initiated first-line gemcitabine plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-P + G) and FOLFIRINOX. The MarketScan® claims databases were used to identify adults with ≥2 claims for pancreatic cancer, 1 claim for a secondary malignancy, completed ≥1 cycle of nab-P + G or FOLFIRINOX during 4/1/2013 and 3/31/2015, and had continuous plan enrollment for ≥6 months pre- and 3 months after the first-line treatment. Duration of therapy, per patient per month (PPPM) costs of total healthcare, mPC-related treatment, and supportive care were measured during first-line therapy. 550 mPC patients met selection criteria (nab-P + G, n = 294; FOLFIRINOX, n = 256). There was no difference in duration of therapy (p = 0.60) between nab-P + G and FOLFIRINOX. Compared with FOLFIRINOX, patients with nab-P + G had higher chemotherapy drug costs but lower treatment administration costs and supportive care costs (all p < 0.01). Patients treated with nab-P + G (vs FOLFIRINOX) had similar treatment duration but lower costs of outpatient prescriptions, treatment administration and supportive care. Lower supportive care costs in the nab-P + G cohort were mainly driven by lower utilization of pegfilgrastim and anti-emetics.

  17. A case of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma complicated with Graves' disease after total thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Mariko; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Tsuboi, Mitsuhiro; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Tangoku, Akira

    2017-12-28

    Thyroid cancer and Graves' disease may present simultaneously in one patient. The incidence of the development of hyperthyroidism from metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma is rare. We herein report a case of metastatic follicular carcinoma complicated with Graves' disease after total thyroidectomy. A 57-year-old woman underwent right hemithyroidectomy for follicular carcinoma. Metastatic lesions appeared in the lungs and skull two years after the first surgery, and remnant thyroidectomy was performed for radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) therapy, during which the TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) was found to be negative. The patient was treated with RAI therapy four times for four years and was receiving levothyroxine suppressive therapy. Although radioiodine uptake was observed in the lesions after the fourth course of RAI therapy, metastatic lesions had progressed. Four years after the second surgery, she had heart palpitations and tremors. Laboratory data revealed hyperthyroidism and positive TRAb. She was diagnosed with Graves' disease and received a fifth course of RAI therapy. 131I scintigraphy after RAI therapy showed strong radioiodine uptake in the metastatic lesions. As a result, the sizes and numbers of metastatic lesions decreased, and thyroid function improved. Metastatic lesions produced thyroid hormone and caused hyperthyroidism. RAI therapy was effective for Graves' disease and thyroid carcinoma.

  18. Living Well? Strategies Used by Women Living With Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie; Willis, Karen; Yee, Jasmine; Kilbreath, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of changing status-once an imminent death sentence, now a chronic (albeit incurable) disease. Medical intervention advances mean women with metastatic breast cancer now have symptoms alleviated and, potentially, life extended. Living with this disease, however, requires more than a medical approach to symptoms. We were interested to know whether women manage, and if so, how, to "live well" with metastatic cancer. We conducted interviews with 18 women. Women differed in the approaches they used. Most common was the attempt to reestablish a sense of normality in their lives. However, a second group reevaluated and reprioritized their lives; and a third group was restricted in their capacity to live well because of symptoms. The findings provide the foundation for future research exploring normalization of experiences of metastatic cancer, and other chronic illnesses, where people are living with knowledge that they have contracted time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Ocular melanoma metastatic to skin: the value of HMB-45 staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A; Kist, Joseph M; Thomas, Isabelle; Fernández, Geover; Cruz, Manuel A; Koziorynska, Ewa I; Lambert, W Clark

    2004-06-01

    Cutaneous metastatic disease is an important finding that may represent the first sign of systemic cancer, or, if already known, that may change tumor staging and thus dramatically altered therapeutic plans. Although cutaneous metastases are relatively frequent in patients with cutaneous melanoma, they are less so from ocular melanoma. To demonstrate the value of HMB-45, staining in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. The immunohistochemical stain HMB-45 a monoclonal antibody directed against intact human melanoma cells, was employed on a skin biopsy specimen from a cutaneous tumor. HMB-45 staining was positive in the atypical hyperchromatic cells of the deep dermis. HMB-45 may be of value in the detection of ocular melanoma metastatic to skin. Cutaneous metastatic disease is a somewhat common and extremely important diagnosis. Although cutaneous metastases from cutaneous melanoma are relatively frequent, those from ocular melanomas are less so. Use of histochemical staining, especially the HMB-45 stain, allows confirmation of the diagnosis.

  20. Effect of cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) on hematogenic lung metastatic model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Konoha, Keiko; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Yu; Kagota, Satomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Kunitomo, Masaru

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the anti-metastatic effect of cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) on a hematogenic metastatic mouse model which was intravenously injected with B16-BL6 melanoma cells. A 3-hour exposure to various concentrations of cordycepin (0.3, 1 and 3 microg/ml) dose-dependently reduced the number of nodules formed in lung at 15 days after the tumor injection. To elucidate the mechanism of this anti-metastatic effect, we examined the effect of cordycepin on the invasiveness of B16-BL6 cells using a chemo-invasion chamber in vitro. The B16-BL6 cells pretreated with cordycepin (3 microg/ml) for 3 hours showed a significant decrease in invasiveness. Under the same conditions, however, cordycepin did not influence the growth curve of B16-BL6 cells at concentrations up to 3 microg/ml. These results suggest that cordycepin exerts an anti-metastatic action, in part, by inhibiting the invasiveness of mouse melanoma cells.

  1. Advantages of concurrent biochemotherapy modified by decrescendo interleukin-2, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and tamoxifen for patients with metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, S J; Gammon, G; Boasberg, P D; Martin, M A; Kristedja, T S; Guo, M; Stern, S; Edwards, S; Fournier, P; Weisberg, M; Cannon, M; Fawzy, N W; Johnson, T D; Essner, R; Foshag, L J; Morton, D L

    1999-09-01

    Concurrent biochemotherapy results in high response rates but also significant toxicity in patients with metastatic melanoma. We attempted to improve its efficacy and decrease its toxicity by using decrescendo dosing of interleukin-2 (IL-2), posttreatment granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and low-dose tamoxifen. Forty-five patients with poor prognosis metastatic melanoma were treated at a community hospital inpatient oncology unit affiliated with the John Wayne Cancer Institute (Santa Monica, CA) between July 1995 and September 1997. A 5-day modified concurrent biochemotherapy regimen of dacarbazine, vinblastine, cisplatin, decrescendo IL-2, interferon alfa-2b, and tamoxifen was repeated at 21-day intervals. G-CSF was administered beginning on day 6 for 7 to 10 days. The overall response rate was 57% (95% confidence interval, 42% to 72%), the complete response rate was 23%, and the partial response rate was 34%. Complete remissions were achieved in an additional 11% of patients by surgical resection of residual disease after biochemotherapy. The median time to progression was 6.3 months and the median duration of survival was 11.4 months. At a maximum follow-up of 36 months (range, 10 to 36 months), 32% of patients are alive and 14% remain free of disease. Decrescendo IL-2 dosing and administration of G-CSF seemed to reduce toxicity, length of hospital stay, and readmission rates. No patient required intensive care unit monitoring, and there were no treatment-related deaths. The data from this study indicate that the modified concurrent biochemotherapy regimen reduces the toxicity of concurrent biochemotherapy with no apparent decrease in response rate in patients with poor prognosis metastatic melanoma.

  2. Targeted Approaches Applied to Uncommon Diseases: A Case of Salivary Duct Carcinoma Metastatic to the Brain Treated with the Multikinase Inhibitor Neratinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl R. Sorenson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 overexpression. Local surgical control is the cornerstone of therapy, but a subset of patients develops metastatic disease portending a poor prognosis and limited management options. Intracranial metastases are an uncommon manifestation and present a therapeutic challenge. We report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with facial pain and swelling subsequently diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma. Our patient underwent extensive locoregional resection and analysis of the tumor tissue demonstrated evidence of androgen receptor expression and HER2 overexpression. His course was complicated by metastatic extra- and intracranial recurrence despite combined modality treatment with radiation and chemotherapy followed by anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy and androgen deprivation therapy. After exhausting standard treatment options, he received experimental therapy with a new small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, neratinib, with evidence of a transient clinical response and no significant adverse effects. This case exemplifies the potential and limitations of targeted therapy, particularly when applied to patients with rare diseases and presentations.

  3. Rare clinical experiences for surgical treatment of melanoma with osseous metastases in Taiwan

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    Yang Rong-Sen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant melanoma occurs infrequently in Taiwan. Once it has progressed into osseous metastases, the prognosis is poor. There are no reported clinical experiences of surgical management in this area. Methods To improve our understanding of the rare clinical experiences, we retrospectively investigated clinical characteristics, radiological findings, treatment modalities, survival outcomes and prognoses of 11 Taiwanese patients with osseous metastasis of melanoma treated surgically at two national medical centers, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Cheng Kung University Hospital from January 1983 to December 2006. Results Six patients suffered from acral-lentiginous melanoma. Nine patients sustained multiple osseous metastases and most lesions were osteolytic. Nine patients also had sustained metastases to other organs including liver, lungs, lymph nodes, brain and spleen. Second malignancies including lung cancer, thyroid papillary carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma and cervical cancer co-existed in four patients. The interval from the initial diagnosis of melanoma to the clinical detection of osseous metastases varied from 0–37.8 months (mean 9.75 months. Metastatic melanoma was invariably fatal; the mean survival time from bone metastases to death was 5.67 months. Conclusion Due to the high morbidity and poor survival of Taiwanese patients with osseous metastases of melanoma, surgical treatment should be directed towards pain relief and the prevention of skeletal debilitation in order to maintain their quality of life.

  4. Application of a drug-induced apoptosis assay to identify treatment strategies in recurrent or metastatic breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bosserman

    Full Text Available A drug-induced apoptosis assay has been developed to determine which chemotherapy drugs or regimens can produce higher cell killing in vitro. This study was done to determine if this assay could be performed in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer patients, to characterize the patterns of drug-induced apoptosis, and to evaluate the clinical utility of the assay. A secondary goal was to correlate assay use with clinical outcomes.In a prospective, non-blinded, multi institutional controlled trial, 30 evaluable patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer who were treated with chemotherapy had tumor samples submitted for the MiCK drug-induced apoptosis assay. After receiving results within 72 hours after biopsy, physicians could use the test to determine therapy (users, or elect to not use the test (non-users.The assay was able to characterize drug-induced apoptosis in tumor specimens from breast cancer patients and identified which drugs or combinations gave highest levels of apoptosis. Patterns of drug activity were also analyzed in triple negative breast cancer. Different drugs from a single class of agents often produced significantly different amounts of apoptosis. Physician frequently (73% used the assay to help select chemotherapy treatments in patients, Patients whose physicians were users had a higher response (CR+PR rate compared to non-users (38.1% vs 0%, p = 0.04 and a higher disease control (CR+PR+Stable rate (81% vs 25%, p<0.01. Time to relapse was longer in users 7.4 mo compared to non-users 2.2 mo (p<0.01.The MiCK assay can be performed in breast cancer specimens, and results are often used by physicians in breast cancer patients with recurrent or metastatic disease. These results from a good laboratory phase II study can be the basis for a future larger prospective multicenter study to more definitively establish the value of the assay.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00901264.

  5. Benzimidazole as Novel Therapy for Hormone-Refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    8 4 INTRODUCTION The focus of this project is to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of benzimidazoles as a...potential anti-metastatic prostate cancer therapy. We identified benzimidazoles , a class of anti-parasitic drug, in a drug screening process for...preferential anti-tumor activity on metastatic prostate cancer cells. We have data indicate that benzimidazoles have potent anti-tumor activities

  6. Periostin is identified as a putative metastatic marker in breast cancer-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Ioulia; Ceder, Sophia; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Baltatzis, George; Foukakis, Theodoros; Panaretakis, Theocharis

    2016-11-15

    Breast cancer (BrCa) is the most frequent cancer type in women and a leading cause of cancer related deaths in the world. Despite the decrease in mortality due to better diagnostics and palliative care, there is a lack of prognostic markers of metastasis. Recently, the exploitation of liquid biopsies and in particular of the extracellular vesicles has shown promise in the identification of such prognostic markers. In this study we compared the proteomic content of exosomes derived from metastatic and non-metastatic human (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) and mouse (67NR and 4T1) cell lines. We found significant differences not only in the amount of secreted exosomes but most importantly in the protein content of exosomes secreted from metastatic versus non-metastatic ones. We identified periostin as a protein that is enriched in exosomes secreted by metastatic cells and validated its presence in a pilot cohort of breast cancer patient samples with localized disease or lymph node (LN) metastasis.

  7. Distribution pattern of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamdi, Ibe Michael Onwuzuruike

    2013-09-01

    The pattern of distribution of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs has been published, though scantily, especially in males. We decided to look at our own series, compare and contrast ours with some of those published. We treated 88 locations of this lesion in 68 males. The clinical features were those of lower back pains, with or without radiation into the lower extremities, sensory loss and paresis of the limbs. There was a case of loss of urinary bladder and ano-rectal control. All lesions were confirmed through cauda-equinograms and treated under general anaesthesia in knee-chest position (MECCA position). The patients were followed up for 3-6 months post-operatively. There were 88 locations in 68 males of 21-70 years of age, with 29 prolapses occurring during the age range 31-40 years, while 54 locations were on the left and 48 at L4/5. The procedures were well tolerated by all patients and there were no post-operative complications. This lesion in our series occurred mostly on the left, at the L4/5 level and peaked at 31-40 years age range. The predictability of occurrence of this disease, using side, level and age is still not feasible in males from our series.

  8. Metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland: report of 3 cases and brief review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardar, Enver; Erkan, Nazif; Bayol, Umit; Yılmaz, Cengiz; Dogan, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Metastases to the thyroid are encountered rarely in clinical practice, but the number of cases seems to have increased in recent years. The reason of this increase may be a more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and the use of more sophisticated, complicated imaging techniques in patients with thyroid masses. Also, in addition to these reasons, the use of more organo-specific immunohistochemical antibodies in the examination of surgical specimens may affect the differential diagnosis of malignant tumours. Three metastatic tumours to thyroid were found in the retrospective review of malignant thyroid tumours diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2007. The primary tumours were clear cell carcinoma of the kidney, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and breast carcinoma-ductal type. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and essential immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis

  9. Epigenome-Wide Tumor DNA Methylation Profiling Identifies Novel Prognostic Biomarkers of Metastatic-Lethal Progression in Men Diagnosed with Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Geybels, Milan S; Leonardson, Amy; Rubicz, Rohina; Kolb, Suzanne; Yan, Qingxiang; Klotzle, Brandy; Bibikova, Marina; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Troyer, Dean; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Wright, Jonathan L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Fan, Jian-Bing; Feng, Ziding; Stanford, Janet L

    2017-01-01

    Aside from Gleason sum, few factors accurately identify the subset of prostate cancer patients at high risk for metastatic progression. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations could distinguish prostate tumors with life-threatening potential. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation profiling was performed in surgically resected primary tumor tissues from a population-based (n = 430) and a replication (n = 80) cohort of prostate cancer patients followed prospectively for at least 5 years. Metastasis was confirmed by positive bone scan, MRI, CT, or biopsy, and death certificates confirmed cause of death. AUC, partial AUC (pAUC, 95% specificity), and P value criteria were used to select differentially methylated CpG sites that robustly stratify patients with metastatic-lethal from nonrecurrent tumors, and which were complementary to Gleason sum. Forty-two CpG biomarkers stratified patients with metastatic-lethal versus nonrecurrent prostate cancer in the discovery cohort, and eight of these CpGs replicated in the validation cohort based on a significant (P prostate cancer include CpGs in five genes (ALKBH5, ATP11A, FHAD1, KLHL8, and PI15) and three intergenic regions. In the validation dataset, the AUC for Gleason sum alone (0.82) significantly increased with the addition of four individual CpGs (range, 0.86-0.89; all P epigenetic biomarkers warrant further investigation as they may improve prognostic classification of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and provide new insights on tumor aggressiveness. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 311-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Sputum cytology of a metastatic postradiation sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshio; Murakami, Itsuko; Awai, Seiji; Ogura, Yasuko; Morishita, Yumiko

    1981-01-01

    A female patient who died of apparent postradiation sarcoma in the inguinal region after irradiating a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the same site was reported. For approximately 20 months, the patient had received a total of 6,600 and 9,600 Roentgen to the right para-aortic and inguinal areas, respectively. About 10 years later, she developed a sarcoma, namely a malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Sputum cytology demonstrated numerous giant cells with bizarre nuclei; subsequent chest films also presented apparent metastatic tumor shadows. The cellular characteristics and also rather low incidence of detection of nonepithelial malignant tumor by sputum cytology were briefly discussed, and ways of enhancing cytodiagnostic accuracy were proposed. (author)

  11. Metastatic cancer of unknown primary in 21 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F; Aresu, L; Vignoli, M; Buracco, P; Bettini, G; Ferro, S; Gattino, F; Ghiani, F; Costantino, R; Ressel, L; Bellei, E; Marconato, L

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical features, treatment and outcome of 21 dogs with metastatic cancer of unknown primary (MCUP), a biopsy-proven malignancy being diagnosed at a metastatic stage, in which the anatomical origin of the primary tumour cannot be detected. All dogs underwent total-body computed tomography. Signalment, type and duration of clinical signs, metastasis site, pathology results, treatment and outcome were recorded. Carcinoma was the most common diagnosis (57.1%), followed by sarcoma, melanoma and mast cell tumour. The median number of disease sites per dog was 2, with bones, lymph nodes, lungs and spleen being the most frequent metastatic locations. The median survival for all dogs was 30 days. Overall, a primary site was not identified in 20 (95.2%) dogs. MCUP encompasses a variety of different pathologic entities and harbours a poor prognosis. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The key role of extracellular vesicles in the metastatic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyun; Achreja, Abhinav; Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Nagrath, Deepak; Fais, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, have a key role in the paracrine communication between organs and compartments. EVs shuttle virtually all types of biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, metabolites and even pharmacological compounds. Their ability to transfer their biomolecular cargo into target cells enables EVs to play a key role in intercellular communication that can regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis and migration. This has led to the emergence of EVs as a key player in tumor growth and metastasis through the formation of "tumor niches" in target organs. Recent data have also been shown that EVs may transform the microenvironment of primary tumors thus favoring the selection of cancer cells with a metastatic behavior. The release of EVs from resident non-malignant cells may contribute to the metastatic processes as well. However, cancer EVs may induce malignant transformation in resident mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that the metastatic process is not exclusively due to circulating tumor cells. In this review, we outline and discuss evidence-based roles of EVs in actively regulating multiple steps of the metastatic process and how we can leverage EVs to impair metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  14. Automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Junki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Kimura, Shouta; Hasegawa, Junichi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Nawano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast X-ray CT images is investigated. Because even in Japan, cases of metastatic liver cancers are increased due to recent Europeanization and/or Americanization of Japanese eating habits, development of a system for computer aided diagnosis of them is strongly expected. Our automated extraction procedure consists of following four steps; liver region extraction, density transformation for enhancement of cancer regions, segmentation for obtaining candidate cancer regions, and reduction of false positives by shape feature. Parameter values used in each step of the procedure are decided based on density and shape features of typical metastatic liver cancers. In experiments using practical 20 cases of metastatic liver tumors, it is shown that 56% of true cancers can be detected successfully from CT images by the proposed procedure. (author)

  15. Metastatic behaviour of primary human tumours in a zebrafish xenotransplantation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Ines J; Bagowski, Christoph P; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Vlecken, Danielle H; Nitsche, Claudia; Bakkers, Jeroen; Lagendijk, Anne K; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Lerch, Markus M

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of cell migration drives progression of many diseases, including cancer cell invasion and metastasis formation. Analysis of tumour invasion and metastasis in living organisms to date is cumbersome and involves difficult and time consuming investigative techniques. For primary human tumours we establish here a simple, fast, sensitive and cost-effective in vivo model to analyse tumour invasion and metastatic behaviour. We fluorescently labelled small explants from gastrointestinal human tumours and investigated their metastatic behaviour after transplantation into zebrafish embryos and larvae. The transparency of the zebrafish embryos allows to follow invasion, migration and micrometastasis formation in real-time. High resolution imaging was achieved through laser scanning confocal microscopy of live zebrafish. In the transparent zebrafish embryos invasion, circulation of tumour cells in blood vessels, migration and micrometastasis formation can be followed in real-time. Xenografts of primary human tumours showed invasiveness and micrometastasis formation within 24 hours after transplantation, which was absent when non-tumour tissue was implanted. Furthermore, primary human tumour cells, when organotopically implanted in the zebrafish liver, demonstrated invasiveness and metastatic behaviour, whereas primary control cells remained in the liver. Pancreatic tumour cells showed no metastatic behaviour when injected into cloche mutant embryos, which lack a functional vasculature. Our results show that the zebrafish is a useful in vivo animal model for rapid analysis of invasion and metastatic behaviour of primary human tumour specimen

  16. Costal chondrosarcoma requiring differential diagnosis from metastatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-02-01

    Although chondrosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor, cases arising in the rib are relatively rare. We experienced a case of chondrosarcoma arising in the right 10th rib during follow-up after lung cancer surgery. Although the finding of an osteolytic mass suggested a metastatic bone tumor, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography demonstrated low fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, and a primary bone tumor was suspected. The bone tumor was resected and diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Four years after resection, there has been no recurrence or metastasis. Positron-emission tomography was useful for differential diagnosis between a chondrosarcoma and a metastatic bone tumor.

  17. Hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abs, R.; Verhelst, J.; Schoofs, E.; De Somer, E.

    1991-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman with Pendred's syndrome underwent a partial thyroidectomy when she was 17 years old. At the age of 52 years, she had a second thyroid operation because of hyperthyroidism due to a toxic multinodular goiter with a mediastinal extension consisting of several separate nodules. Five years later a hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. After treatment with radioactive iodine, the patient was well. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of a metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma in Pendred's syndrome and the first report of hyperthyroidism occurring after malignant degeneration of a dyshormonogenetic goiter

  18. The economic impact of 18FDG positron emission tomography in the surgical management of colorectal cancer with hepatic metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubeldia, Jose M; Bednarczyk, Edward M; Baker, John G; Nabi, Hani A

    2005-08-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is recognized as a powerful tool in the management of patients with recurrent and/or metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of this was was to analyze costs from the payer's perspective, of adding FDG-PET to a computed tomography (CT) scan preoperatively in colorectal cancer patients with resectable hepatic metastases. CT with and without FDG-PET were compared among patients with colorectal cancer in staging for surgical resection of hepatic metastases. Outcomes included uncomplicated surgery, complicated surgery, or death. Extrahepatic disease occurrence rates and diagnostic accuracy of CT and FDG-PET were obtained from published sources. Complication rates and costs for CT, FDG-PET, and surgical procedures were obtained from Healthcare Finance Administration data. The average expected surgical cost per patient when FDG-PET was used to determine the presence of extrahepatic disease was 16,278 dollars compared to 21,547 dollars for conventional management-a net savings of 5,269 dollars. Integration of FDG-PET into the presurgical evaluation of patients with hepatic metastases could substantially reduce overall costs and patients' morbidity. This substantial net saving results from the unique ability of FDG-PET in excluding patients with extrahepatic disease, and avoiding unnecessary surgical expenses.

  19. Indoor air bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms and surgical wards at jimma university specialized hospital, southwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Chalachew; Kibru, Gebre; Tsegaye, Wondewosen

    2011-03-01

    Surgical site infection is the second most common health care associated infection. One of the risk factors for such infection is bacterial contamination of operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air. In view of that, the microbiological quality of air can be considered as a mirror of the hygienic condition of these rooms. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. A cross sectional study was conducted to measure indoor air microbial quality of operating rooms and surgical wards from October to January 2009/2010 on 108 indoor air samples collected in twelve rounds using purposive sampling technique by Settle Plate Method (Passive Air Sampling following 1/1/1 Schedule). Sample processing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done following standard bacteriological techniques. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and interpreted according to scientifically determined baseline values initially suggested by Fisher. The mean aerobic colony counts obtained in OR-1(46cfu/hr) and OR-2(28cfu/hr) was far beyond the set 5-8cfu/hr acceptable standards for passive room. Similarly the highest mean aerobic colony counts of 465cfu/hr and 461cfu/hr were observed in Female room-1 and room-2 respectively when compared to the acceptable range of 250-450cfu/hr. In this study only 3 isolates of S. pyogenes and 48 isolates of S. aureus were identified. Over 66% of S. aureus was identified in Critical Zone of Operating rooms. All isolates of S. aureus showed 100% and 82.8% resistance to methicillin and ampicillin respectively. Higher degree of aerobic bacterial load was measured from operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air. Reducing foot trafficking, improving the ventilation system and routine cleaning has to be made to maintain the aerobic bacteria load with in optimal level.

  20. Addison's disease as a presentation of metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, B; Patel, M; Ethunandan, M; Ilankovan, V

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for 5% of all skin cancers. The risk of metastasis is related to the thickness of the tumour, and can affect local, regional and distant sites. Adrenal metastasis from melanoma of the head and neck is uncommon and often asymptomatic. Addison's disease as a presentation of metastatic melanoma is extremely rare and we are unaware of previous reports in the world literature. We report a case of a patient with metastatic melanoma presenting with signs and symptoms of Addison's disease.

  1. A case of radiation gastritis required surgical treatment in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagino, Daisuke; Arai, Yuko; Komatsu, Atsushi; Inoue, Kumiko; Takechi, Kimihiro

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of radiation gastritis in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer. A 61-year-old woman received irradiation of a metastatic lesion of the second lumbar vertebra. Six months later she complained of fatigue and presented with severe anemia, and her diagnosis was hemorrhagic radiation gastritis. She was treated endoscopically, but that failed to control the bleeding, making it necessary to resect surgically. The incidence of radiation gastritis is very low because the stomach is rarely within the treated field, but it is of importance to be aware that the stomach is by no means more radioresistant than other organs. (author)

  2. A case of radiation gastritis required surgical treatment in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagino, Daisuke; Arai, Yuko; Komatsu, Atsushi; Inoue, Kumiko; Takechi, Kimihiro [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Tomobe (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of radiation gastritis in consequence of radiotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer. A 61-year-old woman received irradiation of a metastatic lesion of the second lumbar vertebra. Six months later she complained of fatigue and presented with severe anemia, and her diagnosis was hemorrhagic radiation gastritis. She was treated endoscopically, but that failed to control the bleeding, making it necessary to resect surgically. The incidence of radiation gastritis is very low because the stomach is rarely within the treated field, but it is of importance to be aware that the stomach is by no means more radioresistant than other organs. (author)

  3. Metastatic melanoma after 23 years of primary ocular melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Karde, Supriya Ramesh

    2016-11-23

    We describe a case of 52-year-old man who presented with an episode of tonic-clonic seizures. He had right ocular melanoma 23 years ago with subsequent enucleation which was the standard treatment at that time. CT scans of the brain and of the thorax-abdomen-pelvis revealed widespread metastatic lesions in the brain, lung and liver. Further investigations including bronchoscopy with cytopathology uncovered that the metastatic disease was a recurrence of ocular melanoma. He received palliative radiotherapy and died 6 months later. Ocular melanoma is often associated with fulminant metastatic disease after a period of dormancy. Thus, despite successful treatment of the localised disease at initial presentation, an effort is needed for optimal long-term follow-up plan in order to improve survival in case of recurrence.

  4. Metastatic spreading and growth of rhabdomyosarcoma in exposure to hyperglycemia, hyperthermia and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanenko, S.E.; Salamatina, N.A.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Under the effect of local UHF-hyperthermia, short-term hyperglycemia and ionizing radiation on metastasing strain of rhabdomysarcoma an increase in metastatic spreading or stimulated growth of primary tumor are not noticed. Otherwise, it is stated that hyperglycemia and hyperthermia thrice-used prevent from metastatic spreading of the tumor. Ionizing radiation decelerates both tumor growth and to a least extent its metastatic spreading

  5. Resources and Costs Associated with the Treatment of Advanced and Metastatic Gastric Cancer in the Mexican Public Sector: A Patient Chart Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Miguel; Toriz, José A; Novick, Diego; Jones, Kyla; Botello, Brenda S; Silva, Juan Alejandro

    2017-07-31

    Little evidence is available on the management and cost of treating patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer (GC). This study evaluates patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and resource utilization for these patients in Mexico. Data were collected from three centers of investigation (tertiary level). Patients were ≥18 years of age, diagnosed between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2015, had advanced or metastatic GC, received first-line fluoropyrimidine/platinum, and had ≥3 months follow-up after discontinuing first-line treatment. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. The study sample totaled 180. Patients' mean age was 57.2 years (±12.4) and 57.0% were male; 151 (83.9%) patients received second-line chemotherapy. A total of 16 and 19 regimens were identified in first- and second-line therapy. Of the sample, 51 (28.3%) received third-line therapy, and <10% received more than three lines of active chemotherapy. Supportive care received in first- and second-line chemotherapy, included pain interventions (12.2 and 7.9%), nutritional support (3.3 and 1.3%), radiotherapy (6.1 and 16.6%), and transfusions (13.3 and 10.6%), respectively. Using Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) tariffs, the average total cost per patient-month in first- and second-line therapy was US$1230 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1034-1425] and US$1192 (95% CI 913-1471), respectively. Administration and acquisition of chemotherapy comprised the majority of costs. This study shows considerable variation in first- and second-line chemotherapy regimens of patients with advanced or metastatic GC. Understanding GC treatment patterns in Mexico will help address unmet needs.

  6. Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the small bowel mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an uncommon cutaneous malignant tumor that presents as a rapidly growing skin nodule on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is aggressive with regional nodal and distant metastases to the skin, lung, and bones. There have been no reports of metastatic MCC to the mesentery and 6 reports describing metastasis to the small intestine. We present a case of metastatic MCC to the mesentery with infiltration to the small bowel, 8 years after original tumor resection. This is the 5th metastasis and it encased the small bowel resulting in a hair-pin loop contributing to the unusual clinical presentation. Although MCC metastatic to the bowel is uncommon, it is not rare. It is important to recognize the unusual manifestations of this disease as they are becoming more common in the future. Routine radiologic surveillance and thorough review of systems are important to patient follow-up.

  7. Nivolumab-induced vitiligo in a metastatic melanoma patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Lindsay A; Smith, Leticia V; Mallik, Alka

    2017-12-01

    The programmed-death-1 inhibitors selectively block programmed-death-1 interaction with its receptor, which restores active T-cell response directed at tumor cells, inducing an anti-tumor effect. This nonspecific activation of the immune system can also lead to a wide spectrum of side effects. Nivolumab has been used effectively to prolong survival in patients with metastatic melanoma and is recommended as a category 1 agent for systemic therapy in metastatic or unresectable melanoma per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who began nivolumab therapy for metastatic melanoma. After six doses of nivolumab therapy, the patient experienced generalized hypopigmentation on her face, chest, back, arms, and lower extremities. Although vitiligo has been reported in as many as 10.7% of patients undergoing nivolumab therapy in some clinical trials, we believe this is the first case to describe the progression of nivolumab-induced vitiligo in a metastatic melanoma patient. This case provides significant insight into the onset, symptoms, development, and treatment options for patients experiencing vitiligo as a result of nivolumab therapy.

  8. Comparison of computed tomography based parametric and patient-specific finite element models of the healthy and metastatic spine using a mesh-morphing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Meaghan Anne; Whyne, Cari Marisa

    2008-08-01

    A comparative analysis of parametric and patient-specific finite element (FE) modeling of spinal motion segments. To develop patient-specific FE models of spinal motion segments using mesh-morphing methods applied to a parametric FE model. To compare strain and displacement patterns in parametric and morphed models for both healthy and metastatically involved vertebrae. Parametric FE models may be limited in their ability to fully represent patient-specific geometries and material property distributions. Generation of multiple patient-specific FE models has been limited because of computational expense. Morphing methods have been successfully used to generate multiple specimen-specific FE models of caudal rat vertebrae. FE models of a healthy and a metastatic T6-T8 spinal motion segment were analyzed with and without patient-specific material properties. Parametric and morphed models were compared using a landmark-based morphing algorithm. Morphing of the parametric FE model and including patient-specific material properties both had a strong impact on magnitudes and patterns of vertebral strain and displacement. Small but important geometric differences can be represented through morphing of parametric FE models. The mesh-morphing algorithm developed provides a rapid method for generating patient-specific FE models of spinal motion segments.

  9. Uncommon surgical emergencies in neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Angotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Over the past decade, multiple factors have changed the pattern of neonatal surgical emergencies. An increase in prenatal screenings and the development of neonatal tertiary care centres have changed the clinical approach to these kids. Materials and methods. Between 1995 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed 34 patients with diagnosis of uncommon rare neonatal surgical emergencies at our institute. We analyzed: sex, gestational age, weight at birth, primary pathology, prenatal diagnosis, associated anomalies, age and weight at surgery, clinical presentation, start of oral feeding and hospitalization. The follow-up was performed at 6,12, 24 and 36 months. Results. There were 21 male and 13 female. The gestational age ranged between 28 and 36 weeks. The weight at birth ranged between 700 and 1400 grams. Oral feeding was started between 4th and 10th postoperative day. The average hospitalization was about 70.47 days. To date, all patients have finished the followup. They are healthy. Conclusion. The outcome of the patients with uncommon surgical emergencies is different based on the etiology. Overall survival is generally good but is influenced by the associated anomalies.

  10. Endoscopic-radiological findings in metastatic obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerder, U.; Heyder, N.; Riemann, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Metastatic obstructive jaundice usually results from an occlusion of the common hepatic or bile duct. More rarely, the underlying cause is a disseminated intrahepatic infiltration that has led to the occlusion of the bile canaliculi. The endoscopic-radiological examination techniques usually permit a reliable differentiation between neoplasms originating primarily in the biliary tract, and ductal occlusions caused by metastatic disease. In addition to this, both ERC and PTC permit the placement of an internal or external biliary drain during one and the same procedure. ERC represents a highly suitable method for the follow-up monitoring or documentation of the therapeutic effect of biliary drainage, radiotherapy and/or polychemotherapy. With the aid of regular follow-up examinations, recurrent diesase can be detected early on, and appropriately treated. (orig.)

  11. Metastatic Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma to the Cerebellopontine Angle: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debebe Theodros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas (EPSCC are rare malignancies with poor patient prognoses. We present the case of a 63-year-old male who underwent surgical resection of a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma, likely from a small intestinal primary tumor that metastasized to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA. A 63-year-old male presented with mild left facial paralysis, hearing loss, and balance instability. MRI revealed a 15 mm mass in the left CPA involving the internal auditory canal consistent with a vestibular schwannoma. Preoperative MRI eight weeks later demonstrated marked enlargement to 35 mm. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and the mass was grossly different visually and in consistency from a standard vestibular schwannoma. The final pathology revealed a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma. Postoperative PET scan identified avid uptake in the small intestine suggestive of either a small intestinal primary tumor or additional metastatic disease. The patient underwent whole brain radiation therapy and chemotherapy and at last follow-up demonstrated improvement in his symptoms. Surgical resection and radiotherapy are potential treatment options to improve survival in patients diagnosed with NET brain metastases. We present the first documented case of skull base metastasis of a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma involving the CPA.

  12. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.)

  13. Feature genes in metastatic breast cancer identified by MetaDE and SVM classifier methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Youlin; An, Ning; Zhang, Ming

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feature genes in metastatic breast cancer samples. A total of 5 expression profiles of metastatic breast cancer samples were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which were then analyzed using the MetaQC and MetaDE packages in R language. The feature genes between metastasis and non‑metastasis samples were screened under the threshold of PSVM) classifier training and verification. The accuracy of the SVM classifier was then evaluated using another independent dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Finally, function and pathway enrichment analyses for genes in the SVM classifier were performed. A total of 541 feature genes were identified between metastatic and non‑metastatic samples. The top 10 genes with the highest betweenness centrality values in the PPI network of feature genes were Nuclear RNA Export Factor 1, cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), myelocytomatosis proto‑oncogene protein (MYC), Cullin 5, SHC Adaptor Protein 1, Clathrin heavy chain, Nucleolin, WD repeat domain 1, proteasome 26S subunit non‑ATPase 2 and telomeric repeat binding factor 2. The cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), and MYC interacted with CDK2. The SVM classifier constructed by the top 30 feature genes was able to distinguish metastatic samples from non‑metastatic samples [correct rate, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value >0.89; sensitivity >0.84; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) >0.96]. The verification of the SVM classifier in an independent dataset (35 metastatic samples and 143 non‑metastatic samples) revealed an accuracy of 94.38% and AUROC of 0.958. Cell cycle associated functions and pathways were the most significant terms of the 30 feature genes. A SVM classifier was constructed to assess the possibility of breast cancer metastasis, which presented high accuracy in several

  14. Effect of induced hyperglycemia on metastatic spreading in Lewis lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakova, N.L.; Fomenkova, T.E.; Fadeeva, T.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of induced hyperglycemia on the intensity of metastatic dissemination of Lewis lung carcinoma was investigated in experiments on mice. Neither long-, nor short-term hyperglycemia, induced at different phases of dissemination, influenced the intensity of metastatic spreading, primary tumor growth, the time of appearance of metastases, and the average life duration of tumor-bearing animals

  15. Non-tumor enhancement at the surgical margin on CT after the removal of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Michito; Hosoya, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Kohichi; Yamada, Kiyotada

    1992-01-01

    Marginal enhancement is occasionally seen at the surgical margin on CT after the total removal of brain tumors. This enhancement disappears in due time, and therefore we call it non-tumor enhancement. It is often difficult, however, to differentiate non-tumor enhancement from tumor recurrence. In this study, we attempted to determine the characteristics of non-tumor enhancement. The subjects of the study consisted of 15 patients with astrocytoma and one with metastatic tumor in whom sequential CT scans had been performed after total removal of the tumor. Based on the observation of these sequential CT scans, the characteristics of non-tumor enhancement were presumed to be as follows: (1) In four cases, enhancement at the surgical margin persisted more than four months after surgery and then disappeared. Therefore, these cases were considered non-tumor enhancement. Prolonged duration of enhancement such as that in these cases is not necessarily due to recurrence. Marginal enhancement within 3 mm in thickness and with a well-demarcated border like that of a flax is likely to be non-tumor enhancement. (author)

  16. In vivo biomarker expression patterns are preserved in 3D cultures of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windus, Louisa C.E.; Kiss, Debra L.; Glover, Tristan; Avery, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report that Prostate Cancer (PCa) cell-lines DU145, PC3, LNCaP and RWPE-1 grown in 3D matrices in contrast to conventional 2D monolayers, display distinct differences in cell morphology, proliferation and expression of important biomarker proteins associated with cancer progression. Consistent with in vivo growth rates, in 3D cultures, all PCa cell-lines were found to proliferate at significantly lower rates in comparison to their 2D counterparts. Moreover, when grown in a 3D matrix, metastatic PC3 cell-lines were found to mimic more precisely protein expression patterns of metastatic tumour formation as found in vivo. In comparison to the prostate epithelial cell-line RWPE-1, metastatic PC3 cell-lines exhibited a down-regulation of E-cadherin and α6 integrin expression and an up-regulation of N-cadherin, Vimentin and β1 integrin expression and re-expressed non-transcriptionally active AR. In comparison to the non-invasive LNCaP cell-lines, PC3 cells were found to have an up-regulation of chemokine receptor CXCR4, consistent with a metastatic phenotype. In 2D cultures, there was little distinction in protein expression between metastatic, non-invasive and epithelial cells. These results suggest that 3D cultures are more representative of in vivo morphology and may serve as a more biologically relevant model in the drug discovery pipeline. -- Highlights: ► We developed and optimised 3D culturing techniques for Prostate Cancer cell-lines. ► We investigated biomarker expression in 2D versus 3D culture techniques. ► Metastatic PC3 cells re-expressed non-transcriptionally active androgen receptor. ► Metastatic PCa cell lines retain in vivo-like antigenic profiles in 3D cultures

  17. Novel immunotherapy approaches for metastatic urothelial and renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Shao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC and urothelial carcinoma (UC remains a major challenge. Past research has implicated the immune system in tumor surveillance of both malignancies, leading to the application of immunotherapy agents for both cancers. Among them, the most promising agents are the checkpoint blockade drugs, such as antibodies targeting the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4, programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1, and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1. In normal physiology, these immune checkpoints act as inhibitory signals to fine-tune the duration and strength of immune reactions, which is pivotal for maintaining self-tolerance. However, tumor cells also utilize immune checkpoint pathways to evade anti-tumor immune response, leading to disease progression and metastasis. Thus, there has been intense preclinical and clinical effort focused on the application of checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic RCC and UC. To date, nivolumab (anti-PD-1 and atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1 have been approved for the treatment of metastatic RCC and UC, respectively. Despite these successes, challenges remain in how to further improve response rates to immunotherapy and how to select patients that will benefit from this approach. In this report, we review existing data and research on immunotherapy in metastatic RCC and UC.

  18. Metastatic Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer Presenting Clinically with Esophageal Dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Karapetyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intra-abdominal metastases of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC may be insidious. We report a case of metastatic ILBC that presented with dysphagia within weeks of a negative mammogram and before the development of intra-abdominal symptoms. Case. A 70-year-old female developed esophageal dysphagia. She underwent EGD which showed a short segment of stricture of the distal esophagus without significant mucosal changes. Biopsy was unremarkable and patient underwent lower esophageal sphincter (LES dilation. Severe progressive dysphagia led to esophageal impaction and three LES dilatations. CT scan showed bilateral pleural effusions, more prominent on right side, and ascites. The pleural effusions were transudative. Repeat EGD with biopsy showed lymphocytic esophagitis, and she was started on swallowed fluticasone. Abdominal ultrasound with Doppler showed that the main portal vein had atypical turbulent flow that was felt to possibly be due to retroperitoneal process. The patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy which revealed diffuse punctate lesions on the peritoneum. Pathology was consistent with metastatic ILBC. Conclusion. Dysphagia in the setting of peritoneal carcinomatosis from metastatic ILBC is a rare finding. The case highlights the importance of metastatic ILBC as a differential diagnosis for female patients with progressive dysphagia and associated ascites or pleural effusions.

  19. MicroRNA expression analysis and Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in metastatic and non-metastatic uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association of microRNA expression and chromosomal changes with metastasis and survival in uveal melanoma (UM). Methods: Thirty-six patients with UM were selected based on the metastatic status, and clinicopathological data were collected. Multiplex ligation-dependent pr...

  20. Suture Coding: A Novel Educational Guide for Suture Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed; Abdel-Wahed, Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide a helpful guide to perform tissue suturing successfully using suture coding-a method for identification of suture patterns and techniques by giving full information about the method of application of each pattern using numbers and symbols. Suture coding helps construct an infrastructure for surgical suture science. It facilitates the easy understanding and learning of suturing techniques and patterns as well as detects the relationship between the different patterns. Guide points are fixed on both edges of the wound to act as a guideline to help practice suture pattern techniques. The arrangement is fixed as 1-3-5-7 and a-c-e-g on one side (whether right or left) and as 2-4-6-8 and b-d-f-h on the other side. Needle placement must start from number 1 or letter "a" and continue to follow the code till the end of the stitching. Some rules are created to be adopted for the application of suture coding. A suture trainer containing guide points that simulate the coding process is used to facilitate the learning of the coding method. (120) Is the code of simple interrupted suture pattern; (ab210) is the code of vertical mattress suture pattern, and (013465)²/3 is the code of Cushing suture pattern. (0A1) Is suggested as a surgical suture language that gives the name and type of the suture pattern used to facilitate its identification. All suture patterns known in the world should start with (0), (A), or (1). There is a relationship between 2 or more surgical patterns according to their codes. It can be concluded that every suture pattern has its own code that helps in the identification of its type, structure, and method of application. Combination between numbers and symbols helps in the understanding of suture techniques easily without complication. There are specific relationships that can be identified between different suture patterns. Coding methods facilitate suture patterns learning process. The use of suture coding can be a good

  1. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of both. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed or recurrent metastatic squamous neck cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  2. MRI of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain. Differential diagnosis of colorectal and pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusumi, Akio; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Katsutoshi

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the characteristic features of MR imagings of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain and search for differential points between the lesions from colorectal cancer and those of lung cancer, we evaluated retrospectively intraparenchymal metastatic lesions of 13 colorectal origins and 13 pulmonary origins on MR imagings, compared with resected specimens. Metastatic lesions from colorectal cancer showed marked hypointense solid components on T2WI, which correspond to the dense tumor cells and coagulated necrosis pathologically. Metastatic lesions from lung cancers showed mixed intensity and various components on T2WI, which correspond to various histological components, such as solid tumor cell's nests, hemorrhage, necrosis and cystic fluid collection. Pathological specimens suggested that the low signal intensity on T2WI of MRI derived from concentration of tumor cells and coagulated necrosis including macrophages and lymphocytes. This study may contribute to make the differential diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain from colorectal and pulmonary cancers. (author)

  3. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibition (ARPI) but eventually develops into lethal castration resistance prostate cancer ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0553 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Gleave...Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Gleave 5d

  4. Co-expression of putative stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers on single circulating tumour cells from patients with early and metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria A; Kallergi, Galatea; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Manouras, Lefteris; Theodoropoulos, Panayiotis A; Mavroudis, Dimitris; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Agelaki, Sofia

    2014-09-03

    single CTC-level in patients with breast cancer. A differential expression pattern for these markers was observed both in early and metastatic disease. CTCs expressing high ALDH1, along with nuclear TWIST were more frequently detected in patients with metastatic breast cancer, suggesting that these cells may prevail during disease progression.

  5. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  6. Characterizing the outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connor Wells, John; Donskov, Frede; Fraccon, Anna P

    2017-01-01

    Outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients are poorly characterized in the era of targeted therapy. A total of 5474 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were...... compared between clear cell (ccRCC; n = 5008) and papillary patients (n = 466), and recorded type I and type II papillary patients (n = 30 and n = 165, respectively). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR) favored ccRCC over pRCC. OS was 8 months longer...

  7. Notch Signaling Is Associated With ALDH Activity And An Aggressive Metastatic Phenotype In Murine Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eMu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignancy of bone, and pulmonary metastatic disease accounts for nearly all mortality. However, little is known about the biochemical signaling alterations that drive the progression of metastatic disease. Two murine OS cell populations, K7M2 and K12, are clonally related but differ significantly in their metastatic phenotypes and therefore represent excellent tools for studying metastatic OS molecular biology. K7M2 cells are highly metastatic, whereas K12 cells display limited metastatic potential. Here we report that the expression of Notch genes (Notch1, 2, 4 are up-regulated, including downstream targets Hes1 and Stat3, in the highly metastatic K7M2 cells compared to the less metastatic K12 cells, indicating that the Notch signaling pathway is more active in K7M2 cells. We have previously described that K7M2 cells exhibit higher levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity. Here we report that K7M2 cell ALDH activity is reduced with Notch inhibition, suggesting that ALDH activity may be regulated in part by the Notch pathway. Notch signaling is also associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress, migration, invasion, and VEGF expression in vitro. However, Notch inhibition did not significantly alter K7M2 cell proliferation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Notch signaling is associated with ALDH activity and increased metastatic behavior in OS cells. Both Notch and ALDH are putative molecular targets for the treatment and prevention of OS metastasis.

  8. Postoperative enhancement on breast MRI: Time course and pattern of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Mary C; Sharda, Radhika G

    2018-04-23

    Expected postoperative enhancement on breast MRI can appear similar to enhancement seen in recurrent or residual malignancy. Our aim was to assess the time course and patterns of enhancement at the surgical site, thereby helping to distinguish between benign and malignant postoperative enhancement. In 200 MRI scans performed in 153 patients after breast conservation treatment, 43 after surgical excision of atypia, and 4 patients after benign excisional biopsy were categorized by postoperative time interval. We defined 4 patterns of morphologic enhancement on MRI: cavity wall/seroma (Pattern I); thin linear (Pattern II); mass (Pattern III); and fat necrosis (Pattern IV). Of 200 MRI scans, 66 (33%) demonstrated enhancement at the surgical site. Enhancement typically decreased through the postoperative follow-up period. Enhancement was observed in 41% (28/68) of cases beyond the 18-month interval but was uncommon after 5 years. Pattern III enhancement was the morphologic pattern seen most commonly with malignancy (5/19 cases, 26%). When associated with delayed washout kinetics, it was even more strongly predictive of malignancy (4/5 cases, 80%). In patients with a history of excisional biopsy and no prior radiation treatment, the percentage of MRI scans showing enhancement was significantly lower than (21% vs 49% with P-value .0027) in patients who had undergone radiation. Enhancement at the surgical site occurred in one-third of cases up to 5 years after surgery, particularly in patients who underwent both radiation and surgery. Mass enhancement, particularly in conjunction with delayed washout kinetics, is most predictive of malignancy and should prompt biopsy or re-excision. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  10. Living with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis of Physical, Psychological, and Social Sequelae

    OpenAIRE

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Johnson, Courtney; Dickler, Maura; Norton, Larry; Massie, Mary Jane; DuHamel, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Women with metastatic breast cancer face a wide range of medical, practical, and emotional challenges that impact their quality of life. Research to date, however, has not focused on the quality-of-life concerns of metastatic breast cancer patients with significant distress. The present study examined a range of concerns among distressed metastatic breast cancer patients, including physical and emotional distress, social functioning, and existential issues. Forty-four distressed women with me...

  11. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic castrationresistant prostate cancer: a report from the PETRUS prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massard, Christophe; Oulhen, Marianne; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Auger, Nathalie; Foulon, Stéphanie; Abou-Lovergne, Aurélie; Billiot, Fanny; Valent, Alexander; Marty, Virginie; Loriot, Yohann; Fizazi, Karim; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Francoise

    2016-01-01

    Molecular characterization of cancer samples is hampered by tumor tissue availability in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. We reported the results of prospective PETRUS study of biomarker assessment in paired primary prostatic tumors, metastatic biopsies and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Among 54 mCRPC patients enrolled, 38 (70%) had biopsies containing more than 50% tumour cells. 28 (52%) patients were analyzed for both tissue samples and CTCs. FISH for AR-amplification and TMPRSS2-ERG translocation were successful in 54% and 32% in metastatic biopsies and primary tumors, respectively. By comparing CellSearch and filtration (ISET)-enrichment combined to four color immunofluorescent staining, we showed that CellSearch and ISET isolated distinct subpopulations of CTCs: CTCs undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, CTC clusters and large CTCs with cytomorphological characteristics but no detectable markers were isolated using ISET. Epithelial CTCs detected by the CellSearch were mostly lost during the ISET-filtration. AR-amplification was detected in CellSearch-captured CTCs, but not in ISET-enriched CTCs which harbor exclusively AR gain of copies. Eighty-eight percent concordance for ERG-rearrangement was observed between metastatic biopsies and CTCs even if additional ERG-alteration patterns were detected in ISET-enriched CTCs indicating a higher heterogeneity in CTCs. Molecular screening of metastatic biopsies is achievable in a multicenter context. Our data indicate that CTCs detected by the CellSearch and the ISET-filtration systems are not only phenotypically but also genetically different. Close attention must be paid to CTC characterization since neither approach tested here fully reflects the tremendous phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity present in CTCs from mCRPC patients. PMID:27391263

  12. Histological heterogeneity in primary and metastatic classic combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, Claudio; Sarker, Debashis; Ross, Paul; Heaton, Nigel; Quaglia, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) is a rare and aggressive primary liver cancer with both hepatocellular and cholangiocellular differentiation. Due to its bi-phenotypic component, cHCC-CC is a heterogeneous tumour and histopathological analysis of metastatic deposits is poorly characterized. In this retrospective study, we describe four patients in whom the histology from resected specimens of both primary and recurrent and/or metastatic tumour was available for comparison and immunohistochemical characterization. Our study shows that recurrent or metastatic deposits replicate the heterogeneity of the primary cHCC-CC, that even originally small foci of divergent differentiation can become predominant later on and that hepatocellular and cholangiocellular components can show different tropism in distant organs. In our experience, the behaviour of recurrent/metastatic cHCC-CC is unpredictable and histological examination is necessary to guide treatment options at present.

  13. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females died: one likely related to the capture procedure, the other of a peritonitis unrelated to the surgery. One wolf had a litter. None of the wolves have shown changes in behavioral patterns. Surgical sterilization can be effective, but other, less invasive, fertility control techniques should be investigated.

  14. Avelumab: a new standard for treating metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mairead; Cordes, Lisa; Brownell, Isaac

    2018-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer. Although MCC is chemosensitive, responses to traditional chemotherapeutic agents are not durable. Avelumab, a novel anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, recently became the first FDA-approved agent for the treatment of metastatic MCC and represents a new option to improve patient survival. Areas covered: This article presents an overview of MCC and summarizes the development of avelumab in the treatment of metastatic MCC. Preclinical studies, phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials, and the safety profile of avelumab are reviewed. Future perspectives and ongoing studies are also discussed. Expert commentary: Avelumab demonstrated rapid and durable responses and a manageable safety profile in the treatment of metastatic MCC. Patient outcomes are favorable when compared to historical responses to standard chemotherapy. Ongoing clinical trials will continue to characterize avelumab and its optimal use in MCC therapy.

  15. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  16. Protective, elective lung irradiation in non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, L; Hristozova, I; Mihaylova, I; Perenovska, P

    2015-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma in childhood is a disease from family of the peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours. For a period of 16 y (1984-2000), 34 children with Ewing's sarcoma were treated and followed in our department. Twenty-seven of these patients were without distant metastases. Complex treatment was applied to all these patients-chemotherapy VACA (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin), local radiotherapy to a total dose of 50-56 Gy +/- surgery. After, a local tumour control was achieved in 11 children with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, elective whole lung irradiation to a total dose of 12-15 Gy was applied. Our experience in these 11 patients with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, in whom elective lung irradiation was applied, showed significant reduction in the lung metastases, improved free of disease survival and overall survival. The achieved good treatment results necessitate extending this treatment approach through defining the risk groups of patients, suitable for elective lung radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Consistent expression of guanylyl cyclase-C in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Danaee

    Full Text Available The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GCC has been found to be expressed in colorectal cancers. However, limited data are available on GCC protein expression in non-colorectal gastrointestinal tumors and few studies have reported whether GCC protein expression was consistently preserved in synchronous primary and metastatic cancer tissues.GCC protein status was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tumor specimens from individuals (n = 627 with gastrointestinal tumors, including esophageal (n = 130, gastric (n = 276, pancreatic (n = 136, and colorectal (n = 85 primary and metastatic tumors. Tissue specimens consisted of tissue microarrays containing esophageal, gastric, pancreatic tumors, and whole-slide tissue sections from colorectal cancer patients with matching primary and metastatic tumors.Among the evaluated esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic tumors, the frequency of GCC positivity at the protein level ranged from 59% to 68%. GCC was consistently expressed in primary and matched/synchronous metastatic lesions of colorectal cancer tissues derived from the same patients.This observational study demonstrated the protein expression of GCC across various gastrointestinal malignancies. In all cancer histotypes, GCC protein localization was observed predominantly in the cytoplasm compared to the membrane region of tumor cells. Consistent immunohistochemistry detection of GCC protein expression in primary colorectal cancers and in their matched liver metastases suggests that the expression of GCC is maintained throughout the process of tumor progression and formation of metastatic disease.

  18. Knee pain and swelling: An atypical presentation of metastatic colon cancer to the patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Gasagranda, DO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee pain is a common reason for a patient to seek medical evaluation. Of the many causes of knee pain, malignancy is one of the least common. When malignancy is the etiology of the pain, it is usually due to a primary tumor of the osseous structures or soft tissues of the knee joint. Metastatic disease involving the knee joint is uncommon, with few cases reported in the literature. Of these reported cases, metastatic colon cancer is exceedingly rare. However, in a patient with new onset knee pain and the proper clinical history, metastatic disease should be considered as a potential explanation of symptoms. We report a case of knee pain and swelling due to metastatic colon cancer to the patella.

  19. Post surgical complications from students' large animal surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of post surgical complications was conducted on records of students' Large Animal Surgical Laboratories in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (F.V.M.), Ahmadu Bello University (A.B.U), Zaria from 1989 to 1993. Three hundred and eleven surgical complications were recorded from five surgical ...

  20. Distant metastatic retinoblastoma without central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in children, with a reported incidence ranging from 1 in 15,000 to 1 in 18,000 live births. Metastatic retinoblastoma is rare in developed countries, with a reported range from 4.8% in the United States to 5.8% in the United Kingdom. However, the frequency reported from developing countries varies from 9 to 11% at presentation. The mortality is very high owing to late presentations, delayed diagnosis compounded by socio-economic factors. The management of metastatic retinoblastoma is evolving, but it is still a challenge in pediatric oncology. We present a case of an extensive skeletal metastasis that initially presented as a massive orbital retinoblastoma.

  1. Determinants of survival after liver resection for metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parau, Angela; Todor, Nicolae; Vlad, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    Prognostic factors for survival after liver resection for metastatic colorectal cancer identified up to date are quite inconsistent with a great inter-study variability. In this study we aimed to identify predictors of outcome in our patient population. A series of 70 consecutive patients from the oncological hepatobiliary database, who had undergone curative hepatic surgical resection for hepatic metastases of colorectal origin, operated between 2006 and 2011, were identified. At 44.6 months (range 13.7-73), 30 of 70 patients (42.85%) were alive. Patient demographics, primary tumor and liver tumor factors, operative factors, pathologic findings, recurrence patterns, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed. Clinicopathologic variables were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses. The 3-year CSS after first hepatic resection was 54%. Median CSS survival after first hepatic resection was 40.2 months. Median CSS after second hepatic resection was 24.2 months. The 3-year DFS after first hepatic resection was 14%. Median disease free survival after first hepatic resection was 18 months. The 3-year DFS after second hepatic resection was 27% and median DFS after second hepatic resection 12 months. The 30-day mortality and morbidity rate after first hepatic resection was 5.71% and 12.78%, respectively. In univariate analysis CSS was significantly reduced for the following factors: age >53 years, advanced T stage of primary tumor, moderately- poorly differentiated tumor, positive and narrow resection margin, preoperative CEA level >30 ng/ml, DFS <18 months. Perioperative chemotherapy related to metastasectomy showed a trend in improving CSS (p=0.07). Perioperative chemotherapy improved DFS in a statistically significant way (p=0.03). Perioperative chemotherapy and achievement of resection margins beyond 1 mm were the major determinants of both CSS and DFS after first liver resection in multivariate

  2. Surgical treatment of gastric carcinoma with ovarian metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesinski Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian metastases from extragenital neoplasms are rare. The prevalent sites of the primary tumors were the breast, colorectum and the stomach. The Krukenberg tumor (KT is defined as a gastrointestinal cancer which metastasized to the ovaries. Metastasis to the ovary may appear at the time of diagnosis of the primary tumor (synchronous or during observation (metachronous. Common clinical presentations are abdominal distention, pain, palpable mass, bloating, ascites or pain during sexual intercourse. Diagnosis can be made by ultrasound examinations, CT or EMR scans, laparotomy and/or a biopsy of the ovary. The current standard treatment for patients with metastatic gastric cancer is systemic chemotherapy, however, treatment strategy for KTs from gastric cancer has not been clearly established and surgical treatment is considered mainly for metachronous tumors. The prognosis of patients with ovarian metastasis of gastric cancer origin is poorer compared with that of other primary tumors. Although the results of cytoreductive surgery – especially in combination with modern chemotherapy – seems to be promising, the optimal therapeutic strategies for such patients requires further prospective studies.

  3. SU-E-J-115: Using Markov Chain Modeling to Elucidate Patterns in Breast Cancer Metastasis Over Time and Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comen, E; Mason, J; Kuhn, P [The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nieva, J [Billings Clinic, Billings, Montana (United States); Newton, P [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Norton, L; Venkatappa, N; Jochelson, M [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, breast cancer metastasis is described as a process wherein cancer cells spread from the breast to multiple organ systems via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Mapping organ specific patterns of cancer spread over time is essential to understanding metastatic progression. In order to better predict sites of metastases, here we demonstrate modeling of the patterned migration of metastasis. Methods: We reviewed the clinical history of 453 breast cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who were non-metastatic at diagnosis but developed metastasis over time. We used the variables of organ site of metastases as well as time to create a Markov chain model of metastasis. We illustrate the probabilities of metastasis occurring at a given anatomic site together with the probability of spread to additional sites. Results: Based on the clinical histories of 453 breast cancer patients who developed metastasis, we have learned (i) how to create the Markov transition matrix governing the probabilities of cancer progression from site to site; (ii) how to create a systemic network diagram governing disease progression modeled as a random walk on a directed graph; (iii) how to classify metastatic sites as ‘sponges’ that tend to only receive cancer cells or ‘spreaders’ that receive and release them; (iv) how to model the time-scales of disease progression as a Weibull probability distribution function; (v) how to perform Monte Carlo simulations of disease progression; and (vi) how to interpret disease progression as an entropy-increasing stochastic process. Conclusion: Based on our modeling, metastatic spread may follow predictable pathways. Mapping metastasis not simply by organ site, but by function as either a ‘spreader’ or ‘sponge’ fundamentally reframes our understanding of metastatic processes. This model serves as a novel platform from which we may integrate the evolving genomic landscape that drives cancer

  4. SU-E-J-115: Using Markov Chain Modeling to Elucidate Patterns in Breast Cancer Metastasis Over Time and Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comen, E; Mason, J; Kuhn, P; Nieva, J; Newton, P; Norton, L; Venkatappa, N; Jochelson, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Traditionally, breast cancer metastasis is described as a process wherein cancer cells spread from the breast to multiple organ systems via hematogenous and lymphatic routes. Mapping organ specific patterns of cancer spread over time is essential to understanding metastatic progression. In order to better predict sites of metastases, here we demonstrate modeling of the patterned migration of metastasis. Methods: We reviewed the clinical history of 453 breast cancer patients from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who were non-metastatic at diagnosis but developed metastasis over time. We used the variables of organ site of metastases as well as time to create a Markov chain model of metastasis. We illustrate the probabilities of metastasis occurring at a given anatomic site together with the probability of spread to additional sites. Results: Based on the clinical histories of 453 breast cancer patients who developed metastasis, we have learned (i) how to create the Markov transition matrix governing the probabilities of cancer progression from site to site; (ii) how to create a systemic network diagram governing disease progression modeled as a random walk on a directed graph; (iii) how to classify metastatic sites as ‘sponges’ that tend to only receive cancer cells or ‘spreaders’ that receive and release them; (iv) how to model the time-scales of disease progression as a Weibull probability distribution function; (v) how to perform Monte Carlo simulations of disease progression; and (vi) how to interpret disease progression as an entropy-increasing stochastic process. Conclusion: Based on our modeling, metastatic spread may follow predictable pathways. Mapping metastasis not simply by organ site, but by function as either a ‘spreader’ or ‘sponge’ fundamentally reframes our understanding of metastatic processes. This model serves as a novel platform from which we may integrate the evolving genomic landscape that drives cancer

  5. Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio-orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0595 TITLE: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer...Sep 2016 - 14 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Targeted Bio -orthogonal Therapy for Metastatic Prostate

  6. Promising oncolytic agents for metastatic breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody JJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available James J Cody,1 Douglas R Hurst2 1ImQuest BioSciences, Frederick, MD, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: New therapies for metastatic breast cancer patients are urgently needed. The long-term survival rates remain unacceptably low for patients with recurrent disease or disseminated metastases. In addition, existing therapies often cause a variety of debilitating side effects that severely impact quality of life. Oncolytic viruses constitute a developing therapeutic modality in which interest continues to build due to their ability to spare normal tissue while selectively destroying tumor cells. A number of different viruses have been used to develop oncolytic agents for breast cancer, including herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, measles virus, reovirus, and others. In general, clinical trials for several cancers have demonstrated excellent safety records and evidence of efficacy. However, the impressive tumor responses often observed in preclinical studies have yet to be realized in the clinic. In order for the promise of oncolytic virotherapy to be fully realized for breast cancer patients, effectiveness must be demonstrated in metastatic disease. This review provides a summary of oncolytic virotherapy strategies being developed to target metastatic breast cancer. Keywords: oncolytic virus, virotherapy, breast cancer, metastasis 

  7. Can urologists introduce the concept of "oligometastasis" for metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Watanabe, Keitaro; Kufukihara, Ryohei; Yanai, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Satoshi; Oyama, Masafumi; Monma, Tetsuo; Masuda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shintaro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-12-19

    We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014. We extracted independent predictors for identifying a favorable. Occurrence that fulfilled all 4 criteria which were independently associated with cancer-specific death was defined as oligometastasis: a solitary metastatic organ; number of metastatic lesions of 3 or less; the largest diameter of metastatic foci of 5cm or less; and no liver metastasis. We evaluated differences in clinical outcomes between patients with oligometastasis (oligometastasis group) and those without oligometastasis (non-oligometastasis group). Overall, there were 43 patients in the oligometastasis group. The 2-year cancer-specific survival rate in the oligometastasis group was 53.3%, which was significantly higher than that in the non-oligometastasis group (16.1%, poligometastasis (poligometastasis group. The 2-year cancer-specific survival rate in the oligometastasis group was 55.0%, which was significantly higher than that in the non-oligometastasis group (22.0%, p=0.005). Non-oligometastasis (p=0.009) was the only independent risk factor for cancer-specific death. We presented that urothelial carcinoma with oligometastasis had a favorable prognosis and responded to systemic chemotherapy. Oligometastasis may be treated as a separate entity in the field of metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

  8. Stochastic and Deterministic Models for the Metastatic Emission Process: Formalisms and Crosslinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christophe; Hartung, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    Although the detection of metastases radically changes prognosis of and treatment decisions for a cancer patient, clinically undetectable micrometastases hamper a consistent classification into localized or metastatic disease. This chapter discusses mathematical modeling efforts that could help to estimate the metastatic risk in such a situation. We focus on two approaches: (1) a stochastic framework describing metastatic emission events at random times, formalized via Poisson processes, and (2) a deterministic framework describing the micrometastatic state through a size-structured density function in a partial differential equation model. Three aspects are addressed in this chapter. First, a motivation for the Poisson process framework is presented and modeling hypotheses and mechanisms are introduced. Second, we extend the Poisson model to account for secondary metastatic emission. Third, we highlight an inherent crosslink between the stochastic and deterministic frameworks and discuss its implications. For increased accessibility the chapter is split into an informal presentation of the results using a minimum of mathematical formalism and a rigorous mathematical treatment for more theoretically interested readers.

  9. Thoracoabdominal actinomycosis mimicking metastatic disease: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M.; Torres, G.M.; Ros, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection with bacteria of the Actinomycetaceae family, characterized by the formation of abundant granular tissue and multiple abscesses. It is a rare entity, and clinical and radiological findings are similar to those in other inflammatory and in neoplastic processes. Actinomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in high-risk patients with predisposing factors, such as alcoholism, poor oral hygiene, maxillofacial trauma, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steroid ingestion or immunodeficiency, and in patients in whom the disease history does not correlate with widespread metastatic involvement. Early diagnosis is important, to prevent disease progression and unnecessary surgery, since the response to drug treatment is very good. We present a case of diffuse actinomycosis involving multiple organs (liver, kidneys, colon, and lungs) that simulated metastatic disease on radiography and computed tomography (CT). (author)

  10. Thoracoabdominal actinomycosis mimicking metastatic disease: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, L.H.; Villacampa, V.M. [Hospital Miguel Servet, Dept. of Radiology, Zaragoza (Spain); Torres, G.M. [Univ. of Florida, Dept. of Radiology, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Ros, P.R. [Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection with bacteria of the Actinomycetaceae family, characterized by the formation of abundant granular tissue and multiple abscesses. It is a rare entity, and clinical and radiological findings are similar to those in other inflammatory and in neoplastic processes. Actinomycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in high-risk patients with predisposing factors, such as alcoholism, poor oral hygiene, maxillofacial trauma, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, steroid ingestion or immunodeficiency, and in patients in whom the disease history does not correlate with widespread metastatic involvement. Early diagnosis is important, to prevent disease progression and unnecessary surgery, since the response to drug treatment is very good. We present a case of diffuse actinomycosis involving multiple organs (liver, kidneys, colon, and lungs) that simulated metastatic disease on radiography and computed tomography (CT). (author)

  11. Aggressive palliative surgery in metastatic phyllodes tumor: Impact on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Kapali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic phyllodes tumor has very few treatment options. Phyllodes tumor in metastatic setting has limited role of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy or combined treatment. Most of the patients receive symptomatic management only. We present a case of metastatic phyllodes tumor managed with aggressive margin negative resection of primary tumor leading to palliation of almost all the symptoms, which eventually led to improved quality of life and probably to improved survival. The improved quality of life was objectively assessed with Hamilton depression rating scale. Surgery may be the only mode of palliation in selected patients that provides a better quality of life and directly or indirectly may lead to improved survival.

  12. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A report from the PETRUS prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massard, Christophe; Oulhen, Marianne; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Auger, Nathalie; Foulon, Stéphanie; Abou-Lovergne, Aurélie; Billiot, Fanny; Valent, Alexander; Marty, Virginie; Loriot, Yohann; Fizazi, Karim; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Francoise

    2016-08-23

    Molecular characterization of cancer samples is hampered by tumor tissue availability in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. We reported the results of prospective PETRUS study of biomarker assessment in paired primary prostatic tumors, metastatic biopsies and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Among 54 mCRPC patients enrolled, 38 (70%) had biopsies containing more than 50% tumour cells. 28 (52%) patients were analyzed for both tissue samples and CTCs. FISH for AR-amplification and TMPRSS2-ERG translocation were successful in 54% and 32% in metastatic biopsies and primary tumors, respectively. By comparing CellSearch and filtration (ISET)-enrichment combined to four color immunofluorescent staining, we showed that CellSearch and ISET isolated distinct subpopulations of CTCs: CTCs undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, CTC clusters and large CTCs with cytomorphological characteristics but no detectable markers were isolated using ISET. Epithelial CTCs detected by the CellSearch were mostly lost during the ISET-filtration. AR-amplification was detected in CellSearch-captured CTCs, but not in ISET-enriched CTCs which harbor exclusively AR gain of copies. Eighty-eight percent concordance for ERG-rearrangement was observed between metastatic biopsies and CTCs even if additional ERG-alteration patterns were detected in ISET-enriched CTCs indicating a higher heterogeneity in CTCs.Molecular screening of metastatic biopsies is achievable in a multicenter context. Our data indicate that CTCs detected by the CellSearch and the ISET-filtration systems are not only phenotypically but also genetically different. Close attention must be paid to CTC characterization since neither approach tested here fully reflects the tremendous phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity present in CTCs from mCRPC patients.

  13. Metastatic tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as a pancreatic cystic tumor and diagnosed by EUS-guided FNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Ryan; Andrawes, Sherif A; Hamele-Bena, Diane; Tong, Guo-Xia

    2017-11-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the pancreas is uncommon and head and neck squamous carcinoma metastatic to the pancreas is extremely rare. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the pancreas presents a unique diagnostic challenge: in addition to mimicking the rare primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas based on cytologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features, it may be mistaken for a cystic neoplasm of the pancreas because of its high predilection for cystic degeneration in metastatic sites. Herein, we report a case of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma with a cystic pancreatic metastasis diagnosed by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA). This represents a third reported case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to the pancreas from the head and neck region. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of EUS-FNA during evaluation of pancreatic cystic lesion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Surgical results of strabismus correction in patients with myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Myelomeningocele is one of the most common birth defects. It is associated with severe neurological deficiencies, and ocular changes, such as strabismus, are very common. The purpose of this study was to describe indications for strabismus surgery in patients with myelomeningocele and to evaluate the results achieved with surgical correction. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients with myelomeningocele who underwent surgery for strabismus correction in a 5-year period in an institution for disabled children. Results: The main indications for strabismus surgery were esotropia and A-pattern anisotropia. Excellent surgical results were achieved in 60.9% of patients, satisfactory in 12.2%, and unsatisfactory in 26.9%. Conclusion: Patients with myelomeningocele and strabismus had a high incidence of esotropia and A-pattern anisotropia. Strabismus surgery in these patients had an elevated percentage of excellent and satisfactory results, not only for the ocular deviation, but also for improvement of head posture.

  15. Oligo- and polymetastatic progression in lung metastasis(es) patients is associated with specific microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Yves A; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Regan, Kelly; Corbin, Kimberly; Li, Haiquan; Ganai, Sabha; Khan, Sajid A; Gnerlich, Jennifer L; Gnerlich, Jennifer; Darga, Thomas E; Fan, Hanli; Karpenko, Oleksiy; Paty, Philip B; Posner, Mitchell C; Chmura, Steven J; Hellman, Samuel; Ferguson, Mark K; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2012-01-01

    Strategies to stage and treat cancer rely on a presumption of either localized or widespread metastatic disease. An intermediate state of metastasis termed oligometastasis(es) characterized by limited progression has been proposed. Oligometastases are amenable to treatment by surgical resection or radiotherapy. We analyzed microRNA expression patterns from lung metastasis samples of patients with ≤ 5 initial metastases resected with curative intent. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on their rate of metastatic progression. We prioritized microRNAs between patients with the highest and lowest rates of recurrence. We designated these as high rate of progression (HRP) and low rate of progression (LRP); the latter group included patients with no recurrences. The prioritized microRNAs distinguished HRP from LRP and were associated with rate of metastatic progression and survival in an independent validation dataset. Oligo- and poly- metastasis are distinct entities at the clinical and molecular level.

  16. Chronic tears of the posterior tibial tendon: A correlative study of CT, MR imaging, and surgical exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Z.S.; Cheung, Y.; Jahss, M.; Noto, A.M.; Norman, A.; Leeds, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-two cases with clinically suspected chronic tears of the posterior tibial tendon were studied with either CT (22 cases), MR imaging (nine cases), or both modalities (21 cases). Subsequent surgical exploration was performed in 22 of the cases (43%). Three radiologic patterns of tendon abnormalities were recognized: (1) hypertrophied, heterogeneous tendon; (2) attenuated tendon; and (3) tendon gap. Both type 1 and type 2 patterns correlated surgically with partial tendon ruptures, and type 3 correlated with complete tendon rupture. While both CT and MR imaging demonstrated excellent correlation with surgical findings, MR was superior in detecting early partial ruptures, longitudinal splits, and synovial fluid. CT was superior in evaluating associated bony abnormalities such as periostitis and subtalar dislocations

  17. EphA2 Is a Potential Player of Malignant Cellular Behavior in Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells but Not in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Chul; Cho, Sung Yong; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Jeong, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of EphA2 in malignant cellular behavior in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and whether FAK/RhoA signaling can act as downstream effectors of EphA2 on RCC cells. Expression of EphA2 protein in non-metastatic RCC (Caki-2 and A498), metastatic RCC cells (Caki-1 and ACHN), HEK-293 cells and prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145; positive controls of EphA2 expression) was evaluated by Western blot. Changes in mRNA or protein expression of EphA2, FAK or membrane-bound RhoA following EphA2, FAK or RhoA small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. The effect of siRNA treatment on cellular viability, apoptosis and invasion was analyzed by cell counting kit-8, Annexin-V and modified Matrigel-Boyden assays, respectively. In all RCC cell lines, the expression of EphA2 protein was detectable at variable levels; however, in HEK-293 cells, EphA2 expression was very low. Treatment with EphA2 siRNA significantly reduced the expression of EphA2 mRNA and protein in all RCC cell lines. For non-metastatic RCC cells (Caki-2 and A498) but not metastatic RCC cells (Caki-1 and ACHN), cellular viability, invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein and FAK phosphorylation were significantly decreased in EphA2 siRNA-treated cells compared to the control. In non-metastatic RCC cells, FAK siRNA significantly attenuated the invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, as well as expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein without changing protein expression of EphA2. RhoA siRNA significantly decreased the malignant cellular behavior and expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein without changing EphA2 protein expression or FAK phosphorylation. Our data provide the first functional evidence that the EphA2/FAK/RhoA signaling pathway plays a critical role in the malignant cellular behavior of RCC and appears to be functional particularly in the early stage of

  18. PD-L1 inhibition with avelumab for metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, Maria Rita; Bongiorno, Michelle; Brownell, Isaac

    2018-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer that lacks durable responses to traditional chemotherapy. Areas covered: After MCC was shown to be an immunogenic tumor, small trials revealed high objective response rates to PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. The JAVELIN Merkel 200 (NCT02155647) trial tested the use of avelumab, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against PD-L1, in metastatic MCC. Avelumab recently became the first approved drug for metastatic MCC. Expert commentary: By conducting broad phase I studies assessing the safety of avelumab and a small phase II study demonstrating efficacy in this rare orphan tumor type, avelumab gained accelerated approval for the treatment of metastatic MCC. Additional studies are needed to determine how the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) competent Fc region of avelumab contributes to disease control. Remaining questions: Longer follow-up will determine the durability of checkpoint blockade in controlling metastatic MCC. Additional studies will assess the utility and safety of adjuvant checkpoint blockade in patients with excised MCC. How to increase response rates by combining PD-1/PD-L1 blockade with other treatment approaches needs to be explored. In addition, treatment options for MCC patients who fail or do not respond to avelumab need to be identified.

  19. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  20. Advancements in the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC: The Role of Ixabepilone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cristofanilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful management of breast cancer in the metastatic setting is often confounded by resistance to chemotherapeutics, in particular anthracyclines and taxanes. The limited number of effective treatment options for patients with more aggressive biological subtypes, such as triple-negative metastatic breast cancer, is especially concerning. As such, a therapy clinically proven to be effective in this subtype would be of great value. Ixabepilone, a novel synthetic lactam analog of epothilone B, demonstrated better clinical outcomes in metastatic disease, particularly in triple-negative breast cancer. Most recently, studies have shown the activity of ixabepilone in the neoadjuvant setting, suggesting a role for this drug in primary disease. Notably, treating in the neoadjuvant setting might allow clinicians to explore the predictive value of biomarkers and response to treatment, as pharmacogenomic approaches to therapy continue to evolve. In this article, we review the efficacy and safety data of ixabepilone as a monotherapy and as a component of combination therapy for metastatic and primary breast cancer.

  1. Efficacy of chemotherapy after hormone therapy for hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ryutaro; Nagao, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    According to the guidelines for metastatic breast cancer, hormone therapy for hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer without life-threatening metastasis should be received prior to chemotherapy. Previous trials have investigated the sensitivity of chemotherapy for preoperative breast cancer based on the efficacy of neoadjuvant hormone therapy. In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in hormone therapy-effective and hormone therapy-ineffective cases. Patients who received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer between 2006 and 2013 at our institution were investigated. A total of 32 patients received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The median patient age was 59 years, and most of the primary tumors exhibited a T2 status. A total of 26 patients had an N(+) status, while 7 patients had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumors. A total of 13 patients received clinical benefits from hormone therapy, with a rate of clinical benefit of subsequent chemotherapy of 30.8%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the hormone therapy-ineffective patients (52.6%). A total of 13 patients were able to continue the hormone therapy for more than 1 year, with a rate of clinical benefit of chemotherapy of 38.5%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the short-term hormone therapy patients (47.4%). The luminal A patients were able to continue hormone therapy for a significantly longer period than the non-luminal A patients (median survival time: 17.8 months vs 6.35 months, p = 0.0085). However, there were no significant differences in the response to or duration of chemotherapy. The efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer cannot be predicted based on the efficacy of prior hormone therapy or tumor subtype, and clinicians should administer chemotherapy in all cases of

  2. Photo-nano immunotherapy for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifan

    2016-03-01

    We constructed a multifunction nano system SWNT-GC and investigated the synergize photothermal and immunological effects. Here, we improve the SWNT-GC nano system and design a new synergistic nano-particle, both have the photothermal effects and immunological effects. We investigate the therapeutic effects and detect the immune response with metastatic mouse tumor models. We also study the therapeutic mechanism after treatment in vitro and in vivo. With the enhancement of nano-materials on photothermal effects, laser treatment could destroy primary tumor and protect normal tissue with low dose laser irradiation. With the immunological effects of nano-materials, the treatment could trigger specific antitumor immune response, to eliminate the metastasis tumor. It is providing a promising treatment modality for the metastatic cancers.

  3. Surgical Interventions for Advanced Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma of Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Paul J; Iwanaga, Joe; Tubbs, R Shane; Yilmaz, Emre

    2018-01-09

    Owing to its rarity, rhabdomyosarcoma of the head and neck (HNRMS) has seldom been discussed in the literature. As most of the data is based only on the retrospective experiences of tertiary healthcare centers, there are difficulties in formulating a standard treatment protocol. Moreover, the disease is poorly understood at its pathological, genetic, and molecular levels. For instance, 20% of all histological assessment is inaccurate; even an experienced pathologist can confuse rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and lymphoma. RMS can occur sporadically or in association with genetic syndromes associated with predisposition to other cancers such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease). Such associations have a potential role in future gene therapies but are yet to be fully confirmed. Currently, chemotherapies are ineffective in advanced or metastatic disease and there is lack of targeted chemotherapy or biological therapy against RMS. Also, reported uses of chemotherapy for RMS have not produced reasonable responses in all cases. Despite numerous molecular and biological studies during the past three decades, the chemotherapeutic regimen remains unchanged. This vincristine, actinomycin, cyclophosphamide (VAC) regime, described in Kilman, et al. (1973) and Koop, et al. (1963), has achieved limited success in controlling the progression of RMS. Thus, the pathogenesis of RMS remains poorly understood despite extensive modern trials and more than 30 years of studies exploring the chemotherapeutic options. This suggests a need to explore surgical options for managing the disease. Surgery is the single most critical therapy for pediatric HNRMS. However, very few studies have explored the surgical management of pediatric HNRMS and there is no standard surgical protocol. The aim of this review is to explore and address such issues in the hope of maximizing the number of options available for young patients

  4. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  5. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  6. Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuaki; Kido, Choichiro

    1987-01-01

    Some techniques of the most recent interventional radiology are very useful for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer and changing the style of hepatic infusion chemotherapy. This report shows our latest results and methods of hepatic infusion chemotherapy for metastatic liver cancer. 1. For the catheter placement, a new catheterization route via the left subclavian artery into the hepatic artery was developed and performed in 132 cases. Superselective catheterization succeeded in 123 cases (93.2 %). This procedure is less invasive than laparotomy and less troublesome than other percutaneous routes. 2. For useful infusion system, an implantable injection port ''Reservoir'' was developed and it was used in 87 cases. This method makes arterial infusion chemotherapy easy, and imploves their quality of life. 3. To acquire adequate drug delivery, arterial redistribution by steel coils was done, and 109 arteries in 80 cases were occluded. This method is very useful to make multiple hepatic artery single and it is important to avoid gasroduodenal complications. 4. Now, using these techniques, the phase II study of 5FU, ADM, MMC combined hepatic infusion in patients with non-resectable metastatic liver cancer is done. Up to this time, such a phase study on arterial infusion chemotherapy was difficult because of technical problems, but these new techniques make it possible. In conclusion, these new methods change the style and conception of hepatic infusion, and these make much progress on the treatment of patients with metastatic liver cancer. (author)

  7. Metastatic Gastric Linitis Plastica from Bladder Cancer Mimicking a Primary Gastric Carcinoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Won Sun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Byun, Jae Ho; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2009-01-01

    Primary gastric carcinoma is the most common cause of linitis plastica. Less frequently, metastatic gastric cancer from the breast, omental metastases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the stomach have been reported to show similar radiographic findings as for linitis plastica. A metastatic gastric cancer from bladder cancer is extremely rare. We present an unusual case, the first to our knowledge, of gastric linitis plastica that resulted from a metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  8. Surgical inpatient mortality in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-10

    Sep 10, 2015 ... Aim: The determination of the pattern of mortality in a surgical unit helps in ... Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients who died during ... and cancer constitute a great deal of health burden in our region. ... 2011. 2012 mortality rate. Figure 1: Yearly mortality trends. 0. 10. 20 .... in the population.

  9. Hep par-1: a novel immunohistochemical marker for differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, R.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Hep par-1 in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma taking histopathology as a gold standard. Study Design: Comparative cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Pathology Department, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, from April 2007 to February 2008. Methodology: Hep par-1 immunohistochemical stain was performed on 60 cases of liver carcinoma, 30 cases each of metastatic and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information regarding patient age, gender, sign and symptoms, radiographic findings, histological grade of tumour, and expression of Hep par-1 on hepatocellular and metastatic carcinoma were recorded on proforma sheet. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of Hep par-1 were calculated using the formulas. Results: Hep par-1 expression was noted in 25 out of 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (83%). Out of 30 cases of metastatic carcinoma, only one case expressed staining in < 5% tumour cells and remaining 29 cases showed no reactivity. The age of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma ranged from 40 to 76 years with a median age of 60.5 years and 40 - 75 years for metastatic carcinomas with a median age of 57.5 years. Conclusion: Hep par-1 is a reliable immunohistochemical marker for cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can be used along with other markers in morphologically difficult cases when differential diagnosis lies between poorly differentiated HCC and metastatic carcinoma of liver. (author)

  10. Clinical Relevance of Gene Copy Number Variation in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Blanchard, France; Sesboue, Richard; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Pfister, Christian; Di Fiore, Frédéric

    2018-02-23

    Gene copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported to be frequent in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with potential prognostic value for some. However, their clinical utility, especially to guide treatment of metastatic disease remains to be established. Our objectives were to assess CNVs on a panel of selected genes and determine their clinical relevance in patients who underwent treatment of metastatic RCC. The genetic assessment was performed on frozen tissue samples of clear cell metastatic RCC using quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragment method to detect CNVs on a panel of 14 genes of interest. The comparison of the electropherogram obtained from both tumor and normal renal adjacent tissue allowed for CNV identification. The clinical, biologic, and survival characteristics were assessed for their associations with the most frequent CNVs. Fifty patients with clear cell metastatic RCC were included. The CNV rate was 21.4%. The loss of CDKN2A and PLG was associated with a higher tumor stage (P relevance, especially those located on CDKN2A, PLG, and ALDOB, in a homogeneous cohort of patients with clear cell metastatic RCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The secreted factors responsible for pre-metastatic niche formation: old sayings and new thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Héctor; Lavotshkin, Simon; Lyden, David

    2011-04-01

    Metastasis is a multistep process that requires acquisition of malignant cell phenotypes which allow tumor cells to escape from the primary tumor site. Each of the steps during metastatic progression involves co-evolution of the tumor and its microenvironment. Although tumor cells are the driving force of metastasis, new findings suggest that the host cells within the tumor microenvironment play a key role in influencing metastatic behavior. Many of these contributing cells are derived from the bone marrow; in particular, recruited bone marrow progenitor cells generate the "pre-metastatic niche" to which the tumor cells metastasize. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in pre-metastatic niche formation has revealed that secreted soluble factors are key players in bone marrow cell mobilization during metastasis. In addition, membrane vesicles derived from both tumor and host cells have recently been recognized as new candidates with important roles in the promotion of tumor growth and metastasis. This review describes old ideas and presents new insights into the role of tumor and bone marrow-derived microvesicles and exosomes in pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stable and high expression of Galectin-8 tightly controls metastatic progression of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilini, Lucas Daniel; Pérez, Ignacio González; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Chauchereau, Anne; Laderach, Diego Jose; Compagno, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Two decades ago, Galectin-8 was described as a prostate carcinoma biomarker since it is only expressed in the neoplastic prostate, but not in the healthy tissue. To date, no biological function has been attributed to Galectin-8 that could explain this differential expression. In this study we silenced Galectin-8 in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and IGR-CaP1, and designed a pre-clinical experimental model that allows monitoring the pathology from its early steps to the long-term metastatic stages. We show for the first time that the natural and conserved expression of Gal-8 in tumour cells is responsible for the metastatic evolution of prostate cancer. In fact, Gal-8 controls the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and E-Cadherin expression, with a major impact on anoikis and homotypic aggregation of tumour cells, both being essential processes for the survival of circulating tumour cells during metastasis. While localized prostate cancer can be cured, metastatic and advanced disease remains a significant therapeutic challenge, urging for the identification of prognostic markers of the metastatic process. Collectively, our results highlight Galectin-8 as a potential target for anti-metastatic therapy against prostate cancer. PMID:28591719

  13. Metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy from uterine leiomyosarcoma with good local response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Hee Chul; Kee, Keun Hong; Jeon, Ho Jong; Park, You Hwan; Chung, Choon Hai

    2000-01-01

    The metastasis of uterine leiomyosarcoma to the neck node has not been reported previously and the radiotherapy has been rarely used for the metastatic lesion of the other sites. We report a case of neck metastasis from a uterine leiomyosarcoma, which developed 10 months after surgery and postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. It also involved the parapharyngeal space, adjacent spine, and spinal canal. The metastatic neck mass was inoperable, and was treated by neck radiotherapy (6,000 cGy) and chemotherapy including taxol and carboplatin. The mass has regressed progressively to a nearly impalpable state. She has never developed spinal cord compression syndrome, and has maintained good swallowing for eight months since the neck radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Since the extensive metastatic neck mass showed good local response to high dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy, both treatments may be considered for an unresectable metastatic leiomyosarcoma

  14. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia radiologically mimicking osteosarcoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cunningham, Laurence Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old lady with transitional cell carcinoma and no evidence of metastatic disease presenting with gradual weight loss, pretibial swelling and painful weightbearing. Investigations revealed a lesion of the right tibial diaphysis. The radiological and clinical appearance was that of primary osteosarcoma. Biopsy results revealed metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia. Intramedullary nailing was performed which relieved pain on weightbearing. The patient declined radiotherapy and was started on a palliative care regimen. This case illustrates the importance of histological diagnosis in the treatment of diaphyseal lesions.

  15. Metastatic Ewing's Sarcoma: Revisiting the “Evidence on the Fence”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nehal; Pandey, Avinash; Bajpai, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma is a challenging disease for oncology care providers with wide spectrum of disease at presentation, widely varying approach to the treatment and varied outcomes. The paucity of randomized evidence is a barrier in developing a consensus. This perspective provides the evidence ”for and against” the benefit of aggressive approach including local and systemic therapy in patients presenting with metastatic Ewing's sarcoma and provide general recommendations so as to help select patients who will benefit with definitive intent treatment and also, avoid aggressive approach in patients with dismal outcome. PMID:28900327

  16. Suggestion of optimal radiation fields in rectal cancer patients after surgical resection for the development of the patterns of care study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2003-06-01

    To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care

  17. Suggestion of optimal radiation fields in rectal cancer patients after surgical resection for the development of the patterns of care study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hoon; Park, Jin Hong; Kim, Dae Yong

    2003-01-01

    To suggest the optimal radiation fields after a surgical resection based on a nationwide survey on the principles of radiotherapy for rectal cancer in the Korean Patterns of Care Study. A consensus committee, composed of radiation oncologists from 18 hospitals in Seoul Metropolitan area, developed a survey format to analyze radiation oncologist's treatment principles for rectal cancer after a surgical resection. The survey format included 19 questions on the principles of defining field margins, and was sent to the radiation oncologists in charge of gastrointestinal malignancies in all Korean hospitals (48 hospitals). Thirty three (69%) oncologists replied. On the basis of the replies and literature review, the committee developed guidelines for the optimal radiation fields for rectal cancer. The following guidelines were developed: superior border between the lower tip of the L5 vertebral body and upper sacroiliac joint; inferior border 2-3 cm distal to the anastomosis in patient whose sphincter was saved, and 2-3 cm distal to the perineal scar in patients whose anal sphincter was sacrificed; anterior margin at the posterior tip of the symphysis pubis or 2-3 cm anterior to the vertebral body, to include the internal iliac lymph node and posterior margin 1.5-2 cm posterior to the anterior surface of the sacrum, to include the presacral space with enough margin. Comparison with the guidelines, the replies on the superior margin coincided in 23 cases (70%), the inferior margin after sphincter saving surgery in 13 (39%), the inferior margin after abdominoperineal resection in 32 (97%), the lateral margin in 32 (97%), the posterior margins in 32 (97%) and the anterior margin in 16 (45%). These recommendations should be tailored to each patient according to the clinical characteristics such as tumor location, pathological and operative findings, for the optimal treatment. The adequacy of these guidelines should be proved by following the Korean Patterns of Care Study

  18. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of bilateral maxillary canine impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old female patient reported with the chief complaint of irregular front teeth. She had a skeletal Class III and Angle′s Class I malocclusion with hyperdivergent growth pattern and bilateral impaction of maxillary canines. Surgical exposure of the impacted teeth and orthodontic alignment was planned. The surgical exposure was done by a minimally invasive modified window technique. Orthodontic treatment of impacted canines without causing significant morbidity to the adjacent teeth and periodontium is a challenge. The bilaterally impacted maxillary canines were successfully aligned and leveled. The depth of the gingival sulcus and clinical crown heights of disimpacted teeth were normal post-treatment and after 1 year of retention.

  19. Consensus statement on essential patient characteristics in systemic treatment trials for metastatic colorectal cancer: Supported by the ARCAD Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Kaitlyn K H; Sørbye, Halfdan; Glimelius, Bengt; Adams, Richard A; André, Thierry; Arnold, Dirk; Berlin, Jordan D; Bodoky, György; de Gramont, Aimery; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Eng, Cathy; Falcone, Alfredo; Grothey, Axel; Heinemann, Volker; Hochster, Howard S; Kaplan, Richard S; Kopetz, Scott; Labianca, Roberto; Lieu, Christopher H; Meropol, Neal J; Price, Timothy J; Schilsky, Richard L; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Shacham-Shmueli, Einat; Shi, Qian; Sobrero, Alberto F; Souglakos, John; Van Cutsem, Eric; Zalcberg, John; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Punt, Cornelis J A; Koopman, Miriam

    2018-06-21

    Patient characteristics and stratification factors are key features influencing trial outcomes. However, there is substantial heterogeneity in reporting of patient characteristics and use of stratification factors in phase 3 trials investigating systemic treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We aimed to develop a minimum set of essential baseline characteristics and stratification factors to include in such trials. We performed a modified, two-round Delphi survey among international experts with wide experience in the conduct and methodology of phase 3 trials of systemic treatment of mCRC. Thirty mCRC experts from 15 different countries completed both consensus rounds. A total of 14 patient characteristics were included in the recommended set: age, performance status, primary tumour location, primary tumour resection, prior chemotherapy, number of metastatic sites, liver-only disease, liver involvement, surgical resection of metastases, synchronous versus metachronous metastases, (K)RAS and BRAF mutation status, microsatellite instability/mismatch repair status and number of prior treatment lines. A total of five patient characteristics were considered the most relevant stratification factors: RAS/BRAF mutation status, performance status, primary tumour sidedness and liver-only disease. This survey provides a minimum set of essential baseline patient characteristics and stratification factors to include in phase 3 trials of systemic treatment of mCRC. Inclusion of these patient characteristics and strata in study protocols and final study reports will improve interpretation of trial results and facilitate cross-study comparisons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real time analysis of brain tissue by direct combination of ultrasonic surgical aspiration and sonic spray mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Karl-Christian; Balog, Júlia; Szaniszló, Tamás; Szalay, Dániel; Mezey, Géza; Dénes, Júlia; Bognár, László; Oertel, Matthias; Takáts, Zoltán

    2011-10-15

    Direct combination of cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry is presented. A commercially available ultrasonic surgical device was coupled to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) source by directly introducing liquified tissue debris into the Venturi air jet pump. The Venturi air jet pump was found to efficiently nebulize the suspended tissue material for gas phase ion production. The ionization mechanism involving solely pneumatic spraying was associated with that of sonic spray ionization. Positive and negative ionization spectra were obtained from brain and liver samples reflecting the primary application areas of the surgical device. Mass spectra were found to feature predominantly complex lipid-type constituents of tissues in both ion polarity modes. Multiply charged peptide anions were also detected. The influence of instrumental settings was characterized in detail. Venturi pump geometry and flow parameters were found to be critically important in ionization efficiency. Standard solutions of phospholipids and peptides were analyzed in order to test the dynamic range, sensitivity, and suppression effects. The spectra of the intact tissue specimens were found to be highly specific to the histological tissue type. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based data analysis method was developed for real-time tissue identification in a surgical environment. The method has been successfully tested on post-mortem and ex vivo human samples including astrocytomas, meningeomas, metastatic brain tumors, and healthy brain tissue. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. Cediranib for Metastatic Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummar, Shivaani; Allen, Deborah; Monks, Anne; Polley, Eric C.; Hose, Curtis D.; Ivy, S. Percy; Turkbey, Ismail B.; Lawrence, Scott; Kinders, Robert J.; Choyke, Peter; Simon, Richard; Steinberg, Seth M.; Doroshow, James H.; Helman, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare, highly vascular tumor, for which no effective standard systemic treatment exists for patients with unresectable disease. Cediranib is a potent, oral small-molecule inhibitor of all three vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). Patients and Methods We conducted a phase II trial of once-daily cediranib (30 mg) given in 28-day cycles for patients with metastatic, unresectable ASPS to determine the objective response rate (ORR). We also compared gene expression profiles in pre- and post-treatment tumor biopsies and evaluated the effect of cediranib on tumor proliferation and angiogenesis using positron emission tomography and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Results Of 46 patients enrolled, 43 were evaluable for response at the time of analysis. The ORR was 35%, with 15 of 43 patients achieving a partial response. Twenty-six patients (60%) had stable disease as the best response, with a disease control rate (partial response + stable disease) at 24 weeks of 84%. Microarray analysis with validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on paired tumor biopsies from eight patients demonstrated downregulation of genes related to vasculogenesis. Conclusion In this largest prospective trial to date of systemic therapy for metastatic ASPS, we observed that cediranib has substantial single-agent activity, producing an ORR of 35% and a disease control rate of 84% at 24 weeks. On the basis of these results, an open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II registration trial is currently being conducted for patients with metastatic ASPS comparing cediranib with another VEGFR inhibitor, sunitinib. PMID:23630200

  2. Patterns of Ninety-Day Readmissions Following Total Joint Replacement in a Bundled Payment Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behery, Omar A; Kester, Benjamin S; Williams, Jarrett; Bosco, Joseph A; Slover, James D; Iorio, Richard; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2017-04-01

    Alternative payment models aim to improve quality and decrease costs associated with total joint replacement. Postoperative readmissions within 90 days are of interest to clinicians and administrators as there is no additional reimbursement beyond the episode bundled payment target price. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of the patterns of readmission which would better guide perioperative patient management affecting readmissions. We hypothesize that readmissions have different timing, location, and patient health profile patterns based on whether the readmission is related to a medical or surgical diagnosis. A retrospective cohort of 80 readmissions out of 1412 total joint replacement patients reimbursed through a bundled payment plan was analyzed. Patients were grouped by readmission diagnosis (surgical or medical) and the main variables analyzed were time to readmission, location of readmission, and baseline Perioperative Orthopaedic Surgical Home and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores capturing pre-existing state of health. Nonparametric tests and multivariable regressions were used to test associations. Surgical readmissions occurred earlier than medical readmissions (mean 18 vs 33 days, P = .011), and were more likely to occur at the hospital where the surgery was performed (P = .035). Perioperative Orthopaedic Surgical Home and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores did not predict medical vs surgical readmissions (P = .466 and .879) after adjusting for confounding variables. Readmissions appear to follow different patterns depending on whether they are surgical or medical. Surgical readmissions occur earlier than medical readmissions, and more often at the hospital where the surgery was performed. The results of this study suggest that these 2 types of readmissions have different patterns with different implications toward perioperative care and follow-up after total joint replacement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  3. Combined therapy of radiation and hyperthermia on a metastatic tumor of angiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kitayama, Yoshiaki

    1987-01-01

    A combined therapy of radiation and hyperthermia is said to be fairly effective when applied to certain malignant tumors. However, the utility of this therapy for the treatment of angiosarcoma has not been well discussed. Recently, we have had a chance to treat a patient with metastatic angiosarcoma of the neck by using this combined therapy. In this paper, the clinical course of this patient and the availability of this combined therapy for angiosarcoma is reported. The patient was a 77-year-old man, having a primary lesion on the head and a metastatic tumor over the left cheek and neck. This combined therapy was used for the treatment of the metastatic tumor which caused severe pain and uncontrollable bleeding. The results were considered good ; the tumor decreased in size, pain disappeared and no further bleeding or severe side effects were observed. Though the patient died of another metastatic lesion which could not be treated with this combined therapy because the area of its localization could not allow placement in our hyperthermal apparatus, it is concluded that the combined therapy of radiation and hyperthermia is useful selectively for the treatment for angiosarcoma. (author)

  4. Toxicity and profile and objective response of Paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.N.; Mahmood, A; Rasul, S.; Syed, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of 1-hour weekly Paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer along with evaluation of overall survival. Patients and Methods: Thirty six patients were enrolled in the study. All patients with histologically confirmed and bi- dimensionally measurable metastatic breast cancer who had received previously either chemotherapy or hormone therapy were included in the study. Paclitaxel was administered in 1-hour weekly infusion in a dose of 100 mg/m/sup 2/ for 12 doses. Results: All patients had received previous chemotherapy with either CAF or CMF. Twenty five patients had also received hormone therapy, 61% had two or more metastatic sites involved, and lung was the common site of involvement. Complete response was observed in 4 (11.1 %) patients, partial response in 14 (38.8%) patients, with an overall response rate of 50.0%. Clinical benefit was 94.4% and median overall survival was 11 months. Treatment was well-tolerated with no grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Common side effects were arthralgias, myalgias and neutropenia. Conclusion: Treatment with 1-hour weekly infusion of Paclitaxel is a well-tolerated chemotherapy with a substantial degree of efficacy in patients with metastatic breast cancer. (author)

  5. Unforeseen clonal evolution of tumor cell population in recurrent and metastatic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensel Oh

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a very rare soft tissue sarcoma, generally of low-grade malignancy. DFSP is locally aggressive with a high recurrence rate, but metastasis occurs rarely. To investigate the mechanism of metastasis in DFSP, we analyzed the whole exome sequencing data of serial tumor samples obtained from a patient who had a 10-year history of recurrent and metastatic DFSP. Tracking various genomic alterations, namely somatic mutations, copy number variations, and chromosomal rearrangements, we observed a dramatic change in tumor cell population during the occurrence of metastasis in this DFSP case. The new subclone that emerged in metastatic DFSP harbored a completely different set of somatic mutations and new focal amplifications, which had not been observed in the primary clone before metastasis. The COL1A1-PDGFB fusion, characteristic of DFSP, was found in all of the serial samples. Moreover, the break position on the fusion gene was identical in all samples. Based on these observations, we suggest a clonal evolution model to explain the mechanism underlying metastasis in DFSP and identified several candidate target genes responsible for metastatic DFSP by utilizing The Cancer Genome Atlas database. This is the first study to observe clonal evolution in metastatic DFSP and provide insight for a possible therapeutic strategy for imatinib-resistant or metastatic DFSP.

  6. The various MRI patterns of pituitary apoplexy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotin, M.; Tampieri, D.; Garant, M.; Melanson, D.; Ruefenacht, D.A.; Delavelle, J.; Mohr, G.; Del Carpio, R.; Robert, F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the various MRI features, in correlation to surgical and pathological findings, in patients who presented with pituitary apoplexy (PA). Eleven patients presenting with PA, were evaluated with various MR protocols including spin-echo (SE) T1-weighted sequences in 9 of 11 patients, post gadolinium SE T1-weighted sequences in only 8 of 11 patients, and with T2-weighted SE sequences in 2 of 11 patients. All patients had transsphenoidal pituitary surgery after MR studies. The severity of presenting symptoms ranged from headaches to coma. Ten patients had pituitary macroadenoma; one had a non-hemorrhagic metastatic lesion into a non-adenomatous pituitary gland. Of the 11 patients, one was studied at the acute stage of PA (1 day after onset), 9 at the subacute period (3-15 days after onset), and one at the late stage (5 months after onset). Images compatible with intratumoral hemorrhage were found in all macroadenomas, whereas the metastatic pituitary lesion did not show evidence of bleeding. All gadolinium-enhanced studies showed partial tumoral enhancement. The SE T2-weighted studies demonstrated areas of low and high signal intensities in keeping with the presence of blood degradation contents. Pituitary apoplexy present with different MR features, including hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic characteristics on T1-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced images do not provide complementary diagnostic information when the presence of blood is assessed on plain images. (orig.)

  7. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  8. Surgical Assisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instruction, including: Microbiology Pathophysiology Pharmacology Anatomy and physiology Medical terminology Curriculum . Course content includes: Advanced surgical anatomy Surgical microbiology Surgical pharmacology Anesthesia methods and agents Bioscience Ethical ...

  9. Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies in a General Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... organized for general surgeons undertaking paediatric surgical emergencies. More paediatric surgeons should be trained and more paediatric surgical units should established in the country. Key Words: Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies; Paediatric Surgeons, General Surgeons. Journal of College of Medicine ...

  10. Effectiveness of radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors producing neurologic impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Nomoto, Satoshi; Imada, Hajime; Nakata, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) for treating neurological impairment and improving quality of life (QOL) in patients with metastatic spinal tumors. From 1985 through 2001, 75 patients with metastatic spinal tumors were treated with RT. Neurologic status and Karnofsky performance status were assessed before and after RT. The rate of neurologic improvement was significantly higher in patients with radio-sensitive tumors (75%) than in patients with radio-resistant tumors (37%). Few patients with Karnofsky performance status less than 40% before RT had good QOL after RT. The response to RT did not differ significantly on the basis of duration of paralysis before RT. RT is useful for treating neurologic impairment caused by metastatic spinal tumors, particularly those that are radiosensitive. To have good QOL after RT, treatment should be started in the early stage of neurological impairment. (author)

  11. Covalent Targeting of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wells S; Tan, Li; Smith, Andrew; Gray, Nathanael S; Wendt, Michael K

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic targeting of late-stage breast cancer is limited by an inadequate understanding of how tumor cell signaling evolves during metastatic progression and by the currently available small molecule inhibitors capable of targeting these processes. Herein, we demonstrate that both β3 integrin and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) are part of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that is required to facilitate metastatic outgrowth in response to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). Mechanistically, β3 integrin physically disrupts an interaction between FGFR1 and E-cadherin, leading to a dramatic redistribution of FGFR1 subcellular localization, enhanced FGF2 signaling and increased three-dimensional (3D) outgrowth of metastatic breast cancer cells. This ability of β3 integrin to drive FGFR signaling requires the enzymatic activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Consistent with these mechanistic data, we demonstrate that FGFR, β3 integrin, and FAK constitute a molecular signature capable of predicting decreased survival of patients with the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. Importantly, covalent targeting of a conserved cysteine in the P-loop of FGFR1-4 with our newly developed small molecule, FIIN-4, more effectively blocks 3D metastatic outgrowth as compared with currently available FGFR inhibitors. In vivo application of FIIN-4 potently inhibited the growth of metastatic, patient-derived breast cancer xenografts and murine-derived metastases growing within the pulmonary microenvironment. Overall, the current studies demonstrate that FGFR1 works in concert with other EMT effector molecules to drive aberrant downstream signaling, and that these events can be effectively targeted using our novel therapeutics for the treatment of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2096-106. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Metastatic breast carcinoma uncovered in an otherwise unremarkable “random colon biopsy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Black

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most devastating cancers afflicting women, being a main cause of cancer related death. Approximately 50% of these patients have developed regional or distant metastases at the time of diagnosis; hence, an early diagnosis and surgery with indicated neoadjuvant therapy are crucial in eradicating this disease and improving patient survival. A significant percentage of patients, even after initial satisfactory tumor removal, still face the threat of metastatic diseases which could plague a wide spectrum of body sites such as bones, lungs, central nervous system, liver and gastrointestinal tract (mostly upper gastrointestinal locations. Colonic and anorectal involvement by metastatic breast cancer has been less frequently reported in disseminated diseases. Typically, metastatic disease presents as a mass, enteric stenosis, or obstruction. Rare cases, however, may not form an endoscopically or radiologically recognizable lesion, and thus could be overlooked. Here we report a unique case of random colon biopsies in a patient presenting with epigastric pain, whose stomach biopsy showed Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic active gastritis. No colonoscopic lesion was present; however, microscopic examination of the “random biopsy” revealed scattered single and small clusters of tumor cells involving the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa, morphologically and immunophenotypically consistent with metastatic disease from breast carcinoma. The clinical presentation and histopathology of the case were reviewed and compared with limited cases reported in the literature. We conclude that high levels of suspicion and alertness are essential to identify occult microscopic gastrointestinal metastatic breast cancer in the absence of a grossly appreciable lesion.

  13. Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0615 TITLE: Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy PRINCIPAL...29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Neutrophil Protease-Mediated Degradation of Tsp-1 to Induce Metastatic Dormancy...infection or cigarette smoke enhanced pulmonary metastasis from breast cancer in humans and mice. Similarly, autoimmune arthritis, characterized by

  14. Cytoreductive surgery for men with metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Katelaris

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: This data supports recent findings demonstrating that radical prostatectomy for metastatic prostate cancer is feasible. Further studies are needed to explore the role of cytoreductive surgery with regards to the potential oncological benefit.

  15. Can urologists introduce the concept of “oligometastasis” for metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Watanabe, Keitaro; Kufukihara, Ryohei; Yanai, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Satoshi; Oyama, Masafumi; Monma, Tetsuo; Masuda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shintaro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014. We extracted independent predictors for identifying a favorable. Occurrence that fulfilled all 4 criteria which were independently associated with cancer-specific death was defined as oligometastasis: a solitary metastatic organ; number of metastatic lesions of 3 or less; the largest diameter of metastatic foci of 5cm or less; and no liver metastasis. We evaluated differences in clinical outcomes between patients with oligometastasis (oligometastasis group) and those without oligometastasis (non-oligometastasis group). Overall, there were 43 patients in the oligometastasis group. The 2-year cancer-specific survival rate in the oligometastasis group was 53.3%, which was significantly higher than that in the non-oligometastasis group (16.1%, poligometastasis (poligometastasis group. The 2-year cancer-specific survival rate in the oligometastasis group was 55.0%, which was significantly higher than that in the non-oligometastasis group (22.0%, p=0.005). Non-oligometastasis (p=0.009) was the only independent risk factor for cancer-specific death. We presented that urothelial carcinoma with oligometastasis had a favorable prognosis and responded to systemic chemotherapy. Oligometastasis may be treated as a separate entity in the field of metastatic urothelial carcinoma. PMID:29340094

  16. Distinct patterns in the gut microbiota after surgical or medical therapy in obese patients

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    Daniel A. Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is highly successful in improving health compared to conventional dietary treatments. It has been suggested that the gut microbiota is a relevant factor in weight loss after bariatric surgery. Considering that bariatric procedures cause different rearrangements of the digestive tract, they probably have different effects on the gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the impact of medical treatment, sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the gut microbiota from obese subjects. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were registered before, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Fecal samples were collected and microbiota composition was studied before and six months post treatment using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR. In comparison to dietary treatment, changes in intestinal microbiota were more pronounced in patients subjected to surgery, observing a bloom in Proteobacteria. Interestingly, Bacteroidetes abundance was largely different after six months of each surgical procedure. Furthermore, changes in weight and BMI, or glucose metabolism, correlated positively with changes in these two phyla in these surgical procedures. These results indicate that distinct surgical procedures alter the gut microbiota differently, and changes in gut microbiota might contribute to health improvement. This study contributes to our understanding of the impact of weight loss surgery on the gut microbiota, and could be used to replicate this effect using targeted therapies.

  17. WITHDRAWN: Chemoimmunotherapy versus chemotherapy for metastatic malignant melanoma.

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    Sasse, Andre D; Sasse, Emma C; Clark, Luciana Go; Clark, Otavio Augusto Camara

    2018-02-06

    Malignant melanoma, one of the most aggressive of all skin cancers, is increasing in incidence throughout the world. Surgery remains the cornerstone of curative treatment in earlier stages. Metastatic disease is incurable in most affected people, because melanoma does not respond to most systemic treatments. A number of novel approaches are under evaluation and have shown promising results, but they are usually associated with increased toxicity and cost. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy has been reported to improve treatment results, but it is still unclear whether evidence exists to support this choice, compared with chemotherapy alone. No language restrictions were imposed. To compare the effects of therapy with chemotherapy and immunotherapy (chemoimmunotherapy) versus chemotherapy alone in people with metastatic malignant melanoma. We searched the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register (14 February 2006), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (2003 to 30 January 2006 ), EMBASE (2003 to 20 July 2005) and LILACS (1982 to 20 February 2006). References, conference proceedings, and databases of ongoing trials were also used to locate trials. All randomised controlled trials that compared the use of chemotherapy versus chemoimmunotherapy on people of any age, diagnosed with metastatic melanoma. Two authors independently assessed each study to determine whether it met the pre-defined selection criteria, with differences being resolved through discussion with the review team. Two authors independently extracted the data from the articles using data extraction forms. Quality assessment included an evaluation of various components associated with biased estimates of treatment effect. Whenever possible, a meta-analysis was performed on the extracted data, in order to calculate a weighed treatment effect across trials. Eighteen studies met our criteria and were included in the meta

  18. Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer

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    Jun H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated metastatic breast cancer needs aggressive treatment due to its reduced response to anticancer treatment and hence low survival and quality of life. Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. Widely studied drug delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, and water-soluble polymers can concurrently carry multiple anticancer drugs in one platform. These carriers can provide improved target specificity achieved by passive and/or active targeting mechanisms.

  19. Metastatic breast carcinoma in the mandible presenting as a periodontal abscess: a case report.

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    Poulias, Evmenios; Melakopoulos, Ioannis; Tosios, Konstantinos

    2011-07-01

    Tumors can metastasize to the oral cavity and affect the jaws, soft tissue and salivary glands. Oral cavity metastases are considered rare and represent approximately 1% of all oral malignancies. Because of their rarity and atypical clinical and radiographic appearance, metastatic lesions are considered a diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a metastatic breast carcinoma mimicking a periodontal abscess in the mandible. A 55-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of bisphosphonate-induced jaw osteonecrosis. She had undergone modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection for invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast. Her clinical examination showed diffuse swelling and a periodontal pocket of 6 mm exhibiting suppuration in the posterior right mandible. Moreover, paresthesia of the lower right lip and chin was noted. There were no significant radiographic findings other than alveolar bone loss due to her periodontal disease. Although the lesion resembled a periodontal abscess, metastatic carcinoma of the breast was suspected on the basis of the patient's medical history. The area was biopsied, and histological analysis confirmed the final diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma. The general dentist or dental specialist should maintain a high level of suspicion while evaluating patients with a history of cancer. Paresthesias of the lower lip and the chin should be considered ominous signs of metastatic disease. This case highlights the importance of the value of a detailed medical history and thorough clinical examination for the early detection of metastatic tumors in the oral cavity.

  20. Comparison of the Mismatch Repair System between Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancers Using Immunohistochemistry

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    Jiyoon Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Approximately 10%–15% of the CRC cases have defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Although the high level of microsatellite instability status is a predictor of favorable outcome in primary CRC, little is known about its frequency and importance in secondary CRC. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC for MMR proteins (e.g., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 has emerged as a useful technique to complement polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses. Methods In this study, comparison between the MMR system of primary CRCs and paired liver and lung metastatic lesions was done using IHC and the correlation with clinical outcomes was also examined. Results Based on IHC, 7/61 primary tumors (11.4% showed deficient MMR systems, while 13/61 secondary tumors (21.3% showed deficiencies. In total, 44 cases showed proficient expression in both the primary and metastatic lesions. Three cases showed deficiencies in both the primary and paired metastatic lesions. In 10 cases, proficient expression was found only in the primary lesions, and not in the corresponding metastatic lesions. In four cases, proficient expression was detected in the secondary tumor, but not in the primary tumor. Conclusions Although each IHC result and the likely defective genes were not exactly matched between the primary and the metastatic tumors, identical results for primary and metastatic lesions were obtained in 77% of the cases (47/61. These data are in agreement with the previous microsatellite detection studies that used PCR and IHC.

  1. Tumor attributes predicting cutaneous metastatic destiny: a report of two interesting cases.

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    Gurumurthi, Ravichandran; Thirumalai, Raja; Easow, Jose M; Mohan, Subhashini

    2014-07-01

    Cutaneous metastases are the result of complex interaction between the tumor cells ("seed") and the host environment ("soil"). Metastases to the skin can be an early sign of internal malignancy or represent recurrence of the primary tumor and portends a poorer prognosis. Invasion and metastasis are the hallmarks of on cogenesis. Skin is the largest organ in the body, but the incidence of metastases is low. With advances in molecular biology, factors responsible for the initiation and perpetuation of metastatic tumor cells at distant sites are being elucidated. The concept of "pre-metastatic niche" and interaction between various chemokines has given a new outlook in understanding the organ specificity of metastatic tumor cells. We present two cases of cutaneous metastases with interesting clinical findings correlating with its biologic subtypes.

  2. The role of student surgical interest groups and surgical Olympiads in anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia.

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    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating student-led research and providing learners with advanced, practical surgical