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Sample records for metastatic gastric cancer

  1. Changes in the gastric potential difference during chemotherapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer

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    Fabrin, B; Højgaard, L; Mouridsen, H T

    1991-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are frequent side-effects of intravenous cancer chemotherapy. How these complications were related to the gastric mucosal function was investigated by measuring the gastric mucosal potential difference (PD). Eight patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving chemotherapy...

  2. Metastatic Carcinoma Occurring in a Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: The First Reported Case

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    Gabriel M. Groisman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are regarded as benign. However, in rare cases they may contain incipient primary carcinomas. To our knowledge, breast carcinoma metastatic to a gastric hyperplastic polyp has not yet been reported. We describe the case of a 69-year-old woman to whom a gastric polyp was endoscopically excised. The patient had previously undergone a right mastectomy for mixed, invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma 5 years earlier. Histological sections from the gastric lesion showed typical features of hyperplastic polyp with foci of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma including signet ring cells infiltrating the lamina propria. The histologic findings were consistent with a primary gastric cancer. However, the carcinoma cells were immunopositive for estrogen and progesterone receptors and GATA3 and negative for CDX2, Hep Par 1, and MUC5AC. E-cadherin showed membranous reactivity in some of the carcinoma cells while in others it was negative. Accordingly, metastatic mixed, lobular and ductal breast carcinoma was diagnosed. We conclude that metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer can be rarely encountered in hyperplastic gastric polyps.

  3. Metastatic gastric cancer – focus on targeted therapies

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    Meza-Junco J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Judith Meza-Junco, Michael B SawyerDepartment of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gastric cancer (GC is currently the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide; unfortunately, most patients will present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Despite recent progress in diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, prognosis remains poor. A better understanding of GC biology and signaling pathways is expected to improve GC therapy, and the integration of targeted therapies has recently become possible and appears to be promising. This article focuses on anti-Her-2 therapy, specifically trastuzumab, as well as other epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists such as cetuximab, panitumub, matuzumab, nimotzumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib. Additionally, drugs that target angiogenesis pathways are also under investigation, particulary bevacizumab, ramucirumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, and cediranib. Other targeted agents in preclinical or early clinical development include mTOR inhibitors, anti c-MET, polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors, anti-insulin-like growth factor, anti-heat shock proteins, and small molecules targeting Hedgehog signaling.Keywords: gastric cancer, targeted therapy, antiangiogenesis drugs, anti-EGFR drugs

  4. [A case of metastatic gastric cancer originating from transverse colon cancer].

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    Nushijima, Youichirou; Nakano, Katsutoshi; Sugimoto, Keishi; Nakaguchi, Kazunori; Kan, Kazuomi; Maruyama, Hirohide; Doi, Sadayuki; Okamura, Shu; Murata, Kohei

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic gastric cancer is uncommon, and metastasis of colorectal cancer to the stomach is extremely rare. We report a case of metastatic gastric cancer that originated from transverse colon cancer. A 52-year-old woman underwent a left hemicolectomy and D3 lymph node dissection based on a diagnosis of transverse colon cancer. The pathology results were as follows: mucinous adenocarcinoma, type 2, 6 × 11 cm, ss, ly1 v1, pm (-), dm (-), n1 (+), P0, H0, M0, Stage IIIa. The patient received XELOX as postoperative adjuvant therapy for 6 months. One year and 3 months after the left hemicolectomy, gastroscopy revealed a submucosal tumor in the lower body of the stomach and an incipient cancer in the cardia of the stomach, and a colonoscopy revealed an incipient cancer in the transverse colon. An endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspiration biopsy of the submucosal tumor in the lower body of the stomach was performed. Histology showed that this tumor was a mucinous adenocarcinoma similar to the primary transverse colon cancer, which led to a diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer originating from transverse colon cancer. Distant metastasis was not detected. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the incipient gastric cancer was performed, as were distal gastrectomy and partial colectomy. Peritoneal dissemination and para-aortic lymph node recurrence were detected 7 months after the second surgery.

  5. Survival analysis of stage IV metastatic gastric cancer patients treated with HangAm-Plus.

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    Park, Jae-Woo; Yoon, Jeungwon; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of HangAm-Plus (HAP) on stage IV metastatic gastric cancer by analyzing the treated patients' overall survival outcome. Following the study eligibility, overall survival and one year survival rate of 44 stage IV metastatic gastric cancer patients who visited East-West Cancer Center (EWCC) were analyzed. The study consisted of two arms: HAP treatment only (n=18) and combined treatment of concurrent conventional chemotherapy and HAP (n=26). Patient characteristics by gender, age, surgical intervention, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score, treatment duration (HAP group (5.1 months). One-year survival rate of combined treatment group and HAP group was 38.5%±9.5% and 33.3%±11.1%, respectively (P>0.05). One-year survival rate of those received more and less than 4-week treatment was 57.1%±18.7% and 8.3%±8.0%, respectively (P=0.001). The study supports the safety and potential efficacy of HAP treatment in prevention of chemo-related side effects for stage IV metastatic gastric cancer treated with conventional chemotherapy. Further studies are needed to investigate and confirm the results before applying the treatment in clinical settings.

  6. Prognostic Value of Metastatic Tumoral Caveolin-1 Expression in Patients with Resected Gastric Cancer

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    Der Sheng Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1, as the main component of caveolae, has complex roles in tumourigenesis in human malignancies. We investigated Cav-1 in primary and metastatic tumor cells of gastric cancer (GC and its association with clinical outcomes. Methods. We retrieved 145 cases of GC who had undergone curative gastrectomy. The expression levels of Cav-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and its association with clinicopathological parameters and patient survival was analyzed. Results. High expression of Cav-1 protein of the GC in the stomach and metastatic lymph node was 12.4% (18/145 and 16.5% (15/91. In the multivariate analysis, tumoral Cav-1 protein in metastatic lymph node showed prognostic significance for relapse-free survival (RFS, HR, 3.934; 95% CI, 1.882–8.224; P=0.001 and cancer-specific survival outcome (CSS, HR, 2.681; 95% CI, 1.613–8.623; P=0.002. Among the GCs with metastatic lymph node, it remained as a strong indicator of poor prognosis for RFS (HR, 3.136; 95% CI, 1.444–6.810; P=0.004 and CSS (HR, 2.509; 95% CI, 1.078–5.837; P=0.032. Conclusion. High expression of tumoral Cav-1 protein in metastatic lymph node is associated with unfavorable prognosis of curative resected GC, indicating the potential of novel prognostic markers.

  7. Study of metastatic lymph nodes in advanced gastric cancer with spiral computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yijuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of spiral computed tomography (SCT) in the diagnosis of lymph nodes metastases in gastric cancer. Methods: The characteristics of spiral computed tomography (SCT) of metastatic lymph nodes in 35 gastric cancer patients were analyzed and compared with operation and pathology. Results: A total amount of 379 lymph nodes (positive 173, negative 206) were detected by SCT and confirmed by pathology in metastasis-positive or metastasis-negative patients. The positive rate with diameter of lymph nodes ≥ 10 mm is 62.7%. The positive rate with ir- regular shape and uneven enhancement lymph nodes were 96.3% and 89.4%. If the attenuation values, more than or equal to 25 HU in plain scan or 70 HU in arterial phase or 80 HU in venous phase, were used as the threshold to detect the metastasis-positive lymph nodes, the positive rate were 55.7%, 56.3%, 67.8% respectively. Conclusion: SCT is valuable in judging the metastasis in gastric cancer. The reference of diameter ≥ 10mm, combining with the shape and the attenuation values can dramatically improve the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer. (authors)

  8. The prognostic impact of epidermal growth factor receptor in patients with metastatic gastric cancer

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    Atmaca Akin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a potential target of anticancer therapy in gastric cancer. However, its prognostic role in metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GE cancer has not been established yet. Methods EGFR status was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC in paraffin-embedded samples from 357 patients who received chemotherapy in 4 first-line trials. Automated RNA extraction from paraffin and RT-quantitative PCR were additionally used to evaluate EGFR mRNA expression in 130 patients. Results EGFR protein expression (any grade and overexpression (3+ were observed in 43% and 11% of patients, respectively. EGFR positivity correlated with intestinal type histology (p = 0.05, but not with other clinicopathologic characteristics. Median follow-up was 18.2 months. Median overall survival (OS was similar in patients with EGFR positive vs. those with EGFR negative tumors, regardless whether positivity was defined as ≥1+ (10.6 vs. 10.9 months, p = 0.463 or as 3+ (8.6 vs. 10.8 months, p = 0.377. The multivariate analysis indicated that EGFR status is not an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio 0.85, 0.56 to 1.12, p = 0.247. There were also no significant differences in overall survival when patients were categorized according to median (p = 0.116 or quartile (p = 0.767 distribution of EGFR mRNA gene expression. Similar distributions of progression-free survival according to EGFR status were observed. Conclusions Unlike different cancer types where EGFR-positive disease is associated with an adverse prognostic value, EGFR positivity is not prognostic of patient outcome in metastatic gastric or GE cancer.

  9. Metastatic Cancer

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    Metastatic cancer is cancer that spreads from its site of origin to another part of the body. Learn how cancer spreads, possible symptoms, common sites where cancer spreads, and how to find out about treatment options.

  10. Gastric obstruction secondary to metastatic breast cancer: a case report and literature review

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    Hussain Tasadooq

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastrointestinal tract soft tissues metastasis is a well-known occurrence with invasive lobular breast cancer subtypes. Gastric involvement is more common, with reports of both diffuse and localized involvements. Usually, a gastric localized involvement presents as wall thickening with an appearance similar to that of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour; rarely does a localized metastatic deposit grow aggressively to present as a large tumour causing obstructive symptoms. Our case highlights one such unusual presentation in a patient presenting with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on a similar presentation occurring from a localized metastasis. Case presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian woman awaiting an outpatient oral gastroduodenoscopy for symptoms of intermittent vomiting, epigastric pains and weight loss of six weeks’ duration presented acutely with symptoms of haematemesis and abdominal distension. An initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed a grossly dilated stomach with a locally advanced stenosing tumour mass at the pylorus. Our patient had a history of left mastectomy and axillary clearance followed by adjuvant endocrine therapy for an oestrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive, grade 2, invasive lobular breast cancer. The oral gastroduodenoscopy confirmed the computed tomography findings; biopsies of the pyloric mass on immunohistochemistry stains were strongly positive for pancytokeratin and gross cystic disease fluid proteins, consistent with an invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis. She received a palliative gastrojejunal bypass and her adjuvant endocrine treatment was switched over to exemestane. Conclusion Our case highlights the aggressive behaviour of a localized gastric metastasis that is unusual and unexpected. Gastrointestinal symptomatology can be non-specific and, at times, non-diagnostic on

  11. Metastatic gastric cancer presenting with shoulder-hand syndrome: a case report

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    Massarotti Marco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Shoulder-hand syndrome is a relatively rare clinical entity classified as a complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and consisting essentially of a painful 'frozen shoulder' with disability, swelling, vasomotor or dystrophic changes in the homolateral hand. The pathophysiology is not completely clear but a predominant 'sympathetic' factor affecting the neural and vascular supply to the affected parts seems to be involved. Shoulder-hand syndrome has been related to many surgical, orthopedic, neurological and medical conditions; it is more often seen after myocardial infarction, hemiplegia and painful conditions of neck and shoulder, such as trauma, tumors, cervical discogenic or intraforaminal diseases and shoulder calcific tendinopathy, but has also been associated with herpetic infections, brain and lung tumors, thoracoplasty and drugs including phenobarbitone and isoniazid. The diagnosis of shoulder-hand syndrome is primarily clinical, but imaging studies, particularly bone scintigraphy, may be useful to exclude other disorders. Case presentation We report the case of a 67-year-old woman who presented with shoulder-hand syndrome as the initial manifestation of gastric cancer which had metastasized to bone. Conclusion Wider investigations are advisable in patients with atypical shoulder-hand syndrome. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first case of shoulder-hand syndrome associated with metastatic gastric cancer.

  12. Use of up-to-date ultrasound technologies in the diagnosis of metastatic ovarian tumors in gastric cancer

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    M. A. Chekalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the results of ultrasound and postoperative histological studies of 14 patients with primary diagnosis of gastric cancer who received treatment at the cancer research center in 2014. Metastases to the ovaries detected in all cases with disseminated gastric cancer as the primary diagnosis, and in monitoring the effectiveness of treatment. The most characteristic ultrasound signs of metastatic ovarian tumors. When elastography in all cases, metastatic the affected ovaries were determined in the solid sections of the component of high-density (stiffness, charterhouses type 5 (blue, the average rigidity coefficient was 10.2–32.2. Solid-cystic masses in cases of tumor were mapped to 4 of Krukenberg type (which met as the dense and elastic stretches, charterhouses blue and green colors.

  13. Metastatic lung cancer presenting as gastric outlet obstruction: diagnosis and management with laparoscopic gastric bypass: a novel technique.

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    Gilbert, Richard W D; Bird, Brian R Healey; O'Boyle, Colm J

    2016-10-28

    Metastatic tumours of the duodenum are relatively rare. Here we present a case of a 64-year-old Caucasian male who presented with a 3-week history of postprandial vomiting, weight-loss and epigastric discomfort. Imaging and biopsy revealed that the patient had a primary lung tumour in his right upper lung lobe as well as a duodenal metastasis leading to gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). The patient was stabilised and subsequently underwent a laparoscopic gastric bypass to palliate the gastric outlet obstruction. Appropriate management of metastatic GOO involves accurate diagnosis and treatment with either enteral stenting or laparoscopic gastric bypass. It is suggested that the decision whether to stent or surgically bypass the obstruction can be based on the patient's life expectancy and performance status. Regardless of the approach, palliating metastatic GOO can improve the quality of life of carefully chosen symptomatic patients. We describe a technique of laparoscopic palliative gastric bypass which has not been reported previously in the literature. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Induction of Metastatic Gastric Cancer by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptorδ Activation

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    Claire B. Pollock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorδ (PPARδ regulates a multiplicity of physiological processes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and proliferation. One or more of these processes likely create risk factors associated with the ability of PPARδ agonists to promote tumorigenesis in some organs. In the present study, we describe a new gastric tumor mouse model that is dependent on the potent and highly selective PPARδ agonist GW501516 following carcinogen administration. The progression of gastric tumorigenesis was rapid as determined by magnetic resonance imaging and resulted in highly metastatic squamous cell carcinomas of the forestomach within two months. Tumorigenesis was associated with gene expression signatures indicative of cell adhesion, invasion, inflammation, and metabolism. Increased PPARδ expression in tumors correlated with increased PDK1, Akt, β-catenin, and S100A9 expression. The rapid development of metastatic gastric tumors in this model will be useful for evaluating preventive and therapeutic interventions in this disease.

  15. Characterizing Metastatic HER2-Positive Gastric Cancer at the CDH1 Haplotype

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    Caggiari, Laura; Miolo, Gianmaria; Buonadonna, Angela; Basile, Debora; Santeufemia, Davide A.; De Zorzi, Mariangela; Fornasarig, Mara; Alessandrini, Lara; Lo Re, Giovanni; Puglisi, Fabio; Steffan, Agostino

    2017-01-01

    The CDH1 gene, coding for the E-cadherin protein, is linked to gastric cancer (GC) susceptibility and tumor invasion. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is amplified and overexpressed in a portion of GC. HER2 is an established therapeutic target in metastatic GC (mGC). Trastuzumab, in combination with various chemotherapeutic agents, is a standard treatment for these tumors leading to outcome improvement. Unfortunately, the survival benefit is limited to a fraction of patients. The aim of this study was to improve knowledge of the HER2 and the E-cadherin alterations in the context of GC to characterize subtypes of patients that could better benefit from targeted therapy. An association between the P7-CDH1 haplotype, including two polymorphisms (rs16260A-rs1801552T) and a subset of HER2-positive mGC with better prognosis was observed. Results indicated the potential evaluation of CDH1 haplotypes in mGC to stratify patients that will benefit from trastuzumab-based treatments. Moreover, data may have implications to understanding the HER2 and the E-cadherin interactions in vivo and in response to treatments. PMID:29295527

  16. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

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    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  17. MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer and its overexpression reduces the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells

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    Zhao, Yu; Zhu, Zhenggang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Qu, Ying; Li, Jianfang; Yu, Beiqin; Yan, Min; Yu, Yingyan; Liu, Bingya

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs are involved in gastric cancer development and progression. Here we examine the role of miR-133b in gastric cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed in 140 patient gastric cancer tissues and 8 gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of miR-133b in gastric cancer cells metastasis were examined by scratch assay, transwell migration and matrigel invasion. In vivo effects of miR-133b were examined in an intraperitoneal mouse tumor model. Targets of miR-133b were predicted by bioinformatics tools and validated by luciferase reporter analyses, western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. MiR-133b was significantly downregulated in 70% (98/140) of gastric cancer patients. Expression of miR-133b was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer in patients. Similarly, the expression of miR-133b was significantly lower in seven tested gastric cancer cell lines than in the immortalized non-cancerous GES-1 gastric epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-133b markedly inhibited metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the transcriptional factor Gli1 was identified as a direct target for miR-133b. Level of Gli1 protein but not mRNA was decreased by miR-133b. Activity of luciferase with Gli1 3′-untranslated region was markedly decreased by miR-133b in gastric cancer cells. Gli1 target genes, OPN and Zeb2, were also inhibited by miR133b. MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer. Overexpression of miR-133b inhibits cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo partly by directly suppressing expression of Gli1 protein. These results suggested that miR-133b plays an important role in gastric cancer metastasis

  18. Metastatic lymph node in gastric cancer; Is it a real distant metastasis?

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    Noh Jae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, the TNM staging system is a widely accepted method for assessing the prognosis of the disease and planning therapeutic strategies for cancer. Of the TNM system, the extent of lymph node involvement is the most important independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer. The aim of our study is to evaluate the survival and prognosis of gastric cancer patients with LN#12 or #13 involvement only and to assess the impact of anatomic regions of primary gastric tumor on survival in this particular subset of patients. Methods Among data of 1,008 stage IV gastric cancer patients who received curative R0 gastrectomy, a total of 79 patients with LN#12 (n = 68 and/or #13 (n = 11 were identified. All patients performed gastrectomy with D2 or D3 lymph node dissection. Results In 79 patients with LN#12/13 involvement, the estimated one-, three- and five-year survival rate was 77.2%, 41.8% and 26.6% respectively. When we compared the patients with LN#12/13 involvement to those without involvement, there was no significant difference in OS (21.0 months vs. 25.0 months, respectively; P = 0.140. However, OS was significantly longer in patients with LN#12/13 involvement only than in those with M1 lymph node involvement (14.3 months; P = 0.001. There was a significant difference in survival according to anatomic locations of the primary tumor (lower to mid-body vs. high body or whole stomach: 26.5 vs. 9.2 months (P = 0.009. In Cox proportional hazard analysis, only N stage (p = 0.002 had significance to predict poor survival. Conclusion In this study we found that curatively resected gastric cancer patients with pathologic involvement of LN #12 and/or LN #13 had favorable survival outcome, especially those with primary tumor location of mid-body to antrum. Prospective analysis of survival in gastric cancer patients with L N#12 or #13 metastasis is warranted especially with regards to primary tumor location.

  19. Metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma to the mandible

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    Lee, Ji Un; Kwon, Ki Jeong; Ahn, Hyoun Suk; Koh, Kwang Joon [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    Metastatic tumors to the jaw bones area uncommon. The most common metastatic tumors to the jaw bones are the breast, lung and kidney. In the jaw bones, the common location of the lesions is the mandible, and the posterior area of the mandible is more commonly affected. The radiographic appearance is quite variable. In this report, a very rare case of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma to the mandible is presented. The patient had undergone a gastrectomy 3 years ago.

  20. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  1. Anatomical location of metastatic lymph nodes: an indispensable prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients who underwent curative resection.

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    Zhao, Bochao; Zhang, Jingting; Zhang, Jiale; Chen, Xiuxiu; Chen, Junqing; Wang, Zhenning; Xu, Huimian; Huang, Baojun

    2018-02-01

    Although the numeric-based lymph node (LN) staging was widely used in the worldwide, it did not represent the anatomical location of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) and not reflect extent of LN dissection. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether the anatomical location of MLNs was still necessary to evaluate the prognosis of node-positive gastric cancer (GC) patients. We reviewed 1451 GC patients who underwent radical gastrectomy in our institution between January 1986 and January 2008. All patients were reclassified into several groups according to the anatomical location of MLNs and the number of MLNs. The prognostic differences between different patient groups were compared and clinicopathologic features were analyzed. In the present study, both anatomical location of MLNs and the number of MLNs were identified as the independent prognostic factors (p location of MLNs was considered (p location of MLNs had no significant effect on the prognosis of these patients, the higher number of MLNs in the extraperigastric area was correlated with the unfavorable prognosis (p location of MLNs was an important factor influencing the prognostic outcome of GC patients. To provide more accurate prognostic information for GC patients, the anatomical location of MLNs should not be ignored.

  2. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

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    ... certain chronic conditions increase the risk of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about stomach cancer: Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach cancer ...

  3. WISP-2 in human gastric cancer and its potential metastatic suppressor role in gastric cancer cells mediated by JNK and PLC-γ pathways.

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    Ji, Jiafu; Jia, Shuqin; Jia, Yongning; Ji, Ke; Hargest, Rachel; Jiang, Wen G

    2015-09-15

    It has recently been shown that WISP proteins (Wnt-inducted secreted proteins), a group of intra- and extra-cellular regulatory proteins, have been implicated in the initiation and progression of a variety of tumour types including colorectal and breast cancer. However, the role of WISP proteins in gastric cancer (GC) cells and their clinical implications have not yet been elucidated. The expression of WISP molecules in a cohort of GC patients was analysed using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The expression of a panel of recognised epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was quantified using Q-PCR in paired tumour and normal tissues. WISP-2 knockdown (kd) sublines using ribozyme transgenes were created in the GC cell lines AGS and HGC27. Subsequently, several biological functions, including cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion, were studied. Potential pathways for the interaction of EMT, extracellular matrix and MMP were evaluated. Overexpression of WISP-2 was detected in GC and significantly correlated with early tumour node-metastasis staging, differentiation status and positively correlated with overall survival and disease-free survival of the patients. WISP-2 expression was inversely correlated with that of Twist and Slug in paired samples. Kd of WISP-2 expression promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells. WISP-2 suppressed GC cell metastasis through reversing EMT and suppressing the expression and activity of MMP9 and MMP2 via JNK and ERK. Cell motility analysis indicated that WISP-2 kd contributed to GC cells' motility and can be attenuated by PLC-γ and JNK small inhibitors. Increased expression of WISP-2 in GC is positively correlated with favourable clinical features and the survival of patients with GC and is a negative regulator of growth, migration and invasion in GC cells. These findings suggest that WISP-2 is a potential tumour suppressor in GC.

  4. Maintenance treatment of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) in responders following first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer: a randomized phase II study.

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    Li, Wenhua; Zhao, Xiaoying; Wang, Huijie; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xinmin; Huang, Mingzhu; Qiu, Lixin; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhiyu; Guo, Weijian; Li, Jin; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-06

    Maintenance therapy proves to be effective in advanced lung and breast cancer after initial chemotherapy. The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) maintenance in metastatic gastric cancer patients following the first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Metastatic gastric cancer patients with stable disease or a better response after the completion of first-line chemotherapy were randomized to oral UFT (360mg/m2 × 2 weeks) every 3 weeks until disease progression/intolerable toxicity or to observation (OBS). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. The trial was closed after the interim analysis of the 58 enrolled (120 planned) patients. Median PFS was not improved in the UFT group compared with the OBS group (3.2 months versus 3.6 months, P = 0.752), as well as the median OS (14.2 months for both, P = 0.983). However, subgroup analysis showed that low baseline hemoglobin (maintenance therapy (P = 0.032), while the normal hemoglobin patients benefit from the UFT treatment (P = 0.008). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities in the UFT group were anemia (3.4%), thrombocytopenia (3.4%) and diarrhea (6.9%). This trial did not show superiority of UFT maintenance in non-selected patients responding to fluorouracil-based first-line chemotherapy. The normal hemoglobin level at baseline is a predictive biomarker for favorable patient subsets from the maintenance treatment.

  5. Oxaliplatin/Irinotecan/Bevacizumab Followed by Docetaxel/Bevacizumab in Inoperable Locally Advanced or Metastatic Gastric Cancer Patients - AGMT_GASTRIC-3.

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    Wöll, Ewald; Thaler, Josef; Keil, Felix; Gruenberger, Birgit; Hejna, Michael; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Fridrik, Michael A; Ulmer, Hanno; Trommet, Vera; Huemer, Florian; Weiss, Lukas; Greil, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Although high response rates using the doublet-chemotherapy of oxaliplatin and irinotecan as well as its combination with cetuximab in advanced gastric cancer were shown in previous trials, time to progression was short, suggesting acquired chemotherapy resistance. Sequential chemotherapy (oxaliplatin and irinotecan followed by docetaxel) combined with bevacizumab was investigated in the GASTRIC-3 trial. Patients achieving at least stable disease were continued on maintenance bevacizumab. Objective response rate was available in 33 patients: Complete response (CR) 12.1%, partial response (PR) 39.4%, stable disease (SD) 27.3%. Median time to progression was 7.0 months (95%CI=5.0-11.0) and median overall survival was 11 months (95%CI=9.0-15.0). Of note, two patients continue to receive bevacizumab maintenance therapy for more than 5 years with ongoing CR. Combining sequential chemotherapy with oxaliplatin/irinotecan and docetaxel with bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab maintenance is feasible and clinically active in advanced gastric cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of IGF2BP2, KCNQ1 and GCKR polymorphisms on clinical outcome in metastatic gastric cancer treated with EOF regimen.

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    Liu, Xin; Chen, Zhiyu; Zhao, Xiaoying; Huang, Mingzhu; Wang, Chenchen; Peng, Wei; Yin, Jiliang; Li, Jin; He, Guang; Li, Xin; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D)-related gene polymorphisms and their impacts on chemotherapeutic response and survival in patients with metastatic gastric cancer (MGC). This retrospective study enrolled 108 MGC patients treated with first-line EOF chemotherapy (epirubicin, oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil combination chemotherapy). Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms of five T2D-related genes were determined. Among the 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms, three (IGF2BP2 rs4402960, IGF2BP2 rs6769511 and KCNQ1 rs163182) were significantly associated with disease control rate and two (GCKR rs780093 and rs780094) were significantly associated with progression-free and overall survival. Our results suggest IGF2BP2 and KCNQ1 polymorphisms might be independent predictors of chemotherapeutic response, while GCKR polymorphisms might be independent predictors of survival in MGC patients treated with first-line EOF chemotherapy. Original submitted 30 June 2014; revision submitted 15 April 2015.

  7. Resources and Costs Associated with the Treatment of Advanced and Metastatic Gastric Cancer in the Mexican Public Sector: A Patient Chart Review.

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    Quintana, Miguel; Toriz, José A; Novick, Diego; Jones, Kyla; Botello, Brenda S; Silva, Juan Alejandro

    2017-07-31

    Little evidence is available on the management and cost of treating patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer (GC). This study evaluates patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and resource utilization for these patients in Mexico. Data were collected from three centers of investigation (tertiary level). Patients were ≥18 years of age, diagnosed between 1 January 2009 and 1 January 2015, had advanced or metastatic GC, received first-line fluoropyrimidine/platinum, and had ≥3 months follow-up after discontinuing first-line treatment. Data were summarized using descriptive statistics. The study sample totaled 180. Patients' mean age was 57.2 years (±12.4) and 57.0% were male; 151 (83.9%) patients received second-line chemotherapy. A total of 16 and 19 regimens were identified in first- and second-line therapy. Of the sample, 51 (28.3%) received third-line therapy, and patterns in Mexico will help address unmet needs.

  8. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  9. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Bizzaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms.

  10. Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer, mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2018-03-01

    Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer is relatively rare, commonly presented among multiple metastases, several years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Importantly, gastric cancer that is synchronously presented with lobular breast cancer can be misdiagnosed as primary gastric cancer; therefore, accurate differential diagnosis is required. A 39-year-old woman was visited to our hospital because of right breast mass and progressive dyspepsia. Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast was diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Gastroscopy revealed a diffuse scirrhous mass at the prepyloric antrum and diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Synchronous double primary breast and gastric cancers were considered. Detailed pathological analysis focused on immunohistochemical studies of selected antibodies, including those of estrogen receptors, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2, were studied. As a result, gastric lesion was diagnosed as metastatic gastric cancer originating from breast. Right breast conserving surgery was performed, and duodenal stent was inserted under endoscopic guidance to relieve the patient's symptoms. Systemic chemotherapy with combined administration of paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. Forty-one months after the diagnosis, the patient is still undergoing the same therapy. No recurrent lesion has been identified in the breast and evidence of a partial remission of gastric wall thickening has been observed on follow-up studies without new metastatic lesions. Clinical suspicion, repeat endoscopic biopsy, and detailed histological analysis, including immunohistochemistry, are necessary for diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer from the breast.

  11. Olaparib In Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-17

    Metastatic Breast Cancer; Invasive Breast Cancer; Somatic Mutation Breast Cancer (BRCA1); Somatic Mutation Breast Cancer (BRCA2); CHEK2 Gene Mutation; ATM Gene Mutation; PALB2 Gene Mutation; RAD51 Gene Mutation; BRIP1 Gene Mutation; NBN Gene Mutation

  12. Biomarker analysis of cetuximab plus oxaliplatin/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil in first-line metastatic gastric and oesophago-gastric junction cancer: results from a phase II trial of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luber, Birgit; Folprecht, Gunnar; Wöll, Ewald; Decker, Thomas; Endlicher, Esther; Lorenzen, Sylvie; Fend, Falko; Peschel, Christian; Lordick, Florian; Deplazes, Joëlle; Keller, Gisela; Walch, Axel; Rauser, Sandra; Eichmann, Martin; Langer, Rupert; Höfler, Heinz; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    The activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab combined with oxaliplatin/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil (FUFOX) was assessed in first-line metastatic gastric and oesophago-gastric junction (OGJ) cancer in a prospective phase II study showing a promising objective tumour response rate of 65% and a low mutation frequency of KRAS (3%). The aim of the correlative tumour tissue studies was to investigate the relationship between EGFR gene copy numbers, activation of the EGFR pathway, expression and mutation of E-cadherin, V600E BRAF mutation and clinical outcome of patients with gastric and OGJ cancer treated with cetuximab combined with FUFOX. Patients included in this correlative study (n = 39) were a subset of patients from the clinical phase II study. The association between EGFR gene copy number, activation of the EGFR pathway, abundance and mutation of E-cadherin which plays an important role in these disorders, BRAF mutation and clinical outcome of patients was studied. EGFR gene copy number was assessed by FISH. Expression of the phosphorylated forms of EGFR and its downstream effectors Akt and MAPK, in addition to E-cadherin was analysed by immunohistochemistry. The frequency of mutant V600E BRAF was evaluated by allele-specific PCR and the mutation profile of the E-cadherin gene CDH1 was examined by DHPLC followed by direct sequence analysis. Correlations with overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP) and overall response rate (ORR) were assessed. Our study showed a significant association between increased EGFR gene copy number (≥ 4.0) and OS in gastric and OGJ cancer, indicating the possibility that patients may be selected for treatment on a genetic basis. Furthermore, a significant correlation was shown between activated EGFR and shorter TTP and ORR, but not between activated EGFR and OS. No V600E BRAF mutations were identified. On the other hand, an interesting trend between high E

  13. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  14. [Metastatic breast cancer to the stomach: An uncommon evolution of breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, C; Talha-Vautravers, A; Hoefler, P; Zirabe, S; Bellocq, J-P; Mathelin, C

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma exceptionally leads to metastatic linitis plastica. Distinguishing a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from a primary gastric cancer on the basis of clinical and radiological signs is very challenging. Thanks to being cognizant of the previous history of invasive lobular carcinoma and the gastric biopsy followed by immunohistochemical analysis, gastric metastasis can be diagnosed. Despite the use of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, gastric metastasis remains often associated with poor prognosis. We present a case where gastric biopsy allowed a metastatic breast cancer to the stomach to be diagnosed and we discuss its clinical, diagnostic, pathological and therapeutic particularities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Bizzaro; Antonio Antico; Danilo Villalta

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastri...

  16. Measuring the metastatic potential of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Gratzner, Howard; Atassi, M. Z.

    1993-01-01

    Cancer cells must secrete proteolytic enzymes to invade adjacent tissues and migrate to a new metastatic site. Urokinase (uPA) is a key enzyme related to metastasis in cancers of the lung, colon, gastric, uterine, breast, brain, and malignant melanoma. A NASA technology utilization project has combined fluorescence microscopy, image analysis, and flow cytometry, using fluorescent dyes, and urokinase-specific antibodies to measure uPA and abnormal DNA levels (related to cancer cell proliferation) inside the cancer cells. The project is focused on developing quantitative measurements to determine if a patient's tumor cells are actively metastasizing. If a significant number of tumor cells contain large amounts of uPA (esp. membrane-bound) then the post-surgical chemotherapy or radiotherapy can be targeted for metastatic cells that have already left the primary tumor. These analytical methods have been applied to a retrospective study of biopsy tissues from 150 node negative, stage 1 breast cancer patients. Cytopathology and image analysis has shown that uPA is present in high levels in many breast cancer cells, but not found in normal breast. Significant amounts of uPA also have been measured in glioma cell lines cultured from brain tumors. Commercial applications include new diagnostic tests for metastatic cells, in different cancers, which are being developed with a company that provides a medical testing service using flow cytometry for DNA analysis and hormone receptors on tumor cells from patient biopsies. This research also may provide the basis for developing a new 'magic bullet' treatment against metastasis using chemotherapeutic drugs or radioisotopes attached to urokinase-specific monoclonal antibodies that will only bind to metastatic cells.

  17. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with renal vein involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Hatsuko; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Megumi; Nagata, Masao; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi

    2015-02-01

    The common sites of breast cancer metastases include bones, lung, brain, and liver. Renal metastasis from the breast is rare. We report a case of breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with extension into the renal vein. A 40-year-old woman had undergone left mastectomy for breast cancer at the age of 38. A gastric tumor, which was later proved to be metastasis from breast cancer, was detected by endoscopy. Computed tomography performed for further examination of the gastric tumor revealed a large left renal tumor with extension into the left renal vein. It mimicked a primary renal tumor. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal tumor confirmed metastasis from breast cancer. Surgical intervention of the stomach and the kidney was avoided, and she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney may present a solitary renal mass with extension into the renal vein, which mimics a primary renal tumor.

  18. A Case Report of Ischemic Stroke in a Patient with Metastatic Gastric Cancer Secondary to Treatment with the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 Inhibitor Ramucirumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Christiansen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ramucirumab is an antiangiogenesis agent targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, approved to treat advanced gastric and colon cancer. In clinical trials, it was shown to cause a small increase in arterial thromboembolism compared to placebo, including cerebral and myocardial ischemia, which was not statistically significant. Detailed case reports are lacking and we here present one of the first case reports of stroke secondary to ramucirumab-induced in situ thrombosis.

  19. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain chronic conditions increase the risk of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about stomach cancer: Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach cancer ...

  20. ROLE OF UBIQUITIN PROTEASOME SYSTEM IN GASTRIC CANCER PATHOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on the ubiquitin-proteasome system participation in pathogenesis of gastric cancer. The role of proteasome system in regulation of cell cycle, angiogenesis and tumor metastasis has been shown. The aspects of the participation of ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic system in the pathogenesis of intensive muscle protein degradation in cancer cachexia are analyzed. The role of proteasome system in the development of H. Pylori-induced gastric cancer is discussed. The clinical assessment of selective proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib is a promising area of research for metastatic gastric cancer.

  1. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3...... the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic...

  2. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  3. [Gastric stump cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinescu, C; Dragomir, C; Pleşa, C; Kreisler, S; Răileanu, R; Stoian, M; Frunzăreanu, N; Diaconu, C; Vasile, V

    1982-01-01

    The cases of gastric stump cancer recorded at the III-rd Surgical Clinic of Iaoi during the last 5 years are analysed. Based upon the personal experience and data in the literature 7 cases are discussed. Out of the 7 cases, in 3 an initial resection for gastric ulcer and in 4 for duodenal ulcer was performed 17-40 years previously (with an average of 26 years). All the patients presented Bilroth II anastomoses. The diagnosis was determined by radiological, endoscopic and endobioptic examinations after a mean interval of 10 month since the occurence of the clinical symptoms. The site of the lesion was the following: in 3 cases on the anastomosis line and in 4 on the reminder of the stump. Out of the 7 cases, 5 were operable and in 4 the resection was completed. Two days post-operatively a death was recorded. The conclusions of this paper insist upon the fact that the occurance of the tumor on the gastric resection stump mainly depends on the initial lesion (gastric lesion) and less on the type of anastomosis. The long-term surveillance of the gastric resection patients is thus essential.

  4. Chemotherapy of metastatic colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer incidence and mortality. In 2008 inRussian Federation55 719 new cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed and 37 911 patients died of this disease. A significant progress was achieved in metastatic colorectal cancer treatment during the last decades. A lot of treatment options became available: from 5-fluoruracil monotherapy to combined treatment treatment schemes including surgery. A group of patients with isolated liver metastases was distinguished, who can achieve 5-year survival rate of 40 % after systemic treatment and surgery. Today, based on clinical data and molecular analysis, we come close to individualized treatment of this patient group. In this literature review results of metastatic colorectal cancer chemotherapy are being analyzed and rational treatment tactic is proposed based on therapy goals. 

  5. Gastric cancer: current and evolving treatment landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weijing; Yan, Li

    2016-08-31

    Gastric (including gastroesophageal junction) cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In China, an estimated 420,000 patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer in 2011, ranking this malignancy the second most prevalent cancer type and resulting in near 300,000 deaths. The treatment landscape of gastric cancer has evolved in recent years. Although systemic chemotherapy is still the mainstay treatment of metastatic disease, the introduction of agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelia growth factor receptor has brought this disease into the molecular and personalized medicine era. The preliminary yet encouraging clinical efficacy observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors, e.g., anti-programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1, will further shape the treatment landscape for gastric cancer. Molecular characterization of patients will play a critical role in developing new agents, as well as in implementing new treatment options for this disease.

  6. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  7. Randomized Multicenter Phase II Study of Modified Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and Fluorouracil (DCF) Versus DCF Plus Growth Factor Support in Patients With Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Study of the US Gastric Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Stoller, Ronald; Shibata, Stephen; Kemeny, Margaret; Krishnamurthi, Smitha; Su, Yungpo Bernard; Ocean, Allyson; Capanu, Marinela; Mehrotra, Bhoomi; Ritch, Paul; Henderson, Charles; Kelsen, David P

    2015-11-20

    Docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (DCF) is a standard first-line three-drug chemotherapy regimen for advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma and is associated with significant toxicity. We examined the safety and efficacy of a modified DCF (mDCF) regimen in a randomized multicenter phase II study. Previously untreated patients with metastatic gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned to receive either mDCF (fluorouracil 2,000 mg/m2 intravenously [IV] over 48 hours, docetaxel 40 mg/m2 IV on day 1, cisplatin 40 mg/m2 IV on day 3, every 2 weeks) or parent DCF (docetaxel 75 mg/m2, cisplatin 75 mg/m2, and fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 IV over 5 days with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, every 3 weeks). The study had 90% power to differentiate between 6-month progression-free survival of 26% and 43%, with type I and II error rates of 10% each. An early stopping rule for toxicity was included, defined as grade 3 to 4 adverse event rate > 70% in the first 3 months. From November 2006 to June 2010, 85 evaluable patients were enrolled (male, n = 61; female, n = 24; median age, 58 years; Karnofsky performance status, 90%; GEJ, n = 28; gastric, 57). mDCF (n = 54) toxicity rates included 54% grade 3 to 4 toxicity (22% hospitalized) within the first 3 months and 76% grade 3 to 4 toxicity over the course of treatment. The DCF arm (n = 31) closed early because of toxicity, with rates of 71% grade 3 to 4 toxicity (52% hospitalized) within 3 months and 90% grade 3 to 4 toxicity over the course of treatment. Six-month PFS was 63% (95% CI, 48% to 75%) for mDCF and 53% (95% CI, 34% to 69%) for DCF. Median overall survival was improved for mDCF (18.8 v 12.6 months; P = .007). mDCF is less toxic than parent DCF, even when supported with growth factors, and is associated with improved efficacy. mDCF should be considered a standard first-line option for patients with metastatic gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma.

  8. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  9. Hearing loss as an unusual consequence of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CE Owers

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A sixty-one year old man was referred with a history of progressive dysphagia, vomiting and weight loss with some back pain. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsies revealed a gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Despite the absence of metastatic disease on computed tomography, positron emission tomography demonstrated multiple vertebral and sternal deposits. He was reviewed in an ENT clinic with a sudden onset of hearing loss accompanied by dizziness, but no focal neurology. Magnetic resonance imaging identified bilateral 2cm lesions at the internal auditory meatus, consistent with a diagnosis of bilateral acoustic neuromas. The patient subsequently died of carcinomatosis and, because of the potential familial significance of bilateral acoustic neuromas, a limited post-mortem examination was carried out. Unexpectedly, this revealed bilateral adenocarcinoma metastases infiltrating the internal auditory meatus affecting the acoustic nerves. The authors believe this a very rare presentation of metastatic gastric disease.

  10. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  12. General Information about Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  13. Helicobacter, Inflammation, and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection leads to long-lasting chronic inflammation and represents the most common risk factor underlying gastric cancer. Recently, new insights into the mechanisms through which H. pylori and mucosal inflammation lead to cancer development have emerged. H. pylori virulence factors, in particular specific CagA genotypes, represent main factors in gastric cancer, inducing altered intracellular signaling in epithelial cells. The chronic nature of H. pylori infection appears to relate to the VacA virulence factor and Th17/Treg mechanisms. A role of H. pylori infection in epigenetic and microRNA deregulation has been shown. Mutation of the epithelial cell genome, a hallmark of cancer, was demonstrated to accumulate in H. pylori infected stomach partly due to inadequate DNA repair. Gastric stem cells were shown to be targets of oxidative injury in the Helicobacter-inflammatory milieu. Recent advances emphasizing the contribution of bacterial factors, inflammatory mediators, and the host epithelial response in gastric carcinogenesis are reviewed.

  14. Vectors for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deisseroth, Albert B

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to design, build and study vectors which would be able to break tolerance to breast cancer associated TAA and be used to suppress the recurrence of metastatic breast cancer following surgical resection...

  15. Vectors for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deisseroth, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to design, build and study vectors which would be able to break tolerance to breast cancer associated TAA and be used to suppress the recurrence of metastatic breast cancer following surgical resection...

  16. Current treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sarah M; Fleming, Gini

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. The majority of patients have disease confined to the uterus and have an excellent overall prognosis. However, subgroups of patients have advanced primary disease or recurrences following primary treatment. The management of metastatic disease is variable, depending on factors such as comorbidities, tumor grade, performance status, and prior treatments. Management options include hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy, as well as targeted therapies that inhibit angiogenesis and the cellular signaling pathways involved in cell growth and proliferation. A comprehensive review of these treatments for metastatic endometrial cancer was conducted and is discussed. Hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have traditionally been used in the treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer. Advances in molecular biology have led to multiple potential targeted therapies to be used in the treatment of metastatic endometrial cancer. While several treatment modalities are now available to treat patients who present with metastatic endometrial cancer, overall prognosis remains poor.

  17. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  18. Case report of gastric outlet obstruction from metastatic lobular breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alexander H; Shellenberger, M Joshua; Chen, Zong Ming; Li, Jinhong

    2015-09-25

    The most common malignancy to cause gastric outlet obstruction is primary gastric adenocarcinoma and it is followed by carcinoma of the pancreas and gallbladder. Herein, we report a case of gastric outlet obstruction secondary to metastatic lobular breast carcinoma. Fifty-seven year old Caucasian female with recently diagnosed metastatic lobular breast carcinoma to skin was referred to gastroenterology for evaluation of dyspepsia and dysphagia. She has past medical history significant for acid reflux and Clostridium difficile colitis. Computed tomography of her abdomen showed diffused bowel wall thickening without evidence of bowel obstruction. Due to persistent abdominal pain, an upper endoscopy was performed. The upper endoscopy showed gastritis and gastric stenosis in the gastric antrum. These lesions were biopsied and dilated with a balloon dilator. The biopsy of the gastric antrum later showed a metastatic carcinoma of breast origin with typical tumor morphology and immune-phenotype. Differentiating metastatic breast carcinoma from primary gastric adenocarcinoma cannot be done using histological examination alone. Immunohistochemistry is needed to differentiate the two based on staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors. The presence of gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 is also suggestive of metastatic breast carcinoma. The stomach has a significant capacity to distend (up to 2-4 L of food) and malignant gastric outlet obstruction is often undetected clinically until a high-grade obstruction develops. Our case demonstrates valuable teaching point in terms of broadening our differentials for gastric outlet obstruction. When patients present with gastric outlet obstruction, both non-malignant and malignant causes of gastric outlet obstruction should be considered. Once adenocarcinoma has been determined to be the cause of gastric outlet obstruction, further immunohistochemistry is needed to differentiate breast carcinoma from other carcinomas.

  19. Bone metastasis as the first sign of gastric cancer | Ameur | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The skeleton is a common metastatic site for visceral carcinomas. However, the presentation of gastric cancer as bony metastases without preceding gastrointestinal symptoms is rare which has been infrequently reported in the literature. We report an infrequent case of a 60-year-old patient diagnosed having a gastric ...

  20. A case report of prostate cancer metastasis to the stomach resembling undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Chiaki; Suzuki, Takuto; Kitagawa, Yoshiyasu; Hara, Taro; Yamaguchi, Taketo

    2017-08-07

    Occurrence of metastatic cancer to the stomach is rare, particularly in patients with prostate cancer. Gastric metastasis generally presents as a solitary and submucosal lesion with a central depression. We describe a case of gastric metastasis arising from prostate cancer, which is almost indistinguishable from the undifferentiated-type gastric cancer. A definitive diagnosis was not made until endoscopic resection. On performing both conventional and magnifying endoscopies, the lesion appeared to be slightly depressed and discolored area and it could not be distinguished from undifferentiated early gastric cancer. Biopsy from the lesion was negative for immunohistochemical staining of prostate-specific antigen, a sensitive and specific marker for prostate cancer. Thus, false initial diagnosis of an early primary gastric cancer was made and endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Pathological findings from the resected specimen aroused suspicion of a metastatic lesion. Consequently, immunostaining was performed. The lesion was positive for prostate-specific acid phosphatase and negative for prostate-specific antigen, cytokeratin 7, and cytokeratin 20. Accordingly, the final diagnosis was a metastatic gastric lesion originating from prostate cancer. In this patient, the definitive diagnosis as a metastatic lesion was difficult due to its unusual endoscopic appearance and the negative stain for prostate-specific antigen. We postulate that both of these are consequences of hormonal therapy against prostate cancer.

  1. Analysis of interventional therapy for progressing stage gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingde; Zhang Zijing; Ji Hongsheng; Ge Chenlin; Hao Gang; Wei Kongming; Yuan Yuhou; Zhao Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interventional therapy and its curative effect for progressing stage gastric cancer. Methods: two hundred and twelve patients with progressing stage gastric cancer were treated with arterial perfusion and arterial embolization. Gastric cardia cancer was treated through the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery or splenic artery. Cancers of lesser and greater gastric curvature was treated either through the left and right gastric arteries or common hepatic artery or through gastroduodenal artery, right gastroomental artery or splenic artery. Gastric antrum cancers were perfused through gastroduodenal artery or after the middle segmental embolization of right gastroomental artery. Results: One hundred and ninety three cases undergone interventional management were followed up. The CR + PR of gastric cardia cancer was 53.13%; gastric body cancer 44.44%; gastric antrum cancer 10%; recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer 0. There was no significant difference in outcome between gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer (P>0.05) but significant differences were shown both between gastric cardia cancer and gastric antrum cancer, and between gastric body cancer and gastric antrum cancer (P<0.05), with 1 year and 2 years survival rates of 81% and 56% respectively. Conclusion: The interventional therapeutic effect of progressing stage gastric cancers is different due to the different sites of the lesions in the gastric tissue. The curative effect of gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer is better than that of gastric antrum cancer, recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer. (authors)

  2. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  3. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  4. NME2 reduces proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells to limit metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fei Liu

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and has a high rate of metastasis. We hypothesize that NME2 (Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2, which has previously been considered as an anti-metastatic gene, plays a role in the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. Using a tissue chip technology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that NME2 expression was associated with levels of differentiation of gastric cancer cells and their metastasis into the lymph nodes. When the NME2 gene product was over-expressed by ;in vitro stable transfection, cells from BGC823 and MKN45 gastric cancer cell lines had reduced rates of proliferation, migration, and invasion through the collagen matrix, suggesting an inhibitory activity of NME2 in the propagation and invasion of gastric cancer. NME2 could, therefore, severe as a risk marker for gastric cancer invasiveness and a potential new target for gene therapy to enhance or induce NME2 expression.

  5. Endoscopic palliation in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivieso, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The integral search for improved living conditions for those patients with gastric cancer who have not received curative surgical treatment continues to challenge the knowledge, dexterity and ethical foundations of medical teams. The justification for palliative treatment must be based on a thorough consideration of the available options and the particular situation in each case. This article reviews endoscopic therapy with auto expandable prosthetics for palliative treatment of gastric cancer, as well as the scientific evidence that supports its use and the factors that determine its indication.

  6. Consistent expression of guanylyl cyclase-C in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Danaee

    Full Text Available The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GCC has been found to be expressed in colorectal cancers. However, limited data are available on GCC protein expression in non-colorectal gastrointestinal tumors and few studies have reported whether GCC protein expression was consistently preserved in synchronous primary and metastatic cancer tissues.GCC protein status was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tumor specimens from individuals (n = 627 with gastrointestinal tumors, including esophageal (n = 130, gastric (n = 276, pancreatic (n = 136, and colorectal (n = 85 primary and metastatic tumors. Tissue specimens consisted of tissue microarrays containing esophageal, gastric, pancreatic tumors, and whole-slide tissue sections from colorectal cancer patients with matching primary and metastatic tumors.Among the evaluated esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic tumors, the frequency of GCC positivity at the protein level ranged from 59% to 68%. GCC was consistently expressed in primary and matched/synchronous metastatic lesions of colorectal cancer tissues derived from the same patients.This observational study demonstrated the protein expression of GCC across various gastrointestinal malignancies. In all cancer histotypes, GCC protein localization was observed predominantly in the cytoplasm compared to the membrane region of tumor cells. Consistent immunohistochemistry detection of GCC protein expression in primary colorectal cancers and in their matched liver metastases suggests that the expression of GCC is maintained throughout the process of tumor progression and formation of metastatic disease.

  7. Increased Expression and Aberrant Localization of Mucin 13 in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Brij K.; Maher, Diane M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Sundram, Vasudha; Koch, Michael D.; Lynch, Douglas W.; Bohlmeyer, Teresa; Watanabe, Akira; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Puumala, Susan E.; Jaggi, Meena

    2012-01-01

    MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin. Although MUC13 is known to be overexpressed in ovarian and gastric cancers, limited information is available regarding the expression of MUC13 in metastatic colon cancer. Herein, we investigated the expression profile of MUC13 in colon cancer using a novel anti-MUC13 monoclonal antibody (MAb, clone ppz0020) by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A cohort of colon cancer samples and tissue microarrays containing adjacent normal, non-metastatic colon cancer, metastatic colon cancer, and liver metastasis tissues was used in this study to investigate the expression pattern of MUC13. IHC analysis revealed significantly higher (pcolon cancer samples compared with faint or very low expression in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, metastatic colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue samples demonstrated significantly (pcolon cancer and adjacent normal colon samples. Moreover, cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression correlated with larger and poorly differentiated tumors. Four of six tested colon cancer cell lines also expressed MUC13 at RNA and protein levels. These studies demonstrate a significant increase in MUC13 expression in metastatic colon cancer and suggest a correlation between aberrant MUC13 localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear expression) and metastatic colon cancer. PMID:22914648

  8. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely as white men to die from stomach cancer. Stomach Cancer Prevention Key Points Avoiding risk factors and increasing ... factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent stomach cancer. Avoiding cancer risk factors may help prevent certain ...

  9. Gastric cancer missed at endoscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed Gado

    2012-09-21

    Sep 21, 2012 ... fore endoscopy taking into account risk factors for cancer and the clinical presentation. Careful examination of the stomach during endoscopy should be performed in order not to miss any lesion. All gastric ulcers must be biopsied and a repeat endoscopy be performed following a course of acid suppres-.

  10. Helicobacter pyloriand gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... persists indefinitely unless treated. The means by which H. pylori is transmitted is a major question in this field. However, seminal work conducted in our laboratory has given insight into its transmission in developing countries.10 Countries with high H. pylori infection rates normally have higher gastric ...

  11. Metastatic pancreatic cancer presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shivani; Mulki, Ramzi; Sher, Daniel

    2016-03-08

    Metastatic disease from pancreatic carcinoma involving the stomach is an unusual event, and the pattern of spread in the form of linitis plastica, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Local recurrence after curative resection for pancreatic cancer is the most common pattern of disease. We report a case of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach 4 years after curative resection. A 52-year-old man presented with epigastric pain and melaena 4 years after undergoing a Whipple's procedure for a poorly-differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma, stage IB; T2N0M0. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed thickening of the gastric wall, and subsequent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) revealed diffuse friable erythaematous tissue. The biopsy specimen obtained during the OGD revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with similar appearance to the prior specimen obtained from the pancreas. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Clinical utility of ramucirumab in advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan MMK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Matthew MK Chan,1,2 Katrin M Sjoquist,1,3 John R Zalcberg4 1NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical Oncology, Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, NSW, Australia; 3Cancer Care Centre, St George Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Gastric cancer is currently the third most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Prognosis remains poor with most patients presenting with advanced or metastatic disease. A better understanding of angiogenesis has led to the investigation of drugs that inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF pathway including anti-VEGF antibody therapy (eg, bevacizumab, inhibitors of angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (eg, sunitinib, sorafenib, apatinib, regorafenib, and inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs (eg, ramucirumab. Ramucirumab, a VEGFR-2 inhibitor, is the first anti-angiogenic agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of advanced gastric cancers. This review will focus on the clinical utility and potential use of ramucirumab in advanced gastric cancer. Keywords: ramucirumab, IMC-1121B, gastric cancer, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, angiogenesis, targeted therapy

  13. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  14. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  15. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. The epidemiology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David M

    2002-01-01

    Gastric cancer mortality has declined markedly around the world. In South Australia, the reduction approximated 40% over the last 20 years. Possible reasons include: better refrigeration; reduced consumption of salted, smoked, and chemically preserved foods; increased intake of fruit and vegetables; and improved living standards and a greater use of antibiotics, which may have reduced Helicobacter pylori infection. Reductions generally have been greater for intestinal than diffuse histopathologies. Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, probably accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed cancers. High rates apply to Japan, China. Central and South America, Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East, and low rates to North America, Australia and New Zealand, Northern Europe, and India. Rates usually are higher in lower socioeconomic groups. Five-year relative survivals of around 20% or less are frequently reported. A figure of 50% or more has been cited for Japan, where there has been radiological screening, although this exceptional figure could have been affected artificially by lead-time and related effects. Male-to-female incidence ratios generally are in the 1.5-2.5 range, with higher ratios for intestinal than diffuse cancers and higher-risk populations. In South Australia, the ratio has been 1.8 to one, although higher at 4.6 to one for cardia lesions. Recent increases in cardia cancers, especially in males in populations of European extraction, often are accompanied by increases for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is estimated that the global burden of gastric cancer could be reduced by up to 50% by dietary changes that included an increased intake of fruit and vegetables.

  17. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Gastric Ulcer: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhareth Al Juboori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for approximately 3% of all adult malignancies. True gastrointestinal metastases, specifically to gastric wall, have been rarely observed. Herein we describe a case of delayed metastasis to gastric wall occurring more than a decade after previously curative nephrectomy for RCC. A 67-year-old male with history of right radical nephrectomy in 2001 for RCC was found to have an asymptomatic right lower lobe solitary lung mass upon routine follow-up in 2011, with final biopsy results showing metastatic RCC for which he was treated accordingly. In 2014, patient was evaluated for dyspepsia with microcytic anemia and underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy. EGD revealed a solitary one-centimeter atypical ulcer in the posterior mid gastric body with biopsy results being consistent with metastatic RCC. Our literature review has yielded thirty-six reported cases of RCC in association with gastric wall metastases.

  18. Metastatic Signet-Ring Cell Gastric Carcinoma Masquerading as Breast Primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Chandra Doval

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the breast from an extra-mammary primary is a rare phenomenon; metastasis from gastric carcinoma to the breast is extremely so. We report a case who initially presented as mucin-secreting and signet-ring cell tumor of the ovary, and after an interval of 8 months with breast and chest wall metastatic nodules. The covert gastric primary eluded the oncologists at both presentations.

  19. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  20. Prognosis of metastatic breast cancer: are there differences between patients with de novo and recurrent metastatic breast cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbezoo, D.J.; Kampen, R.J. van; Voogd, A.C.; Dercksen, M.W.; Berkmortel, F. van den; Smilde, T.J.; Wouw, A.J. van de; Peters, F.P.; Riel, J.M. van; Peters, N.A.; Boer, M. de; Peer, P.G.M.; Tjan-Heijnen, V.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the prognostic impact of time between primary breast cancer and diagnosis of distant metastasis (metastatic-free interval, MFI) on the survival of metastatic breast cancer patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer in 2007-2009

  1. A randomised phase II study of continuous versus stop-and-go S-1 plus oxaliplatin following disease stabilisation in first-line chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sook Ryun; Kim, Mi-Jung; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Kong, Sun-Young; Park, Young-Iee

    2017-09-01

    We compared continuous versus stop-and-go chemotherapy after disease stabilisation with induction chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of metastatic gastric cancer (MGC). MGC patients who achieved disease control after 6 cycles of S-1/oxaliplatin (SOX) were randomised to receive either continuous SOX until progression (continuous arm) or to have a chemotherapy-free interval followed by SOX reintroduction at progression (stop-and-go arm). The primary end-point was overall survival (OS). Of the 250 patients enrolled, 247 participated in the induction phase. Of these, 121 patients were randomised to the continuous arm (n = 59) or the stop-and-go arm (n = 62). Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer in the continuous arm than in the stop-and-go arm (10.5 versus 7.2 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0.55, 95% CI, 0.37-0.81; P = 0.002). Duration of disease control (DDC) and OS, however, were comparable between the two arms: median DDC, 10.5 versus 11.3 months, HR 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.36; P = 0.674); median OS, 22.6 versus 22.7 months, HR 0.78 (95% CI, 0.50-1.23; P = 0.284). Adverse events including grade ≥3 fatigue (28.8% versus 8.1%; P = 0.003) and sensory neuropathy (25.4% versus 9.7%; P = 0.022) occurred more frequently in the continuous arm than in the stop-and-go arm. Quality of life (QOL) including global health status, physical/role functioning and other symptom scores significantly favoured the stop-and-go arm. Compared with the stop-and-go strategy, maintenance chemotherapy improved PFS but not DDC and OS and had a negative impact on QOL, suggesting the stop-and-go strategy may be an appropriate option in MGC patients following induction chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  3. Sorafenib makes headway on metastatic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In a randomized phase III clinical trial, patients with metastatic differentiated cancer of the thyroid who were treated with sorafenib achieved median progression-free survival of 10.8 months, compared with 5.8 months among patients treated with placebo.

  4. Her-2 Positive Gastric Cancer Presented with Thrombocytopenia and Skin Involvement: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Arslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the 5th most frequent cancer around the world and the 3rd most frequent reason of deaths due to cancer. Every year, about 1 million new cases are taking place, with varying geographical distribution. Gastric cancer is often metastatic to liver, lungs, and bones in hematogenous way, to peripheral lymph nodes in lymphogenous way, and to peripheral tissues in adjacency way, yet bone marrow (BM and cutaneous metastasis are quite seldom. Pancytopenia is a more frequent finding identified in BM metastasis of solid organ cancers, and isolated thrombocytopenia is less often. The human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2 is positive in gastric cancer at a rate of 7–34%. Here, we have presented our HER-2 positive gastric cancer incident which presented with BM and cutaneous metastasis, and has no 18F-fluoro-2-deoxi-D-glucose (FDG involvement except bone metastases.

  5. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  6. Surgical management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakih, A.R.; Mistry, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiated management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with lymph node and/or systemic metastases is very much a treatable cancer. Interaction between the surgeon and the nuclear medicine specialist is essential to ensure quality survival in these patient. This review is confined to surgical aspects and is based on experience with 417 patients who were operated for DTC at the Tata Memorial Hospital between 1971 and 1985

  7. Diagnostic and prognostic value of peritoneal immunocytology in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolo, M; Mottolese, M; Cosimelli, M; Tedesco, M; Giannarelli, D; Vasselli, S; Carlini, M; Garofalo, A; Natali, P G

    1998-10-01

    Among the clinical factors with a pivotal role in the prediction of outcome for patients with gastric cancer, intraperitoneal (i.p.) microscopic dissemination may represent an important cause of recurrences, even in the early stages of the disease. In this context, the cytologic examination of intraoperative peritoneal washings may be essential to identify metastatic free cells, although a number of false-negative cases may be encountered. To determine whether immunocytochemical (ICC) methods that used a panel of three monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), B72.3, AR3, and BD5, directed to gastric cancer-associated antigens can improve peritoneal cytology by providing more accurate prognostic indications, we immunocytochemically and morphologically evaluated 144 peritoneal washings sampled from patients surgically treated for gastric cancer. The ICC analysis allowed the identification of metastatic free peritoneal cells in 35% of the patients, with a 14% improvement over routine cytopathology (P < .0001). Furthermore, a 54-month survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier curves showed a statistically significant decrease in overall survival (OS) in patients with stages I through III disease with peritoneal microscopic disease detected morphologically and/or by ICC at the time of the primary surgery. Our data indicate that the use of a combination of selected MoAbs may allow the identification of cytologically false-negative cases that provide valuable prognostic information. This may be useful to stratify patients on more adequate therapeutic trials.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  9. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    For the past decades the anthracyclines have been regarded as among the most active drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the 5-year survival rate in patients with stage IV breast cancer continues to be below 20%, and new active drugs and drug combinations clearly must...... be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  10. Gastric cancer: the French survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ch; Lozac'h, P; Rohr, S; Topar, P; Youssef, Ch

    2002-01-01

    Presentation of a multicentric retrospective french study concerning 4,655 cases of gastric cancer operated between 1980 and 1996. The mean age was 67.4 years old with a male predominance of 63.1%. Pains was the predominant presenting symptom (60%) followed by alteration of the general condition (44%) and anaemia (20%). 35.5% of tumors were of distal, 18.8% of middle and 18.6% of proximal localisation. As regard cancer stages, 40% were of stage I,-II and 60% of stages III,-IV. Subtotal gastrectomy was realised in 44%, total radical gastrectomy in 42.1% and other surgical procedures in 14% of cases (proximal gastric resection or atypical resection). D1 lymphadenectomy was associated in 58.4% and D2 in 41.6%. Morbidity was of 23% and mortality of 11.9% which passed from 19% during the first (1980,-85) to 8% in the last interval of time (1990,-96). The 5 years survival was 41% in case of gastric resection. In univariate analysis the 5 years relative survival was better in female patients (44% at 5 years), in patients younger than 50 years old (46%), when pain was the only clinical symptom (52.7%), in middle and distal third localisation (47%), in case of subtotal distal resection (47%) and in less advanced stages (79% at 5 years for stage I cancer). In multivariate analysis the 5 years survival was essentially correlated to the stage of the tumor and no real prognosis improvement was shown during the period of the study.

  11. A multicenter, phase II study of bortezomib (PS-341) in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Power, Derek G; Kindler, Hedy L; Holen, Kyle D; Kemeny, Margaret M; Ilson, David H; Tang, Laura; Capanu, Marinela; Wright, John J; Kelsen, David P

    2011-12-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NFkB) is implicated in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and survival, and its inhibition by proteosome inhibition is associated with preclinical gastric cancer anti-tumor activity. We examined the single agent efficacy of bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, in gastric adenocarcinoma. We performed a phase II trial of bortezomib in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) was administered on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days. The primary endpoint was objective response rate(RR); the null hypothesis was RR <1% versus the alternative ≥15%. One response in the first stage(15 patients) was required before proceeding with an additional 18 patients. If at least 2 or more responses out of 33 were observed, further study with bortezomib was warranted. Correlative studies evaluated pre-treatment tumor expression of NFkB, IkB, p53, p21, and cyclin D1. We enrolled 16 patients (15 evaluable for response) from four institutions. No patients demonstrated an objective response(95% CI, 0-22%); one patient achieved stable disease. Fourteen out of 16 patients experienced ≥ grade 2 toxicity. The most common toxicity was fatigue in six patients (n = 4 grade 2, n = 2 grade 3). Seven patients experienced neuropathy (n = 5 grade 1, and 1 each grade 2 and 3). Seven (60%) had high cytoplasmic staining for NFkB. Single agent bortezomib is inactive in metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and should not be pursued. Future study of proteasome inhibition in gastric adenocarcinoma should be considered in combination with targeted inhibition of other non-overlapping oncogenic pathways as a potential rational approach.

  12. Plasma membrane proteomic analysis of human Gastric Cancer tissues: revealing flotillin 1 as a marker for Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Wen; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fuqiang; Zhang, Long; Peng, Rui; Shu, Yongqian; Wu, Jindao; Tang, Qiyun; Zhu, Yunxia

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Successful early gastric cancer detection is hampered by lack of highly sensitive and specific biomarkers. Plasma membrane proteins participate and/or have a central role in the metastatic process of cancer cells and are potentially useful for cancer therapy due to easy accessibility of the targets. In the present research, TMT method followed by mass spectrometry analysis was used to compare the relative expression levels of plasma membrane proteins between noncancer and gastric cancer tissues. Of a total data set that included 501 identified proteins, about 35% of the identified proteins were found to be plasma membrane and associated proteins. Among them, 82 proteins were at least 1.5-fold up- or down-regulated in gastric cancer compared with the adherent normal tissues. A number of markers (e.g. annexin A6, caveolin 1, epidermal growth factor receptor, integrin beta 4) were previously reported as biomarkers of GC. Additionally, several potential biomarkers participated in endocytosis pathway and integrin signaling pathways were firstly identified as differentially expressed proteins in GC samples. Our findings also supported the notion that flotillin 1 is a potential biomarker that could be exploited for molecular imaging-based detection of gastric cancer. Together, the results show that subcellular proteomics of tumor tissue is a feasible and promising avenue for exploring oncogenesis. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1343-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Gastric metastasis from small cell lung cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Hu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Su-Zhen; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Wei; Yu, Qing-Xi; Hou, Wen-Hong; Yuan, Shuang-Hu

    2015-02-07

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represents a group of highly malignant tumors that give rise to early and widespread metastases at the time of diagnosis. The preferential metastatic sites are the brain, liver, adrenal glands, bone, and bone marrow. However, metastases of the gastrointestinal system, especially the stomach, are rare; most cases of stomach metastasis are asymptomatic and, as a result, are usually only discovered at autopsy. We report a case of gastric metastasis originating from SCLC. The patient was a 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital due to abdominal pain. He underwent gastroscopy, with the pathological report of the tissue biopsy proving it to be a small cell cancer. Immunohistochemistry was positive for CD56, synaptophysin, and pan-cytokeratin. These results confirmed the diagnosis of gastric metastasis of a neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma from the lung.

  14. Predictive Value of the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio in Peritoneal and/or Metastatic Disease at Staging Laparoscopy for Gastric and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenader, Tal; Plotkin, Yevgeni; Mohammadi, Borzoueh; Dawas, Khaled; Hashemi, Majid; Mughal, Muntzer; Bridgewater, John A

    2015-09-01

    Despite advances in imaging techniques, peritoneal and/or metastatic disease have been identified by staging laparoscopy in up to 50 % of patients with a negative preoperative imaging. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been recently shown as a prognostic factor in gastric and esophageal cancers. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 117 patients with early gastric and lower esophagus adenocarcinoma that were referred for staging laparoscopy in the last two years in the University College Hospital, London. Complete blood count was performed preceding staging laparoscopy. The NLR was calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count by the absolute lymphocyte count; a high NLR was defined ≥3.28. We evaluated the predictive power of a high NLR for a positive staging laparoscopy. The median age was 66.7 years; 87 (74.4 %) were male. Forty-four percent of the tumors were located at the gastroesophageal junction, 18 % were esophageal, and 38 % were gastric. Twenty-five (21.4 %) patients were found to have peritoneal or metastatic disease on staging laparoscopy. NLR ≥3.28 was an independent predicting factor for the discovery of peritoneal and/or metastatic disease (OR 3.9, 95 % CI: 1.54-9.86, p = 0.005). The median value of NLR was significantly higher in patients for whom the laparoscopy had discovered peritoneal or metastatic disease, than in those it had not (3.3 vs. 2.2, p = 0.011). Our findings suggest that the NLR may be reliable for predicting the presence of peritoneal or metastatic involvement on staging laparoscopy, in patients with early gastric cancer or lower esophageal cancer.

  15. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Clinical Cancer Res 2009;15(10):3574–3582. 37. de Bruin M, Miyake K, Litman T, Robey R, Bates SE. Reversal of resistance by GF120918 in cell lines...receptor type alpha in relation to cell type, malignancy, and differentiation in ovary, uterus, and cervix . Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8(9... cancer . Steroids 2014. 242. Zafrani B, Aubriot MH, Mouret E, De Cremoux P, De Rycke Y, Nicolas A, Boudou E, Vincent- Salomon A, Magdelenat H, Sastre

  16. Breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Kwangil; Ro, Sang Mi; Lee, Jieun

    2017-03-28

    Breast cancer with stomach metastasis rare with an incidence of 1% or less among metastatic breast cancer patients. We experienced a case of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach in 65-year-old female patient. She experienced dyspepsia and poor oral intake before visiting the clinic. Diffuse infiltration with nodular mucosal thickening of the stomach wall was observed, suggesting advanced gastric cancer based on gross endoscopic finding. Spread of poorly cohesive tumor cells in the gastric mucosa observed upon hematoxylin and eosin stain resembled signet ring cell carcinoma, but diffuse positive staining for GATA3 in immunohistochemical stain allowed for a conclusive diagnosis of breast cancer metastasizing to the stomach. Based on the final diagnosis, systemic chemotherapy was administered instead of primary surgical resection. After 2 cycles of docetaxel administration, she showed a partial response based on abdominal computed tomography scan. This case is an unusual presentation of breast cancer metastasizing to the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Gastric cancer screening, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Alfaro, Erika

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was made of the methods of screening (pepsinogen test, gastrin-17, anti HP, SGD and Endoscopy). The review and descriptive study of the scientific literature related to the subject was conducted in the scientific databases: Pud Med, MD Consult and Medscape, from August 2013 to March 2014. 65 articles were found related to the topic. The review has included 47 items, assigned according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Available methods were defined of high cost, difficult to spread, little sensitive, little specific and invasive. Endoscopy has had limitations of cost, quality, morbidity, mortality and availability. Pepsinogen tests and helicobacter pylori have helped identify the population at risk for later sift with endoscopy; but it is a very sensitive method. Endoscopy is recommended every two years in the population at risk (patients between 50 and 70 years with a family history of gastric cancer, chronic atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, patients with symptomatology of dyspepsia and with positive pepsinogen test) is a higher method than SGD in cost, sensitivity and specificity similar to invasive level. The training of the endoscopists should be strengthened in early gastric cancer detection since the detection depends on the quality of endoscopy [es

  18. Images of gastric cancer stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Aragon, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work has the objective to review the importance of the images in the preoperating stage of the gastric cancer. It has been emphasized in the modalities of transabdominal ultrasound as much as endoscopic and TAC since they are most valuable in the stage. Certainly the importance of conventional radiology (gastroduodenal series) is also valuable in the stage of the tumor, specially in considering the depth of the same one. In order to make this overhaul, the recent bibliography was consulted but, specially the published one by Japaneses since they follow a classification and methodology different from the used one in most of the countries that belong to the World-wide Organization of the Health. They made an overhaul of approximately 200 cases of patients who have been diagnosed and treated in the Center of Detection of Gastric Cancer of Cartago. In each case review the file, radiological, sonographic and pathological studies, and the cases were chosen that better illustrated the exposed subjects. (Author) [es

  19. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  20. Cancer in the gastric remnant after gastric bypass: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitin, Lev; Roses, Robert E; Birkett, Desmond H

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer in the gastric stump after a Bilroth II subtotal gastrectomy is a well-recognized entity. However, gastric cancer in the bypassed gastric remnant after a gastric bypass operation for morbid obesity has not been well described, and only 2 such cases have been reported in the English literature. This case report presents a patient who developed gastric cancer in the defunctionalized, bypassed stomach 22 years after undergoing an open gastric bypass with a Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy for morbid obesity. The problems of monitoring the defunctionalized bypassed stomach after gastric stapling and gastro-jejunostomy are discussed.

  1. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  2. Radioisotopes in management of metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Amar; Dan, Tu D; Williams, Noelle L; Pridjian, Andrew; Den, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Over the last decade, the treatment landscape for patients with castrate-resistant disease has drastically changed, with several novel agents demonstrating an improvement in overall survival in large, multi-institutional randomized trials. Traditional treatment with radioisotopes has largely been in the palliative setting. However, the first in class radiopharmaceutical radium-223 has emerged as the only bone-directed treatment option demonstrating an improvement in overall survival. Medline publications from 1990 to 2016 were searched and reviewed to assess the use of currently approved radioisotopes in the management of prostate cancer including emerging data regarding integration with novel systemic therapies. New positron emission tomography-based radiotracers for advanced molecular imaging of prostate cancer were also queried. Radioisotopes play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the definitive and metastatic setting. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer and theranostics are currently being investigated in the clinical arena. The use of modern radioisotopes in selected patients with mCRPC is associated with improvements in overall survival, pain control, and quality of life.

  3. Multicenter phase II study of irinotecan, cisplatin, and bevacizumab in patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Ilson, David H; Levnor, Alissa; D'Adamo, David; O'Reilly, Eileen; Tse, Archie; Trocola, Robin; Schwartz, Lawrence; Capanu, Marinela; Schwartz, Gary K; Kelsen, David P

    2006-11-20

    Bevacizumab improves survival in several solid tumor malignancies when combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in the treatment of gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Forty-seven patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma were treated with bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 1, irinotecan 65 mg/m2, and cisplatin 30 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. The primary end point was to demonstrate a 50% improvement in time to progression over historical values. Secondary end points included safety, response, and survival. Patient characteristics were as follows: median age 59 years (range, 25 to 75); Karnofsky performance status 90% (70% to 100%); male:female, 34:13; and gastric/GEJ, 24:23. With a median follow-up of 12.2 months, median time to progression was 8.3 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 9.9 months). In 34 patients with measurable disease, the overall response rate was 65% (95% CI, 46% to 80%). Median survival was 12.3 months (95% CI, 11.3 to 17.2 months). We observed no increase in chemotherapy related toxicity. Possible bevacizumab-related toxicity included a 28% incidence of grade 3 hypertension, two patients with a gastric perforation and one patient with a near perforation (6%), and one patient with a myocardial infarction (2%). Grade 3 to 4 thromboembolic events occurred in 25% of patients. Although the primary tumor was unresected in 40 patients, we observed only one patient with a significant upper gastrointestinal bleed. Bevacizumab can be safely given with chemotherapy even with primary gastric and GEJ tumors in place. The response rate, time to disease progression (TTP), and overall survival are encouraging, with TTP improved over historical controls by 75%. Further development of bevacizumab in gastric and GEJ cancers is warranted.

  4. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  5. Successful Treatment of Gastric Cancer in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Yoshida

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: Diagnosis of gastric cancer in pregnant women is often delayed even when they are symptomatic, because the symptoms are taken to be symptoms of hyperemesis or expansion of the uterus. However, since the nausea and vomiting arising from hyperemesis generally improves by the 20th week of gestation, the presence of protracted digestive symptoms in the second trimester calls for prompt investigation of digestive disorders. This case highlights the importance of early detection of gastric cancer for a positive prognosis, considering the rapidity with which gastric cancer advances in pregnancy.

  6. Metastatic Breast Cancer and Hormonal Receptor Status among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. Many studies show that metastatic lesions frequently lodge in bones, lung and liver. Tumour hormone receptor status correlates with site of metastatic lesions and survival among breast cancer patients. Objective: To determine the sites of metastatic breast lesions and how they relate to the hormonal receptor status.

  7. Chemo-Immunotherapy Using Lentinan for the Treatment of Gastric Cancer with Liver Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy is the main treatment option for advanced gastric cancer when the tumor is inoperable. Despite recent advances in chemotherapeutic agents, the prognosis of unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer remains extremely poor. In Japan, combination therapy including S-1 and cisplatin is the standard first-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer; however, the five-year survival rate remains very low. Lentinan, the backbone of beta-(1,3-glucan with beta-(1,6 branches, an active ingredient purified from Shiitake mushrooms, has been approved as a biological response modifier for the treatment of gastric cancer. This agent has been used in combination with oral fluoropyrimidines to improve the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. A retrospective chart review on 138 metastatic gastric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy was performed in Nagoya Memorial Hospital from 1 September 2010 to 31 August 2015. 12 patients with liver metastases were treated by lentinan in combination with S-1-based chemotherapy. The rate of objective response was 42% (5/12 and the disease control rate was 83% (10/12 in response to chemo-immunotherapy using lentinan, with a median overall survival of 407 days (95% CI: 207–700 days.

  8. Metastatic Breast Cancer and Hormonal Receptor Status among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the third commonest cancer in women in Uganda. The majority of breast cancer patients in Uganda present with advanced disease. Many studies show that metastatic lesions frequently lodge in bones, lung and liver. Tumour hormone receptor status correlates with site of metastatic lesions and ...

  9. Acute Gastric Necrosis Due to Gastric Outlet Obstruction Accompanied with Gastric Cancer and Trichophytobezoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dosang; Sung, Kiyoung

    2011-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to gastric outlet obstruction is a very rare condition, but it might be fatal if missed or if diagnosis is delayed. Our patient was a 73-year-old male complaining of abdominal pain, distension and dyspnea for 1 day. In plain radiography and computed tomography, a markedly distended stomach and decreased enhancement at the gastric wall were noted. He underwent explo-laparotomy, and near-total gastric mucosal necrosis accompanied by sludge from the soaked laver was noted. A total gastrectomy with esophagojejunostomy was performed, and he recovered without sequelae. Final pathologic examination revealed advanced gastric cancer at the antrum with near-total gastric mucosal necrosis. PMID:22076225

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be at risk. Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following: Having any of the following medical conditions : Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach. Chronic gastritis ( inflammation of the stomach). Pernicious anemia . Intestinal metaplasia ( ...

  11. Gastric cancer associated with refractory cytomegalovirus gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Shimodate, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Motowo

    2017-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) sometimes causes gastritis, especially in immunocompromised patients, but whether CMV gastritis promotes the development of gastric cancer is unknown. Here, we report a case of gastric cancer that developed in the presence of CMV gastritis, which had been present for at least 4 years and was refractory to treatment. An 80-year-old woman had noted epigastric discomfort and appetite loss. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a shallow geographical ulcer extending from the upper body to the pylorus. Histological findings of the biopsy and serology were suggestive of CMV gastritis. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test was positive, suggesting co-infection with CMV and H. pylori. Her gastritis was unimproved with repeated antiviral therapy and eradication of H. pylori. Thirty months later, wide-spread gastric cancer had developed. We suggest the possibility that the addition of chronic inflammation of CMV infection to H. pylori-induced gastritis facilitated the development of gastric cancer.

  12. Evaluation of SOD Activity in Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Watabe, Seiichiro

    1990-01-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the defensive capacity of the tumor-bearing host against the tumor was evaluated from the standpoint of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the peripheral blood of untreated gastric cancer patients as compared with clinicopathologic factors. There was not significant difference in SOD activity between the entire gastric cancer patients and normal subjects. In contrast, a significant difference in SOD in monocytes (MNC) and polynuclear leucocytes (PMN) was foun...

  13. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopiuc, Livia; Tudor, Ştefan; Mănuc, Mircea; Diculescu, Mircea; Vasilescu, Cătălin

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relatively new research field, with convincing results mostly stemming from Asian countries. The use of the robotic surgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure, which is also easier to learn, sets the background for a wider spread of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover the literature published so far, analyzing the pros and cons of robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining study questions. PMID:26798433

  14. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Mengjun; Xiao Zhijian; Yang Xizhen; Huang Xuquan; Yu Huixin; Zhang Rongjun; Tao Yonghui; Zhang Lianfen; Cai Gangming; Tan Cheng; Xiao Ye; Jin Jian; Wang Bocheng

    2001-01-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing 125 I-PG I and 125 I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy

  15. T Cells in Gastric Cancer: Friends or Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedei, Amedeo; Della Bella, Chiara; Silvestri, Elena; Prisco, Domenico; D'Elios, Mario M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for gastric cancer. As for any type of cancer, T cells are crucial for recognition and elimination of gastric tumor cells. Unfortunately T cells, instead of protecting from the onset of cancer, can contribute to oncogenesis. Herein we review the different types, “friend or foe”, of T-cell response in gastric cancer. PMID:22693525

  16. Obesity at adolescence and gastric cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minkyo; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Yang, Jae Jeong; Sung, Hyuna; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Hwi-Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kang, Daehee

    2015-02-01

    During the last few decades, prevalence of obesity has risen rapidly worldwide, markedly in children and adolescents. Epidemiologic studies have associated obesity to several cancer types, yet little is known for the effect of early life exposure to obesity on cancer risk in later life, especially in gastric cancer. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) of adolescence and the risk of gastric cancer. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Korea with 1,492 incident gastric cancer cases and 1,492 controls matched by age and sex. The BMI at age 18 was calculated by using weight and height from questionnaire. The association with the risk of gastric cancer was evaluated using odds ratios by logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounding factors. Compared with BMI 21.75 kg/m(2), higher BMI at age 18 was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer showing a nonlinear, threshold effect. Statistically significant odds ratio was observed in men with BMI higher than 25.3 kg/m(2) (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01-1.27) and in women with BMI 25.3 kg/m(2) and above (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.01-1.55). Similar to some other cancer types, overweight or obese in adolescence was found to be associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer. The results imply for stratified approach of tactics in prevention of gastric cancer in different population.

  17. Considerations about gastric cancer proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; McCormick, Thaís Messias; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Fischer, Juliana DE Saldanha DA Gama; Aquino, Priscila Ferreira DE; Bravo, Guilherme Pinto; Carvalho, Maria DA Glória DA Costa

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of molecular studies aimed to analyze promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes and global proteomics in gastric carcinogenesis is increasing. Nonetheless, only a few considered the different types of stomach cells, the tumor location and the influence of Helicobacter pylori and Epstein Barr virus infection (EBV). Molecular differences relating to anatomical and histological tumor areas were also recently described. The authors propose a molecular classification of gastric cancer, dividing it into four subtypes: tumors positive for EBV; microsatellite unstable tumors; genomically stable tumors and tumors with chromosomal instability. RESUMO A frequência de estudos moleculares visando a analisar os promotores de metilação de genes supressores de tumor e proteômica globais na carcinogênese gástrica está aumentando. No entanto, apenas alguns consideraram os diferentes tipos de células do estômago, a localização do tumor e a influência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori e pelo vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV). Diferenças moleculares relacionadas com áreas tumorais anatômicas e histológicas também foram recentemente descritas. Os autores propõem uma classificação molecular de câncer gástrico, dividindo-o em quatro subtipos: tumores positivos para o EBV; tumores microssatélite instáveis; tumores genomicamente estáveis ​​e tumores com instabilidade cromossômica.

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.

  19. Epidemiology of gastric cancer in jos university teaching hospital jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastric cancer believed to be rare in the past in Africa, is now one of the leading cancer morbidity and mortality. It is now known gastric cancer is 2-3 times higher in males than females living in the same environment. We aim to describe the comprehensive histological characteristics of gastric cancer with age ...

  20. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Jae; Kwon, Jeong-Taik; Mun, Seog-Kyun; Hong, Young-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in Asian countries, including Korea. We experienced a case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) from gastric cancer that was originally misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannoma based on the similar radiological characteristics. To our knowledge, LC from gastric cancer is very rare. In conclusion, our experience with this case suggests that clinicians should consider the possibility of delayed leptomeningeal metastasis when treating patients with gastric cancer.

  1. Krukenberg tumors diagnosed during pregnancy simultaneously with advanced gastric cancer; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Myung Won; Jung, Yoon Young; Shin, Jung Hwan; Hong, Young Ok [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Krukenberg tumors recognized during pregnancy are rarely reported. The preoperative diagnosis can be challenging because of the confusing morphological features and symptoms during pregnancy. Here, we report a case of a 29-year-old pregnant woman at 29 weeks gestation presenting with bilateral solid ovarian masses, which were later diagnosed as metastatic ovarian cancer originating from advanced gastric cancer. This case suggests that Krukenberg tumors should be considered when bilateral ovarian solid masses are encountered regardless of pregnancy.

  2. Vascular Functional Imaging and Physiological Environment of Hyperplasia, Non-Metastatic and Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhujwalla, Zaver

    1999-01-01

    .... In year 3 we have used the significant technical developments implemented in year 2 to determine the vascular characteristics of human breast cancer cells preselected for differences in invasive and metastatic behavior...

  3. Vascular Functional Imaging and Physiological Environment of Hyperplasia, Non-Metastatic and Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhujwalla, Zaver

    1998-01-01

    Our research proposal consists of the following three closely related aims directed towards understanding the role of vascular, physiological and metabolic properties in the metastatic dissemination of breast cancer. Aim 1...

  4. Sudden bilateral hearing loss in gastric cancer as the only symptom of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakusic Z

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoran Rakusic,1 Ana Misir Krpan,1 Darija Stupin Polancec,2 Antonia Jakovcevic,3 Vesna Bisof1 1Department of Oncology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, 2Fidelta Ltd for Research and Development, 3Department of Pathology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Abstract: This paper reports a case of sudden bilateral deafness as the first symptom of gastric cancer, an extremely rare and atypical clinical situation. Because common signs of stomach cancer were absent, the patient was first evaluated in the Department of Otolaryngology, University Hospital Center, Zagreb. Only after expanded diagnostic evaluation and rapid progression of the disease in such a case is a malignant tumor suspected. Treatment is mostly ineffective. The unusual presentation of the disease and the rapid course may indicate a hereditary predisposition. Inactivation of tumor suppressor gene DFNA5 was found in 50% of gastric cancers, but of a non-metastasized phenotype. Inactivated DFNA5, otherwise described in hereditary bilateral deafness, perhaps favors the development of deafness in patients with gastric cancer. Our patient had a positive multiple viral antibody titer in serum, inactivated DFNA5 in both gastric cancer tissues and cerebellar metastases, and a metastatic form of the disease. If sudden deafness occurs in elderly patients, the possibility of malignant tumor should be taken into consideration. The link between gastric cancer and the DFNA5 gene is unclear and requires further research. Keywords: deafness, gastric cancer, DFNA5 gene, meningeal carcinomatosis

  5. Redefining surgery for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, J. L.; Hallissey, M. T.; Rowlands, D. C.; Fielding, J. W. L.

    1999-12-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite encouraging retrospective and non-randomized trials, two large prospective, randomized trials of D1 vs D2 resections show double the mortality in the D2 group, with no increase in long-term survival. However, the D2 resection still offers the only hope of cure when N2 nodes are involved. We propose a reclassification of the International Union Against Cancer TNM "N" staging to a system with an anatomical basis that is useful in defining the surgery performed. Junctional nodes lying between the N1 and N2 tiers will act as a guide to surgery. Where these nodes are uninvolved, the probability of gastric bed (N2) involvement is low and the radical D2 dissection with its higher mortality and morbidity can be avoided.CONCLUSION: Such "stage-appropriate" surgery will reduce the number of D2 resections while ensuring that patients with N2 disease are not denied curative surgery. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of targeted surgery is required.

  6. Detection of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid: a novel method to detect gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen Ching-ho; Yu, Hanry; So, Jimmy B Y

    2006-04-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein polymerase that is essential for cell immortality. Recent studies have demonstrated that a high percentage of gastric cancer tissue expressed telomerase. This study describes the presence of telomerase activity in gastric lavage fluid in patients with gastric cancer. Gastric lavage fluid was collected during esophageogastroduodenoscopy in 70 patients: 25 with gastric cancer, 25 with peptic ulcer disease, and 20 with normal stomach. The fluid and biopsy samples were analyzed for telomerase activity by a polymerase chain reaction-based telomerase repeat amplification protocol. The findings were related to the histological results. Telomerase activity was present in 24 of the 25 (96%) gastric cancer tissue and in 7 of the 25 tissue specimens from peptic ulcer or gastritis. In the gastric lavage fluid, telomerase was detected in 20 patients (80%) with gastric cancer, 7 patients (28%) with peptic ulcer, and none in normal subjects (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of gastric fluid telomerase expression in gastric cancer patients was 80%, 84%, 74%, and 88%, respectively. The presence of telomerase activity is present in gastric lavage fluid of patients with gastric cancer as compared to those without, may represent a novel method for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  7. Mortality from gastric cancer following gastric surgery for peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caygill, C P; Hill, M J; Kirkham, J S; Northfield, T C

    1986-04-26

    When compared with a matched population group, 4466 ulcer patients who had had gastric surgery between 1940 and 1960 showed no difference in the risk of death from gastric cancer in the first 20 years of follow-up but a 4.5-fold increase thereafter. In duodenal ulcer patients there was an initial decrease in risk followed by a 3.7-fold increase after 20 or more years. Since the initial decrease was seen only in the gastrectomy patients and not in those who had truncal vagotomy and drainage, it may have been due to the reduction in mucosal surface. The increased risk 20 years after duodenal ulcer surgery was greater in vagotomy patients than in gastrectomy patients. In gastric ulcer patients a 3.0-fold increase in risk for the first 20 years rose to a 5.5-fold increase thereafter. After 20 years, patients treated with the Bilroth II operation were at higher risk than those treated with Bilroth I, consistent with a role for bile reflux in gastric carcinogenesis. The finding that the risk differs according to original pathology and type of operation may explain the discrepancies between previous studies.

  8. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  9. Usefulness of monoclonal antibody HIK1083 specific for gastric O-glycan in differentiating cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Miwako; Nakayama, Jun; Nishizawa, Tomoko; Ishida, Akiko; Ishii, Keiko; Ota, Hiroyoshi; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Saida, Toshiaki

    2007-10-01

    Distinguishing cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma can be problematic in some cases, especially with a single lesion. Previously we showed that a monoclonal antibody HIK1083 directed to alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans expressed in gastric gland mucin reacts to gastric cancer cells. By contrast, it was reported that immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer and primary sweat gland carcinoma. Here, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans and CK20 in 7 primary sweat gland carcinomas, 7 cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer, and 21 cutaneous metastases of other origin including breast, lung, colorectum, prostate, thyroid and pancreas using HIK1083 and CK20-specific Ks 20.8 antibodies and then assessed the usefulness of these antibodies in distinguishing cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma and other cutaneous metastatic tumors. Both alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans and CK20 were positive in 5 of 7 cases of cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer, while neither alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans nor CK20 were detected in any of the primary sweat gland carcinomas. By contrast, alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans was not detected in any of the cutaneous metastases other than that of gastric cancer, whereas CK20 was detected in cutaneous metastases of colorectal cancer (2/2), breast cancer (2/13), and lung adenocarcinoma (1/3). These findings indicate that immunohistochemistry using HIK1083 antibody is superior to immunohistochemistry for CK20 in distinguishing cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinomas and other cutaneous metastases.

  10. Detection of free gastric cancer cell in peripheral and portal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Ho Yoon; Lee, Jong Inn

    1998-01-01

    In fact, there is no definite treatment modality after liver or hematogenous metastasis in the gastric cancer. So it is important to develop a new method to predict the high risk patients for systemic recurrence. If we can detect metastatic cell in circulation, it may be beneficial in assessing tumor progression, metastatic potential and prognosis. To establish the RT-PCR methodology for detection of CEA expressing cancer cells in peripheral and portal blood and to define the relationship between peripheral and portal blood detection rate of gastric cancer patients, we performed RT-PCR analysis with peripheral and portal blood samples from 24 patients with gastric cancer (stage Ia,b, n=3; stage II, n=2; stage IIIa, n=9; stage IIIb, n=7; stage IV, n=3) and checked serum CEA level preoperatively. Mean age was 49.2 years old and male : female was 1.2 : 2 (13:11 patients). The mean serum CEA level was 10.4 ng/ml and that was higher than normal in only 2 cases. There was no positive case of tumor cell in portal and peripheral blood using RT-PCR and CEA gene specific primer. Our results indicate that the incidence of circulating cancer cells is unexpectedly very low even in advanced gastric cancer patients. (author). 20 refs

  11. Detection of free gastric cancer cell in peripheral and portal blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ho Yoon; Lee, Jong Inn [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    In fact, there is no definite treatment modality after liver or hematogenous metastasis in the gastric cancer. So it is important to develop a new method to predict the high risk patients for systemic recurrence. If we can detect metastatic cell in circulation, it may be beneficial in assessing tumor progression, metastatic potential and prognosis. To establish the RT-PCR methodology for detection of CEA expressing cancer cells in peripheral and portal blood and to define the relationship between peripheral and portal blood detection rate of gastric cancer patients, we performed RT-PCR analysis with peripheral and portal blood samples from 24 patients with gastric cancer (stage Ia,b, n=3; stage II, n=2; stage IIIa, n=9; stage IIIb, n=7; stage IV, n=3) and checked serum CEA level preoperatively. Mean age was 49.2 years old and male : female was 1.2 : 2 (13:11 patients). The mean serum CEA level was 10.4 ng/ml and that was higher than normal in only 2 cases. There was no positive case of tumor cell in portal and peripheral blood using RT-PCR and CEA gene specific primer. Our results indicate that the incidence of circulating cancer cells is unexpectedly very low even in advanced gastric cancer patients. (author). 20 refs.

  12. LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    1  AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0518 TITLE: LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer...COVERED 1 Sep 2011 - 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...prostate, immunotherapy may be the only way to treat it [6, 7]. A majority of clinical trials for the immunotherapy of prostate cancer have yielded

  13. Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Toxin and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Mark S.; Beckett, Amber C.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori VacA is a channel-forming toxin unrelated to other known bacterial toxins. Most H. pylori strains contain a vacA gene, but there is marked variation among strains in VacA toxin activity. This variation is attributable to strain-specific variations in VacA amino acid sequences, as well as variations in the levels of VacA transcription and secretion. In this review, we discuss epidemiologic studies showing an association between specific vacA allelic types and gastric cancer, as well as studies that have used animal models to investigate VacA activities relevant to gastric cancer. We also discuss the mechanisms by which VacA-induced cellular alterations may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:29023421

  14. Reconstructing metastatic seeding patterns of human cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Johannes G.; Makohon-Moore, Alvin P.; Gerold, Jeffrey M.; Bozic, Ivana; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Vogelstein, Bert; Nowak, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary history of metastases is critical for understanding their basic biological principles and has profound clinical implications. Genome-wide sequencing data has enabled modern phylogenomic methods to accurately dissect subclones and their phylogenies from noisy and impure bulk tumour samples at unprecedented depth. However, existing methods are not designed to infer metastatic seeding patterns. Here we develop a tool, called Treeomics, to reconstruct the phylogeny of metastases and map subclones to their anatomic locations. Treeomics infers comprehensive seeding patterns for pancreatic, ovarian, and prostate cancers. Moreover, Treeomics correctly disambiguates true seeding patterns from sequencing artifacts; 7% of variants were misclassified by conventional statistical methods. These artifacts can skew phylogenies by creating illusory tumour heterogeneity among distinct samples. In silico benchmarking on simulated tumour phylogenies across a wide range of sample purities (15–95%) and sequencing depths (25-800 × ) demonstrates the accuracy of Treeomics compared with existing methods. PMID:28139641

  15. Linked read sequencing resolves complex genomic rearrangements in gastric cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Stephanie U; Nadauld, Lincoln D; Lau, Billy T; Chen, Jiamin; Wood-Bouwens, Christina; Ford, James M; Kuo, Calvin J; Ji, Hanlee P

    2017-06-19

    Genome rearrangements are critical oncogenic driver events in many malignancies. However, the identification and resolution of the structure of cancer genomic rearrangements remain challenging even with whole genome sequencing. To identify oncogenic genomic rearrangements and resolve their structure, we analyzed linked read sequencing. This approach relies on a microfluidic droplet technology to produce libraries derived from single, high molecular weight DNA molecules, 50 kb in size or greater. After sequencing, the barcoded sequence reads provide long range genomic information, identify individual high molecular weight DNA molecules, determine the haplotype context of genetic variants that occur across contiguous megabase-length segments of the genome and delineate the structure of complex rearrangements. We applied linked read sequencing of whole genomes to the analysis of a set of synchronous metastatic diffuse gastric cancers that occurred in the same individual. When comparing metastatic sites, our analysis implicated a complex somatic rearrangement that was present in the metastatic tumor. The oncogenic event associated with the identified complex rearrangement resulted in an amplification of the known cancer driver gene FGFR2. With further investigation using these linked read data, the FGFR2 copy number alteration was determined to be a deletion-inversion motif that underwent tandem duplication, with unique breakpoints in each metastasis. Using a three-dimensional organoid tissue model, we functionally validated the metastatic potential of an FGFR2 amplification in gastric cancer. Our study demonstrates that linked read sequencing is useful in characterizing oncogenic rearrangements in cancer metastasis.

  16. Gastric varicella: two cases in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta María Sastre-Lozano

    Full Text Available Gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus is an uncommon clinical condition where early suspicion and diagnosis are important to prevent the consequences deriving from its high morbidity and mortality, which in immunocompromised patients oscillate between 9% and 41% according to the various series. Two cases of gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV in two patients with blood cancer are reported below. Gastric lesions are usually preceded by typical papulovesicular skin lesions. When gastric involvement is the first symptom of the disease its diagnosis and management may be delayed, which may entail severe consequences for immunocompromised patients. It is therefore that we suggest its inclusion in the algorithm for immunocompromised patients with abdominal pain and ulcer-like endoscopic lesions.

  17. Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Pseudoachalasia, and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilsa Mizrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare, inherited skeletal disorder characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen. Malignancy is rarely reported in patients with OI and it was suggested that this disease can protect against cancer. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman with symptoms of achalasia where repeated treatment of pneumatic dilation and stent replacement was unsuccessful; therefore, surgery was performed. Pathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma unexpectedly. Chemotherapy was given after assessing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD enzyme activity, which can be deficient in OI patients. This is the first report of gastric cancer mimicking achalasia in a patient with OI.

  18. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  19. Enzalutamide Improves Survival in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared enzalutamide (Xtandi®) and placebo for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer that had progressed during treatment with androgen deprivation therapy.

  20. Cytoreductive surgery for men with metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Katelaris

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: This data supports recent findings demonstrating that radical prostatectomy for metastatic prostate cancer is feasible. Further studies are needed to explore the role of cytoreductive surgery with regards to the potential oncological benefit.

  1. Development of representative models for the study of gastric cancer and evaluation of potential antitumor agents in primary gastric cancer cells and gastric metastasis in liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Chaves, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer has been the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and the leading cause of death by tumors in Costa Rica, the survival of patients is limited by difficulties in diagnosis and the lack of therapeutic options to improve life expectancy. The study has conducted a number of research models that will allow in the future to better understand the pathology of this tumor and it has evaluated the therapeutic action of naturally occurring in gastric cancer cells. A vivo model of carcinogenesis in stomachs of Wistar rats, has achieved to establish by means of chemical induction with MNNG, in which it has been possible to observe the appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium flat keratinized starting from week 22 of experiment; while for the 40th week adenomas were observed in the simple cylindrical epithelium. Additionally, the role of Helicobacter pylori was inquired in the development of gastric cancer by inoculation of two strains of bacteria (CagA + and CagA-) in the stomach of Wistar rats, as well as the effect of his administration together with MNNG. However, the results of these models have been limited due to the lack of detection of the bacteria in the stomachs of rats inoculated. In addition, it has established an in vitro model of threedimensional cell culture, which has allowed to reproduce some of the characteristics observed in vivo in the tumors, in this case it was determined that the two gastric cancer cell lines have showed a different behavior, since the cells NCI-N87 from a in metastasis gastric liver were able to form steroids compact whereas AGS cells have been originate from a primary tumor that has formed easily dispersible structures and not compact spheroids. Finally, the effect of natural retinoids ATRA and retinoic acid 13-cis were evaluated, as well as retinamide synthetic retinoid on the viability of the cells AGS and NCI-N87. Cytotoxicity assays using MTT have allowed to observe the reduction of a variation in the

  2. Outcomes of colon resection in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Correlation between spiral CT signs and PTEN expression in gastric cancer infiltration and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianfeng; Fei Lun; Wang Peiyun; Wu Maozhu; Chen Yiming; Zhang Caineng; Liang Xuefeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential link between spiral CT (SCT) signs and PTEN expression in gastric cancer and the correlation with clinico pathology. Methods: Sixty patients with advanced gastric cancer were selected. SCT three-phase enhanced scan was conducted on them a week before surgery. HE staining, smearing and SP immunohistochemical staining were conducted on specimens after surgery to detect PTEN expression. Results: SCT showed the accuracy of determining serosal invasion was 91.66% (55/60), that of determining lymph node metastases was 78.95% (45/57), and that of determining distant metastases was 100% (4/4), of which, four patients with distant metastases combined with lymph node metastases. SCT diagnosis and pathological diagnosis of serosal invasion (T3 + T4) and lymph node metastasis (including distant metastasis) showed a good consistency (P values were 0.00013 and 0.00011, respectively). Diagnosed by SCT, the positive rate of PTEN expression in patients with no serosal invasion was 75.00%, significantly higher than that (27.08%) of patients with serosal invasion (P<0.05); that of patients with no lymph node metastasis was 100.00%, significantly higher than that (33.33%) of patients with lymph node metastasis (P<0.05); that of patients with no distant metastasis was 39.29%, and of 4 patients with distant metastasis, the two groups showed significant differences (P<0.05). Conclusion: PTEN is an important biological indicator to predict the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells. Gastric cancer patients who have low PTEN expression possessed a higher metastatic potential, while SCT signs is closely related to PTEN expression in tumor cells. Clinically, biological characteristics of gastric cancer can be speculated by SCT signs noninvasively,and thus a reasonable assessment is conducted on the invasion,metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer to guide and develop rational treatment plans. (authors)

  4. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal

  5. Human epidermal growth factor receptor2 expression in unresectable gastric cancers: Relationship with CT characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung; Im, Seock Ah; Kim, Min A; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To retrospectively analyze the qualitative CT features that correlate with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-expression in pathologically-proven gastric cancers. A total of 181 patients with pathologically-proven unresectable gastric cancers with HER2-expression (HER2-positive [n = 32] and negative [n = 149]) were included. CT features of primary gastric and metastatic tumors were reviewed. The prevalence of each CT finding was compared in both groups. Thereafter, binary logistic regression determined the most significant differential CT features. Clinical outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier method. HER2-postive cancers showed lower clinical T stage (21.9% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.015), hyperattenuation on portal phase (62.5% vs. 30.9%; p = 0.003), and was more frequently metastasized to the liver (62.5% vs. 32.2%; p = 0.001), than HER2-negative cancers. On binary regression analysis, hyperattenuation of the tumor (odds ratio [OR], 4.68; p < 0.001) and hepatic metastasis (OR, 4.43; p = 0.001) were significant independent factors that predict HER2-positive cancers. Median survival of HER2-positive cancers (13.7 months) was significantly longer than HER2-negative cancers (9.6 months) (p = 0.035). HER2-positive gastric cancers show less-advanced T stage, hyperattenuation on the portal phase, and frequently metastasize to the liver, as compared to HER2-negative cancers.

  6. Serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer by SELDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer and to screen for protein molecules closely related to gastric cancer during the onset and progression of the disease using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Serum samples from 80 gastric ...

  7. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. Gastric Cancer Genomics: Advances and Future DirectionsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson W. Katona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in the field of cancer genomics is revolutionizing the molecular characterization of a wide variety of different cancers. Recent application of large-scale, next-generation sequencing technology to gastric cancer, which remains a major source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, has helped better define the complex genomic landscape of this cancer. These studies also have led to the development of novel genomically based molecular classification systems for gastric cancer, reinforced the importance of classic driver mutations in gastric cancer pathogenesis, and led to the discovery of new driver gene mutations that previously were not known to be associated with gastric cancer. This wealth of genomic data has significant potential to impact the future management of this disease, and the challenge remains to effectively translate this genomic data into better treatment paradigms for gastric cancer. Keywords: Gastric Cancer, Genomics, Next-Generation Sequencing, Driver Gene Mutations

  9. The transcription factor FOXO4 is down-regulated and inhibits tumor proliferation and metastasis in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Linna; Liu, Xiangqiang; Chai, Na; Lv, Lifen; Wang, Rui; Li, Xiaosa; Nie, Yongzhan; Shi, Yongquan; Fan, Daiming

    2014-01-01

    FOXO4, a member of the FOXO family of transcription factors, is currently the focus of intense study. Its role and function in gastric cancer have not been fully elucidated. The present study was aimed to investigate the expression profile of FOXO4 in gastric cancer and the effect of FOXO4 on cancer cell growth and metastasis. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and qRT-PCR were performed to detect the FOXO4 expression in gastric cancer cells and tissues. Cell biological assays, subcutaneous tumorigenicity and tail vein metastatic assay in combination with lentivirus construction were performed to detect the impact of FOXO4 to gastric cancer in proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Confocal and qRT-PCR were performed to explore the mechanisms. We found that the expression of FOXO4 was decreased significantly in most gastric cancer tissues and in various human gastric cancer cell lines. Up-regulating FOXO4 inhibited the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer cell lines in vitro and led to dramatic attenuation of tumor growth, and liver and lung metastasis in vivo, whereas down-regulating FOXO4 with specific siRNAs promoted the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we found that up-regulating FOXO4 could induce significant G1 arrest and S phase reduction and down-regulation of the expression of vimentin. Our data suggest that loss of FOXO4 expression contributes to gastric cancer growth and metastasis, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer

  10. OUR EXPERIENCE OF HYPERTHERMIC INTRAPERITONEAL CHEMOTHERAPY FOR PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED GASTRIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of the results of treatment of patients with locally advanced and metastatic gastric cancer. Material and methods. From the 2010–2014 we performed 30 surgeries using techniques HICT. Among patients there were 17 men and 13 women. The median of age was 50 years. Locally advanced gastric cancer (T4a-T4b was observed in 22 cases, including 4 patients in the emergency immunocytochemical study with peritoneal lavage detected cancer-free (Cyt + cells in the abdominal cavity. The group of patients with metastatic gastric cancer accounted for 8 patients. Narrow carcinomatosis (P1 was 4 cases, carcinomatosis (P2-P3 — 4. Adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in the study group was not carried out. In the control group No 1 (n = 51 performed surgery alone, without additional anticancer therapy. In the control group No 2 (n = 66, a combined treatment (surgery + chemotherapy. Results. Follow-up median was 25 months. Overall 1-year survival rate for all three groups was 55%, 39% and 52%, respectively. Median survival in the intervention group versus 21.4 months in the 8 and 12 months, respectively. The most effective HICT is shown for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. In the study group, median overall survival was 29 months. The survival rate of 1-, 2-, 3-year-old was equal to 68%, 61% and 42%. In the first control group, 1-year survival of 45%. None of the patients did not survive 2 years. In the second control group, one-year survival rate was 60%, 2-year survival is not. Results of treatment of metastatic gastric cancer proved to be more modest. In the main group the median survival was 10 months, compared with 6 and 7 months of the two control groups. There were no statistically significant differences. Conclusions. 1. Availability of limited dissemination, free cancer cells in the abdominal cavity, as well as a massive defeat of serous membrane of the stomach can be seen as indications for HICT in gastric cancer. 2. In

  11. Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Carrillo Lizbeth

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of alcohol consumption, including the popular Mexican liquor tequila, in relation to the incidence of gastric cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Mexico City, with 220 gastric cancer cases and 752 population-based controls. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure consumption of alcohol and other dietary items. Grams of ethanol were estimated by the Food Intake Analysis System 3.0 software. After adjustment for known risk factors, wine consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer (OR = 2.93; CI 95% 1.27-6.75 in the highest category of wine consumption, corresponding to at least 10 glasses of wine per month, with a significant trend (p = 0.005. This association remained among intestinal (OR = 2.16; CI 95% 0.68-6.92, p-value for trend = 0.031 and diffuse (OR = 4.48; CI 95% 1.44-13.94, p-value for trend = 0.018 gastric cancer cases. A borderline significant trend between GC risk and total ethanol intake was observed (p = 0.068. Consumption of beer and distilled alcoholic beverages including brandy, rum, and tequila was not associated with GC risk. The results indicate the need to focus on the study of the potential effects of different types of wine, with emphasis on components other than ethanol regarding the incidence of gastric cancer, even among populations with moderate to low levels of alcohol consumption.

  12. First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease and among the most frequent causes of cancer mortality in females worldwide. Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is conventionally considered to be incurable. In first-line treatment of HER-2 positive MBC, randomized trials have demonstrated that trastuzumab when ...

  13. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    metastasis and responses to curcumin 19 Goals: This proposal tests the hypothesis that chemokine biomarkers that predict biochemical recurrence of...prostate cancer regulate metastatic progression of the cancer and curcumin can inhibit metastasis of prostate cancer by antagonizing inflammatory signaling

  14. Coronin 3 promotes gastric cancer metastasis via the up-regulation of MMP-9 and cathepsin K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Gui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronins are a family of highly evolutionary conserved proteins reportedly involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics, although only coronin 3 has been shown to be related to cancer cell migration. In glioblastoma cells, the knockdown of coronin 3 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion. Coronin 3 is also associated with the aggression and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this paper, we analyze the migration, invasion and metastasis abilities of gastric cancer cells after up- or down-regulation of coronin 3, and explore the mechanism of coronin 3 in the process of gastric cancer metastasis. Results The expression of coronin 3 was higher in the highly metastatic sub-cell line MKN28-M, which we established in our laboratory. We also demonstrated that the expression of coronin 3 was remarkably higher in lymph lode metastases than in primary gastric cancer tissues, and over-expression of coronin 3 was correlated with the increased clinical stage and lymph lode metastasis. Recombinant lentiviral vectors encoding shRNAs were designed to down-regulate coronin 3 expression in gastric cancer cell lines. Stable knockdown of coronin 3 by this lentiviral vector could efficiently inhibit the migration and invasion of MKN45 gastric cancer cells. In contrast, up-regulation of coronin 3 significantly enhanced migration and invasion of MKN28-NM cells. In addition, knockdown of coronin 3 significantly reduced liver metastasis in mice after tail vein injection of gastric cancer cells. The Human Tumor Metastasis PCR Array was used to screen the metastasis-associated genes identified by the down-regulation of coronin 3, and the results suggested that, following the knockdown of coronin 3, the tumor cell migration and invasion were inhibited by the reduced expression of MMP-9 and cathepsin K. Conclusion Coronin 3 is highly expressed in gastric cancer metastases and can promote the metastatic behaviors of gastric cancer

  15. Review article: the epidemiology and prevention of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, K M

    2014-08-01

    Gastric cancer can be divided into cardia and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma (NCGA). Non cardia gastric cancer is a disease that has declined in global incidence but has remained as an extremely lethal cancer. To review recent advances in epidemiology and strategies in prevention of non cardia gastric cancer. A rapid literature search strategy was developed for all English language literature published before March 2013. The search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE. The search strategy included the keywords 'stomach neoplasms', 'gastric cancer', 'epidemiology', 'risk factor', 'early detection of cancer', 'mass screening', 'cancer burden', 'prevention' and 'cost-effectiveness'. The search strategy was adjusted according to different requirements for each database. The specific search was also performed in cancer-related websites for country-specific information. The search was limited to past 10 years. Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer but the third leading cause of cancer death. The case fatality rate is 75%. Screening by radiological or endoscopic methods has limited success in prevention of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a carcinogen, accounting for 60-70% of gastric cancer globally and eradication is a potential preventive measure. A meta-analysis in 2009 demonstrated that individuals treated with H. pylori eradication therapy can reduce gastric cancer risk. The extended Shandong Intervention trial that lasted 14.3 years showed that H. pylori eradication therapy significantly reduced gastric cancer incidence by 39%. Consensus groups from Asia, Europe and Japan have recommended H. pylori eradication as primary prevention in high-risk areas. Following eradication therapy, endoscopic surveillance of pre-malignant lesions using enhanced imaging appears to be another promising preventive strategy. Gastric cancer remains a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. There is emerging evidence that

  16. Differential expression of ZFX gene in gastric cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-08

    Jan 8, 2012 ... 1Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan. University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, ... Gastric cancer accounts for 8% of the total cancer cases and 10% of total cancer deaths worldwide. In Iran, gastric cancer is the ... 2003), lung (Kim et al. 2005), head and neck (Prince et ...

  17. Resveratrol: A potential challenger against gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta, Aida; Caretti, Anna; Signorelli, Paola; Ghidoni, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Late diagnosis and classical therapeutic approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy make this disease a still threatening tumor. Genetic asset, environmental stress, dietary habit and infections caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are the major causes concurring to GC initiation. A common mechanism is induction of radicals resulting in gastric mucosal injury. A regular food intake of antioxidant and radical scavenging agents has been proposed to exert protection against tumorigenesis. Resveratrol belongs to the polyphenol flavonoids class of antioxidants produced by a restricted number of plants. Resveratrol exerts bactericidal activity against H. pylori and is a powerful antioxidant, thus acting as a tumor preventive agent. Resveratrol intracellular signaling results in growth arrest and apoptosis, so that it can be directed against tumor progression. Resveratrol therapeutic potential against GC initiation and progression are reviewed here. PMID:26457023

  18. Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis of Gastric Cancer Misdiagnosed as Vestibular Schwannoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Shin-Jae; Kwon, Jeong-Taik; Mun, Seog-Kyun; Hong, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death in Asian countries, including Korea. We experienced a case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) from gastric cancer that was originally misdiagnosed as vestibular schwannoma based on the similar radiological characteristics. To our knowledge, LC from gastric cancer is very rare. In conclusion, our experience with this case suggests that clinicians should consider the possibility of delayed leptomeningeal metastasis when ...

  19. Expression of interleukin 1β in gastric cancer tissue and its effects on gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Shenglu Yin, Chao Lan, Hui Pei, Zhiqiang ZhuEmergency Center Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: This study detected the expression level of IL-1β in gastric cancer tissue and paracarcinoma tissue, and also analyzed its relationship with clinical and pathological features, so as to explore the expression of IL-1β in gastric cancer tissue and its effect on gastric cancer. A total of 70 fresh primary gastric cancer tumors and corresponding paracarcinoma tissues away from the tumor-incision edge (≥5 cm were selected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January to December 2014. Total protein concentration was extracted from tissues with radioimmunoprecipitation assay lysis buffer, and IL-1β content in tissues was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The ratio of cell cytokine content and protein concentration was considered as the relative content of cytokines, and the relationship between relative content of cytokines and clinical data was analyzed. Results indicated that the differences in content of IL-1β in gastric cancer tissues and paracarcinoma tissues had no statistical significance, but the content of IL-1β would rise as tumor size was enlarged, based upon analysis (2.9<4.2 ng/g, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Furthermore, IL-1β content decreased along with differentiation degree and infiltration depth (3.21<4.15 ng/g, 3.06<3.45 ng/g, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Therefore, it can be concluded that IL-1β plays an important role in the occurrence and development of gastric cancer and promotes the treatment of gastric cancer to some extent.Keywords: interleukin cytokines, paracarcinoma tissues, Helicobacter pylori, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

  20. Paclitaxel and concurrent radiation for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safran, Howard; Wanebo, Harry J.; Hesketh, Paul J.; Akerman, Paul; Ianitti, David; Cioffi, William; Di Petrillo, Thomas; Wolf, Brian; Koness, James; McAnaw, Robert; Moore, Todd; Chen, M.-H.; Radie-Keane, Kathy

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the activity and toxicity of paclitaxel and concurrent radiation for gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients were studied. Twenty-five had proximal gastric cancers, two had distal cancers. Eight had esophageal extension, 6 had celiac adenopathy, and 7 had retroperitoneal adenopathy. Patients received paclitaxel, 50 mg/m 2 by 3-hour intravenous (IV) infusion, weekly, on days 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29. Radiation was administered concurrently to a total dose of 45.0 Gy, in 1.80 Gy fractions, for 25 treatments. Patients who were medically or surgically inoperable received a sixth week of paclitaxel with a radiation boost to 50.4 Gy. Results: Esophagitis and gastritis were the most important toxicities, Grade 3 in four patients (15%), and Grade 4 in three patients (11%). Five patients (19%) had Grade 3 nausea. The overall response rate was 56%, including three patients (11%) with a complete response. The 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 29% and 31%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent paclitaxel and radiation demonstrates substantial local-regional activity in gastric cancer. Future investigations combining paclitaxel and radiation with other local-regional and systemic treatments are warranted

  1. Prognostic factors in stage IB gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Fujikawa, Hirohito; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yamada, Takanobu; Hasegawa, Shinichi; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Yukawa, Norio; Oshima, Takashi; Oba, Mari S; Morita, Satoshi; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka

    2014-06-07

    To identify the subset of patients with stage IB gastric cancer with an unfavorable prognosis. Overall survival (OS) rates were examined in 103 patients with stage IB (T1N1M0 and T2N0M0) gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors using a Cox proportional hazards model. The OS rates of patients with T1N1 and T2N0 cancer were 89.2% and 94.1% at 5-years, respectively. Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that tumor location was the only significant prognostic factor. The OS rate was 81.8% at 5-years when the tumor was located in the upper third of the stomach and was 95.5% at 5-years when the tumor was located in the middle or lower third of the stomach (P = 0.0093). These data may suggest that tumor location is associated with survival in patients with stage IB gastric cancer.

  2. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  3. Ixabepilone: a new chemotherapeutic option for refractory metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Puhalla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Shannon Puhalla, Adam BrufskyUPMC Magee-Womens Cancer Program, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Taxane therapy is commonly used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, most patients will eventually become refractory to these agents. Ixabepilone is a newly approved chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Although it targets microtubules similarly to docetaxel and paclitaxel, ixabepilone has activity in patients that are refractory to taxanes. This review summarizes the pharmacology of ixapebilone and clinical trials with the drug both as a single agent and in combination. Data were obtained using searches of PubMed and abstracts of the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium from 1995 to 2008. Ixapebilone is a semi-synthetic analog of epothilone B that acts to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the stabilization of microtubules. Phase I clinical trials have employed various dosing schedules ranging from daily to weekly to 3-weekly. Dose-limiting toxicites included neuropathy and neutropenia. Responses were seen in a variety of tumor types. Phase II studies verified activity in taxane-refractory metastatic breast cancer. The FDA has approved ixabepilone for use as monotherapy and in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ixabepilone is an efficacious option for patients with refractory metastatic breast cancer. The safety profile is similar to that of taxanes, with neuropathy and neutropenia being dose-limiting. Studies are ongoing with the use of both iv and oral formulations and in combination with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents.Keywords: ixabepilone, epothilone, metastatic breast cancer, taxane-refractory

  4. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0553 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Gleave...Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Gleave 5d...goal of this project was to develop a novel means to inhibit prostate cancer development and progression. The development of Siah1/2 inhibitors to the

  5. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  6. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  7. Gastric cancer surgery in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretschel, Stephen; Estevez-Schwarz, Lope; Hünerbein, Michael; Schneider, Ulrike; Schlag, Peter M

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the value of individual risk-adapted therapy in geriatric patients, we performed a consecutive analysis of 363 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery for gastric cancer. All patients underwent extensive preoperative workup to assess surgical risk. The following criteria were evaluated in 3 age groups (75 years): comorbidity, tumor characteristics, type of resection, postoperative morbidity and mortality, recurrence rate, overall survival, and disease-free survival. There was an increased rate of comorbidity in the higher age groups (51% vs 76% vs 83%; PPatient selection and risk-adapted surgery in elderly patients can result in acceptable therapeutic results comparable to younger patients. Limited surgery in elderly gastric cancer patients with high comorbidity does not necessarily compromise oncological outcome.

  8. Features of gastritis predisposing to gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meining, A; Riedl, B; Stolte, M

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The results of several studies indicate that gastric adenomas, which are considered premalignant lesions, may also be associated with H pylori gastritis. However, it is not clear whether there are different patterns of gastritis in these patients compared with patients with gastric cancer or patients with H pylori gastritis alone. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the pattern...

  9. Clinicopathologic factors associated with de novo metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tiansheng; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2016-12-01

    While breast cancers with distant metastasis at presentation (de novo metastasis) harbor significantly inferior clinical outcomes, there have been limited studies analyzing the clinicopathologic characteristics in this subset of patients. In this study, we analyzed 6126 breast cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 to identify factors associated with de novo metastatic breast cancer. When compared to patients without metastasis at presentation, race, histologic grade, estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) and HER2 statuses were significantly associated with de novo metastasis in the entire cohort, whereas age, histologic grade, PR and HER2 status were the significant parameters in the subset of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIB/III). The patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer had a significant older mean age and a lower proportion of HER2-positive tumors when compared to those with metastatic recurrence. Further, the HER2-rich subtype demonstrated a drastically higher incidence of de novo metastasis when compared to the luminal and triple-negative breast cancers in the entire cohort [odds ratio (OR)=5.68 and 2.27, respectively] and in the patients with locally advanced disease (OR=4.02 and 2.12, respectively), whereas no significant difference was seen between de novo metastatic cancers and those with metastatic recurrence. Moreover, the luminal and HER2-rich subtypes showed bone-seeking (OR=1.92) and liver-homing (OR=2.99) characteristics, respectively, for the sites of de novo metastasis, while the latter was not observed in those with metastatic recurrence. Our data suggest that an algorithm incorporating clinicopathologic factors, especially histologic grade and receptor profile, remains of significant benefit during decision making in newly diagnosed breast cancer in the pursuit of precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. [Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shaoqin; Mao, Hua

    2014-03-01

    To establish a method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. A rapid near-infrared Raman system was used to examine the tissue specimens of pathologically confirmed gastric cancer (33 cases), gastric precancerous lesions (27 cases), and normal gastric mucosa (45 cases). All the specimens were obtained from 105 patients undergoing gastrectomy or endoscopic biopsy of suspected gastric lesions. High-quality Raman spectra ranging from 700 to 1800 cm(-1) were acquired from the gastric tissues within 5 s. The distribution pattern of Raman spectra in gastric cancer differed significantly from those of gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853 cm(-1), 936 cm(-1), 1003 cm(-1), 1032 cm(-1), 1174 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1323 cm(-1), 1335 cm(-1), 1450 cm(-1), and 1655 cm(-1), which contained signals related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The diagnostic decision algorithm based on the Raman peak intensity ratios of I1003/ I1337, I1003/I1445, I1003/I1655, and I1156/I1655 yielded remarkable differences in gastric cancer from gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, and the ratios were significantly higher in normal gastric tissues (Pinfrared Raman spectroscopy using PCA-LDA algorithms associated with leave- one-out and cross-validation method showed diagnostic sensitivities of 81.5%, 85.3%, and 100%, and specificities of 86.4%, 100%, and 97.4% for normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer, respectively. near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with intensity ratio algorithms shows the potential for noninvasive diagnosis and detection of gastric malignancy at the molecular level.

  11. Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as a curative modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Since conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been introduced, many improvements in endoscopic accessories and techniques have been achieved. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using various electrosurgical knives has been performed for complete resection of EGC and enables complete resection of EGC, which is difficult to completely resect in the era of conventional EMR. Cur...

  12. Randomized trials and quality assurance in gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikken, Johan L; Cats, Annemieke; Verheij, Marcel; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2013-03-01

    A D2 lymphadenectomy can be considered standard of surgical care for advanced resectable gastric cancer. Currently, several multimodality strategies are used, including postoperative monochemotherapy in Asia, postoperative chemoradiotherapy in the United States, and perioperative chemotherapy in Europe. As the majority of gastric cancer patients are treated outside the framework of clinical trials, quality assurance programs, including referral to high-volume centers and clinical auditing are needed to improve gastric cancer care on a nationwide level. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  14. Expression of the EGF Family in Gastric Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Ostergaard; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. The epidermal growth factor receptors are EGFR, HER2, HER3 and HER4. Of the four epidermal growth factor receptors, EGFR and HER2 are well-known oncogenes involved in gastric cancer. Little, however, is known about...

  15. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  16. Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Niranjan; Bertrand, Denis; Hillmer, Axel M; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Yao, Fei; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Teo, Audrey S M; Cutcutache, Ioana; Zhang, Zhenshui; Lee, Wah Heng; Sia, Yee Yen; Gao, Song; Ariyaratne, Pramila N; Ho, Andrea; Woo, Xing Yi; Veeravali, Lavanya; Ong, Choon Kiat; Deng, Niantao; Desai, Kartiki V; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Hibberd, Martin L; Shahab, Atif; Rao, Jaideepraj; Wu, Mengchu; Teh, Ming; Zhu, Feng; Chin, Sze Yung; Pang, Brendan; So, Jimmy B Y; Bourque, Guillaume; Soong, Richie; Sung, Wing-Kin; Tean Teh, Bin; Rozen, Steven; Ruan, Xiaoan; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Tan, Patrick B O; Ruan, Yijun

    2012-12-13

    Gastric cancer is the second highest cause of global cancer mortality. To explore the complete repertoire of somatic alterations in gastric cancer, we combined massively parallel short read and DNA paired-end tag sequencing to present the first whole-genome analysis of two gastric adenocarcinomas, one with chromosomal instability and the other with microsatellite instability. Integrative analysis and de novo assemblies revealed the architecture of a wild-type KRAS amplification, a common driver event in gastric cancer. We discovered three distinct mutational signatures in gastric cancer--against a genome-wide backdrop of oxidative and microsatellite instability-related mutational signatures, we identified the first exome-specific mutational signature. Further characterization of the impact of these signatures by combining sequencing data from 40 complete gastric cancer exomes and targeted screening of an additional 94 independent gastric tumors uncovered ACVR2A, RPL22 and LMAN1 as recurrently mutated genes in microsatellite instability-positive gastric cancer and PAPPA as a recurrently mutated gene in TP53 wild-type gastric cancer. These results highlight how whole-genome cancer sequencing can uncover information relevant to tissue-specific carcinogenesis that would otherwise be missed from exome-sequencing data.

  17. Laparoscopy, computerised tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, A; Galloway, S

    2016-07-01

    The staging laparoscopy has been used in the management of gastrointestinal cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of staging laparoscopy, in comparison with computed tomography (CT) and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging in staging patients with gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) and gastric cancers. The data were collected for patients between 1996 and 2013 undergoing investigation and treatment for GOJ and gastric cancers at a single institute. The pre-operative data (staging data), intraoperative details, post-operative course and follow-up were analysed for individual cases. Staging laparoscopy altered management plan in 64 (17 %) of 387 patients with negative staging CT and FDG-PET scan. Twenty-seven (7 %) patients with GOJ cancer (types I, II and III) were identified with pathological intraperitoneal nodes, 15 (4 %) gastric cancer with metastatic intraperitoneal deposits and liver metastases and 3 % gastric cancers with positive ascitic fluid for cancer cells. Ten (3 %) of patients were downstaged and were offered curative resection. Patients with metastatic disease were referred for palliative chemotherapy. The overall sensitivity of staging laparoscopy in diagnosing intraabdominal pathology was 86 % in comparison with CT (81 %) and FDG-PET (78 %). The diagnostic laparoscopy is useful for detecting and confirming nodal involvement and distant metastatic disease not evident on the staging CT scan and FDG-PET. This could potentially alter treatment and prognosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer. The diagnostic laparoscopy should be performed as part of investigation and treatment planning for patients suffering from GOJ and gastric cancers. This can help to avoid surgery in patients with advanced disease.

  18. Metastatic pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast-Emphasis on gastric metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hage, Ali; Ruel, Carolanne; Afif, Wahiba; Wissanji, Hussein; Hogue, Jean-Charles; Desbiens, Christine; Leblanc, Guy; Poirier, Éric

    2016-10-01

    Breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have different metastatic patterns, but the exact pattern of metastases from ILC is poorly known. This study aimed to determine the frequency of ILC metastases in atypical locations, with an emphasis on gastric metastases. Patients with ILC treated at the Saint-Sacrement Hospital (Quebec City, Canada) and the Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital (Montreal, Canada) between January 2003 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, clinical, and follow-up data were retrieved from the medical charts. Metastases that were diagnosed during follow-up were recorded. Among the 481 patients with ILC, 74 (15.4%) were diagnosed with metastases after a median follow-up of 46 months. Among these 74 patients, 41.9% had metastases in atypical sites. Five patients were diagnosed with histologically confirmed gastric metastases of ILC. Metastases of breast ILC to atypical sites might be more frequent than previously reported. Clinicians should keep a high level of suspicion when a patient with a history of ILC develops digestive symptoms. It is important to differentiate metastases from a primary GI tumor by using immunohistochemical markers. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:543-547. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Histopathological studies of lymph node metastasis in patients preoperatively irradiated for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Takashi

    1978-01-01

    Irradiated 197 cases of progressive gastric cancer were compared with non-irradiated 290 cases of progressive gastric cancer as controls. Irradiated cases showed decreases in the rate of metastasis by 13.1%, in the degree of metastasis by 9.1, and in remote metastasis beyond the range of the second lymph node group. Concerning the site of involvement, the cases whose involvement restricted to upper C, middle M, or lower A region showed a decrease in the metastatic rate. In complete extirpation of the regional lymph nodes, irradiated cases showed a decrease in the rate of metastasis into the first and second lymph node groups. In the type, I, II, and III according to Borrmann's classification, the metastatic rate decreased. Concerning the tissue type, the metastatic rate decreased in adenomatous carcinoma and remarkably decreased in simple carcinoma. As regards the size of tumors, the metastatic rate decreased in the tumors smaller than 6.0 cm in diameter and in those larger than 6.0 cm as well. Concerning the depth of the x-ray irradiation, s 1 and s 2 decreased the rate of metastasis. The metastatic rate and 5-year survival rate increased in n 1 (+) by 4.5%, in n 2 (+) by 8.4%, and in all the irradiated cases by 12.5%. The degree of x in lesions metastasized into the lymph node increased according to an increase in irradiated dose, although it tended to be slightly milder than that in main lesions. Metachromasia of cancerous lesions metastasized into the lymph node by pH 4.1 TBM staining was negative(-)-slightly positive(+-) in random interstice and strongly positive(+++) in the cancerous interstice. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Tsukamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents.

  1. Glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB: A metastatic mediator and emerging therapeutic target in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maric G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gordana Maric,1,2 April AN Rose,3 Matthew G Annis,1,2 Peter M Siegel1,2,4,5 1Goodman Cancer Research Centre, 2Department of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, 4Department of Biochemistry, 5Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada Abstract: Molecularly targeted therapies are rapidly growing with respect to their clinical development and impact on cancer treatment due to their highly selective anti-tumor action. However, many aggressive cancers such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC currently lack well-defined therapeutic targets against which such agents can be developed. The identification of tumor-associated antigens and the generation of antibody drug-conjugates represent an emerging area of intense interest and growth in the field of cancer therapeutics. Glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB has recently been identified as a gene that is over-expressed in numerous cancers, including TNBC, and often correlates with the metastatic phenotype. In breast cancer, GPNMB expression in the tumor epithelium is associated with a reduction in disease-free and overall survival. Based on these findings, glembatumumab vedotin (CDX-011, an antibody-drug conjugate that selectively targets GPNMB, is currently being investigated in clinical trials for patients with metastatic breast cancer and unresectable melanoma. This review discusses the physiological and potential pathological roles of GPNMB in normal and cancer tissues, respectively, and details the clinical advances and challenges in targeting GPNMB-expressing malignancies. Keywords: GPNMB, osteoactivin, breast cancer, antibody-drug conjugates, CDX-011

  2. Gastric cancer; Cancer de l'estomac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E. [Unite de cancerologie digestive, Institut Sainte Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France); Pointreau, Y. [Clinique d' oncologie radiotherapie, Centre Henry-S.-Kaplan, CHU Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, Clinique Victor-Hugo, 72 - Le Mans (France)

    2010-07-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  3. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  4. Western Validation of a Novel Gastric Cancer Prognosis Prediction Model in US Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Yanghee; Goldner, Bryan; Son, Taeil; Song, Kijun; Noh, Sung Hoon; Fong, Yuman; Hyung, Woo Jin

    2018-03-01

    A novel prediction model for accurate determination of 5-year overall survival of gastric cancer patients was developed by an international collaborative group (G6+). This prediction model was created using a single institution's database of 11,851 Korean patients and included readily available and clinically relevant factors. Already validated using external East Asian cohorts, its applicability in the American population was yet to be determined. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) dataset, 2014 release, all patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection between 2002 and 2012, were selected. Characteristics for analysis included: age, sex, depth of tumor invasion, number of positive lymph nodes, total lymph nodes retrieved, presence of distant metastasis, extent of resection, and histology. Concordance index (C-statistic) was assessed using the novel prediction model and compared with the prognostic index, the seventh edition of the TNM staging system. Of the 26,019 gastric cancer patients identified from the SEER database, 15,483 had complete datasets. Validation of the novel prediction tool revealed a C-statistic of 0.762 (95% CI 0.754 to 0.769) compared with the seventh TNM staging model, C-statistic 0.683 (95% CI 0.677 to 0.689), (p prediction model for gastric cancer in the American patient population. Its superior prediction of the 5-year survival of gastric cancer patients in a large Western cohort strongly supports its global applicability. Importantly, this model allows for accurate prognosis for an increasing number of gastric cancer patients worldwide, including those who received inadequate lymphadenectomy or underwent a noncurative resection. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying module biomarkers from gastric cancer by differential correlation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoping Liu,1–3,* Xiao Chang1,3,* 1College of Statistics and Applied Mathematics, Anhui University of Finance and Economics, Bengbu, Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Collaborative Research Center for Innovative Mathematical Modeling, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Gastric cancer (stomach cancer is a severe disease caused by dysregulation of many functionally correlated genes or pathways instead of the mutation of individual genes. Systematic identification of gastric cancer biomarkers can provide insights into the mechanisms underlying this deadly disease and help in the development of new drugs. In this paper, we present a novel network-based approach to predict module biomarkers of gastric cancer that can effectively distinguish the disease from normal samples. Specifically, by assuming that gastric cancer has mainly resulted from dysfunction of biomolecular networks rather than individual genes in an organism, the genes in the module biomarkers are potentially related to gastric cancer. Finally, we identified a module biomarker with 27 genes, and by comparing the module biomarker with known gastric cancer biomarkers, we found that our module biomarker exhibited a greater ability to diagnose the samples with gastric cancer. Keywords: biomarkers, gastric cancer, stomach cancer, differential network

  6. Nanomedicine developments in the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer: focus on nanoliposomal irinotecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko AH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrew H KoDivision of Hematology/Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Nanoliposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI was originally developed using an efficient and high-loading capacity system to encapsulate irinotecan within a liposomal carrier, producing a therapeutic agent with improved biodistribution and pharmacokinetic characteristics compared to free drug. Specifically, administration of nal-IRI results in prolonged exposure of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, within tumors, while at the same time offering the advantage of less systemic toxicity than traditional irinotecan. These favorable properties of nal-IRI, confirmed in a variety of tumor xenograft models, led to its clinical evaluation in a number of disease indications for which camptothecins have proven activity, including in colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic cancers. The culmination of these clinical trials was the NAPOLI-1 (Nanoliposomal irinotecan with fluorouracil and folinic acid in metastatic pancreatic cancer after previous gemcitabine-based therapy trial, an international Phase III study evaluating nal-IRI both alone and in combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma following progression on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. Positive results from NAPOLI-1 led to approval of nal-IRI (with 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin in October 2015 by the US Food and Drug Administration specifically for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer in the second-line setting and beyond, a clinical context in which there had previously been no accepted standard of care. As such, nal-IRI represents an important landmark in cancer drug development, and potentially ushers in a new era where a greater number of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer can be sequenced through multiple lines of therapy translating into meaningful improvements in

  7. Nanomedicine as an emerging platform for metastatic lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman-Milo, Dalit; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Peer, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Metastatic lung cancer is one of the most common cancers leading to mortality worldwide. Current treatment includes chemo- and pathway-dependent therapy aiming at blocking the spread and proliferation of these metastatic lesions. Nanomedicine is an emerging multidisciplinary field that offers unprecedented access to living cells and promises the state of the art in cancer detection and treatment. Development of nanomedicines as drug carriers (nanocarriers) that target cancer for therapy draws upon principles in the fields of chemistry, medicine, physics, biology, and engineering. Given the zealous activity in the field as demonstrated by more than 30 nanocarriers already approved for clinical use and given the promise of recent clinical results in various studies, nanocarrier-based strategies are anticipated to soon have a profound impact on cancer medicine and human health. Herein, we will detail the latest innovations in therapeutic nanomedicine with examples from lipid-based nanoparticles and polymer-based approaches, which are engineered to deliver anticancer drugs to metastatic lung cells. Emphasis will be placed on the latest and most attractive delivery platforms, which are developed specifically to target lung metastatic tumors. These novel nanomedicines may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention carrying new class of drugs such as RNAi and mRNA and the ability to edit the genome using the CRISPER/Cas9 system. Ultimately, these strategies might become a new therapeutic modality for advanced-stage lung cancer.

  8. [Role of surgery for metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Verkooijen, Helena M; Bouchardy, Christine

    2007-10-24

    Metastatic breast cancer is considered as incurable. Treatments of choice are systemic and palliative. Surgery of the primary tumor is usually indicated for palliation of local complications. However recently published studies seem to demonstrate that the surgical excision of the primary tumor increase survival, in particular for patients with negative surgical margins or with only bone metastases. As these studies have been adjusted for factors that may induce biais, only a prospective clinical randomized trial may confirm the role of surgery in the management of metastatic breast cancer.

  9. Chemotherapeutic Treatment of Priapism in Metastatic Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kitai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man was admitted with penile tenderness and dysuria due to priapism. Enhanced computed tomography revealed metastatic tumors in the liver, lung, sacrum and lymph nodes. Advanced rectal cancer, detected by colonoscopy as a primary tumor, was treated with chemotherapy (FOLFOX4. Although the rectal cancer showed no change, five months of chemotherapy improveid the priapism, suggesting that chemotherapy can improve rare symptoms of rectal cancer.

  10. Upregulation of Leukotriene Receptors in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venerito, Marino [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Kuester, Doerthe [Institute of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Harms, Caroline [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Schubert, Daniel [Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Wex, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wex@med.ovgu.de; Malfertheiner, Peter [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany)

    2011-08-08

    Leukotrienes (LT) mediate allergic and inflammatory processes. Previously, we identified significant changes in the expression pattern of LT receptors in the gastric mucosa after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LT receptors in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of 5-LOX and receptors for LTB4 (BLT-1, BLT-2) and cysteinyl-LT (CysLT-1, CysLT-2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GC samples of 35 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy and in 29 tumor-free tissue specimens from gastric mucosa. Male-to-female ratio was 24:11. The median age was 70 years (range 34–91). Twenty-two patients had GC of intestinal, six of diffuse, six of mixed and one of undifferentiated type. The IHC analysis showed a nearly ubiquitous expression of studied proteins in GC (88–97%) and in tumor-free specimens as well (89–100%). An increase in the immunoreactive score of both BLT receptors and CysLT-1 was observed in GC compared to tumor-free gastric mucosa (p < 0.001 for BLT-1; p < 0.01 for BLT-2 and CysLT-1, Mann-Whitney U-test). No differences in the IHC expression of 5-LOX and CsyLT-2 were observed between GC and tumor-free mucosa. The expression of BLT-2, CysLT-1 and CysLT-2 was increased in GC of intestinal type when compared to the diffuse type (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). LTB4 receptors and CysLT-1 are up-regulated in GC tissue implying a role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  11. Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction from Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Clare; Tsang, Adrian; Nithianandan, Harrish; Nguyen, Eric; Bauer, Patrick; Dennis, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced-stage pancreatic cancer are typically burdened by many symptoms that impair functioning and worsen quality of life. We report an exceptional case of a 73-year-old woman with T4N1M0 adenocarcinoma of the uncinate process of the pancreas who developed significant gastric outlet obstruction - an uncommon yet potentially life-threatening complication of disease progression. She developed progressive abdominal pain and emesis, and profound dilatation of her stomach was detected on a radiation therapy simulation CT scan that required urgent decompression. Malignant gastric outlet obstruction must be included in the differential diagnosis when patients with known advanced disease of the pancreas present with obstructive upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  12. Diagnoses of gastric cancer and other gastric diseases by serum pepsinogen I and II levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhijian; Jiang Mengjun

    1998-01-01

    Serum pepsinogens I and II (PGI, PGII) levels were determined by PGI and PGII-RIA kits in 84 healthy controls and 128 patients of gastric diseases including 42 patients with gastric cancer. The results showed peptic ulcer cases had elevated PGI and PGII levels. The atrophic gastritis cases had low PGI levels and the gastric cancer cases had low PGI and low PGI/PGII ratio. Using the cut-off values of PGI<35 μg/L and PGI/PGII<1.5 for clinical purpose, the sensitivity and specificity of the test for gastric cancer was 73% and 78%, respectively. Combined with endoscope examination, the serum PGI and PGII levels are valuable for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer

  13. Laparoscopic ultrasound and gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, T. Michael; Vu, Huan

    2001-05-01

    The management of gastrointestinal malignancies continues to evolve with the latest available therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. There are currently two driving forces in the management of these cancers: the benefits of minimally invasive surgery so thoroughly demonstrated by laparoscopic surgery, and the shift toward neoadjuvant chemotherapy for upper gastrointestinal cancers. In order to match the appropriate treatment to the disease, accurate staging is imperative. No technological advances have combined these two needs as much as laparascopic ultrasound to evaluate the liver and peritoneal cavity. We present a concise review of the latest application of laparoscopic ultrasound in management of gastrointestinal malignancy.

  14. Lobaplatin inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells by inducing apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chu-Yang; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Tian, Lei; Ye, Ming; Yang, Xin-Ying; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the anti-cancer effect of lobaplatin on human gastric cancer cells, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The human gastric cancer cell lines MKN-28, AGS and MKN-45 were used. The cytotoxicity of lobaplatin was detected using an MTS cell proliferation assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. The expression of apoptosis-regulated genes was examined at the protein level using Western blot. RESULTS: Lobaplatin inhibited the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells and induced apoptosis, which may be associated with the up-regulation of Bax expression, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, p53 expression and the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. CONCLUSION: The cytotoxicity of lobaplatin may be due to its ability of inducing apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, which would support the potential use of lobaplatin for the therapy of gastric cancer. PMID:25516654

  15. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal...

  16. Cold atmospheric plasma for selectively ablating metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Holmes, Benjamin; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Zhu, Wei; Keidar, Michael; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2013-01-01

    Traditional breast cancer treatments such as surgery and radiotherapy contain many inherent limitations with regards to incomplete and nonselective tumor ablation. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas where the ion temperature is close to room temperature. It contains electrons, charged particles, radicals, various excited molecules, UV photons and transient electric fields. These various compositional elements have the potential to either enhance and promote cellular activity, or disrupt and destroy them. In particular, based on this unique composition, CAP could offer a minimally-invasive surgical approach allowing for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue removal without influencing healthy cells. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate a novel CAP-based therapy for selectively bone metastatic breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, human metastatic breast cancer (BrCa) cells and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were separately treated with CAP, and behavioral changes were evaluated after 1, 3, and 5 days of culture. With different treatment times, different BrCa and MSC cell responses were observed. Our results showed that BrCa cells were more sensitive to these CAP treatments than MSCs under plasma dose conditions tested. It demonstrated that CAP can selectively ablate metastatic BrCa cells in vitro without damaging healthy MSCs at the metastatic bone site. In addition, our study showed that CAP treatment can significantly inhibit the migration and invasion of BrCa cells. The results suggest the great potential of CAP for breast cancer therapy.

  17. Cold atmospheric plasma for selectively ablating metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Wang

    Full Text Available Traditional breast cancer treatments such as surgery and radiotherapy contain many inherent limitations with regards to incomplete and nonselective tumor ablation. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP is an ionized gas where the ion temperature is close to room temperature. It contains electrons, charged particles, radicals, various excited molecules, UV photons and transient electric fields. These various compositional elements have the potential to either enhance and promote cellular activity, or disrupt and destroy them. In particular, based on this unique composition, CAP could offer a minimally-invasive surgical approach allowing for specific cancer cell or tumor tissue removal without influencing healthy cells. Thus, the objective of this research is to investigate a novel CAP-based therapy for selectively bone metastatic breast cancer treatment. For this purpose, human metastatic breast cancer (BrCa cells and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were separately treated with CAP, and behavioral changes were evaluated after 1, 3, and 5 days of culture. With different treatment times, different BrCa and MSC cell responses were observed. Our results showed that BrCa cells were more sensitive to these CAP treatments than MSCs under plasma dose conditions tested. It demonstrated that CAP can selectively ablate metastatic BrCa cells in vitro without damaging healthy MSCs at the metastatic bone site. In addition, our study showed that CAP treatment can significantly inhibit the migration and invasion of BrCa cells. The results suggest the great potential of CAP for breast cancer therapy.

  18. A Rare Case: Gastric Cancer; Involving Primery Thoracal Vertebral Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Arslan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Primery bone metastases rarely occur in gastric cancer. Bone metastases indicate that the prognosis is bad. In that article we present a case that is diagnosed as a gastric cancer with primary bone metasteses that caused pathologic thoracal vertebral fracture seenby computer ised tomography.

  19. Serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer by SELDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... Software (BPS) to construct the classification tree of gastric cancer. Briefly, the intensities of ... Figure 1. Protein peaks of patients with gastric cancer and healthy control group after standardization. 2000. 4000. 6000. 8000. 10000. 2000. 4000. 6000. 8000 .... and pattern recognition software. The pattern of ...

  20. Revaluation on detection of metastatic cancer of the colorectum with barium enema. Comparison with computed tomography and colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watari, Jiro; Mizukami, Yusuke; Tanabe, Hirotaka

    1996-01-01

    The findings with barium enema were analyzed and compared to those with computed tomography and colonoscopy in 15 patients with metastatic cancer of the colorectum, which were from 8 gastric, 2 colonic, 2 ovarian, 1 pancreatic, 1 prostatic carcinomas and 1 unknown origin. Primary cancers of intra-abdominal cavity origin tended to make multiple colorectal metastases (91.7%). With barium enema colonic and rectal involvement was mostly expressed as the tethered type and the diffuse type by Ishikawa's classification, respectively. Computed tomography detected direct tumor invasion to the colorectum in 4 cases. Of the other 11 cases, 8 patients (72.3%) showed abnormally thickened colorectal wall. Colonoscopy detected only 3 (37.5%) out of 8 lesions seen in 4 patients who had undergone colonoscopy before barium enema. Many of the lesions missed were the tethered type involvement. Barium enema is the most sensitive method to detect metastatic cancer of the colorectum. (author)

  1. Audit of advanced gastric cancer at Ibn Sina Hospital, Khartoum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    second to lung cancer). In Sudan incidence and prevalence are not clear because of absence of National Cancer Registry. Aim: To find out the frequency of the gastric mesenchymal tumours, whether gender and age influences the ...

  2. PERIOPERATIVE CHEMOTHERAPY IN LOCALLY ADVANCED GASTRIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Paulo BATISTA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and a main cause of cancer-related death worldwide, since the majority of patients suffering of this malignancy are usually faced with a poor prognosis due to diagnosis at later stages. In order to improve treatment outcomes, the association of surgery with chemo and/or radiotherapy (multimodal therapy has become the standard treatment for locally advanced stages. However, despite several treatment options currently available for management of these tumors, perioperative chemotherapy has been mainly accepted for the comprehensive therapeutic strategy including an appropriated D2-gastrectomy. This manuscript presents a (nonsystematic critical review about the use of perioperative chemotherapy, with a special focus on the drugs delivery.

  3. Actomyosin tension as a determinant of metastatic cancer mechanical tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Daniel J.; Kieu, Quang Minh N.; Iandoli, Jason A.; Dawson, Michelle R.

    2015-04-01

    Despite major advances in the characterization of molecular regulators of cancer growth and metastasis, patient survival rates have largely stagnated. Recent studies have shown that mechanical cues from the extracellular matrix can drive the transition to a malignant phenotype. Moreover, it is also known that the metastatic process, which results in over 90% of cancer-related deaths, is governed by intracellular mechanical forces. To better understand these processes, we identified metastatic tumor cells originating from different locations which undergo inverse responses to altered matrix elasticity: MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that prefer rigid matrices and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells that prefer compliant matrices as characterized by parameters such as tumor cell proliferation, chemoresistance, and migration. Transcriptomic analysis revealed higher expression of genes associated with cytoskeletal tension and contractility in cells that prefer stiff environments, both when comparing MDA-MB-231 to SKOV-3 cells as well as when comparing bone-metastatic to lung-metastatic MDA-MB-231 subclones. Using small molecule inhibitors, we found that blocking the activity of these pathways mitigated rigidity-dependent behavior in both cell lines. Probing the physical forces exerted by cells on the underlying substrates revealed that though force magnitude may not directly correlate with functional outcomes, other parameters such as force polarization do correlate directly with cell motility. Finally, this biophysical analysis demonstrates that intrinsic levels of cell contractility determine the matrix rigidity for maximal cell function, possibly influencing tissue sites for metastatic cancer cell engraftment during dissemination. By increasing our understanding of the physical interactions of cancer cells with their microenvironment, these studies may help develop novel therapeutic strategies.

  4. Metastatic breast cancer - age has a significant effect on survival

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-02

    Mar 2, 1991 ... tic breast cancer seen in the same period were included in the analysis as a comparative group. Factors taken into consideration included: age group, asso- ciated disease (other medical disorder resulting in little or severe disability),5 hormone receptor stams, performance stams, dominant metastatic site ...

  5. FCGR polymorphisms and cetuximab efficacy in chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geva, Ravit; Vecchione, Loredana; Kalogeras, Konstantinos T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better clarify the role of germline variants of the FCG2 receptor, FCGR2A-H131R and FCGR3A-V158F, on the therapeutic efficacy of cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A large cohort with sufficient statistical power was assembled. DESIGN: To show a HR advantage...

  6. Continuous vs. intermittent androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Badhauser, D.; Schaaf, B.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Witjes, J.A.; Mulders, P.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the predictive value of PSA for progression and the role of testosterone for quality of life (QOL) in patients with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for metastatic prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PSA and testosterone data were used from a phase III trial randomizing

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Ahmad, Bilal B; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-11-10

    Regorafenib is a standard-care option for treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that increases median overall survival by 6 weeks compared with placebo. Given this small incremental clinical benefit, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib in the third-line setting for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the US payer perspective. We developed a Markov model to compare the cost and effectiveness of regorafenib with those of placebo in the third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2014. Model robustness was addressed in univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provided an additional 0.04 QALYs (0.13 life-years) at a cost of $40,000, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $900,000 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regorafenib was > $550,000 per QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in the third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer. The cost-effectiveness of regorafenib could be improved by the use of value-based pricing. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuaki; Kido, Choichiro

    1987-01-01

    Some techniques of the most recent interventional radiology are very useful for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer and changing the style of hepatic infusion chemotherapy. This report shows our latest results and methods of hepatic infusion chemotherapy for metastatic liver cancer. 1. For the catheter placement, a new catheterization route via the left subclavian artery into the hepatic artery was developed and performed in 132 cases. Superselective catheterization succeeded in 123 cases (93.2 %). This procedure is less invasive than laparotomy and less troublesome than other percutaneous routes. 2. For useful infusion system, an implantable injection port ''Reservoir'' was developed and it was used in 87 cases. This method makes arterial infusion chemotherapy easy, and imploves their quality of life. 3. To acquire adequate drug delivery, arterial redistribution by steel coils was done, and 109 arteries in 80 cases were occluded. This method is very useful to make multiple hepatic artery single and it is important to avoid gasroduodenal complications. 4. Now, using these techniques, the phase II study of 5FU, ADM, MMC combined hepatic infusion in patients with non-resectable metastatic liver cancer is done. Up to this time, such a phase study on arterial infusion chemotherapy was difficult because of technical problems, but these new techniques make it possible. In conclusion, these new methods change the style and conception of hepatic infusion, and these make much progress on the treatment of patients with metastatic liver cancer. (author)

  9. Optimal duration of systemic treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simkens, Lieke H. J.; Koopman, Miriam; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2014-01-01

    With the currently available cytotoxic and targeted drugs, metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) may be controlled by systemic treatment for a significant period of time. However, many questions remain about the optimal use of drugs and duration of treatment. We reviewed the data from clinical trials

  10. Metastatic breast cancer - age has a significant effect on survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data on 217 elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) and 209 middleaged postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, from 1976 to 1985 were analysed to determine the effect of age on survival. When considered as a group, the elderly have a more ...

  11. Proton pumps, angiogenesis, and metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose D.; Sanka, Shankar C.; Luo, Defeng; Busch, Christian; Martinez, Gloria M.; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Martinez-Zaguilan, Raul

    2000-04-01

    We have previously shown the relationship between metastatic potential and plasmalemmal V-H+-ATPase (pmV-ATPase) expression in tumor cells. This led us to hypothesize that pmV-ATPase activity is involved in invasion. Angiogenesis involves invasion of adjacent tissues by microvascular endothelial cells, thus we hypothesized that pmV-ATPases contribute to pHin regulation and invasion in microvascular endothelial cells.

  12. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P gastritis changed from antrum-predominant gastritis to corpus-predominant gastritis with age in both populations. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer was located in the upper part of the stomach in half of the Mongolian patients; Mongolian patients were infected with non-East-Asian-type H. pylori. PMID:26217093

  13. Molecular classification of gastric cancer: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Khanin, Raya; Tang, Laura; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Klimstra, David S; Gerdes, Hans; Kelsen, David P

    2011-05-01

    Gastric cancer may be subdivided into 3 distinct subtypes--proximal, diffuse, and distal gastric cancer--based on histopathologic and anatomic criteria. Each subtype is associated with unique epidemiology. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that these distinct gastric cancer subtypes may also be distinguished by gene expression analysis. Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma being screened for a phase II preoperative clinical trial (National Cancer Institute, NCI #5917) underwent endoscopic biopsy for fresh tumor procurement. Four to 6 targeted biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained. Macrodissection was carried out to ensure more than 80% carcinoma in the sample. HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix) was used for cDNA expression analysis, and all arrays were processed and analyzed using the Bioconductor R-package. Between November 2003 and January 2006, 57 patients were screened to identify 36 patients with localized gastric cancer who had adequate RNA for expression analysis. Using supervised analysis, we built a classifier to distinguish the 3 gastric cancer subtypes, successfully classifying each into tightly grouped clusters. Leave-one-out cross-validation error was 0.14, suggesting that more than 85% of samples were classified correctly. Gene set analysis with the false discovery rate set at 0.25 identified several pathways that were differentially regulated when comparing each gastric cancer subtype to adjacent normal stomach. Subtypes of gastric cancer that have epidemiologic and histologic distinctions are also distinguished by gene expression data. These preliminary data suggest a new classification of gastric cancer with implications for improving our understanding of disease biology and identification of unique molecular drivers for each gastric cancer subtype. ©2011 AACR.

  14. [A Case of Rhabdomyolysis Related to SOX Therapy for Liver Metastasis of Gastric Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kei; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Kogure, Yuu; Suwa, Yusuke; Momiyama, Masashi; Ishibe, Atsushi; Endo, Itaru

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of rhabdomyolysis related to S-1 plus oxaliplatin(SOX)therapy for liver metastasis of gastric cancer. A 76- year-old man who had received SOX therapy for metastatic gastric cancer was admitted to our hospital for a chief complaint of fatigue and weakness. He diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis related to SOX therapy because of his symptoms and because his laboratory studies showed significant elevation of his serum creatine kinase(CK)level. The symptoms disappeared and the CK level normalized following large-volume transfusions. Rhabdomyolysis following SOX therapy is a very rare, but severe adverse event. This is the first detailed case report of rhabdomyolysis related to SOX therapy.

  15. Microenvironment -Programmed Metastatic Prostate Cancer Stem Cells (mPCSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    mPCSCs)” PI : Dean Tang 1. INTRODUCTION: The main goal of this IDEA project is to help elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying...metastatic prostate cancer stem cells 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Dr. Tang, the PI of this grant, together with most lab members, moved from the M.D...repressing CD44. Nat Med 17, 211-215 (2011). 5. Qin, J. et al. The PSA -/lo prostate cancer cell population harbors self-renewing long-term tumor

  16. Prospective Cohort Study Depending on the Use of Palliative Care for Advanced Stage of Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Liver Cancer; Malignant Hematologic Neoplasm; Biliary Cancer Metastatic; Pediatric Leukemia; Pediatric Lymphoma; Pediatric Brain Tumor; Pediatric Solid Tumor

  17. Medical image of the week: metastatic testicular cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debo M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year-old man with metastatic embryonal testicular cancer was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain. A contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen demonstrated large metastatic burden throughout the liver and the left adrenal gland (Figures 1 and 2. The mass arising from the left adrenal gland caused significant mass effect. The left kidney was compressed, though without hydronephrosis, and the spleen was displaced laterally. Renal and hepatic functions were preserved. His pain was controlled with opioids and oral steroids with significant improvement.

  18. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of metastatic cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. The outcome of patients with metastatic cervical cancer is poor. We reviewed the relevant literature concerning the treatment and diagnosis of metastatic cervical cancer. There are two types of metastasis related to different treatments and survival rates: hematogenous metastasis and lymphatic metastasis. Patients with hematogenous metastasis have a higher risk of death than those with lymphatic metastasis. In terms of diagnosis, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET-computed tomography are effective tools for the evaluation of distant metastasis. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy and subsequent chemotherapy are well-tolerated and efficient for lymphatic metastasis. As for lung metastasis, chemotherapy and/or surgery are valuable treatments for resistant, recurrent metastatic cervical cancer and chemoradiotherapy may be the optimal choice for stage IVB cervical cancer. Chemotherapy and bone irradiation are promising for bone metastasis. A better survival is achieved with multimodal therapy. Craniotomy or stereotactic radiosurgery is an optimal choice combined with radiotherapy for solitary brain metastases. Chemotherapy and palliative brain radiation may be considered for multiple brain metastases and other organ metastases. PMID:27171673

  19. Promising oncolytic agents for metastatic breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody JJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available James J Cody,1 Douglas R Hurst2 1ImQuest BioSciences, Frederick, MD, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: New therapies for metastatic breast cancer patients are urgently needed. The long-term survival rates remain unacceptably low for patients with recurrent disease or disseminated metastases. In addition, existing therapies often cause a variety of debilitating side effects that severely impact quality of life. Oncolytic viruses constitute a developing therapeutic modality in which interest continues to build due to their ability to spare normal tissue while selectively destroying tumor cells. A number of different viruses have been used to develop oncolytic agents for breast cancer, including herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, measles virus, reovirus, and others. In general, clinical trials for several cancers have demonstrated excellent safety records and evidence of efficacy. However, the impressive tumor responses often observed in preclinical studies have yet to be realized in the clinic. In order for the promise of oncolytic virotherapy to be fully realized for breast cancer patients, effectiveness must be demonstrated in metastatic disease. This review provides a summary of oncolytic virotherapy strategies being developed to target metastatic breast cancer. Keywords: oncolytic virus, virotherapy, breast cancer, metastasis 

  20. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    in cell differentiation and protection and has been proposed as a candidate tumour suppressor for brain and epithelial cancer. One study reported a loss of DMBT1 expression in 12.5% (5/40) of gastric cancer samples. Here, we examined in more detail DMBT1 protein and mRNA expression in 78 primary gastric...... preferentially take place in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. However, an upregulation of DMBT1 expression is more frequently found across all gastric cancer types....

  1. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-04-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia.

  2. Clinicopathologic and molecular features associated with patient age in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Jin, Eun Hyo; Jo, Hyun Jin; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Nayoung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-06-14

    To compare characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer based on age. A retrospective study was conducted on clinical and molecular data from patients (n = 1658) with confirmed cases of gastric cancer in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seoul, South Korea) from 2003 to 2010 after exclusion of patients diagnosed with lymphoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and metastatic cancer in the stomach. DNA was isolated from tumor and adjacent normal tissue, and a set of five markers was amplified by polymerase chain reaction to assess microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI was categorized as high, low, or stable if ≥ 2, 1, or 0 markers, respectively, had changed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue sections to detect levels of expression of p53, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Statistical analysis of clinical and molecular data was performed to assess prognosis based on the stratification of patients by age (≤ 45 and > 45 years). Among the 1658 gastric cancer patients, the number of patients with an age ≤ 45 years was 202 (12.2%; 38.9 ± 0.4 years) and the number of patients > 45 years was 1456 (87.8%; 64.1 ± 0.3 years). Analyses revealed that females were predominant in the younger group (P cancers in the younger patients exhibited more aggressive features and were at a more advanced stage than those in older patients. Precancerous lesions, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, were observed less frequently in the older than in the younger group (P cancer of younger patients. Cancer related mortality was higher in younger patients (P = 0.048), but this difference was not significant after adjusting for the stage of cancer. Gastric cancer is distinguishable between younger and older patients based on both clinicopathologic and molecular features, but stage is the most important predictor of prognosis.

  3. Guidelines for extended lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoglu, Oktar; Matlim, Tugba; Kurt, Atilla; Onder, Semen Yesil; Kunduz, Enver; Karanlik, Hasan; Sam, Bulent; Kapran, Yersu; Bugra, Dursun

    2013-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of extended lymph node dissection in gastric cancer and to identify factors affecting lymph node detection. A prospective study of 126 gastric cancer patients was conducted. Patients eligible for curative resection received total gastrectomy and extended lymphadenectomy (D2) and paraaortic lymph node sampling as the standard of care (study group). Supramesocolic total lymphadenectomy of the upper gastrointestinal tract was performed on 23 autopsy cases as a control group. Fifty-five gastric carcinoma patients were included in the study group. Median age was 58 years (range 31-80 years); 14 patients were female (25%), and 41 were male (75%). The median number of lymph nodes harvested from the specimen was 47 (24-95), and the median number of metastatic lymph nodes was 15 (1-71). In contrast, in the autopsy comparative group, the median number of harvested lymph nodes was 72 (50-91). The median number of stational lymph nodes excised (lymph nodes excised from stations 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, and 16) was significantly higher in the control group than in the study group (Pautopsy group, LNA (noncompliance) was not detected. Lymph nodes should be dissected by surgeons with sufficient technical and anatomical experience, and then examined and counted by experienced pathologists to reduce the occurrence of LNA. The results of this anatomical study can serve as a guideline to assess the success of lymph node dissection during gastric cancer surgery. Similar studies should be conducted in every country to establish national guidelines.

  4. Testicular Cancer Presenting as Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Salazar-Mejía

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males between the ages of 15 and 35. The symptomatology caused by this tumor varies according to the site of metastasis. We present the case of a 26-year-old male who arrived to the emergency department with hematemesis. He had no previous medical history. On arrival, we noted enlargement of the left scrotal sac. There was also a mass in the left scrotum which provoked displacement of the penis and right testis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 17,090 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase was 1480 U/L, and human chorionic gonadotropin was 287.4 IU/mL. Upper endoscopy revealed a type 1 isolated gastric varix, treated with cyanoacrylate. A CT scan showed extrinsic compression of the portal vein by lymphadenopathy along with splenic vein partial thrombosis, which caused left-sided portal hypertension. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was started with etoposide and cisplatin, and seven days later the patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. A postoperative biopsy revealed a pure testicular teratoma. Noncirrhotic left portal hypertension with bleeding from an isolated gastric varix secondary to metastasic testicular cancer has not been described before. Clinicians must consider the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis of a young man presenting with unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding.

  5. Radiation therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosaka, Takeo; Sejima, Teruhiro; Sugaya, Jun-ichi [Kanazawa Medical Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    Thirteen patients with advanced gastric cancer treated by palliative radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The radiation sites were abdominal cavities in 8 cases, superficial masses in 5 and lung metastasis in one. The purposes were to diminish mass size in 5 cases, to relieve pain in 3 and to reduce stenosis in 6. The total doses were more than 40 Gy in 10 patients. In 2 cases, the intracavitary irradiation was performed using {sup 192}Ir. In one case, radiation had to be stopped at the dose of 22.5 Gy because of poor general condition. Partial response was obtained in 6 of 12 cases (RP, 50%). The sites of responders were superficial lesions in 4 and hepatic hilar mass in 2, which were given intracavitary as well as external radiation. Pain relief was achieved in all patients suffering from it. One of 3 cases with esophageal stenosis showed marked improvement in swallowing. Two patients showed a decrease in the levels of tumor markers. Five patients had side effects of more than grade 2. Two of them were grade 3, one thrombocytopenia and one diarrhea. The median survival time of all cases was 9 months, and 5 patients could shift to home care. These results suggest that palliative radiotherapy could be one of the most useful locoregional therapies for advanced gastric cancer, in the aspect of improvement of patient`s QOL. (author)

  6. Radiation therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Takeo; Sejima, Teruhiro; Sugaya, Jun-ichi

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen patients with advanced gastric cancer treated by palliative radiotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The radiation sites were abdominal cavities in 8 cases, superficial masses in 5 and lung metastasis in one. The purposes were to diminish mass size in 5 cases, to relieve pain in 3 and to reduce stenosis in 6. The total doses were more than 40 Gy in 10 patients. In 2 cases, the intracavitary irradiation was performed using 192 Ir. In one case, radiation had to be stopped at the dose of 22.5 Gy because of poor general condition. Partial response was obtained in 6 of 12 cases (RP, 50%). The sites of responders were superficial lesions in 4 and hepatic hilar mass in 2, which were given intracavitary as well as external radiation. Pain relief was achieved in all patients suffering from it. One of 3 cases with esophageal stenosis showed marked improvement in swallowing. Two patients showed a decrease in the levels of tumor markers. Five patients had side effects of more than grade 2. Two of them were grade 3, one thrombocytopenia and one diarrhea. The median survival time of all cases was 9 months, and 5 patients could shift to home care. These results suggest that palliative radiotherapy could be one of the most useful locoregional therapies for advanced gastric cancer, in the aspect of improvement of patient's QOL. (author)

  7. Molecular Classification of Gastric Cancer: A new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A.; Khanin, Raya; Tang, Laura; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Klimstra, David S.; Gerdes, Hans; Kelsen, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer may be subdivided into three distinct subtypes –proximal, diffuse, and distal gastric cancer– based on histopathologic and anatomic criteria. Each subtype is associated with unique epidemiology. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that these distinct gastric cancer subtypes may also be distinguished by gene expression analysis. Experimental Design Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma being screened for a phase II preoperative clinical trial (NCI 5917) underwent endoscopic biopsy for fresh tumor procurement. 4–6 targeted biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained. Macrodissection was performed to ensure >80% carcinoma in the sample. HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix) was used for cDNA expression analysis, and all arrays were processed and analyzed using the Bioconductor R-package. Results Between November 2003 and January 2006, 57 patients were screened to identify 36 patients with localized gastric cancer who had adequate RNA for expression analysis. Using supervised analysis, we built a classifier to distinguish the three gastric cancer subtypes, successfully classifying each into tightly grouped clusters. Leave-one-out cross validation error was 0.14, suggesting that >85% of samples were classified correctly. Gene set analysis with the False Discovery Rate set at 0.25 identified several pathways that were differentially regulated when comparing each gastric cancer subtype to adjacent normal stomach. Conclusions Subtypes of gastric cancer that have epidemiologic and histologic distinction are also distinguished by gene expression data. These preliminary data suggest a new classification of gastric cancer with implications for improving our understanding of disease biology and identification of unique molecular drivers for each gastric cancer subtype. PMID:21430069

  8. Cell-Free DNA in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Boysen, Anders K; Pallisgård, Niels

    2017-01-01

    -analysis of the prognostic value of total cfDNA in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. In addition, we report on the overall performance of cfDNA as source for KRAS mutation detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed by two...... therapy. Small fragments of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can be measured in a simple blood sample. This report presents the first meta-analysis of the prognostic value of total cfDNA measurement in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Data from 1,076 patients confirmed that patients...... with the lowest pre-treatment levels of cfDNA had a significantly higher chance of longer survival than those with higher levels. Cell-free DNA analysis can also be used for detection of tumor-specific mutations, and hold potential as a valuable tool in colorectal cancer treatment....

  9. Promising oncolytic agents for metastatic breast cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, James J; Hurst, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    New therapies for metastatic breast cancer patients are urgently needed. The long-term survival rates remain unacceptably low for patients with recurrent disease or disseminated metastases. In addition, existing therapies often cause a variety of debilitating side effects that severely impact quality of life. Oncolytic viruses constitute a developing therapeutic modality in which interest continues to build due to their ability to spare normal tissue while selectively destroying tumor cells. A number of different viruses have been used to develop oncolytic agents for breast cancer, including herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, measles virus, reovirus, and others. In general, clinical trials for several cancers have demonstrated excellent safety records and evidence of efficacy. However, the impressive tumor responses often observed in preclinical studies have yet to be realized in the clinic. In order for the promise of oncolytic virotherapy to be fully realized for breast cancer patients, effectiveness must be demonstrated in metastatic disease. This review provides a summary of oncolytic virotherapy strategies being developed to target metastatic breast cancer. PMID:27512671

  10. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori

  11. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  12. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Bang Wool; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Sohee; Shin, Aesun; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Park, Junghyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea. Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell's C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope. During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4%) and 5,579 (0.7%) newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women). In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance.

  13. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea.Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell's C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope.During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4% and 5,579 (0.7% newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women.In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance.

  14. [Eleven Patients with Gastric Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy after Stent Placement for Gastric Outlet Obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shunji; Nakagawa, Tomo; Konishi, Ken; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Ohta, Katsuya; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Takeshi; Yamada, Terumasa

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metallic stents is reportedly effective for gastric outlet obstructions due to advanced gastric cancer, and is less invasive than gastrojejunostomy. For patients who have good performance status, we administer chemotherapy after stent placement, although the safety and feasibility of this chemotherapy have not yet been discussed in full. Between 2011 and 2015, 15 patients at our institution underwent endoscopic gastroduodenal stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer. Eleven of these patients were administered chemotherapy after stent placement. In our case series, we did not observe any specific adverse event caused by stent placement plus chemotherapy. Adverse events after chemotherapy included anemia of CTCAE Grade 3 in 7 patients. Stent-in-stent placement was needed in 2 patients. Neither stent migration nor perforation was observed. Therefore, chemotherapy after stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer was considered safe and feasible. Stent placement is useful not only as palliative care for patients with terminal-stage disease, but also as one of the multimodal therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  15. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-07-21

    To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P pylori.

  16. Unusual presentation of metastatic gall bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 FNx01 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.

  17. Down-regulation of TM4SF is associated with the metastatic potential of gastric carcinoma TM4SF members in gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guanbao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of TM4SF members CD9, CD63 and CD82 in human gastric carcinoma. Methods By employing RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of CD9, CD63 and CD82 in 49 paired tissue specimens of normal gastric mucosa and carcinoma. All tissues were obtained from patients who underwent curative surgery. Results All normal gastric epithelium and gastric ulcer tissues strongly expressed transcripts and proteins of CD9, CD63 and CD82 as compared with corresponding controls. We found a significant correlation between CD63 mRNA level and different pM statuses (P = 0.036. Carcinomas in M0 stage revealed a stronger expression of CD63 than carcinomas in M1 stage. Expression of CD9 protein was found significantly stronger in pN0, pM0 than in advanced pN stages (P = 0.03, pM1 (P = 0.013, respectively. We found the relationship between CD63 expression, gender (p = 0.09 and nodal status (p = 0.028, respectively. Additionally, advanced and metastasized tumor tissues revealed significantly down-regulated CD82 protein expression (p = 0.033 and p = 0, respectively, which correlated with the tumor pTNM stage (p = 0.001. Conclusion The reduction of CD9, CD63 and CD82 expression are indicators for the metastatic potential of gastric carcinoma cells. Unlike their expression in other tumor types, the constitutive expression of CD63 may indicate that this factor does play a direct role in human gastric carcinogenesis.

  18. Pembrolizumab, Capecitabine, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Mismatch-Repair Deficient and Epstein-Barr Virus Positive Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Epstein-Barr Virus Positive; Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency; Stage IB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer AJCC v7

  19. Diagnosis and evaluation of gastric cancer by positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Xi; Zhu, Zhao-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The diagnosis of gastric cancer has been significantly improved with the broad availability of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Effective technologies for accurate staging and quantitative evaluation are still in demand to merit reasonable treatment and better prognosis for the patients presented with advanced disease. Preoperative staging using conventional imaging tools, such as computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasonography, is inadequate. Positron emission tomography (PET), using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a tracer and integrating CT for anatomic localization, holds a promise to detect unsuspected metastasis and has been extensively used in a variety of malignancies. However, the value of FDG PET/CT in diagnosis and evaluation of gastric cancer is still controversial. This article reviews the current literature in diagnosis, staging, response evaluation, and relapse monitoring of gastric cancer, and discusses the current understanding, improvement, and future prospects in this area. PMID:24782610

  20. Image processings of radiographs in the gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Yamashita, Kazuya; Morikawa, Kaoru; Takigawa, Atsushi

    1987-01-01

    For improving detectability of the gastric lesions in the X-ray examinations, the computer image processing methods were studied in radiographs of a stomach phantom and gastric cancer lesions by the A/D conversion. After several kinds of the basic processing methods were examined in the artificially made lesions in the stomach phantom and true gastric cancer lesions in 26 X-ray pictures of the 8 gastric cancer cases, we concluded that pathological changes on the edge or mucosal folds in the stomach were stressed by the image processing method using negative to positive conversion, density gradient control, edge enhancement (Sobel operation) and subtraction of the Sobel image from the original image. These methods contributed to interpretation of the gastric cancer by enhancement of the contour and mucosal pattern inside the lesion. The results were applied for follow up studies of the gastric cancer. Tumor expansions could be clarified, but it was yet difficult to catch a precancer lesion by retrospective studies. However, these methods would be expected in future application in the mass survey examination of the gastric cancer detection. (author)

  1. IRGM gene polymorphisms and risk of gastric cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burada, F.; Plantinga, T.S.; Ioana, M.; Rosentul, D.; Angelescu, C.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Saftoiu, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the possible association of polymorphisms in the autophagy gene IRGM (rs13361189 and rs4958847) with the risk of gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, 52 with chronic gastritis and 351 healthy controls were included in this

  2. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori’s activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  3. Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Joachim Aidt; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit...

  4. Targeted treatment of advanced and metastatic breast cancer with lapatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Corkery

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Brendan Corkery1,2, Norma O’Donovan2, John Crown1,21St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 2National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, IrelandAbstract: Improved molecular understanding of breast cancer in recent years has led to the discovery of important drug targets such as HER-2 and EGFR. Lapatinib is a potent dual inhibitor of HER-2 and EGFR. Preclinical and phase I studies have shown activity with lapatinib in a number of cancers, including breast cancer, and the drug is well tolerated. The main known drug interactions are with paclitaxel and irinotecan. The most significant side-effects of lapatinib are diarrhea and adverse skin events. Rates of cardiotoxicity compare favorably with trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against HER-2. This paper focuses on lapatinib in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, which remains an important therapeutic challenge. Phase II and III studies show activity as monotherapy, and in combination with chemotherapy or hormonal agents. Results from these studies suggest that the main benefit from lapatinib is in the HER-2 positive breast cancer population. Combinations of lapatinib and trastuzumab are also being studied and show encouraging results, particularly in trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. Lapatinib may have a specific role in treating HER-2 positive CNS metastases. The role of lapatinib as neoadjuvant therapy and in early breast cancer is also being evaluated.Keywords: HER-2, EGFR, erbB, lapatinib, Tykerb®, tyrosine kinase

  5. Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated metastatic breast cancer needs aggressive treatment due to its reduced response to anticancer treatment and hence low survival and quality of life. Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. Widely studied drug delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, and water-soluble polymers can concurrently carry multiple anticancer drugs in one platform. These carriers can provide improved target specificity achieved by passive and/or active targeting mechanisms.

  6. Metastatic Breast Cancer or Multiple Myeloma? Camouflage by Lytic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hough

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a female with stage I infiltrating ductal carcinoma who received adjuvant therapy including trastuzumab. One year later she developed lytic lesions and was retreated with trastuzumab that was held after she developed symptomatic heart failure. Lytic lesions were attributed to relapse of breast cancer, and cardiac failure attributed to prior trastuzumab therapy. After complications necessitated multiple hospitalizations, a further workup revealed that the lytic lesions were not metastatic breast cancer but multiple myeloma. Her advanced multiple myeloma was associated with systemic amyloidosis involving gut and heart, which ultimately led to her demise. This report addresses the pitfalls of overlapping symptoms and the question of which patients with suspected metastatic disease should undergo a biopsy.

  7. Extreme hypothyroidism associated with sunitinib treatment for metastatic renal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Egidio; Dev, Rony; Cabanillas, Maria E; Busaidy, Naifa L; Rodriguez, EdenMae C; Bruera, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    Although thyroid abnormalities are reported with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, patients rarely require replacement therapy. The initial multicentre studies of sunitinib for metastatic renal cancer did not report hypothyroidism in fatigued patients, and thyroid tests were not routinely monitored. More recent studies, however, suggest that up to 70% of patients develop thyroid test abnormalities during treatment with sunitinib. Despite these concerns, the clinical relevance of sunitinib-induced hypothyroidism is uncertain since thyroid gland recovery is the norm in most patients. We report a case of a patient with metastatic papillary renal cell cancer on combination anti-angiogenic therapy with sunitinib, who developed unusually high thyroid stimulating hormone levels and severe symptoms despite receiving L-thyroxine. Our case also illustrates the complexity of managing sunitinib-associated thyroid dysfunction, which may be accompanied by transient thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism, and profound hypothyroidism.

  8. Thyroid Metastasis of Gastric Cancer: A Rare Occasion With Poor Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomofumi; Nakamura, Junichiro; Kimura, Keita; Yamada, Satoshi; Miura, Tsutomu; Yanagi, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Hajime; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Emura, Iwao; Takahashi, Toru

    2010-10-01

    A 68-year-old man was diagnosed as having advanced gastric cancer. Computed tomography showed a thyroid tumor with trachea deviation. This tumor exhibited mosaic echogenecity in ultrasonography. Signet-ring cell carcinoma was found by means of fine needle aspiration biopsy. This tumor gradually became swollen and the thyroid hormone levels in blood were increased without any clinical symptom. Shortly, he died from his illness in the 29th hospital day. Autopsy disclosed that the left lobe of the thyroid gland was highly invaded by malignant cells and that lymphogenic rather than angiogenic metastasis was highly probable. Thyroid metastasis of gastric cancer is extremely rare. The prognosis is very poor. Ultrasonography is a very useful modality especially when coupled with recently developed fine needle aspiration biopsy in differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors once malignancy is suspected. Therapeutic strategy largely depends on the nature of primary malignant tumor. If the tumor is slowly progressive such as renal cell carcinoma and breast cancer, extirpation of thyroid tumors may extend life expectancy. In conclusion, the metastatic thyroid tumor of gastric cancer is rare and shows poor prognosis. Fine needle aspiration biopsy under ultrasonography is strongly recommended as a useful diagnostic tool.

  9. Targeting Mitochondrial Inhibitors for Metastatic Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    niclosamide and 7 hydroxy-β-Lapachone (7OH β-Lap) analog lipophilic mitochondria toxins (MT) to human serum albumin (HSA) via a PSA specific peptide... human serum albumin (HSA) via a PSA specific peptide linker sequence to systemically deliver these novel agents via the blood so that these cell...effect”. Keywords Metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, mitochondria toxins, human serum albumin , PSA-activated prodrugs Accomplishments

  10. Visualising and quantifying angiogenesis in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumour growth and dissemination. We have recently shown that blood vessel density, determined by image analysis based on microRNA-126 (miRNA-126) in situ hybridization (ISH) in the primary tumours of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC), is predictive of ch...... of chemotherapy response. Here, we evaluated whether more general approaches to determine vessel density in primary tumours are equally predictive of chemotherapy response....

  11. Salvage Lenvatinib Therapy in Metastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Ryder, Mabel M; Hilger, Crystal R; Bible, Keith C

    2017-07-01

    Historical anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) outcomes have been terrible, with a median survival of only five months and <20% one-year survival. Improved outcomes are now achieved with aggressive initial therapy in stages IVA and IVB disease, but patients with distant metastatic disease (stage IVC) still do poorly; improved therapies are sorely needed. Kinase inhibitors have emerged as promising agents in the therapy of advanced medullary and differentiated thyroid cancer, but there are limited data regarding the use of lenvatinib in ATC. The aim of this study was to delineate clinical outcomes in a series of patients with advanced ATC in response to lenvatinib therapy. A retrospective analysis was conducted involving all lenvatinib-treated Mayo Clinic ATC patients in 2015. Of 28 distinct ATC patients seen in 2015, three (11%) with metastatic disease of ECOG performance status 2-3 were treated with lenvatinib. Two patients were male; age range at ATC diagnosis was 57-84 years. All three patients attained successful local control of their disease with surgery and/or combined chemoradiotherapy. Lenvatinib was offered as the second, third, or fourth line of therapy at the time of metastatic disease progression. Two patients incurred minor responses to therapy, with structural regression of distant metastatic tumor disease soon after starting lenvatinib treatment (at one to two months), while one patient achieved stable disease, but no Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors partial responses resulted. Overall survival after starting lenvatinib was two, six, and seven months. Fatigue and hypertension were prominent, and one patient developed pulmonary emboli while on lenvatinib. This initial single-institution experience suggests that lenvatinib may have some disease-modifying activity in metastatic ATC that is otherwise refractory to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Unfortunately, observed benefits were transient, and toxicities were prominent. Clinical trials are required

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor structural alterations in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Cátia; Mateus, Ana R; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Fátima; Seruca, Raquel; Suriano, Gianpaolo

    2008-01-01

    EGFR overexpression has been described in many human tumours including gastric cancer. In NSCLC patients somatic EGFR mutations, within the kinase domain of the protein, as well as gene amplification were associated with a good clinical response to EGFR inhibitors. In gastric tumours data concerning structural alterations of EGFR remains controversial. Given its possible therapeutic relevance, we aimed to determine the frequency and type of structural alterations of the EGFR gene in a series of primary gastric carcinomas. Direct sequencing of the kinase domain of the EGFR gene was performed in a series of 77 primary gastric carcinomas. FISH analysis was performed in 30 cases. Association studies between EGFR alterations and the clinical pathological features of the tumours were performed. Within the 77 primary gastric carcinomas we found two EGFR somatic mutations and several EGFR polymorphisms in exon 20. Six different intronic sequence variants of EGFR were also found. Four gastric carcinomas showed balanced polysomy or EGFR gene amplification. We verified that gastric carcinoma with alterations of EGFR (somatic mutations or copy number variation) showed a significant increase of tumour size (p = 0.0094) in comparison to wild-type EGFR carcinomas. We demonstrate that EGFR structural alterations are rare in gastric carcinoma, but whenever present, it leads to tumour growth. We considered that searching for EGFR alterations in gastric cancer is likely to be clinically important in order to identify patients susceptible to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

  13. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  14. Treatment of gastric outlet obstruction that results from unresectable gastric cancer: Current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Takiguchi, Shuji; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Makino, Tomoki; Yamasaki, Makoto; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a common condition that results from locally advanced malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as pancreatic, gastric, and other carcinomas. Two types of procedures for malignant GOO, namely, gastrojejunostomy (GJ) with laparotomy or a laparoscopic approach and endoscopic stenting (ES), are currently available. Although numerous previous reports have clarified the benefits and drawbacks of each procedure, whether GJ or ES should be used in patients with GOO that results from gastric cancer who may have a longer life expectancy than patients with other malignancies has not been determined. In this review, which focuses on gastric cancer-induced GOO, we analyzed the two systematic reviews and a meta-analysis that compared GJ and ES and outlined the current status of GOO treatment. We also provide an updated review that includes laparoscopic GJ. Various data from 13 studies in one review and 6 studies in another review were analyzed. Although the main results of the present review indicated that both GJ and ES were efficacious treatments in patients with GOO that resulted from gastric cancer, current evidence suggests that GJ may be the preferable procedure given its good performance status and improved prognosis in gastric cancer patients. PMID:26862366

  15. Induced pneumoperitoneum in spiral CT evaluation of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hua; Gao Jianbo; Li Yintai; Yang Xuehua; Chen Xuejun; Guan Sheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value and clinical significance of preoperative staging in gastric cancer with induced pneumoperitoneum in spiral CT (SCTPP). Methods: Both routine SCT and SCTPP were performed in 52 lean patients suffered from gastric cancers, and comparison was made between SCT findings and surgical and histopathologic findings. Results: The accuracy of routine SCT and SCTPP in determining the T-staging was 72% and 96%, respectively (x 2 = 8.0, P 2 = 0.006, P > 0.05). The sensitivity in determining M-staging was 61% and 100%, respectively (x 2 = 0.04, P 2 6.03, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The accuracy of SCTPP in determining preoperative staging of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that of routine SCT. SCTPP has important guiding significance for the selection of the treatment strategy in gastric cancer

  16. Gastric cancer missed at endoscopy | Gado | Alexandria Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with biopsies) is the gold standard for its diagnosis but missed oesophageal and gastric cancers are not infrequent in patients who have undergone previous endoscopy. Errors by the endoscopist account for the majority of these missed lesions.

  17. Prophylactic total gastrectomy in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Linda; Hansen, Thomas V O; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    and found pathogenic. In silico and mini-gene assay were used to predict the functional consequence in one of them. Mutation carriers were offered endoscopy and total gastrectomy. The gastric specimens were completely sectioned and examined histologically. Seven asymptomatic mutation carriers were operated......Inactivating mutations in the CDH1 (E-cadherin) gene are the predisposing cause of gastric cancer in most families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). The lifetime risk of cancer in mutation positive members is more than 80 % and prophylactic total gastrectomy is recommended. Not all...... mutations in the CDH1 gene are however pathogenic and it is important to classify mutations before this major operation is performed. Probands from two Danish families with gastric cancer and a history suggesting HDGC were screened for CDH1 gene mutations. Two novel CDH1 gene mutations were identified...

  18. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    OpenAIRE

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had partic...

  19. miR-345 in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jakob V; Rossi, Simona; Jensen, Benny V

    2014-01-01

    for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with cetuximab and irinotecan. METHODS: From 138 patients with mCRC in 3rd line therapy with cetuximab and irinotecan in a prospective phase II study, 738 pretreatment miRNAs were isolated and profiled from whole blood......INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important regulatory functions in cellular processes and have shown promising potential as prognostic markers for disease outcome in patients with cancer. The aim of the present study was to find miRNA expression profiles in whole blood that were prognostic...

  20. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor. PMID:28321154

  1. Differential expression of ZFX gene in gastric cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-08

    Jan 8, 2012 ... survival benefit (Malekzadeh et al. 2009). Therefore, early cancer detection is a significant way to reduce gastric cancer mortality. Most human cancers show substantial heterogeneity in immunological and genetic profiles, proliferation potentials and differentiation capacities (Visvader and Lindeman. 2008).

  2. Gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment guidelines 2008: Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Uganda most cancers to the exception of bladder and penis are increasing in incidence. The incidence of cancer of stomach is 5.6/100,000 from 0.8/100,000 in the 1960s a seven fold increase.The purpose of this guideline document is to highlight the salient points in gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment in the ...

  3. Differential expression of ZFX gene in gastric cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cancer stem cell; gastric cancer; ZFX ... The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has been proposed to reconcile this heterogeneity. ... Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Genetics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Shahrekord ...

  4. Unresectable gastric cancer with gastric outlet obstruction and distant metastasis responding to intraperitoneal and folfox chemotherapy after palliative laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy: report of a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) caused by unresectable gastric cancer is a challenging aspect of patient care. There have been no reports involving patients with obstructing gastric cancer and several incurable factors curatively treated by multimodal treatments. Case presentation We report a case of 55-year-old man who was diagnosed with a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in the pre-pyloric antrum with GOO by gastroscopy. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed thickening of the gastric wall and adjacent fat infiltration, and a large amount of food in the stomach suggesting a passage disturbance, enlarged lymph nodes along the common hepatic and left gastric arteries, and multiple hepatic metastases. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was 343 ng/ml and the carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level was within normal limits. The patient underwent a laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy for palliation of the GOO. On the 3rd and 12th days after surgery, he received intraperitoneal chemotherapy with 40 mg of docetaxel and 150 mg of carboplatin. Simultaneously, combined chemotherapy with 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin for the 1st day and 600 mg/m2 of 5-FU for 2 days (FOLFOX regimen) was administered from the 8th post-operative day. After completion of nine courses of FOLFOX, the patient achieved a complete response (CR) with complete disappearance of the primary tumor and the metastatic foci. He underwent a radical subtotal gastrectomy with D3 lymph node dissection 4 months after the initial palliative surgery. The pathologic results revealed no residual primary tumor and no lymph node metastasis in 43 dissected lymph nodes. He has maintained a CR for 18 months since the last operation. Conclusion Combination chemotherapy with systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy following laparoscopic bypass surgery showed marked efficacy in the treatment for unresectable advanced gastric cancer with GOO. PMID:21167074

  5. Unresectable gastric cancer with gastric outlet obstruction and distant metastasis responding to intraperitoneal and folfox chemotherapy after palliative laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy: report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Joong-Min

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO caused by unresectable gastric cancer is a challenging aspect of patient care. There have been no reports involving patients with obstructing gastric cancer and several incurable factors curatively treated by multimodal treatments. Case presentation We report a case of 55-year-old man who was diagnosed with a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in the pre-pyloric antrum with GOO by gastroscopy. An abdominal computed tomography (CT scan revealed thickening of the gastric wall and adjacent fat infiltration, and a large amount of food in the stomach suggesting a passage disturbance, enlarged lymph nodes along the common hepatic and left gastric arteries, and multiple hepatic metastases. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level was 343 ng/ml and the carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9 level was within normal limits. The patient underwent a laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy for palliation of the GOO. On the 3rd and 12th days after surgery, he received intraperitoneal chemotherapy with 40 mg of docetaxel and 150 mg of carboplatin. Simultaneously, combined chemotherapy with 85 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin for the 1st day and 600 mg/m2 of 5-FU for 2 days (FOLFOX regimen was administered from the 8th post-operative day. After completion of nine courses of FOLFOX, the patient achieved a complete response (CR with complete disappearance of the primary tumor and the metastatic foci. He underwent a radical subtotal gastrectomy with D3 lymph node dissection 4 months after the initial palliative surgery. The pathologic results revealed no residual primary tumor and no lymph node metastasis in 43 dissected lymph nodes. He has maintained a CR for 18 months since the last operation. Conclusion Combination chemotherapy with systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy following laparoscopic bypass surgery showed marked efficacy in the treatment for unresectable advanced gastric cancer with GOO.

  6. A Recombinant Platform for Prioritizing Aerolysin Molecular Grenades for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0377 TITLE: A Recombinant Platform for Prioritizing Aerolysin Molecular Grenades for Metastatic Prostate Cancer ...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Recombinant Platform for Prioritizing Aerolysin Molecular Grenades for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b...progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to castrate resistant metastatic disease is an ominous diagnosis. To overcome tumor cell heterogeneity based

  7. Carbohydrate antigen 549 in metastatic breast cancer during cytostatic treatment and follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the serum tumour marker CA 549 gave early and reliable information about disease activity among metastatic breast cancer patients during cytostatic treatment and follow-up. 50 females with metastatic breast cancer were monitored clinically...... among 91% by marker progression. Clinical progression was excluded among 93% without marker progression. In conclusion, monitoring of metastatic breast cancer patients could include CA 549 if standardised criteria for marker evaluation are used....

  8. Unusual aggressive breast cancer: metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Adam; Tresley, Jonathan; Velazquez-Vega, Jose; Yepes, Monica

    2013-02-01

    For the year of 2012, it has been estimated that breast cancer will account for the greatest number of newly diagnosed cancers and the second highest proportion of cancer related deaths among women. Breast cancer, while often lumped together as one disease, represents a diverse group of malignancies with different imaging findings, histological appearances and behavior. While most invasive primary breast cancers are epithelial derived adenocarcinomas, rare neoplasms such as the phyllodes tumor may arise from mesenchymal tissue. Compared to the breast adenocarcinoma, the phyllodes tumor tends to affect a younger population, follows a different clinical course, is associated with different imaging and histological findings and is managed distinctively. There may be difficulty in differentiating the phyllodes tumor from a large fibroadenoma, but the mammographer plays a key role in reviewing the clinical and imaging data in order to arrive at the correct diagnosis. Early diagnosis with proper surgical management can often cure non-metastatic phyllodes tumors. However, in rare cases where metastasis occurs, prognosis tends to be poor. This report describes the presentation, imaging findings and management of a metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor.

  9. Phytochemicals potently inhibit migration of metastatic breast cancer cells†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Stephanie Lemmo; Nasrollahi, Samila; Shah, Kush N.; Soltisz, Andrew; Paruchuri, Sailaja; Yun, Yang H.; Luker, Gary D.; Bishayee, Anupam; Tavana, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is a major process that drives metastatic progression of cancers, the major cause of cancer death. Existing chemotherapeutic drugs have limited efficacy to prevent and/or treat metastasis, emphasizing the need for new treatments. We focus on triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the subtype of breast cancer with worst prognosis and no standard chemotherapy protocols. Here we demonstrate that a group of natural compounds, known as phytochemicals, effectively block migration of metastatic TNBC cells. Using a novel cell micropatterning technology, we generate consistent migration niches in standard 96-well plates where each well contains a cell-excluded gap within a uniform monolayer of cells. Over time, cells migrate into and occupy the gap. Treating TNBC cells with non-toxic concentrations of phytochemicals significantly blocks motility of cells. Using a molecular analysis approach, we show that anti-migratory property of phytochemicals is partly due to their inhibitory effects on phosphorylation of ERK1/2. This study provides a framework for future studies to understand molecular targets of phytochemicals and evaluate their effectiveness in inhibiting metastasis in animal models of cancer. PMID:26120051

  10. Metastatic Organotropism: An Intrinsic Property of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi; Siegal, Gene P

    2017-03-01

    It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone. On the other hand gene expression profiling studies have identified various breast cancer classes with prognostic significance. Recent studies have revealed that breast cancer subtypes differ not only in primary tumor characteristics but also in their metastatic behavior. In particular, the luminal tumors are remarkable for their significant bone-seeking phenotype; the HER2 subtype demonstrates a significant liver-homing characteristic; whereas so-called triple-negative breast cancers predispose to lung metastases. These findings suggest that this knowledge could potentially be utilized in the development of effective disease surveillance strategies in the pursuit of precision medicine, thus necessitating further investigation.

  11. Association between gastric cancer and the Kyoto classification of gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichijo, Satoki; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Niikura, Ryota; Hayakawa, Yoku; Yamada, Atsuo; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-09-01

    Histological gastritis is associated with gastric cancer, but its diagnosis requires biopsy. Many classifications of endoscopic gastritis are available, but not all are useful for risk stratification of gastric cancer. The Kyoto Classification of Gastritis was proposed at the 85th Congress of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society. This cross-sectional study evaluated the usefulness of the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis for risk stratification of gastric cancer. From August 2013 to September 2014, esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and the gastric findings evaluated according to the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis in a total of 4062 patients. The following five endoscopic findings were selected based on previous reports: atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness. A total of 3392 patients (1746 [51%] men and 1646 [49%] women) were analyzed. Among them, 107 gastric cancers were diagnosed. Atrophy was found in 2585 (78%) and intestinal metaplasia in 924 (27%). Enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness were found in 197 (5.8%), 22 (0.6%), and 573 (17%), respectively. In univariate analyses, the severity of atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, diffuse redness, age, and male sex were associated with gastric cancer. In a multivariate analysis, atrophy and male sex were found to be independent risk factors. Younger age and severe atrophy were determined to be associated with diffuse-type gastric cancer. Endoscopic detection of atrophy was associated with the risk of gastric cancer. Thus, patients with severe atrophy should be examined carefully and may require intensive follow-up. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. [Protein p53 in gastric carcinoma: clinical use of cancer research on neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska, T

    1999-02-01

    Mutations of the tumour-suppressor p53 gene are a very frequent event in many human cancers. In normal cells and tissue, p53 protein has a very short half-life and attains such a low level that is not detectable immunohistochemically. In contrast, the altered forms, present in 30 to 80% of different neoplasms, are more stable and accumulate to concentration that can be detected by immunohistochemistry. Changes in the p53 gene product can be immunogenic. Thus a simple procedures as immunohistochemistry or Elisa test which stratifies cancer patients into those with and without p53 accumulation or p53 auto- antibodies can be analyzed for useful correlations with clinical and histopathological data. The p53 studies have demonstrated that in gastric carcinoma the expression of p53 protein can be properly assessed prior to surgery, using immunohistochemistry on a small tissue samples obtained during endoscopy. It has been shown that p53 assessment in this carcinoma can be helpful in identifying patients at high risk for metastatic spread, including regional lymph node involvement, and in the discrimination of those patients with especially poor prognosis. Furthermore it was demonstrated that in stomach p53 accumulation is a marker of malignancy. Thus, when combined with routine procedures, a simple test as p53 immunohistochemistry might allow better planing of appropriate treatment strategies and help in the pre-operative diagnosis of gastric carcinoma. Further studies are required to determine the clinical significance of p53 serum antibodies in gastric cancer.

  13. FGFR2 amplification is predictive of sensitivity to regorafenib in gastric and colorectal cancers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yongjun; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Lim, Yoojoo; Han, Sae-Won; Song, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Tae-You

    2018-03-24

    Although regorafenib has demonstrated survival benefits in patients with metastatic colorectal and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, no proven biomarker has been identified for predicting sensitivity to regorafenib. Here, we investigated preclinical activity of regorafenib in gastric and colorectal cancer cells to identify genetic alterations associated with sensitivity to regorafenib. Mutation profiles and copy number assays of regorafenib target molecules indicated that amplification of FGFR2 was the only genetic alteration associated with in vitro sensitivity to regorafenib. Regorafenib effectively inhibited phosphorylation of FGFR2 and its downstream signaling molecules in a dose-dependent manner and selectively in FGFR2 amplified cells. Regorafenib induced G1 arrest (SNU-16, KATO-III) and apoptosis (NCI-H716), however, no significant changes were seen in cell lines without FGFR2 amplification. In SNU-16 mice xenografts, regorafenib significantly inhibited tumor growth, proliferation, and FGFR signaling compared to treatment with control vehicle. Regorafenib effectively abrogates activated FGFR2 signaling in FGFR2 amplified gastric and colorectal cancer and therefore, might be considered for integration into treatment in patients with FGFR2 amplified gastric and colorectal cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Molecular Oncology (2018) © 2018 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Intracranial Metastasis in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tawada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man was referred to our hospital with visual disturbance, weakness of the left upper and lower limbs, and gait disturbance. He had previously received transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC 3 and 10 years ago. When he had received radiofrequency ablation for HCC recurrence 2 years ago, total gastrectomy was also performed for his gastric cancer. Subsequently, sorafenib had been administrated for concomitant lung metastatic tumors. On admission, MRI revealed an intra-axial tumor with perifocal edema. The level of carcinoembryonic antigen, but not alpha-fetoprotein, markedly increased. The tumor was successfully removed by craniotomy and pathological examination revealed that it was composed of adenocarcinoma, which was consistent with the primary gastric cancer. After surgery, his neurological disturbances rapidly resolved. Additional gamma-knife treatment was also performed for another small brain metastasis detected after craniotomy. Subsequently, sorafenib administration was discontinued and S-1 was administered postoperatively. Successful treatment of intracranial metastasis of gastric cancer is important and meaningful, even in patients with multiple primary malignancies.

  15. Targeting metastatic colorectal cancer – present and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciombor KK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kristen K Ciombor,1 Jordan Berlin21Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Metastatic colorectal cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and around the world. While several novel cytotoxic and biologic therapies have been developed and proven efficacious in the past two decades, their optimal use in terms of patient selection, drug combinations, and regimen sequences has yet to be defined. Recent investigations regarding anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapies include the comparison of single-agent panitumumab and cetuximab, the benefit of adding cetuximab to chemotherapy in the conversion therapy setting, the comparison of cetuximab and bevacizumab when added to first-line chemotherapy, and predictive biomarkers beyond KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13 mutations. With respect to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies, new data on continuing bevacizumab beyond disease progression on a bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy regimen, the addition of bevacizumab to triplet chemotherapy in the first-line setting, maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus either capecitabine or erlotinib, the addition of aflibercept to chemotherapy, and regorafenib as monotherapy have emerged. Recent scientific and technologic advances in the field of metastatic colorectal cancer promise to elucidate the biological underpinnings of this disease and its therapies for the goal of improving personalized treatments for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Keywords: cetuximab, panitumumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, biomarker

  16. Prognostic value of serum tetranectin in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, C K; Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate serum tetranectin as a prognostic marker before first-line chemotherapy, serum levels were studied in 67 patients with metastatic breast cancer. In the Cox analyses, the relative risk (RR) for death of cancer varied with the cut-off level of serum tetranectin. A maximal RR of 5...... prognostic factor in metastatic breast cancer....

  17. Surgical resection of synchronously metastatic adrenocortical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Benzon M; Strajina, Veljko; Cayo, Ashley K; Richards, Melanie L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Harmsen, William S; Evans, Doug B; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Bible, Keith C; Young, William F; Perrier, Nancy D; Que, Florencia G; Nagorney, David M; Lee, Jeffrey E; Thompson, Geoffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rapidly fatal, with few options for treatment. Patients with metachronous recurrence may benefit from surgical resection. The survival benefit in patients with hematogenous metastasis at initial presentation is unknown. A review of all patients undergoing surgery (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors) stage IV ACC between January 2000 and December 2012 from two referral centers was performed. Kaplan-Meier estimates were analyzed for disease-free and overall survival (OS). We identified 27 patients undergoing surgery for stage IV ACC. Metastases were present in the lung (19), liver (11), and brain (1). A complete resection (R0) was achieved in 11 patients. The median OS was improved in patients undergoing R0 versus R2 resection (860 vs. 390 days; p = 0.02). The 1- and 2-year OS was also improved in patients undergoing R0 versus R2 resection (69.9 %, 46.9 % vs. 53.0 %, 22.1 %; p = 0.02). Patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy (eight patients) had a trend towards improved survival at 1, 2, and 5 years versus no neoadjuvant therapy (18 patients) [83.3 %, 62.5 %, 41.7 % vs. 56.8 %, 26.6 %, 8.9 %; p = 0.1]. Adjuvant therapy was associated with improved recurrence-free survival at 6 months and 1 year (67 %, 33 % vs. 40 %, 20 %; p = 0.04) but not improved OS (p = 0.63). Sex (p = 0.13), age (p = 0.95), and location of metastasis (lung, p = 0.51; liver, p = 0.67) did not correlate with OS after operative intervention. Symptoms of hormonal excess improved in 86 % of patients. Operative intervention, especially when an R0 resection can be achieved, following systemic therapy may improve outcomes, including OS, in select patients with stage IV ACC. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be of use in defining which patients may benefit from surgical intervention. Adjuvant therapy was associated with decreased recurrence but did not improve OS.

  18. Changing Trends in Gastric Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlter Özer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death. It requires multimodal treatment and surgery is the most effective treatment modality. Radical surgery includes total or subtotal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. The extent of lymphadenectomy still remains controversial. Eastern surgeons have performed D2 or more extended lymphadenectomy while their Western colleagues have performed more limited lymph node dissection. However, the trend has been changing in favour of D2 lymph node dissection in both hemispheres. Currently, D2 is the recommended type of lymphadenectomy in experienced centres in the west. In Japan, D2 lymph node dissection is the standard surgical approach. More extensive lymphadenectomy than D2 has not been found to be associated with improved survival and generally is not performed. Bursectomy and splenectomy are additional controversial issues in surgical performance, and trends regarding them will be discussed. The performance of bursectomy is controversial and there is no clear evidence of its clinical benefit. However, a trend toward better survival in patients with serosal invasion has been reported. Routine splenectomy as a part of lymph node dissection has largely been abandoned, although splenectomy is recommended in selected cases. Minimally invasive surgery has gained wide popularity and indications for minimally invasive procedures have been expanding due to increasing experience and improving technology. Neoadjuvant therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects and seems necessary to provide a survival benefit. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be kept in mind prior to treatment

  19. Pembrolizumab and Ruxolitinib Phosphate in Treating Patients With Metastatic Stage IV Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Breast Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  20. The role of palliative radiation therapy in symptomatic locally advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tey, Jeremy; Back, Michael F.; Shakespeare, Thomas P.; Mukherjee, Rahul K.; Lu, Jiade J.; Lee, Khai Mun; Wong, Lea Choung; Leong, Cheng Nang; Zhu Ming

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To review the outcome of palliative radiotherapy (RT) alone in patients with symptomatic locally advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with symptomatic locally advanced or recurrent gastric cancer who were managed palliatively with RT at Cancer Institute, Singapore were retrospectively reviewed. Study end points included symptom response, median survival, and treatment toxicity (retrospectively scored using the Common Toxicity Criteria v3.0 [CTC]). Results: Between November 1999 and December 2004, 33 patients with locally advanced or recurrent gastric cancer were managed with palliative intent using RT alone. Median age was 76 years (range, 38-90 years). Twenty-one (64%) patients had known distant metastatic disease at time of treatment. Key index symptoms were bleeding (24 patients), obstruction (8 patients), and pain (8 patients). The majority of patients received 30 Gy/10 fractions (17 patients). Dose fractionation regimen ranged from an 8-Gy single fraction to 40 Gy in 16 fractions. Median survival was 145 days, actuarial 12-month survival 8%. A total of 54.3% of patients (13/24) with bleeding responded (median duration of response of 140 days), 25% of patients (2/8) with obstruction responded (median duration of response of 102 days), and 25% of patients (2/8) with pain responded (median duration of response of 105 days). No obvious dose-response was evident. One Grade 3 CTC equivalent toxicity was recorded. Conclusion: External beam RT alone is an effective and well tolerated modality in the local palliation of gastric cancer, with palliation lasting the majority of patients' lives

  1. DNA Methylation as Surrogate Marker For Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jung-Hwan; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Hong, Seung-Jin; Rhyu, Mun-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer remains, stubbornly, highly prevalent in East Asia. Still, stomach cancer has few biomarkers by which it can be predicted. Helicobacter pylori infection, a known carcinogen of stomach cancer, usually goes undetected prior to cancer diagnosis, due to the poor mucosal environments that its related gastric atrophy causes. We propose, herein, an endoscopic-biopsy-based cancer-predicting DNA methylation marker. We semi-quantitatively examined the methylation-variable sites near the ...

  2. Photo-nano immunotherapy for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifan

    2016-03-01

    We constructed a multifunction nano system SWNT-GC and investigated the synergize photothermal and immunological effects. Here, we improve the SWNT-GC nano system and design a new synergistic nano-particle, both have the photothermal effects and immunological effects. We investigate the therapeutic effects and detect the immune response with metastatic mouse tumor models. We also study the therapeutic mechanism after treatment in vitro and in vivo. With the enhancement of nano-materials on photothermal effects, laser treatment could destroy primary tumor and protect normal tissue with low dose laser irradiation. With the immunological effects of nano-materials, the treatment could trigger specific antitumor immune response, to eliminate the metastasis tumor. It is providing a promising treatment modality for the metastatic cancers.

  3. Tumour heterogeneity promotes collective invasion and cancer metastatic dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallou, Adrien; Jennings, Joel; Kabla, Alexandre J

    2017-08-01

    Heterogeneity within tumour cell populations is commonly observed in most cancers. However, its impact on metastatic dissemination, one of the primary determinants of the disease prognosis, remains poorly understood. Working with a simplified numerical model of tumour spheroids, we investigated the impact of mechanical heterogeneity on the onset of tumour invasion into surrounding tissues. Our work establishes a positive link between tumour heterogeneity and metastatic dissemination, and recapitulates a number of invasion patterns identified in vivo , such as multicellular finger-like protrusions. Two complementary mechanisms are at play in heterogeneous tumours. A small proportion of stronger cells are able to initiate and lead the escape of cells, while collective effects in the bulk of the tumour provide the coordination required to sustain the invasive process through multicellular streaming. This suggests that the multicellular dynamics observed during metastasis is a generic feature of mechanically heterogeneous cell populations and might rely on a limited and generic set of attributes.

  4. Combination of TB lymphadenitis and metastatic LAP in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhassan Talaiezadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB may present as pulmonary and extra-pulmonary. TB lymphadenitis is the most common presentation of extra-pulmonary TB. TB lymphadenitis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of different disorders such as metastatic lymphadenopathy. The reported patient was a 65-year-old lady with breast cancer and conglomerated and matted axillary lymphadenopathy who received chemotherapy. She presented with more extensive axillary LAP contrary to our expectation. Modified radical mastectomy was done and pathology analysis reported TB lymphadenitis associated with metastatic LAP. Under cover of anti-TB therapy adjuvant chemoradiation therapy was started. Accordingly, we recommend TB be ruled out in every patient who needs chemotherapy in the endemic region because chemotherapy may cause the extension of TB in the body.

  5. Entirely Laparoscopic Gastrectomy and Colectomy for Remnant Gastric Cancer with Gastric Outlet Obstruction and Transverse Colon Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Il; Kim, Min Gyu

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that gastrectomy with curative intent is the best way to improve outcomes of patients with remnant gastric cancer. Recently,several investigators reported their experiences with laparoscopic gastrectomy of remnant gastric cancer. We report the case of an 83-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with remnant gastric cancer with obstruction. She underwent an entirely laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with colectomy because of direct invasion of the transverse colon. The opera...

  6. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    resembling scirrhous gastric carcinoma. This case of localized gastric amyloidosis was differentiated from scirrhous gastric cancer after performing endoscopic mucosal resection without an invasive surgical resection, as endoscopic mucosal resection provided sufficient tissue specimens from the lesion to make an accurate histological evaluation.

  7. Local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinami, Shinichi; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo

    2017-06-01

    The local resection of the stomach is an ideal method for preventing postoperative symptoms. There are various procedures for performing local resection, such as the laparoscopic lesion lifting method, non-touch lesion lifting method, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the invention and widespread use of endoscopic submucosal dissection, local resection has become outdated as a curative surgical technique for gastric cancer. Nevertheless, local resection of the stomach in the treatment of gastric cancer in now expected to make a comeback with the clinical use of sentinel node navigation surgery. However, there are many issues associated with local resection for gastric cancer, other than the normal indications. These include gastric deformation, functional impairment, ensuring a safe surgical margin, the possibility of inducing peritoneal dissemination, and the associated increase in the risk of metachronous gastric cancer. In view of these issues, there is a tendency to regard local resection as an investigative treatment, to be applied only in carefully selected cases. The ideal model for local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer would be a combination of endoscopic full-thickness resection of the stomach using an ESD device and hand sutured closure using a laparoscope or a surgical robot, for achieving both oncological safety and preserved functions.

  8. A Lymph Node Staging System for Gastric Cancer: A Hybrid Type Based on Topographic and Numeric Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Choi

    Full Text Available Although changing a lymph node staging system from an anatomically based system to a numerically based system in gastric cancer offers better prognostic performance, several problems can arise: it does not offer information on the anatomical extent of disease and cannot represent the extent of lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to discover an alternative lymph node staging system for gastric cancer. Data from 6025 patients who underwent gastrectomy for primary gastric cancer between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. The lymph node groups were reclassified into lesser-curvature, greater-curvature, and extra-perigastric groups. Presence of any metastatic lymph node in one group was considered positive. Lymph node groups were further stratified into four (new N0-new N3 according to the number of positive lymph node groups. Survival outcomes with this new N staging were compared with those of the current TNM system. For validation, two centers in Japan (large center, n = 3443; medium center, n = 560 were invited. Even among the same pN stages, the more advanced new N stage showed worse prognosis, indicating that the anatomical extent of metastatic lymph nodes is important. The prognostic performance of the new staging system was as good as that of the current TNM system for overall advanced gastric cancer as well as lymph node-positive gastric cancer (Harrell C-index was 0.799, 0.726, and 0.703 in current TNM and 0.799, 0.727, and 0.703 in new TNM stage. Validation sets supported these outcomes. The new N staging system demonstrated prognostic performance equal to that of the current TNM system and could thus be used as an alternative.

  9. The application of nanoparticles in diagnosis and theranostics of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rutian; Liu, Baorui; Gao, Jiahui

    2017-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. For the diagnosis of gastric cancer, apart from regular systemic imaging, the locoregional imaging is also of great importance. Moreover, there are still other ways for the detecting of gastric cancer, including the early detection of gastric cancer by endoscopy, the detection of gastric-cancer related biomarkers and the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of gastric cancer. However, conventional diagnostic methods are usually lack of specificity and sensitivity. Nanoparticles provide many benefits in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Besides, nanoparticles are capable of integrating the functions of diagnosis and treatment together (theranostics). In this paper, we reviewed the applications of nanoparticles in diagnosis and theranostics of gastric cancer in the above mentioned aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral ulcer as an exclusive sign of gastric cancer: report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimassa Lorenza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral cavity is a rare but occasional target for metastases, which may masquerade as various benign and inflammatory lesions, and sometimes also be asymptomatic. Oral metastatic lesions have been described in various cancers, particularly lung, breast and kidney carcinoma. Case presentation We here describe an uncommon case of a hard palate mucosa and gingival metastasis from gastric carcinoma that was originally diagnosed as a periodontal disease. Histopathological examination of a biopsy of the lesion revealed a signet-ring cell carcinoma, and a subsequent biopsy of an ulcerated stomach lesion showed a poorly differentiated gastric carcinoma. The patient underwent gastric resection but died of heart failure on the tenth postoperative day; a post-mortem examination revealed a residual bilateral ovarian infiltration by gastric carcinoma (Krukenberg's tumor. Conclusion An occult carcinoma of the stomach may rarely metastasise to the oral cavity even as a first and exclusive manifestation; it is important to bear this possibility in mind because such conditions may mimic a benign disease.

  11. Mutational analysis and clinical correlation of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea L; Borger, Darrell R; Szymonifka, Jackie; Ryan, David P; Wo, Jennifer Y; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Kwak, Eunice L; Allen, Jill N; Wadlow, Raymond C; Zhu, Andrew X; Murphy, Janet E; Faris, Jason E; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Haigis, Kevin M; Ellisen, Leif W; Iafrate, Anthony J; Hong, Theodore S

    2014-05-15

    Early identification of mutations may guide patients with metastatic colorectal cancer toward targeted therapies that may be life prolonging. The authors assessed tumor genotype correlations with clinical characteristics to determine whether mutational profiling can account for clinical similarities, differences, and outcomes. Under Institutional Review Board approval, 222 patients with metastatic colon adenocarcinoma (n = 158) and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 64) who underwent clinical tumor genotyping were reviewed. Multiplexed tumor genotyping screened for >150 mutations across 15 commonly mutated cancer genes. The chi-square test was used to assess genotype frequency by tumor site and additional clinical characteristics. Cox multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of genotype on overall survival. Broad-based tumor genotyping revealed clinical and anatomic differences that could be linked to gene mutations. NRAS mutations were associated with rectal cancer versus colon cancer (12.5% vs 0.6%; P colon cancer (13% vs 3%; P = .024) and older age (15.8% vs 4.6%; P = .006). TP53 mutations were associated with rectal cancer (30% vs 18%; P = .048), younger age (14% vs 28.7%; P = .007), and men (26.4% vs 14%; P = .03). Lung metastases were associated with PIK3CA mutations (23% vs 8.7%; P = .004). Only mutations in BRAF were independently associated with decreased overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.27; P = .029). The current study suggests that underlying molecular profiles can differ between colon and rectal cancers. Further investigation is warranted to assess whether the differences identified are important in determining the optimal treatment course for these patients. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  12. Familial gastric cancer and Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, G; Pedrazzani, C; Marrelli, D; Pinto, E; Roviello, F

    2010-05-01

    Gastric cancer occurs in some familial diseases with inherited cancer predisposition. Genetic factors have been correlated with the hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and other familial gastric cancer conditions as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The present study was aimed at searching for germ line mutations of TP53 gene in familial gastric cancer with cluster for Li-Fraumeni syndrome or Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome. Twenty-three pedigrees with characteristics for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome were identified. DNA of the proband was sequenced using polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism. Among these 23 cases, no germ line mutation of TP53 was identified, while two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in four patients. In our area, in which a high rate of familial aggregation was demonstrated, the lack of germ line mutation of TP53 together with the infrequency of mutation of E-cadherin gene seem to limit the role of genetic predisposition in the development of gastric cancer.

  13. Calpain/SHP-1 interaction by honokiol dampening peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer in nu/nu mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing Hwa Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honokiol, a small-molecular weight natural product, has previously been reported to activate apoptosis and inhibit gastric tumorigenesis. Whether honokiol inhibits the angiogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer cells remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the effects of honokiol on angiogenic activity and peritoneal dissemination using in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assay systems. The signaling responses in human gastric cancer cells, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs, and isolated tumors were detected and analyzed. In a xenograft gastric tumor mouse model, honokiol significantly inhibited the peritoneal dissemination detected by PET/CT technique. Honokiol also effectively attenuated the angiogenesis detected by chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, mouse matrigel plug assay, rat aortic ring endothelial cell sprouting assay, and endothelial cell tube formation assay. Furthermore, honokiol effectively enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 dephosphorylation and inhibited STAT-3 DNA binding activity in human gastric cancer cells and HUVECs, which was correlated with the up-regulation of the activity and protein expression of Src homology 2 (SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1. Calpain-II inhibitor and siRNA transfection significantly reversed the honokiol-induced SHP-1 activity. The decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and increased SHP-1 expression were also shown in isolated peritoneal metastatic tumors. Honokiol was also capable of inhibiting VEGF generation, which could be reversed by SHP-1 siRNA transfection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Honokiol increases expression and activity of SPH-1 that further deactivates STAT3 pathway. These findings also suggest that honokiol is a novel and potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer cells, providing support for the application potential of honokiol in gastric cancer therapy.

  14. Gastric outlet obstruction in gastric cancer: a comparison of three palliative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keränen, Ilona; Kylänpää, Leena; Udd, Marianne; Louhimo, Johanna; Lepistö, Anna; Halttunen, Jorma; Kokkola, Arto

    2013-12-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) commonly occurs in advanced gastric cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the results of endoscopic stenting (ES), palliative resection (PR), and gastrojejunostomy (GJ) as palliation of GOO. A total of 97 patients (50 ES, 26 PR, 21 GJ) were included in this retrospective study. All the patients had primary gastric cancer and symptoms of GOO. Compared to surgery, ES resulted in a faster improvement on oral intake and symptom relief (P obstruction, and the number of patients receiving chemotherapy were similar. The median symptom-free and overall survival were longest in the PR group (P gastric cancer and GOO, the clinical condition of the patient before treatment affects survival and should be taken into account in determining the treatment. PR seems to provide a survival benefit and should be considered as treatment option for patients suitable for surgery. For patients unfit for surgery, ES provides rapid and efficient palliation. Chemotherapy also seems to improve survival in gastric cancer and GOO. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case–control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to the higher risk of age group 40–49 years and the advent of advanced breast cancer in Iranian women, the early diagnosis and determination of the exact size of the tumor before surgery is important in choosing a therapy plan. The decision on the therapy of invasive breast cancer depends on several factors such as cancer stage, tumor size and type, pathological and cytological status of the tumor, the patient's opinion, the presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and so on.

  16. Hormone therapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebelameli P

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Only orchiectomy is still commonly used today either as a single therapy or in combination regimens. Hypophysectomy & adrenalectomy showed such devastating effects on the endocrine equilibrium as to be inconsistent with an acceptable quality of life or even with survival. Chemical adrenalectomy was also tried with drugs (eg. aminoglutethmide, spironolactone leading to consequences superimposable to those of surgical adrenalectomy. Along with orchiectomy, three groups of substances are commonly used today for the hormonal therapy of prostate cancer: estrogens, LHRH agonists & anti androgens. Bilateral orchiectomy removes 90-95% of circulating testosterone. Clinical studies document 60-80% of positive responders to castration, on continued evaluation, relapse occurs usually within 6-24 months in responders, with a death rate of 50% within 6 months. The androgenic activity still remaining after castration may explain the partial & progressively decreasing effectiveness of this & other testosterone reducing therapies. Antiandrogens define substances that act directly at the target site, where interacting with steroid hormone receptors, they impede the binding of androgens. A trend towards the combination of testosterone-reducing & androgen-blocking treatment is developing in modern therapy of prostate cancer. This is due to the complementary characteristics of the two different pharmacological mechanisms that are involved. In this study castration+antiandrogen is compared to castration alone. The results demonstrate a significantly greater percentage of positive objective & subjective responses with antiandrogen than with placebo. In addition survival time was increased in patients treated with castration+antiandrogen than castration+placebo.

  17. Functionalization of nanotextured substrates for enhanced identification of metastatic breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Nuzhat; Raziul Hasan, Mohammad; Kim, Young-tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2017-09-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of low survival rates among cancer patients. Once cancer cells metastasize, it is extremely difficult to contain the disease. We report on a nanotextured platform for enhanced detection of metastatic cells. We captured metastatic (MDA-MDB-231) and non-metastatic (MCF-7) breast cancer cells on anti-EGFR aptamer modified plane and nanotextured substrates. Metastatic cells were seen to change their morphology at higher rates when captured on nanotextured substrates than on plane substrates. Analysis showed statistically different morphological behaviors of metastatic cells that were very pronounced on the nanotextured substrates. Several distance matrices were calculated to quantify the dissimilarity of cell shape change. Nanotexturing increased the dissimilarity of the metastatic cells and as a result the contrast between metastatic and non-metastatic cells increased. Jaccard distance measurements found that the shape change ratio of the non-metastatic and metastatic cells was enhanced from 1:1.01 to 1:1.81, going from plane to nanotextured substrates. The shape change ratio of the non-metastatic to metastatic cells improved from 1:1.48 to 1:2.19 for the Hausdorff distance and from 1:1.87 to 1:4.69 for the Mahalanobis distance after introducing nanotexture. Distance matrix analysis showed that nanotexture increased the shape change ratios of non-metastatic and metastatic cells. Hence, the detectability of metastatic cells increased. These calculated matrices provided clear and explicit measures to discriminate single cells for their metastatic state on functional nanotextured substrates.

  18. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in remnant stomach or gastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Ono, H; Kakushima, N; Takizawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, H; Yamaguchi, Y

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists regarding the optimal treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in a remnant stomach or gastric tube. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for EGC in a remnant stomach and gastric tube. Between September 2002 and December 2009, ESD was performed in 62 lesions in 59 patients with EGC in a remnant stomach (48 lesions) or gastric tube (14 lesions). Clinicopathological data were retrieved retrospectively to assess the en bloc resection rate, complications, and outcomes. Treatment results were assessed according to the indications for endoscopic resection, and were compared with those of ESD performed in a whole stomach during the same study period. The en bloc resection rates for lesions within the standard and expanded indication were 100 % and 93 %, respectively. Postoperative bleeding occurred in five patients (8 %). The perforation rate was significantly higher (18 %, 11 /62) than that of ESD in a whole stomach (5 %, 69 /1479). Among the perforation cases, eight lesions involved the anastomotic site or stump line, and ulcerative changes were observed in five lesions. The 3-year overall survival rate was 85 %, with eight deaths due to other causes and no deaths from gastric cancer. A high en bloc resection rate was achieved by ESD for EGC in a remnant stomach or gastric tube; however, this procedure is still technically demanding due to the high complication rate of perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Concomitant Metastatic Breast Cancer in the Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is an unusual site to find cancer metastasis. When it does occur, such cancer spread is often manifested in multiple metastases and generally suggests a poor prognosis. We presented here a 49-year-old woman recently diagnosed with thyroid cancer, who had been treated for stage IIA breast cancer 8 years ago. After radical right thyroidectomy and left subtotal thyroidectomy, her pathological report showed papillary thyroid carcinoma, right thyroid, with concomitant metastatic breast carcinoma. This is the first case of which we are aware involving coexisting thyroid cancer and metastatic breast cancer in the ipsilateral lobe. Moreover, the circumstances of this case show a very unique clinical course compared with previous studies. Given the unusual circumstances of our case, we further discuss the relationship between thyroid cancer and breast cancer.

  20. Mouse models for gastric cancer: Matching models to biological questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J; Ernst, Matthias; Putoczki, Tracy L

    2016-07-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, which often results in late-stage diagnosis, at which point there are limited treatment options. Even when treated successfully, gastric cancer patients have a high risk of tumor recurrence and acquired drug resistance. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathogenesis to facilitate the design of new-targeted therapies that may improve patient survival. A number of chemically and genetically engineered mouse models of gastric cancer have provided significant insight into the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to disease onset and progression. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of gastric cancer and their relevance to the pre-clinical development of new therapeutics. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology published by Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Photodynamic therapy for metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Horanskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of treatment for cutaneous metastasis of breast cancer with photjdynamic therapy are represented. The study included 46 patients, the total number of treated cutaneous metastases was 535. For photodynamic therapy photosensitizer photolon given intravenously at a dose of 0.9–1.6 mg/kg body weight 3 h before treatment session (wave length 661±1 nm, плотность мощности 0,11–0,56 J/cm2, мощность на выходе волокна 0,3–2,0 Wt, light dose 50–600 J/cm2. Complete regression of metastasis was obtained in 33.6% of cases, partial – in 39.4%, stabilization – in 22.6%, progression of disease was in 4.3% of cases. The results show the perspectiveness of photodynamic therapy for metastasis as one of the step of treatment. 

  2. Radioembolization for primary and metastatic liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Kulik, Laura; Riaz, Ahsun; Mulcahy, Mary F; Salem, Riad

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing. Most patients present beyond potentially curative options and are usually affected by underlying cirrhosis. In this scenario, transarterial therapies, such as radioembolization, are rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Radioembolization is a catheter-based liver-directed therapy that involves the injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of percutaneous transarterial techniques. Cancer cells are preferentially supplied by arterial blood and normal hepatocytes by portal venous blood; therefore, radioembolization specifically targets tumor cells with a high dose of lethal radiation and spares healthy hepatocytes. The antitumor effect mostly comes from radiation rather than embolization. The most commonly used radioisotope is yttrium-90. The commercially available devices are TheraSphere (glass based; MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) and SIR-Sphere (resin based; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. The incidence of complications is comparatively less than other locoregional therapies and may include nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, biliary injury, fibrosis, radiation pneumonitis, gastrointestinal ulcers, and vascular injury. However, these complications can be avoided by meticulous pretreatment assessment, careful patient selection, and adequate dosimetry. This article focuses on both the technical and clinical aspects of radioembolization with emphasis on patient selection, uses and complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Depression in older women with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambruoso, Sarah F

    2014-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in older women with late-stage breast cancer, and some of these patients meet criteria for major depressive disorder. Significant overlap exists among many of the most prevalent physical signs and symptoms of depression in older adults (e.g., weight loss, fatigue) and the physical signs and symptoms of malignancy or treatment for malignancy, which may contribute to ongoing underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression in this population. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network and evidence-based geriatric nursing guidelines call for routine screening for depression with valid and reliable screening instruments among high-risk groups at every encounter. Geriatrics, oncology, and palliative care nurses are encouraged to regularly screen older women with metastatic breast cancer for depressive symptoms and maintain a low threshold for initiation of behavioral and/or psychopharmacological interventions. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Third-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundgaard, M.G.; Ehrnrooth, E.; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2008-01-01

    , panitumumab. As a result, third-line treatment is now a necessary step in the optimal treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature review of English language publications on third-line therapy for MCRC from January 2000 to April 2007. Data......BACKGROUND: The past years' therapy for colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly with the introduction of novel cytotoxic agents such as irinotecan, capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Further advances have been achieved with the integration of targeted agents such as bevacizumab, cetuximab and recently......OS of 16 months. With irinotecan and 5-FU, mOS around 8 months were reported and with cetuximab combined with irinotecan, the highest mOS was 9.8 months. CONCLUSION: Third-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer may improve mOS for patients with MCRC. Therefore, randomized studies should be conducted...

  5. Characterization of KRAS Rearrangements in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Song; Shankar, Sunita; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M.; Ateeq, Bushra; Sasaki, Atsuo T.; Jing, Xiaojun; Robinson, Daniel; Cao, Qi; Prensner, John R.; Yocum, Anastasia K.; Wang, Rui; Fries, Daniel F.; Han, Bo; Asangani, Irfan A.; Cao, Xuhong; Li, Yong; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Pflueger, Dorothee; Gopalan, Anuradha; Reuter, Victor E.; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Cantley, Lewis C.; Rubin, Mark A.; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2011-01-01

    Using an integrative genomics approach called Amplification Breakpoint Ranking and Assembly (ABRA) analysis, we nominated KRAS as a gene fusion with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2L3 in the DU145 cell line, originally derived from prostate cancer metastasis to the brain. Interestingly, analysis of tissues revealed that 2 of 62 metastatic prostate cancers harbored aberrations at the KRAS locus. In DU145 cells, UBE2L3-KRAS produces a fusion protein, specific knock-down of which, attenuates cell invasion and xenograft growth. Ectopic expression of the UBE2L3-KRAS fusion protein exhibits transforming activity in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and RWPE prostate epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In NIH 3T3 cells, UBE2L3-KRAS attenuates MEK/ERK signaling, commonly engaged by oncogenic mutant KRAS, and instead signals via AKT and p38 MAPK pathways. This is the first report of a gene fusion involving Ras family suggesting that this aberration may drive metastatic progression in a rare subset of prostate cancers. PMID:22140652

  6. Study of metastatic foci by CT in autopsied lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Mitsuru; Nobe, Yoshifumi; Fujii, Kyoichi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors reexamined all of the image diagnoses made during whole hospitalization in 11 lung cancer cases with autopsy. Of 39 metastatic foci observed at autopsy in the liver, kidney, pancreas, adrenal and brain, 12 had been diagnosed on transverse CT images before death. Three foci were missed at initial readings. The period from CT to autopsy was less than 3 months for 9 of 12 correctly diagnosed foci. For 13 of 27 foci undetected by CT, CT was conducted more than 3 months before death. (Chiba, N)

  7. Treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: focus on panitumumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Rebecca Y; Wong, Rachel; Hawkes, Eliza A

    2015-01-01

    Targeted agents are an important therapeutic option in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Panitumumab is a recombinant, fully humanized, immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with efficacy in mCRC as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy. Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) mutation status has emerged as an important biomarker to predict response to anti-EGFR therapy. Optimal timing for panitumumab use in the mCRC treatment algorithm has not been established. This review discusses the mechanism of action, predictive biomarkers, and role of panitumumab in the treatment of mCRC

  8. Postoperative radiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. Z.; Chun, H. C.; Kim, I. S.; Chung, T. J. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1997-06-01

    Radical gastrectomy is main treatment of gastric cancer. We analyzed patients with stage III and IV stomach cancer who had radical operation and received postoperative radiation therapy combined with or without chemotherapy retrospectively. From March 1985 to June 1993, 68 patients treated with curative resection and received postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy with 36Gy or more were evaluated. Median age was 60years(range 28-66 yrs). Thirty seven patients had non signet ring adenocarcinoma, 29 signet ring cell, 2 other cell. Patients with stage IIIA, IIIB, IV disease were 19, 25 and 24 respectively. Chemotherapy was given to all patients except two. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival rate were 36.6% and 33.6T, respectively. Recurrence was documented in 34 patients. High recurrence was seen in omentum and peritoneum with 23.5%, and remnant stomach, anastomosis site, A-loop and E-loop had also high recurrence with 13.2%. In field locoregional recurrence was 20.7% and total distant metastases were 39.7%. Total intraabdominal failure was 47.1% and extraabdominal failure was 13.2%. Treatment toxicity was considered to be acceptable. 22.1% of patients had grade 3 and only 1 patient had grade 4 leukopenia. Six patients(8.8%) had weigh loss more than 10%. Treatment toxicity was acceptable with combined treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Locoregional recurrence was relatively low compared to distant failure with addition of irradiation. Peritoneal and omental seeding was high. Five-year survival was increased with combined modality. Radiation may eradicate minimal residual disease and improve survival. Furthermore to reduce intraabdominal failure, role of intraabdominal chemotherapy in addition to combined chemotherapy plus radiation has to be explored. (author).

  9. [A Hematogenous Metastasis from Scirrhous Gastric Cancer to the Uterus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masatake; Hyodo, Masanobu; Tsukahara, Munetoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Shinohara, Shoichi; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Hirotake; Okada, Masaki; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Lefor, Alan Kawarai

    2017-04-01

    A 46-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of nausea. Endoscopy revealed scirrhous gastric cancer, and abdominalcomputed tomography revealed peritonealdissemination. She was diagnosed with Stage IV gastric cancer and treated with S-1 plus CDDP combination chemotherapy. After 4 courses of chemotherapy, the primary tumor and peritoneal dissemination were considered clinically stable, but the uterus grew rapidly. She was diagnosed as having uterine metastasis based on cervicaland endometrialsmear class V cytology. As the chemotherapy was not effective for the uterine lesions, totalhysterectomy and bilateralsal pingo-oophorectomy were performed. Histological findings showed a poorly differentiated cancer with vascular emboli. Uterine metastases are an important consideration in women with scirrhous gastric cancer, and we recommend palliative hysterectomy for chemotherapy-resistant metastases if the primary tumor and other metastases are controlled.

  10. Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuqi; Huang, Pingjie; Li, Xian; Ge, Weiting; Hou, Dibo; Zhang, Guangxin

    2018-02-01

    At present, many researchers are exploring biological tissue inspection using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) techniques. In this study, based on a modified hard modeling factor analysis method, terahertz spectral unmixing was applied to investigate the relationships between the absorption spectra in THz-TDS and certain biomarkers of gastric cancer in order to systematically identify gastric cancer. A probability distribution and box plot were used to extract the distinctive peaks that indicate carcinogenesis, and the corresponding weight distributions were used to discriminate the tissue types. The results of this work indicate that terahertz techniques have the potential to detect different levels of cancer, including benign tumors and polyps.

  11. Association of mast cell infiltration with gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bei; Li, Yu; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Dongsheng

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the expression of mast cells, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL-2) and C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in gastric cancer tumor tissue; and the association of mast cells with the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. In addition, whether the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-Kit pathway was associated with the secretion of CCL-2 by gastric cancer cells was explored. Flow cytometry analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to observe the relative number of mast cells, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were utilized to determine the expression of CCL-2 and CCR2 mRNA and protein. Following the co-culture of the mast cell line HMC-1 and the gastric cancer cell line BGC-823, a Transwell assay was used to validate the effect of mast cells on the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, Cell Counting kit-8 and dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent staining assays were performed to determine the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, following co-culture with mast cells. The expression of SCF and c-Kit were also determined with a western blot analysis. A specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, was used to test the effect of PI3K inhibition on the secretion of CCL-2 in gastric cancer. The results demonstrated that the proportion of infiltrating mast cells, and the mRNA/protein expression of CCL-2 and CCR2, were significantly increased in tumor tissue relative to adjacent tissues. In addition, the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells were significantly increased when mast cells were used as an attractant. When co-cultured with mast cells, the viability of gastric cancer cells was significantly increased and H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis was inhibited. In gastric cancer tissue samples, the expression of SCF, c-Kit and phosphorylated (p)-Akt protein were significantly

  12. Gastric cancer-related information on the Internet: incomplete, poorly accessible, and overly commercial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Shane

    2011-02-01

    Patients increasingly use the Internet for gastric cancer information. However, the quality of the information is questionable. We evaluated the accuracy, completeness, accessibility, reliability, and readability of gastric cancer websites.

  13. Histopathology of gastric cancer in Yemen: A seven years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is a major contributor to the global burden of cancer morbidity and mortality. It is the fourth most commonly occurring worldwide. Objective: To describe the general pattern of primary GC in Yemen and compare the findings of patients' age, sex, histological type and degree of differentiation to ...

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for stomach (gastric) cancer include certain health conditions (e.g., atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, H. pylori infection), genetic factors (e.g., Li-Fraumeni syndrome), or environmental factors (e.g., diet, smoking). Review the evidence on these and other risk factors and interventions to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  15. Gastric cancer : staging, treatment, and surgical quality assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Johannes Leen

    2012-01-01

    Research described in this thesis focuses on several aspects of gastric cancer care: staging and prognostication, multimodality treatment, and surgical quality assurance. PART I - STAGING AND PROGNOSTICATION Cancer staging is one of the fundamental activities in oncology.6,7 For over 50 years, the

  16. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    treatment of postmenopausal women with ERα+/HER2− locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential role of CDK inhibition in breast cancer treatment, and focus on palbociclib progress from preclinical studies to clinical trials with mentioning the most recent ongoing as well as planned Phase II and Phase III trials of palbociclib in advanced breast cancer.Keywords: cyclin-dependent kinases, cell cycle, metastatic breast cancer, PD0332991

  17. Knowledge about gastric cancer in Popayán, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Oveimar Muñoz-Ruiz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gastric cancer is the second major cause of death by malignance in the worldwide. In Colombia the department of Cauca has the major incidence rate of this disease. Objectives: To determine the degree of knowledge about main symptoms and the three principal causal factors of the gastric cancer. Moreover to determine the existence of promotion program about this disease in primary health care centers client users and workers in Popayan, Colombia, 2009-2010. Methods: In cross-section study, we interviewed 532 adults: 6 directors, 64 health workers and 462 client-users of 9 health service provider institutions of primary care. Results: 68% and 78 % of users and workers respectively know that gastric cancer is very frequent disease. The percentage of Users that know the main risk factors are: Helycobacter pylori infection (16%, excessive salt consumption (24%, food with high concentration of nitrosamines (0.3 %. We do not found significative difference by gender, age and socioeconomic status for knowledge of main symptoms of gastric cancer (p< 0.05. Conclusions: Gastric cancer is a disease that needs special attention within governmental efforts. Regardless illness has high incidence rate in the department, there is not a clear knowledge about it, in the risk population.

  18. GTPBP4 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression via Regulating P53 Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: gastric cancer is a serious health concern with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is urgent to find novel targets for gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods: qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect GTPBP4 expression in gastric cancer tissues, and gastric cancer and gastric epithelial cells. Lentivirus infection was used to construct GTPBP4 stable knockdown cells. Annexin V/PI apoptosis, CCK8, EdU incorporation and cell clone formation analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of GTPBP4 on gastric cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Further RNA-based high-throughput sequencing and co-IP assays were constructed to explore the related mechanisms contributing to GTPBP4-mediated effects. Results: GTPBP4 expression was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and positively correlated with gastric cancer stages. Meanwhile, GTPBP4 level was markedly upregulated in gastric cancer cells than in gastric epithelial cells. Additionaly, stable knockdown of GTPBP4 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, p53 and its related signaling were significantly activated in GTPBP4 stable knockdown cells. And GTPBP4 interacted with p53 in gastric cancer cells. Conclusions: our results provide insights into mechanistic regulation and linkage of the GTPBP4-p53 in gastric cancer, and also a valuable potential target for gastric cancer.

  19. Serum HER-2: Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for detecting metastatic recurrence in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Patricia Diana; Jakobsen, Erik Hugger; Madsen, Jonna Skov

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of serum HER-2 for detecting metastatic recurrence in breast cancer patients.......The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of serum HER-2 for detecting metastatic recurrence in breast cancer patients....

  20. MRI for discriminating metastatic ovarian tumors from primary epithelial ovarian cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanhong; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Zaixian; Zhang, Guixiang

    2015-01-01

    Aims To find specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features to differentiate metastatic ovarian tumors from primary epithelial ovarian cancers. Methods Eleven cases with metastatic ovarian tumors and 26 cases with primary malignant epithelial ovarian cancers were retrospectively studied. All features such as patient characteristics, MRI findings and biomarkers were evaluated. The differences including laterality, configuration, uniformity of locules, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signa...

  1. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3-1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential and the cancer progressed rapidly. We described a case of gastric cancer producing AFP and PIVKA-II in which chemotherapy was effective and resulted in prolonged survival, and these two tumor markers were useful for monitoring the treatment response. Routine health screening using upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatic tumors in an apparently healthy 65-year-old man. Whole-body computed tomography (CT revealed multiple hepatic tumors, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a Bormann type 3 tumor in the lower stomach. A biopsy specimen confirmed that the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for AFP, PIVKA-II, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. After chemotherapy, the gastric tumor appeared as a small elevated lesion on EGD, and CT revealed a remarkable reduction in the size of the metastatic liver tumors. The patient is still alive, 35 months after the initial chemotherapy.

  2. Stromal Gene Expression is Predictive for Metastatic Primary Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fan; Lin, Dong; Takhar, Mandeep; Ramnarine, Varune Rohan; Dong, Xin; Bell, Robert H; Volik, Stanislav V; Wang, Kendric; Xue, Hui; Wang, Yuwei; Haegert, Anne; Anderson, Shawn; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Erho, Nicholas; Wang, Xinya; Gout, Peter W; Morris, James; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Den, Robert B; Klein, Eric A; Schaeffer, Edward M; Ross, Ashley; Ren, Shancheng; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Li, Yingrui; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Gleave, Martin E; Davicioni, Elai; Sun, Yinghao; Wang, Yuzhuo; Collins, Colin C

    2018-04-01

    Clinical grading systems using clinical features alongside nomograms lack precision in guiding treatment decisions in prostate cancer (PCa). There is a critical need for identification of biomarkers that can more accurately stratify patients with primary PCa. To identify a robust prognostic signature to better distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). To develop the signature, whole-genome and whole-transcriptome sequencing was conducted on five PCa patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models collected from independent foci of a single primary tumor and exhibiting variable metastatic phenotypes. Multiple independent clinical cohorts including an intermediate-risk cohort were used to validate the biomarkers. The outcome measurement defining aggressive PCa was metastasis following radical prostatectomy. A generalized linear model with lasso regularization was used to build a 93-gene stroma-derived metastasis signature (SDMS). The SDMS association with metastasis was assessed using a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Performance was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) for the receiver operating characteristic, and Kaplan-Meier curves. Univariable and multivariable regression models were used to compare the SDMS alongside clinicopathological variables and reported signatures. AUC was assessed to determine if SDMS is additive or synergistic to previously reported signatures. A close association between stromal gene expression and metastatic phenotype was observed. Accordingly, the SDMS was modeled and validated in multiple independent clinical cohorts. Patients with higher SDMS scores were found to have worse prognosis. Furthermore, SDMS was an independent prognostic factor, can stratify risk in intermediate-risk PCa, and can improve the performance of other previously reported signatures. Profiling of stromal gene expression led to development of an SDMS that was validated as independently prognostic for the metastatic potential of prostate tumors. Our

  3. Gastric and Endobronchial Metastases in a Case of Lobular Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Fernandes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC is the second most common histological type of invasive breast carcinoma, preceded only by infiltrating ductal carcinoma, which has clinical, biological and molecular distinctions. These distinctions imply a different metastatic behavior between the histology of these 2 types of breast cancer. Case Presentation: We report the case of a 51-year-old woman with breast cancer with ILC histology, diagnosed at an early stage. In the course of her disease, recurrences in the gastric mucosa and endobronchial area occurred. The treatment she received is described herein. Conclusion: This is a case of ILC with unusual metastases. The absence of E-cadherin is related to the carcinogenesis of ILC and probably to these patterns of metastasis as well.

  4. Prevalence of gastric cancer precursor lesions in patients with dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aygün

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Southeastern cities of Turkey, high prevalencesof Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancerare seen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencyof the precancerous gastric lesions in patientswith dyspeptic symptoms who underwent upper gastrointestinalendoscopy in Adıyaman State Hospital.Materials and methods: We analyzed gastric biopsiestaken from corpus and antrum of 234 consecutive patientswho underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopybetween January 2009 and May 2009. According to Sydneysystem, chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy, intestinalmetaplasia and dysplasia were diagnosed by histologicalexamination.Results: The mean age of patients was 46±15 (16- 82years. Helicobacter pylori infection was seen in 66.7% ofpatients. Normal mucosa, chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy,intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were diagnosedin 2.7%, 78.6%, 3.4%, 11.5% and 3.8% of gastric biopsyspecimens, respectively. Helicobacter pylori infected patientsshowed a significantly higher prevalence of intestinalmetaplasia compared with that of the non infectedsubjects (9.8% vs 1.7% p=0.021. Although prevalenceof gastric atrophy and dysplasia were higher among Helicobacterpylori infected patients, the difference did notreached to a statistically significant level (3.0% vs 0.4%p=0.19 and 3.0% vs 0.8% p=0.37 respectively.Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the prevalenceof gastric precancerous lesions such as gastric atrophy,intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and Helicobacter pyloriinfection were high in dyspeptic patients. This may be relatedto actual high incidence of gastric cancer in southeasternregion of Turkey.

  5. Metastatic Progression of Breast Cancer by Allelic Loss on Chromosome 18q21

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiagalingam, Sam

    2004-01-01

    ... and VEGF in breast cancer. Additionally, our preliminary data also provides evidence for the synergistic activation of pro-angiogenic/ metastatic effects by TGFbeta in the presence of defective SMAD4 in breast cancer...

  6. Usefulness of preoperative PET/CT in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, E. J.; Choi, W. H.; Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Shon, H. S.; Jeong, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    PET/CT scan has been shown to effectively detect various types of cancer with increased glucose metabolism. In recent years, there were a few reports that examine the value of preoperative PET/CT scan in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of peak standard uptake values of cancer in PET/CT scan and immunohistochemical markers and clinicopathological parameters. Fifty-five patients with gastric cancer, who were performed preoperative PET/CT scans and gastrectomy were evaluated retrospectively. In PET/CT images, pSUV of gastric cancer were recorded. The expression levels of p53, C-erbB-2, COX-2, EGFR, and Cathepsin D in gastric tissues were examined immunohistochemically. Also, the clinicopathological parameters such as tumor size, differentiation, Lauren classification, and depth of invasion were analyzed. Forty-six patients had positive finding on PET/CT. In the histological results, 39 were adenocarcinoma, 3 were signet ring cell carcinoma, and 4 were mixed. The percentages of positive expression of p53, C-erbB-2, COX-2, EGFR, and Cathepsin D were 39, 9, 41, 2, and 59%. Of these, only Cathepsin D was related with increased pSUV in univariated analysis. Of clinicopathological parameters, depth of invasion was related with increased pSUV in univariated analysis. Most of studies have been reported that high Cathepsin D level in gastric cancer have a high probability of relapse as well as worse survival and depth of invasion is independent poor prognostic factor. Thus, increased pSUV in gastric cancer may predict poor prognosis

  7. Usefulness of preoperative PET/CT in gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, E. J.; Choi, W. H.; Jeong, Y. A.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Shon, H. S.; Jeong, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    PET/CT scan has been shown to effectively detect various types of cancer with increased glucose metabolism. In recent years, there were a few reports that examine the value of preoperative PET/CT scan in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of peak standard uptake values of cancer in PET/CT scan and immunohistochemical markers and clinicopathological parameters. Fifty-five patients with gastric cancer, who were performed preoperative PET/CT scans and gastrectomy were evaluated retrospectively. In PET/CT images, pSUV of gastric cancer were recorded. The expression levels of p53, C-erbB-2, COX-2, EGFR, and Cathepsin D in gastric tissues were examined immunohistochemically. Also, the clinicopathological parameters such as tumor size, differentiation, Lauren classification, and depth of invasion were analyzed. Forty-six patients had positive finding on PET/CT. In the histological results, 39 were adenocarcinoma, 3 were signet ring cell carcinoma, and 4 were mixed. The percentages of positive expression of p53, C-erbB-2, COX-2, EGFR, and Cathepsin D were 39, 9, 41, 2, and 59%. Of these, only Cathepsin D was related with increased pSUV in univariated analysis. Of clinicopathological parameters, depth of invasion was related with increased pSUV in univariated analysis. Most of studies have been reported that high Cathepsin D level in gastric cancer have a high probability of relapse as well as worse survival and depth of invasion is independent poor prognostic factor. Thus, increased pSUV in gastric cancer may predict poor prognosis.

  8. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anthony; McNamara, Deirdre; O'Moráin, Colm A

    2013-09-23

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a recognised premalignant condition of the stomach. It has been described as occurring in up to one in five patients in western countries. Although there is a definite risk of progression from GIM to cancer, published guidelines and statements differ as to the utility and structure of surveillance programs for this condition. To see whether or not endoscopic or biochemical surveillance of patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) could result in increased detection of dysplasia and early gastric cancer to decrease gastric cancer mortality. We performed a search of the following electronic databases from inception to October 2012: CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and LILACS. We handsearched for abstracts from relevant conferences. Randomised controlled trials only were included. No studies met the inclusion criteria. No studies met the inclusion criteria. There is a lack of randomised data on the utility of surveillance of GIM. The observational data from non-randomised studies are discussed and would suggest that although a randomised trial would be a desirable undertaking to attain the highest grade of clinical evidence, given the ethical and acceptability issues involved, further non-randomised clinical studies focussing on surveillance protocols and the role of Helicobacter pylori eradication may be a more pragmatic means of addressing the core clinical question.

  9. A synergistic interaction between transcription factors nuclear factor-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jiyeon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB has been implicated in gastric cancer metastasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of the interaction between NF-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3 in controlling metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells. Methods Immunohistochemistry for NF-κB p65 (RelA, phospho-Tyr705-STAT3 (pSTAT3, or matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 was performed on tissue array slides containing 255 gastric carcinoma specimens. NF-κB inhibition in SNU-638 and MKN1 gastric cancer cell lines were performed by transduction with a retroviral vector containing NF-κB repressor mutant of IκBα, and STAT3 was silenced by RNA interference. We also did luciferase reporter assay, double immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. Cell migration and invasion were determined by wound-healing assay and invasion assay, respectively. Results NF-κB and STAT3 were constitutively activated and were positively correlated (P = 0.038 in gastric cancer tissue specimens. In cell culture experiments, NF-κB inhibition reduced STAT3 expression and activation, whereas STAT3 silencing did not affect NF-κB activation. Moreover, both NF-κB inhibition and STAT3 silencing decreased gastric cancer cell migration and invasion in a synergistic manner. In addition, both NF-κB activation and STAT3 activation were positively correlated with MMP9 in gastric cancer tissues (P = 0.001 and P = 0.022, respectively, decreased E-cadherin expression and increased Snail and MMP9 expressions in cultured cells. Conclusion NF-κB and STAT3 are positively associated and synergistically contribute to the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells. Thus, dual use of NF-κB and STAT3 inhibitors may enhance the efficacy of the anti-metastatic treatment of gastric cancer.

  10. Association between pepsinogen C gene polymorphism and genetic predisposition to gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Ming; Wang, Lan; Yuan, Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To identify a molecular marker for gastric cancer, and to investigate the relationship between the polymorphism of pepsinogen C (PGC) gene and the genetic predisposition to gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 289 cases were involved in this study. 115 cases came from Shenyang area, a low risk area of gastric cancer, including 42 unrelated controls and 73 patients with gastric cancer. 174 cases came from Zhuanghe area, a high-risk area of gastric cancer, including 113 unrelated controls, and 61 cases from gastric cancer kindred families. The polymorphism of PGC gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the relation between the genetic polymorphism of PGC and gastric cancer was examined. RESULTS: Four alleles, 310 bp (allele 1), 400 bp (allele 2), 450 bp (allele 3), and 480 bp (allele 4) were detected by PCR. The frequency of allele 1 was higher in patients with gastric cancer than that in controls. Genotypes containing homogenous allele 1 were significantly more frequent in patients with gastric cancer than that in controls (0.33, 0.14, χ2 = 3.86, P genetic predisposition to gastric cancer. The distribution of pepsinogen C gene polymorphism in Zhuanghe, a high-risk area of gastric cancer, is different from that in Shenyang, a low risk area of gastric cancer. PMID:12508350

  11. Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in

  12. Radical Gastrectomy Combined with Modified Gastric Bypass Surgery for Gastric Cancer Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xie, Guang-Wei; Tian, Qing-Zhong; Li, Jin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the effectiveness of radical gastrectomy with modified gastric bypass surgery in treating gastric cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 93 patients with gastric cancer and T2DM were treated in our hospital and enrolled in this study. Patients in group A (n = 30) had a body mass index (BMI) of >28 kg/m(2). Radical total gastrectomy and modified esophagojejunal Roux-en-y anastomosis were performed on 13 patients, and radical distal subtotal gastrectomy and gastric remnant jejunal Roux-en-y anastomosis were performed on 17 patients. The data from groups B, C, and D were derived from 63 patients with gastric cancer and diabetes who were admitted to our hospital from January 2005 to July 2012. All patients underwent radical gastrectomy (including 21 cases of gastric cancer surgery with Billroth I anastomosis, 25 cases of radical gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis and BMI >28 kg/m(2), and 17 cases with BMI PBG), C-peptide (C-P), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAIC) data were collected before and 6 and 12 months after surgery. In groups A and D, BMI, FBG, 2 h PBG, C-P, and HbAIC at the 6th and 12th post-operative months were significantly lower than those before the surgery. In group B, BMI, FBG, 2 h PBG, C-P, and HbAIC at the 6th and 12th post-operative months did not decrease significantly, when compared with the pre-operative levels. In group C, BMI, FBG, 2 h PBG, C-P, and HbAIC at the 6th and 12th post-operative months decreased but showed no statistical significance. However, in comparison, groups A C showed significant differences after the surgeries. Radical gastrectomy combined with modified gastric bypass surgery is effective in treating patients with gastric cancer with type 2 diabetes, although this requires further investigation.

  13. Gastric Cancer (Biomarkers Knowledgebase (GCBKB: A Curated and Fully Integrated Knowledgebase of Putative Biomarkers Related to Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernett T.K. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gastric Cancer (Biomarkers Knowledgebase (GCBKB (http://biomarkers.bii.a-star.edu.sg/background/gastricCancerBiomarkersKb.php is a curated and fully integrated knowledgebase that provides data relating to putative biomarkers that may be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer. It is freely available to all users. The data contained in the knowledgebase was derived from a large literature source and the putative biomarkers therein have been annotated with data from the public domain. The knowledgebase is maintained by a curation team who update the data from a defined source. As well as mining data from the literature, the knowledgebase will also be populated with unpublished experimental data from investigators working in the gastric cancer biomarker discovery field. Users can perform searches to identify potential markers defined by experiment type, tissue type and disease state. Search results may be saved, manipulated and retrieved at a later date. As far as the authors are aware this is the first open access database dedicated to the discovery and investigation of gastric cancer biomarkers.

  14. Expression of claudin-11, -23 in different gastric tissues and its relationship with the risk and prognosis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Youzhu; Jing, Jingjing; Sun, Liping; Gong, Yuehua; Chen, Moye; Wang, Zeyang; Sun, Mingjun; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Claudins play an important role in regulating the permeability of epithelial and endothelial cells and in the maintenance of cell polarity. We aimed to investigate expression of claudin-11, -23 in different gastric tissues and its relationship with clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of gastric cancer. We compared their expression levels in the paired cancerous tissues versus those in the adjacent noncancerous tissues by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of claudin-11, -23 was greatly increased in paracancerous gastric tissue compared with cancerous tissue. We also compared their expression levels of tissues from gastric cancer, superficial gastritis, and atrophic gastritis by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the expression of claudin-11 and 23 was significantly higher in superficial gastritis than that in atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. The expression of claudin-23 was significantly lower in atrophic gastritis than that in gastric cancer, but no obviously difference was observed for claudin-11. As for analysis of clinicopathologic parameters of gastric cancer, logistic multiple regression indicated that claudin-11 was significantly associated with sex, smoking, alcohol, H. pylori infection and Borrmann classification while claudin-23 was significantly associated with vessel cancer embolus. Cox multivariate survival analysis indicated that gastric cancer patients with negative claudin-23 expression had significantly longer overall survival. In conclusion, the expression of claudin-11, -23 was remarkably downregulated in gastric cancer. Abnormal expression of these proteins was significantly correlated with some clinicopathologic parameters. In particular, claudin-23 positive expression was associated with poor prognostic outcomes of gastric cancer patients and may therefore serve as an independent prognosticator of patient survival.

  15. Radical prostatectomy for locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeratterapillay, R; Goonewardene, S S; Barclay, J; Persad, R; Bach, C

    2017-04-01

    The management of advanced prostate cancer remains challenging. Traditionally, radical prostatectomy was discouraged in patients with locally advanced or node positive disease owing to the increased complication rate and treatment related morbidity. However, technical advances and refinements in surgical techniques have enabled the outcomes for patients with high risk prostate cancer to be improved. More recently, the concept of cytoreductive prostatectomy has been described where surgery (often Combined with an extended lymph node dissection) is performed in the setting of metastatic disease. Indirect evidence suggests an advantage using the cytoreductive approach. Hypothetical explanations for this observed benefit include decreased tumour burden, immune modulation, improved response to secondary treatment and avoidance of secondary complications attributable to local tumour growth. Nevertheless, prospective trials are required to investigate this further.

  16. Totally Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer Associated with Recklinghausen's Disease

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    Yoshihisa Sakaguchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the first case of gastric cancer associated with Recklinghausen's disease, which was successfully treated by a totally laparoscopic operation. A 67-year-old woman with Recklinghausen's disease was referred to this department to undergo surgical treatment for early gastric cancer. The physical examination showed multiple cutaneous neurofibromas throughout the body surface, which made an upper abdominal incision impossible. Laparoscopic surgery requiring only small incisions was well indicated, and a totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Billroth I reconstruction was done intra-abdominally using a delta-shaped anastomosis. The patient followed a satisfactory postoperative course with no complications. Since the totally laparoscopic gastrectomy has many advantages over open surgery, it should therefore be preferentially used as a less invasive treatment in the field of gastric cancer.

  17. Potential role of rilotumumab in the treatment of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Tom; Moorcraft, Sing Yu; Cunningham, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, outcomes for patients with advanced gastric cancer remain extremely poor with a high level of unmet need regarding effective therapeutic options. However, recent years have seen increasing interest in the role of the MET signaling pathway in this disease subtype, leading to the development and evaluation of MET-targeted therapeutics. Rilotumumab is a monoclonal antibody directed against hepatocyte growth factor, the only known ligand for the MET receptor. It is an unlicensed product which is currently undergoing evaluation in a randomized Phase III trial in 'MET-positive' gastric cancer. Here we discuss the background to the treatment of gastric cancer as well as the characteristics of rilotumumab and reported results with this agent in the trials performed to date.

  18. Surveillance of gastric intestinal metaplasia for the prevention of gastric cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is the second leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a recognised premalignant condition of the stomach. It has been described as occurring in up to one in five patients in western countries. Although there is a definite risk of progression from GIM to cancer, published guidelines and statements differ as to the utility and structure of surveillance programs for this condition.

  19. Unsupported off-label chemotherapy in metastatic colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Jonas A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newer systemic therapies have the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality from metastatic colorectal cancer, yet such therapies are costly and have side effects. Little is known about their non-evidence-based use. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using commercial insurance claims from UnitedHealthcare, and identified incident cases of metastatic colon cancer (mCC from July 2007 through April 2010. We evaluated the use of three regimens with recommendations against their use in the National Comprehensive Cancer Center Network Guidelines, a commonly used standard of care: 1 bevacizumab beyond progression; 2 single agent capecitabine as a salvage therapy after failure on a fluoropyridimidine-containing regimen; 3 panitumumab or cetuximab after progression on a prior epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. We performed sensitivity analyses of key assumptions regarding cohort selection. Costs from a payer perspective were estimated using the average sales price for the entire duration and based on the number of claims. Results A total of 7642 patients with incident colon cancer were identified, of which 1041 (14% had mCC. Of those, 139 (13% potentially received at least one of the three unsupported off-label (UOL therapies; capecitabine was administered to 121 patients and 49 (40% likely received it outside of clinical guidelines, at an estimated cost of $718,000 for 218 claims. Thirty-eight patients received panitumumab and six patients (16% received it after being on cetuximab at least two months, at an estimated cost of $69,500 for 19 claims. Bevacizumab was administered to 884 patients. Of those, 90 (10% patients received it outside of clinical guidelines, at an estimated costs of $1.34 million for 636 claims. Conclusions In a large privately insured mCC cohort, a substantial number of patients potentially received UOL treatment. The economic costs and treatment toxicities of these therapies warrant

  20. The remarkable geographical pattern of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Oleas, Nadia; Núñez-González, Solange; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    This study was aimed to describe the gastric cancer mortality trend, and to analyze the spatial distribution of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015. Data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) database. Crude gastric cancer mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and indirect standardized mortality rates (ISMRs) were calculated per 100,000 persons. For time trend analysis, joinpoint regression was used. The annual percentage rate change (APC) and the average annual percent change (AAPC) was computed for each province. Spatial age-adjusted analysis was used to detect high risk clusters of gastric cancer mortality, from 2010 to 2015, using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics. In Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015, gastric cancer caused a total of 19,115 deaths: 10,679 in men and 8436 in women. When crude rates were analyzed, a significant decline was detected (AAPC: -1.8%; p<0.001). ISMR also decreased, but this change was not statistically significant (APC: -0.53%; p=0.36). From 2004 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2011 the province with the highest ISMR was Carchi; and, from 2012 to 2015, was Cotopaxi. The most likely high occurrence cluster included Bolívar, Los Ríos, Chimborazo, Tungurahua, and Cotopaxi provinces, with a relative risk of 1.34 (p<0.001). There is a substantial geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality rates among Ecuadorian provinces. The spatial analysis indicates the presence of high occurrence clusters throughout the Andes Mountains. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Alterations in Gastric Cancer Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Castillo-Rojas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a world health problem and depicts the fourth leading mortality cause from malignancy in Mexico. Causation of gastric cancer is not only due to the combined effects of environmental factors and genetic variants. Recent molecular studies have transgressed a number of genes involved in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this review is to understand the recent basics of gene expression in the development of the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants, polymorphisms, desoxyribonucleic acid methylation, and genes involved in mediating inflammation have been associated with the development of gastric carcinogenesis. Recently, these genes (interleukin 10, Il-17, mucin 1, β-catenin, CDX1, SMAD4, SERPINE1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 subunit alpha, GSK3β, CDH17, matrix metalloproteinase 7, RUNX3, RASSF1A, TFF1, HAI-2, and COX-2 have been studied in association with oncogenic activation or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. All these mechanisms have been investigated to elucidate the process of gastric carcinogenesis, as well as their potential use as biomarkers and/or molecular targets to treatment of disease.

  2. Incidence of Gastric Cancer in Marrakech and Casablanca, Morocco

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    Brittney L. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer globally with over 70% of new cases occurring in developing countries. In Morocco, oncologists in Marrakech suspected higher frequency of gastric cancer compared to Casablanca, a city 150 kilometers away. This study calculated age-specific, sex-specific, and total incidence rates of gastric cancer in Marrakech and was compared to the Casablanca population-based cancer registry. Using medical records from Center Hospital University Mohammad VI and reports from 4 main private pathology laboratories in Marrakech, we identified 774 patients for the period 2008–2012. Comparison of rates showed higher age-specific incidence in Marrakech in nearly all age groups for both genders. A higher total incidence in Marrakech than in Casablanca was found with rates of 5.50 and 3.23 per 100,000, respectively. Incidence was significantly higher among males in Marrakech than males in Casablanca (7.19 and 3.91 per 100,000, resp. and females in Marrakech compared to females in Casablanca (3.87 and 2.58 per 100,000, resp.. Future studies should address possible underestimation of gastric cancer in Marrakech, estimate incidence in other regions of Morocco, and investigate possible risk factors to explain the difference in rates.

  3. A study on the cellular stromal reaction and immunologic response of regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyokoh, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to find a correlation between background factors and prognosis, cellular stromal reaction and PHA blastformation in the regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer were investigated in a total of 234 cases with advanced gastric cancer consisting of 104 patients who had undergone preoperative radiaiton therapy and 130 non-irradiated patients. The following results were obtained: 1) Interstitial matrix and fibrotic components around the gastric cancer cells proliferate. In addition, cellular components consisting mainly of lymphocytes appear in varied degrees. 2) In both non-irradiated and irradiated groups, there was no remarkable difference in the cellular stromal reaction among any major cancer sites. 3) In non-irradiated patients, no correlation existed between tumor diameters and cellular stromal reaction, while, in the irradiated cases, there were increases in the cellular stromal reaction where the tumor size is 5 cm or less. 4) In both non-irradiated and irradiated groups, cellular stromal reaction was more remarkable in highly differentiated carcinoma. 5) There were decreases in the cellular stromal reaction in ps(+) cases, of both non-irradiated and irradiated groups. 6) The cellular stromal reaction was remarkable in non-irradiated and irradiated patients who were found to be histologically negative in lymph node metastasis. 7) With the advance in staging, the cellular stromal reaction decreased in both irradiated and non-irradiated patients. 8) In both non-irradiated and irradiated groups, the cellular stromal reaction decreased in the patients who had shown vascular invasion. 9) PHA blastformation of the lymphocytes in lymph nodes of non-metastatic cases was more remarkable than that of metastatic cases, retaining high degrees of immunity. 10) In the non-metastatic patients in the lymph nodes outside the irradiated area, the lymphocytes in the lymph nodes demonstrated high degrees of PHA blastformation. (J.P.N.)

  4. High levels of aromatic amino acids in gastric juice during the early stages of gastric cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early-stage gastric cancer is mostly asymptomatic and can easily be missed easily by conventional gastroscopy. Currently, there are no useful biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer, and their identification of biomarkers is urgently needed. METHODS: Gastric juice was obtained from 185 subjects that were divided into three groups: non-neoplastic gastric disease (NGD, advanced gastric cancer and early gastric cancer (EGC. The levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were quantitated using high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The median values (25th to 75th percentile of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were 3.8 (1.7-7.5 µg/ml, 5.3 (2.3-9.9 µg/ml and 1.0 (0.4-2.8 µg/ml in NGD; 19.4 (5.8-72.4 µg/ml, 24.6 (11.5-73.7 µg/ml and 8.3 (2.1-28.0 µg/ml in EGC. Higher levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice were observed in individuals of EGC groups compared those of the NGD group (NGD vs. EGC, P<0.0001. For the detection of EGC, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs of each biomarker were as follows: tyrosine, 0.790 [95% confidence interval (CI, 0.703-0.877]; phenylalanine, 0.831 (95% CI, 0.750-0.911; and tryptophan, 0.819 (95% CI, 0.739-0.900. The sensitivity and specificity of phenylalanine were 75.5% and 81.4%, respectively, for detection of EGC. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high levels of aromatic amino acids in the gastric juice were associated with gastric cancer (adjusted β coefficients ranged from 1.801 to 4.414, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in the gastric juice samples were detected in the early phase of gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan in gastric juice could be used as biomarkers for the early detection of gastric cancer. A gastric juice analysis is an efficient, economical and convenient method for

  5. [Nodular gastritis and gastric cancer in young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Nodular gastritis is a popular endoscopic gastritis in H. pylori-positive children and young adults. The endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis were mainly characterized by a unique, small granulated pattern in the antrum of the stomach. The cases of gastric cancer with nodular gastritis showed the same characteristics: all were diagnosed histologically as the diffuse-type and were located in the corpus with H. pylori infection. We recommended that endoscopists should carefully examine not only the antrum but also the corpus in patients with nodular gastritis, and H. pylori should be eradicated as soon as possible to prevent gastric cancer.

  6. New Perspectives in the Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahlberg, Rolf; Lorenzen, Sylvie; Thuss-Patience, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oral fluoropyrimidines have been available for more than 10 years. Capecitabine is well established in treating solid tumors in Europe. S-1 (Teysuno®), an oral formulation containing the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prodrug tegafur and the two enzyme modulators gimeracil and oteracil, has not been...... differences in Asian and Caucasian patients; therefore, a new non-Asian study program was initiated, which led to the pivotal phase 3 trial First-Line Advanced Gastric Cancer Study (FLAGS). In FLAGS, 1,053 patients with advanced gastric cancer from 24 non-Asian countries were enrolled. S-1 plus cisplatin...

  7. Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Bo; Weng, Hong; Zhou, Meng; Duan, Xiao-Li; Shen, Xian-Feng; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer risk remains controversial. Hence, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate and quantify the potential dose–response association between long-term coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase from January 1996 through February 10, 2015 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved publications. Prospective cohort studies in which authors reported effect sizes and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of gastric cancer for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from eligible studies were aggregated using a random effect model. All analyses were carried out using the STATA 12.0 software. Nine studies involving 15 independent prospective cohorts were finally included. A total of 2019 incident cases of gastric cancer were ascertained among 1,289,314 participants with mean follow-up periods ranging from 8 to 18 years. No nonlinear relationship of coffee consumption with gastric cancer risk was indentified (P for nonlinearity = 0.53; P for heterogeneity = 0.004). The linear regression model showed that the combined relative risk (RR) of every 3 cups/day increment of total coffee consumption was 1.07 (95% CI = 0.95–1.21). Compared with the lowest category of coffee consumption, the RR of gastric cancer was 1.18 (95% CI = 0.90–1.55) for the highest (median 6.5 cups/day) category, 1.06 (95% CI = 0.85–1.32) for the second highest category (median 3.5 cups/day), and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.79–1.20) for the third highest category (median 1.5 cups/day). Subgroup analysis showed an elevated risk in the US population (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.75) and no adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.08–2.59) for 6.5 cups/day. Current evidence indicated there was no nonlinear association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer risk. However, high

  8. An Anticancer Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

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    Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S can be synthesized in mammalian cells by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE and/or cystathionine β-synthase (CBS. Both CSE and CBS are expressed in rat gastric tissues but their role in human gastric neoplasia has been unclear. The aims of the present study were to detect CSE and CBS proteins in human gastric cancer and determine the effect of exogenous NaHS on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. We found that both CSE and CBS proteins were expressed in human gastric cancer cells and upregulated in human gastric carcinoma mucosa compared with those in noncancerous gastric samples. NaHS induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by regulating apoptosis related proteins. Also, NaHS inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. An antigastric cancer role of H2S is thus indicated.

  9. Gastric cancer metastasis mimicking primary lung cancer - case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Ledesma, Jorge Alberto; Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Delle; Liu, Cristhian Bau; Reis Filho, Jorge Sergio; Oliveira Filho, Adilson Gil; Ferri, Mauricio Beller; Hossaka, Marco Aurelio

    2002-01-01

    Gastric cancer frequently presents intraperitoneal spread. Distant metastasis are rare. The authors describe a case of a 47-year-old white man, long-term cigarette smoker, who had a right upper lobe mass seen on plain films and computed tomography of the chest. A gastric adenocarcinoma was concomitantly diagnosed by endoscopic examination. A bronchoscopy guided biopsy showed that the lung mass was in fact a metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma. In this article, the imaging findings of gastric cancer and the patterns of dissemination to other organs are reviewed. (author)

  10. Australian contemporary management of synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Phillip; Gibbs, Peter; Shapiro, Jeremy; Sockler, Jim; Bell, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines the current Australian multidisciplinary treatment of synchronous metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and assesses the factors that influence patient outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of the prospective 'Treatment of Recurrent and Advanced Colorectal Cancer' registry, describing the patient treatment pathway and documenting the extent of disease, resection of the colorectal primary and metastases, chemotherapy and biological therapy use. Cox regression models for progression-free and overall survival were constructed with a comprehensive set of clinical variables. Analysis was intentionn-ton-treat, quantifying the effect of treatment intent decided at the multidisciplinary team meeting (MDT). One thousand one hundred and nine patients presented with synchronous metastatic disease between July 2009 and November 2015. Median follow-up was 15.8 months; 4.4% (group 1) had already curative resections of primary and metastases prior to MDT, 22.2% (group 2) were considered curative but were referred to MDT for opinion and/or medical oncology treatment prior to resection and 70.2% were considered palliative at MDT (group 3). Overall, 83% received chemotherapy, 55% had their primary resected and 23% had their metastases resected; 13% of resections were synchronous, 20% were staged with primary resected first and 62% had only the colorectal primary managed surgically. Performance status, metastasis resection (R0 versus R1 versus R2 versus no resection), resection of the colorectal primary and treatment intent determined at MDT were the most significant factors for progression-free and overall survival. This is the largest Australian series of synchronous metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and offers insight into the nature and utility of contemporary practice. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Metastatic carcinoma of the urinary bladder in a 67-year-old female with underlying triple primary cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Hung

    2016-06-01

    A 67-year-old Taiwanese female presented to our institution in November 1997 with gastric signet ring cell carcinoma, pT2N0M0, status post subtotal gastrectomy. In February 2003 she was diagnosed with left breast invasive lobular carcinoma status post modified radical mastectomy, pT2N2M0. Further examination in January 2005 revealed proximal transverse colon cancer, Dukes' C2, with status post right hemicolectomy. She achieved disease-free status from all three malignancies after surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for breast and colon cancers sequentially. In November 2011, she complained about sudden onset of gross hematuria for several days. Diagnostic cystoscopy showed a mass lesion over her urinary bladder. Cystoscope-assisted biopsy showed metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring appearance. Herein we have discussed the pathologic role in the diagnosis of metastatic tumor involving a patient with multiple primary cancers. We also explored the epidemiologic risk and potential causal mechanism of patients with multiple primary cancers.

  12. CXCL5 overexpression is associated with late stage gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Kyung Hwa; Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Myoung Hwan; Lee, Ji-Eun; Gang, Jingu; Koh, Sang Seok; Song, Si Young

    2007-11-01

    Chemokines play multiple roles in the development and progression of many different tumors. Our cDNA array data suggested that chemokine CXCL5 was upregulated in gastric cancer. Here, we analyzed CXCL5 protein expression in gastric cancer and investigated the clinical implications of CXCL5 upregulation. Immunostaining for CXCL5 was performed on gastric tissue microarrays of tissue specimens obtained by gastrectomy. The intensity of immunostaining in tumor tissue was considered strong when tumor tissue staining was more intense than in normal tissue; the intensity was null when staining was weaker in the tumor than in normal tissue; and the intensity was weak when staining was similar in both tissues. Serum CXCL5 levels and microvascular density in tumor tissue were measured by ELISA and monoclonal antibody to Factor VIII. Strong CXCL5 expression correlated with tumor stage. CXCL5 expression did not correlate with T stage. However, N stage positively correlated with CXCL5 expression. Serum CXCL5 levels in late stage (IIIB, IV) gastric cancer patients were higher than in patients with benign conditions. Microvascular density was higher in tumors with strong CXCL5 expression, but the correlation with CXCL5 was not linear. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that, compared to no or weak expression, strong expression of CXCL5 was a significant risk factor for high N stage (N2, N3). CXCL5 overexpression was associated with late stage gastric cancer and high N stage. These results suggest a role for CXCL5 in the progression of gastric cancer, specifically in lymph node metastasis.

  13. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1 Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS damage. (2 Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3 Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4 Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8 and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  14. Advances in Understanding How Heavy Metal Pollution Triggers Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenzhen; Yang, Ning; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    With the development of industrialization and urbanization, heavy metals contamination has become a major environmental problem. Numerous investigations have revealed an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. The mechanisms of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic) contamination leading to gastric cancer are concluded in this review. There are four main potential mechanisms: (1) Heavy metals disrupt the gastric mucosal barrier by decreasing mucosal thickness, mucus content, and basal acid output, thereby affecting the function of E-cadherin and inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage. (2) Heavy metals directly or indirectly induce ROS generation and cause gastric mucosal and DNA lesions, which subsequently alter gene regulation, signal transduction, and cell growth, ultimately leading to carcinogenesis. Exposure to heavy metals also enhances gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (3) Heavy metals inhibit DNA damage repair or cause inefficient lesion repair. (4) Heavy metals may induce other gene abnormalities. In addition, heavy metals can induce the expression of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) and microRNAs, which promotes tumorigenesis. The present review is an effort to underline the human health problem caused by heavy metal with recent development in order to garner a broader perspective.

  15. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, Mark F; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion. (paper)

  16. The correlation between pre-operative serum tumor markers and lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer patients undergoing curative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangxuan; Li, Shixia; Wei, Lijuan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Juntian

    2013-11-01

    There was few study concentrated on the correlation between the evaluated tumor markers and lymph node metastasis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between the CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and the lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer and assess the prognostic value of them in different N stage patients. We analyzed the correlation between serum level of CA724, CA242, CA199, CEA and lymph node metastasis in 1501 gastric cancer patients. Lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer was related with tumor location, Bormann type, tumor size, histological type, depth of invasion and TNM stage (p CEA were positively correlated with the metastatic lymph node counts and the N stage (p tumor markers were higher (p tumor markers, the positive rates of tumor markers combination were higher. The combination of CA724 + CA242 + CA199 + CEA had highest positive rate. The higher CEA level related to N1 stage patients while higher CA199 was related with poor prognosis for N1 stage patients. For N0 and N2 stage patients, evaluation of CA724 indicated poorer prognosis. For N1 and N2 stage gastric patients, the patients with increased CA242 inclined to have shorter survival time. The tumor makers CA724, CA242, CA199 and CEA were evaluated significantly in the gastric patients with later N stage. The combination of these four tumor markers maybe prefer diagnostic index of gastric cancer and its lymph node metastasis. These tumor markers can be a possible indicator of poorer prognosis in different N stage patients.

  17. STUDY ON ADHERENCE TO CAPECITABINE AMONG PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER AND METASTATIC BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel Goes de FIGUEIREDO JUNIOR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Capecitabine, an oral drug, is as effective as traditional chemotherapy drugs. Objectives To investigate the adhesion to treatment with oral capecitabine in breast and colorectal cancer, and to determine any correlation with changes in patient’s quality of life. Methods Patients with colorectal cancer or breast cancer using capecitabine were included. The patients were asked to bring any medication left at the time of scheduled visits. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire was applied at the first visit and 8-12 weeks after treatment. Results Thirty patients were evaluated. Adherence was 88.3% for metastatic colon cancer, 90.4% for non-metastatic colon cancer, 94.3% for rectal cancer and 96.2% for metastatic breast cancer. No strong correlation between adherence and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 functional or symptom scale rates had been found. There was no statistically significant correlation between compliance and the functional and symptom scales of the questionnaire before and after chemotherapy, with the exception of dyspnea. Conclusions Although no absolute adherence to oral capecitabine treatment had been observed, the level of adherence was good. Health professionals therefore need a greater focus in the monitoring the involvement of patients with oral treatment regimens. Patients with lesser degrees of dyspnea had greater compliance.

  18. Discovery of tumor markers for gastric cancer by proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Yih Wu

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC has a high rate of morbidity and mortality among various cancers worldwide. The development of noninvasive diagnostic methods or technologies for tracking the occurrence of GC is urgent, and searching reliable biomarkers is considered.This study intended to directly discover differential biomarkers from GC tissues by two-dimension-differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, and further validate protein expression by western blotting (WB and immunohistochemistry (IHC.Pairs of GC tissues (gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent normal tissues obtained from surgery was investigated for 2D-DIEG.Five proteins wereconfirmed by WB and IHC, including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, glutathione s-transferase pi (GSTpi, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT and gastrokine-1 (GKN-1. Among the results, GRP78, GSTpi and A1ATwere significantlyup-regulated and down-regulated respectively in gastric cancer patients. Moreover, GRP78 and ApoAI were correlated with A1AT for protein expressions.This study presumes these proteins could be candidates of reliable biomarkers for gastric cancer.

  19. Chemoradiation Therapy for Potentially Resectable Gastric Cancer: Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Who Do Not Undergo Planned Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Michelle M.; Mansfield, Paul F.; Das, Prajnan; Janjan, Nora A.; Badgwell, Brian D.; Phan, Alexandria T.; Delclos, Marc E.; Maru, Dipen; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Crane, Christopher H.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively analyzed treatment outcomes among resectable gastric cancer patients treated preoperatively with chemoradiation therapy (CRT) but rendered ineligible for planned surgery because of clinical deterioration or development of overt metastatic disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 2004, 39 patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer received preoperative CRT but failed to undergo surgery. At baseline clinical staging, 33 (85%) patients had T3-T4 disease, and 27 (69%) patients had nodal involvement. Most patients received 45 Gy of radiotherapy with concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Twenty-one patients underwent induction chemotherapy before CRT. Actuarial times to local control (LC), distant control (DC), and overall survival (OS) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The cause for surgical ineligibility was development of metastatic disease (28 patients, 72%; predominantly peritoneal, 18 patients), poor performance status (5 patients, 13%), patient/physician preference (4 patients, 10%), and treatment-related death (2 patients, 5%). With a median follow-up of 8 months (range, 1-95 months), actuarial 1-year LC, DC, and OS were 46%, 12%, and 36%, respectively. Median LC and OS were 11.0 and 10.1 months, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer treated with preoperative CRT are found to be ineligible for surgery principally because of peritoneal progression. Patients who are unable to undergo planned surgery have outcomes comparable to that of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with chemotherapy alone. CRT provides durable LC for the majority of the remaining life of these patients

  20. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ho Soon, E-mail: hschoi96@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sun Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Healthcare Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo [Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Seung Sam [Pathology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways.

  1. The role of leptin in gastric cancer: Clinicopathologic features and molecular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Choi, Ho Soon; Yang, Sun Young; Park, Hyun Ki; Lee, Young Yiul; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Hahm, Joon Soo; Paik, Seung Sam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Leptin and Ob-R are expressed in gastric adenoma and early and advanced cancer. • Leptin is more likely associated with differentiated gastric cancer or cardia cancer. • Leptin proliferates gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways. - Abstract: Obesity is associated with certain types of cancer, including gastric cancer. However, it is still unclear whether obesity-related cytokine, leptin, is implicated in gastric cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of leptin in gastric cancer. The expression of leptin and its receptor, Ob-R, was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and was compared in patients with gastric adenoma (n = 38), early gastric cancer (EGC) (n = 38), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) (n = 38), as a function of their clinicopathological characteristics. Gastric cancer cell lines were studied to investigate the effects of leptin on the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways using MTT assays, immunoblotting, and inhibition studies. Leptin was expressed in gastric adenomas (42.1%), EGCs (47.4%), and AGCs (43.4%). Ob-R expression tended to increase from gastric adenoma (2%), through EGC (8%), to AGC (18%). Leptin induced the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by activating STAT3 and ERK1/2 and up-regulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Blocking Ob-R with pharmacological inhibitors and by RNAi decreased both the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 and the leptin-induced expression of VEGF. Leptin plays a role in gastric cancer by stimulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells via activating the STAT3 and ERK1/2 pathways

  2. Options for Second-Line Treatment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Sun, Weijing

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. The majority of patients who have CRC eventually present with metastatic disease. The overall therapeutic goals for most patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) are to control the disease, prolong life span, and maximize quality of life. Therefore, the ratio of efficacy to toxicity is one of the most important factors in choosing among treatment options and sequencing regimens. In addition, the choice of first-line systemic therapy will affect the options for second-line treatment. Several newer cytotoxic agents for the treatment of mCRC have been approved during the past 2 decades by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine. The combination of a fluoropyrimidine (5-fluorouracil or capecitabine) with either oxaliplatin or irinotecan has been widely accepted as standard cytotoxic chemotherapy for either the first- or second-line treatment of mCRC. The FDA has approved several pathway-targeting agents for the treatment of mCRC; these include agents that target the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway (bevacizumab, ziv-aflibercept, and ramucirumab) and those that target the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway (cetuximab and panitumumab). Here, we review the current clinical options for the second-line treatment of mCRC and the rationales for their use.

  3. Updated options for liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Steven R

    2008-12-01

    Liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC) are common in patients presenting with an initial diagnosis of metastatic disease or at the time of recurrence. Without treatment, patients with metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. Surgical resection of the metastases might provide long-term benefit.; however, the size, number, or location of the metastases can limit the ability to perform a resection. The use of chemotherapy, both systemic and via hepatic artery infusion, in patients undergoing surgery for liver metastases from CRC has augmented the long-term survival benefits and even the cure obtained in some patients with surgery. Chemotherapy might also convert a portion of patients with initially unresectable liver metastases to resectable. A growing body of literature is helping to define the role of chemotherapy for potentially resectable liver metastases and for initially unresectable liver metastases. The introduction of newer agents such as oxaliplatin and irinotecan, and targeted agents such as cetuximab and bevacizumab, has led to meaningful improvements in response rates and survival over those previously achieved with 5-fluorouracil. Further trials are needed to refine the use of chemotherapy and targeted agents in the management of patients with liver metastases.

  4. Automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Junki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Kimura, Shouta; Hasegawa, Junichi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Nawano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast X-ray CT images is investigated. Because even in Japan, cases of metastatic liver cancers are increased due to recent Europeanization and/or Americanization of Japanese eating habits, development of a system for computer aided diagnosis of them is strongly expected. Our automated extraction procedure consists of following four steps; liver region extraction, density transformation for enhancement of cancer regions, segmentation for obtaining candidate cancer regions, and reduction of false positives by shape feature. Parameter values used in each step of the procedure are decided based on density and shape features of typical metastatic liver cancers. In experiments using practical 20 cases of metastatic liver tumors, it is shown that 56% of true cancers can be detected successfully from CT images by the proposed procedure. (author)

  5. Psychological interventions for women with non-metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Ghufran A; Whitford, David L; Hickey, Anne; Carter, Ben

    2015-05-28

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. It is a distressing diagnosis and, as a result, considerable research has examined the psychological sequelae of being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Breast cancer is associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and reduced quality of life. As a consequence, multiple studies have explored the impact of psychological interventions on the psychological distress experienced after a diagnosis of breast cancer. To assess the effects of psychological interventions on psychological morbidities, quality of life and survival among women with non-metastatic breast cancer. We searched the following databases up to 16 May 2013: the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO; and reference lists of articles. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) search portal and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials in addition to handsearching. Randomised controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of psychological interventions for non-metastatic breast cancer in women. Two review authors independently appraised and extracted data from eligible trials. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion. Extracted data included information about participants, methods, the intervention and outcome. Twenty-eight randomised controlled trials comprising 3940 participants were included. The most frequent reasons for exclusion were non-randomised trials and the inclusion of women with metastatic disease. A wide range of interventions were evaluated, with 24 trials investigating a cognitive behavioural therapy and four trials investigating psychotherapy compared to control. Pooled standardised mean differences (SMD) from baseline indicated less depression (SMD -1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.83 to -0.18; P = 0.02; 7 studies, 637 participants, I(2) = 95%, low quality evidence), anxiety

  6. Incidence of metachronous gastric cancer in the remnant stomach after synchronous multiple cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Isao; Hato, Shinji; Kobatake, Takaya; Ohta, Koji; Kubo, Yoshirou; Nishimura, Rieko; Kurita, Akira

    2014-01-01

    In the preoperative evaluation for gastric cancer, high-resolution endoscopic technologies allow us to detect small accessory lesions. However, it is not known if the gastric remnant after partial gastrectomy for synchronous multiple gastric cancers has a greater risk for metachronous cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of metachronous cancer in this patient subset compared with that after solitary cancer surgery. Data on a consecutive series of 1,281 patients gastrectomized for early gastric cancer from 1991 to 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The 715 gastric remnants after distal gastrectomy were periodically surveyed by endoscopic examination in Shikoku Cancer Center. Among those surveyed cases, 642 patients were pathologically diagnosed with solitary lesion (SO group) and 73 patients with synchronous multiple lesions (MU group) at the time of the initial surgery. In the follow-up period, 15 patients in the SO group and 3 patients in the MU group were diagnosed as having metachronous cancer in the gastric remnant. The cumulative 4-year incidence rate was 1.9 % in the SO group and 5.5 % in the MU group. The difference did not reach the significant level by the log-rank test. The incidence of metachronous cancer is higher after multiple cancer surgery; however, the difference is not statistically significant.

  7. Percutaneous placement of self-expandable metallic stents in patients with obstructive janudice secondary to metastalic gastric cancer after gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Pyo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, In Ho; Yu, Jung Rim; Mok, Young Jae; Oh, Joo Hyeong [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Se Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Kwon [Division of Interventional Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    2013-10-15

    To evaluate the outcomes of patients undergoing percutaneous placements of a biliary stent for obstructive jaundice secondary to metastatic gastric cancer after gastrectomy. Fifty patients (mean age, 62.4 years; range, 27-86 years) who underwent percutaneous placements of a biliary stent for obstructive jaundice secondary to metastatic gastric cancer after gastrectomy were included. The technical success rate, clinical success rate, complication rate, stent patency, patient survival and factors associated with stent patency were being evaluated. The median interval between the gastrectomy and stent placement was 23.1 months (range, 3.9-94.6 months). The 50 patients received a total of 65 stents without any major procedure-related complications. Technical success was achieved in all patients. The mean total serum bilirubin level, which had been 7.19 mg/dL ± 6.8 before stent insertion, decreased to 4.58 mg/dL ± 5.4 during the first week of follow-up (p < 0.001). Clinical success was achieved in 42 patients (84%). Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage catheters were removed from 45 patients (90%). Infectious complications were noted in two patients (4%), and stent malfunction occurred in seven patients (14%). The median stent patency was 233 ± 99 days, and the median patient survival was 179 ± 83 days. Total serum bilirubin level after stenting was an independent factor for stent patency (p = 0.009). Percutaneous transhepatic placement of a biliary stent for obstructive jaundice secondary to metastatic gastric cancer after gastrectomy is a technically feasible and clinically effective palliative procedure.

  8. Can urologists introduce the concept of “oligometastasis” for metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Ogihara, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Watanabe, Keitaro; Kufukihara, Ryohei; Yanai, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Satoshi; Oyama, Masafumi; Monma, Tetsuo; Masuda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shintaro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014. We extracted independent predictors for identifying a favorable. Occurrence that fulfilled all 4 criteria which were independently associated with cancer-specific death was defined as oligometastasis: a so...

  9. [Gastric cancer: epidemiologic profile 2001-2007 in Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Jesús L; Carbajal, Luz A; Segura, María D; Combe, J; Akiba, S

    2012-01-01

    To describe and compare the demographic and social characteristics as well as lifestyles of patients with gastric cancer against patients with other important gastric disorders, who attended at main reference health services in Lima, Peru. Case control study, matched by sex and age + 2 years, applying a questionnaire to 96 cases with gastric cancer, and to 96 controls from September 2001 to November 2007. There were no significant differences about ethnicity; marital status; exposure to minerals, wood, and metal dusts; tobacco and alcohol; red meat consumption; salt addition; food temperature. 87, 5% of the control group had lesions in the gastric antrum, and 73% of cases group had a tubular adenocarcinoma (56%) in the gastric antrum. There was no family history of cancer in 85% patients of cases group and 59% of controls, (with significant difference). There were significant differences in low scholarship level of cases, as well as for their mothers and fathers (OR 3.75, 3.9, and 3.49 respectively), fruit or vegetables intake, milk or cheese consumption (minus of once a day) (OR 2, 3, 2, 57 and 2, 9 respectively), type of fuel for cooking (firewood, charcoal, and kerosene OR 5, 25), lack of use of refrigerator (OR 8, 4). The profile of a gastric cancer patient was to proceed from the Andean zone (high altitude +3000 meters over sea level) and jungle, low education level (low socioeconomic level), low consumption of fruits, vegetables and milk, use of firewood, charcoal, or kerosene to cook, and no use of refrigerator. The most frequent histological diagnosis in the case group was tubular adenocarcinoma.

  10. Assessment of cognitive function in patients with metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Sandvad, Marlene; Lundorff, Lena

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at analyzing the validity and reliability of the continuous reaction time (CRT) test, the finger-tapping test (FTT), the Digit Span Test (DST), the Trail Making Test - part B (TMTB), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in patients with metastatic cancer. METHOD...... for the MMSE because of a skewed response distribution. For discriminant validity, patients were slower on two measures of the CRT (p = 0.00483, p = 0.00030) and FTT dominant hand (p = 0.00306). Regarding sensitivity and specificity, only the DST and TMTB seemed to predict cognitive deficit; however, the ROC...... curve areas were ≤ 0.73. In terms of criterion validity, there were few significant correlations between the tests and the sociodemographic and clinical variables, and for the most part were very weak. Reliability was deemed to be adequate for the TMTB, DST, and FTT. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS...

  11. 'Tablet burden' in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Marina; Foster, Anna; Rihawi, Karim; Anthoney, Alan; Twelves, Chris

    2016-03-01

    The implications for patients with cancer, of the 'tablet burden' resulting from increasing use of oral anticancer drugs and medication for co-morbidities have not previously been well explored. We sought to (i) quantify tablet burden in women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), (ii) establish which groups of drug contribute most to this burden and (iii) gain insight into patients' attitudes towards oral anti-cancer treatment. One hundred patients with MBC anonymously completed a questionnaire describing their medication histories and attitudes towards their tablets. The patients (mean age 60, range 31-95) were all female and taking a median of six tablets (range 0-31) daily; 37 patients were taking >10 tablets. Oral anticancer treatment constituted the category of treatment taken by the highest proportion of patients, followed by symptomatic cancer treatments, proton pump inhibitors and cardiovascular medication. Numerically, however, symptomatic drugs accounted for 44% of all tablets and specific anti-cancer treatment for 15%; medication not directly related to the cancer accounted for the remaining 40% of tablets. A quarter of patients reported inconvenience in taking their tablets, the main reason being tablet size and one third reported forgetting their tablets at least once a week. Nearly two thirds of patients expressing a preference favoured oral anticancer treatment, the commonest reason being greater convenience. Tablet burden is considerable for many patients with MBC and can be problematic. A significant proportion of tablets represent treatment for co-morbidities, the significance of which may be questionable in women with MBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Noncoding Genomics in Gastric Cancer and the Gastric Precancerous Cascade: Pathogenesis and Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Sandoval-Bórquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death, whose patterns vary among geographical regions and ethnicities. It is a multifactorial disease, and its development depends on infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, host genetic factors, and environmental factors. The heterogeneity of the disease has begun to be unraveled by a comprehensive mutational evaluation of primary tumors. The low-abundance of mutations suggests that other mechanisms participate in the evolution of the disease, such as those found through analyses of noncoding genomics. Noncoding genomics includes single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, regulation of gene expression through DNA methylation of promoter sites, miRNAs, other noncoding RNAs in regulatory regions, and other topics. These processes and molecules ultimately control gene expression. Potential biomarkers are appearing from analyses of noncoding genomics. This review focuses on noncoding genomics and potential biomarkers in the context of gastric cancer and the gastric precancerous cascade.

  13. The significance of mismatch repair genes in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Jeong; Jang, You-Jin; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jong-Han; Park, Sung-Soo; Park, Seong-Heum; Kim, Chong-Suk; Mok, Young-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a form of genetic instability characterized by new alleles not present in the normal genotype. This mutation occurs by altered DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Studies of limited numbers of patients have reported conflicting results regarding the association of the MSI phenotype with gastric cancer. This study aims to evaluate the clinical significance of mismatch repair genes in gastric cancer. We studied 156 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from March 2010 to February 2011 in our hospital. Mismatch repair status was determined by the immunohistochemical analysis of human MutL Homolog 1 (hMLH1) and human MutS Homolog 2 (hMSH2) expression. Seventeen (10.9%) cases did not express hMLH1 but all cases expressed hMSH2. In univariate analyses, the expression of hMLH1 was associated with age, nodal status, and Lauren's classification. In multivariate analyses, there was no statistically significant association between the loss of hMLH1 expression and selected clinical parameters. The expression of hMLH1 was associated with age, nodal status, and Lauren's classification. Our results suggest that MMR gene abnormalities play an important role in the tumorigenesis of patients demonstrating gastric cancer.

  14. HIPEC treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in colorectal and gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the treatment of peritoneal metastases of gastric and colorectal cancer, specifically using cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). A large part of this thesis is based on retrospective analysis of patients treated with CRS

  15. Case report: Importance of optical diagnosis in early gastric cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare form of highly malignant adenocarcinoma. It is an epithelial malignancy characterized by the histologic appearance of more than 50% of cells as signet ring cells filled with mucin. The incidence of SRCC is rising,[1,2] therefore, the diagnosis of these cancers in the early ...

  16. Assessment of Drug induced Genotoxicity in Gastric Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    universal

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... Cytogenetic studies were carried out in peripheral blood lymphocytes of study population by adopting standard cytogenetic ... anticarcinogenic agents on the level of chromosomal aberrations in gastric cancer patients receiving therapy with ... the esophagus, lungs, lymph nodes and the liver (WHO,. 2009).

  17. Screening Driving Transcription Factors in the Processing of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Construction of the transcriptional regulatory network can provide additional clues on the regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic applications in gastric cancer. Methods. Gene expression profiles of gastric cancer were downloaded from GEO database for integrated analysis. All of DEGs were analyzed by GO enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment. Transcription factors were further identified and then a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Results. By integrated analysis of the six eligible datasets (340 cases and 43 controls, a bunch of 2327 DEGs were identified, including 2100 upregulated and 227 downregulated DEGs. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs showed that digestion was a significantly enriched GO term for biological process. Moreover, there were two important enriched KEGG pathways: cell cycle and homologous recombination. Furthermore, a total of 70 differentially expressed TFs were identified and the transcriptional regulatory network was constructed, which consisted of 566 TF-target interactions. The top ten TFs regulating most downstream target genes were BRCA1, ARID3A, EHF, SOX10, ZNF263, FOXL1, FEV, GATA3, FOXC1, and FOXD1. Most of them were involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. Conclusion. The transcriptional regulatory network can help researchers to further clarify the underlying regulatory mechanisms of gastric cancer tumorigenesis.

  18. Influence of obesity and bariatric surgery on gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Anna Carolina Batista; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Cleva, Roberto de; Sallum, Rubens Antônio Aissar; Cecconello, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancer (GC) are related to obesity and bariatric surgery. Risk factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux and Helicobacter pylori, must be investigated and treated in obese population. After surgery, GC reports are anecdotal and treatment is not standardized. This review aims to discuss GC related to obesity before and after bariatric surgery

  19. Importance of Optical Diagnosis in Early Gastric Cancer: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) is a rare form of highly malignant adenocarcinoma. It is an epithelial malignancy characterized by the histologic appearance of more than 50% of cells as signet ring cells filled with mucin. The incidence of SRCC is rising,[1,2] therefore, the diagnosis of these cancers in the early ...

  20. Clinical significance of lymphadenectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Dezső; Plósz, János; Török, Miklós

    2016-02-15

    Approximately thirty percent of patients with gastric cancer undergo an avoidable lymph node dissection with a higher rate of postoperative complication. Comparing the D1 and D2 dissections, it was found that there is a significant difference in morbidity, favoured D1 dissection without any difference in overall survival. Subgroup analysis of patients with T3 tumor shows a survival difference favoring D2 lymphadenectomy, and there is a better gastric cancer-related death and non-statistically significant improvement of survival for node-positive disease in patients with D2 dissection. However, the extended lymphadenectomy could improve stage-specific survival owing to the stage migration phenomenon. The deployment of centralization and application of national guidelines could improve the surgical outcomes. The Japanese and European guidelines enclose the D2 lymphadenectomy as the gold standard in R0 resection. In the individualized, stage-adapted gastric cancer surgery the Maruyama computer program (MCP) can estimate lymph node involvement preoperatively with high accuracy and in addition the Maruyama Index less than 5 has a better impact on survival, than D-level guided surgery. For these reasons, the preoperative application of MCP is recommended routinely, with an aim to perform "low Maruyama Index surgery". The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) may decrease the number of redundant lymphadenectomy intraoperatively with a high detection rate (93.7%) and an accuracy of 92%. More accurate stage-adapted surgery could be performed using the MCP and SNB in parallel fashion in gastric cancer.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infections and gastric cancer: The West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori (Hp) in West Africa is high and infection occurs early in childhood but there are very few studies on association of Hp with GC. Despite the high prevalence of Hp, gastric cancer incidence is low and precancerous lesions are rare. Although most strains of Hp are positive for the virulent ...

  2. Effect of cimetidine on survival after gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Knigge, U; Bülow, S

    1988-01-01

    The effect of cimetidine on survival was investigated in 181 patients with gastric cancer. Immediately after operation or the decision not to operate, the patients were randomised in double-blind fashion to placebo or cimetidine 400 mg twice daily for two years or until death, with review every...

  3. Chemotherapy for bladder cancer: treatment guidelines for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Cora N; Donat, S Machele; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2007-01-01

    with the use of Medline; additional cited works not detected on the initial search regarding neoadjuvant chemotherapy, bladder preservation, adjuvant chemotherapy, and chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer were reviewed. Evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management...... the published literature on chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. This article reports the development of international guidelines for the treatment of patients with locally advanced bladder cancer with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Bladder preservation is also discussed......, as is chemotherapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. The conference panel consisted of 10 medical oncologists and urologists from 3 continents who are experts in this field and who reviewed the English-language literature through October 2004. Relevant English-language literature was identified...

  4. [A comparison of proteomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer between areas of high and low incidence of gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin-na; Zhang, Jing; Ding, Shi-gang; Zhong, Li Jun; Li, Guang-chuan; Shi, Yan-yan; Wang, Ye

    2011-12-18

    To identify the differentially expressed proteins of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer from areas of high and low incidence of gastric cancer by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and to discuss the role of bacterial factor in pathogenesis. Hp in the endoscopic biopsy specimens of gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and gastric cancer from areas of high (Xining) and low (Beijing) incidence of gastric cancer, were separated, cultured and saved at -80°C. The bacteria were recovered. Then the whole-cell protein of the Hp were extracted and characterized by 2-DE. The different protein spots were analyzed by PDQuest analysis software and identified by electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS), and searched by the Mascot database. Nine differentially expressed proteins were identified, and four protein spots were over expressed in the protein maps from gastric cancer in both areas, which were: Urease subunit alpha, chaperone protein dnaK, superoxide dismutase, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha; two protein spots were over expressed in the protein maps from gastritis in both areas, which were: Probablethiol peroxidase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase; 60×10(3) chaperonin, and inorganic pyrophosphatase were over expressed only in the protein map from gastric cancer in Xining; S-ribosyl homocysteinelyase was over expressed only in the protein map from gastric cancer in Beijing. There are differences between proteomic analyses of Hp in patients with gastritis and gastric cancer in areas of high and low incidents of gastric cancer, but 2/3 of the protein spots over expressed in the areas are consistent. The protein spots over expressed from gastric cancer in the area with high incidence of gastric cancer are more than in the area with low incidence of gastric cancer. For the Hp extracted from patients with gastric cancer, the mechanism of gastric cancer may be similar, but the role

  5. Collecting and Studying Blood and Tissue Samples From Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Prostate or Bladder/Urothelial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-04

    Healthy Control; Localized Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Recurrent Bladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  6. BTG1 expression correlates with pathogenesis, aggressive behaviors and prognosis of gastric cancer: a potential target for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua-chuan; Li, Jing; Shen, Dao-fu; Yang, Xue-feng; Zhao, Shuang; Wu, Ya-zhou; Takano, Yasuo; Sun, Hong-zhi; Su, Rong-jian; Luo, Jun-sheng; Gou, Wen-feng

    2015-01-01

    Here, we found that BTG1 overexpression inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, induced G2/M arrest, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis in BGC-823 and MKN28 cells (p < 0.05). BTG1 transfectants showed a higher mRNA expression of Cyclin D1 and Bax, but a lower mRNA expression of cdc2, p21, mTOR and MMP-9 than the control and mock (p < 0.05). After treated with cisplatin, MG132, paclitaxel and SAHA, both BTG1 transfectants showed lower mRNA viability and higher apoptosis than the control in both time- and dose-dependent manners (p < 0.05) with the hypoexpression of chemoresistance-related genes (slug, CD147, GRP78, GRP94, FBXW7 TOP1, TOP2 and GST-π). BTG1 expression was restored after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment in gastric cancer cells. BTG1 expression was statistically lower in gastric cancer than non-neoplastic mucosa and metastatic cancer in lymph node (p < 0.05). BTG1 expression was positively correlated with depth of invasion, lymphatic and venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging and worse prognosis (p < 0.05). The diffuse-type carcinoma showed less BTG1 expression than intestinal- and mixed-type ones (p < 0.05). BTG1 overexpression suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting proliferation, enhancing autophagy and apoptosis in xenograft models. It was suggested that down-regulated BTG1 expression might promote gastric carcinogenesis partially due to its promoter methylation. BTG1 overexpression might reverse the aggressive phenotypes and be employed as a potential target for gene therapy of gastric cancer. PMID:26050197

  7. Estimation by Gross Findings in Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as both minimally invasive and curative treatment modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). The widely accepted indication of endoscopic resection for EGC is small sized, differentiated mucosal cancer in which the risk of lymph node metastasis is negligible. Tumor size can be measured by conventional endoscopy, and chromoendoscopy, magnifying endoscopy, narrow band imaging, autofluorescence imaging can also be helpful for accurate estimation of tumor size...

  8. Laparoscopic-assisted stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy for the palliation of gastric outlet obstruction from antral gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimatsu, Kenji; Oida, Takatsugu; Kawasaki, Atsushi; Kano, Hisao; Kuboi, Youichi; Aramaki, Osamu; Amano, Sadao

    2009-06-01

    Conventional gastrojejunostomy is performed for gastric outlet obstruction; however, we have experience of some patients for whom oral intake was not adequately restored. Open stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy is a useful technique for the relief of unresectable and obstructing antral gastric cancers. We herein report the successful laparoscopic application of this technique in 2 patients: a 62-year-old male and a 65-year-old female with obstructing antral gastric cancer. There were no operative complications, and blood loss was minimal. Oral fluid intake was resumed 3 and 4 days postoperatively. Chemotherapy by oral administration was possible for each patient. There was no recurrence of the gastric outlet obstruction in either patient up until they died 6 and 10 months after surgery. Laparoscopic stomach-partitioning gastrojejunostomy is a safe and useful technique for treating unresectable and obstructing antral gastric cancer, allowing the possibility of adequate oral intake and permitting the administration of anticancer drugs.

  9. Tailored treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: clinical and pre-clinical developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in males and females in developed countries. Metastases in distant organs, which develop in 50% of colorectal cancer patients, are responsible for the majority of colorectal cancer deaths. Treatment of metastatic disease should

  10. Applications of nanotechnology in gastric cancer: detection and prevention by nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elingarami, Sauli; Liu, Ming; Fan, Jing; He, Nongyue

    2014-01-01

    New and emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, have the potential to advance nutrition science by assisting in the discovery, development, and delivery of several intervention strategies to improve health and reduce the risk and complications of several diseases, including gastric cancer. This article reviews gastric cancer in relation to nutrition, discussing gastric carcinogenesis in-depth in relation to prevention of the disease by nutrition, as well as current detection approaches using nanotechnology. The current status of molecular nutritional biomarkers for gastric cancer is also discussed, as well as future strategies for the tailored management of gastric cancer.

  11. Gastric Cancer: How Can We Reduce the Incidence of this Disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGastric cancer remains a prevalent disease worldwide with a poor prognosis. Helicobacter pylori plays a major role in gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization leads to chronic gastritis, which predisposes to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and eventually

  12. Loss of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor contributes to gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, M; Vieth, M; Röcken, C; Ebert, M; Pross, M; Gretschel, S; Schlag, P M; Wiedenmann, B; Kemmner, W; Höcker, M

    2009-01-27

    Loss of the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) has previously been observed in gastric cancer. The role of CAR in gastric cancer pathobiology, however, is unclear. We therefore analysed CAR in 196 R(0)-resected gastric adenocarcinomas and non-cancerous gastric mucosa samples using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor was found at the surface and foveolar epithelium of all non-neoplastic gastric mucosa samples (n=175), whereas only 56% of gastric cancer specimens showed CAR positivity (P<0.0001). Loss of CAR correlated significantly with decreased differentiation, increased infiltrative depths, presence of distant metastases, and was also associated with reduced carcinoma-specific survival. To clarify whether CAR impacts the tumorbiologic properties of gastric cancer, we subsequently determined the role of CAR in proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cell lines by application of specific CAR siRNA or ectopic expression of a human full-length CAR cDNA. These experiments showed that RNAi-mediated CAR knock down resulted in increased proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cell lines, whereas enforced ectopic CAR expression led to opposite effects. We conclude that the association of reduced presence of CAR in more severe disease states, together with our findings in gastric cancer cell lines, suggests that CAR functionally contributes to gastric cancer pathogenesis, showing features of a tumour suppressor.

  13. Transcatheter arterial embolization in gastric cancer patients with acute bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Song, Ho-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-04-15

    The safety and clinical effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization for bleeding associated with unresectable gastric cancer was evaluated. Twenty-three patients with bleeding from unresectable gastric cancer underwent transcatheter arterial embolization. Of the 23 patients, eight showed signs of active bleeding, such as contrast extravasation or pseudoaneurysm, seven showed only tumor staining, and the remaining eight patients showed negative angiographic findings. All embolization procedures were successful without procedure-related complications. In all eight active bleeding patients, immediate hemostasis was achieved. The overall clinical success rate was 52% (12/23). Recurrent bleeding within 1 month occurred in one (8%) in 12 patients with initial clinical success. One patient showed partial splenic infarction after embolization of the splenic artery for active bleeding from the short gastric artery. Overall 30-day mortality rate was 43% (10/23). The median overall survival period was 38 days. In patients with bleeding from unresectable gastric cancer, transcatheter arterial embolization was found to be safe and effective for achieving immediate hemostasis for active bleeding. Although the clinical success rate was not high, the recurrent bleeding rate was low at 1 month post procedure. (orig.)

  14. Prognostic significance of cancer family history for patients with gastric cancer: a single center experience from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Cai, Hong; Yu, Lin; Huang, Hua; Long, Ziwen; Wang, Yanong

    2016-06-14

    Family history of cancer is a risk factor for gastric cancer. In this study, we investigated the prognoses of gastric cancer patients with family history of cancer. A total of 1805 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative gastrectomy from 2000 to 2008 were evaluated. The clinicopathologic parameters and prognoses of gastric cancer patients with a positive family history (PFH) of cancer were compared with those with a negative family history (NFH). Of 1805 patients, 382 (21.2%) patients had a positive family history of cancer. Positive family history of cancer correlated with younger age, more frequent alcohol and tobacco use, worse differentiation, smaller tumor size, and more frequent tumor location in the lower 1/3 of the stomach. The prognoses of patients with a positive family history of cancer were better than that of patients with a negative family history. Family history of cancer independently correlated with better prognosis after curative gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients.

  15. miR-449 inhibits cell proliferation and is down-regulated in gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bou Kheir, Tony; Futoma-Kazmierczak, Ewa; Jacobsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world and the second most prevalent cause of cancer related death. The development of gastric cancer is mainly associated with H. Pylori infection leading to a focus in pathology studies on bacterial and environmental factors, and to a lesser...

  16. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric cancer: characteristics and endoscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yorimasa; Fujisaki, Junko; Omae, Masami; Hirasawa, Toshiaki; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) leads to chronic gastritis and eventually causes gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is gradually decreasing with improvement of living conditions and eradication therapy. However, some reports have described cases of H. pylori-negative gastric cancers (HpNGC), and the prevalence was 0.42-5.4% of all gastric cancers. Diagnostic criteria of HpNGC vary among the different reports; thus, they have not yet been definitively established. We recommend negative findings in two or more methods that include endoscopic or pathological findings or serum pepsinogen test, and negative urease breath test or serum immunoglobulin G test and no eradication history the minimum criteria for diagnosis of HpNGC. The etiology of gastric cancers, excluding H. pylori infection, is known to be associated with several factors including lifestyle, viral infection, autoimmune disorder and germline mutations, but the main causal factor of HpNGC is still unclear. Regarding the characteristics of HpNGC, the undifferentiated type (UD-type) is more frequent than the differentiated type (D-type). The UD-type is mainly signet ring-cell carcinoma that presents as a discolored lesion in the lower or middle part of the stomach in relatively young patients. The gross type is flat or depressed. The D-type is mainly gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type that presents as a submucosal tumor-like or flat or depressed lesion in the middle and upper part of the stomach in relatively older patients. Early detection of HpNGC enables minimally invasive treatment which preserves the patient's quality of life. Endoscopists should fully understand the characteristics and endoscopic findings of HpNGC. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. Inhibition of Topoisomerase IIα and Induction of Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cells by 19-Triisopropyl Andrographolide

    OpenAIRE

    Monger, Adeep; Boonmuen, Nittaya; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Saeeng, Rungnapha; Kasemsuk, Teerapich; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Saengsawang, Witchuda; Chairoungdua, Arthit

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Eastern Asia. Increasing chemoresistance and general systemic toxicities have complicated the current chemotherapy leading to an urgent need of more effective agents. The present study reported a potent DNA topoisomerase IIα inhibitory activity of an andrographolide analogue (19-triisopropyl andrographolide, analogue-6) in gastric cancer cells; MKN-45, and AGS cells. The analogue was potently cytotoxic to both gastric cancer cell lines with the half...

  18. Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn G Marsden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation in the bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during

  19. [Value of immunocytochemistry in differential diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma, reactive mesothelial cells and malignant epithelial mesothelioma in metastatic effusion fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, M; Cha, N; Zou, Y F; Leng, J H; Xu, L; Sun, Y; Hao, Y Y

    2018-03-08

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of some antibodies in peritoneal fluid of patients with gastric cancer and malignant epithelioid mesothelioma in serous effusion. Methods: One hundred and eighty-two cases of serous effusion were collected at Jilin Cancer Hospital, from July 2012 to July 2016. The expression of GLUT1, CDX2, Villin, calretinin and WT1 was evaluated using SP immunocytochemical technique in peritoneal fluid samples collected from 98 patients with gastric cancer and 74 patients with reactive mesothelial cells. The expression of GLUT1, calretinin and WT1 was also evaluated in serous effusion from 10 patients with mesothelioma. Results: The sensitivity of GLUT1, CDX2 and Villin in adenocarcinoma cells was 91.8%(90/98), 68.4% (67/98) and 88.8%(87/98), respectively. The specificity was 95.9% (71/74), 100.0%(74/74) and 100.0% (74/74), respectively. The sensitivity of calretinin and WT1 for reactive mesothelium was 93.2% (69/74) and 79.7% (59/74), respectively. The specificity was 96.9% (95/98) and 100.0% (98/98), respectively. The sensitivity of GLUT1, calretinin and WT1 for mesothelioma was 9/10, 9/10 and 7/10. The reactivity of GLUT1, CDX2, Villin, calretinin and WT1 showed a significant difference ( P <0.01) between adenocarcinoma cells and reactive mesothelium. The reactivity of GLUT1 showed a significant difference ( P <0.01) between mesothelioma and reactive mesothelium. Conclusions: The optimal combination is a panel of GLUT1, CDX2, Villin, calretinin and WT1 for differential diagnosis between adenocarcinoma cells and reactive mesothelium in peritoneal fluid of patients with gastric cancer. Whereas GLUT1, calretinin and WT1 is the best for differential diagnosis between reactive mesothelium and mesothelioma in serous effusions.

  20. Bevacizumab increases the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with metastatic breast or colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kapelakis

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to conventional chemotherapy for metastatic breast or colorectal cancer increases the incidence of cardiovascular events, which is mainly due to the increased prevalence of myocardial infarction and thromboembolic events.

  1. Increased survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer receiving chemo and hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men with hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer who received the chemotherapy drug docetaxel given at the start of standard hormone therapy lived longer than patients who received hormone therapy alone, according to early results from a NIH-supporte

  2. The clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic colorectal cancer - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, M; Jess, Per

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finding a clinical tool to improve the risk stratification and identifying those colorectal cancer patients with an increased risk of recurrence is of great importance. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood can be a strong marker of poor prognosis in patients...... with metastatic disease, but the prognostic role of CTC in non-metastatic colorectal cancer is less clear. The aim of this review is to examine the possible clinical significance of circulating tumor cells in non-metastatic colorectal cancer (TNM-stage I-III) with the primary focus on detection methods...... and prognosis. METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane database and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for scientific literature published in English from January 2000 to June 2010. We included studies with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (TNM-stage I-III) and CTC detected pre- and/or post...

  3. The Role of Osteoblast-Derived Inflammatory Cytokines in Bone Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bussard, Karen M

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) has a predilection for bone metastases. While the mechanism for directional metastasis is unknown, the bone microenvironment likely provides a fertile soil for metastatic BC cells...

  4. Collagenases in Breast Cancer Cell-Induced Metastatic Tumor Growth and Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvamurugan, Nagarajan

    2003-01-01

    .... Transforming growth factor (TGF)-Beta1 is a crucial molecule in metastatic breast cancer. It can potentially disrupt the normal balance between osteoclast- and osteoblast-derived matrix metalloproteinase (MMP...

  5. Assessment on zoledronic acid use in patients with bone metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano Garcia, Jorge L; Batista Albuerne, Noyde; Lima Perez, Mayte

    2010-01-01

    The biphosphonates are the cornerstone in the bone metastases treatment. In present paper the effectiveness and safety of the zoledronic acid (ZA) use in patients with bone metastatic breast cancer (MBC)

  6. The clinical value of hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy to predict metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Cang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Choi, Se Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Youn, Hyun Jo; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Hybrid imaging techniques can provide functional and anatomical information about sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Our aim in this study was to evaluate which imaging parameters on hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy predicted metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer. Among 56 patients who underwent conventional sentinel lymphoscintigraphy, 45 patients (age, 53.1 ± 9.5 years) underwent hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy using a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) gamma camera. On hybrid SPECT/CT images, we compared the shape and size (long-to-short axis [L/S] ratio) of the SLN, and SLN/periareolar injection site (S/P) count ratio between metastatic and non-metastatic SLNs. Metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological biopsy. Pathological biopsy revealed that 21 patients (46.7 %) had metastatic SLNs, while 24 (53.3 %) had non-metastatic SLNs. In the 21 patients with metastatic SLNs, the SLN was mostly round (57.1 %) or had an eccentric cortical rim (38.1 %). Of 24 patients with non-metastatic SLNs, 13 patients (54.1 %) had an SLN with a C-shape rim or eccentric cortex. L/S ratio was 2.04 for metastatic SLNs and 2.38 for non-metastatic SLNs. Seven (33 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and 14 (66 %) had T2 primary tumors in the metastatic SLN group. In contrast, 18 (75 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and six (25 %) had T2 tumors in the non-metastatic SLN group. S/P count ratio was significantly lower in the metastatic SLN group than the non-metastatic SLN group for those patients with a T1 primary tumor (p = 0.007). Hybrid SPECT/CT offers the physiologic data of SPECT together with the anatomic data of CT in a single image. This hybrid imaging improved the anatomic localization of SLNs in breast cancer patients and predicted the metastatic involvement of SLNs in the subgroup of breast cancer patients with T1 primary tumors.

  7. DNA copy number profiles of gastric cancer precursor lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Velde Cornelis JH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal instability (CIN is the most prevalent type of genomic instability in gastric tumours, but its role in malignant transformation of the gastric mucosa is still obscure. In the present study, we set out to study whether two morphologically distinct categories of gastric cancer precursor lesions, i.e. intestinal-type and pyloric gland adenomas, would carry different patterns of DNA copy number changes, possibly reflecting distinct genetic pathways of gastric carcinogenesis in these two adenoma types. Results Using a 5K BAC array CGH platform, we showed that the most common aberrations shared by the 11 intestinal-type and 10 pyloric gland adenomas were gains of chromosomes 9 (29%, 11q (29% and 20 (33%, and losses of chromosomes 13q (48%, 6(48%, 5(43% and 10 (33%. The most frequent aberrations in intestinal-type gastric adenoma were gains on 11q, 9q and 8, and losses on chromosomes 5q, 6, 10 and 13, whereas in pyloric gland gastric adenomas these were gains on chromosome 20 and losses on 5q and 6. However, no significant differences were observed between the two adenoma types. Conclusion The results suggest that gains on chromosomes 8, 9q, 11q and 20, and losses on chromosomes 5q, 6, 10 and 13, likely represent early events in gastric carcinogenesis. The phenotypical entities, intestinal-type and pyloric gland adenomas, however, do not differ significantly (P = 0.8 at the level of DNA copy number changes.

  8. Lymphogenous metastasis to the transverse colon that originated from signet-ring cell gastric cancer: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Hirofumi; Kawai, Kazushige; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Murono, Koji; Kaneko, Manabu; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Otani, Kensuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Yasuda, Koji; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Aikou, Susumu; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Seto, Yasuyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-12-01

    Metastases to the colon are rare and a high-frequency primary region is the stomach. In cases of metastases to the colon, the morphological type of the metastatic region is mostly the infiltrating type of poorly differentiated or undifferentiated adenocarcinoma with lymph and blood vessel invasion. A case of cancer metastasis to the transverse colon that originated from advanced gastric cancer, which shows the difficulties in the precise diagnosis of metastases to the colon, is presented. In the present case, the gastric carcinoma was determined to be an advanced infiltrative ulcerative adenocarcinoma and the colon carcinoma was determined to be a superficial depressed adenocarcinoma. After surgery, the colon carcinoma was diagnosed as a metastatic adenocarcinoma from gastric adenocarcinoma with high invasion of vessels, by immunohistopathological analysis of CK7, CK20, p53 and HER-2. In this report, previously reported cases of metastases to the colon from gastric cancer were reviewed and their morphological characteristics were analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient considerations in metastatic colorectal cancer – role of panitumumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers JE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jane E Rogers Pharmacy Clinical Programs, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is overexpressed in many malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC, making EGFR an attractive treatment option. Panitumumab and cetuximab, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs directed at EGFR, are both currently utilized in the management of metastatic CRC (mCRC. Through the development of these agents in mCRC, key issues surrounding each mAbs use have been revealed. These key issues include negative patient outcome avoidance when determining use, the economic burden with high-cost medication, predictive biomarkers, tumor location, patient geographic location, patient quality of life, and the prevention of debilitating adverse effects. CRC remains a common malignancy, with many of these patients expected to receive targeted therapy, including EGFR mAb therapy. Oncologists must recognize these EGFR mAb factors in order to improve outcomes. This review aims to provide a chronological timeline on the development of panitumumab, clinical pearls, and guidance on the current use of panitumumab in mCRC. Keywords: receptor, epidermal growth factor, antineoplastic agent, antibodies, monoclonal, colorectal neoplasms

  10. MRI for discriminating metastatic ovarian tumors from primary epithelial ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanhong; Yang, Jia; Zhang, Zaixian; Zhang, Guixiang

    2015-08-28

    To find specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features to differentiate metastatic ovarian tumors from primary epithelial ovarian cancers. Eleven cases with metastatic ovarian tumors and 26 cases with primary malignant epithelial ovarian cancers were retrospectively studied. All features such as patient characteristics, MRI findings and biomarkers were evaluated. The differences including laterality, configuration, uniformity of locules, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signal of solid components and enhancement of solid portions between metastatic ovarian tumors and primary epithelial ovarian cancers were compared by Fisher's exact test. Median age of patients, the maximum diameter of lesions and biomarkers were compared by the Mann-Whitney test. Patients with metastatic ovarian tumors were younger than patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancers in the median age (P = 0.015). Patients with bilateral tumors in metastatic ovarian tumors were more than those of primary epithelial ovarian cancers (P = 0.032). The maximum diameter of lesions in metastatic ovarian tumors was smaller than that of primary epithelial ovarian cancers (P = 0.005). The locules in metastatic ovarian tumors were more uniform than those of primary epithelial ovarian cancers (P = 0.024). The enhancement of solid portions in metastatic ovarian tumors showed more moderate than that of primary epithelial ovarian cancers (P = 0.037). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in configuration, DWI signal of solid components and ascites. Biomarkers such as CA125 and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) in metastatic ovarian tumors showed less elevated than that of primary epithelial ovarian cancers. Significant differences between metastatic ovarian tumors and primary epithelial ovarian cancers were found in the median age of patients, laterality, the maximum diameter of lesions, uniformity of locules, enhancement patterns of solid portions and

  11. [Prognostic and therapeutic value of D2 lymphadenectomy in the treatment of gastric cancer: experience of an Italian team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Giancarlo; Sergio, Varriale; Di Libero, Lorenzo; Manetta, Fiorenza; Giordano, Marco; Lanza, Michele; Scetta, Giovanni; Pizza, Alessandra; Sciascia, Valerio; Napolitano, Salvatore; D'Aniello, Francesco; Casaburi, Vincenzo; Esposito, Daniela; Sarno, Gerardo; Santini, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the incidence of gastric cancer and the related percentage of mortality have been decreasing world-wide, especially in the industrialised countries. Surgery has commonly been opted for as primary treatment of this disease. However, the optimal extent of surgical intervention is still debated. Japanese surgeons have been the pioneers of perigastric and celiac tripod lymphadenectomies in an attempt to improve long-term survival and the postoperative disease-free period. In recent years, D2 resection has been compared with D1 resection, which consists in excision of the stomach along with its locoregional nodes. From March 2002 to January 2007, 70 interventions for gastric cancer were performed at the VII Division of General Surgery of the Second University of Naples. All patients underwent excision of the lymph nodes from stations 1 to 6 (D1) combined with excision of stations 7 to 12 (D2). In 32 cases (45.7%) there were no metastatic lymph nodes (NO), in 28 patients (40%) 1 to 6 nodes proved metastatic (N1), and in 10 cases (14.3%) from 7 to 15 nodes were metastasised (N2). The incidence of metastatic lymph nodes was 54.3% and the prevalence 13.6%. Metastatic lymph nodes were found mostly in T3 (15/24) and T4 (14/20) stage tumours rather than in T1 (3/12) and T2 (6/14) neoplasms. Two patients (2.86%) died within 60 days of the intervention. The overall postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were 21.43% and 2.86%, respectively. D2 gastrectomies without pancreatic resections present distinct advantages in terms of long-term survival and are associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality rates which are similar to those obtained after D1 node resection.

  12. DMBT1 is frequently downregulated in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma but more frequently upregulated across various gastric cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Ana R; Martins, Ana P; Brito, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved ...... preferentially take place in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. However, an upregulation of DMBT1 expression is more frequently found across all gastric cancer types.......Well-differentiated gastric carcinomas are considered to represent a distinct entity emerging via specific molecular changes different from those found in other gastric carcinoma types. The gene deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 codes for a protein presumably involved...... in cell differentiation and protection and has been proposed as a candidate tumour suppressor for brain and epithelial cancer. One study reported a loss of DMBT1 expression in 12.5% (5/40) of gastric cancer samples. Here, we examined in more detail DMBT1 protein and mRNA expression in 78 primary gastric...

  13. Biofluid-Based Detection of the Migration Switch in Prostate Cancer to Predict Metastatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0416 TITLE: Biofluid-Based Detection of the Migration Switch in Prostate Cancer to Predict Metastatic Disease PRINCIPAL...Aug 2016 Sep.20164. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biofluid-Based Detection of the Migration Switch in Prostate Cancer to Predict Metastatic Disease 5a...accurately and non-invasively monitor localized disease longitudinally will allow patients to avoid the side effects and morbidity of definitive treatment

  14. Estramustine phosphate versus placebo as second line treatment after orchiectomy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Asmussen, C

    1997-01-01

    We compared the effect of 560 mg. estramustine phosphate daily to placebo as a supplement to standard palliative therapy in patients with progressive disease after bilateral orchiectomy as first line therapy for metastatic prostate cancer.......We compared the effect of 560 mg. estramustine phosphate daily to placebo as a supplement to standard palliative therapy in patients with progressive disease after bilateral orchiectomy as first line therapy for metastatic prostate cancer....

  15. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocvirk Janja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients’ register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

  16. Prognostic value of programmed death-1, programmed death-ligand 1, programmed death-ligand 2 expression, and CD8(+) T cell density in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Su; Xu, Dazhi; Chen, Shangxiang; Cai, Yuchen; Jiang, Wenqi; Zhang, Xinke; Sun, Jin; Wang, Kefeng; Chang, Boyang; Wang, Fenghua; Hong, Minghuang

    2017-07-29

    Anti-programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) immunotherapy has been proved to be effective on gastric cancer in ongoing clinical trials. However, the value of PD-L1 in predicting responses of patients with gastric cancer to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy is controversial. Some studies suggested that intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity of PD-L1 expression might explain the controversy. This study aimed to analyze the expression of PD-L1, PD-L2, and PD-1 as well as CD8(+) T-cell density in primary tumors and lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma to explore the heterogeneity of PD-1 signaling pathway molecules. In primary tumors and metastatic as well as non-metastatic lymph nodes from patients with stage T1-4N+M0 gastric adenocarcinoma, we detected PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression with immunohistochemistry. CD8(+) T-cell density in primary tumors and PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells were detected with immunofluorescence. Univariate analysis was used to determine the prognostic values of them. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify independent risk factors that affect patients' overall survival and disease-free survival. Among 119 eligible patients who had undergone surgical resection, the positive rate of PD-L1 was higher in metastatic lymph nodes than in primary tumors (45.4% vs. 38.7%, P = 0.005); the positive rate of PD-1 on CD8(+) T cells was significantly higher in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes than in tumor-free lymph nodes (both P CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors and in metastatic lymph nodes were stronger than that in tumor-free lymph nodes from the same patient. Beside, the positive rate of PD-L2 did not show any differences between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 expression, PD-L2 expression, a low density of CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors, and PD-1 expression on CD8(+) T cells in primary tumors were associated with poor prognosis

  17. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF TREATMENT FOR VISCERAL METASTASES IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC CASTRATION-REFRACTORY PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Medications increasing the survival of patients with metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer (CRPC are lacking today. In the past 3 years, in the pharmaceutical market there have been a few novel drugs to treat progressive prostate cancer. Abiraterone acetate is an androgen synthesis inhibitor, which is also used to increase the survival of patients with metastatic CRPC that progresses after chemotherapy. The results of treatment for metastatic CRPC depend on a number of factors. Visceral metastases are poor predictors of the course of the disease. The results of abiraterone acetate treatment were analyzed in CRPC patients with visceral metastases.

  18. Genome-wide gene copy number and expression analysis of primary gastric tumors and gastric cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junnila, Siina; Kokkola, Arto; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Monni, Outi

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer related death. Gene copy number alterations play an important role in the development of gastric cancer and a change in gene copy number is one of the main mechanisms for a cancer cell to control the expression of potential oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. To highlight genes of potential biological and clinical relevance in gastric cancer, we carried out a systematic array-based survey of gene expression and copy number levels in primary gastric tumors and gastric cancer cell lines and validated the results using an affinity capture based transcript analysis (TRAC assay) and real-time qRT-PCR. Integrated microarray analysis revealed altogether 256 genes that were located in recurrent regions of gains or losses and had at least a 2-fold copy number- associated change in their gene expression. The expression levels of 13 of these genes, ALPK2, ASAP1, CEACAM5, CYP3A4, ENAH, ERBB2, HHIPL2, LTB4R, MMP9, PERLD1, PNMT, PTPRA, and OSMR, were validated in a total of 118 gastric samples using either the qRT-PCR or TRAC assay. All of these 13 genes were differentially expressed between cancerous samples and nonmalignant tissues (p < 0.05) and the association between copy number and gene expression changes was validated for nine (69.2%) of these genes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, integrated gene expression and copy number microarray analysis highlighted genes that may be critically important for gastric carcinogenesis. TRAC and qRT-PCR analyses validated the microarray results and therefore the role of these genes as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer

  19. Can urologists introduce the concept of "oligometastasis" for metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Watanabe, Keitaro; Kufukihara, Ryohei; Yanai, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Satoshi; Oyama, Masafumi; Monma, Tetsuo; Masuda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shintaro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-12-19

    We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014. We extracted independent predictors for identifying a favorable. Occurrence that fulfilled all 4 criteria which were independently associated with cancer-specific death was defined as oligometastasis: a solitary metastatic organ; number of metastatic lesions of 3 or less; the largest diameter of metastatic foci of 5cm or less; and no liver metastasis. We evaluated differences in clinical outcomes between patients with oligometastasis (oligometastasis group) and those without oligometastasis (non-oligometastasis group). Overall, there were 43 patients in the oligometastasis group. The 2-year cancer-specific survival rate in the oligometastasis group was 53.3%, which was significantly higher than that in the non-oligometastasis group (16.1%, poligometastasis (poligometastasis group. The 2-year cancer-specific survival rate in the oligometastasis group was 55.0%, which was significantly higher than that in the non-oligometastasis group (22.0%, p=0.005). Non-oligometastasis (p=0.009) was the only independent risk factor for cancer-specific death. We presented that urothelial carcinoma with oligometastasis had a favorable prognosis and responded to systemic chemotherapy. Oligometastasis may be treated as a separate entity in the field of metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

  20. Can urologists introduce the concept of “oligometastasis” for metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Watanabe, Keitaro; Kufukihara, Ryohei; Yanai, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Satoshi; Oyama, Masafumi; Monma, Tetsuo; Masuda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shintaro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014. We extracted independent predictors for identifying a favorable. Occurrence that fulfilled all 4 criteria which were independently associated with cancer-specific death was defined as oligometastasis: a solitary metastatic organ; number of metastatic lesions of 3 or less; the largest diameter of metastatic foci of 5cm or less; and no liver metastasis. We evaluated differences in clinical outcomes between patients with oligometastasis (oligometastasis group) and those without oligometastasis (non-oligometastasis group). Overall, there were 43 patients in the oligometastasis group. The 2-year cancer-specific survival rate in the oligometastasis group was 53.3%, which was significantly higher than that in the non-oligometastasis group (16.1%, poligometastasis (poligometastasis group. The 2-year cancer-specific survival rate in the oligometastasis group was 55.0%, which was significantly higher than that in the non-oligometastasis group (22.0%, p=0.005). Non-oligometastasis (p=0.009) was the only independent risk factor for cancer-specific death. We presented that urothelial carcinoma with oligometastasis had a favorable prognosis and responded to systemic chemotherapy. Oligometastasis may be treated as a separate entity in the field of metastatic urothelial carcinoma. PMID:29340094

  1. Decreased Sp1 Expression Mediates Downregulation of SHIP2 in Gastric Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Past studies have shown that the Src homology 2-containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2 (SHIP2 is commonly downregulated in gastric cancer, which contributes to elevated activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, proliferation and tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the reduced expression of SHIP2 in gastric cancer remain unclear. While gene copy number variation analysis and exon sequencing indicated the absence of genomic alterations of SHIP2, bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS showed promoter hypomethylation of SHIP2 in gastric cancer cells. Analysis of transcriptional activity of SHIP2 promoter revealed Specificity protein 1 (Sp1 was responsible for the regulation of SHIP2 expression in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, Sp1 expression, but not Sp3, was frequently downregulated in gastric cancer compared with normal gastric mucosa, which was associated with a paralleled reduction in SHIP2 levels in gastric cancer. Moreover, overexpression of Sp1 inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, suppressed cell motility and invasion in gastric cancer cells in vitro, which was, at least in part, due to transcriptional activation of SHIP2 mediated by Sp1, thereby inactivating Akt. Collectively, these results indicate that decreased expression of transcription factor Sp1 contributes to suppression of SHIP2 in gastric cancer cells.

  2. Role of microRNAs in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Hideyuki; Kimura, Masahiro; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Although gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death, major therapeutic advances have not been made, and patients with GC still face poor outcomes. The prognosis of GC also remains poor because the molecular mechanisms of GC progression are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that are associated with gastric carcinogenesis. Studies investigating the regulation of gene expression by miRNAs have made considerable progress in recent years, and abnormalities in miRNA expression have been shown to be associated with the occurrence and progression of GC. miRNAs contribute to gastric carcinogenesis by altering the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility, and invasion. Moreover, a number of miRNAs have been shown to be associated with tumor type, tumor stage, and patient survival and therefore may be developed as novel diagnostic or prognostic markers. In this review, we discuss the involvement of miRNAs in GC and the mechanisms through which they regulate gene expression and biological functions. Then, we review recent research on the involvement of miRNAs in GC prognosis, their potential use in chemotherapy, and their effects on Helicobacter pylori infections in GC. A greater understanding of the roles of miRNAs in gastric carcinogenesis could provide insights into the mechanisms of tumor development and could help to identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24914330

  3. Ultrasonography of the obstructive lesions of the gastric outlet: Emphasis on the differentiation between advanced gastric cancer and benign inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoh, Kyu Tong; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Soon Gu; Park, Chan Sup; Cho, Sang Kyoon; Kim, Joon Mee [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the value of high resolution ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of the obstructive lesions of the gastric outlet. We reviewed the ultrasonograms of 37 cases with symptoms of gastric obstruction. The ultrasonograms were obtained by using 5 or 7.5 MHz probe. The pathology of the lesion was confirmed by operation or endoscopic biopsy in all cases. We analyzed the ultrasonograms in terms of the thickness and length of the lesions, the ultrasonographic feature of the gastric lumen on transverse scan, the echogenicity of the lesion, and the changes in the 5 echo layers of the gastric wall. The average thickness of gastric cancer and inflammatory stricture was 18.4mm and 9.0mm, and that of length was 35.2mm and 11.5mm respectively. Thus, the thickness and length of the lesion in gastric cancers were significantly greater than those in inflammatory strictures. On transverse scan, we classified the feature of lesion into 3 categories : marked circumferential wall thickening with compressed slit like lumen, circumferential wall thickening with preserved round contour of lumen, and eccentrical wall thickening with peripheral deviation of lumen. Circumferential wall thickening with central slit like lumen and eccentrical wall thickening with displaced lumen were seen predominently in gastriccancers (48% and 44% respectively), while circumferential wall thickening with preserved round contour of lumen inflammatory strictures(80%). Gastric cancer showed low echogenicity in 22 cases (81%), whereas benign inflammation showed low or iso echogenicity in equal number. Some or all of the 5 echo layers of the gastric wall was disintegrated in both groups. In summery, high resolution ultrasonography was helpful in determining the nature of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in differentiation between advanced gastric cancer and inflammatory stricture

  4. Ultrasonography of the obstructive lesions of the gastric outlet: Emphasis on the differentiation between advanced gastric cancer and benign inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoh, Kyu Tong; Suh, Chang Hae; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Soon Gu; Park, Chan Sup; Cho, Sang Kyoon; Kim, Joon Mee

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the value of high resolution ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of the obstructive lesions of the gastric outlet. We reviewed the ultrasonograms of 37 cases with symptoms of gastric obstruction. The ultrasonograms were obtained by using 5 or 7.5 MHz probe. The pathology of the lesion was confirmed by operation or endoscopic biopsy in all cases. We analyzed the ultrasonograms in terms of the thickness and length of the lesions, the ultrasonographic feature of the gastric lumen on transverse scan, the echogenicity of the lesion, and the changes in the 5 echo layers of the gastric wall. The average thickness of gastric cancer and inflammatory stricture was 18.4mm and 9.0mm, and that of length was 35.2mm and 11.5mm respectively. Thus, the thickness and length of the lesion in gastric cancers were significantly greater than those in inflammatory strictures. On transverse scan, we classified the feature of lesion into 3 categories : marked circumferential wall thickening with compressed slit like lumen, circumferential wall thickening with preserved round contour of lumen, and eccentrical wall thickening with peripheral deviation of lumen. Circumferential wall thickening with central slit like lumen and eccentrical wall thickening with displaced lumen were seen predominently in gastriccancers (48% and 44% respectively), while circumferential wall thickening with preserved round contour of lumen inflammatory strictures(80%). Gastric cancer showed low echogenicity in 22 cases (81%), whereas benign inflammation showed low or iso echogenicity in equal number. Some or all of the 5 echo layers of the gastric wall was disintegrated in both groups. In summery, high resolution ultrasonography was helpful in determining the nature of gastric outlet obstruction, especially in differentiation between advanced gastric cancer and inflammatory stricture

  5. [Comparative study on biological difference between gastric cancer and colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, M; Ohta, T; Minamoto, T; Takahashi, Y

    1996-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the clinico-pathologic characteristics of patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and those with colorectal carcinoma to compare early progression patterns of both tumors. Histologically, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas showed similar progression patterns, including the incidence of submucosal invasion, lymphatic infiltration and lymph node metastasis. One striking finding was in gross appearance in born tumors. In contrast to most gastric well differentiated adenocarcinoma (DTA), which showed superficial growth, colorectal DTAs mainly showed polypoid growth. However, the superficial-type colorectal DTAs invaded the submucosal layer more frequently than did polypoid DTAs and gastric DTAs. These findings indicate that superficial-type colorectal DTAs grow more rapidly and aggressively than do polypoid DTAs and gastric DTAs. In order to elucidate growth rates between gastric cancer and colorectal cancer with hepatic metastasis doubling time was measured by exponential growth of tumor marker (CEA or AFP). The doubling time of liver metastases calculated from tumor markers was 26.6 +/- 10.8 days for stomach cancer and 57.8 +/- 35.4 days for colorectal cancer; accordingly doubling time for gastric cancer was approximately half of that for colonic cancer. However, there were no other factors (age, sex, site, histologic type in stomach, tumor marker production, etc.) influencing doubling time.

  6. Treatment of initially metastatic small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohutek, F.; Bystricky, B.; Tamasova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the most common cause of death associated with neoplasms. The incidence of LC in 2007 was 71.3/100,000 men and 18.6/100,000 women in Slovakia. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) includes 15 - 18% of all cases. The diagnosis of LC is based on patient's history, physical examination, basic laboratory tests, x-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging and histology. The material required for histology can be obtained by means of endoscopy or surgery. Ultrasonography (USG) and/or CT of abdomen is commonly performed as a part of staging process, along with CT or MRI of brain. Bone scan is performed in case of suspicion of bone involvement. According to TNM classification, seventh edition, the same classification can be used for SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are available for treatment of initially metastatic SCLC. First-line chemotherapy regimen should be based on combination of cisplatin or carboplatin with etoposide (PE). Alternatively, CAV regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine) can be used. Newer regimens did not provide benefit when compared to standard regimens. If progression occurs later than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, the same regimen may be used in second-line chemotherapy. If progression occurs earlier than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, topotecan-based regimen is an option for second-line line chemotherapy. Despite promising outcomes of amrubicin-based second-line chemotherapy in Japan, amrubicin is not available in countries of E U. Standard therapy schedules do not include radiotherapy targeted on primary tumor and affected lymph-nodes. According to American and European guidelines, prophylactic cranial irradiation is recommended for patients with extensive disease-SCLC with good performance status after achieving complete or partial response to first-line chemotherapy. (author)

  7. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botelho Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09, similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37 and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13. The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57 when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14 for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17 for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86 for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk.

  8. Coffee and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Botelho

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between coffee consumption and gastric cancer and performed a meta-analysis of the results. Published cohort and case-control studies were identified in PubMed and reference lists. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool effects from 23 studies, and heterogeneity was explored by stratification and meta-regression. The odds ratio (OR for the overall association between coffee and gastric cancer (highest vs. lowest category of exposure was 0.97 (95%CI: 0.86-1.09, similar for cohort (OR = 1.02; 95%CI: 0.76-1.37 and case-control studies (population-based: OR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.70-1.15; hospital-based: OR = 0.97; 95%CI: 0.83-1.13. The OR was 1.26 (95%CI: 1.02-1.57 when considering five studies conducted in the USA, 0.97 (95%CI: 0.82-1.14 for the five Japanese studies, 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81-1.17 for the six studies from Europe, and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.47-0.86 for the two studies from South America. In this meta-analysis we found no adverse effect of coffee associated with gastric cancer. Knowledge on the level of exposure to different coffee constituents may provide a deeper understanding of this reassuring result and the real role of coffee on cancer risk.

  9. [Risk factors of cholecystitis after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuankui; Yang, Liqing; Liu, Yun; Tian, Qinggang; Wang, Xiaona; Li, Bin; Hou, Yachao; Liu, Hongmin; Liang, Han

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the risk factor of cholecystitis after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Clinicpathological data of 553 gastric cancer patients with normal gallbladders undergoing radical gastrectomy in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between March 2013 and March 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to evaluate factors influencing the cholecystitis after radical gastrectomy using log-rank and logistic regression model. There were 360 males and 193 females with a median age of 60 years. All patients were followed up from 6 months to 2 years. The incidence of cholecystitis after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer was 33.1%(183/553), while incidence of cholecystolithiasis was 4.9%(27/553). In addition, the cholecystitis incidence of patients with No.12 lymph node cleaning was 39.6%(89/225), while with No.8a lymph node cleaning was 38.0%(151/397), with No.5 lymph node cleaning was 38.0%(68/179), with No.7 lymph node cleaning was 34.4%(138/402), with No.9 lymph node cleaning was 34.7%(136/392). Univariate log-rank test indicated that the lymphadenectomy of No.8a(χ(2)=15.530, P=0.000), No.12 group(χ(2)=7.157, P=0.007) and surgical methods (χ(2)=7.427, P=0.024) were significantly associated with cholecystitis after radical gastrectomy. Multivariate analysis showed that the lymphadenectomy of No.8a was independent factor of cholecystitis after radical gastrectomy (OR=2.016, 95% CI:1.244 to 3.267, P=0.004). Vagal nerve trunk and sympathetic ganglion should be protected carefully during No.8a lymphadenectomy in radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, in order to reduce the incidence of postoperative cholecystitis.

  10. Remodeling of the pulmonary artery induced by metastatic gastric carcinoma: a histopathological analysis of 51 autopsy cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwatari, Takao; Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Nakayama, Haruo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Tochigi, Naobumi; Wakayama, Megumi; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Junko; Shinozaki, Minoru; Aki, Kyoko; Sasai, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma remains the second commonest cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Presence of the carcinoma cell in the pulmonary artery is serious condition that might cause remodeling of the pulmonary artery. The present study conducted detailed histopathological analyses to elucidate how gastric carcinoma cells may affect the structure and hemodynamics of pulmonary arteries. Remodeling of the pulmonary artery was assessed based on measurements of arterial diameters and stenosis rates from the autopsies, and their correlation were also validated. We additionally calculated 95 percent confidential intervals (CIs) for the rate of stenosis in groups of pulmonary arteries of different caliber zones (under 100, 100 to 300, and over 300 micrometer). The right ventricular thickness was measured and examined whether it correlated with the rate of pulmonary arterial stenosis. A total of 4612 autopsy cases were recorded at our institute, among which 168 had gastric carcinoma. Finally, 51 cases of the gastric carcinoma were employed for the study which had carcinoma cells in the lumen of the pulmonary artery. The mean right ventricular wall thickness of these cases was 3.14 mm. There were significant positive associations between the rates of pulmonary arterial stenosis and right ventricular thickness from pulmonary arteries of diameter under 100, 100 to 300, and over 300 micrometer. In these zones, 31, 31, and 33 cases had rates of pulmonary arterial stenosis that were below the lower limit of the 95 percent CI values, respectively. On the other hand, among cases with significant pulmonary stenosis, 17 of 18 cases with stenosis in the over 300 micrometer zone involved pulmonary arteries of both in the under 100 and 100 to 300 micrometer zones. One-third of autopsy with advanced gastric carcinoma had carcinoma cells in lumen of pulmonary artery, but implantation and proliferation may be essential to induce intimal thickening that causes an increasing of pulmonary arterial

  11. Application of contrast-enhanced helical hydro-CT in diagnosing and staging gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Wenzhou; Yu Jieping; Li Jun; Liu Changsheng; Zheng Xiaohua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore helical CT characteristics of gastric cancer and evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced helical hydro-CT(HHCT)in staging gastric cancer. Methods: The CT images of S0 patients with gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with pathologic findings at surgery. All patients were preoperatively imaged by plain and contrast-enhanced HHCT 30 rain after drinking S00-1000 ml water. Peristalsis was minimized by intravenously administered spasmolytics. Results: The characteristic findings of gastric carcer on CT images were focal or diffuse mural thickening, soft tissue masses, cancerous ulcers, stenosis of stomach, infiltration to adjacent tissues, lymph node metastasis and distant metastases. Strong contrast enhancement of the gastric wall was firmly related to gastric carcer. The foci of gastric carcer mainly located at the gastric cardia and gastric antrum, and became more prominent in contrast-enhanced HHCT than in plain HHCT.The accurate rate of contrast-enhanced HHCT for staging gastric carcer was 86% (43/50), and the detection rate of lymph node metastases by CT was 60% (12/20). Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced HHCT is a reliable method for diagnosing and staging gastric carcer. It is a useful guide for surgeons to plan the best treatment for patients with gastric cancer. (authors)

  12. Target volumes in gastric cancer radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudry, M.; Maire, J.P.; Ratoanina, J.L.; Escarmant, P.

    2001-01-01

    The spread of gastric adenocarcinoma may follow three main patterns: hemato-genic, lymphatic and intraperitoneal. A GTV should be considered in preoperative or exclusive radiation therapy. After non-radical surgery, a 'residual GTV' will be defined with the help of the surgeon. The CTV encompasses three intricated volumes. a) A 'tumor bed' volume. After radical surgery, local recurrences appear as frequent as distant metastases. The risk depends upon the depth of parietal invasion and the nodal status. Parietal infiltration may extend beyond macroscopic limits of the tumor, especially in dinitis plastica. Therefore this volume will include: the tumor and the remaining stomach or their 'bed of resection', a part of the transverse colon, the duodenum, the pancreas and the troncus of the portal vein. In postoperative RT, this CTV also includes the jejuno-gastric or jejuno-esophageal anastomosis. b) A peritoneal volume. For practical purposes, two degrees of spread must be considered: (1) contiguous microscopic extension from deeply invasive T3 and T4 tumors, that remain amenable to local sterilization with doses of 45-50 Gy, delivered in a CTV including the peritoneal cavity at the level of the gastric bed, and under the parietal incision; (2) true 'peritoneal carcinomatosis', with widespread seeds, where chemotherapy (systemic or intraperitoneal) is more appropriate. c) A lymphatic volume including the lymph node groups 1 to 16 of the Japanese classification. This volume must encompass the hepatic pedicle and the splenic hilum. In proximal tumors, it is possible to restrict the lover part of the CTV to the lymphatic volume, and therefore to avoid irradiation of large intestinal and renal volumes. In distal and proximal tumors, involvement of resection margins is of poor prognosis -a radiation boost must be delivered at this level. The CTV in tumors of the cardia should encompass the lover part of the thoracic esophagus and the corresponding posterior mediastinum. In

  13. Cabozantinib-S-Malate in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Metastatic Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Uterine Corpus Carcinosarcoma

  14. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when...... their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50¿+¿) and 122,424 matched controls....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p¿...

  15. [A case of AFP producing gastric cancer for which radiation therapy was effective in paraaortic lymph node recurrence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Keiko; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Kobayashi, Kenji; Igarashi, Yuko; Tsukao, Yukiko; Tanida, Tsukasa; Komori, Takamichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takachi, Kou; Aoki, Taro; Uemura, Yoshio

    2008-11-01

    The patient was a 75-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with type 3 gastric cancer. Total gastrectomy with D2-#10 lymph node dissection and partial hepatic resection was performed. Histological findings showed it to be stage IV (pT2N1M0P0CY0H1) and AFP producing gastric cancer. After the operation, liver metastasis was found, and RFA, partial hepatic resections, hepatic intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (5-FU, CDDP), intravenous chemotherapy (docetaxel, paclitaxel, CPT-11) were applied. Although liver metastasis was disappeared, paraaortic lymph node recurrence appeared, and chemotherapy was not effective. Radiation therapy (2 Gy/day, total 50 Gy) for paraaortic lymph node metastasis was performed. The metastatic node underwent complete remission following a radiation therapy. Three years and six months passed since the first operation, and the patient has shown no signs of relapse. Therefore, our case suggests radiation therapy could be an effective treatment modality for the lymph node metastasis in AFP producing gastric cancer.

  16. Prognostic significance of the total number of harvested lymph nodes for lymph node-negative gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xin; Bu, Zhao-De; Li, Zi-Yu; Wu, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Xiao-Jiang; Zong, Xiang-Long; Li, Shuang-Xi; Shan, Fei; Jia, Zi-Yu; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2017-08-22

    The relationship between the number of harvested lymph nodes (HLNs) and prognosis of gastric cancer patients without an involvement of lymph nodes has not been well-evaluated. The objective of this study is to further explore this issue. We collected data from 399 gastric cancer patients between November 2006 and October 2011. All of them were without metastatic lymph nodes. Survival analyses showed that statistically significant differences existed in the survival outcomes between the two groups allocated by the total number of HLNs ranging from 16 to 22. Therefore, we adopted 22 as the cut-off value of the total number of HLNs for grouping (group A: HLNs patients at the T4 stage was better in group B than in group A (76.9% vs. 58.5%; P=0.004). An analysis of multiple factors elucidated that the total number of HLNs, T stage, operation time and age were independently correlated factors of prognosis. Regarding gastric cancer patients without the involvement of lymph nodes, an HLN number ≥22 would be helpful in prolonging their overall survival, especially for those at T4 stage. The total number of HLNs was an independent prognostic factor for this population of patients.

  17. Gastric stump cancer: etiopathological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointner, R; Schwab, G; Königsrainer, A; Bodner, E; Schmid, K W

    1989-05-01

    Between 1959 and 1987, at the Innsbruck University Hospital, 359 cases of carcinoma were diagnosed in the gastric remnant. While until 1975 in 203 patients suffering from stump carcinoma the tumor stages T3 and T4 were significantly prevalent, a strong tendency towards the less advanced tumor stages T1 and T2 was observed in the last decade. Among 94 patients operated on since 1981 the tumor was located at the anastomosis in all but 5 cases, suggesting a strong connection between previous resection and stump carcinoma. In accordance with Lauren's classification no difference was found in the incidence of intestinal and diffuse lesions in 94 cases with stump carcinoma--in contrast to 69 cases of patients with a non-resected stomach. An analysis of the occurrence of acidity, atrophic gastritis and bacterial invasion in 70 patients with previous Billroth II resection and 30 patients with Billroth I resection, revealed no difference between the two types of resection. Gastric remnant carcinoma does not occur exclusively in the Bilroth II remnant, but, increasingly, following Billroth I operations. The finding of a statistically highly significant increase at the 5% level using standard chi 2-technique for a 2 x 5 table in stump carcinomas following Billroth I resections supports the thesis that there is no difference in the etiopathology of carcinogenesis in the Billroth I as compared with the Billroth II remnant.

  18. Next generation sequencing-based emerging trends in molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Renu; Sharma, Prakash C

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality in the world. Being asymptomatic in nature till advanced stage, diagnosis of gastric cancer becomes difficult in early stages of the disease. The onset and progression of gastric cancer has been attributed to multiple factors including genetic alterations, epigenetic modifications, Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection, and dietary habits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) based approaches viz . Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS), Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), RNA-Seq, and targeted sequencing have expanded the knowledge base of molecular pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In this review, we highlight recent NGS-based advances covering various genetic alterations (Microsatellite Instability, Single Nucleotide Variations, and Copy Number Variations), epigenetic changes (DNA methylation, histone modification, microRNAs) and differential gene expression during gastric tumorigenesis. We also briefly discuss the current and future potential biomarkers, drugs and therapeutic approaches available for the management of gastric cancer.

  19. History, Pathogenesis, and Management of Familial Gastric Cancer: Original Study of John XXIII's Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is associated with the E-cadherin germline mutations, but genetic determinants have not been identified for familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. The guidelines for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer are clearly established; however, there are no defined recommendations for the management of familial intestinal gastric carcinoma. Methods. In this study we describe Pope John XXIII's pedigree that harboured gastric cancer as well as six other family members. Family history was analysed according to the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium criteria, and gastric tumours were classified in accord with the last Japanese guidelines. Results. Seven out of 109 members in this pedigree harboured gastric cancer, affecting two consecutive generations. John XXIII's clinical tumour (cTN was classified as cT4bN3a (IV stage. In two other cases, gastric carcinomas were classified as intestinal histotype and staged as pT1bN0 and pT2N2, respectively. Conclusions. Pope John XXIII's family presents a strong aggregation for gastric cancer affecting almost seven members; it spreads through two consecutive generations. In absence of defined genetic causes and considering the increased risk of gastric cancer’s development in these families, as well as the high mortality rates and advanced stages, we propose an intensive surveillance protocol for asymptomatic members.

  20. m-RNA mammaglobin expression in metastatic breast cancer patient at Medan city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbun, S.; Siregar, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common causes of women’s death in the world. Metastatic spread presents a major clinical problem in about 30% of the patients. The study aims to investigate the clinical reliability of mammaglobin mRNA as a marker of circulating cancer cells in breast cancer patients. The positivity of blood was analyzed in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics. This study was on 29 breast cancer patients (13 metastatic, 16 non- metastatic patients), where28 were invasive intraductal carcinoma type and 1 was invasive lobular carcinoma type. Breast cancer patients were according to the histologic grade into grade I (7 patients),grade II (6 patients) and grade III (15 patients). All individuals included in this study were subjected to detection of mammaglobin m-RNA of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood using RT-PCR technique. Positivity for mammaglobin in blood samples was in 38% of patients with metastatic but not in the non-metastatic patients. The presence of mammaglobin correlated with metastatic tumor (P = 0.011). Mammaglobin overexpression in breast tissue was significantly positive in low-grade tumors (I and II).

  1. Nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate, gastric cancer and tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, E-F; Martelli, D-R-B; Machado, R-A; Coletta, R-D; de Souza, J-D; Barbosa, F-T; de Figueiredo, M-F-L; Coelho, L-G-V; Martelli-Júnior, H

    2018-01-01

    To determine the frequency of nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) in first-degree relatives and to analyze the prevalence of tooth agenesis in patients with gastric cancer. This cross-sectional, observational, case-control study included 798 patients attended at hospital Santa Casa in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais and Alfa Institute of Gastroenterology of the Federal University of the Minas Gerais. Information on basic demographic data and tooth agenesis of both groups and their family history of NSCL/P in first-degree relatives were evaluated. The collected information was stored in a database and analyzed using statistical program SPSS version 21.0 and the values with pcancer and in the frequency of NSCL/P in the first-degree relatives of patients with gastric cancer.

  2. [Patients with gastric cancer submitted to gastrectomy: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Bruna Schroeder; Lucena, Amália de Fátima; Echer, Isabel Cristina; Luzia, Melissa de Freitas

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the scientific production about patients with gastric cancer submitted to gastrectomy and describe important aspects of nursing guidelines for these patients. An integrative review was carried out using Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) databases; twenty two articles were analyzed. Retrospective cross-sectional studies were the most frequent. The scientific production of nursing is numerically small in relation to the medical area. The results show that approaches related to pre and post-operative in gastrectomy for gastric cancer resection subsidize the knowledge of issues essential for nurses to promote efficient intervention for the recovery of such patients. There is still the need for further research on the practice of nursing in the guidelines of this kind of surgery.

  3. Itraconazole induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via inhibiting Hedgehog signaling in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiang; Hou, Yi-Chao; Huang, Jiao; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Xiong, Hua

    2017-04-11

    Itraconazole has been proved therapeutically effective against a variety of human cancers. This study assessed the effect of itraconazole on the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway and proliferation of human gastric cancer cells. CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to assess the effects of itraconazole on proliferation of gastric cancer cells. The expression of Hh signaling components in gastric cancer cells treated with itraconazole was evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and dual luciferase assay. Tumor xenograft models were used to assess the inhibitory effect of itraconazole on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in vivo. Itraconazole could remarkably inhibit the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. When in combination with 5-FU, itraconazole significantly reduced the proliferation rate of cancer cells. Furthermore, itraconazole could regulate the G 1 -S transition and induce apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Hh signaling was abnormally activated in human gastric cancer samples. In vitro, studies showed that the expression of glioma-associated zinc finger transcription factor 1 (Gli1) was decreased at both transcriptional and translational levels after treatment with itraconazole. Dual luciferase assay also indicated that itraconazole could inhibit the transcription of Gli1. In vivo studies demonstrated that monotherapy with itraconazole by oral administration could inhibit the growth of xenografts, and that itraconazole could significantly enhance the antitumor efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-FU. Hh signaling is activated in gastric tumor and itraconazole can inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting Gli1 expression.

  4. Will Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Childhood Alter the Risk of Developing Gastric Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Bourke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen for gastric cancer. It is estimated that there is between a two- and sixfold increase in the risk of developing gastric cancer among infected patients. Among different populations, the risk of H pylori-infected individuals developing gastric cancer varies greatly. However, on a worldwide scale, gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, H pylori eradication could help prevent up to three to four million gastric cancer deaths per year. H pylori is usually acquired in childhood. Because infected children have not harboured the organism for long enough to have developed precancerous lesions, childhood is theoretically an attractive time for H pylori eradication and, thus, could help prevent gastric cancer later in life. However, as H pylori prevalence and the incidence of gastric cancer are falling rapidly in developed nations, widespread population screening programs aimed at the eradication of H pylori in these countries would be enormously expensive. Therefore, except in groups with a high risk for development of gastric cancer (eg, Japanese or those with a strong positive family history of gastric cancer, a population-based test-and-treat policy is not justified.

  5. KIF26B, a novel oncogene, promotes proliferation and metastasis by activating the VEGF pathway in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Ma, R-R; Wang, X-J; Su, Z-X; Chen, X; Shi, D-B; Guo, X-Y; Liu, H-T; Gao, P

    2017-10-05

    Tumor metastasis is the main reason of cancer-related death for gastric cancer (GC) patients and gene expression microarray data indicate that kinesin family member 26B (KIF26B) is one of the most upregulated genes in metastatic GC samples. Specifically, KIF26B expression was upregulated in a stepwise manner from non-tumorous gastric mucosa, primary GC tissues without metastasis, via primary GC tissues with metastasis, to secondary lymph node metastatic (LNM) foci. Increased expression of KIF26B was correlated with tumor size, positive LNM or distant metastases and poor prognosis. KIF26B, negatively regulated by miR-372, promoted GC cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations confirmed that the main target of KIF26B was the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway, particularly by inhibition or overexpression of VEGFA, PXN, FAK, PIK3CA, BCL2 and CREB1. Thus, KIF26B, a novel oncogene regulated by miR-372, promotes proliferation and metastasis through the VEGF pathway in GC.

  6. Diffuse Gastric Cancer During Pregnancy: Report of a Rare Association

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Orivaldo Alves; de Souza, Anna Dorotheia Bezerra; Moura, Mayna Raphaela de Carvalho; Junior, Elson Jose de Almeida; Fontenele, Joao Paulo Uchoa; Chaves, Fabio de Figuereido; Correia, Jose Walter

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer during pregnancy is a rare event and difficult to diagnose, as the symptoms can be confused with those of an ordinary pregnancy. We report a case of a 25-year-old patient with a 29-week gestation, with asthenia complaint, vomiting and weight loss. During the investigation of wasting syndrome endoscopy was performed with infiltrative ulcerative lesions in pre-pyloric region with biopsy revealing carcinoma with signet ring, undifferentiated type. It was held on a strict control o...

  7. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For in...

  8. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Hao; Xu, Ying-Ying; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Song, Yong-Xi; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2017-07-04

    Studies examining the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and the risk of gastric cancer incidence or gastric cancer mortality have produced inconsistent results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence regarding the relationship between DM and subsequent gastric cancer incidence or gastric cancer mortality risk on the basis of cohort studies. A systematic search of articles in PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Library, and reference lists was conducted to identify relevant literature. Twenty-two cohort studies reporting data on 8,559,861 participants were included in the study. Overall, participants with DM had little or no change in the risk of gastric cancer, or gastric cancer mortality. There was no evidence of difference in the RR for gastric cancer between men and women. Participants with DM had a non-significant trend towards an increased risk of gastric cancer mortality in men. There was no significant difference between men and women for this relationship. Finally, although subgroup analysis suggested DM was associated with a significant impact on gastric cancer incidence and gastric cancer mortality risk in several specific populations, a significance based on gender difference was not observed. In conclusion, DM might increase the risk of gastric cancer in men when the study used standard incidence/mortality ratio as effect estimate. Further, DM were associated with higher risk of gastric cancer mortality in men if the mean age at baseline less than 55.0 years, used RR or HR as effect estimate, the study adjusted smoking or not, and the study not adjusted alcohol drinking.

  9. Mutation analysis of the negative regulator cyclin G2 in gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclin G2 is an unconventional cyclin which might have a potential negative role in carcinogenesis. In this study, the effect of cyclin G2 overexpression on gastric cell proliferation and expression levels of cyclin G2 in normal gastric cells and gastric cancer cells were investigated. Moreover, mutation analysis was performed ...

  10. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenhof, Niki A.; de Wilde, Roeland F.; Morsink, Folkert H. M.; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Morreau, Hans; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Milne, Anya N.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome characterized by highly penetrant diffuse gastric cancer. It is caused by germ line mutations in CDHI, encoding the cell-cell adhesion protein E-cadherin. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most dismal

  11. Cost-effectiveness of screening and treating Helicobacter pylori for gastric cancer prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); L. Sharp (Linda)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractGastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. A meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials concluded that Helicobacter pylori eradication reduces gastric cancer incidence by 35%. Current consensus is that H. pylori screening and treatment is

  12. STRESS-RESPONSE TO RADICAL SURGERIES FOR GASTRIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Avdeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anesthetic effect of the combination of xenon and dexmedetomidine during surgery for gastric cancer. Material and methods. The prospective randomized study included 53 patients with operable II–III stage gastric cancer. The age range was from 26 to 75 years. The patients underwent gastrectomy (n=21 and subtotal distal gastrectomy (n=32. The study group comprised 27 patients who received anesthesia with xenon and dexmedetomidine combined with epidural analgesia. The control group consisted of 26 patients who received anesthesia with sevoflurane in combination with epidural analgesia. Intraoperative patient monitoring was performed according to Harvard intraoperative monitoring standards. Plasma levels of ACTH, STH cortisole, IL-1β, IL-6, and CRP as well as cytokine profile were used to evaluate the effect of two anesthetic methods. Results. In the perioperative period, the combination of xenon and dexmedetomidine in combination with epidural analgesia was characterized by significant inhibition of systemic inflammatory reactions and a lower release of stress hormones as components of a surgical stress response expressed by a lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and somatotropic hormone. The frequency of postoperative inflammatory complications was lower in the xenon group than in the control group. Conclusion. The use of the combination of xenon and dexmedetomidine during surgery for gastric cancer provides a more adequate course of the perioperative period. 

  13. [Clinicopathological Study of Perforated Gastric Cancer Treated with Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Toru; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kumagai, Youichi; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2018-02-01

    This retrospective study evaluated an appropriate surgical treatment in patients with perforated gastric cancer. The clinicopathological and survival data on 17 perforated gastric cancer patients treated with surgery were analyzed. The one-stage or two-stage gastrectomy was performed in 8 and 5 patients, respectively. The omental patch repair was performed in 4 patients. In univariate analysis, non-curative(R2)resection with gross residual tumor(p<0.01)and postoperative complications( p=0.01)were found to be significant unfavorable factors for overall survival(OS). In multivariate analysis, R2 resection was identified to be an only independent significant unfavorable factor for OS. Patients who underwent curative(R0) resection had long-term survival, while patients with R2 resection and postoperative complication had limited survival times. These results suggest that R0 resection may be optimal to improve survival in patients with perforated gastric cancer, regardless of whether patients underwent a one-stage or two-stage gastrectomy based on the patient's condition.

  14. Determinants of Last-line Treatment in Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinausero, Marika; Gerratana, Lorenzo; De Carlo, Elisa; Iacono, Donatella; Bonotto, Marta; Fanotto, Valentina; Buoro, Vanessa; Basile, Debora; Vitale, Maria Grazia; Rihawi, Karim; Fasola, Gianpiero; Puglisi, Fabio

    2017-07-14

    In metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients, the identification of factors helping clinicians in the choice between active therapy versus best supportive care is needed clinically. The aim of the present study was to identify the clinicopathologic factors that could improve the prognostic valuation of MBC patients and clinical decision-making at the end of life. The present study analyzed data from a retrospective series of 522 MBC patients treated at the oncology department (University Hospital of Udine) from January 2004 to June 2014. The association between clinicopathologic features and death within 30 or 90 days since last-line treatment prescription was explored. Differences between lightly (≤ 3 lines) and heavily (> 3 lines) pretreated patients and the factors affecting treatment choice were investigated. The event "death" occurred in 410 patients. The median last-line survival was 100 days. The median number of therapeutic lines was 3. On multivariate analysis, worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was significantly associated with death within 90 and 30 days since last-line treatment prescription. Among the heavily pretreated patients, liver function impairment and evaluation by a breast cancer specialist were significantly associated with a greater and lower risk of death within 30 days, respectively. Among the lightly pretreated patients with luminal disease, age < 70 years, luminal B-like disease, and number of previous lines were associated with a greater chance of receiving chemotherapy. In the present study, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was the most robust independent factor driving the last-line therapeutic choice for MBC patients. In addition, the molecular subtype and oncologist subspecialization also influenced the decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy in rapidly progressing, metastatic, medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Salaun, Pierre-Yves; Oudoux, Aurore; Goldenberg, David M; Chatal, Jean-François; Barbet, Jacques

    2010-02-15

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) patients with localized residual disease and/or distant metastases may survive for several years or rapidly progress and die of their disease. Thus, highly reliable prognostic factors are needed for an early distinction between high-risk patients who need to be treated and low-risk patients who warrant a watch-and-wait approach. Calcitonin doubling time is an independent predictor of survival, with a high predictive value in a population of patients who have not normalized their calcitonin, even after repeated surgery. Several imaging methods should be proposed for patients with abnormal residual calcitonin levels persisting after complete surgery: ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for neck exploration, and CT for chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to have an advantage over CT for the detection of liver metastases from endocrine tumors. Moreover, MRI appears to be a sensitive imaging technique for detecting the spread of MTC to bone/bone marrow. 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/CT could be used for staging patients with progressive MTC, with possible prognostication by standard uptake value quantification. For systemic treatment of patients with rapidly progressing metastatic MTC, chemotherapy is not considered a valid therapeutic option. It is too early to evaluate the potential effectiveness of multikinase inhibitors, although interesting results of phase 2 studies have shown a transient stabilization in 30% to 50% of patients. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy has been the only innovative treatment modality convincingly showing some survival benefit when compared with a historical untreated control group. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  16. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  17. Rising trends of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Baron, J H

    2010-10-01

    The risk of dying from gastric cancer appears to have increased among consecutive generations born during the 19th century. To follow the time trends of hospitalization for gastric cancer and test whether they confirm such increase. Inpatient records of the last two centuries from four hospitals in Scotland and three US hospitals were analysed. Proportional rates of hospitalization for gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were calculated during consecutive 5-year periods. The data from all seven cities revealed strikingly similar patterns. No hospital admissions for gastric cancer or peptic ulcer were recorded prior to 1800. Hospital admissions for gastric cancer increased in an exponential fashion throughout the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century. In a majority of cities, the rise in hospitalization for gastric cancer preceded a similar rise in hospitalization for gastric ulcer. Hospitalization for these two latter diagnoses clearly preceded hospitalization for duodenal ulcer by 20-40 years. The occurrence of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer markedly increased during the 19th century. Improvements in hygiene may have resulted in the decline of infections by other gastrointestinal organisms that had previously kept concomitant infection by Helicobacter pylori suppressed. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Pathohistological classification systems in gastric cancer: diagnostic relevance and prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlth, Felix; Bollschweiler, Elfriede; Drebber, Uta; Hoelscher, Arnulf H; Moenig, Stefan

    2014-05-21

    Several pathohistological classification systems exist for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the pathohistological characteristics in gastric cancer and patient characteristics, disease specific criteria and overall outcome. It is still controversial as to which classification system imparts the most reliable information, and therefore, the choice of system may vary in clinical routine. In addition to the most common classification systems, such as the Laurén and the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications, other authors have tried to characterize and classify gastric cancer based on the microscopic morphology and in reference to the clinical outcome of the patients. In more than 50 years of systematic classification of the pathohistological characteristics of gastric cancer, there is no sole classification system that is consistently used worldwide in diagnostics and research. However, several national guidelines for the treatment of gastric cancer refer to the Laurén or the WHO classifications regarding therapeutic decision-making, which underlines the importance of a reliable classification system for gastric cancer. The latest results from gastric cancer studies indicate that it might be useful to integrate DNA- and RNA-based features of gastric cancer into the classification systems to establish prognostic relevance. This article reviews the diagnostic relevance and the prognostic value of different pathohistological classification systems in gastric cancer.

  19. Differential expression of phospholipase C epsilon 1 is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Ji, Jiajia; Qian, Qirong; Lu, Lungeng; Fu, Hualin; Jin, Weilin; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1) is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLCε1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. Firstly, the mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in normal gastric mucous epithelial cell line GES-1 and gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC7901, and MGC803. The results showed both mRNA and protein levels of PLCε1 were up-regulated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric mucous epithelial cells. Secondly, this result was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection in a tissue microarray including 74 paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Thirdly, an independence immunohistochemical analysis of 799 chronic atrophic gastritis tissue specimens demonstrated that PLCε1 expression in atrophic gastritis tissues were down-regulated since PLCε1 expression was negative in 524 (65.6%) atrophic gastritis. In addition, matched clinical tissues from atrophic severe gastritis and gastric cancer patients were used to further confirm the previous results by analyzing mRNA and protein levels expression of PLCε1 in clinical samples. Our results suggested that PLCε1 protein may be a potential biomarker to distinguish gastric cancer from inflammation lesion, and could have great potential in applications such as diagnosis and pre-warning of early-stage gastric cancer.

  20. Laparoscopic Gastrojejunostomy for Patients with Unresectable Gastric Cancer with Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Toshiyasu; Nakamori, Mikihito; Nakamura, Masaki; Katsuda, Masahiro; Hayata, Keiji; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2017-08-01

    There have been no comparative studies of open gastrojejunostomy (OGJ) and laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy (LGJ) in gastric cancer (GC) patients with gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) to explore both short- and long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and feasibility of short-term oral intake as well as the long-term oncological outcome of OGJ and LGJ. This was a retrospective study of 53 consecutive unresectable GC patients who underwent GJ for GOO in our institute. OGJ (n = 23) was performed between 2010 and 2012 and LGJ (n = 30) was performed between 2013 and 2015. We found a higher rate of postoperative delayed gastric emptying in the OGJ group than in the LGJ group (26.1 vs 0%; P = 0.004). OGJ had more unfavorable results regarding the median time to resumption of oral feeding (4 vs 2 days; P < 0.001). Palliative LGJ did not offer survival benefit over OGJ in patients with unresectable GC with GOO. LGJ is a useful and feasible alternative to OGJ regarding short-term outcomes.

  1. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years.

  2. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A possible association of baseline serum IL-17A concentrations with progression-free survival of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with a bevacizumab-based regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereclus, Emilie; Tout, Mira; Girault, Alban; Baroukh, Nadine; Caulet, Morgane; Borg, Christophe; Bouché, Olivier; Ternant, David; Paintaud, Gilles; Lecomte, Thierry; Raoul, William

    2017-03-27

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health issue worldwide. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) and Th17 (T-helper cell type 17)-related molecules are involved in tumor development and in resistance to bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody used in association with chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer. Some studies have previously shown that IL-17A and IL-17F polymorphisms, respectively rs2275913 and rs763780, are associated with gastric or colorectal cancer risk. Here we aimed at studying the influence of IL-17A-related individual factors on overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with a bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. Pre-treatment serum biomarkers were retrospectively evaluated in 122 metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated by bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy at 2-weeks intervals in a prospective cohort study (NCT00489697). The polymorphisms of IL-17A and IL-17F were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum concentrations of Th17-related cytokines were measured by MultiPlex. The impact of individual parameters on overall survival and progression-free survival was assessed using multivariate Cox models. High baseline IL-17A serum concentrations were significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival [p = 0.043]. Other baseline serum Th17-related cytokines and polymorphisms of IL-17 were not associated with overall survival or progression-free survival. In this ancillary study, baseline serum IL-17A concentration is the only Th17/IL-17 related factor that was significantly associated with the response of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to bevacizumab. But this main significant result is highly dependent on one case which, if left out, weakens the data. Other clinical studies are required to confirm this association. NCT00489697 . June 20, 2007.

  4. Knee pain and swelling: An atypical presentation of metastatic colon cancer to the patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Gasagranda, DO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee pain is a common reason for a patient to seek medical evaluation. Of the many causes of knee pain, malignancy is one of the least common. When malignancy is the etiology of the pain, it is usually due to a primary tumor of the osseous structures or soft tissues of the knee joint. Metastatic disease involving the knee joint is uncommon, with few cases reported in the literature. Of these reported cases, metastatic colon cancer is exceedingly rare. However, in a patient with new onset knee pain and the proper clinical history, metastatic disease should be considered as a potential explanation of symptoms. We report a case of knee pain and swelling due to metastatic colon cancer to the patella.

  5. PIK3CA mutations may be discordant between primary and corresponding metastatic disease in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont Jensen, Jeanette; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Knoop, Ann

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: PIK3CA mutations are frequent in breast cancer and activate the PI3K/Akt pathway. Unexpectedly, PIK3CA mutation appears in general to be associated with better outcome. In a cohort of patients where both primary and metastatic lesions were available the objective was to assess changes...... recurrence than wild type cases (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: PIK3CA mutations occur at high frequency in primary and metastatic breast cancer; these may not necessarily confer increased aggressiveness as mutants had a longer time to recurrence. Because PIK3CA status quite frequently changes between primary...... metastatic breast tumors. Samples were analysed for PIK3CA mutations (exon 9 and 20) as well as immunohistochemical evaluation for PTEN, pAKT, Ki67, ER and HER2. RESULTS: PIK3CA mutation was detected in 45 % of the primary tumors. Overall there was a net gain in mutation in metastatic disease, to 53...

  6. Anti-cancer effects of newly developed chemotherapeutic agent, glycoconjugated palladium (II) complex, against cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mamoru; Kamiya, Takeshi; Joh, Takashi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Yano, Shigenobu; Ohi, Hiromi; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Shibahara, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Mori, Yoshinori; Tanida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is the most frequently used chemotherapeutic agent for various types of advanced cancer, including gastric cancer. However, almost all cancer cells acquire resistance against CDDP, and this phenomenon adversely affects prognosis. Thus, new chemotherapeutic agents that can overcome the CDDP-resistant cancer cells will improve the survival of advanced cancer patients. We synthesized new glycoconjugated platinum (II) and palladium (II) complexes, [PtCl 2 (L)] and [PdCl 2 (L)]. CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cell lines were established by continuous exposure to CDDP, and gene expression in the CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cells was analyzed. The cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by [PtCl 2 (L)] and [PdCl 2 (L)] in CDDP-sensitive and CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cells were evaluated. DNA double-strand breaks by drugs were assessed by evaluating phosphorylated histone H2AX. Xenograft tumor mouse models were established and antitumor effects were also examined in vivo. CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cells exhibit ABCB1 and CDKN2A gene up-regulation, as compared with CDDP-sensitive gastric cancer cells. In the analyses of CDDP-resistant gastric cancer cells, [PdCl 2 (L)] overcame cross-resistance to CDDP in vitro and in vivo. [PdCl 2 (L)] induced DNA double-strand breaks. These results indicate that [PdCl 2 (L)] is a potent chemotherapeutic agent for CDDP-resistant gastric cancer and may have clinical applications

  7. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  8. Investigation of the potential role of preoperative chemotherapy in treatment for gastric cancer with outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xuelong; Zhou, Yanbing

    2015-09-01

    Preoperative chemotherapy is currently recognized as the recommended treatment for advanced gastric cancer. Whether there is a role of preoperative chemotherapy in the treatment for advanced gastric cancer with gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is unknown. In order to explore the potential feasibility of preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with GOO, and to encourage the probe into optimal treatment strategies for advanced gastric cancer with GOO in the current era of preoperative chemotherapy prevailing, a systematic literature search was conducted with a multistage process. The characteristics of the retrieved publications were summarized and the essential information was extracted. Only 11 studies associated with preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with GOO were identified. Among them, 9 were case reports, while the other 2 were research reports of retrospective studies. None were of prospective studies. The paucity of the literature in this field is a marked finding of the present study, which reports the emerging attempts at preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer patients with GOO, as no high-quality data are available. The definite role of chemotherapy as an initial treatment for advanced gastric cancer patients with GOO remains unclear. Clinical trials are expected to be conducted in order to explore the feasibility, safety and efficacy of preoperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer patients with GOO.

  9. The effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on gastric cancer prevention in healthy asymptomatic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suh Eun; Choi, Kee Don; Choe, Jaewon; Kim, Seon Ok; Na, Hee Kyong; Choi, Ji Young; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, JeongHoon; Kim, Do Hoon; Chang, Hye-Sook; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong

    2018-01-18

    Although many epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on gastric cancer, the effect is still uncertain in general populations. We evaluated whether H. pylori eradication would affect the incidence of gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic populations. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 38 984 asymptomatic individuals, who underwent health screening examinations more than twice between 2005 and 2016. We investigated the incidence of gastric cancer among 3 groups: those without H. pylori infection (Hp-negative group), those with H. pylori eradication (eradication group), and those without H. pylori eradication (non-eradication group). The cumulative incidence of gastric cancer was 54.5 cases per 100 000 person-years during a median of 6.4 years. In a multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model, the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer in the non-eradication group was significantly higher than those in the Hp-negative (hazard ratio [HR] 4.12, P history of gastric cancer, and gastric atrophy. The standardized incidence ratios of the age groups above 40 and below 70 in the eradication group were all significantly decreased. Helicobacter pylori eradication reduced the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer in healthy asymptomatic population, and the effect of H. pylori eradication on the prevention of gastric cancer was observed in all ages. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG: Group A [H. pylori (− PG (−], Group B [H. pylori (+ PG (−], Group C [H. pylori (+ PG (+], and Group D [H. pylori (− PG (+]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1 high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2 high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3 low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1, every two years in (2, and annually in (3 should be considered.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can include stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), decreased appetite, and weight loss. If the cancer ... Drug Therapy Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Surgery and Rehabilitation Related Information How are genetic conditions diagnosed? How ...

  12. ERC/mesothelin is expressed in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoaki; Kajino, Kazunori; Abe, Masaaki; Sato, Koichi; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Sakurada, Mutsumi; Orita, Hajime; Wada, Ryo; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Hino, Okio

    2014-01-01

    ERC/mesothelin is expressed in mesothelioma and other malignancies. The ERC/mesothelin gene (MSLN) encodes a 71-kDa precursor protein, which is cleaved to yield 31-kDa N-terminal (N-ERC/mesothelin) and 40-kDa C-terminal (C-ERC/mesothelin) proteins. N-ERC/mesothelin is a soluble protein and has been reported to be a diagnostic serum marker of mesothelioma and ovarian cancer. Gastric cancer tissue also expresses C-ERC/mesothelin, but the significance of serum N-ERC levels for diagnosing gastric cancer has not yet been studied. We examined the latter issue in the present study as well as C-ERC/mesothelin expression in human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. We immunohistochemically examined C-ERC/mesothelin expression in tissue samples from 50 cases of gastric cancer, and we also assessed the C-ERC/mesothelin expression in 6 gastric cancer cell lines (MKN-1, MKN-7, MKN-74, NUGC-3, NUGC-4 and TMK-1) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. We also examined the N-ERC/mesothelin concentrations in the supernatants of cultured cells and in the sera of gastric cancer patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). N-ERC/mesothelin was detected in the supernatants of 3 gastric cancer cell lines (MKN-1, NUGC-4 and TMK-1) by ELISA, but its concentration in the sera of gastric cancer patients was almost same as that observed in the sera of the normal controls. In the gastric cancer tissues, C-ERC/mesothelin expression was associated with lymphatic invasion. N-ERC/mesothelin was secreted into the supernatants of gastric cancer cell lines, but does not appear to be a useful serum marker of gastric cancer.

  13. Gene expression signature analysis identifies vorinostat as a candidate therapy for gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Claerhout

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future.Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer-specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern.We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment.

  14. Current approaches to gastric cancer in Peru and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erlan

    2017-01-01

    In Peru, the incidence of gastric cancer is reported to be around 15.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and it is the second most common oncological disease in men and the third one in women. Additionally, a high mortality index was reported, especially among poor people. To address this issue, in 2008, Peru initiated several insurance treatment plans of oncological diseases with promising results. In Mexico, there is a high predominance of gastric cancer in male gender compared to female gender, even reaching a 2/1 ratio, and the detection rate of early gastric cancer is low (10% to 20%) which results in a mainly palliative treatment with an overall survival rate in 5 years about 10% to 15% only. In Peru, the average age at diagnosis is around 62.96±14.75 years old and the most frequent symptoms includes abdominal pain, indigestion, loss of appetite, weight loss and gastrointestinal bleeding, while in Mexico, some studies reported an average age at diagnosis around 60.3±4.1 years old (range, 23-78 years old) and the most frequent symptoms were postprandial fullness (74.4%), abdominal pain (37.2%), weight loss (18.6%), and melena (4.6%). The anemia rate was 65.1% with a mean Hb level of 6.14 g/dL. In Peru, the most common gastric cancer type is the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (around 34%), followed by the diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (18.7%), whilst among Mexicans, the diffuse-type was reported in 55.2% of cases, the intestinal-type was reported in 28.2% and the undifferentiated-type corresponded to 6%. In both, Peru and Mexico, 90% of the associated factors includes tabaquismo, diets rich in salt, smoked foods, and a sedentary lifestyle. Family inheritance and advanced age and pharmacological-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection are also important. Poverty has been heavily associated with a higher incidence of gastric cancer. The management of gastric cancer patients in Peru is carried out by general surgeons or general surgical oncologists. In recent years, efforts

  15. Genetically predicted high body mass index is associated with increased gastric cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingying; Yan, Caiwang; Lu, Qun; Zhu, Meng; Yu, Fei; Wang, Cheng; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Jin, Guangfu

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked body mass index (BMI) with risk of gastrointestinal cancers. However, for gastric cancer, the relationship is more controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the observed association is due to confounding or bias inherent in conventional observational studies. To investigate whether BMI is causally associated with gastric cancer risk, we applied Mendelian randomization using individual-level data from 2631 gastric cancer cases and 4373 cancer-free controls. We derived a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 37 BMI-associated genetic variants as an instrumental variable. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between genetically predicted BMI and gastric cancer risk. We observed that higher genetically determined BMI was associated with increased gastric cancer risk (per standard deviation (SD) increase in the wGRS: OR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13, P=4.94 × 10 -3 ). Compared with individuals in the bottom tertile of the BMI wGRS, those in the top tertile had 1.14-fold (95% CI: 1.01-1.29) increased risk of developing gastric cancer. Sensitivity analyses using alternative causal inference measures demonstrated consistent association. Our study indicated that genetically high BMI was associated with increased gastric cancer risk, suggesting that high BMI may have a causal role in the etiology of gastric cancer.

  16. Expression of TRAF6 and ubiquitin mRNA in skeletal muscle of gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yuan-Shui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR,-associated factor 6 (TRAF6,-and ubiquitin in gastric cancer patients. Methods Biopsies of the rectus abdominis muscle were obtained intra operatively from 102 gastric cancer patients and 29 subjects undergoing surgery for benign abdominal diseases, and muscle TRAF6 and ubiquitin mRNA expression and proteasome proteolytic activities were assessed. Results TRAF6 was significantly upregulated in muscle of gastric cancer compared with the control muscles. TRAF6 was upregulated in 67.65% (69/102 muscle of gastric cancer. Over expression of TRAF6 in muscles of gastric cancer were associated with TNM stage, level of serum albumin and percent of weight loss. Ubiquitin was significantly upregulated in muscle of gastric cancer compared with the control muscles. Ubiquitin was upregulated in 58.82% (60/102 muscles of gastric cancer. Over expression of ubiquitin in muscles of gastric cancer were associated with TNM (Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage and weight loss. There was significant relation between TRAF6 and ubiquitin expression. Conclusions We found a positive correlation between TRAF6 and ubiquitin expression, suggesting that TRAF6 may up regulates ubiquitin activity in cancer cachexia. While more investigations are required to understand its mechanisms of TRAF6 and ubiquitin in skeletal muscle. Correct the catabolic-anabolic imbalance is essential for the effective treatment of cancer cachexia.

  17. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, Angela M; Ari, Csilla; Seyfried, Thomas N; D'Agostino, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T) saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week). Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  18. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  19. Metastatic breast cancer in a Nigerian tertiary hospital | Adisa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited countries with attendant poor outcome. Objective: To describe the pattern of clinical presentation and challenges of treating patients presenting with metastatic breast carcinoma in a Nigerian hospital. Method: Clinical records of all patients ...

  20. Mucin 1 Gene (MUC1 and Gastric-Cancer Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Saeki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is one of the major malignant diseases worldwide, especially in Asia. It is classified into intestinal and diffuse types. While the intestinal-type GC (IGC is almost certainly caused by Helicobacter pylori (HP infection, its role in the diffuse-type GC (DGC appears limited. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS on Japanese and Chinese populations identified chromosome 1q22 as a GC susceptibility locus which harbors mucin 1 gene (MUC1 encoding a cell membrane-bound mucin protein. MUC1 has been known as an oncogene with an anti-apoptotic function in cancer cells; however, in normal gastric mucosa, it is anticipated that the mucin 1 protein has a role in protecting gastric epithelial cells from a variety of external insults which cause inflammation and carcinogenesis. HP infection is the most definite insult leading to GC, and a protective function of mucin 1 protein has been suggested by studies on Muc1 knocked-out mice.

  1. Proteolysis in Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posselt, Gernot; Crabtree, Jean E.; Wessler, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Persistent infections with the human pathogen and class-I carcinogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are closely associated with the development of acute and chronic gastritis, ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) system. Disruption and depolarization of the epithelium is a hallmark of H. pylori-associated disorders and requires extensive modulation of epithelial cell surface structures. Hence, the complex network of controlled proteolysis which facilitates tissue homeostasis in healthy individuals is deregulated and crucially contributes to the induction and progression of gastric cancer through processing of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, cell surface receptors, membrane-bound cytokines, and lateral adhesion molecules. Here, we summarize the recent reports on mechanisms how H. pylori utilizes a variety of extracellular proteases, involving the proteases Hp0169 and high temperature requirement A (HtrA) of bacterial origin, and host matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). H. pylori-regulated proteases represent predictive biomarkers and attractive targets for therapeutic interventions in gastric cancer. PMID:28398251

  2. Advanced new strategies for metastatic cancer treatment by therapeutic stem cells and oncolytic virotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Geon-Tae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    The field of therapeutic stem cell and oncolytic virotherapy for cancer treatment has rapidly expanded over the past decade. Oncolytic viruses constitute a promising new class of anticancer agent because of their ability to selectively infect and destroy tumor cells. Engineering of viruses to express anticancer genes and specific cancer targeting molecules has led to the use of these systems as a novel platform of metastatic cancer therapy. In addition, stem cells have a cancer specific migra...

  3. Occurrence of gastric cancer and carcinoids in atrophic gastritis during prospective long-term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Purchiaroni, Flaminia; Corleto, Vito D; Di Giulio, Emilio; Annibale, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) is a risk condition for gastric cancer and type I gastric carcinoids. Recent studies assessing the overall risk of gastric cancer and carcinoids in AG at long-term follow up are lacking. This study aimed to investigate in a prospective cohort of AG patients the occurrence of gastric cancer and carcinoids at long-term follow up. A total of 200 AG patients from a prospective cohort (67% female, median age 55 years) with a follow up of 7.5 (range: 4-23.4) years were included. Inclusion criteria were presence of AG and at least one follow-up gastroscopy with biopsies at ≥4 years after AG diagnosis. Follow-up gastroscopies at 4-year intervals were performed. Overall, 22 gastric neoplastic lesions were detected (crude incidence 11%). Gastric cancer was diagnosed in four patients at a median follow up of 7.2 years (crude incidence 2%). Eleven type I gastric carcinoids were detected at a median follow up of 5.1 years (crude incidence of 5.5%). In seven patients, six low-grade and one high-grade dysplasia were found. The annual incidence rate person-year were 0.25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.067-0.63%), 0.43% (95% CI: 0.17-0.89%), and 0.68% (95% CI: 0.34-1.21%) for gastric cancer, dysplasia, and type I-gastric carcinoids, respectively. The incidence rates of gastric cancer and carcinoids were not different (p = 0.07). This study shows an annual incidence rate of 1.36% person-year for gastric neoplastic lesions in AG patients at long-term follow up. AG patients are similarly exposed to gastric cancer and type I gastric carcinoids.

  4. High rates of advanced gastric cancer in community of Flushing, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinani, Amreen; Desai, Amit; Kohn, Nina; Gutkin, Ellen; Nussbaum, Michel; Somnay, Kaumudi

    2012-03-01

    Gastric cancer remains a major public health issue and is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 600,000 deaths annually. Over the last decades, there has been a steady decline in the incidence rates of gastric cancer. Furthermore, the incidence rates of gastric cancer in different parts of the country vary due to epidemiological and migration trends. Despite these trends, several studies that have continued to observe high rates of gastric cancer in populations that come from high-risk regions. The aim of the study was to describe the gastric cancer patients presenting NYHQ with an emphasis on those presenting at a young age and advanced disease. A subanalysis of the Asian population was also done, which is considered a high-risk group. Consecutive chart review of patients admitted with gastric cancer from January 2000 to August 2008 was extracted from the Oncology registry at NYHQ. Parameters that were evaluated were age, sex, race, type of gastric cancer, and stage of gastric cancer at initial presentation. The SAS/PC software package (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) was employed for statistical analyses. Four hundred fifty-seven patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer. Approximately one third of the total patients were younger than 60 years of age. Of the Asian patients, almost half the patients (48.8%) had advanced disease of which two thirds were under the age of 60 years. The rates of advanced gastric cancer observed at NYHQ are significant and comparable to recent epidemiology literature on rates in Asian populations in Asia. Communities, like Flushing, NY, may benefit from early detection of gastric cancers, similar to those instituted in Japan and Taiwan.

  5. Gene Expression Signature Analysis Identifies Vorinostat as a Candidate Therapy for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woonyoung; Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, KyoungHyun; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Mills, Gordon B.; Cho, Jae Yong

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer–specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A) whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern. Conclusions/Significance We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment. PMID:21931799

  6. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary in adults occurs when squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck from an undetectable primary tumor. Treatment includes surgery and radiation therapy. Learn about the diagnosis, survival, staging, and treatment of these tumors.

  7. Updated 2016 EAU Guidelines on Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witjes, J.A.; Lebret, T.; Comperat, E.M.; Cowan, N.C.; Santis, M. de; Bruins, H.M.; Hernandez, V.; Espinos, E.L.; Dunn, J.; Rouanne, M.; Neuzillet, Y.; Veskimae, E.; Heijden, A.G. van der; Gakis, G.; Ribal, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Invasive bladder cancer is a frequently occurring disease with a high mortality rate despite optimal treatment. The European Association of Urology (EAU) Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer (MIBC) Guidelines are updated yearly and provides information to optimise diagnosis,

  8. Cancerous HLA class I expression and regulatory T cell infiltration in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Sumiya; Arigami, Takaaki; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Masataka; Okumura, Hiroshi; Uchikado, Yasuto; Kita, Yoshiaki; Nishizono, Yuka; Maemura, Kosei; Kijima, Yuko; Nakajo, Akihiro; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Ueno, Shinichi; Hokita, Shuichi; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2012-10-01

    Since antitumor immune reactions between tumors and intratumoral immunocytes have been verified in several human tumors, immunological therapeutic strategies must be considered to obtain the proper efficacy of tumor shrinkage under these conditions. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression in cancer cells and degree of infiltration of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the stroma have been regarded as important markers of antitumor immune reactions in the context of independent immunological mechanisms. In the current study, we investigated HLA class I expression and Treg cells infiltration in gastric cancer and discussed the clinical implications of this combinatory analysis in gastric cancer. A total of 141 gastric cancer patients who received R0 gastrectomy at Kagoshima University Hospital were studied. Immunohistochemically, in 141 gastric cancer patients, HLA class I expression and Treg cell infiltration in cancerous tissue were evaluated using HLA class I (EMR8-5) and forkhead box p3 (FOXP3) monoclonal antibodies. The correlation between clinical factors and tumor-infiltrating Treg cells was analyzed. HLA class I expression was positively associated with depth of tumor invasion (P HLA class I expression had no association with Treg cell infiltration (r = 0.04). A better postoperative outcome was associated with fewer numbers of Treg infiltration (P = 0.034). A combination of HLA and Treg analysis may lead to a more accurate prediction of postoperative outcome (P = 0.02). Two different antitumor immunological markers, Treg infiltration and HLA class I expression, affected clinicopathological factors in gastric cancer by different mechanisms. Thus, an immunological combination of HLA class I expression and Treg cell infiltration may more accurately predict postoperative outcome. Immunological balance needs to be restored after evaluation of each immunological deficit in gastric cancer.

  9. Inflammatory response in laparoscopic vs. open surgery for gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm, Cecilie; Goetze, Jens Peter; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    lead to an increased susceptibility to complications and morbidity. The aim of this review was to investigate if laparoscopic surgery reduces the immunological response compared to open surgery in gastric cancer. METHODS: We conducted a literature search identifying relevant studies comparing......OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic surgery may offer advantages compared to open surgery, such as earlier mobilization, less pain and lower post-surgical morbidity. Surgical stress is thought to be associated with the postoperative immunological changes in the body as an impaired immune function, which may...... laparoscopy or laparoscopic-assisted surgery with open gastric surgery. The main outcome was postoperative immunological status defined as surgical stress parameters, including inflammatory cytokines and blood parameters. RESULTS: We identified seven studies that addressed the immunological status in patients...

  10. Gastric cancer in young people under 30 years of age: worse prognosis, or delay in diagnosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Basave, Horacio Noé; Morales-Vásquez, Flavia; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Manuel; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Vela-Sarmiento, Itzel; Ruan, Javier Melchor; Rosciano, Alejandro E Padilla; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Díaz-Romero, Consuelo; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo A

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease

  11. Three Weekly Irinotecan and Bolus 5-Fluorouracil Combination in the First Line Treatment of Advanced Gastric Cancer - A Single Institution Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mesmoudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study is to determine the efficacy and toxicity of a non-platinum based chemotherapy combination using irinotecan associated to bolus 5-FU as first line treatment in advanced gastric cancer. Materiel and methods: Retrospective analysis of a population of patients treated for metastatic and locally advanced gastric cancer with irinotecan and 5-FU as upfront chemotherapy. Results: Thirteen patients were enrolled. The median age was 56 years. Seven patients were males and six were of females. Ten patients had a metastatic disease and three patients had a locally advanced disease. Patients received a total number of 43 cycles of chemotherapy. Overall response rate was 38,4%, median time to progression (TTP was 3 months, and median overall survival was 4 months. Three patients (23,1% presented grade 3 /4 neutropenia complicated with an infectious episode with fever in two cases, three patients (23,1% required blood transfusion for a grade 4 anemia, and one patient (7,6% was hospitalized for a severe episode of diarrhea. Conclusion: Three weekly irinotecan and bolus 5-FU is an interesting combination as first line treatment of advanced gastric cancer; designed clinical trials are needed to confirm the activity of this combination.

  12. Efficacy of endoscopic gastroduodenal stenting for gastric outlet obstruction due to unresectable advanced gastric cancer: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shunji; Takiguchi, Shuji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Imamura, Hiroshi; Takachi, Ko; Kimura, Yutaka; Takeno, Atsushi; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2014-03-01

    Gastroduodenal stents for gastric outlet obstruction due to unresectable advanced gastric cancer are increasingly used; however, their effects have not been fully evaluated. A multicenter prospective observational study was performed. Patients were eligible if they had stage IV gastric cancer<