WorldWideScience

Sample records for metastatic cancer cell

  1. Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic cancer is cancer that spreads from its site of origin to another part of the body. Learn how cancer spreads, possible symptoms, common sites where cancer spreads, and how to find out about treatment options.

  2. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  3. Functionalization of nanotextured substrates for enhanced identification of metastatic breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Nuzhat; Raziul Hasan, Mohammad; Kim, Young-tae; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2017-09-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of low survival rates among cancer patients. Once cancer cells metastasize, it is extremely difficult to contain the disease. We report on a nanotextured platform for enhanced detection of metastatic cells. We captured metastatic (MDA-MDB-231) and non-metastatic (MCF-7) breast cancer cells on anti-EGFR aptamer modified plane and nanotextured substrates. Metastatic cells were seen to change their morphology at higher rates when captured on nanotextured substrates than on plane substrates. Analysis showed statistically different morphological behaviors of metastatic cells that were very pronounced on the nanotextured substrates. Several distance matrices were calculated to quantify the dissimilarity of cell shape change. Nanotexturing increased the dissimilarity of the metastatic cells and as a result the contrast between metastatic and non-metastatic cells increased. Jaccard distance measurements found that the shape change ratio of the non-metastatic and metastatic cells was enhanced from 1:1.01 to 1:1.81, going from plane to nanotextured substrates. The shape change ratio of the non-metastatic to metastatic cells improved from 1:1.48 to 1:2.19 for the Hausdorff distance and from 1:1.87 to 1:4.69 for the Mahalanobis distance after introducing nanotexture. Distance matrix analysis showed that nanotexture increased the shape change ratios of non-metastatic and metastatic cells. Hence, the detectability of metastatic cells increased. These calculated matrices provided clear and explicit measures to discriminate single cells for their metastatic state on functional nanotextured substrates.

  4. The CEA−/lo colorectal cancer cell population harbors cancer stem cells and metastatic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Mu, Lei; Huang, Kaiyu; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Chensen; Li, Xiaolan; Tao, Deding; Gong, Jianping; Qin, Jichao

    2016-01-01

    Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most commonly used tumor marker in a variety of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) for tumor diagnosis and monitoring. Recent studies have shown that colonic crypt cells expressing little or no CEA may enrich for stem cells. Numerous studies have clearly shown that there exist CRC patients with normal serum CEA levels during tumor progression or even tumor relapse, although CEA itself is considered to promote metastasis and block cell differentiation. These seemingly contradictory observations prompted us to investigate, herein, the biological properties as well as tumorigenic and metastatic capacity of CRC cells that express high (CEA+) versus low CEA (CEA−/lo) levels of CEA. Our findings show that the abundance of CEA−/lo cells correlate with poor differentiation and poor prognosis, and moreover, CEA−/lo cells form more spheres in vitro, generate more tumors and exhibit a higher potential in developing liver and lung metastases than corresponding CEA+ cells. Applying RNAi-mediated approach, we found that IGF1R mediated tumorigenic and capacity of CEA−/lo cells but did not mediate those of CEA+ cells. Notably, our data demonstrated that CEA molecule was capable of protecting CEA−/lo cells from anoikis, implying that CEA+ cells, although themselves possessing less tumorigenic and metastatic capacity, may promote metastasis of CEA−/lo cells via secreting CEA molecule. Our observations suggest that, besides targeting CEA molecule, CEA−/lo cells may represent a critical source of tumor progression and metastasis, and should therefore be the target of future therapies. PMID:27813496

  5. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, Mark F; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion. (paper)

  6. Semiinvasive Aspergillosis Case Coexisting to Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kilic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA is defined as an cavity or mass lesion in the lung due to invasion of lung tissue by a fungus of the Aspergillosis species. It was described also as semiinvasive aspergillosis. Semiinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis is generally seen in patients with primer immunocompromised and it can be fatal in the event of late diagnose. We present 60 years old patient who had had renal cell cancer admitted to hospital with metastatic nodules in his chest X-ray and Thorax computed tomography. We have seen yellow colour of bronchial secretion in his bronchoscopy. Multipl mantar hyphae by A. Fumigatus was detected in his bronchial lavage cytology. Itrakonazol was administred to this patient. We review to this cases due to a semiinvasive aspergillosis was detected randomly when this case who had not both symptomatic and clinical sign by Aspergillosis is investigated.

  7. Treatment of initially metastatic small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohutek, F.; Bystricky, B.; Tamasova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the most common cause of death associated with neoplasms. The incidence of LC in 2007 was 71.3/100,000 men and 18.6/100,000 women in Slovakia. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) includes 15 - 18% of all cases. The diagnosis of LC is based on patient's history, physical examination, basic laboratory tests, x-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging and histology. The material required for histology can be obtained by means of endoscopy or surgery. Ultrasonography (USG) and/or CT of abdomen is commonly performed as a part of staging process, along with CT or MRI of brain. Bone scan is performed in case of suspicion of bone involvement. According to TNM classification, seventh edition, the same classification can be used for SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are available for treatment of initially metastatic SCLC. First-line chemotherapy regimen should be based on combination of cisplatin or carboplatin with etoposide (PE). Alternatively, CAV regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine) can be used. Newer regimens did not provide benefit when compared to standard regimens. If progression occurs later than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, the same regimen may be used in second-line chemotherapy. If progression occurs earlier than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, topotecan-based regimen is an option for second-line line chemotherapy. Despite promising outcomes of amrubicin-based second-line chemotherapy in Japan, amrubicin is not available in countries of E U. Standard therapy schedules do not include radiotherapy targeted on primary tumor and affected lymph-nodes. According to American and European guidelines, prophylactic cranial irradiation is recommended for patients with extensive disease-SCLC with good performance status after achieving complete or partial response to first-line chemotherapy. (author)

  8. Real Time Visualization and Manipulation of the Metastatic Trajectory ofBreast Cancer Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0173 TITLE: Real-Time Visualization and Manipulation of the Metastatic Trajectory of Breast Cancer Cells ...of this work was to engineer breast cancer cells to irreversibly alter the genome of nearby cells through exosomal transfer of Cre recombinase from...the cancer cells to surrounding cells . Our goal was to use this study to activate green fluorescent protein in the host reporter cells in the

  9. Cell-Free DNA in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G.; Boysen, Anders K.; Pallisgard, Niels

    2017-01-01

    -analysis of the prognostic value of total cfDNA in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. In addition, we report on the overall performance of cfDNA as source for KRAS mutation detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed by two......BACKGROUND: Circulating DNA can be detected and quantified in the blood of cancer patients and used for detection of tumor-specific genetic alterations. The clinical utility has been intensively investigated for the past 10 years. The majority of reports focus on analyzing the clinical potential...

  10. Quantitative method of measuring cancer cell urokinase and metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated urokinase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  11. Metabolic Plasticity of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells: Adaptation to Changes in the Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui V. Simões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells adapt their metabolism during tumorigenesis. We studied two isogenic breast cancer cells lines (highly metastatic 4T1; nonmetastatic 67NR to identify differences in their glucose and glutamine metabolism in response to metabolic and environmental stress. Dynamic magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 13C-isotopomers showed that 4T1 cells have higher glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle flux than 67NR cells and readily switch between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS in response to different extracellular environments. OXPHOS activity increased with metastatic potential in isogenic cell lines derived from the same primary breast cancer: 4T1 > 4T07 and 168FARN (local micrometastasis only > 67NR. We observed a restricted TCA cycle flux at the succinate dehydrogenase step in 67NR cells (but not in 4T1 cells, leading to succinate accumulation and hindering OXPHOS. In the four isogenic cell lines, environmental stresses modulated succinate dehydrogenase subunit A expression according to metastatic potential. Moreover, glucose-derived lactate production was more glutamine dependent in cell lines with higher metastatic potential. These studies show clear differences in TCA cycle metabolism between 4T1 and 67NR breast cancer cells. They indicate that metastases-forming 4T1 cells are more adept at adjusting their metabolism in response to environmental stress than isogenic, nonmetastatic 67NR cells. We suggest that the metabolic plasticity and adaptability are more important to the metastatic breast cancer phenotype than rapid cell proliferation alone, which could 1 provide a new biomarker for early detection of this phenotype, possibly at the time of diagnosis, and 2 lead to new treatment strategies of metastatic breast cancer by targeting mitochondrial metabolism.

  12. TAZ is required for metastatic activity and chemoresistance of breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartucci, M; Dattilo, R; Moriconi, C; Pagliuca, A; Mottolese, M; Federici, G; Benedetto, A Di; Todaro, M; Stassi, G; Sperati, F; Amabile, M I; Pilozzi, E; Patrizii, M; Biffoni, M; Maugeri-Saccà, M; Piccolo, S; De Maria, R

    2015-02-05

    Metastatic growth in breast cancer (BC) has been proposed as an exclusive property of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, formal proof of their identity as cells of origin of recurrences at distant sites and the molecular events that may contribute to tumor cell dissemination and metastasis development are yet to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed a set of patient-derived breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) lines. We found that in vitro BCSCs exhibit a higher chemoresistance and migratory potential when compared with differentiated, nontumorigenic, breast cancer cells (dBCCs). By developing an in vivo metastatic model simulating the disease of patients with early BC, we observed that BCSCs is the only cell population endowed with metastatic potential. Gene-expression profile studies comparing metastagenic and non-metastagenic cells identified TAZ, a transducer of the Hippo pathway and biomechanical cues, as a central mediator of BCSCs metastatic ability involved in their chemoresistance and tumorigenic potential. Overexpression of TAZ in low-expressing dBCCs induced cell transformation and conferred tumorigenicity and migratory activity. Conversely, loss of TAZ in BCSCs severely impaired metastatic colonization and chemoresistance. In clinical data from 99 BC patients, high expression levels of TAZ were associated with shorter disease-free survival in multivariate analysis, thus indicating that TAZ may represent a novel independent negative prognostic factor. Overall, this study designates TAZ as a novel biomarker and a possible therapeutic target for BC.

  13. Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn G Marsden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation in the bone marrow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during

  14. Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Dae-Seung; Mun, Jeong-Geon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sung-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-08-27

    Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis.

  15. Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo-Han Han

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arctigenin (ARC has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC. In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis.

  16. Trafficking of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells in Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastro, Andrea M

    2004-01-01

    ... metaphyses. Human breast cancer cells that express green fluorescent protein (GFP-MDA-MB 231) will be inoculated into athymic mice by intracardiac injection and femurs harvested at various times from 1 hour to 6 weeks later...

  17. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  18. Decline in peripheral blood NKG2D+CD3+CD56+ NKT cells in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozloo, M; Rezaei, A; Kalantari, H; Bahador, A; Hassannejad, N; Maracy, M; Nouri, N; Sedghi, M; Ghazanfari, H; Bayat, B

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in the world. This cancer can be divided into non-metastatic and metastatic CRC stages. CD3+CD56+ NKT cell subsets are a minor T cell subset in peripheral blood and conduct the killing of tumor cells in direct manner. Little is obvious about levels and surface markers of these cells such as NKG2D in different cancers, especially in CRC. We included 15 non-metastatic (low-grade), 11 non-metastatic (high-grade), 10 metastatic colorectal cancer patients and 18 healthy controls. The percentages of CD3+CD56+ NKT cells and NKG2D+CD56+ NKT cells from samples were analyzed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of samples. We found that there was a significantly lower number of NKG2D+CD3+CD56+ cells in peripheral blood of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer compared with normal controls (77.53 ± 5.79 % vs 90.74 ± 9.84 %; pNKT cells was significantly lower in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer compared to healthy controls strengthens the hypothesis that NKT cells can play a substantial role in the protection against human colorectal cancer, and this opens up avenues for novel studies about elucidating the other aspects of tumor surveillance in CRC progression and immunotherapy (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 46).

  19. Trials with TALL-1O4 Cells for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Cesano, A.*, Jeglum, K. A., and Santoli, D. Adjuvant treatment of canine osteosarcoma with the human cytotoxic T cell line TALL-104. Clin. Cancer... canine malignant histiocytosis with the human MHC non-restricted cytotoxic T cell line TALL-104. Clin. Cancer Res., 3: 1789-1797, 1997. 14. Visonneau, S...Visonneau, S., Cesano, A., Jeglum, K. A., and Santoli, D. Adoptive therapy of canine metastatic mammary carcinoma with the human MHC non-restricted

  20. Slug/SNAI2 regulates cell proliferation and invasiveness of metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Essmann, Frank; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleg; Engers, Rainer; Goering, Wolfgang; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-08-01

    Many metastatic cancers recapitulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) resulting in enhanced cell motility and invasiveness. The EMT is regulated by several transcription factors, including the zinc finger protein SNAI2, also named Slug, which appears to exert additional functions during development and cancer progression. We have studied the function of SNAI2 in prostate cancer cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed strong SNAI2 expression particularly in the PC-3 and PC3-16 prostate carcinoma cell lines. Knockdown of SNAI2 by specific siRNA induced changes in EMT markers and inhibited invasion of both cell lines into a matrigel matrix. SNAI2 siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the culture plates, likely at least in part due to downregulation of integrin alpha6beta4. SNAI2 knockdown disturbed the microtubular and actin cytoskeletons, especially severely in PC-3 cells, resulting in grossly enlarged, flattened, and sometimes multinuclear cells. Knockdown also decreased cell proliferation, with a prominent G0/G1 arrest in PC3-16. Together, our data imply that SNAI2 exerts strong effects on the cytoskeleton and adhesion of those prostate cancer cells that express it and is necessary for their proliferation and invasiveness.

  1. Cost utility analysis of everolimus in the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlović, J.; Minović, I.; Bruinsma, A.; Postma, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) is becoming an important part of Dutch health care expenditure due to expensive pharmaceutical options for disease control and lack of adequate prevention methods. New targeted therapeutics, such as sunitinib, sorafenib and everolimus, have recently

  2. Exosomes from metastatic cancer cells transfer amoeboid phenotype to non-metastatic cells and increase endothelial permeability: their emerging role in tumor heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Odessa; Fontana, Simona; Monteleone, Francesca; Taverna, Simona; Di Bella, Maria Antonietta; Di Vizio, Dolores; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2017-07-05

    The goal of this study was to understand if exosomes derived from high-metastatic cells may influence the behavior of less aggressive cancer cells and the properties of the endothelium. We found that metastatic colon cancer cells are able to transfer their amoeboid phenotype to isogenic primary cancer cells through exosomes, and that this morphological transition is associated with the acquisition of a more aggressive behavior. Moreover, exosomes from the metastatic line (SW620Exos) exhibited higher ability to cause endothelial hyperpermeability than exosomes from the non metastatic line (SW480Exos). SWATH-based quantitative proteomic analysis highlighted that SW620Exos are significantly enriched in cytoskeletal-associated proteins including proteins activating the RhoA/ROCK pathway, known to induce amoeboid properties and destabilization of endothelial junctions. In particular, thrombin was identified as a key mediator of the effects induced by SW620Exos in target cells, in which we also found a significant increase of RhoA activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that in a heterogeneous context exosomes released by aggressive sub-clones can contribute to accelerate tumor progression by spreading malignant properties that affect both the tumor cell plasticity and the endothelial cell behavior.

  3. Expression profiling of circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lang, J.; Scott, J.H.; Wolf, D.M.; Novák, Petr; Punj, V.; Magbanua, M.J.M.; Zhu, W.Z.; Mineyev, N.; Haqq, CH.; Crothers, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 1 (2015), s. 121-131 ISSN 0167-6806 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Circulating tumor cells * Micrometastases * Breast cancer * EpCAM Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 4.085, year: 2015

  4. The role of Runx2 in facilitating autophagy in metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Manish; Othman, Ahmad H; Ashok, Vivek; Stein, Gary S; Pratap, Jitesh

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer metastases cause significant patient mortality. During metastases, cancer cells use autophagy, a catabolic process to recycle nutrients via lysosomal degradation, to overcome nutritional stress for their survival. The Runt-related transcription factor, Runx2, promotes cell survival under metabolic stress, and regulates breast cancer progression and bone metastases. Here, we identify that Runx2 enhances autophagy in metastatic breast cancer cells. We defined Runx2 function in cellular autophagy by monitoring microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC3B-II) levels, an autophagy-specific marker. The electron and confocal microscopic analyses were utilized to identify alterations in autophagic vesicles. The Runx2 knockdown cells accumulate LC3B-II protein and autophagic vesicles due to reduced turnover. Interestingly, Runx2 promotes autophagy by enhancing trafficking of LC3B vesicles. Our mechanistic studies revealed that Runx2 promotes autophagy by increasing acetylation of α-tubulin sub-units of microtubules. Inhibiting autophagy decreased cell adhesion and survival of Runx2 knockdown cells. Furthermore, analysis of LC3B protein in clinical breast cancer specimens and tumor xenografts revealed significant association between high Runx2 and low LC3B protein levels. Our studies reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of autophagy via Runx2 and provide molecular insights into the role of autophagy in metastatic cancer cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Androgen receptor expression on circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujii

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor (AR is frequently detected in breast cancers, and AR-targeted therapies are showing activity in AR-positive (AR+ breast cancer. However, the role of AR in breast cancers is still not fully elucidated and the biology of AR in breast cancer remains incompletely understood. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs can serve as prognostic and diagnostic tools, prompting us to measure AR protein expression and conduct genomic analyses on CTCs in patients with metastatic breast cancer.Blood samples from patients with metastatic breast cancer were deposited on glass slides, subjected to nuclear staining with DAPI, and reacted with fluorescent-labeled antibodies to detect CD45, cytokeratin (CK, and biomarkers of interest (AR, estrogen receptor [ER], and HER2 on all nucleated cells. The stained slides were scanned and enumerated by non-enrichment-based non-biased approach independent of cell surface epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM using the Epic Sciences CTC platform. Data were analyzed using established digital pathology algorithms.Of 68 patients, 51 (75% had at least 1 CTC, and 49 of these 51 (96% had hormone-receptor-positive (HR+/HER2-negative primary tumors. AR was expressed in CK+ CTCs in 10 patients. Of these 10 patients, 3 also had ER expression in CK+ CTCs. Single cell genomic analysis of 78 CTCs from 1 of these 3 patients identified three distinct copy number patterns. AR+ cells had a lower frequency of chromosomal changes than ER+ and HER2+ cells.CTC enumeration and analysis using no enrichment or selection provides a non-biased approach to detect AR expression and chromosomal aberrations in CTCs in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The heterogeneity of intrapatient AR expression in CTCs leads to the new hypothesis that patients with AR+ CTCs have heterogeneous disease with multiple drivers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the clinical applicability of AR+ CTCs and their heterogeneity.

  6. Expressions of topoisomerase IIα and BCRP in metastatic cells are associated with overall survival in small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijavec, Matija; Silar, Mira; Triller, Nadja; Kern, Izidor; Cegovnik, Urška; Košnik, Mitja; Korošec, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated proteins in chemo-naïve metastatic lung cancer cells and to determine the correlation with response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Metastatic cells were obtained by transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsy of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in 14 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 7 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After cytological confirmation of lung cancer type, total RNA was extracted from biopsy samples and reverse transcribed to cDNA, and real-time PCR for the genes of interest [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), lung resistance protein (LRP) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPIIα)], was performed. We observed significantly decreased expression of BCRP and significantly increased expression of TOPIIα in metastatic SCLC cells compared to NSCLC. Furthermore, in SCLC high topoisomerase IIα and low BCRP expression levels positively correlated with longer overall survival. Our results showed higher expression levels of BCRP as well as lower levels of topoisomerase IIα in chemo-naïve metastatic cells in NSCLC than in SCLC. These results correlate with previous observations that metastatic SCLC cells at the beginning of chemotherapy are potentially more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents while in metastatic NSCLC cells resistance is usually inherent. We also showed that altered levels of topoisomerase IIα and BCRP in SCLC are important factors that contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutics that interfere with the enzyme and/or DNA and are highly associated with overall survival.

  7. Heterogeneity of estrogen receptor expression in circulating tumor cells from metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Babayan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocrine treatment is the most preferable systemic treatment in metastatic breast cancer patients that have had an estrogen receptor (ER positive primary tumor or metastatic lesions, however, approximately 20% of these patients do not benefit from the therapy and demonstrate further metastatic progress. One reason for failure of endocrine therapy might be the heterogeneity of ER expression in tumor cells spreading from the primary tumor to distant sites which is reflected in detectable circulating tumor cells (CTCs. METHODS: A sensitive and specific staining protocol for ER, keratin 8/18/19, CD45 was established. Peripheral blood from 35 metastatic breast cancer patients with ER-positive primary tumors was tested for the presence of CTCs. Keratin 8/18/19 and DAPI positive but CD45 negative cells were classified as CTCs and evaluated for ER staining. Subsequently, eight individual CTCs from four index patients (2 CTCs per patient were isolated and underwent whole genome amplification and ESR1 gene mutation analysis. RESULTS: CTCs were detected in blood of 16 from 35 analyzed patients (46%, with a median of 3 CTCs/7.5 ml. In total, ER-negative CTCs were detected in 11/16 (69% of the CTC positive cases, including blood samples with only ER-negative CTCs (19% and samples with both ER-positive and ER-negative CTCs (50%. No correlation was found between the intensity and/or percentage of ER staining in the primary tumor with the number and ER status of CTCs of the same patient. ESR1 gene mutations were not found. CONCLUSION: CTCs frequently lack ER expression in metastatic breast cancer patients with ER-positive primary tumors and show a considerable intra-patient heterogeneity, which may reflect a mechanism to escape endocrine therapy. Provided single cell analysis did not support a role of ESR1 mutations in this process.

  8. Heterogeneity of Estrogen Receptor Expression in Circulating Tumor Cells from Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayan, Anna; Hannemann, Juliane; Spötter, Julia; Müller, Volkmar

    2013-01-01

    Background Endocrine treatment is the most preferable systemic treatment in metastatic breast cancer patients that have had an estrogen receptor (ER) positive primary tumor or metastatic lesions, however, approximately 20% of these patients do not benefit from the therapy and demonstrate further metastatic progress. One reason for failure of endocrine therapy might be the heterogeneity of ER expression in tumor cells spreading from the primary tumor to distant sites which is reflected in detectable circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Methods A sensitive and specific staining protocol for ER, keratin 8/18/19, CD45 was established. Peripheral blood from 35 metastatic breast cancer patients with ER-positive primary tumors was tested for the presence of CTCs. Keratin 8/18/19 and DAPI positive but CD45 negative cells were classified as CTCs and evaluated for ER staining. Subsequently, eight individual CTCs from four index patients (2 CTCs per patient) were isolated and underwent whole genome amplification and ESR1 gene mutation analysis. Results CTCs were detected in blood of 16 from 35 analyzed patients (46%), with a median of 3 CTCs/7.5 ml. In total, ER-negative CTCs were detected in 11/16 (69%) of the CTC positive cases, including blood samples with only ER-negative CTCs (19%) and samples with both ER-positive and ER-negative CTCs (50%). No correlation was found between the intensity and/or percentage of ER staining in the primary tumor with the number and ER status of CTCs of the same patient. ESR1 gene mutations were not found. Conclusion CTCs frequently lack ER expression in metastatic breast cancer patients with ER-positive primary tumors and show a considerable intra-patient heterogeneity, which may reflect a mechanism to escape endocrine therapy. Provided single cell analysis did not support a role of ESR1 mutations in this process. PMID:24058649

  9. Opposite prognostic roles of HIF1β and HIF2β expressions in bone metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szendroi, Attila; Szász, A. Marcell; Kardos, Magdolna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prognostic markers of bone metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) are poorly established. We tested prognostic value of HIF1β/HIF2β and their selected target genes in primary tumors and corresponding bone metastases. RESULTS: Expression of HIF2β was lower in mRCC both at m...

  10. Green tea extract selectively targets nanomechanics of live metastatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, Sarah E; Gimzewski, James K; Jin Yusheng; Lu Qingyi; Rao Jianyu

    2011-01-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) is known to be a potential anticancer agent (Yang et al 2009 Nat. Rev. Cancer 9 429-39) with various biological activities (Lu et al 2005 Clin. Cancer Res. 11 1675-83; Yang et al 1998 Carcinogenesis 19 611-6) yet the precise mechanism of action is still unclear. The biomechanical response of GTE treated cells taken directly from patient's body samples was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) (Binnig et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930). We found significant increase in stiffness of GTE treated metastatic tumor cells, with a resulting value similar to untreated normal mesothelial cells, whereas mesothelial cell stiffness after GTE treatment is unchanged. Immunofluorescence analysis showed an increase in cytoskeletal-F-actin in GTE treated tumor cells, suggesting GTE treated tumor cells display mechanical, structural and morphological features similar to normal cells, which appears to be mediated by annexin-I expression, as determined by siRNA analysis of an in vitro cell line model. Our data indicates that GTE selectively targets human metastatic cancer cells but not normal mesothelial cells, a finding that is significantly advantageous compared to conventional chemotherapy agents.

  11. Uncovering cancer cell behavioral phenotype in 3-D in vitro metastatic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liyu; Sun, Bo; Duclos, Guillaume; Kam, Yoonseok; Gatenby, Robert; Stone, Howard; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    One well-known fact is that cancer cell genetics determines cell metastatic potentials. However, from a physics point of view, genetics as cell properties cannot directly act on metastasis. An agent is needed to unscramble the genetics first before generating dynamics for metastasis. Exactly this agent is cell behavioral phenotype, which is rarely studied due to the difficulties of real-time cell tracking in in vivo tissue. Here we have successfully constructed a micro in vitro environment with collagen based Extracellular Matrix (ECM) structures for cell 3-D metastasis. With stable nutrition (glucose) gradient inside, breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 is able to invade inside the collagen from the nutrition poor site towards the nutrition rich site. Continuous confocal microscopy captures images of the cells every 12 hours and tracks their positions in 3-D space. The micro fluorescent beads pre-mixed inside the ECM demonstrate that invasive cells have altered the structures through mechanics. With the observation and the analysis of cell collective behaviors, we argue that game theory may exist between the pioneering cells and their followers in the metastatic cell group. The cell collaboration may explain the high efficiency of metastasis.

  12. Novel near-diploid ovarian cancer cell line derived from a highly aneuploid metastatic ovarian tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Rozenblum

    Full Text Available A new ovarian near-diploid cell line, OVDM1, was derived from a highly aneuploid serous ovarian metastatic adenocarcinoma. A metastatic tumor was obtained from a 47-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish patient three years after the first surgery removed the primary tumor, both ovaries, and the remaining reproductive organs. OVDM1 was characterized by cell morphology, genotyping, tumorigenic assay, mycoplasma testing, spectral karyotyping (SKY, and molecular profiling of the whole genome by aCGH and gene expression microarray. Targeted sequencing of a panel of cancer-related genes was also performed. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression data clearly confirmed the ovarian origin of the cell line. OVDM1 has a near-diploid karyotype with a low-level aneuploidy, but samples of the original metastatic tumor were grossly aneuploid. A number of single nucleotide variations (SNVs/mutations were detected in OVDM1 and the metastatic tumor samples. Some of them were cancer-related according to COSMIC and HGMD databases (no founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been found. A large number of focal copy number alterations (FCNAs were detected, including homozygous deletions (HDs targeting WWOX and GATA4. Progression of OVDM1 from early to late passages was accompanied by preservation of the near-diploid status, acquisition of only few additional large chromosomal rearrangements and more than 100 new small FCNAs. Most of newly acquired FCNAs seem to be related to localized but massive DNA fragmentation (chromothripsis-like rearrangements. Newly developed near-diploid OVDM1 cell line offers an opportunity to evaluate tumorigenesis pathways/events in a minor clone of metastatic ovarian adenocarcinoma as well as mechanisms of chromothripsis.

  13. Overexpression of Oct4 suppresses the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells via Rnd1 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Long; Qin, Kunhua; Wang, Dekun; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Nan; Yang, Shengyong; Luo, Yunping; Xiang, Rong; Tan, Xiaoyue

    2014-11-01

    Although Oct4 is known as a critical transcription factor involved in maintaining "stemness", its role in tumor metastasis is still controversial. Herein, we overexpressed and silenced Oct4 expression in two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1, separately. Our data showed that ectopic overexpression of Oct4 suppressed cell migration and invasion in vitro and the formation of metastatic lung nodules in vivo. Conversely, Oct4 downregulation increased the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we identified Rnd1 as the downstream target of Oct4 by ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, which was significantly downregulated upon Oct4 overexpression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed the binding of Oct4 to the promoter region of Rnd1 by ectopic overexpression of Oct4. Dual luciferase assays indicated that Oct4 overexpression suppressed transcriptional activity of the Rnd1 promoter. Moreover, overexpression of Rnd1 partially rescued the inhibitory effects of Oct4 on the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Overexpression of Rnd1 counteracted the influence of Oct4 on the formation of cell adhesion and lamellipodia, which implied a potential underlying mechanism involving Rnd1. In addition, we also found that overexpression of Oct4 led to an elevation of E-cadherin expression, even in 4T1 cells that possess a relatively high basal level of E-cadherin. Rnd1 overexpression impaired the promoting effects of Oct4 on E-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggest that Oct4 affects the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells through Rnd1-mediated effects that influence cell motility and E-cadherin expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of metastatic breast cancer cells based on adaptability of their metabolic state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    Full Text Available A small subpopulation of highly adaptable breast cancer cells within a vastly heterogeneous population drives cancer metastasis. Here we describe a function-based strategy for selecting rare cancer cells that are highly adaptable and drive malignancy. Although cancer cells are dependent on certain nutrients, e.g., glucose and glutamine, we hypothesized that the adaptable cancer cells that drive malignancy must possess an adaptable metabolic state and that such cells could be identified using a robust selection strategy. As expected, more than 99.99% of cells died upon glutamine withdrawal from the aggressive breast cancer cell line SUM149. The rare cells that survived and proliferated without glutamine were highly adaptable, as judged by additional robust adaptability assays involving prolonged cell culture without glucose or serum. We were successful in isolating rare metabolically plastic glutamine-independent (Gln-ind variants from several aggressive breast cancer cell lines that we tested. The Gln-ind cells overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2, an indicator of tumor aggressiveness, and they were able to adjust their glutaminase level to suit glutamine availability. The Gln-ind cells were anchorage-independent, resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel, and resistant to a high concentration of a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The number of cells being able to adapt to non-availability of glutamine increased upon prior selection of cells for resistance to chemotherapy drugs or resistance to celecoxib, further supporting a linkage between cellular adaptability and therapeutic resistance. Gln-ind cells showed indications of oxidative stress, and they produced cadherin11 and vimentin, indicators of mesenchymal phenotype. Gln-ind cells were more tumorigenic and more metastatic in nude mice than the parental cell line as judged by incidence and time of occurrence. As we decreased the number of cancer cells in xenografts, lung metastasis

  15. Selection of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Based on Adaptability of Their Metabolic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Tai, Karen; Madan, Simran; Raythatha, Milan R.; Cady, Amanda M.; Braunlin, Megan; Irving, LaTashia R.; Bajaj, Ankur; Lucci, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A small subpopulation of highly adaptable breast cancer cells within a vastly heterogeneous population drives cancer metastasis. Here we describe a function-based strategy for selecting rare cancer cells that are highly adaptable and drive malignancy. Although cancer cells are dependent on certain nutrients, e.g., glucose and glutamine, we hypothesized that the adaptable cancer cells that drive malignancy must possess an adaptable metabolic state and that such cells could be identified using a robust selection strategy. As expected, more than 99.99% of cells died upon glutamine withdrawal from the aggressive breast cancer cell line SUM149. The rare cells that survived and proliferated without glutamine were highly adaptable, as judged by additional robust adaptability assays involving prolonged cell culture without glucose or serum. We were successful in isolating rare metabolically plastic glutamine-independent (Gln-ind) variants from several aggressive breast cancer cell lines that we tested. The Gln-ind cells overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2, an indicator of tumor aggressiveness, and they were able to adjust their glutaminase level to suit glutamine availability. The Gln-ind cells were anchorage-independent, resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and paclitaxel, and resistant to a high concentration of a COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The number of cells being able to adapt to non-availability of glutamine increased upon prior selection of cells for resistance to chemotherapy drugs or resistance to celecoxib, further supporting a linkage between cellular adaptability and therapeutic resistance. Gln-ind cells showed indications of oxidative stress, and they produced cadherin11 and vimentin, indicators of mesenchymal phenotype. Gln-ind cells were more tumorigenic and more metastatic in nude mice than the parental cell line as judged by incidence and time of occurrence. As we decreased the number of cancer cells in xenografts, lung metastasis and then primary

  16. Impact of Hypoxia on the Metastatic Potential of Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Yao; Bae, Kyungmi; Siemann, Dietmar W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Intratumoral hypoxia is known to be associated with radioresistance and metastasis. The present study examined the effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on the metastatic potential of prostate cancer PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP cells. Methods and Materials: Cell proliferation and clonogenicity were tested by MTT assay and colony formation assay, respectively. 'Wound-healing' and Matrigel-based chamber assays were used to monitor cell motility and invasion. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression was tested by Western blot, and HIF-1-target gene expression was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was determined by gelatin zymography. Results: When PC-3 cells were exposed to 1% oxygen (hypoxia) for various periods of time, chronic hypoxia (≥24 h) decreased cell proliferation and induced cell death. In contrast, prostate cancer cells exposed to acute hypoxia (≤6 h) displayed increased motility, clonogenic survival, and invasive capacity. At the molecular level, both hypoxia and anoxia transiently stabilized HIF-1α. Exposure to hypoxia also induced the early expression of MMP-2, an invasiveness-related gene. Treatment with the HIF-1 inhibitor YC-1 attenuated the acute hypoxia-induced migration, invasion, and MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: The length of oxygen deprivation strongly affected the functional behavior of all three prostate cancer cell lines. Acute hypoxia in particular was found to promote a more aggressive metastatic phenotype.

  17. Deformation-driven, lethal damage to cancer cells. Its contribution to metastatic inefficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, L

    1991-04-01

    Direct and indirect, in vivo and in vitro observations are in accord with the hypothesis that as a consequence of their deformation within capillaries, cancer cells undergo sphere-to-cylinder shape-transformations that create a demand for increased surface area. When this demand cannot be met by apparent increases in surface area accomplished by nonlethal, surface "unfolding," the cell surface membrane is stretched; if expansion results in more than a 4% increase in true surface area, the membrane ruptures, resulting in cancer cell death. It is suggested that this deformation-driven process is an important factor in accounting for the rapid death of circulating cancer cells that have been trapped in the microvasculature. Therefore, this mechanism is thought to make a significant contribution to metastatic inefficiency by acting as a potent rate-regulator for hematogenous metastasis.

  18. Increased diacylglycerol kinase ζ expression in human metastatic colon cancer cells augments Rho GTPase activity and contributes to enhanced invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Kun; Mulatz, Kirk; Ard, Ryan; Nguyen, Thanh; Gee, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the signaling pathways responsible for the establishment of a metastatic phenotype in carcinoma cells is critically important for understanding the pathology of cancer. The acquisition of cell motility is a key property of metastatic tumor cells and is a prerequisite for invasion. Rho GTPases regulate actin cytoskeleton reorganization and the cellular responses required for cell motility and invasion. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ), an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid, regulates the activity of the Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA. DGKζ mRNA is highly expressed in several different colon cancer cell lines, as well as in colon cancer tissue relative to normal colonic epithelium, and thus may contribute to the metastatic process. To investigate potential roles of DGKζ in cancer metastasis, a cellular, isogenic model of human colorectal cancer metastatic transition was used. DGKζ protein levels, Rac1 and RhoA activity, and PAK phosphorylation were measured in the non-metastatic SW480 adenocarcinoma cell line and its highly metastatic variant, the SW620 line. The effect of DGKζ silencing on Rho GTPase activity and invasion through Matrigel-coated Transwell inserts was studied in SW620 cells. Invasiveness was also measured in PC-3 prostate cancer and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells depleted of DGKζ. DGKζ protein levels were elevated approximately 3-fold in SW620 cells compared to SW480 cells. There was a concomitant increase in active Rac1 in SW620 cells, as well as substantial increases in the expression and phosphorylation of the Rac1 effector PAK1. Similarly, RhoA activity and expression were increased in SW620 cells. Knockdown of DGKζ expression in SW620 cells by shRNA-mediated silencing significantly reduced Rac1 and RhoA activity and attenuated the invasiveness of SW620 cells in vitro. DGKζ silencing in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and PC-3 prostate cancer cells also significantly attenuated

  19. Development of a highly metastatic model that reveals a crucial role of fibronectin in lung cancer cell migration and invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xianghuo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of metastasis is the most common cause of death in patients with lung cancer. A major implement to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer metastasis has been the lack of suitable models to address it. In this study, we aimed at establishing a highly metastatic model of human lung cancer and characterizing its metastatic properties and underlying mechanisms. Methods The human lung adeno-carcinoma SPC-A-1 cell line was used as parental cells for developing of highly metastatic cells by in vivo selection in NOD/SCID mice. After three rounds of selection, a new SPC-A-1sci cell line was established from pulmonary metastatic lesions. Subsequently, the metastatic properties of this cell line were analyzed, including optical imaging of in vivo metastasis, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis of several epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT makers and trans-well migration and invasion assays. Finally, the functional roles of fibronectin in the invasive and metastatic potentials of SPC-A-1sci cells were determined by shRNA analysis. Results A spontaneously pulmonary metastatic model of human lung adeno-carcinoma was established in NOD/SCID mice, from which a new lung cancer cell line, designated SPC-A-1sci, was isolated. Initially, the highly metastatic behavior of this cell line was validated by optical imaging in mice models. Further analyses showed that this cell line exhibit phenotypic and molecular alterations consistent with EMT. Compared with its parent cell line SPC-A-1, SPC-A-1sci was more aggressive in vitro, including increased potentials for cell spreading, migration and invasion. Importantly, fibronectin, a mesenchymal maker of EMT, was found to be highly expressed in SPC-A-1sci cells and down-regulation of it can decrease the in vitro and in vivo metastatic abilities of this cell line. Conclusions We have successfully established a new human lung cancer cell line with

  20. Development of a highly metastatic model that reveals a crucial role of fibronectin in lung cancer cell migration and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Deshui; Yao, Ming; Yan, Mingxia; Wang, Xiaomin; Hao, Xiangfang; Liang, Linhui; Liu, Lei; Kong, Hanwei; He, Xianghuo; Li, Jinjun

    2010-01-01

    The formation of metastasis is the most common cause of death in patients with lung cancer. A major implement to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung cancer metastasis has been the lack of suitable models to address it. In this study, we aimed at establishing a highly metastatic model of human lung cancer and characterizing its metastatic properties and underlying mechanisms. The human lung adeno-carcinoma SPC-A-1 cell line was used as parental cells for developing of highly metastatic cells by in vivo selection in NOD/SCID mice. After three rounds of selection, a new SPC-A-1sci cell line was established from pulmonary metastatic lesions. Subsequently, the metastatic properties of this cell line were analyzed, including optical imaging of in vivo metastasis, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analysis of several epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) makers and trans-well migration and invasion assays. Finally, the functional roles of fibronectin in the invasive and metastatic potentials of SPC-A-1sci cells were determined by shRNA analysis. A spontaneously pulmonary metastatic model of human lung adeno-carcinoma was established in NOD/SCID mice, from which a new lung cancer cell line, designated SPC-A-1sci, was isolated. Initially, the highly metastatic behavior of this cell line was validated by optical imaging in mice models. Further analyses showed that this cell line exhibit phenotypic and molecular alterations consistent with EMT. Compared with its parent cell line SPC-A-1, SPC-A-1sci was more aggressive in vitro, including increased potentials for cell spreading, migration and invasion. Importantly, fibronectin, a mesenchymal maker of EMT, was found to be highly expressed in SPC-A-1sci cells and down-regulation of it can decrease the in vitro and in vivo metastatic abilities of this cell line. We have successfully established a new human lung cancer cell line with highly metastatic potentials, which is subject to EMT and possibly

  1. Matrix rigidity induces osteolytic gene expression of metastatic breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin S Ruppender

    Full Text Available Nearly 70% of breast cancer patients with advanced disease will develop bone metastases. Once established in bone, tumor cells produce factors that cause changes in normal bone remodeling, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP. While enhanced expression of PTHrP is known to stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone, the environmental factors driving tumor cells to express PTHrP in the early stages of development of metastatic bone disease are unknown. In this study, we have shown that tumor cells known to metastasize to bone respond to 2D substrates with rigidities comparable to that of the bone microenvironment by increasing expression and production of PTHrP. The cellular response is regulated by Rho-dependent actomyosin contractility mediated by TGF-ß signaling. Inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK using both pharmacological and genetic approaches decreased PTHrP expression. Furthermore, cells expressing a dominant negative form of the TGF-ß receptor did not respond to substrate rigidity, and inhibition of ROCK decreased PTHrP expression induced by exogenous TGF-ß. These observations suggest a role for the differential rigidity of the mineralized bone microenvironment in early stages of tumor-induced osteolysis, which is especially important in metastatic cancer since many cancers (such as those of the breast and lung preferentially metastasize to bone.

  2. Curable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hochster, Howard S.

    2010-01-01

    Colon cancer, though already metastatic, may still be curable through multi-modality approaches, which require combined planning between medical and surgical oncologists. Retrospective surgical series have historically shown 5-year survival or “cures” for 30% to 50% of patients with solitary or a few resectable liver metastases. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting has been poorly defined. A recent European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) study randomize...

  3. Hypoxia increases the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells via upregulation of CXCR4

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Patricia A

    2010-05-21

    Abstract Background Chemokine SDF1α and its unique receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in organ-specific metastases of many cancers including breast cancer. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. We hypothesized that hypoxia would upregulate CXCR4 expression and lead to increased chemotactic responsiveness to its specific ligand SDF1α. Methods Three breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and 4T1 were subjected to 48 hrs of hypoxia or normoxia. Cell surface receptor expression was evaluated using flow cytometry. An extracellular matrix invasion assay and microporous migration assay was used to assess chemotactic response and metastatic ability. Results CXCR4 surface expression was significantly increased in the two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, following exposure to hypoxia. This upregulation of CXCR4 cell surface expression corresponded to a significant increase in migration and invasion in response to SDF1-α in vitro. The increase in metastatic potential of both the normoxic and the hypoxic treated breast cancer cell lines was attenuated by neutralization of CXCR4 with a CXCR4 neutralizing mAb, MAB172 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, showing the relationship between CXCR4 overexpression and increased chemotactic responsiveness. Conclusions CXCR4 expression can be modulated by the tissue microenvironment such as hypoxia. Upregulation of CXCR4 is associated with increased migratory and invasive potential and this effect can be abrogated by CXCR4 inhibition. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a potential therapeutic target in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer.

  4. Drug-selected human lung cancer stem cells: cytokine network, tumorigenic and metastatic properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Levina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor regeneration after chemotherapy, although direct confirmation of this remains forthcoming. We therefore investigated whether drug treatment could enrich and maintain CSCs and whether the high tumorogenic and metastatic abilities of CSCs were based on their marked ability to produce growth and angiogenic factors and express their cognate receptors to stimulate tumor cell proliferation and stroma formation.Treatment of lung tumor cells with doxorubicin, cisplatin, or etoposide resulted in the selection of drug surviving cells (DSCs. These cells expressed CD133, CD117, SSEA-3, TRA1-81, Oct-4, and nuclear beta-catenin and lost expression of the differentiation markers cytokeratins 8/18 (CK 8/18. DSCs were able to grow as tumor spheres, maintain self-renewal capacity, and differentiate. Differentiated progenitors lost expression of CD133, gained CK 8/18 and acquired drug sensitivity. In the presence of drugs, differentiation of DSCs was abrogated allowing propagation of cells with CSC-like characteristics. Lung DSCs demonstrated high tumorogenic and metastatic potential following inoculation into SCID mice, which supported their classification as CSCs. Luminex analysis of human and murine cytokines in sonicated lysates of parental- and CSC-derived tumors revealed that CSC-derived tumors contained two- to three-fold higher levels of human angiogenic and growth factors (VEGF, bFGF, IL-6, IL-8, HGF, PDGF-BB, G-CSF, and SCGF-beta. CSCs also showed elevated levels of expression of human VEGFR2, FGFR2, CXCR1, 2 and 4 receptors. Moreover, human CSCs growing in SCID mice stimulated murine stroma to produce elevated levels of angiogenic and growth factors.These findings suggest that chemotherapy can lead to propagation of CSCs and prevention of their differentiation. The high tumorigenic and metastatic potentials of CSCs are associated with efficient cytokine network production that may represent

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs enhance metastatic properties of breast cancer cells by activating Rho-associated kinase (ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogenesis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure.

  6. Mechanical properties of metastatic breast cancer cells invading into collagen I matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) are critical to the metastasis of cancer cells. To investigate the mechanical interplay between the cells and ECM during invasion, we created thin bovine collagen I hydrogels ranging from 0.1-5 kPa in Young's modulus that were seeded with highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Significant population fractions invaded the matrices either partially or fully within 24 h. We then combined confocal fluorescence microscopy and indentation with an atomic force microscope to determine the Young's moduli of individual embedded cells and the pericellular matrix using novel analysis methods for heterogeneous samples. In partially embedded cells, we observe a statistically significant correlation between the degree of invasion and the Young's modulus, which was up to an order of magnitude greater than that of the same cells measured in 2D. ROCK inhibition returned the cells' Young's moduli to values similar to 2D and diminished but did not abrogate invasion. This provides evidence that Rho/ROCK-dependent acto-myosin contractility is employed for matrix reorganization during initial invasion, and suggests the observed cell stiffening is due to an attendant increase in actin stress fibers. This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute under the grant U54 CA143862.

  7. Changing costs of metastatic non small cell lung cancer in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keusters, W R; de Weger, V A; Hövels, A; Schellens, J H M; Frederix, G W J

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify the total intramural cost of illness of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Netherlands between 2006-2012. Secondary objective was to identify whether changes in cost patterns of metastatic NSCLC have occurred over the last years. Patients diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC between 1-1-2006 and 31-12-2012, who had follow-up to death or the date of data cut-off and no trial participation were included. A structured chart review was performed using a case report form. Data collection started after diagnosis of metastatic NSCLC and ended at death or April first, 2015. Data regarding outpatient visits, clinical attendance, oncolytic drug use, imaging, lab tests, radiotherapy and surgery were collected. Sixty-seven patients were included with a median age of 67 years. The median follow-up was 234days. On average patients had 28 outpatient visits and 11 inpatient days. Oncolytic drugs were administered to 76% of the patients. Mean per patient expenditures amounted up to €17,463, with oncolytic drugs (€6,390) as the main cost driver. In comparison with the time-period of 2003-2005 total per patient per year expenses decreased by 44%. The contribution to total yearly costs of oncolytic drugs increased from 18% to 35%, while costs for inpatient stay decreased from 52% to 28% of total expenditures. Outcomes in this study demonstrate that average treatment costs for metastatic NSCLC in the Netherlands Cancer Institute amount to €17,463. Compared to a prior study the average cost for metastatic NSCLC over time in the Netherlands has decreased. A shift of main cost drivers seems to have occurred from inpatient stay, to oncolytic drugs as main contributor. The shift towards treatment cost might become more visible with the introduction of immunotherapy. These results mark the importance of up-to-date cost of illness studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dendritic cell vaccination in combination with docetaxel for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Per; Borch, Troels Holz; Ellebaek, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Background aims  We investigated whether the addition of an autologous dendritic cell–based cancer vaccine (DCvac) induces an immune response in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with docetaxel.  Methods  Forty-three patients were randomized 1:1 to receive up...... twice through treatment cycles 1–4 and once through treatment cycles 5–10. Immune cell composition and antigen-specific responses were analyzed using flow cytometry, ELISpot and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) tests. Toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events...... to local reactions. Decline in myeloid-derived suppressor cells at the third treatment cycle was found to be an independent predictor of DSS.  Conclusions  The addition of DCvac was safe. Immune responses were detected in approximately half of the patients investigated....

  9. Involvement of Cox-2 in the metastatic potential of chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Song, Ki-Hoon; Jeong, Kyung-Chae; Kim, Sunshin; Choi, Changsun; Lee, Chang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hyun

    2011-01-01

    A major problem with the use of current chemotherapy regimens for several cancers, including breast cancer, is development of intrinsic or acquired drug resistance, which results in disease recurrence and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this drug resistance are unknown. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying the invasive and metastatic activities of drug-resistant cancer cells, we generated a doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cell line (MCF-7/DOX). We used MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays, flow cytometry assays, DNA fragmentation assays, Western blot analysis, cell invasion assays, small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, experimental lung metastasis models, and gelatin and fibrinogen/plasminogen zymography to study the molecular mechanism of metastatic activities in MCF-7/DOX cells. We found that MCF-7/DOX acquired invasive activities. In addition, Western blot analysis showed increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Cox-2 in MCF-7/DOX cells. Inhibition of Cox-2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways effectively inhibited the invasive activities of MCF-7/DOX cells. Gelatin and fibrinogen/plasminogen zymography analysis showed that the enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were markedly higher in MCF-7/DOX cells than in the MCF-7 cells. In vitro invasion assays and mouse models of lung metastasis demonstrated that MCF-7/DOX cells acquired invasive abilities. Using siRNAs and agonists specific for prostaglandin E (EP) receptors, we found that EP1 and EP3 played important roles in the invasiveness of MCF-7/DOX cells. We found that the invasive activity of MCF-7/DOX cells is mediated by Cox-2, which is induced by the EGFR-activated PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. In addition, EP1 and EP3 are important in

  10. Can Biomarker Assessment on Circulating Tumor Cells Help Direct Therapy in Metastatic Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Turner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cell (CTC count has prognostic significance in metastatic breast cancer, but the predictive utility of CTCs is uncertain. Molecular studies on CTCs have often been limited by a low number of CTCs isolated from a high background of leukocytes. Improved enrichment techniques are now allowing molecular characterisation of single CTCs, whereby molecular markers on single CTCs may provide a real-time assessment of tumor biomarker status from a blood test or “liquid biopsy”, potentially negating the need for a more invasive tissue biopsy. The predictive ability of CTC biomarker analysis has predominantly been assessed in relation to HER2, with variable and inconclusive results. Limited data exist for other biomarkers, such as the estrogen receptor. In addition to the need to define and validate the most accurate and reproducible method for CTC molecular analysis, the clinical relevance of biomarkers, including gain of HER2 on CTC after HER2 negative primary breast cancer, remains uncertain. This review summarises the currently available data relating to biomarker evaluation on CTCs and its role in directing management in metastatic breast cancer, discusses limitations, and outlines measures that may enable future development of this approach.

  11. Stromal-cell and cancer-cell exosomes leading the metastatic exodus for the promised niche

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are thought to play an important role in metastasis. Luga and colleagues have described the production of exosomes by stromal cells such as cancer-associated fibroblasts that are taken up by breast cancer cells and are then loaded with Wnt 11, which is associated with stimulation of the invasiveness and metastasis of the breast cancer cells. Previous studies have shown that exosomes produced by breast cancer cells are taken up by stromal fibroblasts and other stromal cells, suggestin...

  12. Resveratrol induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in metastatic breast cancer cells via de novo ceramide signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, Francesca; Sala, Giusy; Somenzi, Giulia; Signorelli, Paola; Sacchi, Nicoletta; Ghidoni, Riccardo

    2003-12-01

    Resveratrol (3,4',5-trans-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin present in grapes and red wine, is emerging as a natural compound with potential anticancer properties. Here we show that resveratrol can induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231, a highly invasive and metastatic breast cancer cell line, in concomitance with a dramatic endogenous increase of growth inhibitory/proapoptotic ceramide. We found that accumulation of ceramide derives from both de novo ceramide synthesis and sphingomyelin hydrolysis. More specifically we demonstrated that ceramide accumulation induced by resveratrol can be traced to the activation of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the key enzyme of de novo ceramide biosynthetic pathway, and neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase), a main enzyme involved in the sphingomyelin/ceramide pathway. However, by using specific inhibitors of SPT, myriocin and L-cycloserine, and nSMase, gluthatione and manumycin, we found that only the SPT inhibitors could counteract the biological effects induced by resveratrol. Thus, resveratrol seems to exert its growth inhibitory/apoptotic effect on the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 by activating the de novo ceramide synthesis pathway.

  13. Biophysical and morphological effects of nanodiamond/nanoplatinum solution (DPV576) on metastatic murine breast cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneum, Alia; Zhu, Huanqi; Woo, JungReem; Zabinyakov, Nikita; Sharma, Shivani; Gimzewski, James K

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles have recently gained increased attention as drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer due to their minute size and unique chemical properties. However, very few studies have tested the biophysical changes associated with nanoparticles on metastatic cancer cells at the cellular and sub-cellular scales. Here, we investigated the mechanical and morphological properties of cancer cells by measuring the changes in cell Young’s Modulus using AFM, filopodial retraction (FR) by time lapse optical light microscopy imaging and filopodial disorganization by high resolution AFM imaging of cells upon treatment with nanoparticles. In the current study, nanomechanical changes in live murine metastatic breast cancer cells (4T1) post exposure to a nanodiamond/nanoplatinum mixture dispersed in aqueous solution (DPV576), were monitored. Results showed a decrease in Young’s modulus at two hours post treatment with DPV576 in a dose dependent manner. Partial FR at 20 min and complete FR at 40 min were observed. Moreover, analysis of the retraction distance (in microns) measured over time (minutes), showed that a DPV576 concentration of 15%v/v yielded the highest FR rate. In addition, DPV576 treated cells showed early signs of filopodial disorganization and disintegration. This study demonstrates the changes in cell stiffness and tracks early structural alterations of metastatic breast cancer cells post treatment with DPV576, which may have important implications in the role of nanodiamond/nanoplatinum based cancer cell therapy and sensitization to chemotherapy drugs. (paper)

  14. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 modulates invasion and metastatic potential of colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Muriel; Naudin, Cécile; Letourneur, Martine; Polrot, Mélanie; Renoir, Jack-Michel; Lazar, Vladimir; Dessen, Philippe; Roche, Serge; Bertoglio, Jacques; Pierre, Josiane

    2014-07-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 is an inducible negative regulator of cytokine signaling but its role in human cancer is not completely established. Here we report that, while SOCS1 is expressed in normal colonic epithelium and colon adenocarcinomas, its level decreases during progression of colon adenocarcinomas, the lowest level being found in the most aggressive stage and least differentiated carcinomas. Forced expression of SOCS1 in metastatic colorectal SW620 cells reverses many characteristics of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), as highlighted by the disappearance of the transcription factor ZEB1 and the mesenchymal form of p120ctn and the re-expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, miRNA profiling indicated that SOCS1 also up-regulates the expression of the mir-200 family of miRNAs, which can promote the mesenchymal-epithelial transition and reduce tumor cell migration. Accordingly, overexpression of SOCS1 induced cell morphology changes and dramatically reduced tumor cell invasion in vitro. When injected in nude mice, SOCS1-expressing SW620 cells induced metastases in a smaller number of animals than parental SW620 cells, and did not generate any adrenal gland or bone metastasis. Overall, our results suggest that SOCS1 controls metastatic progression of colorectal tumors by preventing the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), including E-cadherin expression. This pathway may be associated with survival to colorectal cancer by reducing the capacity of generating metastases. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metastatic Small Cell Carcinoma of the Breast from Cancer of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Seok Kwak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here on a case of 51-year-old woman with metastatic small cell carcinoma of the breast that came from her cancer of the uterine cervix. She underwent radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy due to small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, and adjuvant radiotherapy was administered to the pelvis. Breast metastasis with a palpable mass then occurred 3 months after the primary surgery. Simple mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy were performed. She initially showed a good response to the therapy, yet she ultimately died of multiple metastases with a fulminating disease course. This is an extremely rare case, and only 1 similar case has been reported earlier, so we report on this case along with a review of the relevant literature.

  16. Cell-Free DNA in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Boysen, Anders K; Pallisgård, Niels; Johansen, Julia S; Tabernero, Josep; Sørensen, Morten M; Jensen, Benny V; Hansen, Torben F; Sefrioui, David; Andersen, Rikke F; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2017-09-01

    Circulating DNA can be detected and quantified in the blood of cancer patients and used for detection of tumor-specific genetic alterations. The clinical utility has been intensively investigated for the past 10 years. The majority of reports focus on analyzing the clinical potential of tumor-specific mutations, whereas the use of total cell-free DNA (cfDNA) quantification is somehow controversial and sparsely described in the literature, but holds important clinical information in itself. The purpose of the present report was to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic value of total cfDNA in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with chemotherapy. In addition, we report on the overall performance of cfDNA as source for KRAS mutation detection. A systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed by two independent investigators. Eligibility criteria were (a) total cfDNA analysis, (b) mCRC, and (c) prognostic value during palliative treatment. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and meta-analysis applied on both aggregate data extraction and individual patients' data. Ten eligible cohorts were identified, including a total of 1,076 patients. Seven studies used quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, two BEAMing [beads, emulsification, amplification, and magnetics] technology, and one study digital droplet polymerase chain reaction. The baseline levels of cfDNA was similar in the presented studies, and all studies reported a clear prognostic value in favor of patients with lowest levels of baseline cfDNA. A meta-analysis revealed a combined estimate of favorable overall survival hazard ratio (HR) in patients with levels below the median cfDNA (HR = 2.39, 95% confidence interval 2.03-2.82, p  meta-analysis. Reliable prognostic markers could help to guide patients and treating physicians regarding the relevance and choice of

  17. Podoplanin in cancer cells is experimentally able to attenuate prolymphangiogenic and lymphogenous metastatic potentials of lung squamoid cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hanako

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoplanin, a mucin-like transmembrane glycoprotein, is reportedly expressed in a variety of malignant cells and is generally regarded as a factor for promoting tumor progression in conventional studies. By contrast, a clinicopathologically conflicting role for podoplanin, namely as a favorable prognostic factor for patients with lung/cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, has recently been reported. Here, we investigated the role of podoplanin expressed in lung squamoid cancer cells (LSCCs in experimental tumor progression. Results Using EBC-1 cells, a lung SCC cell line without podoplanin expression and with lymphogenous metastatic potential, stable transformants with or without an exogenous human podoplanin gene were established and applied to a mouse tumor implantation model. In vivo examinations revealed that exogenous podoplanin had no influence on tumor growth, whereas it significantly restrained axillary lymph node metastasis associated with the suppression of lymphangiogenesis but not angiogenesis and with the downregulation of EBC-1-derived VEGF-C but not other lymphangiogenesis-related factor mRNAs in implanted tumor tissue. In vitro examinations to clarify the mechanisms underlying the in vivo phenomena revealed that exogenous podoplanin significantly suppressed the expression of VEGF-C mRNA and of the protein, and also increased the level of phosphorylated c-jun N terminal kinase (JNK in EBC-1 cells. The former effect of exogenous podoplanin was impaired by treatment with either JNK inhibitor sp600125 or podoplanin-siRNA, and the latter effect was impaired by treatment with podoplanin-siRNA, suggesting that podoplanin was able to activate JNK, thereby downregulating VEGF-C gene expression in LSCCs (podoplanin-JNK-VEGF-C axis. Furthermore, supporting evidence in regard to the axis present in LSCCs was obtained from similar experiments using H157 cells, another lung SCC cell line expressing endogenous podoplanin

  18. Podoplanin in cancer cells is experimentally able to attenuate prolymphangiogenic and lymphogenous metastatic potentials of lung squamoid cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Podoplanin, a mucin-like transmembrane glycoprotein, is reportedly expressed in a variety of malignant cells and is generally regarded as a factor for promoting tumor progression in conventional studies. By contrast, a clinicopathologically conflicting role for podoplanin, namely as a favorable prognostic factor for patients with lung/cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has recently been reported. Here, we investigated the role of podoplanin expressed in lung squamoid cancer cells (LSCCs) in experimental tumor progression. Results Using EBC-1 cells, a lung SCC cell line without podoplanin expression and with lymphogenous metastatic potential, stable transformants with or without an exogenous human podoplanin gene were established and applied to a mouse tumor implantation model. In vivo examinations revealed that exogenous podoplanin had no influence on tumor growth, whereas it significantly restrained axillary lymph node metastasis associated with the suppression of lymphangiogenesis but not angiogenesis and with the downregulation of EBC-1-derived VEGF-C but not other lymphangiogenesis-related factor mRNAs in implanted tumor tissue. In vitro examinations to clarify the mechanisms underlying the in vivo phenomena revealed that exogenous podoplanin significantly suppressed the expression of VEGF-C mRNA and of the protein, and also increased the level of phosphorylated c-jun N terminal kinase (JNK) in EBC-1 cells. The former effect of exogenous podoplanin was impaired by treatment with either JNK inhibitor sp600125 or podoplanin-siRNA, and the latter effect was impaired by treatment with podoplanin-siRNA, suggesting that podoplanin was able to activate JNK, thereby downregulating VEGF-C gene expression in LSCCs (podoplanin-JNK-VEGF-C axis). Furthermore, supporting evidence in regard to the axis present in LSCCs was obtained from similar experiments using H157 cells, another lung SCC cell line expressing endogenous podoplanin. Conclusions Our findings

  19. EpCAM-Independent Enrichment of Circulating Tumor Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Helen; Gierke, Berthold; Uppenkamp, Frauke; Behrens, Bianca; Niederacher, Dieter; Stoecklein, Nikolas H.; Templin, Markus F.; Pawlak, Michael; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the potential precursors of metastatic disease. Most assays established for the enumeration of CTCs so far–including the gold standard CellSearch—rely on the expression of the cell surface marker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). But, these approaches may not detect CTCs that express no/low levels of EpCAM, e.g. by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we present an enrichment strategy combining different antibodies specific for surface proteins and extracellular matrix (ECM) components to capture an EpCAMlow/neg cell line and EpCAMneg CTCs from blood samples of breast cancer patients depleted for EpCAM-positive cells. The expression of respective proteins (Trop2, CD49f, c-Met, CK8, CD44, ADAM8, CD146, TEM8, CD47) was verified by immunofluorescence on EpCAMpos (e.g. MCF7, SKBR3) and EpCAMlow/neg (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines. To test antibodies and ECM proteins (e.g. hyaluronic acid (HA), collagen I, laminin) for capturing EpCAMneg cells, the capture molecules were first spotted in a single- and multi-array format onto aldehyde-coated glass slides. Tumor cell adhesion of EpCAMpos/neg cell lines was then determined and visualized by Coomassie/MitoTracker staining. In consequence, marginal binding of EpCAMlow/neg MDA-MB-231 cells to EpCAM-antibodies could be observed. However, efficient adhesion/capturing of EpCAMlow/neg cells could be achieved via HA and immobilized antibodies against CD49f and Trop2. Optimal capture conditions were then applied to immunomagnetic beads to detect EpCAMneg CTCs from clinical samples. Captured CTCs were verified/quantified by immunofluorescence staining for anti-pan-Cytokeratin (CK)-FITC/anti-CD45 AF647/DAPI. In total, in 20 out of 29 EpCAM-depleted fractions (69%) from 25 metastatic breast cancer patients additional EpCAMneg CTCs could be identified [range of 1–24 CTCs per sample] applying Trop2, CD49f, c-Met, CK8 and/or HA magnetic enrichment. Ep

  20. MicroRNA-200, associated with metastatic breast cancer, promotes traits of mammary luminal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cid, Lourdes; Pons, Mònica; Lozano, Juan José; Rubio, Nuria; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Soriano, Aroa; Paris-Coderch, Laia; Segura, Miquel F; Fueyo, Raquel; Arguimbau, Judit; Zodda, Erika; Bermudo, Raquel; Alonso, Immaculada; Caparrós, Xavier; Cascante, Marta; Rafii, Arash; Kang, Yibin; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; Weiss, Stephen J; Blanco, Jerónimo; Muñoz, Montserrat; Fernández, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M

    2017-10-13

    MicroRNAs are critical regulators of gene networks in normal and abnormal biological processes. Focusing on invasive ductal breast cancer (IDC), we have found dysregulated expression in tumor samples of several microRNAs, including the miR-200 family, along progression from primary tumors to distant metastases, further reflected in higher blood levels of miR-200b and miR-7 in IDC patients with regional or distant metastases relative to patients with primary node-negative tumors. Forced expression of miR-200s in MCF10CA1h mammary cells induced an enhanced epithelial program, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, mammosphere growth and ability to form branched tubuloalveolar structures while promoting orthotopic tumor growth and lung colonization in vivo . MiR-200s also induced the constitutive activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling through downregulation of PTEN, and the enhanced mammosphere growth and ALDH activity induced in MCF10CA1h cells by miR-200s required the activation of this signaling pathway. Interestingly, the morphology of tumors formed in vivo by cells expressing miR-200s was reminiscent of metaplastic breast cancer (MBC). Indeed, the epithelial components of MBC samples expressed significantly higher levels of miR-200s than their mesenchymal components and displayed a marker profile compatible with luminal progenitor cells. We propose that microRNAs of the miR-200 family promote traits of highly proliferative breast luminal progenitor cells, thereby exacerbating the growth and metastatic properties of transformed mammary epithelial cells.

  1. A Paracrine Role for IL6 in Prostate Cancer Patients: Lack of Production by Primary or Metastatic Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shu-Han; Zheng, Qizhi; Esopi, David; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Luo, Jun; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Drake, Charles G.; Vessella, Robert; Morrissey, Colm; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Sfanos, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Correlative human studies suggest that the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL6) contributes to the development and/or progression of prostate cancer. However, the source of IL6 production in the prostate microenvironment in patients has yet to be determined. The cellular origin of IL6 in primary and metastatic prostate cancer was examined in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues using a highly sensitive and specific chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay that underwent extensive analytical validation. Quantitative RT-PCR (q-RT-PCR) showed that benign prostate tissues often had higher expression of IL6 mRNA than matched tumor specimens. CISH analysis further indicated that both primary and metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma cells do not express IL6 mRNA. IL6 expression was highly heterogeneous across specimens and was nearly exclusively restricted to the prostate stromal compartment – including endothelial cells and macrophages among other cell types. The number of IL6-expressing cells correlated positively with the presence of acute inflammation. In metastatic disease, tumor cells were negative in all lesions examined and IL6 expression was restricted to endothelial cells within the vasculature of bone metastases. Finally, IL6 was not detected in any cells in soft tissue metastases. These data suggest that, in prostate cancer patients, paracrine rather than autocrine IL6 production is likely associated with any role for the cytokine in disease progression. PMID:26048576

  2. Hyper-IL-15 suppresses metastatic and autochthonous liver cancer by promoting tumour-specific CD8+ T cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Du, Xuexiang; Wang, Zheng; Ju, Jianqi; Jia, Mingming; Huang, Qibin; Xing, Qiao; Xu, Meng; Tan, Yi; Liu, Mingyue; Du, Peishuang; Su, Lishan; Wang, Shengdian

    2014-12-01

    Liver cancer has a very dismal prognosis due to lack of effective therapy. Here, we studied the therapeutic effects of hyper-interleukin15 (hyper-IL-15), which is composed of IL-15 and the sushi domain of the IL-15 receptor α chain, on metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers. Liver metastatic tumour models were established by intraportally injecting syngeneic mice with murine CT26 colon carcinoma cells or B16-OVA melanoma cells. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). A hydrodynamics-based gene delivery method was used to achieve sustained hyper-IL-15 expression in the liver. Liver gene delivery of hyper-IL-15 robustly expanded CD8(+) T and NK cells, leading to a long-term (more than 40 days) accumulation of CD8(+) T cells in vivo, especially in the liver. Hyper-IL-15 treatment exerted remarkable therapeutic effects on well-established liver metastatic tumours and even on DEN-induced autochthonous HCC, and these effects were abolished by depletion of CD8(+) T cells but not NK cells. Hyper-IL-15 triggered IL-12 and interferon-γ production and reduced the expression of co-inhibitory molecules on dendritic cells in the liver. Adoptive transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic OT-1 cells showed that hyper-IL-15 preferentially expanded tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells and promoted their interferon-γ synthesis and cytotoxicity. Liver delivery of hyper-IL-15 provides an effective therapy against well-established metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers in mouse models by preferentially expanding tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells and promoting their anti-tumour effects. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A rationally designed photo-chemo core-shell nanomedicine for inhibiting the migration of metastatic breast cancer cells followed by photodynamic killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Chandran, Parwathy; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Ramachandran, Ranjith; Gupta, Neha; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-04-01

    A multifunctional core-shell nanomedicine capable of inhibiting the migratory capacity of metastatic cancer cells followed by imparting cytotoxic stress by photodynamic action is reported. Based on in silico design, we have developed a core-shell nanomedicine comprising of ~80nm size poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano-core encapsulating photosensitizer, m-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC), and ~20nm size albumin nano-shell encapsulating tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Dasatinib, which impair cancer migration. This system was prepared by a sequential process involving electrospray of polymer core and coacervation of protein shell. Cell studies using metastatic breast cancer cells demonstrated disruption of Src kinase involved in the cancer migration by albumin-dasatinib nano-shell and generation of photoactivated oxidative stress by mTHPC-PLGA nano-core. This unique combinatorial photo-chemo nanotherapy resulted synergistic cytotoxicity in ~99% of the motility-impaired metastatic cells. This approach of blocking cancer migration followed by photodynamic killing using rationally designed nanomedicine is a promising new strategy against cancer metastasis. A multifunctional core-shell nanomedicine capable of inhibiting metastatic cancer cell migration, in addition to inducing photodynamic effects, is described in this paper. The authors document cytotoxicity in approximately 99% of the studied metastatic breast cancer cells. Similar approaches would be a very welcome addition to the treatment protocols of advanced metastatic breast cancer and other types of neoplasms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of Hemolytic Anemia in a Nivolumab-Treated Patient with Refractory Metastatic Squamous Cell Skin Cancer and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Schwab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer, refractory to initial therapy with standard chemotherapy and radiation protocols, remains difficult with poor overall prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Recently, promising response rates with nivolumab, a programmed death receptor-1-blocking antibody, in squamous cancer of the head and neck have been demonstrated. Considering the similar histological patterns of squamous cell cancer of the skin and squamous cell cancer of the head and neck, we assumed that nivolumab could also be effective in our patients with refractory metastatic squamous cell cancer of the skin. So far, there have been no clinical data on the therapeutic efficacy of nivolumab in squamous cell skin cancer. We here present a case of a patient with metastatic squamous cell skin cancer refractory to previous therapies, who showed a good response to nivolumab over a period of 5 months, but developed a serious hemolytic crisis under nivolumab treatment after eight applications.

  5. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  6. Snail regulates cell survival and inhibits cellular senescence in human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Schmitz, Ingo; Sameie, Shahram; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-12-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as an important step in cancer metastasis. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been recently proposed to act additionally as a cell survival factor and inducer of motility. We have investigated the function of Snail (SNAI1) in prostate cancer cells by downregulating its expression via short (21-mer) interfering RNA (siRNA) and measuring the consequences on EMT markers, cell viability, death, cell cycle, senescence, attachment, and invasivity. Of eight carcinoma cell lines, the prostate carcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 showed the highest and moderate expression of SNAI1 mRNA, respectively, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Long-term knockdown of Snail induced a severe decline in cell numbers in LNCaP and PC-3 and caspase activity was accordingly enhanced in both cell lines. In addition, suppression of Snail expression induced senescence in LNCaP cells. SNAI1-siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the extracellular matrix, probably due to downregulation of integrin α6. Expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin was also affected. Invasiveness of PC-3 cells was not significantly diminished by Snail knockdown. Our data suggest that Snail acts primarily as a survival factor and inhibitor of cellular senescence in prostate cancer cell lines. We therefore propose that Snail can act as early driver of prostate cancer progression.

  7. SN38 conjugated hyaluronic acid gold nanoparticles as a novel system against metastatic colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hosniyeh; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Varnamkhasti, Behrang Shiri; Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2017-06-30

    Combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy has been proposed for better treatment of metastatic colon cancer. In this study SN38, a highly potent cytotoxic agent, was conjugated to negatively charged hyaluronic acid (HA), which was deposited on the surface of the positively charged gold nanoparticles via electrostatic interaction. The drug conjugation and its interaction with gold nanoparticles were verified by 1 H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, respectively. The prepared SN38-HA gold NPs are negatively charged spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 75±10nm. In vitro release study revealed that drug release in acidic conditions (pH 5.2) was faster than that in physiological pH. Red light emitting diode (LED, 630nm, 30mW) was used as a light source for photothermal experiments. The drug release in acidic conditions was increased up to 30% using red LED illumination (6min) in comparison with experiment carried out indark. The cytotoxicity study on MUC1 positive HT29, SW480 colon cancer cells and MUC1 negative CHO cells, showed higher toxicity of the nanoparticles on HT29 and SW480 cell lines compared to CHO cells. Confocal microscopy images along with flow cytometry analysis confirm the cytotoxicity results. The incubation time for reaching IC50 decreases from 48h to 24h by LED illumination after nanoparticle treatment. Migratory potential of the HT29 and SW480 cell lines was reduced by co-application of SN38-HA gold NPs and LED radiation. Also anti-proliferative study indicates that LED radiation has increased the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles and this effect is remained up to 8days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-small cell lung cancer: Spectral computed tomography quantitative parameters for preoperative diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fengfeng [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Dong, Jie [Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Xiuting; Fu, Xiaojiao [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Tong, E-mail: zt415@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Objective: To investigate the application value of spectral computed tomography (CT)quantitative parameters for preoperative diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSLC). Methods: 84 patients with suspected lung cancer who underwent chest dual-phase enhanced scan with gemstone spectral CT imaging (GSI) mode were selected. GSI quantitative parameters including normalized iodine concentrations (NIC), water concentration, slope of the spectral Hounsfield unit curve (λHU) were measured. The two-sample t test was used to statistically compare these quantitative parameters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to establish the optimal threshold values. Results: A total of 144 lymph nodes were included, with 48 metastatic lymph nodes and 96 non-metastatic lymph nodes. The slope of the spectral Hounsfeld unit curve (λHU) measured during both arterial and venous phases were signifcantly higher in metastatic than in benign lymph nodes (P < 0.05). The area under the ROC curve (AUC = 0.951) of λHU of the arterial phase (AP) was the largest. When the optimal threshold values of λHU was 2.75, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy in the diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes were 88.2%, 88.4%, 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion: Conventional CT diagnostic criteria established in accordance with size (lymph node maximal short axis diameter ≥10 mm) as the basis for judging metastatic lymph node. In quantitative assessment using spectral CT imaging, quantitative parameters showed higher accuracy than qualitative assessment of conventional CT based on the size for preoperative diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes.

  9. Sorafenib for Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared sorafenib (Nexavar®) and a placebo for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is no longer responding to treatment with radioactive iodine

  10. Anticancer immune reactivity and long-term survival after treatment of metastatic ovarian cancer with dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERNAL, SAMUEL D.; ONA, ENRIQUE T.; RIEGO-JAVIER, AILEEN; DE VILLA, ROMULO; CRISTAL-LUNA, GLORIA R.; LAGUATAN, JOSEPHINE B.; BATAC, EUNICE R.; CANLAS, OSCAR Q.

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells collected by leukapheresis of a patient with metastatic ovarian carcinoma (OVCA) were induced into dendritic cell (DC) differentiation and fused with liposomal constructs of autologous and allogeneic ovarian carcinoma antigens (DC-OVCA). The proliferation of autologous T cells induced by DCs was determined by [3H]-thymidine uptake. Maximal T-cell proliferation was observed in co-cultures of DCs fused with liposomal OVCA constructs compared with intact autologous OVCA cells. The combination of autologous and allogeneic liposomal OVCA constructs induced greater T-cell proliferation than either alone. The cytotoxicity of DC-activated T cells against various target cells were analyzed by a 51Cr-release assay. The combination of autologous and allogeneic liposomal OVCA constructs showed the highest stimulation of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity against OVCA cells, but had minimal cytotoxicity against normal fibroblasts or leukemia cells. The liposomal preparations of DC-OVCA were injected monthly into a patient with metastatic ovarian carcinoma whose tumors progressed following multiple courses of chemotherapy. DCs analyzed from the patient post-immunization showed 2- to 3-fold greater OVCA cytotoxicity compared to pre-immunization DCs. Immunoblots using the patient's serum showed reactivity with a number of proteins from ovarian cancer extracts, but not in normal fibroblasts and breast cancer. Following the DC-OVCA treatment, the metastatic lesions progressively decreased in size to the point of being undetectable by serial CAT scans. Seven years following the initial diagnosis, the patient continues to be free of cancer. This report described the anticancer immune reactivity and anti-tumor response induced by DCs sensitized with liposomal constructs of OVCA antigens. Immune cell therapy may therefore be a useful adjunct to surgery and chemotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:22740858

  11. Co-stimulatory signaling determines tumor antigen sensitivity and persistence of CAR T cells targeting PSCA+ metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priceman, Saul J; Gerdts, Ethan A; Tilakawardane, Dileshni; Kennewick, Kelly T; Murad, John P; Park, Anthony K; Jeang, Brook; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Yang, Xin; Urak, Ryan; Weng, Lihong; Chang, Wen-Chung; Wright, Sarah; Pal, Sumanta; Reiter, Robert E; Wu, Anna M; Brown, Christine E; Forman, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Advancing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered adoptive T cells for the treatment of solid cancers is a major focus in the field of immunotherapy, given impressive recent clinical responses in hematological malignancies. Prostate cancer may be amenable to T cell-based immunotherapy since several tumor antigens, including prostate stem-cell antigen (PSCA), are widely over-expressed in metastatic disease. While antigen selectivity of CARs for solid cancers is crucial, it is problematic due to the absence of truly restricted tumor antigen expression and potential safety concerns with "on-target off-tumor" activity. Here, we show that the intracellular co-stimulatory signaling domain can determine a CAR's sensitivity for tumor antigen expression. A 4-1BB intracellular co-stimulatory signaling domain in PSCA-CARs confers improved selectivity for higher tumor antigen density, reduced T cell exhaustion phenotype, and equivalent tumor killing ability compared to PSCA-CARs containing the CD28 co-stimulatory signaling domain. PSCA-CARs exhibit robust in vivo anti-tumor activity in patient-derived bone-metastatic prostate cancer xenograft models, and 4-1BB-containing CARs show superior T cell persistence and control of disease compared with CD28-containing CARs. Our study demonstrates the importance of co-stimulation in defining an optimal CAR T cell, and also highlights the significance of clinically relevant models in developing solid cancer CAR T cell therapies.

  12. Co-stimulatory signaling determines tumor antigen sensitivity and persistence of CAR T cells targeting PSCA+ metastatic prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priceman, Saul J.; Gerdts, Ethan A.; Tilakawardane, Dileshni; Kennewick, Kelly T.; Murad, John P.; Park, Anthony K.; Jeang, Brook; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Urak, Ryan; Weng, Lihong; Chang, Wen-Chung; Wright, Sarah; Pal, Sumanta; Reiter, Robert E.; Brown, Christine E.; Forman, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advancing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered adoptive T cells for the treatment of solid cancers is a major focus in the field of immunotherapy, given impressive recent clinical responses in hematological malignancies. Prostate cancer may be amenable to T cell-based immunotherapy since several tumor antigens, including prostate stem-cell antigen (PSCA), are widely over-expressed in metastatic disease. While antigen selectivity of CARs for solid cancers is crucial, it is problematic due to the absence of truly restricted tumor antigen expression and potential safety concerns with “on-target off-tumor” activity. Here, we show that the intracellular co-stimulatory signaling domain can determine a CAR's sensitivity for tumor antigen expression. A 4-1BB intracellular co-stimulatory signaling domain in PSCA-CARs confers improved selectivity for higher tumor antigen density, reduced T cell exhaustion phenotype, and equivalent tumor killing ability compared to PSCA-CARs containing the CD28 co-stimulatory signaling domain. PSCA-CARs exhibit robust in vivo anti-tumor activity in patient-derived bone-metastatic prostate cancer xenograft models, and 4-1BB-containing CARs show superior T cell persistence and control of disease compared with CD28-containing CARs. Our study demonstrates the importance of co-stimulation in defining an optimal CAR T cell, and also highlights the significance of clinically relevant models in developing solid cancer CAR T cell therapies. PMID:29308300

  13. Randomized Trial of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) as Early Consolidation Following Marrow Ablative Therapy With Stem Cell Rescue for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samlowski, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    Marrow ablative doses of chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue (MAT/SR) produces a high frequency of objective responses in patients with metastatic breast cancer, with up to 40-50% complete responses...

  14. Randomized Trial of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) as Early Consolidation Following Marrow Ablative Therapy with Stem Cell Rescue for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samlowski, Wolfram

    2000-01-01

    Marrow ablative doses of chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue (MAT/SR) produce a high frequency of objective responses in patients with metastatic breast cancer, with up to 40-50 % complete responses...

  15. Randomized Trial of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) as Early Consolidation Following Marrow Ablative Therapy with Stem Cell Rescue for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samlowski, Wolfram

    2001-01-01

    Marrow ablative doses of chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue (MAT/SR) produce a high frequency of objective responses in patients with metastatic breast cancer, with up to 40-50% complete responses...

  16. Profile of ramucirumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maryann R Cooper,1 Chelsea Binkowski,2,3 Jessica Hartung,2,4 Jennifer Towle1 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy – Worcester/Manchester, MCPHS University, Manchester, NH, 2School of Pharmacy – Boston, MCPHS University, Boston, MA, 3North America Medical Affairs, 4Global Medical Affairs, Sanofi Oncology, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract: The interaction between vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor is an important therapeutic target due to the importance of this pathway in carcinogenesis. In particular, this pathway promotes and regulates angiogenesis as well as increases endothelial cell proliferation, permeability, and survival. Ramucirumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that specifically targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, the key receptor implicated in angiogenesis. Currently, ramucirumab is approved for the second-line treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC in combination with docetaxel. In a Phase III clinical trial, ramucirumab was shown to improve the overall survival in patients with disease progression, despite platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC. This review describes the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and dynamics, adverse event profile, and the clinical activity of ramucirumab observed in Phase II and III trials in NSCLC. Keywords: NSCLC, antiangiogenesis, VEGF-targeted therapy

  17. Altering the Microenvironment to Promote Dormancy of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell in a 3D Bone Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of the collagen -rich extracellular matrix . Further addition of metastatic breast cancer cells to the co-culture mimicked the vicious cycle; there was...biodegradable polymers to type I collagen or matrix derived from native extracellular matrix following decellularization. Papadimitropoulos et al., presents a...metastasis, 3D model, osteoblasts, cytokines, extracellular matrix 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a

  18. Overall survival after immunotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and surgery in treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lichtenberg, Trine Honnens; Hermann, Gregers G.; Rorth, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate overall survival (OS) after treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) following the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. Material and methods. One-hundred and forty...

  19. Recent advances in technologies for the detection of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Stephan; Harbeck, Nadia

    2001-01-01

    Approximately half of breast cancer patients with stage I–III disease will suffer metastatic disease despite resection with tumour-free margins. In 30–40% of these patients, individual carcinoma cells can already be detected at the time of primary therapy in cytological bone marrow preparations using immunocytochemistry. Numerous prospective clinical studies have shown that the presence of occult metastatic cells in bone marrow is prognostically relevant to patient survival. Only a few studies failed to do so, thus stimulating a critical discussion on the methodology and clinical value of bone marrow analysis. The potential for obtaining improved prognostic information on patient outcome, for monitoring tumour cell eradication during adjuvant and palliative systemic therapy, and for specifically targeting tumour biological therapies are intriguing clinical opportunities that may be afforded by bone marrow analysis. Standardized and robust methodology is a prerequisite for clinical application of these techniques, however

  20. Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yifan; Li, Shu Jie; Pan, Juncheng; Che, Yongzhe; Yin, Jian; Zhao, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. → Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. → Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. → Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

  1. Vinorelbine and paclitaxel for locoregional advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Juan E; Machiavelli, Mario R; Romero, Alberto O; Romero Acuña, Luis A; Domínguez, María E; Fasce, Hebe; Flores Acosta, Luis; Marrone, Nora; Romero Acuña, Juan M; Langhi, Mario J; Amato, Sonia; Bologna, Fabrina; Ortiz, Eduardo H; Leone, Bernardo A; Lacava, Juan A; Vallejo, Carlos T

    2002-08-01

    A phase II trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the novel combination of vinorelbine and paclitaxel as first-line chemotherapy in patients with stages IIIB and IV non-small-cell lung cancer. From January 1997 to September 1999, 34 patients (9 stage IIIB and 25 stage IV) received a regimen consisting of the following: vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 20 minutes intravenous (i.v.) infusion, days 1 and 8; and paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 3-hour i.v. (starting 1 hour after vinorelbine) on day 1. Cycles were repeated every 28 days until progression of disease or unacceptable toxicity development. The median age was 57 years (range 41-70 years); median performance status was 1. Histology was as follows: squamous cell in 24 (71%), large cell in 1 (3%), and adenocarcinoma in 9 (26%). All patients are evaluable for toxicity, whereas 30 are evaluable for response (4 patients refused treatment). Objective response was recorded in 4 of 30 patients (13%, 95% CI 1-25%). No complete response was observed. Partial response was recorded in 4 patients (13%), no change in 10 patients (34%), and progressive disease in 16 patients (53%). The median time to treatment failure was 4 months and median survival was 9 months. The limiting toxicity was myelosuppression: leukopenia in 23 patients (68%), whereas neutropenia was observed in 25 patients (78%). Peripheral neurotoxicity developed in 14 patients (41%) (without G3 or G4 episodes), and constipation (G1-G2: 10 patients), myalgia (G1-G2: 11 patients), diarrhea (G1-G2: 7 patients), and stomatitis were observed in 7 patients. Vinorelbine-paclitaxel combination showed only modest activity against locoregionally advanced or metastatic NSCLC.

  2. Quantitative Secretomic Analysis Identifies Extracellular Protein Factors That Modulate the Metastatic Phenotype of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongkuan; Huffman, Kenneth E; Chu, Michael; Zhang, Yajie; Minna, John D; Yu, Yonghao

    2016-02-05

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths for men and women in the United States, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) representing 85% of all diagnoses. Late stage detection, metastatic disease and lack of actionable biomarkers contribute to the high mortality rate. Proteins in the extracellular space are known to be critically involved in regulating every stage of the pathogenesis of lung cancer. To investigate the mechanism by which secreted proteins contribute to the pathogenesis of NSCLC, we performed quantitative secretomic analysis of two isogenic NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H1993 and NCI-H2073) and an immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line (HBEC3-KT) as control. H1993 was derived from a chemo-naïve metastatic tumor, while H2073 was derived from the primary tumor after etoposide/cisplatin therapy. From the conditioned media of these three cell lines, we identified and quantified 2713 proteins, including a series of proteins involved in regulating inflammatory response, programmed cell death and cell motion. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicates that a number of proteins overexpressed in H1993 media are involved in biological processes related to cancer metastasis, including cell motion, cell-cell adhesion and cell migration. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knock down of a number of these proteins, including SULT2B1, CEACAM5, SPRR3, AGR2, S100P, and S100A14, leads to dramatically reduced migration of these cells. In addition, meta-analysis of survival data indicates NSCLC patients whose tumors express higher levels of several of these secreted proteins, including SULT2B1, CEACAM5, SPRR3, S100P, and S100A14, have a worse prognosis. Collectively, our results provide a potential molecular link between deregulated secretome and NSCLC cell migration/metastasis. In addition, the identification of these aberrantly secreted proteins might facilitate the development of biomarkers for early detection of this devastating disease.

  3. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  4. Metastatic squamous cell non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC: disrupting the drug treatment paradigm with immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Scarpace

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Unlike non-squamous NSCLC, squamous NSCLC rarely harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK mutations for which there are directed therapies, and until the recent approval of immunotherapies for squamous NSCLC, a limited number of traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs have been FDA-approved for use in the treatment of advanced and metastatic squamous NSCLC. Immunotherapies directed at the programmed cell death-1 receptor (PD-1 or its ligand (PD-L1 (nivolumab and pembrolizumab have demonstrated efficacy in both nonsquamous and squamous cell NSCLC. Because of their similar mechanism of action against the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway, both drugs have similar toxicity profiles related to immune-mediated adverse reactions that can generally be monitored and managed with oral corticosteroids. This paper provides an overview of drug therapy options for squamous cell NSCLC with a focus on the evidence and clinical application of the anti-PD1 therapies. A comparison of the dosing, administration, indications, and differences in the measurement of PD-L1 expression in the clinical trials of nivolumab and pembrolizumab is also provided.

  5. Multiplex flow cytometry barcoding and antibody arrays identify surface antigen profiles of primary and metastatic colon cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sukhdeo

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a deadly disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Current treatment challenges include management of disease burden as well as improvements in detection and targeting of tumor cells. To identify disease state-specific surface antigen signatures, we combined fluorescent cell barcoding with high-throughput flow cytometric profiling of primary and metastatic colon cancer lines (SW480, SW620, and HCT116. Our multiplexed technique offers improvements over conventional methods by permitting the simultaneous and rapid screening of cancer cells with reduced effort and cost. The method uses a protein-level analysis with commercially available antibodies on live cells with intact epitopes to detect potential tumor-specific targets that can be further investigated for their clinical utility. Multiplexed antibody arrays can easily be applied to other tumor types or pathologies for discovery-based approaches to target identification.

  6. Cancer stemness and metastatic potential of the novel tumor cell line K3: an inner mutated cell of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Ding, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiao; Mao, Fei; Sun, Zixuan; Jia, Haoyuan; Yin, Lei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Wenrong

    2017-06-13

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has been used for therapeutic applications in various diseases. Here we report MSCs can malignantly transform in vivo. The novel neoplasm was found on the tail of female rat after injection with male rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (rBM-MSCs) and the new tumor cell line, K3, was isolated from the neoplasm. The K3 cells expressed surface antigens and pluripotent genes similar to those of rBM-MSCs and presented tumor cell features. Moreover, the K3 cells contained side population cells (SP) like cancer stem cells (CSCs), which might contribute to K3 heterogeneity and tumorigenic capacity. To investigate the metastatic potential of K3 cells, we established the nude mouse models of liver and lung metastases and isolated the corresponding metastatic cell lines K3-F4 and K3-B6. Both K3-F4 and K3-B6 cell lines with higher metastatic potential acquired more mesenchymal and stemness-related features. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a potential mechanism of K3-F4 and K3-B6 formation.

  7. Transcription Factor NFIB Is a Driver of Small Cell Lung Cancer Progression in Mice and Marks Metastatic Disease in Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Semenova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is an aggressive neuroendocrine tumor, and no effective treatment is available to date. Mouse models of SCLC based on the inactivation of Rb1 and Trp53 show frequent amplifications of the Nfib and Mycl genes. Here, we report that, although overexpression of either transcription factor accelerates tumor growth, NFIB specifically promotes metastatic spread. High NFIB levels are associated with expansive growth of a poorly differentiated and almost exclusively E-cadherin (CDH1-negative invasive tumor cell population. Consistent with the mouse data, we find that NFIB is overexpressed in almost all tested human metastatic high-grade neuroendocrine lung tumors, warranting further assessment of NFIB as a tumor progression marker in a clinical setting.

  8. Self-targeting of TNF-releasing cancer cells in preclinical models of primary and metastatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Dobroff, Andrey S; Marchiò, Serena; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Hosoya, Hitomi; Libutti, Steven K; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-23

    Circulating cancer cells can putatively colonize distant organs to form metastases or to reinfiltrate primary tumors themselves through a process termed "tumor self-seeding." Here we exploit this biological attribute to deliver tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), a potent antitumor cytokine, directly to primary and metastatic tumors in a mechanism that we have defined as "tumor self-targeting." For this purpose, we genetically engineered mouse mammary adenocarcinoma (TSA), melanoma (B16-F10), and Lewis lung carcinoma cells to produce and release murine TNF. In a series of intervention trials, systemic administration of TNF-expressing tumor cells was associated with reduced growth of both primary tumors and metastatic colonies in immunocompetent mice. We show that these malignant cells home to tumors, locally release TNF, damage neovascular endothelium, and induce massive cancer cell apoptosis. We also demonstrate that such tumor-cell-mediated delivery avoids or minimizes common side effects often associated with TNF-based therapy, such as acute inflammation and weight loss. Our study provides proof of concept that genetically modified circulating tumor cells may serve as targeted vectors to deliver anticancer agents. In a clinical context, this unique paradigm represents a personalized approach to be translated into applications potentially using patient-derived circulating tumor cells as self-targeted vectors for drug delivery.

  9. Assessment of the role of circulating breast cancer cells in tumor formation and metastatic potential using in vivo flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Derrick; Boutrus, Steven; Greiner, Cherry; Dimeo, Theresa; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2011-04-01

    The identification of breast cancer patients who will ultimately progress to metastatic disease is of significant clinical importance. The quantification and assessment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been proposed as one strategy to monitor treatment effectiveness and disease prognosis. However, CTCs have been an elusive population of cells to study because of their small number and difficulties associated with isolation protocols. In vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) can overcome these limitations and provide insights in the role these cells play during primary and metastatic tumor growth. In this study, we used two-color IVFC to examine, for up to ten weeks following orthotopic implantation, changes in the number of circulating human breast cells expressing GFP and a population of circulating hematopoietic cells with strong autofluorescence. We found that the number of detected CTCs in combination with the number of red autofluorescent cells (650 to 690 nm) during the first seven days following implantation was predictive in development of tumor formation and metastasis eight weeks later. These results suggest that the combined detection of these two cell populations could offer a novel approach in the monitoring and prognosis of breast cancer progression, which in turn could aid significantly in their effective treatment.

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Intratumoral Injections of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells in Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchou, Julia; Zhao, Yangbing; Levine, Bruce L; Zhang, Paul J; Davis, Megan M; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Brennan, Andrea L; Liu, Xiaojun; Lacey, Simon F; Posey, Avery D; Williams, Austin D; So, Alycia; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R; Plesa, Gabriela; Young, Regina M; McGettigan, Shannon; Campbell, Jean; Pierce, Robert H; Matro, Jennifer M; DeMichele, Angela M; Clark, Amy S; Cooper, Laurence J; Schuchter, Lynn M; Vonderheide, Robert H; June, Carl H

    2017-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are synthetic molecules that provide new specificities to T cells. Although successful in treatment of hematologic malignancies, CAR T cells are ineffective for solid tumors to date. We found that the cell-surface molecule c-Met was expressed in ∼50% of breast tumors, prompting the construction of a CAR T cell specific for c-Met, which halted tumor growth in immune-incompetent mice with tumor xenografts. We then evaluated the safety and feasibility of treating metastatic breast cancer with intratumoral administration of mRNA-transfected c-Met-CAR T cells in a phase 0 clinical trial (NCT01837602). Introducing the CAR construct via mRNA ensured safety by limiting the nontumor cell effects (on-target/off-tumor) of targeting c-Met. Patients with metastatic breast cancer with accessible cutaneous or lymph node metastases received a single intratumoral injection of 3 × 10 7 or 3 × 10 8 cells. CAR T mRNA was detectable in peripheral blood and in the injected tumor tissues after intratumoral injection in 2 and 4 patients, respectively. mRNA c-Met-CAR T cell injections were well tolerated, as none of the patients had study drug-related adverse effects greater than grade 1. Tumors treated with intratumoral injected mRNA c-Met-CAR T cells were excised and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, revealing extensive tumor necrosis at the injection site, cellular debris, loss of c-Met immunoreactivity, all surrounded by macrophages at the leading edges and within necrotic zones. We conclude that intratumoral injections of mRNA c-Met-CAR T cells are well tolerated and evoke an inflammatory response within tumors. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(12); 1152-61. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Peripheral White Blood Cell Subsets in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Cetuximab: The Potential Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Z. Matić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated that cetuximab-induced tumor regression is based on the effects exerted by immune cells included mainly in the innate immune response. Therefore, the focus of this study was to explore the alterations in the percentages of CD16+, and/or CD56+ lymphocytes, which are comprised of NK cells, and minority of CD56+CD3+ cells, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer before or 2 months after the treatment with cetuximab-based regimens associated with the response to therapy. The changes in the percentages of lymphocytes and granulocytes in these patients were evaluated as well. We enrolled 50 patients with wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer. Disease progression was observed in 11/50 patients (non-responders, while other patients achieved partial response or stable disease (responders. Control groups included up to 72 healthy individuals. A significant decrease in the percentages of CD56+ and CD16+CD56+ lymphocytes together with a significant decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and an increase in the ratio of granulocyte to lymphocyte percentages were observed in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer before therapy, compared with those in the healthy individuals. In contrast to those in the responders, the percentage of CD16+ lymphocytes in the overall white blood cell pool was shown to be significantly decreased in the non-responders, together with a significantly decreased percentage of lymphocytes, a significantly increased percentage of granulocytes, and an increased ratio of granulocyte to lymphocyte percentages before treatment compared with those in the healthy controls. Two months after the initiation of the treatment, significantly decreased percentages of CD16+, CD56+, and CD16+CD56+ lymphocytes were observed in patients, compared with those determined in the healthy controls. The same changes in the amounts of circulating immune cells were also observed in the responder subgroup, but the

  12. Conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRC) methodology does not allow the in vitro expansion of patient-derived primary and metastatic lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Giovanni; Salvati, Valentina; Giordani, Ilenia; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Quacquarini, Denise; Duranti, Enrico; De Nicola, Francesca; Pallocca, Matteo; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Falchi, Mario; Pallini, Roberto; De Maria, Ruggero; Eramo, Adriana

    2018-07-01

    Availability of tumor and non-tumor patient-derived models would promote the development of more effective therapeutics for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRC) methodology demonstrated exceptional potential for the expansion of epithelial cells from patient tissues. However, the possibility to expand patient-derived lung cancer cells using CRC protocols is controversial. Here, we used CRC approach to expand cells from non-tumoral and tumor biopsies of patients with primary or metastatic NSCLC as well as pulmonary metastases of colorectal or breast cancers. CRC cultures were obtained from both tumor and non-malignant tissues with extraordinary high efficiency. Tumor cells were tracked in vitro through tumorigenicity assay, monitoring of tumor-specific genetic alterations and marker expression. Cultures were composed of EpCAM+ lung epithelial cells lacking tumorigenic potential. NSCLC biopsies-derived cultures rapidly lost patient-specific genetic mutations or tumor antigens. Similarly, pulmonary metastases of colon or breast cancer generated CRC cultures of lung epithelial cells. All CRC cultures examined displayed epithelial lung stem cell phenotype and function. In contrast, brain metastatic lung cancer biopsies failed to generate CRC cultures. In conclusion, patient-derived primary and metastatic lung cancer cells were negatively selected under CRC conditions, limiting the expansion to non-malignant lung epithelial stem cells from either tumor or non-tumor tissue sources. Thus, CRC approach cannot be applied for direct therapeutic testing of patient lung tumor cells, as the tumor-derived CRC cultures are composed of (non-tumoral) airway basal cells. © 2018 UICC.

  13. Synthetic Galectin-3 Inhibitor Increases Metastatic Cancer Cell Sensitivity to Taxol-Induced Apoptosis In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Glinsky

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is no efficient curative therapy for cancer patients with advanced metastatic disease. Targeting of antiapoptotic molecules acting on the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway could potentially augment antimetastatic effect of cytotoxic drugs. Similarly to Bcl-2 family members, β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3 protects cancer cells from apoptosis induced by cytotoxic drugs through the mitochondrial pathway. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting galectin-3 antiapoptotic function using a synthetic low-molecular weight carbohydrate-based compound lactulosyl-L-leucine (Lac-L-Leu will augment apoptosis induced in human cancer cells by paclitaxel and increase its efficacy against established metastases. Treatment with synthetic glycoamine Lac-L-Leu alone reduced the number of established MDA-MB-435Lung2 pulmonary metastases 5.5-fold (P = .032 but did not significantly affect the incidence of metastasis. Treatment with paclitaxel alone (10 mg/kg three times with 3-day intervals had no significant effect on the incidence or on the number of MDA-MB-435Lung2 metastases. Treatment with Lac-L-Leu/paclitaxel combination decreased both the number (P = .02 and the incidence (P = .001 of pulmonary metastases, causing a five-fold increase in the number of metastasis-free animals from 14% in the control group to 70% in the combination therapy group. The median number of lung metastases dropped to 0 in the combination therapy group compared with 11 in the control (P = .02. Synergistic inhibition of clonogenic survival and induction of apoptosis in metastatic cells by Lac-L-Leu/paclitaxel combination was functionally linked with an increase in mitochondrial damage and was sufficient for the antimetastatic activity that caused a reversal and eradication of advanced metastatic disease in 56% of experimental animals.

  14. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy change vessel tree geometry and metastatic spread in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Frenzel

    Full Text Available Tumor vasculature is critical for tumor growth, formation of distant metastases and efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy treatments. However, how the vasculature itself is affected during cancer treatment regarding to the metastatic behavior has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of hypofractionated radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy on vessel tree geometry and metastasis formation in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model to investigate the spread of malignant cells during different treatments modalities.The biological data gained during these experiments were fed into our previously developed computer model "Cancer and Treatment Simulation Tool" (CaTSiT to model the growth of the primary tumor, its metastatic deposit and also the influence on different therapies. Furthermore, we performed quantitative histology analyses to verify our predictions in xenograft mouse tumor model.According to the computer simulation the number of cells engrafting must vary considerably to explain the different weights of the primary tumor at the end of the experiment. Once a primary tumor is established, the fractal dimension of its vasculature correlates with the tumor size. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the tumor vasculature changes during treatment, indicating that the therapy affects the blood vessels' geometry. We corroborated these findings with a quantitative histological analysis showing that the blood vessel density is depleted during radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy. The CaTSiT computer model reveals that chemotherapy influences the tumor's therapeutic susceptibility and its metastatic spreading behavior.Using a system biological approach in combination with xenograft models and computer simulations revealed that the usage of chemotherapy and radiation therapy determines the spreading behavior by changing the blood vessel geometry of the primary tumor.

  15. Tetrofosmin in metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghammer, P.; Obwegeser, R.; Ulm, M.; Wiltschke, C.; Kubista, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Zielinski, C.

    1997-01-01

    Tetrofosmin (1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethan) is currently under investigation for its tumor seeking properties, encouraged by the incidental finding of a malignant breast-lesion on myocardial scintigraphy in 1995 (Rambaldi et al, Clin Nucl Med 1995) using tetrofosmin. Recent reports have confirmed tetrofosmins role in detecting primary tumors in breast cancer. To investigate whether tetrofosmin significantly helps detect metastatic lesions in such patients we performed tetrofosmin scintigraphy in 21 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients and methods: Median age of patients was 61 years. In one patient the primary site was unknown. All patients had at least one distant metastasis. 550 MBq of 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin was administered ten minutes before imaging was begun. After obtaining a planar image, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done of every suspected distant lesion. CT-scans or MRI were used to confirm positive correlation with tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Results: Tetrofosmin scintigraphy correctly diagnosed metastatic disease in 71 % of patients with no false negative and two false positive results. In each of the two patients a mediastinal hot spot suggestive of malignancy was found, but none of those lesions could be proven using CT scans. Excluding patients with liver metastasis from the present analysis, 91 % of all metastasis would have been correctly diagnosed. The first patient in our department had a large metastasis in the upper mediastinum which could not be seen on regular chest films. In the patient in whom the primary site of cancer was unknown, tetrofosmin scintigraphy showed three consecutive nodules in the left mammary, gland in a coronary fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging then confirmed two single nodules of 0.8 cm in diameter. Conclusions: Evaluating 21 patients, the present study was performed to investigate tetrofosmins properties of detecting metastatic lesions in patients with breast cancer. A 91

  16. CD133 expression is not restricted to stem cells, and both CD133+ and CD133– metastatic colon cancer cells initiate tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelkov, Sergey V.; Butler, Jason M.; Hooper, Andrea T.; Hormigo, Adilia; Kushner, Jared; Milde, Till; St. Clair, Ryan; Baljevic, Muhamed; White, Ian; Jin, David K.; Chadburn, Amy; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Gale, Nicholas W.; Thurston, Gavin; Yancopoulos, George D.; D’Angelica, Michael; Kemeny, Nancy; Lyden, David; Rafii, Shahin

    2008-01-01

    Colon cancer stem cells are believed to originate from a rare population of putative CD133+ intestinal stem cells. Recent publications suggest that a small subset of colon cancer cells expresses CD133, and that only these CD133+ cancer cells are capable of tumor initiation. However, the precise contribution of CD133+ tumor-initiating cells in mediating colon cancer metastasis remains unknown. Therefore, to temporally and spatially track the expression of CD133 in adult mice and during tumorigenesis, we generated a knockin lacZ reporter mouse (CD133lacZ/+), in which the expression of lacZ is driven by the endogenous CD133 promoters. Using this model and immunostaining, we discovered that CD133 expression in colon is not restricted to stem cells; on the contrary, CD133 is ubiquitously expressed on differentiated colonic epithelium in both adult mice and humans. Using Il10–/–CD133lacZ mice, in which chronic inflammation in colon leads to adenocarcinomas, we demonstrated that CD133 is expressed on a full gamut of colonic tumor cells, which express epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). Similarly, CD133 is widely expressed by human primary colon cancer epithelial cells, whereas the CD133– population is composed mostly of stromal and inflammatory cells. Conversely, CD133 expression does not identify the entire population of epithelial and tumor-initiating cells in human metastatic colon cancer. Indeed, both CD133+ and CD133– metastatic tumor subpopulations formed colonospheres in in vitro cultures and were capable of long-term tumorigenesis in a NOD/SCID serial xenotransplantation model. Moreover, metastatic CD133– cells form more aggressive tumors and express typical phenotypic markers of cancer-initiating cells, including CD44 (CD44+CD24–), whereas the CD133+ fraction is composed of CD44lowCD24+ cells. Collectively, our data suggest that CD133 expression is not restricted to intestinal stem or cancer-initiating cells, and during the metastatic

  17. Targeting Radiation Therapy for Developing Dendritic Cell Based Immunotherapy of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakravarty, Prabir K

    2006-01-01

    .... The hypothesis was tested using a murine prostate cancer model, RM-1. The study showed that irradiation induces apoptosis and the irradiated tumor cells were able to activate dendritic cells and stimulate tumor specific immune response in vitro...

  18. Necitumumab in Metastatic Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: Establishing a Value-Based Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H; Lipscomb, Joseph; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Khuri, Fadlo R; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-12-01

    The SQUIRE trial demonstrated that adding necitumumab to chemotherapy for patients with metastatic squamous cell lung cancer (mSqCLC) increased median overall survival by 1.6 months (hazard ratio, 0.84). However, the costs and value associated with this intervention remains unclear. Value-based pricing links the price of a drug to the benefit that it provides and is a novel method to establish prices for new treatments. To evaluate the range of drug costs for which adding necitumumab to chemotherapy could be considered cost-effective. We developed a Markov model using data from multiple sources, including the SQUIRE trial, which compared standard chemotherapy with and without necitumumab as first-line treatment of mSqCLC, to evaluate the costs and patient life expectancies associated with each regimen. In the analysis, patients were modeled to receive gemcitabine and cisplatin for 6 cycles or gemcitabine, cisplatin, and necitumumab for 6 cycles followed by maintenance necitumumab. Our model's clinical inputs were the survival estimates and frequency of adverse events (AEs) described in the SQUIRE trial. Log-logistic models were fitted to the survival distributions in the SQUIRE trial. The cost inputs included drug costs, based on the Medicare average sale prices, and costs for drug administration and management of AEs, based on Medicare reimbursement rates (all in 2014 US dollars). We evaluated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the use of necitumumab across a range of values for its cost. Model robustness was assessed by probabilistic sensitivity analyses, based on 10 000 Monte Carlo simulations, sampling values from the distributions of all model parameters. In the base case analysis, the addition of necitumumab to the treatment regimen produced an incremental survival benefit of 0.15 life-years and 0.11 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The probabilistic sensitivity analyses established that when necitumumab cost less than $563 and less than

  19. The Refusal of Palliative Radiation in Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Prognostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavas, Mark J; Arneson, Kyle O; Ning, Matthew S; Attia, Albert A; Phillips, Sharon E; Perkins, Stephanie M; Shinohara, Eric T

    2015-06-01

    Patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have limited survival. Population studies have evaluated the impact of radiation refusal in the curative setting; however, no data exist concerning the prognostic impact of radiation refusal in the palliative care setting. To investigate the patterns of radiation refusal in newly diagnosed patients with metastatic NSCLC. Patients with Stage IV NSCLC diagnosed between 1988 and 2010 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify predictors for refusal of radiation and the impact of radiation and refusal on survival in the palliative setting. A total of 285,641 patients were initially included in the analysis. Palliative radiation was recommended in 42% and refused by 3.1% of patients. Refusal rates remained consistent across included years of study. On multivariate analysis, older, nonblack/nonwhite, unmarried females were more likely to refuse radiation (P refusing radiation was three months vs. five months for those receiving radiation and two months for those whom radiation was not recommended. Patients with metastatic NSCLC who refuse recommended palliative radiation have a poor survival. Radiation refusal or the recommendation against treatment can serve as a trigger for integrating palliative care services sooner and contributes greatly to prognostic awareness. Further investigation into this survival difference and the factors behind refusal are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-renewal of CD133(hi) cells by IL6/Notch3 signalling regulates endocrine resistance in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Pasquale; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Berishaj, Marjan; Chang, Qing; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Perna, Fabiana; Bowman, Robert L; Vidone, Michele; Daly, Laura; Nnoli, Jennifer; Santini, Donatella; Taffurelli, Mario; Shih, Natalie N C; Feldman, Michael; Mao, Jun J; Colameco, Christopher; Chen, Jinbo; DeMichele, Angela; Fabbri, Nicola; Healey, John H; Cricca, Monica; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Lyden, David; Bonafé, Massimiliano; Bromberg, Jacqueline

    2016-02-09

    The mechanisms of metastatic progression from hormonal therapy (HT) are largely unknown in luminal breast cancer. Here we demonstrate the enrichment of CD133(hi)/ER(lo) cancer cells in clinical specimens following neoadjuvant endocrine therapy and in HT refractory metastatic disease. We develop experimental models of metastatic luminal breast cancer and demonstrate that HT can promote the generation of HT-resistant, self-renewing CD133(hi)/ER(lo)/IL6(hi) cancer stem cells (CSCs). HT initially abrogates oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) generating self-renewal-deficient cancer cells, CD133(hi)/ER(lo)/OXPHOS(lo). These cells exit metabolic dormancy via an IL6-driven feed-forward ER(lo)-IL6(hi)-Notch(hi) loop, activating OXPHOS, in the absence of ER activity. The inhibition of IL6R/IL6-Notch pathways switches the self-renewal of CD133(hi) CSCs, from an IL6/Notch-dependent one to an ER-dependent one, through the re-expression of ER. Thus, HT induces an OXPHOS metabolic editing of luminal breast cancers, paradoxically establishing HT-driven self-renewal of dormant CD133(hi)/ER(lo) cells mediating metastatic progression, which is sensitive to dual targeted therapy.

  1. High CDK6 protects cells from fulvestrant-mediated apoptosis and is a predictor of resistance to fulvestrant in estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Carla Maria Lourenco; Elias, Daniel; Lyng, Maria B

    2016-01-01

    expression impaired fulvestrant-resistant cell growth and induced apoptosis. Treatment with palbociclib re-sensitized fulvestrant-resistant cells to fulvestrant through alteration of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. High CDK6 levels in metastatic samples from two independent cohorts of breast cancer...

  2. From cell biology to immunology: Controlling metastatic progression of cancer via microRNA regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyon; Theodoratou, Evropi; Calin, George A; Shin, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the study of microRNAs has expanded our knowledge of the fundamental processes of cancer biology and the underlying mechanisms behind tumor metastasis. Extensive research in the fields of microRNA and its novel mechanisms of actions against various cancers has more recently led to the trial of a first cancer-targeted microRNA drug, MRX34. Yet, these microRNAs are mostly being studied and clinically trialed solely based on the understanding of their cell biologic effects, thus, neglecting the important immunologic effects that are sometimes opposite of the cell biologic effects. Here, we summarize both the cell biologic and immunologic effects of various microRNAs and discuss the importance of considering both effects before using them in clinical settings. We stress the importance of understanding the miRNA's effect on cancer metastasis from a "systems" perspective before developing a miRNA-targeted therapeutic in treating cancer metastasis.

  3. Modulating the vascular behavior of metastatic breast cancer cells by curcumin treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palange, Anna L. [Department of Translational Imaging, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Mascolo, Daniele Di [Department of Translational Imaging, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Magna Graecia, Catanzaro (Italy); Singh, Jaykrishna [Department of Translational Imaging, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Franceschi, Maria S. De; Carallo, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino [Department of Translational Imaging, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Decuzzi, Paolo, E-mail: pdecuzzi@tmhs.org [Department of Translational Imaging, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Magna Graecia, Catanzaro (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    The spreading of tumor cells to secondary sites (tumor metastasis) is a complex process that involves multiple, sequential steps. Vascular adhesion and extravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is one, critical step. Curcumin, a natural compound extracted from Curcuma longa, is known to have anti-tumoral, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory properties and affect the expression of cell adhesion molecules, mostly by targeting the NF-κB transcription factor. Here, upon treatment with curcumin, the vascular behavior of three different estrogen receptor negative (ER{sup –}) breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) is analyzed using a microfluidic system. First, the dose response to curcumin is characterized at 24, 48, and 72 h using a XTT assay. For all three cell lines, an IC{sub 50} larger than 20 µM is observed at 72 h; whereas no significant reduction in cell viability is detected for curcumin concentrations up to 10 µM. Upon 24 h treatment at 10 µM of curcumin, SK-BR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells show a decrease in adhesion propensity of 40% (p = 0.02) and 47% (p = 0.001), respectively. No significant change is documented for the less metastatic MDA-MB-468 cells. All three treated cell lines show a 20% increase in rolling velocity from 48.3 to 58.7 µm/s in SK-BR-3, from 64.1 to 73.77 µm/s in MDA-MB-231, and from 57.5 to 74.4 µm/s in MDA-MB-468. Collectively, these results suggest that mild curcumin treatments could limit the metastatic potential of these adenocarcinoma cell lines, possibly by altering the expression of adhesion molecules, and the organization and stiffness of the cell cytoskeleton. Future studies will elucidate the biophysical mechanisms regulating this curcumin-induced behavior and further explore the clinical relevance of these findings.

  4. Modulating the vascular behavior of metastatic breast cancer cells by curcumin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palange, Anna L.; Mascolo, Daniele Di; Singh, Jaykrishna; Franceschi, Maria S. De; Carallo, Claudio; Gnasso, Agostino; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The spreading of tumor cells to secondary sites (tumor metastasis) is a complex process that involves multiple, sequential steps. Vascular adhesion and extravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is one, critical step. Curcumin, a natural compound extracted from Curcuma longa, is known to have anti-tumoral, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory properties and affect the expression of cell adhesion molecules, mostly by targeting the NF-κB transcription factor. Here, upon treatment with curcumin, the vascular behavior of three different estrogen receptor negative (ER – ) breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) is analyzed using a microfluidic system. First, the dose response to curcumin is characterized at 24, 48, and 72 h using a XTT assay. For all three cell lines, an IC 50 larger than 20 µM is observed at 72 h; whereas no significant reduction in cell viability is detected for curcumin concentrations up to 10 µM. Upon 24 h treatment at 10 µM of curcumin, SK-BR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells show a decrease in adhesion propensity of 40% (p = 0.02) and 47% (p = 0.001), respectively. No significant change is documented for the less metastatic MDA-MB-468 cells. All three treated cell lines show a 20% increase in rolling velocity from 48.3 to 58.7 µm/s in SK-BR-3, from 64.1 to 73.77 µm/s in MDA-MB-231, and from 57.5 to 74.4 µm/s in MDA-MB-468. Collectively, these results suggest that mild curcumin treatments could limit the metastatic potential of these adenocarcinoma cell lines, possibly by altering the expression of adhesion molecules, and the organization and stiffness of the cell cytoskeleton. Future studies will elucidate the biophysical mechanisms regulating this curcumin-induced behavior and further explore the clinical relevance of these findings.

  5. Modulating the vascular behavior of metastatic breast cancer cells by curcumin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa ePalange

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of tumor cells to secondary sites (tumor metastasis is a complex process that involves multiple, sequential steps. Vascular adhesion and extravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs is one, critical step. Curcumin, a natural compound extracted from Curcuma longa, is known to have anti-tumoral, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory properties and affect the expression of cell adhesion molecules, mostly by targeting the NF-κB transcription factor. Here, upon treatment with Curcumin, the vascular behavior of three different estrogen receptor negative (ER– breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 is analyzed using a microfluidic system. First, the dose response to curcumin is characterized at 24, 48 and 72h using a XTT assay. For all three cell lines, an IC50 larger than 20 µM is observed at 72 h; whereas no significant reduction in cell viability is detected for curcumin concentrations up to 10 µM. Upon 24 h treatment at 10 µM of curcumin, SK-BR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells show a decrease in adhesion propensity of 40% (p = 0.02 and 47% (p = 0.001, respectively. No significant change is documented for the less metastatic MDA-MB-468 cells. All three treated cell lines show a 20% increase in rolling velocity from 48.3 to 58.7 µm/s in SK-BR-3, from 64.1 to 73.77 µm/s in MDA-MB-231 and from 57.5 to 74.4 µm/s in MDA-MB-468. Collectively, these results suggest that mild curcumin treatments could limit the metastatic potential of these adenocarcinoma cell lines, possibly by altering the expression of adhesion molecules, and the organization and stiffness of the cell cytoskeleton. Future studies will elucidate the biophysical mechanisms regulating this curcumin-induced behavior and further explore the clinical relevance of these findings.

  6. International germ cell consensus classification : A prognostic factor-erased staging system for metastatic germ cell cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, GM; Stenning, SP; Cook, P; Fossa, SD; Horwich, A; Kaye, SB; Oliver, RTD; deMulder, PHM; deWit, R; Stoter, G; Sylvester, RJ; Bajorin, DF; Bosl, GJ; Mazumdar, M; Nichols, CR; Amato, R; Pizzocaro, G; Droz, JP; Kramar, A; Daugaard, G; CortesFunes, H; PazAres, L; Levi, JA; Colls, BM; Harvey, VJ; Coppin, C

    Purpose: Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy has dramatically improved the outlook for patients with metastatic germ cell tumors (GCT), and overall cure rates now exceed 80%. To make appropriate risk-based decisions about therapy and to facilitate collaborative trials, a simple prognostic factor-based

  7. A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xin; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Li, Qian; Ali, Shahjahan; Lezmi, Stephane; Chen, Hong; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Laegreid, William W; Saif, Taher A; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition.Methods: Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher's exact test.Results: Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells.Conclusions: Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular

  8. A mechanically-induced colon cancer cell population shows increased metastatic potential

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xin

    2014-05-29

    Background: Metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths from cancer. Although tumor microenvironment has been shown to have a significant impact on the initiation and/or promotion of metastasis, the mechanism remains elusive. We previously reported that HCT-8 colon cancer cells underwent a phenotypic transition from an adhesive epithelial type (E-cell) to a rounded dissociated type (R-cell) via soft substrate culture, which resembled the initiation of metastasis. The objective of current study was to investigate the molecular and metabolic mechanisms of the E-R transition.Methods: Global gene expressions of HCT-8 E and R cells were measured by RNA Sequencing (RNA-seq); and the results were further confirmed by real-time PCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), anoikis resistance, enzyme activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 (ALDH3A1), and in vitro invasion assay were tested on both E and R cells. The deformability of HCT-8 E and R cells was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To study the in vivo invasiveness of two cell types, athymic nude mice were intra-splenically injected with HCT-8 E or R cells and sacrificed after 9 weeks. Incidences of tumor development and metastasis were histologically evaluated and analyzed with Fisher\\'s exact test.Results: Besides HCT-8, E-R transition on soft substrates was also seen in three other cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480 colon and DU145 prostate cancer). The expression of some genes, such as ALDH3A1, TNS4, CLDN2, and AKR1B10, which are known to play important roles in cancer cell migration, invasion, proliferation and apoptosis, were increased in HCT-8 R cells. R cells also showed higher ALDH3A1 enzyme activity, higher ROS, higher anoikis resistance, and higher softness than E cells. More importantly, in vitro assay and in vivo animal models revealed that HCT-8 R cells were more invasive than E cells.Conclusions: Our comprehensive comparison of HCT-8 E and R cells revealed differences of molecular

  9. Local mechanical properties of bladder cancer cells measured by AFM as a signature of metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidine, Y.; Laurent, V. M.; Michel, R.; Duperray, A.; Verdier, C.

    2015-10-01

    The rheological properties of bladder cancer cells of different invasivities have been investigated using a microrheological technique well adapted in the range [1-300Hz] of interest to understand local changes in the cytoskeleton microstructure, in particular actin fibres. Drugs disrupting actin and acto-myosin functions were used to study the resistance of such cancer cells. Results on a variety of cell lines were fitted with a model revealing the importance of two parameters, the elastic shear plateau modulus G N 0 as well as the glassy transition frequency f T. These parameters are good markers for invasiveness, with the notable exception of the cell periphery, which is stiffer for less invasive cells, and could be of importance in cancer metastasis.

  10. P38 pathway as a key downstream signal of connective tissue growth factor to regulate metastatic potential in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Satoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Li, Luhui; Iwakami, Yusuke; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Saiki, Ikuo

    2016-10-01

    Although the secretory matricellular protein connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported to be related to lung cancer metastasis, the precise mechanism by which CTGF regulates lung cancer metastasis has not been elucidated. In the present study, we show the molecular link between CTGF secretion and the p38 pathway in the invasive and metastatic potential of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among three different human NSCLC cell lines (PC-14, A549, and PC-9), their in vitro invasiveness was inversely correlated with the level of CTGF secretion. By supplementing or reducing CTGF secretion in NSCLC culture, dysregulation of the invasive and metastatic potential of NSCLC cell lines was largely compensated. By focusing on the protein kinases that are known to be regulated by CTGF, we found that the p38 pathway is a key downstream signal of CTGF to regulate the metastatic potential of NSCLC. Importantly, a negative correlation between CTGF and phosphorylation status of p38 was identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas lung adenocarcinoma dataset. In the context of the clinical importance of our findings, we showed that p38 inhibitor, SB203580, reduced the metastatic potential of NSCLC secreting low levels of CTGF. Collectively, our present findings indicate that the CTGF/p38 axis is a novel therapeutic target of NSCLC metastasis, particularly NSCLC secreting low levels of CTGF. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Co-expression of putative stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers on single circulating tumour cells from patients with early and metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria A; Kallergi, Galatea; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Manouras, Lefteris; Theodoropoulos, Panayiotis A; Mavroudis, Dimitris; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Agelaki, Sofia

    2014-09-03

    The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood (PB) of patients with breast cancer predicts poor clinical outcome. Cancer cells with stemness and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features display enhanced malignant and metastatic potential. A new methodology was developed in order to investigate the co-expression of a stemness and an EMT marker (ALDH1 and TWIST, respectively) on single CTCs of patients with early and metastatic breast cancer. Triple immunofluorescence using anti-pancytokeratin (A45-B/B3), anti-ALDH1 and anti-TWIST antibodies was performed in cytospins prepared from hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and SKBR-3, MCF-7 and MDA.MB.231 breast cancer cell lines. Evaluation of ALDH1 expression levels (high, low or absent) and TWIST subcellular localization (nuclear, cytoplasmic or absent) was performed using the ARIOL system. Cytospins prepared from peripheral blood of patients with early (n = 80) and metastatic (n = 50) breast cancer were analyzed for CTC detection (based on pan-cytokeratin expression and cytomorphological criteria) and characterized according to ALDH1 and TWIST. CTCs were detected in 13 (16%) and 25 (50%) patients with early and metastatic disease, respectively. High ALDH1 expression (ALDH1high) and nuclear TWIST localization (TWISTnuc) on CTCs was confirmed in more patients with metastatic than early breast cancer (80% vs. 30.8%, respectively; p = 0.009). In early disease, ALDH1low/neg CTCs (p = 0.006) and TWISTcyt/neg CTCs (p = 0.040) were mainly observed. Regarding co-expression of these markers, ALDH1high/TWISTnuc CTCs were more frequently evident in the metastatic setting (76% vs. 15.4% of patients, p = 0.001; 61.5% vs. 12.9% of total CTCs), whereas in early disease ALDH1low/neg/TWISTcyt/neg CTCs were mainly detected (61.5% vs. 20% of patients, p = 0.078; 41.9% vs. 7.7% of total CTCs). A new assay is provided for the evaluation of ALDH1 and TWIST co-expression at the

  12. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Metastatic PC3 and LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Seim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The bone metastasis-derived PC3 and the lymph node metastasis-derived LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines are widely studied, having been described in thousands of publications over the last four decades. Here, we report short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS and de novo assembly of PC3 (ATCC CRL-1435 and LNCaP (clone FGC; ATCC CRL-1740 at ∼70 × coverage. A known homozygous mutation in TP53 and homozygous loss of PTEN were robustly identified in the PC3 cell line, whereas the LNCaP cell line exhibited a larger number of putative inactivating somatic point and indel mutations (and in particular a loss of stop codon events. This study also provides preliminary evidence that loss of one or both copies of the tumor suppressor Capicua (CIC contributes to primary tumor relapse and metastatic progression, potentially offering a treatment target for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Our work provides a resource for genetic, genomic, and biological studies employing two commonly-used prostate cancer cell lines.

  13. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Metastatic PC3 and LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Thomas, Patrick B; Nelson, Colleen C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2017-06-07

    The bone metastasis-derived PC3 and the lymph node metastasis-derived LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines are widely studied, having been described in thousands of publications over the last four decades. Here, we report short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and de novo assembly of PC3 (ATCC CRL-1435) and LNCaP (clone FGC; ATCC CRL-1740) at ∼70 × coverage. A known homozygous mutation in TP53 and homozygous loss of PTEN were robustly identified in the PC3 cell line, whereas the LNCaP cell line exhibited a larger number of putative inactivating somatic point and indel mutations (and in particular a loss of stop codon events). This study also provides preliminary evidence that loss of one or both copies of the tumor suppressor Capicua ( CIC ) contributes to primary tumor relapse and metastatic progression, potentially offering a treatment target for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our work provides a resource for genetic, genomic, and biological studies employing two commonly-used prostate cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Seim et al.

  14. A Preclinical Model of Chronic Alcohol Consumption Reveals Increased Metastatic Seeding of Colon Cancer Cells in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Cho, Jung-Hyo; Jo, Il-Joo; Park, Sung-Joo; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-04-01

    Liver metastasis is the main cause of death from colorectal cancer. Alcohol consumption impacts liver function and is suggested to be an independent risk factor for liver metastasis of colorectal cancer, but no experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis has been demonstrated to date. In this study, we investigated the effect of alcohol intake on liver metastasis. We examined colon cancer cell spread from the spleen in mice provided with water (control group), alcohol for 4 weeks before tumor injection (prealcohol), alcohol for 3 weeks after tumor injection (postalcohol), or alcohol throughout the 7-week study (alcohol). Alcohol intake significantly increased hepatic metastatic burden in the prealcohol (2.4-fold, P < 0.001), postalcohol (2.0-fold, P < 0.01), and alcohol groups (2.2-fold, P < 0.001). A fluorescence-based metastasis tracking assay also confirmed an alcohol-induced increase in the abundance of tumor cells in the liver (2.5-fold, P < 0.001). Investigation of the host microenvironment revealed an alcohol-induced inflammatory response marked by elevated TNFα, IL1β, IL6, and IFNγ protein levels, as well as increased expression of intercellular molecule-1 (ICAM1) in hepatic tissues after 4 weeks of alcohol consumption. Moreover, the peripheral blood of mice provided with alcohol for 4 weeks exhibited reduced natural killer and CD8(+) T-cell counts. Collectively, our findings suggest that chronic alcohol consumption accelerates liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells through alterations to the liver microenvironment and inactivation of immune surveillance. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1698-704. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Review of the Interaction Between Body Composition and Clinical Outcomes in Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Treated With Targeted Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Yip

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC currently focuses on inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway. Obesity confers a higher risk of RCC. However, the influence of obesity on clinical outcomes in mRCC in the era of targeted therapy is less clear. This review focuses on the impact of body composition on targeted therapy outcomes in mRCC. The International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium database has the largest series of patients evaluating the impact of body mass index (BMI on outcomes in mRCC patients treated with targeted therapy. Overall survival was significantly improved in overweight patients (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, and this observation was externally validated in patients who participated in Pfizer trials. In contrast, sarcopenia is consistently associated with increased toxicity to inhibitors of angiogenesis and mTOR. Strengthening patients with mRCC and sarcopenia, through a structured exercise program and dietary intervention, may improve outcomes in mRCC treated with targeted therapies. At the same time, the paradox of obesity being a risk factor for RCC while offering a better overall survival in response to targeted therapy needs to be further evaluated.

  16. FDG-PET as a predictive biomarker for therapy with everolimus in metastatic renal cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, James L; Appelbaum, Daniel E; Kocherginsky, Masha; Cowey, Charles L; Kimryn Rathmell, Wendy; McDermott, David F; Stadler, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor, everolimus, affects tumor growth by targeting cellular metabolic proliferation pathways and delays renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression. Preclinical evidence suggests that baseline elevated tumor glucose metabolism as quantified by FDG-PET ([ 18 F] fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography) may predict antitumor activity. Metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients refractory to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway inhibition were treated with standard dose everolimus. FDG-PET scans were obtained at baseline and 2 weeks; serial computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained at baseline and every 8 weeks. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the most FDG avid lesion, average SUVmax of all measured lesions and their corresponding 2-week relative changes were examined for association with 8-week change in tumor size. A total of 63 patients were enrolled; 50 were evaluable for the primary endpoint of which 48 had both PET scans. Patient characteristics included the following: 36 (72%) clear cell histology and median age 59 (range: 37–80). Median pre- and 2-week treatment average SUVmax were 6.6 (1–17.9) and 4.2 (1–13.9), respectively. Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST)-based measurements demonstrated an average change in tumor burden of 0.2% (−32.7% to 35.9%) at 8 weeks. Relative change in average SUVmax was the best predictor of change in tumor burden (all evaluable P = 0.01; clear cell subtype P = 0.02), with modest correlation. Baseline average SUVmax was correlated with overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.023; 0.020), but not with change in tumor burden. Everolimus therapy decreased SUVs on follow-up PET scans in mRCC patients, but changes were only modestly correlated with changes in tumor size. Thus, clinical use of FDG-PET-based biomarkers is challenged by high variability. In this phase II trial, FDG-PET was explored as a predictive biomarker

  17. Relationship of circulating tumor cells to tumor response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Steven J.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Iannotti, Nicholas; Saidman, Bruce H.; Sabbath, Kert D.; Gabrail, Nashat Y.; Picus, Joel; Morse, Michael; Mitchell, Edith; Miller, M. Craig; Doyle, Gerald V.; Tissing, Henk; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; Meropol, Neal J.

    2008-01-01

    As treatment options expand for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), a blood marker with a prognostic and predictive role could guide treatment. We tested the hypothesis that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could predict clinical outcome in patients with mCRC. In a prospective multicenter study, CTCs

  18. Quantitative cell-free DNA, KRAS, and BRAF mutations in plasma from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during treatment with cetuximab and irinotecan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Pallisgaard, Niels; Vogelius, Ivan Storgaard

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the levels of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in plasma from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in relation to third-line treatment with cetuximab and irinotecan and the quantitative relationship of cfDNA with tumor-specific mutations in plasma....

  19. Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells from patients with metastatic breast cancer reflects evolutionary changes in gene expression under the pressure of systemic therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaltonen, K. E.; Novosadová, Vendula; Bendahl, P.-O.; Graffman, C.; Larsson, A.-M.; Ryden, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 28 (2017), s. 45544-45565 ISSN 1949-2553 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : metastatic breast cancer * circulating tumor cells * gene expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 5.168, year: 2016

  20. Putative contribution of CD56 positive cells in cetuximab treatment efficacy in first-line metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maréchal, Raphaël; De Schutter, Jef; Nagy, Nathalie; Demetter, Pieter; Lemmers, Arnaud; Devière, Jacques; Salmon, Isabelle; Tejpar, Sabine; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Activity of cetuximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor, is largely attributed to its direct antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) could be another possible mechanism of cetuximab antitumor effects and its specific contribution on the clinical activity of cetuximab is unknown. We assessed immune cells infiltrate (CD56, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3) in the primary tumor of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with a first-line cetuximab-based chemotherapy in the framework of prospective trials (treatment group) and in a matched group of mCRC patients who received the same chemotherapy regimen without cetuximab (control group). The relationship between intra-tumoral immune effector cells, the K-ras status and the efficacy of the treatment were investigated. We also evaluated in vitro, the ADCC activity in healthy donors and chemonaive mCRC patients and the specific contribution of CD56 + cells. ADCC activity against DLD1 CRC cell line is maintained in cancer patients and significantly declined after CD56 + cells depletion. In multivariate analysis, K-ras wild-type (HR: 4.7 (95% CI 1.8-12.3), p = 0.001) and tumor infiltrating CD56 + cells (HR: 2.6, (95%CI:1.14-6.0), p = 0.019) were independent favourable prognostic factors for PFS and response only in the cetuximab treatment group. By contrast CD56 + cells failed to predict PFS and response in the control group. CD56 + cells, mainly NK cells, may be the major effector of ADCC related-cetuximab activity. Assessment of CD56 + cells infiltrate in primary colorectal adenocarcinoma may provide additional information to K-ras status in predicting response and PFS in mCRC patients treated with first-line cetuximab-based chemotherapy

  1. Quantitative proteomics of fractionated membrane and lumen exosome proteins from isogenic metastatic and nonmetastatic bladder cancer cells reveal differential expression of EMT factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Jensen, Steffen Grann

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells secrete soluble factors and various extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, into their tissue microenvironment. The secretion of exosomes is speculated to facilitate local invasion and metastatic spread. Here, we used an in vivo metastasis model of human bladder carcinoma cell line...... T24 without metastatic capacity and its two isogenic derivate cell lines SLT4 and FL3, which form metastases in the lungs and liver of mice, respectively. Cultivation in CLAD1000 bioreactors rather than conventional culture flasks resulted in a 13-16-fold increased exosome yield and facilitated...... quantitative proteomics of fractionated exosomes. Exosomes from T24, SLT4, and FL3 cells were partitioned into membrane and luminal fractions and changes in protein abundance related to the gain of metastatic capacity were identified by quantitative iTRAQ- proteomics. We identified several proteins linked...

  2. Molecular profiling of circulating tumor cells links plasticity to the metastatic process in endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Alconada, Lorena; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Madissoo, Kadri; Diaz-Lopez, Antonio; Krakstad, Camilla; Trovik, Jone; Wik, Elisabeth; Hapangama, Dharani; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Cano, Amparo; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Chiva, Luis; Cueva, Juan; Vieito, Maria; Ortega, Eugenia; Mariscal, Javier; Colas, Eva; Castellvi, Josep; Cusido, Maite; Dolcet, Xavier; Nijman, Hans W.; Bosse, Tjalling; Green, John A.; Romano, Andrea; Reventos, Jaume; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Salvesen, Helga B.; Amant, Frederic; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Abal, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background: About 20% of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer (EC) are considered high-risk with unfavorable prognosis. In the framework of the European Network for Individualized Treatment in EC (ENITEC), we investigated the presence and phenotypic features of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in

  3. Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a current view on drug therapy and alternative tumor cell regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Gafanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most common causes of death from malignant neoplasms in men in many countries around the world. Transmission of the signal in the androgenic axis of regulation is crucial for the development and progression of PC. Despite the constant dependence on androgen receptor signals in castration resistance, the use of new anti-androgenic drugs invariably leads to the stability  of the ongoing treatment. The interaction of androgen receptor and alternative (phosphoinositide-3-kinases, PI3K pathways in the regulation of cells can be one of the mechanisms of resistance to treatment. In this article, we describe current treatments for metastatic castration-resistant PC and the possible role of the PI3K pathway in the pathogenesis and progression of PC.

  4. Microenvironment-Programmed Metastatic Prostate Cancer Stem Cells (mPCSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    with meta- static prostate cancer and serum prostate- specific antigen levels of < 10 ng/mL. BJU Int. 2005; 96:303–307. 59. Davis JN, Wojno KJ...renewal in vivo. As an example, in a recent study, prostate- specific antigen (PSA)-positive (PSAþ) and PSA/lo human prostate cancer cells were...In addition, transgene inser- tion of Cre recombinase under the control of a specific pro - moter may alter the function of the endogenous locus via

  5. [The level of superoxide dismutase expression in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cells in hypoxia and tissue normoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzycki, Michał; Czeczot, Hanna; Chrzanowska, Alicja; Otto-Ślusarczyk, Dagmara

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide oxidase (SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme protecting cells against oxidative stress, which might induce cancerogenesis. In tumor cells SOD influences the level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) allowing for survival and proliferation. High rate of cells proliferation in tumor leads to their temporary hypoxia due to lower rate of angiogenesis. Therefore during tumor development, cancer cells function in conditions of hypoxia or tissue normoxia. The aim of study was to evaluate of SOD isoenzymes (SOD1 and SOD2) expression level in cell lines of primary (SW 480) and metastatic (SW 620) colorectal cancer, cultured in hypoxia (1% oxygen), tissue normoxia (10% oxygen), and atmospheric normoxia (21% oxygen). Cells were cultured in MEM medium in different oxygen concentrations (1%, 10%, 21%) in hypoxic chamber with oxygenation regulator. The number of living cells in lines SW 480 and 620 was determined by trypan blue method. Expression of SOD1 and SOD2 at the mRNA level was determined by RT-PCR and PCR. In both studied cell lines (SW 480 and SW 620), the number of living cells (viability) was increased in hypoxia and atmospheric normoxia. The expression level of SOD1 and SOD2 in studied cell lines was different. The lowest level of expression of both SOD isoenzymes was observed in hypoxia. In conditions of atmospheric normoxia the expression level of SOD1 in SW480 cell line was increased, and similar in SW620 cell line comparing to tissue normoxia. Whereas the SOD2 expression level in atmospheric normoxia conditions in both cell lines was significantly increased. Observed differences were statistically significant (p ≤ 0,05). The profile of expression of SOD1 and SOD2 in cell lines SW480 and SW620 indicates differentiated response of tumor cells depending on access to oxygen. Low level of SOD isoenzymes expression in SW480 and SW620 cells in hypoxia indicates decreased production of ROS. Differences of SOD isoenzymes expression level in tissue normoxia

  6. Endothelial cells provide a notch-dependent pro-tumoral niche for enhancing breast cancer survival, stemness and pro-metastatic properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Ghiabi

    Full Text Available Treating metastasis has been challenging due to tumors complexity and heterogeneity. This complexity is partly related to the crosstalk between tumor and its microenvironment. Endothelial cells -the building blocks of tumor vasculature- have been shown to have additional roles in cancer progression than angiogenesis and supplying oxygen and nutrients. Here, we show an alternative role for endothelial cells in supporting breast cancer growth and spreading independent of their vascular functions. Using endothelial cells and breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB231 and MCF-7, we developed co-culture systems to study the influence of tumor endothelium on breast tumor development by both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Our results demonstrated that endothelial cells conferred survival advantage to tumor cells under complete starvation and enriched the CD44HighCD24Low/- stem cell population in tumor cells. Moreover, endothelial cells enhanced the pro-metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. The in vitro and in vivo results concordantly confirmed a role for endothelial Jagged1 to promote breast tumor through notch activation. Here, we propose a role for endothelial cells in enhancing breast cancer progression, stemness, and pro-metastatic traits through a perfusion-independent manner. Our findings may be beneficial in developing novel therapeutic approaches.

  7. Comparative proteomic investigation of metastatic and non-metastatic osteosarcoma cells of human and canine origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnabi Roy

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in dogs and people. In order to improve clinical outcomes, it is necessary to identify proteins that are differentially expressed by metastatic cells. Membrane bound proteins are responsible for multiple pro-metastatic functions. Therefore characterizing the differential expression of membranous proteins between metastatic and non-metastatic clonal variants will allow the discovery of druggable targets and consequently improve treatment methodology. The objective of this investigation was to systemically identify the membrane-associated proteomics of metastatic and non-metastatic variants of human and canine origin. Two clonal variants of divergent in vivo metastatic potential from human and canine origins were used. The plasma membranes were isolated and peptide fingerprinting was used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Selected proteins were further validated using western blotting, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Over 500 proteins were identified for each cell line with nearly 40% of the proteins differentially regulated. Conserved between both species, metastatic variants demonstrated significant differences in expression of membrane proteins that are responsible for pro-metastatic functions. Additionally, CD147, CD44 and vimentin were validated using various biochemical techniques. Taken together, through a comparative proteomic approach we have identified several differentially expressed cell membrane proteins that will help in the development of future therapeutics.

  8. Comparative proteomic investigation of metastatic and non-metastatic osteosarcoma cells of human and canine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jahnabi; Wycislo, Kathryn L; Pondenis, Holly; Fan, Timothy M; Das, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in dogs and people. In order to improve clinical outcomes, it is necessary to identify proteins that are differentially expressed by metastatic cells. Membrane bound proteins are responsible for multiple pro-metastatic functions. Therefore characterizing the differential expression of membranous proteins between metastatic and non-metastatic clonal variants will allow the discovery of druggable targets and consequently improve treatment methodology. The objective of this investigation was to systemically identify the membrane-associated proteomics of metastatic and non-metastatic variants of human and canine origin. Two clonal variants of divergent in vivo metastatic potential from human and canine origins were used. The plasma membranes were isolated and peptide fingerprinting was used to identify differentially expressed proteins. Selected proteins were further validated using western blotting, flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Over 500 proteins were identified for each cell line with nearly 40% of the proteins differentially regulated. Conserved between both species, metastatic variants demonstrated significant differences in expression of membrane proteins that are responsible for pro-metastatic functions. Additionally, CD147, CD44 and vimentin were validated using various biochemical techniques. Taken together, through a comparative proteomic approach we have identified several differentially expressed cell membrane proteins that will help in the development of future therapeutics.

  9. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Knapp DW. Targeting folate receptors to treat invasive urinary bladder cancer . Cancer Res 2013;73(2):875–884. 71. Holm J, Hansen SI, Hoier-Madsen M...purpose of this review, active targeting in cancer research encompasses strategies wherein a ligand for a cell surface receptor expressed on tumor...trafficking, thus impacting the efficacy of receptor -mediated drug delivery for cancer therapy. These factors include the following: (i) the rate of ligand

  10. Noninvasive Interrogation of DLL3 Expression in Metastatic Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sai Kiran; Pourat, Jacob; Abdel-Atti, Dalya; Carlin, Sean D; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Bankovich, Alexander J; Gardner, Eric E; Hamdy, Omar; Isse, Kumiko; Bheddah, Sheila; Sandoval, Joseph; Cunanan, Kristen M; Johansen, Eric B; Allaj, Viola; Sisodiya, Vikram; Liu, David; Zeglis, Brian M; Rudin, Charles M; Dylla, Scott J; Poirier, John T; Lewis, Jason S

    2017-07-15

    The Notch ligand DLL3 has emerged as a novel therapeutic target expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. Rovalpituzumab teserine (Rova-T; SC16LD6.5) is a first-in-class DLL3-targeted antibody-drug conjugate with encouraging initial safety and efficacy profiles in SCLC in the clinic. Here we demonstrate that tumor expression of DLL3, although orders of magnitude lower in surface protein expression than typical oncology targets of immunoPET, can serve as an imaging biomarker for SCLC. We developed 89 Zr-labeled SC16 antibody as a companion diagnostic agent to facilitate selection of patients for treatment with Rova-T based on a noninvasive interrogation of the in vivo status of DLL3 expression using PET imaging. Despite low cell-surface abundance of DLL3, immunoPET imaging with 89 Zr-labeled SC16 antibody enabled delineation of subcutaneous and orthotopic SCLC tumor xenografts as well as distant organ metastases with high sensitivity. Uptake of the radiotracer in tumors was concordant with levels of DLL3 expression and, most notably, DLL3 immunoPET yielded rank-order correlation for response to SC16LD6.5 therapy in SCLC patient-derived xenograft models. Cancer Res; 77(14); 3931-41. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. High susceptibility of metastatic cells derived from human prostate and colon cancer cells to TRAIL and sensitization of TRAIL-insensitive primary cells to TRAIL by 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Won

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor recurrence and metastasis develop as a result of tumors' acquisition of anti-apoptotic mechanisms and therefore, it is necessary to develop novel effective therapeutics against metastatic cancers. In this study, we showed the differential TRAIL responsiveness of human prostate adenocarcinoma PC3 and human colon carcinoma KM12 cells and their respective highly metastatic PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A sublines and investigated the mechanism underlying high susceptibility of human metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL. Results PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A cells with high level of c-Myc and DNA-PKcs were more susceptible to TRAIL than their poorly metastatic primary PC3 and KM12 cells, which was associated with down-regulation of c-FLIPL/S and Mcl-1 and up-regulation of the TRAIL receptor DR5 but not DR4 in both metastatic cells. Moreover, high susceptibility of these metastatic cells to TRAIL was resulted from TRAIL-induced potent activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in comparison with their primary cells, which led to cleavage and down-regulation of DNA-PKcs. Knockdown of c-Myc gene in TRAIL-treated PC3-MM2 cells prevented the increase of DR5 cell surface expression, caspase activation and DNA-PKcs cleavage and attenuated the apoptotic effects of TRAIL. Moreover, the suppression of DNA-PKcs level with siRNA in the cells induced the up-regulation of DR5 and active caspase-8, -9, and -3. We also found that 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (DMNB, a specific inhibitor of DNA-PK, potentiated TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in relatively TRAIL-insensitive PC3 and KM12 cells and therefore functioned as a TRAIL sensitizer. Conclusion This study showed the positive relationship between c-Myc expression in highly metastatic human prostate and colon cancer cells and susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and therefore indicated that TRAIL might be used as an effective therapeutic modality for advanced metastatic cancers overexpressing c-Myc and

  12. Does advanced lung inflammation index (ALI) have prognostic significance in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurek, Berna Akinci; Ozdemirel, Tugce Sahin; Ozden, Sertac Buyukyaylaci; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Ozmen, Ozlem; Kaplan, Bekir; Kaplan, Tugba

    2018-01-22

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed and death-related cancer type and is more frequent in males. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of all case. In this study, it was aimed to research the relationship between advanced lung inflammation index (ALI) and the primary mass maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and C-reactive protein (CRP) at initial diagnosis and the prognostic value of ALI in determining the survival in metastatic NSCLC. A total of 112 patients diagnosed as stage 4 non-small-lung cancer in our hospital between January 2006 and December 2013 were included in this study. ALI was calculated as body mass index (BMI) × serum albumin/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). The patients were divided into two groups as ALI ALI ≥ 18 (low inflammation). The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model were used to identify predictors of mortality. Evaluation was made of 94 male and 18 female patients with a mean age of 59.7 ± 9.9 years. A statistically significant negative relationship was determined between ALI and CRP values (P ALI and SUVmax values (P = .436). The median survival time in patients with ALI ALI ≥ 18, it was 16 months (P = .095). ALI is an easily calculated indicator of inflammation in lung cancer patients. Values <18 can be considered to predict a poor prognosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer presenting as metastatic kidney cancer at 18 years of age : implications for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; Badeloe, Sadhanna; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Semmelink, Harry J. F.; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; van Waesberghe, Jan Hein; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Menko, Fred H.

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skin piloleiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cancer caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Previously, we proposed renal imaging for FH mutation

  14. Prognostic Value of Fluoro-D-glucose Uptake of Primary Tumor and Metastatic Lesions in Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Nguyen, Van Khoi; Tran, Minh Thong; Maurea, Simone; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the primary tumor (maxSUV pt ), maxSUV of whole-body tumors (maxSUV wb ) and sum of maximum standardized uptake value (sumaxSUV) measured by the sum of maxSUVs of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes, and metastatic lesions per each organ on fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighty-three patients (49 male, 34 female) with advanced NSCLC were enrolled. Seventeen patients had Stage IIIA, 21 Stage IIIB, and 45 Stage IV. maxSUV pt , maxSUV wb , sumaxSUV, age, gender, tumor-cell type, T stage, N stage, overall stage, primary tumor size, and specific treatment were analyzed for correlation with overall survival. Median follow-up duration was 13 months. Fifty patients were dead during a median follow-up time of 11 months and 33 patients were alive with a median time of 15 months. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival was significantly correlated with sumaxSUV (≥35 vs. <35, P = 0.004), T stage (T4 vs. T1-T3, P = 0.025), overall stage (IV vs. III, P = 0.002), gender (male vs. female, P = 0.029) and specific treatment (no vs. yes, P = 0.011). maxSUV pt and maxSUV wb were not correlated with overall survival with P value of 0.139 and 0.168, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified sumaxSUV, T stage, gender, and specific treatment as independent prognostic indicators. Patients with a sumaxSUV of ≥35 were 1.921 times more likely to die than those with a sumaxSUV of < 35 (P = 0.047). Median survival time was 14 months for patients with sumaxSUV ≥ 35 compared with 20 months for those with sumaxSUV < 35. In patients with metastatic NSCLC, sumaxSUV with cut-off of 35 was much more significant for survival prognosis (P = 0.021). sumaxSUV is a new prognostic measure, independent of tumor stage, gender, and specific treatment in advanced NSCLC. sumaxSUV may be better than maxSUV pt and maxSUV wb in

  15. Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: patient selection and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasundaram A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ashwin Somasundaram, Timothy F Burns Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading killer of both men and women in the US, and the 5-year survival remains poor. However, the approval of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy has shifted the treatment paradigm and provides hope for improved survival. The ability of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC to evade the host immune system can be overcome by agents such as pembrolizumab (MK-3475/lambrolizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1 receptor. In early studies, treatment with pembrolizumab led to dramatic and durable responses in select patients (PD-L1+ tumors. This remarkable efficacy lead to approval of pembrolizumab in the second-line setting as response rates were almost doubled compared to standard of care (SOC chemotherapy. Most recently, data in the first-line setting from the KEYNOTE-024 study have redefined the SOC therapy for a selected subset of patients. In patients with ≥50% PD-L1+ tumors, pembrolizumab had a clear progression-free survival and overall survival benefit. Toxicity was mostly immune related and similar to checkpoint blockade toxicities observed in previous studies. The initial approval and subsequent studies of pembrolizumab required and utilized a companion diagnostic test, Dako’s IHC 22C3, to assess PD-L1 status of patients. The evaluation and scoring system of this assay has been used by other companies as a reference to develop their own assays, which may complicate selection of patients. Finally, the impact of pembrolizumab in NSCLC is growing as evidenced by the numerous, ongoing trials open for combinations with chemotherapy, chemoradiation, other immunotherapeutics, immunomodulators, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PI3K inhibitors, MEK inhibitors, hypomethylating agents, and histone deacetylase inhibitors. Further studies

  16. Sustained systemic response paralleled with ovarian metastasis progression by sunitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Is this an anti-angiogenic potentiation of cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam K Mete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell cancer is associated with poor prognosis and survival and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Therapeutic targeting of molecular pathways for tumor angiogenesis and other specific activation mechanisms offers improved tumor response and prolonged survival. A 48-year-old, female patient presented with large right renal mass with features suggesting of renal cell cancer without metastasis on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT. Right radical nephrectomy was done. After 9 months of surgery, she got metastasis in lung, liver and ovary. The patient received sunitinib via an expanded access program. After eight 6-week cycles of sunitinib, a reassessment CT scan confirmed an excellent partial response with the almost complete disappearance (90% of liver and lung metastasis but the adnexal mass had increased in size (>10 times and the possibility was thought of second malignancy. Excision of the mass performed. Histopathology of the mass depicted metastatic renal cell cancer. There is possibility of a ′site-specific anti-angiogenic potentiation mechanism′ of malignancy in relation to sunitinib based upon the preclinical studies, in reference to the index case. Regression of one site with concurrent progression is possible. The exact mechanism of site-specific response, especially organ specific progression by vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in metastatic renal cell cancer warrants further study.

  17. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic castrationresistant prostate cancer: a report from the PETRUS prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massard, Christophe; Oulhen, Marianne; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Auger, Nathalie; Foulon, Stéphanie; Abou-Lovergne, Aurélie; Billiot, Fanny; Valent, Alexander; Marty, Virginie; Loriot, Yohann; Fizazi, Karim; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Francoise

    2016-01-01

    Molecular characterization of cancer samples is hampered by tumor tissue availability in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. We reported the results of prospective PETRUS study of biomarker assessment in paired primary prostatic tumors, metastatic biopsies and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Among 54 mCRPC patients enrolled, 38 (70%) had biopsies containing more than 50% tumour cells. 28 (52%) patients were analyzed for both tissue samples and CTCs. FISH for AR-amplification and TMPRSS2-ERG translocation were successful in 54% and 32% in metastatic biopsies and primary tumors, respectively. By comparing CellSearch and filtration (ISET)-enrichment combined to four color immunofluorescent staining, we showed that CellSearch and ISET isolated distinct subpopulations of CTCs: CTCs undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, CTC clusters and large CTCs with cytomorphological characteristics but no detectable markers were isolated using ISET. Epithelial CTCs detected by the CellSearch were mostly lost during the ISET-filtration. AR-amplification was detected in CellSearch-captured CTCs, but not in ISET-enriched CTCs which harbor exclusively AR gain of copies. Eighty-eight percent concordance for ERG-rearrangement was observed between metastatic biopsies and CTCs even if additional ERG-alteration patterns were detected in ISET-enriched CTCs indicating a higher heterogeneity in CTCs. Molecular screening of metastatic biopsies is achievable in a multicenter context. Our data indicate that CTCs detected by the CellSearch and the ISET-filtration systems are not only phenotypically but also genetically different. Close attention must be paid to CTC characterization since neither approach tested here fully reflects the tremendous phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity present in CTCs from mCRPC patients. PMID:27391263

  18. Phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of tumor tissue and circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A report from the PETRUS prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massard, Christophe; Oulhen, Marianne; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Auger, Nathalie; Foulon, Stéphanie; Abou-Lovergne, Aurélie; Billiot, Fanny; Valent, Alexander; Marty, Virginie; Loriot, Yohann; Fizazi, Karim; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Francoise

    2016-08-23

    Molecular characterization of cancer samples is hampered by tumor tissue availability in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. We reported the results of prospective PETRUS study of biomarker assessment in paired primary prostatic tumors, metastatic biopsies and circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Among 54 mCRPC patients enrolled, 38 (70%) had biopsies containing more than 50% tumour cells. 28 (52%) patients were analyzed for both tissue samples and CTCs. FISH for AR-amplification and TMPRSS2-ERG translocation were successful in 54% and 32% in metastatic biopsies and primary tumors, respectively. By comparing CellSearch and filtration (ISET)-enrichment combined to four color immunofluorescent staining, we showed that CellSearch and ISET isolated distinct subpopulations of CTCs: CTCs undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, CTC clusters and large CTCs with cytomorphological characteristics but no detectable markers were isolated using ISET. Epithelial CTCs detected by the CellSearch were mostly lost during the ISET-filtration. AR-amplification was detected in CellSearch-captured CTCs, but not in ISET-enriched CTCs which harbor exclusively AR gain of copies. Eighty-eight percent concordance for ERG-rearrangement was observed between metastatic biopsies and CTCs even if additional ERG-alteration patterns were detected in ISET-enriched CTCs indicating a higher heterogeneity in CTCs.Molecular screening of metastatic biopsies is achievable in a multicenter context. Our data indicate that CTCs detected by the CellSearch and the ISET-filtration systems are not only phenotypically but also genetically different. Close attention must be paid to CTC characterization since neither approach tested here fully reflects the tremendous phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity present in CTCs from mCRPC patients.

  19. Increased fucosylation has a pivotal role in invasive and metastatic properties of head and neck cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Matossian, Margarite; Prince, Mark E.; Paino, Francesca; Mele, Luigi; Papaccio, Federica; Montella, Roberta; Papaccio, Gianpaolo; Papagerakis, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an aggressive malignancy with high mortality rates. Major challenges for OSCC management include development of resistance to therapy and early formation of distant metastases. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have emerged as important players in both pathologic mechanisms. Increased fucosylation activity and increased expression of fucosylated polysaccharides, such as Sialyl Lewis X (SLex), are associated with invasion and metastasis. However, the role of fucosylation in CSCs has not been elucidated yet. We used the spheroid culture technique to obtain a CSC-enriched population and compared orospheres with adherent cells. We found that orospheres expressed markers of CSCs and metastasis at higher levels, were more invasive and tumorigenic, and were more resistant to cisplatin/radiation than adherent counterparts. We found fucosyltransferases FUT3 and FUT6 highly up-regulated, increased SLex expression and increased adhesion by shear flow assays in orospheres. Inhibition of fucosylation negatively affected orospheres formation and invasion of oral CSCs. These results confirm that orospheres are enriched in CSCs and that fucosylation is of paramount importance for CSC invasion. In addition, SLex may play a key role in CSC metastasis. Thus, inhibition of fucosylation may be used to block CSCs and metastatic spread. PMID:25428916

  20. The anti-metastatic effects of the phytoestrogen arctigenin on human breast cancer cell lines regardless of the status of ER expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Thressi; Chun, So-Young; Lee, Kyu-Shik; Kim, Soyoung; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Arctigenin is a plant lignan extracted from Arctium lappa that has been shown to have estrogenic properties. In spite of the health benefits of phytoestrogens reducing the risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, and menopausal symptoms, its benefits against the risk of breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. Thus, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on metastasis of breast cancer using both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines to see if the effects are dependent on the status of ER expression. In ER-positive MCF-7 cells, arctigenin efficiently inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cell migration and invasion. The activity of crucial metastatic protease matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 in gelatin zymography was also efficiently decreased by arctigenin, as well as its mRNA expression. Notably, arctigenin exhibited similar anti-metastatic effects even in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that the anti-metastatic effects of arctigenin were not exerted via the ER. The upstream signaling pathways involved in the regulation of MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) were analyzed using western blotting. The activation of Akt, NF-κB and MAPK (ERK 1/2 and JNK 1/2) was found to be inhibited. Taken together, these data suggest that arctigenin confers anti-metastatic effects by inhibiting MMP-9 and uPA via the Akt, NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways on breast cancer, regardless of ER expression. Therefore, we propose that the intake of arctigenin could be an effective supplement for breast cancer patients.

  1. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  2. [Detection and clinical value of epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) mRNA positive circulating tumor cells in metastatic breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Cheng, Jian-ping; Di, Li-jun; Song, Guo-hong; Ren, Jun

    2012-04-18

    To test for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) relying on epithelial cellular adhesion molecule (EpCAM) expression in metastatic breast cancer by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. In the study,47 metastatic breast cancer patients were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR for detecting EpCAM mRNA. In addition, analyses were carried out for their correlation with patients' clinicopathologic features, response, and the time to progression (TTP). The sensitivity of EpCAM mRNA in the metastatic breast cancer patients was about 40%. However, the specificity of EpCAM mRNA for 20 healthy controls was 100%. TTP was calculated, and compared with that between EpCAM mRNA-positive and EpCAM mRNA-negative groups. For the retrospective study, the median TTP was 7.1 months and 11.1 months (P=0.013) for patients with EpCAM mRNA-positive and EpCAM mRNA-negative, respectively, after the first cycle chemotherapy. Moreover, a statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between EpCAM mRNA and TTP in patients who underwent the first or the second-line chemotherapy (P=0.018), but there was no significance in the patients pretreated with two or more previous chemotherapy lines (P=0.471). This study provides evidence of the presence of EpCAM mRNA in approximately 40% of patients with metastatic breast cancer. There is a strong correlation between EpCAM mRNA results after the first cycle therapy and TTP in metastatic breast cancer patients, and EpCAM mRNA positive after chemotherapy may predict shorter TTP.

  3. Mutational status of synchronous and metachronous tumor samples in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quéré, Gilles; Descourt, Renaud; Robinet, Gilles; Autret, Sandrine; Raguenes, Odile; Fercot, Brigitte; Alemany, Pierre; Uguen, Arnaud; Férec, Claude; Quintin-Roué, Isabelle; Le Gac, Gérald

    2016-01-01

    Despite reported discordance between the mutational status of primary lung cancers and their metastases, metastatic sites are rarely biopsied and targeted therapy is guided by genetic biomarkers detected in the primary tumor. This situation is mostly explained by the apparent stability of EGFR-activating mutations. Given the dramatic increase in the range of candidate drugs and high rates of drug resistance, rebiopsy or liquid biopsy may become widespread. The purpose of this study was to test genetic biomarkers used in clinical practice (EGFR, ALK) and candidate biomarkers identified by the French National Cancer Institute (KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, HER2) in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer for whom two tumor samples were available. A retrospective study identified 88 tumor samples collected synchronously or metachronously, from the same or two different sites, in 44 patients. Mutation analysis used SNaPshot (EGFR, KRAS, BRAF missense mutations), pyrosequencing (EGFR and PIK3CA missense mutations), sizing assays (EGFR and HER2 indels) and IHC and/or FISH (ALK rearrangements). About half the patients (52 %) harbored at least one mutation. Five patients had an activating mutation of EGFR in both the primary tumor and the metastasis. The T790M resistance mutation was detected in metastases in 3 patients with acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. FISH showed discordance in ALK status between a small biopsy sample and the surgical specimen. KRAS mutations were observed in 36 % of samples, six patients (14 %) having discordant genotypes; all discordances concerned sampling from different sites. Two patients (5 %) showed PI3KCA mutations. One metastasis harbored both PI3KCA and KRAS mutations, while the synchronously sampled primary tumor was mutation free. No mutations were detected in BRAF and HER2. This study highlighted noteworthy intra-individual discordance in KRAS mutational status, whereas EGFR status was stable. Intratumoral

  4. Clinical value of circulating endothelial cell levels in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line chemotherapy and bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, D; Boige, V; Jacques, N; Vimond, N; Adenis, A; Boucher, E; Pierga, J Y; Conroy, T; Chauffert, B; François, E; Guichard, P; Galais, M P; Cvitkovic, F; Ducreux, M; Farace, F

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether circulating endothelial cells (CECs) predict clinical outcome of first-line chemotherapy and bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. In a substudy of the randomized phase II FNCLCC ACCORD 13/0503 trial, CECs (CD45- CD31+ CD146+ 7-amino-actinomycin- cells) were enumerated in 99 patients by four-color flow cytometry at baseline and after one cycle of treatment. We correlated CEC levels with objective response rate (ORR), 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate (primary end point of the trial), PFS, and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses of potential prognostic factors, including CEC counts and Köhne score, were carried out. By multivariate analysis, high baseline CEC levels were the only independent prognostic factor for 6-month PFS rate (P < 0.01) and were independently associated with worse PFS (P = 0.02). High CEC levels after one cycle were the only independent prognostic factor for ORR (P = 0.03). High CEC levels at both time points independently predicted worse ORR (P = 0.025), 6-month PFS rate (P = 0.007), and PFS (P = 0.02). Köhne score was the only variable associated with OS. CEC levels at baseline and after one treatment cycle may independently predict ORR and PFS in mCRC patients starting first-line bevacizumab and chemotherapy.

  5. Cell Free DNA of Tumor Origin Induces a 'Metastatic' Expression Profile in HT-29 Cancer Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Fűri

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells in malignant conditions release DNA into the extracellular compartment. Cell free DNA of tumor origin may act as a ligand of DNA sensing mechanisms and mediate changes in epithelial-stromal interactions.To evaluate and compare the potential autocrine and paracrine regulatory effect of normal and malignant epithelial cell-related DNA on TLR9 and STING mediated pathways in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and normal fibroblasts.DNA isolated from normal and tumorous colonic epithelia of fresh frozen surgically removed tissue samples was used for 24 and 6 hour treatment of HT-29 colon carcinoma and HDF-α fibroblast cells. Whole genome mRNA expression analysis and qRT-PCR was performed for the elements/members of TLR9 signaling pathway. Immunocytochemistry was performed for epithelial markers (i.e. CK20 and E-cadherin, DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a and NFκB (for treated HDFα cells.Administration of tumor derived DNA on HT29 cells resulted in significant (p<0.05 mRNA level alteration in 118 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05, including overexpression of metallothionein genes (i.e. MT1H, MT1X, MT1P2, MT2A, metastasis-associated genes (i.e. TACSTD2, MACC1, MALAT1, tumor biomarker (CEACAM5, metabolic genes (i.e. INSIG1, LIPG, messenger molecule genes (i.e. DAPP, CREB3L2. Increased protein levels of CK20, E-cadherin, and DNMT3a was observed after tumor DNA treatment in HT-29 cells. Healthy DNA treatment affected mRNA expression of 613 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05, including increased expression of key adaptor molecules of TLR9 pathway (e.g. MYD88, IRAK2, NFκB, IL8, IL-1β, STING pathway (ADAR, IRF7, CXCL10, CASP1 and the FGF2 gene.DNA from tumorous colon epithelium, but not from the normal epithelial cells acts as a pro-metastatic factor to HT-29 cells through the overexpression of pro-metastatic genes through TLR9/MYD88 independent pathway. In contrast, DNA derived from healthy colonic epithelium induced TLR9 and STING signaling

  6. FDA Approval: Alectinib for the Treatment of Metastatic, ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Following Crizotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Erin; Blumenthal, Gideon M; Chen, Huanyu; He, Kun; Agarwal, Rajiv; Gieser, Gerlie; Stephens, Olen; Zahalka, Eias; Ringgold, Kimberly; Helms, Whitney; Shord, Stacy; Yu, Jingyu; Zhao, Hong; Davis, Gina; McKee, Amy E; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2016-11-01

    On December 11, 2015, the FDA granted accelerated approval to alectinib (Alecensa; Genentech) for the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK)-positive, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have progressed on or are intolerant to crizotinib. This approval was based on two single-arm trials including 225 patients treated with alectinib 600 mg orally twice daily. The objective response rates (ORR) by an independent review committee in these studies were 38% [95% confidence interval (CI), 28-49] and 44% (95% CI, 36-53); the median durations of response (DOR) were 7.5 months and 11.2 months. In a pooled analysis of 51 patients with measurable disease in the central nervous system (CNS) at baseline, the CNS ORR was 61% (95% CI, 46-74); the CNS DOR was 9.1 months. The primary safety analysis population included 253 patients. The most common adverse reactions were fatigue (41%), constipation (34%), edema (30%), and myalgia (29%). The most common laboratory abnormalities were anemia (56%), increased aspartate aminotransferase (51%), increased alkaline phosphatase (47%), increased creatine phosphokinase (43%), hyperbilirubinemia (39%), hyperglycemia (36%), increased alanine aminotransferase (34%), and hypocalcemia (32%). Dose reductions due to adverse reactions occurred in 12% of patients, whereas 27% of patients had alectinib dosing interrupted for adverse reactions. Permanent discontinuation of alectinib due to adverse reactions occurred in only 6% of patients. With the clinically meaningful ORR and DOR as well as the safety profile observed in these trials, alectinib was determined to have a favorable benefit-risk profile for the treatment of the indicated population. Clin Cancer Res; 22(21); 5171-6. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with respect to optimal cut-off value and tumor markers in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi-Mouri, Yukako; Kousaka, Junko; Ando, Takahito; Tetsuka, Rie; Nakano, Shogo; Yoshida, Miwa; Fujii, Kimihito; Akizuki, Miwa; Imai, Tsuneo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsumasa

    2016-01-01

    Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) are useful tumor markers (TMs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also detected in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed CTCs in MBC patients in order to establish the optimal cut-off value, to evaluate the prognostic utility of CTC count, and to clarify whether CTC count could provide information in addition to CEA and CA15-3. We studied 98 MBC patients enrolled between June 2007 and March 2013. To quantify CTCs, 7.5 ml of blood was collected and CEA and CA15-3 were measured simultaneously. CTCs were counted using the CellSearch™ System. The CTC count was dichotomized as 0 (CTC-negative) or ≥1 (CTC-positive). The clinical significance of CTCs was evaluated in terms of its relationship with levels of CEA and CA15-3. Associations between qualitative variables were evaluated using the chi-square test. In order to evaluate the predictive value of CTCs for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios. With a CTC cut-off value of 1, there were 53 (54.1 %) CTC-negative patients and 45 (45.9 %) CTC-positive patients. Patients in the CTC-positive group had worse survival than those in the CTC-negative group (p CEA and CA15-3.

  8. Combined high-intensity local treatment and systemic therapy in metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: An analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Luu, Michael; Yoshida, Emi J; Kim, Sungjin; Tighiouart, Mourad; David, John M; Shiao, Stephen L; Mita, Alain C; Scher, Kevin S; Sherman, Eric J; Lee, Nancy Y; Ho, Allen S

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that primary tumor ablation can improve survival for some cancer patients with distant metastases. This may be particularly applicable to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) because of its tropism for locoregional progression. This study included patients with metastatic HNSCC undergoing systemic therapy identified in the National Cancer Data Base. High-intensity local treatment was defined as radiation doses ≥ 60 Gy or oncologic resection of the primary tumor. Multivariate Cox regression, propensity score matching, landmark analysis, and subgroup analysis were performed to account for imbalances in covariates, including adjustments for the number and location of metastatic sites in the subset of patients with this information available. In all, 3269 patients were included (median follow-up, 51.5 months). Patients undergoing systemic therapy with local treatment had improved survival in comparison with patients receiving systemic therapy alone in propensity score-matched cohorts (2-year overall survival, 34.2% vs 20.6%; P treatment, whereas those receiving lower-intensity local treatment had survival similar to that of patients receiving systemic therapy without local treatment. The impact of high-intensity local therapy was time-dependent, with a stronger impact within the first 6 months after the diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.255; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.210-0.309; P treatment warrants prospective evaluation for select patients with metastatic HNSCC. Cancer 2017;123:4583-4593. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. Phase I-II study of everolimus and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijts, Charlotte M; Santegoets, Saskia J; Eertwegh, Alfons J van den; Pijpers, Laura S; Haanen, John B; Gruijl, Tanja D de; Verheul, Henk M; Vliet, Hans J van der

    2011-01-01

    For patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) who progressed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, the orally administered mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus has been shown to prolong progression free survival. Intriguingly, inhibition of mTOR also promotes expansion of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) that can inhibit anti-tumor immune responses in a clinically relevant way in various tumor types including RCC. This study intends to investigate whether the antitumor efficacy of everolimus can be increased by preventing the detrimental everolimus induced expansion of Tregs using a metronomic schedule of cyclophosphamide. This phase I-II trial is a national multi-center study of different doses and schedules of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in combination with a fixed dose of everolimus in patients with mRCC not amenable to or progressive after a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor containing treatment regimen. In the phase I part of the study the optimal Treg-depleting dose and schedule of metronomic oral cyclophosphamide when given in combination with everolimus will be determined. In the phase II part of the study we will evaluate whether the percentage of patients progression free at 4 months of everolimus treatment can be increased from 50% to 70% by adding metronomic cyclophosphamide (in the dose and schedule determined in the phase I part). In addition to efficacy, we will perform extensive immune monitoring with a focus on the number, phenotype and function of Tregs, evaluate the safety and feasibility of the combination of everolimus and cyclophosphamide, perform monitoring of selected angiogenesis parameters and analyze everolimus and cyclophosphamide drug levels. This phase I-II study is designed to determine whether metronomic cyclophosphamide can be used to counter the mTOR inhibitor everolimus induced Treg expansion in patients with metastatic renal cell

  10. Phase I-II study of everolimus and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijts Charlotte M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC who progressed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, the orally administered mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor everolimus has been shown to prolong progression free survival. Intriguingly, inhibition of mTOR also promotes expansion of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs that can inhibit anti-tumor immune responses in a clinically relevant way in various tumor types including RCC. This study intends to investigate whether the antitumor efficacy of everolimus can be increased by preventing the detrimental everolimus induced expansion of Tregs using a metronomic schedule of cyclophosphamide. Methods/design This phase I-II trial is a national multi-center study of different doses and schedules of low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in combination with a fixed dose of everolimus in patients with mRCC not amenable to or progressive after a VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor containing treatment regimen. In the phase I part of the study the optimal Treg-depleting dose and schedule of metronomic oral cyclophosphamide when given in combination with everolimus will be determined. In the phase II part of the study we will evaluate whether the percentage of patients progression free at 4 months of everolimus treatment can be increased from 50% to 70% by adding metronomic cyclophosphamide (in the dose and schedule determined in the phase I part. In addition to efficacy, we will perform extensive immune monitoring with a focus on the number, phenotype and function of Tregs, evaluate the safety and feasibility of the combination of everolimus and cyclophosphamide, perform monitoring of selected angiogenesis parameters and analyze everolimus and cyclophosphamide drug levels. Discussion This phase I-II study is designed to determine whether metronomic cyclophosphamide can be used to counter the mTOR inhibitor everolimus

  11. Metastatic Breast Cancer to the Stomach Resembling Early Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumikata Hara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer metastases to the stomach are very rare. As characteristics of breast cancer metastases to the stomach, metastases of lobular carcinoma, mainly with signet ring cells, are frequently observed, and they are often difficult to distinguish from a primary gastric cancer with signet ring cells. Moreover, because no characteristic symptoms are shown and they involve a submucosal lesion, it is difficult to make a radiographic diagnosis. However, if a gastric lesion is observed after breast carcinoma surgery, differentiation between a gastric primary lesion and a metastatic lesion is very important in order to determine treatment. We encountered a case that was diagnosed as early gastric cancer discovered using an endoscope 2 years after surgery and which was found to be breast cancer metastasis to the stomach by gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP and cytokeratin (CK 7/20 immunostaining of the biopsy tissue. Here, we report our findings of this unique case.

  12. Utility values associated with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: data needs for economic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline; Cook, Keziah; Adamski, Kelly; Lau, Jocelyn; Bargo, Danielle; Breen, Sarah; Chawla, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses often inform healthcare reimbursement decisions. The preferred measure of effectiveness is the quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained, where the quality of life adjustment is measured in terms of utility. Areas covered: We assessed the availability and variation of utility values for health states associated with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to identify values appropriate for cost-effectiveness models assessing alternative treatments. Our systematic search of six electronic databases (January 2000 to August 2015) found the current literature to be sparse in terms of utility values associated with NSCLC, identifying 27 studies. Utility values were most frequently reported over time and by treatment type, and less frequently by disease response, stage of disease, adverse events or disease comorbidities. Expert commentary: In response to rising healthcare costs, payers increasingly consider the cost-effectiveness of novel treatments in reimbursement decisions, especially in oncology. As the number of therapies available to treat NSCLC increases, cost-effectiveness analyses will play a key role in reimbursement decisions in this area. Quantifying the relationship between health and quality of life for NSCLC patients via utility values is an important component of assessing the cost effectiveness of novel treatments.

  13. Dual energy CT allows for improved characterization of response to antiangiogenic treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellbach, K.; Sterzik, A.; Sommer, W.; Karpitschka, M.; Hummel, N.; Ingrisch, M.; Graser, A. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenchen (Germany); Casuscelli, J.; Staehler, Michael [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Urology, Muenchen (Germany); Schlemmer, M. [Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brueder Muenchen, Department of Palliative Care, Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the potential role of dual energy CT (DECT) to visualize antiangiogenic treatment effects in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) while treated with tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKI). 26 patients with mRCC underwent baseline and follow-up single-phase abdominal contrast enhanced DECT scans. Scans were performed immediately before and 10 weeks after start of treatment with TKI. Virtual non-enhanced (VNE) and colour coded iodine images were generated. 44 metastases were measured at the two time points. Hounsfield unit (HU) values for VNE and iodine density (ID) as well as iodine content (IC) in mg/ml of tissue were derived. These values were compared to the venous phase DECT density (CTD) of the lesions. Values before and after treatment were compared using a paired Student's t test. Between baseline and follow up, mean CTD and DECT-derived ID both showed a significant reduction (p < 0.005). The relative reduction measured in percent was significantly greater for ID than for CTD (49.8 ± 36,3 % vs. 29.5 ± 20.8 %, p < 0.005). IC was also significantly reduced under antiangiogenic treatment (p < 0.0001). Dual energy CT-based quantification of iodine content of mRCC metastases allows for significantly more sensitive and reproducible detection of antiangiogenic treatment effects. (orig.)

  14. Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Current treatment based on evidence (ONCOL Group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos; Cardona, Andres Felipe; Reveiz, Ludovic; Serrano, Silvia Juliana; Carranza, Hernan; Vargas, Carlos Alberto; Reguart, Noemi; Campo, Felipe; Ospina, Edgar Guillermo; Sanchez, Oswaldo; Torres, Diana; Otero, Jorge Miguel

    2010-01-01

    to perform a review of evidence about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Source of data: the information was obtained from searches conducted in Medline, CCTR, Biosis, Embase, Lilacs and CINHAL. We also collected the most representative references presented during the last five years at Asco, ESMO and IASLC. Data extraction: data were extracted by associate members to the ONCOL Group. The collection of information did not follow a uniform strategy. Results of data synthesis: therapy for NSCLC can prolong survival and improve quality of life, but the majority of advanced stage patients dies due to disease progression within 2 years, meaning that there is room for improvement. The standard chemotherapy for NSCLC involves one of a number of platinum-based doublets that have been shown to improve survival when compared with single agents or best supportive care. These doublets are generally comparable in terms of efficacy, differing primarily in their toxicity profiles. However, encouraging new options may be approaching, including therapies targeted to specific patient subpopulations, and the use of combinations of current and new drugs to produce synergistic effects. This review present a detailed analysis of current evidence regarding the treatment of NSCLC based on a representative case series. This review didn't conduct a systematic evaluation of the evidence. Conclusion: medical therapy for NSCLC produces positive changes in main outcomes, including quality of life

  15. Optical imaging of metabolic adaptability in metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Lisa; Rajaram, Narasimhan

    2018-02-01

    Accurate methods for determining metastatic risk from the primary tumor are crucial for patient survival. Cell metabolism could potentially be used as a marker of metastatic risk. Optical imaging of the endogenous fluorescent molecules nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) provides a non-destructive and label-free method for determining cell metabolism. The optical redox ratio (FAD/FAD+NADH) is sensitive to the balance between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We have previously established that hypoxia-reoxygenation stress leads to metastatic potential-dependent changes in optical redox ratio. The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in optical redox ratio in breast cancer cells in response to different periods of hypoxic stress as well various levels of hypoxia to establish an optimal protocol. We measured the optical redox ratio of highly metastatic 4T1 murine breast cancer cells under normoxic conditions and after exposure to 30, 60, and 120 minutes of 0.5% O2. This was followed by an hour of reoxygenation. We found an increase in the optical redox ratio following reoxygenation from hypoxia for all durations. Statistically significant differences were observed at 60 and 120 minutes (p˂0.01) compared with normoxia, implying an ability to adapt to OXPHOS after reoxygenation. The switch to OXPHOS has been shown to be a key promoter of cell invasion. We will present our results from these investigations in human breast cancer cells as well as non-metastatic breast cancer cells exposed to various levels of hypoxia.

  16. Impact of Symptomatic Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression on Survival of Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gustavo Telles; Bergmann, Anke; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2017-12-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common primary tumor sites among patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). This disorder is related to neurologic dysfunction and can reduce the quality of life, but the association between MSCC and death is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the occurrence of symptomatic MSCC on overall survival of patients with NSCLC. A cohort study was carried out involving 1112 patients with NSCLC who were enrolled between 2006 and 2014 in a single cancer center. Clinical and sociodemographic data were extracted from the physical and electronic records. Survival analysis of patients with NSCLC was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method. A log-rank test was used to assess differences between survival curves. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were carried out to quantify the relationship between the independent variable (MSCC) and the outcome (overall survival). During the study period, the incidence of MSCC was 4.1%. Patients who presented with MSCC were 1.43 times more likely to die than were those with no history of MSCC (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.00; P = 0.031). The median survival time was 8.04 months (95% CI, 6.13-9.96) for those who presented MSCC and 11.95 months (95% CI, 10.80-13.11) for those who did not presented MSCC during the course of disease (P = 0.002). MSCC is an important and independent predictor of NSCLC worse survival. This effect was not influenced by sociodemographic and clinical factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumor tropism of intravenously injected human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells and their gene therapy application in a metastatic breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Lam, Dang Hoang; Goh, Sally Sallee; Lee, Esther Xingwei; Zhao, Ying; Tay, Felix Chang; Chen, Can; Du, Shouhui; Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Shahbazi, Mohammad; Tham, Chee Kian; Ng, Wai Hoe; Toh, Han Chong; Wang, Shu

    2012-05-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells can serve as an accessible and reliable source for the generation of functional human cells for medical therapies. In this study, we used a conventional lentiviral transduction method to derive human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from primary human fibroblasts and then generated neural stem cells (NSCs) from the iPS cells. Using a dual-color whole-body imaging technology, we demonstrated that after tail vein injection, these human NSCs displayed a robust migratory capacity outside the central nervous system in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice and homed in on established orthotopic 4T1 mouse mammary tumors. To investigate whether the iPS cell-derived NSCs can be used as a cellular delivery vehicle for cancer gene therapy, the cells were transduced with a baculoviral vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene and injected through tail vein into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The transduced NSCs were effective in inhibiting the growth of the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor and the metastatic spread of the cancer cells in the presence of ganciclovir, leading to prolonged survival of the tumor-bearing mice. The use of iPS cell-derived NSCs for cancer gene therapy bypasses the sensitive ethical issue surrounding the use of cells derived from human fetal tissues or human embryonic stem cells. This approach may also help to overcome problems associated with allogeneic transplantation of other types of human NSCs. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Immunotherapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F Slovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostate cancer remains a challenge as a target for immunological approaches. The approval of the first cell-based immune therapy, Sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer introduced prostate cancer as a solid tumor with the potential to be influenced by the immune system. Methods: We reviewed articles on immunological management of prostate cancer and challenges that lie ahead for such strategies. Results: Treatments have focused on the identification of novel cell surface antigens thought to be unique to prostate cancer. These include vaccines against carbohydrate and blood group antigens, xenogeneic and naked DNA vaccines, and pox viruses used as prime-boost or checkpoint inhibitors. No single vaccine construct to date has resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect. The checkpoint inhibitor, anti-CTLA-4 has resulted in several long-term remissions, but phase III trials have not demonstrated an antitumor effect or survival benefit. Conclusions: Multiple clinical trials suggest that prostate cancer may not be optimally treated by single agent immune therapies and that combination with biologic agents, chemotherapies, or radiation may offer some enhancement of benefit.

  19. Salinomycin inhibits metastatic colorectal cancer growth and interferes with Wnt/β-catenin signaling in CD133+ human colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Johannes; Eissele, Jana; Volz, Claudia; Schmitt, Steffen; Ritter, Alina; Ying, Shen; Schmidt, Thomas; Heger, Ulrike; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The polyether antibiotic Salinomycin (Sal) is regarded as an inhibitor of cancer stem cells. Its effectiveness on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro has been demonstrated before. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model to investigate the effectiveness of Sal in vivo. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of Sal on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human CD133 + CRC cells. The two murine CRC cell lines MC38 and CT26 were used to analyze the impact of Sal on tumor cell proliferation, viability, migration, cell cycle progression and cell death in vitro. For in vivo studies, CT26 cells were injected into syngeneic BALB/c mice to initiate (i) subcutaneous, (ii) orthotopic, or (iii) metastatic CRC growth. Sal was administered daily, 5-Fluoruracil served as a control. For mechanistic studies, the CD133 + and CD133 - subpopulations of human CRC cells were separated by flow cytometry and separately exposed to increasing concentrations of Sal. The impact on Wnt/β-catenin signaling was determined by Western blotting and quantitative PCR. Sal markedly impaired tumor cell viability, proliferation and migration, and induced necrotic cell death in vitro. CRC growth in vivo was likewise inhibited upon Sal treatment. Interference with Wnt signaling and reduced expression of the Wnt target genes Fibronectin and Lgr5 indicates a novel molecular mechanism, mediating anti-tumoral effects of Sal in CRC. Sal effectively impairs CRC growth in vivo. Furthermore, Sal acts as an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, Salinomycin represents a promising candidate for clinical CRC treatment. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2879-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in an in vivo model of spontaneous metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Lagioia, Michelle; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2004-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are rapidly emerging as a new generation of therapeutic drug in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. The mechanisms underlying its antitumor effects are not fully understood and more thorough preclinical trials are needed to determine if COX-2 inhibition represents a useful approach for prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth inhibitory mechanism of a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, in an in vivo oncogenic mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer that resembles human disease. The oncogenic mice carry the polyoma middle T antigen driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter and develop primary adenocarcinomas of the breast. Results show that oral administration of celecoxib caused significant reduction in mammary tumor burden associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis and decreased proliferation in vivo. In vivo apoptosis correlated with significant decrease in activation of protein kinase B/Akt, a cell survival signaling kinase, with increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, celecoxib treatment reduced levels of proangiogenic factor (vascular endothelial growth factor), suggesting a role of celecoxib in suppression of angiogenesis in this model. Results from these preclinical studies will form the basis for assessing the feasibility of celecoxib therapy alone or in combination with conventional therapies for treatment and/or prevention of breast cancer.

  1. The clinical value of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masaki; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Yoneda, Kazue; Takuwa, Teruhisa; Kuroda, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Seiji; Okumura, Yoshitomo; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Nakano, Takashi; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2018-03-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are a potential surrogate for distant metastasis and are considered a useful clinical prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This prospective study evaluated the preoperative CTC count as a prognostic factor for pulmonary metastasectomy in mCRC patients. Seventy-nine mCRC patients who underwent curative-intent pulmonary metastasectomy were included. Preoperatively, 7.5 mL of peripheral blood from each patient was quantitatively evaluated for CTCs with the CellSearch ® system. The clinical significance of CTC count was evaluated according to Kaplan-Meier analyses and log-rank test. Multivariate analyses of the perioperative variables were performed. The distribution of CTC counts were as follows; 0 in 66 patients (83.5%), 1 in eight patients (10.1%), 2 in three patients (3.8%), and 3 and 6 in one patient (1.3%). The patients with multiple CTCs (CTC count ≥2) had significant shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.005, median DFS; 19.8 vs . 8.6 months) and overall survival (OS) (P=0.035, median DFS; not reached vs. 37.8 months), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed the patients with multiple CTCs had elevated risk of recurrence [hazard ratio (HR), 3.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-8.67; P=0.017]. The detected rate of CTCs was quite low in mCRC patients who underwent pulmonary metastasectomy. The patient with multiple CTCs had shorter DFS in this study. The larger prospective clinical study is needed to establish the meaning of CTC in mCRC candidate for pulmonary metastasectomy.

  2. Ixabepilone: a new chemotherapeutic option for refractory metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Puhalla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Shannon Puhalla, Adam BrufskyUPMC Magee-Womens Cancer Program, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Taxane therapy is commonly used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, most patients will eventually become refractory to these agents. Ixabepilone is a newly approved chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Although it targets microtubules similarly to docetaxel and paclitaxel, ixabepilone has activity in patients that are refractory to taxanes. This review summarizes the pharmacology of ixapebilone and clinical trials with the drug both as a single agent and in combination. Data were obtained using searches of PubMed and abstracts of the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium from 1995 to 2008. Ixapebilone is a semi-synthetic analog of epothilone B that acts to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the stabilization of microtubules. Phase I clinical trials have employed various dosing schedules ranging from daily to weekly to 3-weekly. Dose-limiting toxicites included neuropathy and neutropenia. Responses were seen in a variety of tumor types. Phase II studies verified activity in taxane-refractory metastatic breast cancer. The FDA has approved ixabepilone for use as monotherapy and in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ixabepilone is an efficacious option for patients with refractory metastatic breast cancer. The safety profile is similar to that of taxanes, with neuropathy and neutropenia being dose-limiting. Studies are ongoing with the use of both iv and oral formulations and in combination with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents.Keywords: ixabepilone, epothilone, metastatic breast cancer, taxane-refractory

  3. [Non-metastatic clear cell renal cancer: dependence of the tumour stage on clinico-anatomic and morphologic factors; prognostic value of macro- and karyometric characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurin, A G

    2010-01-01

    Non-metastatic clear-cell renal cancer: dependence of the tumour stage on clinico-anatomic and morphologic factors; prognostic value of macro- and karyometric characteristics Sankt Peterburg Pathology Bureau, Sankt Peterburg It was shown based on multivariate regression analysis that pT1a3bN0MO stages of non-metastatic clear-cell renal cancer significantly correlate not only with the tumor size and invasion into the fatty tissue and/or renal vein but also with the invasion into the renal capsule and with the mean maximum diameter and mean nucleus area of tumor cells. There was no correlation of clear-cell renal cancer stages with tumor proliferative activity, gene p53 mutation, oncosuppressor gene PTEN expression, fraction of tumour clear-cell component, and such clinical characteristics as patients' sex, age, and body mass index. Taking into account statistically significant differences between the patients' survival rates, the regression equations developed in this work may be used for the prediction of disease outcome.

  4. Emerging Therapies in Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Daniel W; Morgans, Alicia K

    2018-04-11

    In the last decade, there have been multiple landmark therapeutic advances for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, both in the castration-resistant and hormone-sensitive setting. In this review, we highlight recent progress and ongoing trials for metastatic prostate cancer, including advances in chemotherapy, androgen receptor-directed therapy, targeted therapies, and immunotherapy. Several landmark studies for men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer demonstrated improvement in overall survival with the addition of docetaxel chemotherapy or abiraterone acetate to standard androgen deprivation therapy. A single-arm phase 2 study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib demonstrated high response rates and more favorable progression-free and overall survival for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and DNA repair defects treated with olaparib compared with men without DNA repair defects. Multiple ongoing clinical trials are investigating novel hormonal therapies and combinations of chemotherapy, targeted small molecules, immunotherapy, and radiopharmaceuticals. Progress continues to be made in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, and ongoing clinical trials continue to investigate novel agents and approaches to treatment.

  5. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  6. Quantitative analysis of plasma cell-free DNA and its DNA integrity in patients with metastatic prostate cancer using ALU sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzy, A.; Sweify, K.M.; Nofal, N.; El-Fayoumy, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common cancer affecting men, it accounts for 29% of all male cancer and 11% of all male cancer related death. DNA is normally released from an apoptotic source which generates small fragments of cell-free DNA, whereas cancer patients have cell-free circulating DNA that originated from necrosis, autophagy, or mitotic catastrophe, which produce large fragments. Aim of work: Differentiate the cell free DNA levels (cfDNA) and its integrity in prostate cancer patients and control group composed of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and healthy persons. Methodology: cf-DNA levels were quantified by real-time PCR amplification in prostate cancer patients ( n = 50), (BPH) benign prostate hyperplasia ( n = 25) and healthy controls ( n = 30) using two sets of ALU gene (product size of 115 bp and 247-bp) and its integrity was calculated as a ratio of qPCR results of 247 bp ALU over 115 bp ALU. Results: Highly significant levels of cf-DNA and its integrity in PC patients compared to BPH. Twenty-eight (56%) patients with prostate cancer had bone metastasis. ALU115 qpcr is superior to the other markers in discriminating metastatic patients with a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 86.4% and (AUC = 0.981) Conclusion: ALU115 qpcr could be used as a valuable biomarker helping in identifying high risk patients, indicating early spread of tumor cells as a potential seed for future metastases

  7. Enzalutamide in metastatic prostate cancer before chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Tomasz M; Armstrong, Andrew J; Rathkopf, Dana E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an oral androgen-receptor inhibitor that prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in whom the disease has progressed after chemotherapy. New treatment options are needed for patients with metastatic prostate cancer who have...... the most common clinically relevant adverse events associated with enzalutamide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer. (Funded by Medivation and Astellas...... skeletal-related event (hazard ratio, 0.72), a complete or partial soft-tissue response (59% vs. 5%), the time until prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (hazard ratio, 0.17), and a rate of decline of at least 50% in PSA (78% vs. 3%) (P

  8. Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Jack R.; Doss, Bryant L.; Lindsay, Stuart; Ros, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and their microenvironment dictate cell phenotype and behavior, calling for cell mechanics measurements in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). Here we describe a novel technique for quantitative mechanical characterization of soft, heterogeneous samples in 3D. The technique is based on the integration of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based deep indentation, confocal fluorescence microscopy, finite element (FE) simulations and analytical modeling. With this method, the force response of a cell embedded in 3D ECM can be decoupled from that of its surroundings, enabling quantitative determination of the elastic properties of both the cell and the matrix. We applied the technique to the quantification of the elastic properties of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells invading into collagen hydrogels. We found that actively invading and fully embedded cells are significantly stiffer than cells remaining on top of the collagen, a clear example of phenotypical change in response to the 3D environment. Treatment with Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor significantly reduces this stiffening, indicating that actomyosin contractility plays a major role in the initial steps of metastatic invasion.

  9. A Novel Strategy for Detection and Enumeration of Circulating Rare Cell Populations in Metastatic Cancer Patients Using Automated Microfluidic Filtration and Multiplex Immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jesus M Magbanua

    Full Text Available Size selection via filtration offers an antigen-independent approach for the enrichment of rare cell populations in blood of cancer patients. We evaluated the performance of a novel approach for multiplex rare cell detection in blood samples from metastatic breast (n = 19 and lung cancer patients (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 30 using an automated microfluidic filtration and multiplex immunoassay strategy. Captured cells were enumerated after sequential staining for specific markers to identify circulating tumor cells (CTCs, circulating mesenchymal cells (CMCs, putative circulating stem cells (CSCs, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs. Preclinical validation experiments using cancer cells spiked into healthy blood demonstrated high recovery rate (mean = 85% and reproducibility of the assay. In clinical studies, CTCs and CMCs were detected in 35% and 58% of cancer patients, respectively, and were largely absent from healthy controls (3%, p = 0.001. Mean levels of CTCs were significantly higher in breast than in lung cancer patients (p = 0.03. Fifty-three percent (53% of cancer patients harbored putative CSCs, while none were detectable in healthy controls (p<0.0001. In contrast, CECs were observed in both cancer and control groups. Direct comparison of CellSearch® vs. our microfluidic filter method revealed moderate correlation (R2 = 0.46, kappa = 0.47. Serial blood analysis in breast cancer patients demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring circulating rare cell populations over time. Simultaneous assessment of CTCs, CMCs, CSCs and CECs may provide new tools to study mechanisms of disease progression and treatment response/resistance.

  10. A Novel Strategy for Detection and Enumeration of Circulating Rare Cell Populations in Metastatic Cancer Patients Using Automated Microfluidic Filtration and Multiplex Immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magbanua, Mark Jesus M; Pugia, Michael; Lee, Jin Sun; Jabon, Marc; Wang, Victoria; Gubens, Matthew; Marfurt, Karen; Pence, Julia; Sidhu, Harwinder; Uzgiris, Arejas; Rugo, Hope S; Park, John W

    2015-01-01

    Size selection via filtration offers an antigen-independent approach for the enrichment of rare cell populations in blood of cancer patients. We evaluated the performance of a novel approach for multiplex rare cell detection in blood samples from metastatic breast (n = 19) and lung cancer patients (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 30) using an automated microfluidic filtration and multiplex immunoassay strategy. Captured cells were enumerated after sequential staining for specific markers to identify circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating mesenchymal cells (CMCs), putative circulating stem cells (CSCs), and circulating endothelial cells (CECs). Preclinical validation experiments using cancer cells spiked into healthy blood demonstrated high recovery rate (mean = 85%) and reproducibility of the assay. In clinical studies, CTCs and CMCs were detected in 35% and 58% of cancer patients, respectively, and were largely absent from healthy controls (3%, p = 0.001). Mean levels of CTCs were significantly higher in breast than in lung cancer patients (p = 0.03). Fifty-three percent (53%) of cancer patients harbored putative CSCs, while none were detectable in healthy controls (p<0.0001). In contrast, CECs were observed in both cancer and control groups. Direct comparison of CellSearch® vs. our microfluidic filter method revealed moderate correlation (R2 = 0.46, kappa = 0.47). Serial blood analysis in breast cancer patients demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring circulating rare cell populations over time. Simultaneous assessment of CTCs, CMCs, CSCs and CECs may provide new tools to study mechanisms of disease progression and treatment response/resistance.

  11. Benefit-Risk Summary of Nivolumab for Patients With Metastatic Squamous Cell Lung Cancer After Platinum-Based Chemotherapy: A Report From the US Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjian, Dickran; Khozin, Sean; Blumenthal, Gideon; Zhang, Lijun; Tang, Shenghui; Libeg, Meredith; Kluetz, Paul; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (SQ NSCLC) is a serious and life-threatening malignant condition with unmet medical need. In late December 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) obtained the data monitoring committee report of a planned interim analysis of a trial in second-line SQ NSCLC (CM017) that demonstrated an overall survival benefit for patients treated with nivolumab compared with docetaxel. In that trial, 272 patients with metastatic SQ NSCLC patients had been randomized to receive nivolumab (n = 135) or docetaxel (n = 137). Median overall survival was 9.2 months for patients randomized to nivolumab and 6.0 months for those randomized to docetaxel (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.79; P chemotherapy. The approval provides an important treatment option for these patients, affecting routine care and clinical trials.

  12. Non-metastatic 2 (NME2)-mediated suppression of lung cancer metastasis involves transcriptional regulation of key cell adhesion factor vinculin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ram Krishna; Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Akinchan; Singh, Ankita; Pal, Krishnendu; Hoeppner, Luke; Saha, Dhurjhoti; Purohit, Gunjan; Basundra, Richa; Kar, Anirban; Halder, Rashi; Kumar, Pankaj; Baral, Aradhita; Kumar, MJ Mahesh; Baldi, Alfonso; Vincenzi, Bruno; Lorenzon, Laura; Banerjee, Rajkumar; Kumar, Praveen; Shridhar, Viji; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis refers to spread of a tumor from site of its origin to distant organs and causes majority of cancer deaths. Although >30 metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) that negatively regulate metastasis have been identified so far, two issues are poorly understood: first, which MSGs oppose metastasis in a tumor type, and second, which molecular function of MSG controls metastasis. Herein, integrative analyses of tumor-transcriptomes (n = 382), survival data (n = 530) and lymph node metastases (n = 100) in lung cancer patients identified non-metastatic 2 (NME2) as a key MSG from a pool of >30 metastasis suppressors. Subsequently, we generated a promoter-wide binding map for NME2 using chromatin immunoprecipitation with promoter microarrays (ChIP-chip), and transcriptome profiling. We discovered novel targets of NME2 which are involved in focal adhesion signaling. Importantly, we detected binding of NME2 in promoter of focal adhesion factor, vinculin. Reduced expression of NME2 led to enhanced transcription of vinculin. In comparison, NME1, a close homolog of NME2, did not bind to vinculin promoter nor regulate its expression. In line, enhanced metastasis of NME2-depleted lung cancer cells was found in zebrafish and nude mice tumor models. The metastatic potential of NME2-depleted cells was remarkably diminished upon selective RNA-i-mediated silencing of vinculin. Together, we demonstrate that reduced NME2 levels lead to transcriptional de-repression of vinculin and regulate lung cancer metastasis. PMID:25249619

  13. A core invasiveness gene signature reflects epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but not metastatic potential in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Marsan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metastases remain the primary cause of cancer-related death. The acquisition of invasive tumour cell behaviour is thought to be a cornerstone of the metastatic cascade. Therefore, gene signatures related to invasiveness could aid in stratifying patients according to their prognostic profile. In the present study we aimed at identifying an invasiveness gene signature and investigated its biological relevance in breast cancer. METHODS & RESULTS: We collected a set of published gene signatures related to cell motility and invasion. Using this collection, we identified 16 genes that were represented at a higher frequency than observed by coincidence, hereafter named the core invasiveness gene signature. Principal component analysis showed that these overrepresented genes were able to segregate invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cell lines, outperforming sets of 16 randomly selected genes (all P<0.001. When applied onto additional data sets, the expression of the core invasiveness gene signature was significantly elevated in cell lines forced to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The link between core invasiveness gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also confirmed in a dataset consisting of 2420 human breast cancer samples. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CIG expression is not associated with a shorter distant metastasis free survival interval (HR = 0.956, 95%C.I. = 0.896-1.019, P = 0.186. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate that we have identified a set of core invasiveness genes, the expression of which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines and in human tissue samples. Despite the connection between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive tumour cell behaviour, we were unable to demonstrate a link between the core invasiveness gene signature and enhanced metastatic potential.

  14. Kaempferol, a phytoestrogen, suppressed triclosan-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic-related behaviors of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geum-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2017-01-01

    As a phytoestrogen, kaempferol is known to play a chemopreventive role inhibiting carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, the influences of triclosan, an anti-bacterial agent recently known for an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), and kaempferol on breast cancer progression were examined by measuring their effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic-related behaviors of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Morphological changes of MCF-7 cells were observed, and a wound-healing assay was performed after the treatment of triclosan and kaempferol. The effects of triclosan and kaempferol on protein expression of EMT-related markers such as E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, and Slug and metastasis-related markers such as cathepsin B, D, MMP-2 and -9 were investigated by Western blot assay. In microscopic observations, triclosan (10 -6 M) or E2 (10 -9 M) induced transition to mesenchymal phenotype of MCF-7 cells compared with the control. Co-treatment of ICI 182,780 (10 -8 M), an ER antagonist, or kaempferol (25μM) with E2 or triclosan restored the cellular morphology to an epithelial phenotype. In a wound-healing scratch and a transwell migration assay, triclosan enhanced migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, but co-treatment of kaempferol or ICI 182,780 reduced the migration and invasion ability of MCF-7 cells to the control level. In addition, kaempferol effectively suppressed E2 or triclosan-induced protein expressions of EMT and metastasis promoting markers. Taken together, triclosan may be a distinct xenoestrogenic EDC to promote EMT, migration, and invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells through ER. On the other hand, kaempferol can be an alternative chemopreventive agent to effectively suppress the metastatic behavior of breast cancer induced by an endogenous estrogen as well as exogenous xenoestrogenic compounds including triclosan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Differentiation Therapy Approach to Reduce the Metastatic Potential of Basal, Highly Metastatic, Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    metastatic process (Condeelis and Pollard 2006), we quantitated macrophage recruitment in the lungs of mice injected with 231-Empty or 231-GATA3 cells by...image quantitation of Ki-67 expression and H&E staining of metastatic lung lesions using Apirio Image Analysis software (Figure 9) which demonstrated...expression in MD A-MB-231 and in another triple negative breast cancer cell line, Hs578T Transient knock down of GATA3 in the lum inal GATA3 positiv

  16. Evaluation of Anti-Metastatic Potential of the Combination of Fisetin with Paclitaxel on A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Hałas-Wiśniewska, Marta; Grzanka, Alina; Grzanka, Dariusz

    2018-02-27

    The identification and development of new agents with a therapeutic potential as well as novel drug combinations are gaining the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach to improve therapeutic regimens for chemoresistant tumors. We have recently reported that the flavonoid fisetin (FIS), at physiologically attainable concentrations, acts synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel (PTX) to produce growth inhibitory and pro-death effects on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. To further investigate a potential therapeutic efficacy of the combination of fisetin with paclitaxel, we decided to assess its impact on metastatic capability of A549 cells as well as its toxicity toward normal human lung fibroblast. Cell viability, cell migration, and invasion were measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, wound healing assay, and Transwell chamber assay, respectively. The expression of metastasis-related genes was assessed with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Actin and vimentin filaments were examined under the fluorescence microscope. The combination of FIS and PTX significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion, at least partially, through a marked rearrangement of actin and vimentin cytoskeleton and the modulation of metastasis-related genes. Most of these effects of the combination treatment were significantly greater than those of individual agents. Paclitaxel alone was even more toxic to normal cells than the combination of this drug with the flavonoid, suggesting that FIS may provide some protection against PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of FIS and PTX is expected to have a synergistic anticancer efficacy and a significant potential for the treatment of NSCLC, however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm this preliminary evidence.

  17. Evaluation of Anti-Metastatic Potential of the Combination of Fisetin with Paclitaxel on A549 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Klimaszewska-Wiśniewska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification and development of new agents with a therapeutic potential as well as novel drug combinations are gaining the attention of scientists and clinicians as a plausible approach to improve therapeutic regimens for chemoresistant tumors. We have recently reported that the flavonoid fisetin (FIS, at physiologically attainable concentrations, acts synergistically with clinically achievable doses of paclitaxel (PTX to produce growth inhibitory and pro-death effects on A549 human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. To further investigate a potential therapeutic efficacy of the combination of fisetin with paclitaxel, we decided to assess its impact on metastatic capability of A549 cells as well as its toxicity toward normal human lung fibroblast. Cell viability, cell migration, and invasion were measured by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, wound healing assay, and Transwell chamber assay, respectively. The expression of metastasis-related genes was assessed with quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Actin and vimentin filaments were examined under the fluorescence microscope. The combination of FIS and PTX significantly reduced cancer cell migration and invasion, at least partially, through a marked rearrangement of actin and vimentin cytoskeleton and the modulation of metastasis-related genes. Most of these effects of the combination treatment were significantly greater than those of individual agents. Paclitaxel alone was even more toxic to normal cells than the combination of this drug with the flavonoid, suggesting that FIS may provide some protection against PTX-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of FIS and PTX is expected to have a synergistic anticancer efficacy and a significant potential for the treatment of NSCLC, however, further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm this preliminary evidence.

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Concurrent Cisplatin and Radiotherapy in Inoperable or Metastatic Squamous Cell Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shaleen; Dimri, Kislay; Datta, Niloy R.; Rastogi, Neeraj; Lal, Punita; Das, Koilpillai J. Maria; Ayyagari, Sundar [Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Inst. of Medical Sciences, Lucknow (India). Dept of Radiotherapy

    2002-09-01

    Between August 1996 and May 1999, 50 consecutive, previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and who were inoperable for various reasons were treated with weekly doses of cisplatin (35 mg/m{sup 2}, maximum 7 cycles) concurrent with either 66 Gy/33 fractions external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (n=42) or 50 Gy/25 fractions EBRT and two insertions of high-dose-rate intraluminal radiotherapy of 6 Gy each, spaced a week apart (n=8). Eighty-two percent (41/50) of the patients received the stipulated radiotherapy (RT) dose. Seventy-six percent (38/50) received at least 6 cycles of chemotherapy. Neutropenia in the form of WHO grade II-12% (6/50) and grade III-2% (1/50) was observed. Grade III emesis was seen in 8% (4/50). Improvement in the swallowing status was seen in 84% (42/50). Median duration of dysphagia relief was 6 months. The median overall survival was 9 months with 17% estimated to be alive after 4 years. Combined treatment with single agent cisplatin and definitive radiotherapy for inoperable cancer of the esophagus is safe, well tolerated and reasonably efficacious.

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Concurrent Cisplatin and Radiotherapy in Inoperable or Metastatic Squamous Cell Esophageal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shaleen; Dimri, Kislay; Datta, Niloy R.; Rastogi, Neeraj; Lal, Punita; Das, Koilpillai J. Maria; Ayyagari, Sundar

    2002-01-01

    Between August 1996 and May 1999, 50 consecutive, previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the esophagus and who were inoperable for various reasons were treated with weekly doses of cisplatin (35 mg/m 2 , maximum 7 cycles) concurrent with either 66 Gy/33 fractions external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (n=42) or 50 Gy/25 fractions EBRT and two insertions of high-dose-rate intraluminal radiotherapy of 6 Gy each, spaced a week apart (n=8). Eighty-two percent (41/50) of the patients received the stipulated radiotherapy (RT) dose. Seventy-six percent (38/50) received at least 6 cycles of chemotherapy. Neutropenia in the form of WHO grade II-12% (6/50) and grade III-2% (1/50) was observed. Grade III emesis was seen in 8% (4/50). Improvement in the swallowing status was seen in 84% (42/50). Median duration of dysphagia relief was 6 months. The median overall survival was 9 months with 17% estimated to be alive after 4 years. Combined treatment with single agent cisplatin and definitive radiotherapy for inoperable cancer of the esophagus is safe, well tolerated and reasonably efficacious

  20. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a potential biomarker in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: preliminary results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group Study-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mains, Jill Rachel; Donskov, Frede; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computer tomography (CT) as a biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group...... blinded to treatment group. The DCE-CT scans were performed at baseline, at weeks 5 and 10, and thereafter every third month. Blood flow (BF; mL/min/100 mL), peak enhancement (Hounsfield units), time to peak (seconds), and blood volume (BV; mL/100 g) were calculated. Parameters for DCE-CT were correlated...

  1. MRI of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain. Differential diagnosis of colorectal and pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusumi, Akio; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Katsutoshi

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the characteristic features of MR imagings of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain and search for differential points between the lesions from colorectal cancer and those of lung cancer, we evaluated retrospectively intraparenchymal metastatic lesions of 13 colorectal origins and 13 pulmonary origins on MR imagings, compared with resected specimens. Metastatic lesions from colorectal cancer showed marked hypointense solid components on T2WI, which correspond to the dense tumor cells and coagulated necrosis pathologically. Metastatic lesions from lung cancers showed mixed intensity and various components on T2WI, which correspond to various histological components, such as solid tumor cell's nests, hemorrhage, necrosis and cystic fluid collection. Pathological specimens suggested that the low signal intensity on T2WI of MRI derived from concentration of tumor cells and coagulated necrosis including macrophages and lymphocytes. This study may contribute to make the differential diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain from colorectal and pulmonary cancers. (author)

  2. Trastuzumab mediates antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and phagocytosis to the same extent in both adjuvant and metastatic HER2/neu breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Branka; Laengle, Johannes; Singer, Josef; Sachet, Monika; Fazekas, Judit; Steger, Guenther; Bartsch, Rupert; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Bergmann, Michael

    2013-12-12

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb), such as trastuzumab are a valuable addition to breast cancer therapy. Data obtained from neoadjuvant settings revealed that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of action for the mAb trastuzumab. Conflicting results still call into question whether disease progression, prolonged treatment or concomitant chemotherapy influences ADCC and related immunological phenomena. We analyzed the activity of ADCC and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) positive breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab therapy either in an adjuvant (n = 13) or metastatic (n = 15) setting as well as from trastuzumab treatment-naive (t-naive) HER2/neu negative patients (n = 15). PBMCs from healthy volunteers (n = 24) were used as controls. ADCC and ADCP activity was correlated with the expression of antibody binding Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)I (CD64), FcγRII (CD32) and FcγRIII (CD16) on CD14+ (monocytes) and CD56+ (NK) cells, as well as the expression of CD107a+ (LAMP-1) on CD56+ cells and the total amount of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ (Treg) cells. In metastatic patients, markers were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS). ADCC activity was significantly down regulated in metastatic, adjuvant and t-naive patient cohorts as compared to healthy controls. Reduced ADCC activity was inversely correlated with the expression of CD107a on CD56+ cells in adjuvant patients. ADCC and ADCP activity of the patient cohorts were similar, regardless of treatment duration or additional chemotherapy. PFS in metastatic patients inversely correlated with the number of peripheral Treg cells. The reduction of ADCC in patients as compared to healthy controls calls for adjuvant strategies, such as immune-enhancing agents, to improve the activity of trastuzumab. However, efficacy of trastuzumab-specific ADCC and ADCP appears not to

  3. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...

  4. Meta-analysis of archived DNA microarrays identifies genes regulated by hypoxia and involved in a metastatic phenotype in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, Michael; DeHertogh, Benoît; Gaigneaux, Anthoula; DeMeulder, Bertrand; Berger, Fabrice; Bareke, Eric; Michiels, Carine; Depiereux, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cancer-related cause of death. Recent studies have described metastasis pathways. However, the exact contribution of each pathway remains unclear. Another key feature of a tumor is the presence of hypoxic areas caused by a lack of oxygen at the center of the tumor. Hypoxia leads to the expression of pro-metastatic genes as well as the repression of anti-metastatic genes. As many Affymetrix datasets about metastasis and hypoxia are publicly available and not fully exploited, this study proposes to re-analyze these datasets to extract new information about the metastatic phenotype induced by hypoxia in different cancer cell lines. Affymetrix datasets about metastasis and/or hypoxia were downloaded from GEO and ArrayExpress. AffyProbeMiner and GCRMA packages were used for pre-processing and the Window Welch t test was used for processing. Three approaches of meta-analysis were eventually used for the selection of genes of interest. Three complementary approaches were used, that eventually selected 183 genes of interest. Out of these 183 genes, 99, among which the well known JUNB, FOS and TP63, have already been described in the literature to be involved in cancer. Moreover, 39 genes of those, such as SERPINE1 and MMP7, are known to regulate metastasis. Twenty-one genes including VEGFA and ID2 have also been described to be involved in the response to hypoxia. Lastly, DAVID classified those 183 genes in 24 different pathways, among which 8 are directly related to cancer while 5 others are related to proliferation and cell motility. A negative control composed of 183 random genes failed to provide such results. Interestingly, 6 pathways retrieved by DAVID with the 183 genes of interest concern pathogen recognition and phagocytosis. The proposed methodology was able to find genes actually known to be involved in cancer, metastasis and hypoxia and, thus, we propose that the other genes selected based on the same methodology are of prime interest in

  5. Ziv-aflibercept in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anuj Patel, Weijing Sun Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy and antiangiogenic agents has become a conventional treatment option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Ziv-aflibercept is a fusion protein which acts as a decoy receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, VEGF-B, and placental growth factor (PlGF; it was approved in combination with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that is resistant to or has progressed after an oxaliplatin-containing fluoropyrimidine-based regimen. Herein we review the role of tumor angiogenesis as the rationale for antiangiogenic therapy, the clinical data associated with ziv-aflibercept, and its current role as a treatment option compared to other antiangiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab and regorafenib. Keywords: aflibercept, angiogenesis, colorectal cancer

  6. Flipped script for gefitinib: A reapproved tyrosine kinase inhibitor for first-line treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation positive metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Brian S; Hoch, Matthew A; Hartranft, Megan E

    2017-04-01

    Purpose The approval history, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical trials, efficacy, dosing recommendations, drug interactions, safety, place in therapy, and economic considerations of gefitinib are reviewed. Summary Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and is the leading cause of cancer death. Platinum-based chemotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as erlotinib and afatinib, are recommended therapies for nonsmall cell lung cancer. The European Medicines Association based their approval of gefitinib on the randomized, multicenter Iressa Pan-Asia Study (IPASS, NCT00322452) and a single-arm study showing effectiveness in Caucasians (IFUM, NCT01203917). Both studies were recently referenced by the United States Food & Drug Administration to reapprove gefitinib for the first-line treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor exon 19 deletions or exon 21 substitution. Diarrhea, acneiform rash, and interstitial lung disease are known side effects of gefitinib. Conclusion Use of gefitinib for the first-line therapy of metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor exon 19 deletions (residues 747-750) or exon 21 substitution mutation (L858R) is well-documented and supported.

  7. Surgical management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakih, A.R.; Mistry, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiated management of metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with lymph node and/or systemic metastases is very much a treatable cancer. Interaction between the surgeon and the nuclear medicine specialist is essential to ensure quality survival in these patient. This review is confined to surgical aspects and is based on experience with 417 patients who were operated for DTC at the Tata Memorial Hospital between 1971 and 1985

  8. Metastatic function of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells: The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK, the NF-{kappa}B pathway, and MMP-9 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung Hee [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sang Cheul [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Joo [Department of Pathology, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Han Na; Kim, Jung Lim [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Suk [Division of Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young A., E-mail: ydanbi@korea.ac.kr [Brain Korea 21 Program for Biomedical Science, Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastatic progression in various types of cancer cells, but the role and cellular mechanism in the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells is not known. Herein, we determined the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in BMP-2-mediated metastatic function in gastric cancer. We found that stimulation of BMP-2 in gastric cancer cells enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK. Accompanying activation of AKT and ERK kinase, BMP-2 also enhanced phosphorylation/degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and the nuclear translocation/activation of NF-{kappa}B. Interestingly, blockade of PI3K/AKT and ERK signaling using LY294002 and PD98059, respectively, significantly inhibited BMP-2-induced motility and invasiveness in association with the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Furthermore, BMP-2-induced MMP-9 expression and enzymatic activity was also significantly blocked by treatment with PI3K/AKT, ERK, or NF-{kappa}B inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry staining of 178 gastric tumor biopsies indicated that expression of BMP-2 and MMP-9 had a significant positive correlation with lymph node metastasis and a poor prognosis. These results indicate that the BMP-2 signaling pathway enhances tumor metastasis in gastric cancer by sequential activation of the PI3K/AKT or MAPK pathway followed by the induction of NF-{kappa}B and MMP-9 activity, indicating that BMP-2 has the potential to be a therapeutic molecular target to decrease metastasis.

  9. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    For the past decades the anthracyclines have been regarded as among the most active drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the 5-year survival rate in patients with stage IV breast cancer continues to be below 20%, and new active drugs and drug combinations clearly must...... be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  10. The Complex Function of Hsp70 in Metastatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhasz, Kata; Lipp, Anna-Maria; Nimmervoll, Benedikt; Sonnleitner, Alois; Hesse, Jan; Haselgruebler, Thomas; Balogi, Zsolt, E-mail: zsolt.balogi@cbl.at [Center for Advanced Bioanalysis GmbH, Gruberstr. 40-42, A-4020 Linz (Austria)

    2013-12-20

    Elevated expression of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is known to correlate with poor prognosis in many cancers. Hsp70 confers survival advantage as well as resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, and promotes tumor cell invasion. At the same time, tumor-derived extracellular Hsp70 has been recognized as a “chaperokine”, activating antitumor immunity. In this review we discuss localization dependent functions of Hsp70 in the context of invasive cancer. Understanding the molecular principles of metastasis formation steps, as well as interactions of the tumor cells with the microenvironment and the immune system is essential for fighting metastatic cancer. Although Hsp70 has been implicated in different steps of the metastatic process, the exact mechanisms of its action remain to be explored. Known and potential functions of Hsp70 in controlling or modulating of invasion and metastasis are discussed.

  11. Patterns of metastatic progression after definitive radiation therapy for early-stage and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Garrett L; Tang, Chad; Hess, Kenneth R; Liao, Zhongxing; Gomez, Daniel R

    2017-06-01

    Current preclinical models of metastatic disease (particularly oligometastases) suggest that metastases appear in a hierarchical order. We attempted to identify systematic patterns of metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after radiation therapy (XRT). We analyzed 1074 patients treated from 12/21/1998 through 8/20/2012 with ≥60 Gy definitive radiation for initially non-metastatic NSCLC. Location and time of metastases were recorded. Regional nodal failure was noted, as was subsequent distal failure. For further analysis, we considered only the five most common sites of metastasis (bone, brain, liver, adrenal, and lung). Metastatic progression over time was defined and patterns elucidated with Chi square tests. Histologic findings were analyzed with Wilcoxon rank sum tests. A significant multistep linear progression was not apparent. Having a first metastasis in lung or bone was associated with respective 16% (median 2.4 months) and 15% likelihoods (median 7.9 months) of secondary brain metastasis. Initial metastasis in the brain led to metastasis in another organ 29.3% of the time, most often in the lung, bone, and liver (medians 3.6, 7.9, and 3.1 months). Adenocarcinoma was more likely than squamous to metastasize to the brain (18 vs. 9%) and any of the five major sites (41 vs. 27%). We did not appreciate dominant patterns suggesting a multi-step hierarchical order of metastasis. Rather, our findings suggest that certain subgroups may develop different patterns of spread depending on a variety of factors.

  12. Expression of DIAPH1 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its down-regulation strongly reduces the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Izbicki, Jakob R; König, Alexandra; Habermann, Jens K; Blechner, Christine; Lange, Tobias; Schumacher, Udo; Windhorst, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    In most cases, metastatic colorectal cancer is not curable, thus new approaches are necessary to identify novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy. Actin-binding-proteins (ABPs) directly regulate motility of metastasising tumor cells, and for cortactin an association with colon cancer metastasis has been already shown. However, as its depletion only incompletely inhibits metastasis, additional, more suitable cellular targets have to be identified. Here we analyzed expression of the ABPs, DIAPH1, VASP, N-WASP, and fascin in comparison with cortactin and found that, besides cortactin, DIAPH1 was expressed with the highest frequency (63%) in colorectal cancer. As well as cortactin, DIAPH1 was not detectable in normal colon tissue and expression of both proteins was positively correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer. To analyse the mechanistic role of DIAPH1 for metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in comparison with cortactin, expression of the proteins was stably down-regulated in the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HROC-24 and HCT-116. Analysis of metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in SCID mice revealed that depletion of DIAPH1 reduced metastasis 60-fold and depletion of cortactin 16-fold as compared with control cells. Most likely the stronger effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon cancer metastasis is due to the fact that in vitro knock down of DIAPH1 impaired all steps of metastasis; adhesion, invasion and migration while down-regulation of cortactin only reduced adhesion and invasion. This very strong reducing effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon carcinoma cell metastasis makes the protein a promising therapeutic target for individualized colorectal cancer therapy. © 2013 UICC.

  13. Alpha Particle Therapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality among men in western countries. Although nearly 85% of patients present with localised disease, up to 40% will eventually develop metastatic disease during the course of illness. Of men dying from prostate cancer, more than 90% have bone metastases many with no other significant metastatic sites. Symptoms related to bone metastases and skeletal related events (SREs) account for the major cause of morbidity in these patients. Bone-seeking radionuclides have been used in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases for many years. The first bone seeking radionuclide drug approved by the FDA was Strontium-89. Other agents have also been used including Samarium-153 EDTMP, Rhenium-186 (-188)-HEDP. These radionuclides are all emit shortrange therapeutic beta radiation with bone marrow as the dose limiting toxicity. There is strong clinical trial evidence of benefit for these radionuclides in reducing pain in advanced prostate cancer; however, none of the drugs has been shown to improve survival, albeit none of the clinical trials were powered to detect differences in survival

  14. Probing the Behaviors of Gold Nanorods in Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Based on UV-vis-NIR Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqi; Ji, Yinglu; Meng, Jie; Wu, Xiaochun; Xu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, behaviors of positively-charged AuNRs in a highly metastatic tumor cell line MDA-MB-231 are examined based on UV-vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dark-field microscopic observation. It is found that characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of AuNRs can be detected using spectroscopic method within living cells that have taken up AuNRs. The peak area of transverse SPR band is shown to be proportionally related to the amount of AuNRs in the cells determined with ICP-MS, which suggests a facile and real time quantification method for AuNRs in living cells. The shape of longitudinal SPR band in UV-vis-NIR spectrum reflects the aggregation state of AuNRs in the cells during the incubation period, which is proved by TEM and microscopic observations. Experimental results reveal that AuNRs are internalized by the cells rapidly; the accumulation, distribution and aggregation of AuNRs in the cells compartments are time and dose dependent. The established spectroscopic analysis method can not only monitor the behaviors of AuNRs in living cells but may also be helpful in choosing the optimum laser stimulation wavelength for anti-tumor thermotherapy. PMID:22384113

  15. The tumor suppressor CDX2 opposes pro-metastatic biomechanical modifications of colon cancer cells through organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platet, Nadine; Hinkel, Isabelle; Richert, Ludovic; Murdamoothoo, Devadarssen; Moufok-Sadoun, Ahlam; Vanier, Marie; Lavalle, Philippe; Gaiddon, Christian; Vautier, Dominique; Freund, Jean-Noel; Gross, Isabelle

    2017-02-01

    The vast majority of cancer deaths are caused by the formation of metastases rather than the primary tumor itself. Despite this clinical importance, the molecular and cellular events that support the dissemination of cancer cells are not yet fully unraveled. We have previously shown that CDX2, a homeotic transcription factor essential for gut development, acts as a colon-specific tumor suppressor and opposes metastasis. Here, using a combination of biochemical, biophysical, and immunofluorescence techniques, we further investigated the mechanisms promoted by CDX2 that might antagonize tumor cell dissemination. We found that CDX2 expression regulates the transcription of RHO GEFs, thereby activating RHO signaling cascades that lead to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and enhanced adherent junctions. Accordingly, we observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that colon cancer cells expressing CDX2 are less deformable, a feature that has been shown to correlate with poor metastatic potential. Thus, this study illustrates how the loss of expression of a transcription factor during colon cancer progression modifies the biomechanical characteristics of tumor cells and hence facilitates invasion and metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adoptive cell transfer in the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straten, Per thor; Becker, Jürgen C

    2009-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for metastatic cancer is the focus of considerable research effort. Rosenberg's laboratory demonstrated a 50% response rate in stage IV melanoma patients treated with in vitro expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and high-dose IL-2 administered after...

  17. Metastatic cancer of unknown primary in 21 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, F; Aresu, L; Vignoli, M; Buracco, P; Bettini, G; Ferro, S; Gattino, F; Ghiani, F; Costantino, R; Ressel, L; Bellei, E; Marconato, L

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe clinical features, treatment and outcome of 21 dogs with metastatic cancer of unknown primary (MCUP), a biopsy-proven malignancy being diagnosed at a metastatic stage, in which the anatomical origin of the primary tumour cannot be detected. All dogs underwent total-body computed tomography. Signalment, type and duration of clinical signs, metastasis site, pathology results, treatment and outcome were recorded. Carcinoma was the most common diagnosis (57.1%), followed by sarcoma, melanoma and mast cell tumour. The median number of disease sites per dog was 2, with bones, lymph nodes, lungs and spleen being the most frequent metastatic locations. The median survival for all dogs was 30 days. Overall, a primary site was not identified in 20 (95.2%) dogs. MCUP encompasses a variety of different pathologic entities and harbours a poor prognosis. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Promising oncolytic agents for metastatic breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody JJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available James J Cody,1 Douglas R Hurst2 1ImQuest BioSciences, Frederick, MD, 2Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: New therapies for metastatic breast cancer patients are urgently needed. The long-term survival rates remain unacceptably low for patients with recurrent disease or disseminated metastases. In addition, existing therapies often cause a variety of debilitating side effects that severely impact quality of life. Oncolytic viruses constitute a developing therapeutic modality in which interest continues to build due to their ability to spare normal tissue while selectively destroying tumor cells. A number of different viruses have been used to develop oncolytic agents for breast cancer, including herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, measles virus, reovirus, and others. In general, clinical trials for several cancers have demonstrated excellent safety records and evidence of efficacy. However, the impressive tumor responses often observed in preclinical studies have yet to be realized in the clinic. In order for the promise of oncolytic virotherapy to be fully realized for breast cancer patients, effectiveness must be demonstrated in metastatic disease. This review provides a summary of oncolytic virotherapy strategies being developed to target metastatic breast cancer. Keywords: oncolytic virus, virotherapy, breast cancer, metastasis 

  19. Invasive Aspergillosis Mimicking Metastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J. E. G. W. Vanfleteren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In a patient with a medical history of cancer, the most probable diagnosis of an 18FDG-avid pulmonary mass combined with intracranial abnormalities on brain imaging is metastasized cancer. However, sometimes a differential diagnosis with an infectious cause such as aspergillosis can be very challenging as both cancer and infection are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Pulmonary aspergillosis can present as an infectious pseudotumour with clinical and imaging characteristics mimicking lung cancer. Even in the presence of cerebral lesions, radiological appearance of abscesses can look like brain metastasis. These similarities can cause significant diagnostic difficulties with a subsequent therapeutic delay and a potential adverse outcome. Awareness of this infectious disease that can mimic lung cancer, even in an immunocompetent patient, is important. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with pulmonary aspergillosis disseminated to the brain mimicking metastatic lung cancer.

  20. Drosophila homologue of Diaphanous 1 (DIAPH1) controls the metastatic potential of colon cancer cells by regulating microtubule-dependent adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Bhuwania, Ridhirama; Gromova, Kira; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Lange, Tobias; Riecken, Kristoffer; Linder, Stefan; Kneussel, Matthias; Izbicki, Jakob R; Windhorst, Sabine

    2015-07-30

    Drosophila homologue of Diaphanous 1 (DIAPH1) regulates actin polymerization and microtubule (MT) stabilization upon stimulation with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Recently, we showed strongly reduced lung metastasis of DIAPH1-depleted colon cancer cells but we found accumulations of DIAPH1-depleted cells in bone marrow. Here, we analyzed possible organ- or tissue-specific metastasis of DIAPH1-depleted HCT-116 cells. Our data confirmed that depletion of DIAPH1 strongly inhibited lung metastasis and revealed that, in contrast to control cells, DIAPH1-depleted cells did not form metastases in further organs. Detailed mechanistic analysis on cells that were not stimulated with LPA to activate the cytoskeleton-modulating activity of DIAPH1, revealed that even under basal conditions DIAPH1 was essential for cellular adhesion to collagen. In non-stimulated cells DIAPH1 did not control actin dynamics but, interestingly, was essential for stabilization of microtubules (MTs). Additionally, DIAPH1 controlled directed vesicle trafficking and with this, local clustering of the adhesion protein integrin-β1 at the plasma membrane. Therefore, we conclude that under non-stimulating conditions DIAPH1 controls cellular adhesion by stabilizing MTs required for local clustering of integrin-β1 at the plasma membrane. Thus, blockade of DIAPH1-tubulin interaction may be a promising approach to inhibit one of the earliest steps in the metastatic cascade of colon cancer.

  1. Managing Potentially Resectable Metastatic Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, John L.

    2008-01-01

    For patients with metastatic colon cancer, management has evolved from resecting a single liver metastasis and having only one chemotherapy medicine, to resecting multiple metastases including those outside the liver as well as using combination chemotherapy (based on recent supportive trials) to improve outcomes. This success has also raised many questions, including the role of adjuvant chemotherapy to downstage borderline resectable tumors, whether patients who receive preoperative chemoth...

  2. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in two men receiving bevacizumab for metastatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thérèse H Franco

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Thérèse H Franco, Ahmed Khan, Vishal Joshi, Beje ThomasDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT, USAAbstract: Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. It is a novel chemotherapeutic agent currently approved as part of combination chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer (Hurwitz et al 2004; Sandler et al 2006; Traina et al 2007. Arterial thrombosis, including cerebral infarction, transient ischemic attacks, myocardial infarction, and angina are common, occurring in 4.4% of patients whose regimen includes bevacizumab (versus 1.9% on regimen without bevacizumab (Genetech, Inc. 2008. This series will review two cases of patients exposed to bevacizumab who subsequently developed ST elevations on electrocardiogram (ECG and elevated cardiac biomarkers. Both patients underwent cardiac catheterization, which demonstrated apical ballooning and akinesis in a distribution discordant with the observed (noncritical atherosclerotic lesions. Both patients had recovery of left ventricular function within 30 days. The clinical presentation, including ECGs and findings on catheterization as well as the rapid recovery of ventricular function, is consistent with the diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was first described in 1991, but the pathophysiology and exact mechanism of injury remain largely unknown. These two cases are notable for their occurrence in men and the association with treatment of metastatic cancer including bevacizumab.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, bevacizumab, metastatic cancer, chemotherapy, takotsubo, cardiomyopathy

  3. Keystone Symposia "ncRNAs in Development and Cancer", Vancouver, Canada: Increased release of exosomes and export of invasion-modulating miRNAs miR921, -23b, -and -224 from metastatic urothelial carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Laurberg, Jens Reumert

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells secrete soluble factors and various extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, into their tissue microenvironment. The secretion of exosomes is speculated to facilitate local invasion and increase the propensity of tumors to form distant metastases. Here we present a characterization...... of exosome vesicles from isogenic urothelial carcinoma cell lines, with different metastatic propensity by western blotting, electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, dynamic light scattering, and profiling of 671 miRNAs by qRT-PCR. An increase in the number of multivesicular bodies and exosomes...... was observed for metastatic FL3 cells compared to isogenic non-metastatic T24 cells. The release was significantly inhibited by knockdown of Rab27b and pharmacological inhibition of nsmase2 by GW4869. miRNA profiling was conducted on parental cells and their secreted exosomes. Here, selective export of miR921...

  4. Adipose Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Residual Androgens in African Americans with Bone-Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Figure 2: PC cell soluble factors confer transcriptional upregulation of DHT converting enzymes by patient derived ADMSCs (pASCs...associated exosomes. Stem Cells, 2014. 32(4): p. 983-97. 30. Mathur, A., et al., Subverting ER-stress towards apoptosis by nelfinavir and curcumin coexposure...and curcumin coexposure augments docetaxel efficacy in castration resistant prostate cancer cells. PLoS One, 2014. 9(8): p. e103109. 29. Datta, A., et

  5. B cells and ectopic follicular structures: novel players in anti-tumor programming with prognostic power for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Meshcheryakova

    Full Text Available Remarkably limited information is available about biological mechanisms that determine the disease entity of metastatic colorectal cancer in the liver (CRCLM with no good clinical parameters to estimate prognosis. For the last few years, understanding the relationship between tumor characteristics and local immune response has gained increasing attention. Given the multifaceted roles of B-cell-driven responses, we aimed to elucidate the immunological imprint of B lymphocytes at the metastatic site, the interrelation with macrophages, and their prognostic relevance. Here we present novel algorithm allowing to assess a link between the local patient-specific immunological capacity and clinical outcome. The microscopy-based imaging platform was used for automated scanning of large-scale tissue sections and subsequent qualitative and quantitative analyses of immune cell subtypes using lineage markers and single-cell recognition strategy. Results indicate massive infiltration of CD45-positive leukocytes confined to the metastatic border. We report for the first time the accumulation of CD20-positive B lymphocytes at the tumor-liver interface comprising the major population within the large CD45-positive aggregates. Strikingly, functionally active, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID-positive ectopic lymphoid structures were found to be assembled within the metastatic margin. Furthermore, the CD20-based data set revealed a strong prognostic power: patients with high CD20 content and/or ectopic follicles had significantly lower risk for disease recurrence as revealed by univariate analysis (p<0.001 for both and in models adjusted for clinicopathological variables (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively, and showed prolonged overall survival. In contrast, CD68 staining-derived data set did not show an association with clinical outcome. Taken together, we nominate the magnitude of B lymphocytes, including those organized in ectopic follicles, as

  6. Circulating CD8+CD28- suppressor T cells tied to poorer prognosis among metastatic breast cancer patients receiving adoptive T-cell therapy: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingkun; Ren, Jun; Zhou, Xinna; Wang, Xiaoli; Song, Guohong; Hobeika, Amy; Yuan, Yanhua; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of circulating CD8 + CD28 - T lymphocytes among breast cancer patients treated with adoptive T-lymphocyte immunotherapy after chemotherapy. Two hundred and thirty-two breast cancer patients underwent adoptive T-cell immunotherapy. Circulating CD8 + CD28 - proportion was measured by flow cytometry. Median proportion of CD8 + CD28 - was 24.2% and set as the categorical cutoff value for further analysis. The median survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curve, with difference detection and hazard ratio estimation by log-rank test and Cox hazard proportion regression model. With adoptive T-cell therapy, patients with higher CD8 + CD28 - levels experienced median progression-free and overall survival of 7.1 months and 26.9 months, respectively-significantly shorter than patients with lower levels (11.8 and 36.2 months). CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-3.12) for progression and an HR of 1.97 (95% CI 1.06-3.67) for death. Among patients who had received previous first-line chemotherapy, CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated an HR of 2.66 (95% CI 1.45-4.88) for progression. Among patients exposed to previous second-line or higher chemotherapy, CD8 + CD28 - proportion >24.2% demonstrated a 486% higher risk for death (HR = 5.86, 95% CI 1.77-19.39). A 1% increase in suppressive T cells was associated with a 5% increased risk of death. Elevated peripheral blood CD8 + CD28 - was associated with poorer prognosis for metastatic breast cancer, especially for higher risk of progression among patients with first-line chemotherapy and higher risk of death among patients with more than second-line chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Screening of phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains 1 (PAG1) by cDNA microarray and influence of overexpression of PAG1 on biologic behavior of human metastatic prostatic cancer cell line in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-juan; Wang, Yue-wei; Xie, Zhi-gang; You, Jiang-feng; Wang, Jie-liang; Cui, Xiang-lin; Pei, Fei; Zheng, Jie

    2010-02-01

    To screen for novel gene(s) associated with tumor metastasis, and to investigate the effect of overexpression of phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains 1 (PAG1) on the biological behaviors of human prostatic cancer cell line PC-3M-1E8 in vitro. Four cDNA microarrays were constructed using cDNA library of prostatic cancer cells PC-3M-1E8 (high metastatic potential), PC-3M-2B4 (low metastatic potential), lung cancer cells PG-BE1 (high metastatic potential)and PG-LH7 (low metastatic potential)to screen genes which were differentially expressed according to their different metastatic properties. From a battery of differentially expressed genes, PAG1, which was markedly downregulated in both high metastatic sublines of PC-3M and PG was chosen for further investigation. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to confirm the gene expression of PAG1 at mRNA and protein levels. Full-length coding sequence of human PAG1 was subcloned into plasmid pcDNA3.0 and the recombinant plasmids were stably transfected into PC-3M-1E8. The cell proliferation ability, anchorage-independent growth, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis rates and invasive ability were detected by MTT, and in addition, soft agar colony formation, flow cytometry analysis and matrigel invasion assay using Boyden chamber were also carried out respectively. All experiments contained pcDNA3.0-PAG1-transfected clones, vector transfected clones and non-transfected parental cells. A total of 327 differentially expressed genes were obtained between the high and low metastatic sublines of PC-3M cells, including 123 upregulated and 204 downregulated genes in PC-3M-1E8. A total of 281 genes, including 167 upregulated and 114 downregulated genes were obtained in PG-BE1 cells. Nine genes were simultaneously downregulated and 8 genes were upregulated in both high metastatic cell lines of PC-3M and PG. The expression of PAG1 at mRNA and protein level were decreased in the high metastatic subline PC-3M-1

  8. Severe nivolumab-induced pneumonitis preceding durable clinical remission in a patient with refractory, metastatic lung squamous cell cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1 and its ligand 1 (PD-L1 inhibitors have quickly become standard of care for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and increasing numbers of other cancer types. In this report, we discuss the clinical history, pathological evaluation, and genomic findings in a patient with metastatic lung squamous cell cancer (SCC who developed severe nivolumab-induced pneumonitis preceding durable clinical remission after three doses of nivolumab. Case presentation A patient with chemotherapy-refractory, metastatic lung SCC developed symptomatic pneumonitis by week 4 after nivolumab treatment, concurrently with onset of a potent antitumor response. Despite discontinuation of nivolumab after three doses and the use of high dose oral corticosteroids for grade 3 pneumonitis, continued tumor response to a complete remission by 3 months was evident by radiographic assessment. At the time of this submission, the patient has remained in clinical remission for 14 months. High PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry staining was seen in intra-alveolar macrophages and viable tumor cells in the pneumonitis and recurrent tumor specimens, respectively. Tumor genomic profiling by FoundationOne targeted exome sequencing revealed a very high tumor mutation burden (TMB corresponding to 95–96 percentile in lung SCC, i.e., 87.4–91.0 and 82.9 mut/Mb, respectively, in pre- and post-nivolumab tumor specimens. Except for one, the 13 functional genomic alterations remained the same in the diagnostic, recurrent, and post-treatment, relapsed tumor specimens, suggesting that nivolumab reset the patient’s immune system against one or more preexisting tumor-associated antigens (TAAs. One potential TAA candidate is telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT in which an oncogenic promoter -146C>T mutation was detected. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA typing revealed HLA-A*0201 homozygosity, which is the prevalent HLA class I

  9. Anti-metastatic and anti-tumor growth effects of Origanum majorana on highly metastatic human breast cancer cells: inhibition of NFκB signaling and reduction of nitric oxide production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Al Dhaheri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that Origanummajorana exhibits anticancer activity by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of the metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Here, we extended our study by investigating the effect of O. majorana on the migration, invasion and tumor growth of these cells. RESULTS: We demonstrate that non-cytotoxic concentrations of O. majorana significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of the MDA-MB-231 cells as shown by wound-healing and matrigel invasion assays. We also show that O. majorana induce homotypic aggregation of MDA-MB-231 associated with an upregulation of E-cadherin protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, we show that O. majorana decrease the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 to HUVECs and inhibits transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231 through TNF-α-activated HUVECs. Gelatin zymography assay shows that O. majorana suppresses the activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9. ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot results revealed that O. majorana decreases the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, ICAM-1 and VEGF. Further investigation revealed that O. majorana suppresses the phosphorylation of IκB, downregulates the nuclear level of NFκB and reduces Nitric Oxide (NO production in MDA-MB-231 cells. Most importantly, by using chick embryo tumor growth assay, we also show that O. majorana promotes inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. CONCLUSION: Our findings identify Origanummajorana as a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate that modulate breast cancer growth and metastasis.

  10. Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously untreated BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer : An open-label, phase 2 trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planchard, David; Smit, Egbert F.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Mazieres, Julien; Besse, Benjamin; Helland, Aslaug; Giannone, Vanessa; D'Amelio, Anthony M.; Zhang, Pingkuan; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Johnson, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas and acts as an oncogenic driver. Dabrafenib, alone or combined with trametinib, has shown substantial antitumour activity in patients with previously treated BRAF(V600E)-mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We

  11. Reinfusion of autologous lymphocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces rapid recovery of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after high-dose chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gast, G. C.; Vyth-Dreese, F. A.; Nooijen, W.; van den Bogaard, C. J. C.; Sein, J.; Holtkamp, M. M. J.; Linthorst, G. A. M.; Baars, J. W.; Schornagel, J. H.; Rodenhuis, S.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Repeated high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by peripheral-blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation can induce a complete remission in patients with metastatic breast cancer sensitive to standard chemotherapy (CT), but the majority of patients relapse within 1 to 2 years. The immune

  12. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília P. Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC and sulforaphane (SFN. Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential.

  13. Targeting Colorectal Cancer Proliferation, Stemness and Metastatic Potential Using Brassicaceae Extracts Enriched in Isothiocyanates: A 3D Cell Model-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucília P.; Silva, Patrícia; Duarte, Marlene; Rodrigues, Liliana; Duarte, Catarina M. M.; Albuquerque, Cristina; Serra, Ana Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) recurrence is often attributable to circulating tumor cells and/or cancer stem cells (CSCs) that resist to conventional therapies and foster tumor progression. Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from Brassicaceae vegetables have demonstrated anticancer effects in CRC, however little is known about their effect in CSCs and tumor initiation properties. Here we examined the effect of ITCs-enriched Brassicaceae extracts derived from watercress and broccoli in cell proliferation, CSC phenotype and metastasis using a previously developed three-dimensional HT29 cell model with CSC-like traits. Both extracts were phytochemically characterized and their antiproliferative effect in HT29 monolayers was explored. Next, we performed cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis in HT29 spheroids treated with watercress and broccoli extracts and respective main ITCs, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and sulforaphane (SFN). Soft agar assays and relative quantitative expression analysis of stemness markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling players were performed to evaluate the effect of these phytochemicals in stemness and metastasis. Our results showed that both Brassicaceae extracts and ITCs exert antiproliferative effects in HT29 spheroids, arresting cell cycle at G2/M, possibly due to ITC-induced DNA damage. Colony formation and expression of LGR5 and CD133 cancer stemness markers were significantly reduced. Only watercress extract and PEITC decreased ALDH1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, as well as β-catenin expression. Our research provides new insights on CRC therapy using ITC-enriched Brassicaceae extracts, specially watercress extract, to target CSCs and circulating tumor cells by impairing cell proliferation, ALDH1-mediated chemo-resistance, anoikis evasion, self-renewal and metastatic potential. PMID:28394276

  14. Increased Expression and Aberrant Localization of Mucin 13 in Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Brij K.; Maher, Diane M.; Ebeling, Mara C.; Sundram, Vasudha; Koch, Michael D.; Lynch, Douglas W.; Bohlmeyer, Teresa; Watanabe, Akira; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Puumala, Susan E.; Jaggi, Meena

    2012-01-01

    MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin. Although MUC13 is known to be overexpressed in ovarian and gastric cancers, limited information is available regarding the expression of MUC13 in metastatic colon cancer. Herein, we investigated the expression profile of MUC13 in colon cancer using a novel anti-MUC13 monoclonal antibody (MAb, clone ppz0020) by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. A cohort of colon cancer samples and tissue microarrays containing adjacent normal, non-metastatic colon cancer, metastatic colon cancer, and liver metastasis tissues was used in this study to investigate the expression pattern of MUC13. IHC analysis revealed significantly higher (pcolon cancer samples compared with faint or very low expression in adjacent normal tissues. Interestingly, metastatic colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue samples demonstrated significantly (pcolon cancer and adjacent normal colon samples. Moreover, cytoplasmic and nuclear MUC13 expression correlated with larger and poorly differentiated tumors. Four of six tested colon cancer cell lines also expressed MUC13 at RNA and protein levels. These studies demonstrate a significant increase in MUC13 expression in metastatic colon cancer and suggest a correlation between aberrant MUC13 localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear expression) and metastatic colon cancer. PMID:22914648

  15. Differential Expression of Ccn4 and Other Genes Between Metastatic and Non-metastatic EL4 Mouse Lymphoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    S. CHAHAL, MANPREET; TERESA KU, H.; ZHANG, ZHIHONG; M. LEGASPI, CHRISTIAN; LUO, ANGELA; M. HOPKINS, MANDI; E. MEIER, KATHRYN

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous work characterized variants of the EL4 murine lymphoma cell line. Some are non-metastatic, and others metastatic, in syngenic mice. In addition, metastatic EL4 cells were stably transfected with phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which further enhanced metastasis. Materials and Methods: Microarray analyses of mRNA expression was performed for non-metastatic, metastatic, and PLD2-expressing metastatic EL4 cells. Results: Many differences were observed between non-metastatic and meta...

  16. Estrogen and Resveratrol Regulate Rac and Cdc42 Signaling to the Actin Cytoskeleton of Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas G. Azios

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen and structurally related molecules play critical roles in breast cancer. We reported that resveratrol (50 µM, an estrogen-like phytosterol from grapes, acts in an antiestrogenic manner in breast cancer cells to reduce cell migration and to induce a global and sustained extension of actin structures called filopodia. Herein, we report that resveratrol-induced filopodia formation is time-dependent and concentration-dependent. In contrast to resveratrol at 50 µM, resveratrol at 5 µM acts in a manner similar to estrogen by increasing lamellipodia, as well as cell migration and invasion. Because Rho GTPases regulate the extension of actin structures, we investigated a role for Rac and Cdc42 in estrogen and resveratrol signaling. Our results demonstrate that 50 µM resveratrol decreases Rac and Cdc42 activity, whereas estrogen and 5 µM resveratrol increase Rac activity in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 cells expressing dominant-negative Cdc42 or dominantnegative Rac retain filopodia response to 50 µM resveratrol. Lamellipodia response to 5 µM resveratrol, estrogen, or epidermal growth factor is inhibited in cells expressing dominant-negative Rac, indicating that Rac regulates estrogen and resveratrol (5 µM signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. These results indicate that signaling to the actin cytoskeleton by low and high concentrations of resveratrol may be differentially regulated by Rac and Cdc42.

  17. Highly sensitive detection of ESR1 mutations in cell-free DNA from patients with metastatic breast cancer using molecular barcode sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Nanae; Kagara, Naofumi; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Miyake, Tomohiro; Tanei, Tomonori; Naoi, Yasuto; Shimoda, Masafumi; Shimazu, Kenzo; Kim, Seung Jin; Noguchi, Shinzaburo

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to develop a highly sensitive method to detect ESR1 mutations in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) using next-generation sequencing with molecular barcode (MB-NGS) targeting the hotspot segment (c.1600-1713). The sensitivity of MB-NGS was tested using serially diluted ESR1 mutant DNA and then cfDNA samples from 34 patients with metastatic breast cancer were analyzed with MB-NGS. The results of MB-NGS were validated in comparison with conventional NGS and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). MB-NGS showed a higher sensitivity (0.1%) than NGS without barcode (1%) by reducing background errors. Of the cfDNA samples from 34 patients with metastatic breast cancer, NGS without barcode revealed seven mutations in six patients (17.6%) and MB-NGS revealed six additional mutations including three mutations not reported in the COSMIC database of breast cancer, resulting in total 13 ESR1 mutations in ten patients (29.4%). Regarding the three hotspot mutations, all the patients with mutations detected by MB-NGS had identical mutations detected by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and mutant allele frequency correlated very well between both (r = 0.850, p < 0.01). Moreover, all the patients without these mutations by MB-NGS were found to have no mutations by ddPCR. In conclusion, MB-NGS could successfully detect ESR1 mutations in cfDNA with a higher sensitivity of 0.1% than conventional NGS and was considered as clinically useful as ddPCR.

  18. Patients with advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with targeted therapy in the Czech Republic: twenty cancer centres, six agents, one database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poprach, Alexandr; Bortlíček, Zbyněk; Büchler, Tomáš; Melichar, Bohuslav; Lakomý, Radek; Vyzula, Rostislav; Brabec, Petr; Svoboda, Marek; Dušek, Ladislav; Gregor, Jakub

    2012-12-01

    The incidence and mortality of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the Czech Republic are among the highest in the world. Several targeted agents have been recently approved for the treatment of advanced/metastatic RCC. Presentation of a national clinical database for monitoring and assessment of patients with advanced/metastatic RCC treated with targeted therapy. The RenIS (RENal Information System, http://renis.registry.cz ) registry is a non-interventional post-registration database of epidemiological and clinical data of patients with RCC treated with targeted therapies in the Czech Republic. Twenty cancer centres eligible for targeted therapy administration participate in the project. As of November 2011, six agents were approved and reimbursed from public health insurance, including bevacizumab, everolimus, pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and temsirolimus. As of 10 October 2011, 1,541 patients with valid records were entered into the database. Comparison with population-based data from the Czech National Cancer Registry revealed that RCC patients treated with targeted therapy are significantly younger (median age at diagnosis 59 vs. 66 years). Most RenIS registry patients were treated with sorafenib and sunitinib, many patients sequentially with both agents. Over 10 % of patients were also treated with everolimus in the second or third line. Progression-free survival times achieved were comparable to phase III clinical trials. The RenIS registry has become an important tool and source of information for the management of cancer care and clinical practice, providing comprehensive data on monitoring and assessment of RCC targeted therapy on a national level.

  19. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Avelumab: A Review in Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt

    2018-05-24

    Avelumab (Bavencio ® ) is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that is directed against programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Avelumab functions as an immune checkpoint inhibitor and has recently been approved in the USA, the EU and Japan for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). It is thus the first therapeutic agent specifically approved for use in this indication, and is approved for use independent of line of treatment. Approval for avelumab in metastatic MCC was based on the two-part, single-arm, phase II trial, JAVELIN Merkel 200. In Part A of the study, confirmed objective responses were observed in approximately one-third of patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic MCC treated with avelumab. The responses were observed early and appeared to be durable, with an estimated 74% of responses having a duration ≥ 12 months. Furthermore, interim results from a separate cohort of patients (Part B) indicate an objective response rate for avelumab of > 60% in patients who were chemotherapy-naïve in the metastatic disease setting. Avelumab is associated with a risk of immune-related adverse events but, overall, has an acceptable and manageable safety and tolerability profile. In conclusion, currently available data suggest that avelumab presents a clinically beneficial new treatment option for metastatic MCC, a rare but aggressive cancer associated with a poor prognosis.

  1. Avelumab: a new standard for treating metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mairead; Cordes, Lisa; Brownell, Isaac

    2018-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer. Although MCC is chemosensitive, responses to traditional chemotherapeutic agents are not durable. Avelumab, a novel anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, recently became the first FDA-approved agent for the treatment of metastatic MCC and represents a new option to improve patient survival. Areas covered: This article presents an overview of MCC and summarizes the development of avelumab in the treatment of metastatic MCC. Preclinical studies, phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials, and the safety profile of avelumab are reviewed. Future perspectives and ongoing studies are also discussed. Expert commentary: Avelumab demonstrated rapid and durable responses and a manageable safety profile in the treatment of metastatic MCC. Patient outcomes are favorable when compared to historical responses to standard chemotherapy. Ongoing clinical trials will continue to characterize avelumab and its optimal use in MCC therapy.

  2. Characterization of KRAS Rearrangements in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Song; Shankar, Sunita; Dhanasekaran, Saravana M.; Ateeq, Bushra; Sasaki, Atsuo T.; Jing, Xiaojun; Robinson, Daniel; Cao, Qi; Prensner, John R.; Yocum, Anastasia K.; Wang, Rui; Fries, Daniel F.; Han, Bo; Asangani, Irfan A.; Cao, Xuhong; Li, Yong; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Pflueger, Dorothee; Gopalan, Anuradha; Reuter, Victor E.; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Cantley, Lewis C.; Rubin, Mark A.; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Varambally, Sooryanarayana; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2011-01-01

    Using an integrative genomics approach called Amplification Breakpoint Ranking and Assembly (ABRA) analysis, we nominated KRAS as a gene fusion with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2L3 in the DU145 cell line, originally derived from prostate cancer metastasis to the brain. Interestingly, analysis of tissues revealed that 2 of 62 metastatic prostate cancers harbored aberrations at the KRAS locus. In DU145 cells, UBE2L3-KRAS produces a fusion protein, specific knock-down of which, attenuates cell invasion and xenograft growth. Ectopic expression of the UBE2L3-KRAS fusion protein exhibits transforming activity in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and RWPE prostate epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. In NIH 3T3 cells, UBE2L3-KRAS attenuates MEK/ERK signaling, commonly engaged by oncogenic mutant KRAS, and instead signals via AKT and p38 MAPK pathways. This is the first report of a gene fusion involving Ras family suggesting that this aberration may drive metastatic progression in a rare subset of prostate cancers. PMID:22140652

  3. Polymorphic variation in the androgen receptor gene: association with risk of testicular germ cell cancer and metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Västermark, Åke; Giwercman, Yvonne Lundberg; Hagströmer, Oskar

    2011-01-01

    Increasing incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is most probably related to environment and lifestyle. However, an underlying genetic predisposition may play a role and since sex steroids are assumed to be important for the rise and progression of TGCC, a study of androgen receptor (AR...... of endocrine disruptors. From a biological point of view, our findings strengthen the hypothesis of the importance of androgen action in the aetiology and pathogenesis of testicular malignancy. Future studies should focus on the impact of sex hormones on foetal germ cell development and the interaction between...

  4. The efficacy of lapatinib in metastatic breast cancer with HER2 non-amplified primary tumors and EGFR positive circulating tumor cells: a proof-of-concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Stebbing

    Full Text Available Analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs provides real-time measures of cancer sub-populations with potential for CTC-directed therapeutics. We examined whether lapatinib which binds both HER2 and EGFR could induce depletion of the EGFR-positive pool of CTCs, which may in turn lead to clinical benefits.Patients with metastatic breast cancer and HER2 non-amplified primary tumors with EGFR-positive CTCs were recruited and lapatinib 1500 mg daily was administered, in a standard two step phase 2 trial.There were no responses leading to termination at the first analysis with 16 patients recruited out of 43 screened. In 6 out of 14 (43% individuals eligible for the efficacy analysis, a decrease in CTCs was observed with most of these having a greater decrease in their EGFR-positive CTC pool.This is one of the first studies of CTC-directed therapeutics and suggests that lapatinib monotherapy is not having any demonstrable clinical effects by reducing the EGFR-positive pool of CTCs in HER2 non-amplified primary tumors. Our attempt to expand the pool of patients eligible for a targeted therapy was unsuccessful; the role of clonal populations in cancer biology and therapeutic strategies to control them will require extensive evaluation in years to come.Clinical trials.gov NCT00820924.

  5. Metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: consensus on pathology and molecular tests, first-line, second-line, and third-line therapy: 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in Lung Cancer; Lugano 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felip, E; Gridelli, C; Baas, P

    2011-01-01

    the conference, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer to be addressed through discussion......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21 and 22 May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics, medical oncology, surgical oncology and radiation oncology. Before...... at the Consensus Conference. All relevant scientific literature for each question was reviewed in advance. During the Consensus Conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question. The consensus agreement on three of these areas: NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, the treatment of first-line...

  6. Myeloid clusters are associated with a pro-metastatic environment and poor prognosis in smoking-related early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the role of myeloid cell clusters in uninvolved regional lymph nodes from early stage non-small cell lung cancer patients.Uninvolved regional lymph node sections from 67 patients with stage I-III resected non-small cell lung cancer were immunostained to detect myeloid clusters, STAT3 activity and occult metastasis. Anthracosis intensity, myeloid cluster infiltration associated with anthracosis and pSTAT3 level were scored and correlated with patient survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with prognostic variables. Human macrophages were used for in vitro nicotine treatment.CD68+ myeloid clusters associated with anthracosis and with an immunosuppressive and metastasis-promoting phenotype and elevated overall STAT3 activity were observed in uninvolved lymph nodes. In patients with a smoking history, myeloid cluster score significantly correlated with anthracosis intensity and pSTAT3 level (P<0.01. Nicotine activated STAT3 in macrophages in long-term culture. CD68+ myeloid clusters correlated and colocalized with occult metastasis. Myeloid cluster score was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.049 and was associated with survival by Kaplan-Maier estimate in patients with a history of smoking (P = 0.055. The combination of myeloid cluster score with either lymph node stage or pSTAT3 level defined two populations with a significant difference in survival (P = 0.024 and P = 0.004, respectively.Myeloid clusters facilitate a pro-metastatic microenvironment in uninvolved regional lymph nodes and associate with occult metastasis in early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Myeloid cluster score is an independent prognostic factor for survival in patients with a history of smoking, and may present a novel method to inform therapy choices in the adjuvant setting. Further validation studies are warranted.

  7. Comparison of the quantification of KRAS mutations by digital PCR and E-ice-COLD-PCR in circulating-cell-free DNA from metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefrioui, David; Mauger, Florence; Leclere, Laurence; Beaussire, Ludivine; Di Fiore, Frédéric; Deleuze, Jean-François; Sarafan-Vasseur, Nasrin; Tost, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) bears great promise as biomarker for personalized medicine, but ccfDNA is present only at low levels in the plasma or serum of cancer patients. E-ice-COLD-PCR is a recently developed enrichment method to detect and identify mutations present at low-abundance in clinical samples. However, recent studies have shown the importance to accurately quantify low-abundance mutations as clinically important decisions will depend on certain mutation thresholds. The possibility for an enrichment method to accurately quantify the mutation levels remains a point of concern and might limit its clinical applicability. In the present study, we compared the quantification of KRAS mutations in ccfDNA from metastatic colorectal cancer patients by E-ice-COLD-PCR with two digital PCR approaches. For the quantification of mutations by E-ice-COLD-PCR, cell lines with known mutations diluted into WT genomic DNA were used for calibration. E-ice-COLD-PCR and the two digital PCR approaches showed the same range of the mutation level and were concordant for mutation levels below the clinical relevant threshold. E-ice-COLD-PCR can accurately detect and quantify low-abundant mutations in ccfDNA and has a shorter time to results making it compatible with the requirements of analyses in a clinical setting without the loss of quantitative accuracy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Benzimidazole as Novel Therapy for Hormone-Refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    8 4 INTRODUCTION The focus of this project is to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of benzimidazoles as a...potential anti-metastatic prostate cancer therapy. We identified benzimidazoles , a class of anti-parasitic drug, in a drug screening process for...preferential anti-tumor activity on metastatic prostate cancer cells. We have data indicate that benzimidazoles have potent anti-tumor activities

  9. MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer and its overexpression reduces the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhu, Zhenggang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Qu, Ying; Li, Jianfang; Yu, Beiqin; Yan, Min; Yu, Yingyan; Liu, Bingya

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs are involved in gastric cancer development and progression. Here we examine the role of miR-133b in gastric cancer. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed in 140 patient gastric cancer tissues and 8 gastric cancer cell lines. The effects of miR-133b in gastric cancer cells metastasis were examined by scratch assay, transwell migration and matrigel invasion. In vivo effects of miR-133b were examined in an intraperitoneal mouse tumor model. Targets of miR-133b were predicted by bioinformatics tools and validated by luciferase reporter analyses, western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. MiR-133b was significantly downregulated in 70% (98/140) of gastric cancer patients. Expression of miR-133b was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer in patients. Similarly, the expression of miR-133b was significantly lower in seven tested gastric cancer cell lines than in the immortalized non-cancerous GES-1 gastric epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-133b markedly inhibited metastasis of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the transcriptional factor Gli1 was identified as a direct target for miR-133b. Level of Gli1 protein but not mRNA was decreased by miR-133b. Activity of luciferase with Gli1 3′-untranslated region was markedly decreased by miR-133b in gastric cancer cells. Gli1 target genes, OPN and Zeb2, were also inhibited by miR133b. MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer. Overexpression of miR-133b inhibits cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo partly by directly suppressing expression of Gli1 protein. These results suggested that miR-133b plays an important role in gastric cancer metastasis

  10. Differential Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Expression in Disseminated Tumor Cells and Micrometastasis in Bone Marrow of Patients with Nonmetastatic and Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Theoretical Considerations and Clinical Implications—An Immunocytochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel P. Murray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 is important in the dissemination and invasion of tumor cells and activates angiogenesis. We present an immunocytochemical study of MMP-2 expression in circulating prostate cells (CPCs, disseminated tumor cells (DTCs, and micrometastasis (mM in bone marrow of men with prostate cancer. Methods and Patients. Tumor cells were identified with anti-PSA immunocytochemistry. Positive samples underwent processing with anti-MMP-2, its expression was compared with Gleason score, concordance of expression, and metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. Results. 215 men participated, CPCs were detected in 62.7%, DTCs in 62.2%, and mM in 71.4% in nonmetastatic cancer; in metastatic cancer all had CPCs, DTCs, and mM detected. All CPCs and DTCs expressed MMP-2; in mM MMP-2 expression was positively associated with increasing Gleason score. MMP-2 expression in CPCs and DTCs showed concordance. In low grade tumors, mM and surrounding stromal cells were MMP-2 negative, with variable expression in high grade tumors; in metastatic disease, both mM and stromal cells were MMP-2 positive. Conclusions. CPCs and DTCs are different from mM, with inhibition of MMP-2 expression in mM of low grade tumors. With disease progression, MMP-2 expression increases in both mM and surrounding stromal cells, with implications for the use of bisphosphonates or MMP-2 inhibitors.

  11. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  12. The treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer in the elderly: an evidence-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Dawe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing proportion of patients with advanced NSCLC are over 70 years old, raising unique challenges for treatment decision-making. While these patients are underrepresented in clinical trials, there is an emerging body of evidence associated with this group. The lesson of comprehensive geriatric assessment is that chronological age does not always correlate with physiological age and a variety of important comorbidities and geriatric syndromes can go undetected in a typical history and physical. These comorbidities and expected physiologic changes due to aging complicate decision-making around appropriate treatment. This review discusses geriatric assessment in elderly cancer patients and evaluates the current evidence for chemotherapy and targeted therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer aged ≥70 years.

  13. Metronomic chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer Impact on VEGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Arab, L.R.; Menha Swellam, M.; El Mahdy, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anticancer chemotherapy is thought to be effective by means of direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells. Alternative mechanisms of efficacy have been ascribed to several common anticancer agents; including cyclophosphamide (CTX) and capecitabine (Cap) when given at lower doses for prolonged period (metronomic chemotherapy) postulating an antiangiogenic activity as well, Aim of work :To evaluate the action and tolerability of metronomic chemotherapy (MC) and its impact on serum vascular endothetial growth factor (VEGF) levels in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients. Patients and methods: In this study we evaluated the clinical efficacy and tolerability of low dose, capecitabine (500 mg twice daily) together with oral cyclophosphamide (CTX) (a dose of 50 mg once daily) in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenic marker, was measured in the serum samples; at base line, and after 2 and 6 months of therapy. Results: Sixty patients were evaluable. One achieved complete response (CR), 12 partial responses (PR), and 21 stable diseases (SD), while 26 were with progressive disease (PD). The overall response rate was 21.7% with overall disease control (CR, PR, and SD) 56.7%. The median time to progression was 7±2.59 months and overall survival 16 ±8.02 months. Toxicity was mild, Palmar-plantar erythrodythesia was the must common side effect and was observed in 22 patients (37%), leucopenia (Gl + 2) was the most common hematological toxicity, and it was reported in 27% of the cases. The median VEGF level was significantly declined after 2 and 6 months of therapy compared to the base line among the patients with disease control (CR, PR, and SD). In multivariate logisatic regression analysis, patients with post-menopausal, positive hormonal receptors, negative HER-2/Neu, and one, metastatic site, were statistically significant and have a better disease control rate. Coclcusions: MC induced drop in VEGF, and was

  14. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Yavuz; Topaloglu, Ilhan; Ozcan, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient's clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  15. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nasopharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Atar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses can be misdiagnosed as primary malignant or benign diseases. A 33-year-old male attended our outpatient clinic complaining of difficulty breathing through the nose, bloody nasal discharge, postnasal drop, snoring, and discharge of phlegm. Endoscopic nasopharyngeal examination showed a vascularized nasopharyngeal mass. Under general anesthesia, multiple punch biopsies were taken from the nasopharynx. Pathologically, the tumor cells had clear cytoplasm and were arranged in a trabecular pattern lined by a layer of endothelial cells. After the initial pathological examination, the pathologist requested more information about the patient′s clinical status. A careful history revealed that the patient had undergone left a nephrectomy for a kidney mass diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma 3 years earlier. Subsequently, nasopharyngeal metastatic renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with CD10 and vimentin. Radiotherapy was recommended for treatment.

  16. Two Domains of Vimentin Are Expressed on the Surface of Lymph Node, Bone and Brain Metastatic Prostate Cancer Lines along with the Putative Stem Cell Marker Proteins CD44 and CD133

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Nicole F. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Maurer, Jochen [Sanford-Burnham, Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Sheng, Huiming [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bensussan, Armand [INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, F-75475 Paris (France); Department of Immunology, Dermatology and Oncology, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMRS976 F-75475 Paris (France); Maricic, Igor; Kumar, Vipin [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Laboratory of Autoimmunity, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Braciak, Todd A., E-mail: tbraciak@tpims.org [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, Division of Immune Regulation, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2011-07-13

    Vimentin was originally identified as an intermediate filament protein present only as an intracellular component in many cell types. However, this protein has now been detected on the surface of a number of different cancer cell types in a punctate distribution pattern. Increased vimentin expression has been indicated as an important step in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required for the metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, using two vimentin-specific monoclonal antibodies (SC5 and V9 directed against the coil one rod domain and the C-terminus of the vimentin protein, respectively), we examined whether either of these domains would be displayed on the surface of three commonly studied prostate cancer cell lines isolated from different sites of metastases. Confocal analysis of LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines (derived from lymph node, bone or brain prostate metastases, respectively) demonstrated that both domains of vimentin are present on the surface of these metastatic cancer cell types. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that vimentin expression was readily detected along with CD44 expression but only a small subpopulation of prostate cancer cells expressed vimentin and the putative stem cell marker CD133 along with CD44. Finally, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles that target vimentin could bind and internalize into tested prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that at least two domains of vimentin are present on the surface of metastatic prostate cancer cells and suggest that vimentin could provide a useful target for nanoparticle- or antibody- cancer therapeutic agents directed against highly invasive cancer and/or stem cells.

  17. Metastatic Organotropism: An Intrinsic Property of Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi; Siegal, Gene P

    2017-03-01

    It has long been known that some cancers have the propensity to metastasize to certain organs thus creating a nonrandom distribution of sites for distant relapse, a phenomenon known as "metastatic organotropism." Some of these examples include ovary primary to abdominal cavity, prostate primary to bone, and pancreas primary to liver. In contrast, other tumor types, such as mammary and renal cell carcinoma, can relapse in multiple organs although approximately half of advanced breast cancers metastasize to bone. On the other hand gene expression profiling studies have identified various breast cancer classes with prognostic significance. Recent studies have revealed that breast cancer subtypes differ not only in primary tumor characteristics but also in their metastatic behavior. In particular, the luminal tumors are remarkable for their significant bone-seeking phenotype; the HER2 subtype demonstrates a significant liver-homing characteristic; whereas so-called triple-negative breast cancers predispose to lung metastases. These findings suggest that this knowledge could potentially be utilized in the development of effective disease surveillance strategies in the pursuit of precision medicine, thus necessitating further investigation.

  18. Mutually exclusive expression of DLX2 and DLX5/6 is associated with the metastatic potential of the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, Monica; Astigiano, Simonetta; Gitton, Yorick; Emionite, Laura; Mirisola, Valentina; Levi, Giovanni; Barbieri, Ottavia

    2010-01-01

    The DLX gene family encodes for homeobox transcription factors involved in the control of morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Their expression can be regulated by Endothelin1 (ET1), a peptide associated with breast cancer invasive phenotype. Deregulation of DLX gene expression was found in human solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. In particular, DLX4 overexpression represents a possible prognostic marker in ovarian cancer. We have investigated the role of DLX genes in human breast cancer progression. MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells were grown in vitro or injected in nude mice, either subcutaneously, to mimic primary tumor growth, or intravenously, to mimic metastatic spreading. Expression of DLX2, DLX5 and DLX6 was assessed in cultured cells, either treated or not with ET1, tumors and metastases by RT-PCR. In situ hybridization was used to confirm DLX gene expression in primary tumors and in lung and bone metastases. The expression of DLX2 and DLX5 was evaluated in 408 primary human breast cancers examining the GSE1456 and GSE3494 microarray datasets. Kaplan-Meier estimates for disease-free survival were calculated for the patients grouped on the basis of DLX2/DLX5 expression. Before injection, or after subcutaneous growth, MDA-MB-231 cells expressed DLX2 but neither DLX5 nor DLX6. Instead, in bone and lung metastases resulting from intravenous injection we detected expression of DLX5/6 but not of DLX2, suggesting that DLX5/6 are activated during metastasis formation, and that their expression is alternative to that of DLX2. The in vitro treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with ET1, resulted in switch from DLX2 to DLX5 expression. By data mining in microarray datasets we found that expression of DLX2 occurred in 21.6% of patients, and was significantly correlated with prolonged disease-free survival and reduced incidence of relapse. Instead, DLX5 was expressed in a small subset of cases, 2.2% of total, displaying reduced disease-free survival and high

  19. Pemetrexed combined with paclitaxel in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase I-II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, George P; Dimitroulis, John; Toubis, Michael; Katis, Costas; Karaindros, Dimitris; Stathopoulos, John; Koutandos, John

    2007-07-01

    Pemetrexed, a novel multi-targeted agent established for the treatment of mesothelioma, has been under investigation for other malignancies, and in recent years particularly for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present trial we investigated pemetrexed in combination with paclitaxel as front-line treatment in advanced or metastatic NSCLC. Our objectives were to determine the response rate, median and overall survival and toxicity. From April 2005 until May 2006, 51 patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC were enrolled and 48 were considered evaluable. There were 39 males and nine females, median age 62 years (range 37-81 years), one patient stage IIIA N(2), 23 patients, IIIB and 24, stage IV. All patients had a cytologically- or histologically-confirmed diagnosis. Pemetrexed was administered at a standard dose of 500mg/m(2) and paclitaxel at an escalating dose starting at 135mg/m(2), then 150mg/m(2) and ending at a dose of 175mg/m(2); the level was increased every three patients. Both agents were administered on day 1, repeated every 3 weeks for six courses. A 39.6% partial response rate was observed with a median survival of 14 months. Toxicity was mild with 8.3% grade 3 and 4 neutropenia and other very mild hematologic and non-hematologic adverse reactions. The combination of pemetrexed and paclitaxel at doses of 500mg/m(2) and 175mg/m(2), respectively, has been shown to be an effective combination with very limited toxicity.

  20. Gene expression profiles of prostate cancer reveal involvement of multiple molecular pathways in the metastatic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandran, Uma R; Ma, Changqing; Dhir, Rajiv; Bisceglia, Michelle; Lyons-Weiler, Maureen; Liang, Wenjing; Michalopoulos, George; Becich, Michael; Monzon, Federico A

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is characterized by heterogeneity in the clinical course that often does not correlate with morphologic features of the tumor. Metastasis reflects the most adverse outcome of prostate cancer, and to date there are no reliable morphologic features or serum biomarkers that can reliably predict which patients are at higher risk of developing metastatic disease. Understanding the differences in the biology of metastatic and organ confined primary tumors is essential for developing new prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays, we analyzed gene expression profiles of 24 androgen-ablation resistant metastatic samples obtained from 4 patients and a previously published dataset of 64 primary prostate tumor samples. Differential gene expression was analyzed after removing potentially uninformative stromal genes, addressing the differences in cellular content between primary and metastatic tumors. The metastatic samples are highly heterogenous in expression; however, differential expression analysis shows that 415 genes are upregulated and 364 genes are downregulated at least 2 fold in every patient with metastasis. The expression profile of metastatic samples reveals changes in expression of a unique set of genes representing both the androgen ablation related pathways and other metastasis related gene networks such as cell adhesion, bone remodelling and cell cycle. The differentially expressed genes include metabolic enzymes, transcription factors such as Forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1) and cell adhesion molecules such as Osteopontin (SPP1). We hypothesize that these genes have a role in the biology of metastatic disease and that they represent potential therapeutic targets for prostate cancer

  1. O-Linked β-N-Acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) in Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Clones and Effect of N-Acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase Silencing on Cell Phenotype and Transcriptome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehezkel, Galit; Cohen, Liz; Kliger, Adi; Manor, Esther; Khalaila, Isam

    2012-01-01

    O-Linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is a regulatory post-translational modification occurring on the serine or threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which are responsible for O-GlcNAc addition and removal, respectively. Although O-GlcNAcylation was found to play a significant role in several pathologies such as type II diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the etiology and progression of cancer remains vague. Here, we followed O-GlcNAcylation and its catalytic machinery in metastatic clones of human colorectal cancer and the effect of OGA knockdown on cellular phenotype and on the transcriptome. The colorectal cancer SW620 metastatic clone exhibited increased O-GlcNAcylation and decreased OGA expression compared with its primary clone, SW480. O-GlcNAcylation elevation in SW620 cells, through RNA interference of OGA, resulted in phenotypic alterations that included acquisition of a fibroblast-like morphology, which coincides with epithelial metastatic progression and growth retardation. Microarray analysis revealed that OGA silencing altered the expression of about 1300 genes, mostly involved in cell movement and growth, and specifically affected metabolic pathways of lipids and carbohydrates. These findings support the involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in various aspects of tumor cell physiology and suggest that this modification may serve as a link between metabolic changes and cancer. PMID:22730328

  2. Dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with previously untreated BRAFV600E-mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: an open-label, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchard, David; Smit, Egbert F; Groen, Harry J M; Mazieres, Julien; Besse, Benjamin; Helland, Åslaug; Giannone, Vanessa; D'Amelio, Anthony M; Zhang, Pingkuan; Mookerjee, Bijoyesh; Johnson, Bruce E

    2017-10-01

    BRAF V600E mutation occurs in 1-2% of lung adenocarcinomas and acts as an oncogenic driver. Dabrafenib, alone or combined with trametinib, has shown substantial antitumour activity in patients with previously treated BRAF V600E -mutant metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to assess the activity and safety of dabrafenib plus trametinib treatment in previously untreated patients with BRAF V600E -mutant metastatic NSCLC. In this phase 2, sequentially enrolled, multicohort, multicentre, non-randomised, open-label study, adults (≥18 years of age) with previously untreated metastatic BRAF V600E -mutant NSCLC were enrolled into cohort C from 19 centres in eight countries within North America, Europe, and Asia. Patients received oral dabrafenib 150 mg twice per day plus oral trametinib 2 mg once per day until disease progression, unacceptable adverse events, consent withdrawal, or death. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response, defined as the percentage of patients who achieved a confirmed complete response or partial response per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1. The primary and safety analyses were by intention to treat in the protocol-defined population (previously untreated patients). The study is ongoing, but no longer recruiting patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01336634. Between April 16, 2014, and Dec 28, 2015, 36 patients were enrolled and treated with first-line dabrafenib plus trametinib. Median follow-up was 15·9 months (IQR 7·8-22·0) at the data cutoff (April 28, 2017). The proportion of patients with investigator-assessed confirmed overall response was 23 (64%, 95% CI 46-79), with two (6%) patients achieving a complete response and 21 (58%) a partial response. All patients had one or more adverse event of any grade, and 25 (69%) had one or more grade 3 or 4 event. The most common (occurring in more than two patients) grade 3 or 4 adverse events were

  3. Economic outcomes of maintenance gefitinib for locally advanced/metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer with unknown EGFR mutations: a semi-Markov model analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maintenance gefitinib significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS compared with placebo in patients from eastern Asian with locally advanced/metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC after four chemotherapeutic cycles (21 days per cycle of first-line platinum-based combination chemotherapy without disease progression. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of maintenance gefitinib therapy after four chemotherapeutic cycle's stand first-line platinum-based chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC with unknown EGFR mutations, from a Chinese health care system perspective. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A semi-Markov model was designed to evaluate cost-effectiveness of the maintenance gefitinib treatment. Two-parametric Weibull and Log-logistic distribution were fitted to PFS and overall survival curves independently. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the stability of the model designed. The model base-case analysis suggested that maintenance gefitinib would increase benefits in a 1, 3, 6 or 10-year time horizon, with incremental $184,829, $19,214, $19,328, and $21,308 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained, respectively. The most sensitive influential variable in the cost-effectiveness analysis was utility of PFS plus rash, followed by utility of PFS plus diarrhoea, utility of progressed disease, price of gefitinib, cost of follow-up treatment in progressed survival state, and utility of PFS on oral therapy. The price of gefitinib is the most significant parameter that could reduce the incremental cost per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicated that the cost-effective probability of maintenance gefitinib was zero under the willingness-to-pay (WTP threshold of $16,349 (3 × per-capita gross domestic product of China. The sensitivity analyses all suggested that the model was robust. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance gefitinib

  4. Trastuzumab and survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Schoffer, Olaf; Link, Theresa; Forberger, Almuth; Petzold, Andrea; Niedostatek, Antje; Werner, Carmen; Klug, Stefanie J; Werner, Andreas; Gatzweiler, Axel; Richter, Barbara; Baretton, Gustavo; Wimberger, Pauline

    2017-08-01

    Prognosis of Her2-positive breast cancer has changed since the introduction of trastuzumab for treatment in metastatic and early breast cancer. It was described to be even better compared to prognosis of Her2-negative metastatic breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of trastuzumab in our cohort. Besides the effect of adjuvant pretreatment with trastuzumab on survival of patients with metastatic Her2-positive breast cancer was analyzed. All patients with primary breast cancer of the Regional Breast Cancer Center Dresden diagnosed during the years 2001-2013 were analyzed for treatment with or without trastuzumab in the adjuvant and in the metastatic treatment setting using Kaplan-Meier survival estimation and Cox regression. Age and tumor stage at time of first diagnosis of breast cancer as well as hormone receptor status, grading, time, and site of metastasis at first diagnosis of distant metastatic disease were analyzed. Of 4.481 female patients with primary breast cancer, 643 presented with metastatic disease. Her2-positive status was documented in 465 patients, including 116 patients with primary or secondary metastases. Median survival of patients with Her2-positive primary metastatic disease was 3.0 years (95% CI 2.3-4.0). After adjustment for other factors, survival was better in patients with Her2-positive breast cancer with trastuzumab therapy compared to Her2-negative metastatic disease (HR 2.10; 95% CI 1.58-2.79). Analysis of influence of adjuvant therapy with and without trastuzumab by Kaplan-Meier showed a trend for better survival in not pretreated patients. Median survival was highest in hormone receptor-positive Her2-positive (triple-positive) primary metastatic breast cancer patients with 3.3 years (95% CI 2.3-4.6). Prognosis of patients with Her2-positive metastatic breast cancer after trastuzumab treatment is more favorable than for Her2-negative breast cancer. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy with or without

  5. A review on metastatic breast cancer in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamidreza; Alizadeh; Otaghvar; Mostafa; Hosseini; Adnan; Tizmaghz; Ghazaal; Shabestanipour; Hamid; Noori

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a disease of early breast cancer that usually occurs several years after the early breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. According to the new statistics in Iran 6 160 breast cancers are diagnosed in the country each year and 1 063 cases lead to death. In this paper, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment have been investigated. In this study, case-control clinical trials and open studies with adequate data were collected. Due to the higher risk of age group 40-49 years and the advent of advanced breast cancer in Iranian women, the early diagnosis and determination of the exact size of the tumor before surgery is important in choosing a therapy plan. The decision on the therapy of invasive breast cancer depends on several factors such as cancer stage, tumor size and type, pathological and cytological status of the tumor, the patient’s opinion, the presence or absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the cytoplasm of tumor cells and so on.

  6. Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibition (ARPI) but eventually develops into lethal castration resistance prostate cancer ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0553 TITLE: Targeting Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Martin Gleave...Siah2 as Novel Therapy for Metastatic Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0553 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Gleave 5d

  7. Novel immunotherapy approaches for metastatic urothelial and renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Shao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC and urothelial carcinoma (UC remains a major challenge. Past research has implicated the immune system in tumor surveillance of both malignancies, leading to the application of immunotherapy agents for both cancers. Among them, the most promising agents are the checkpoint blockade drugs, such as antibodies targeting the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4, programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1, and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1. In normal physiology, these immune checkpoints act as inhibitory signals to fine-tune the duration and strength of immune reactions, which is pivotal for maintaining self-tolerance. However, tumor cells also utilize immune checkpoint pathways to evade anti-tumor immune response, leading to disease progression and metastasis. Thus, there has been intense preclinical and clinical effort focused on the application of checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic RCC and UC. To date, nivolumab (anti-PD-1 and atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1 have been approved for the treatment of metastatic RCC and UC, respectively. Despite these successes, challenges remain in how to further improve response rates to immunotherapy and how to select patients that will benefit from this approach. In this report, we review existing data and research on immunotherapy in metastatic RCC and UC.

  8. The carboxyl terminal trimer of procollagen I induces pro-metastatic changes and vascularization in breast cancer cells xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visigalli, Davide; Palmieri, Daniela; Strangio, Antonella; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Casartelli, Gianluigi; Zicca, Antonio; Manduca, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The COOH terminal peptide of Pro-collagen type I (PICP, also called C3) is chemotactic for endothelial melanoma and breast cancer cells. PICP induces the expression of Metalloproteinases-2 and -9, of Vascular endothelial growth factor and of the chemokine CXCL-12 receptor CXCR4 in MDA MB231 breast carcinoma cells in vitro. We used a model of xenografts in BalbC/nude mice obtaining tumors by implanting in contro-lateral subcutaneous positions MDA MB231 cells added or not with purified PICP and studied the earlier phases of tumor development, up to 48 days from implant, by histology, immunostain and in situ hybridization. Addition of PICP promotes rapid vascularization of the tumors while does not affect mitotic and apoptotic indexes and overall tumor growth. PICP-treated, relative to control tumors, show up-modulation of Vascular endothelial factor, Metalloproteinase-9 and CXCR4, all tumor prognostic genes; they also show down-modulation of the endogenous Metalloproteinase inhibitor, reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs, and a different pattern of modulation of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2. These changes occur in absence of detectable expression of CXCL-12, up to 38 days, in control and treated tumors. PICP has an early promoting effect in the acquisition by the tumors of prometastatic phenotype. PICP may be play a relevant role in the productive interactions between stroma and tumor cells by predisposing the tumor cells to respond to the proliferation stimuli ensuing the activation of signaling by engagement of CXCR4 by cytokines and by fostering their extravasion, due to the induction of increased vascular development

  9. Cetuximab in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guren, Tormod Kyrre; Thomsen, Maria Morandi; Kure, Elin H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The NORDIC-VII study is a randomised phase III trial of cetuximab plus continuous or intermittent fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Nordic FLOX) vs FLOX alone in first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. The present report presents an updated and final survival...... population). RAS was mutated in 46% and BRAF in 12% of the tumours. RAS and BRAF, if mutated, were negative prognostic factors. The updated analyses confirmed the finding of the primary report that cetuximab did not provide any additional benefit when added to FLOX in patients with RAS/BRAF wild-type tumours......, neither on progression-free nor overall survival. However, the outcomes in a subset of patients, which, after the first eight treatment cycles, received cetuximab alone, suggested a beneficial effect of cetuximab monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Adding cetuximab to Nordic FLOX did not provide any clinical...

  10. Molecular Subgroup of Primary Prostate Cancer Presenting with Metastatic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven M; Knight, Laura A; McCavigan, Andrena M; Logan, Gemma E; Berge, Viktor; Sherif, Amir; Pandha, Hardev; Warren, Anne Y; Davidson, Catherine; Uprichard, Adam; Blayney, Jaine K; Price, Bethanie; Jellema, Gera L; Steele, Christopher J; Svindland, Aud; McDade, Simon S; Eden, Christopher G; Foster, Chris; Mills, Ian G; Neal, David E; Mason, Malcolm D; Kay, Elaine W; Waugh, David J; Harkin, D Paul; Watson, R William; Clarke, Noel W; Kennedy, Richard D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 4-25% of patients with early prostate cancer develop disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. To identify a molecular subgroup of prostate cancers with metastatic potential at presentation resulting in a high risk of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed using gene expression data from 70 primary resections, 31 metastatic lymph nodes, and 25 normal prostate samples. Independent assay validation was performed using 322 radical prostatectomy samples from four sites with a mean follow-up of 50.3 months. Molecular subgroups were identified using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. A partial least squares approach was used to generate a gene expression assay. Relationships with outcome (time to biochemical and metastatic recurrence) were analysed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analysis. A molecular subgroup of primary prostate cancer with biology similar to metastatic disease was identified. A 70-transcript signature (metastatic assay) was developed and independently validated in the radical prostatectomy samples. Metastatic assay positive patients had increased risk of biochemical recurrence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 1.62 [1.13-2.33]; p=0.0092) and metastatic recurrence (multivariable HR=3.20 [1.76-5.80]; p=0.0001). A combined model with Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post surgical (CAPRA-S) identified patients at an increased risk of biochemical and metastatic recurrence superior to either model alone (HR=2.67 [1.90-3.75]; pmolecular subgroup of primary prostate cancers with metastatic potential. The metastatic assay may improve the ability to detect patients at risk of metastatic recurrence following radical prostatectomy. The impact of adjuvant therapies should be assessed in this higher-risk population. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. m-RNA mammaglobin expression in metastatic breast cancer patient at Medan city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbun, S.; Siregar, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common causes of women’s death in the world. Metastatic spread presents a major clinical problem in about 30% of the patients. The study aims to investigate the clinical reliability of mammaglobin mRNA as a marker of circulating cancer cells in breast cancer patients. The positivity of blood was analyzed in relation to clinical and pathological characteristics. This study was on 29 breast cancer patients (13 metastatic, 16 non- metastatic patients), where28 were invasive intraductal carcinoma type and 1 was invasive lobular carcinoma type. Breast cancer patients were according to the histologic grade into grade I (7 patients),grade II (6 patients) and grade III (15 patients). All individuals included in this study were subjected to detection of mammaglobin m-RNA of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood using RT-PCR technique. Positivity for mammaglobin in blood samples was in 38% of patients with metastatic but not in the non-metastatic patients. The presence of mammaglobin correlated with metastatic tumor (P = 0.011). Mammaglobin overexpression in breast tissue was significantly positive in low-grade tumors (I and II).

  12. Natural killer cells activity in a metastatic colorectal cancer patient with complete and long lasting response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaiano, Alessandro; Napolitano, Maria; Capozzi, Monica; Tafuto, Salvatore; Avallone, Antonio; Scala, Stefania

    2017-11-16

    Here we report a case of a 70-year-old man who received adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracile, folinic acid and oxaliplatin after a left hemicolectomy for a stage IIIb adenocarcinoma in May 2009. During follow-up he de-veloped abdominal lymphnodes metastases evidenced by positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT) scan and increase of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level. Chemotherapy with capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab was started in April 2012. Restaging showed a complete response and normalization of CEA. The patient received maintenance therapy with bevacizumab which was stopped in December 2013 for patient choice. In October 2014, a new increase in CEA was documented and PET-CT scan showed lung metastases. Analysis of RAS status revealed the absence of mutations, then the patient started a second-line chemotherapy with fluorouracile, folinic acid, irinotecan (folfiri) and panitumumab achieving, in January 2015, a complete response and normalization of CEA. Thereafter, folfiri was discontinued for toxicity; furthermore, upon the third occurrence of a grade 3 dermatologic toxicity, panitumumab was continued from June 2015 at 60% of the original dose and it was administered every three weeks. Until presentation of this case, the patient maintains a complete response, has no symptoms of disease and CEA is normal. Interestingly, this patient presented a high proportion of circulating natural killer (NK) cells (35.1%) with high cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Study on the role of NK in patients with advanced colorectal cancer are ongoing.

  13. Profile of palbociclib in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M

    2016-05-01

    treatment of postmenopausal women with ERα+/HER2− locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential role of CDK inhibition in breast cancer treatment, and focus on palbociclib progress from preclinical studies to clinical trials with mentioning the most recent ongoing as well as planned Phase II and Phase III trials of palbociclib in advanced breast cancer.Keywords: cyclin-dependent kinases, cell cycle, metastatic breast cancer, PD0332991

  14. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ryeol Eun

    Full Text Available SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity.We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC, and that their derivatives also function as CSCs.Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a novel mechanism of tumor initiation, development and

  15. Improved overall survival after implementation of targeted therapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DARENCA) study-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne V.; Donskov, Frede; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2014-01-01

    AbstractAim To evaluate the implementation of targeted therapy on overall survival (OS) in a complete national cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods All Danish patients with mRCC referred for first line treatment with immunotherapy, TKIs or mTOR-inhibitors between...

  16. Characteristics of Metastatic Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of PET and CT features of mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes on F-18 FDG PET/CT and to determine the diagnostic criteria in nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer. One hundred four non-small cell lung cancer patients who had preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT were included. For quantitative analysis, the maximum SUV of the primary tumor, maximum SUV of the lymph nodes (SUVmax), size of the lymph nodes, and average Hounsfield units (aHUs) and maximum Hounsfield units (mHUs) of the lymph nodes were measured. The SUVmax, SUV ratio of the lymph node to blood pool (LN SUV/blood pool SUV), SUV ratio of the lymph node to primary tumor (LN SUV/primary tumor SUV), size, aHU, and mHU were compared between the benign and malignant lymph nodes. Among 372 dissected lymph node stations that were pathologically diagnosed after surgery, 49 node stations were malignant and 323 node stations benign. SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and size were significantly different between the malignant and benign lymph node stations (P <0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in LN SUV/primary tumor SUV (P =0.18), mHU (P =0.42), and aHU (P =0.98). Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses, there was no significant difference among these three variables (SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and size). The optimal cutoff values were 2.9 for SUVmax, 1.4 for LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and 5 mm for size. When the cutoff value of SUVmax≥2.9 and size≥5 mm were used in combination, the positive predictive value was 44.2%, and the negative predictive value was 90.9 %. When we evaluated the results based on the histology of the primary tumor, the negative predictive value was 92.3 % in adenocarcinoma (cutoff values of SUVmax≥2.3 and size≥5 mm) and 97.2 % in squamous cell carcinoma (cutoff values of SUVmax≥3.6 and size≥8 mm), separately. In the lymph node staging of non-small cell lung cancer, SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV

  17. Immunotherapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Raman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC is often curable by surgery alone. However, metastatic RCC is generally incurable. In the 1990s, immunotherapy in the form of cytokines was the mainstay of treatment for metastatic RCC. However, responses were seen in only a minority of highly selected patients with substantial treatment-related toxicities. The advent of targeted agents such as vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors VEGF-TKIs and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors led to a change in this paradigm due to improved response rates and progression-free survival, a better safety profile, and the convenience of oral administration. However, most patients ultimately progress with about 12% being alive at 5 years. In contrast, durable responses lasting 10 years or more are noted in a minority of those treated with cytokines. More recently, an improved overall survival with newer forms of immunotherapy in other malignancies (such as melanoma and prostate cancer has led to a resurgence of interest in immune therapies in metastatic RCC. In this review we discuss the rationale for immunotherapy and recent developments in immunotherapeutic strategies for treating metastatic RCC.

  18. Metastatic Breast Cancer and Hormonal Receptor Status among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ANNALS of AFRICAN SURGERY | www.sskenya.org. The ANNALS of ... metastatic lesions and survival among breast cancer patients. ... year survival rate (2). Breast ... Three core ... ER negative and 35 (49.3%) had PR positive tumours.

  19. Chemotherapy, bevacizumab, and cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, J.; Koopman, M.; Cats, A.; Rodenburg, C.J.; Creemers, G.J.M.; Schrama, J.G.; Erdkamp, F.L.G.; Vos, A.H.; van Groeningen, C.J.; Sinnige, H.A.M.; Richel, D.J.; Voest, E.E.; Dijkstra, J.R.; Vink-Börger, M.E.; Antonini, N.F.; Mol, L.; van Krieken, J.H.J.M.; Dalesio, O.; Punt, C.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fluoropyrimidine- based chemotherapy plus the anti - vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is standard first- line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We studied the effect of adding the anti - epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab to

  20. Chemotherapy, Bevacizumab, and Cetuximab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Jolien; Koopman, Miriam; Cats, Annemieke; Rodenburg, Cees J.; Creemers, Geert J. M.; Schrama, Jolanda G.; Erdkamp, Frans L. G.; Vos, Allert H.; van Groeningen, Cees J.; Sinnige, Harm A. M.; Richel, Dirk J.; Voest, Emile E.; Dijkstra, Jeroen R.; Vink-Börger, Marianne E.; Antonini, Ninja F.; Mol, Linda; van Krieken, Johan H. J. M.; Dalesio, Otilia; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fluoropyrimidine- based chemotherapy plus the anti - vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) antibody bevacizumab is standard first- line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. We studied the effect of adding the anti - epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) antibody cetuximab

  1. Cytoreductive surgery for men with metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Katelaris

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: This data supports recent findings demonstrating that radical prostatectomy for metastatic prostate cancer is feasible. Further studies are needed to explore the role of cytoreductive surgery with regards to the potential oncological benefit.

  2. Management of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Recently, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become available for the treatment of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer. However, a number of clinical challenges that impact the use of VEGFR-targeted TKI in daily clinical practice have arisen. Toxicity is considerable, to the extent that most physicians hesitate to start VEGFR-targeted TKI and prefer to continue a watch-and-wait approach until the patient's disease markedly worsens. This delayed use of VEGFR-targeted TKI leads to a higher incidence of serious adverse events than was reported in clinical trials. Moreover, the watch-and-wait approach has several demerits, including a worsening of quality of life, worsening of outcomes in patients of older age or with follicular thyroid cancer and increased risk of brain metastasis or bleeding. Thus, optimal timing for the start of VEGFR-targeted TKI requires careful consideration. Moreover, management of VEGFR-targeted TKI toxicities requires appropriate supportive care, well-organised infrastructure in the outpatient clinic and patient education. Future treatment will progress to precision medicine based on molecular testing. Promotion of precision medicine requires the establishment of a system of easy access to molecular testing and the promotion of translational research for the development of new drugs.

  3. Outcomes of colon resection in patients with metastatic colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Differential expression of bio-markers in primary non-small cell lung cancer and metastatic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Roca, C.; Besse, B.; Soria, J.C. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave Roussy (IGR), Villejuif (France); Raynaud, Ch.; Morat, L.; Sabatier, L.; Soria, J.C. [Laboratoire de radiobiologie et oncologie, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Penault-Llorca, F. [Department of Pathology Centre Jean Perrin, Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale UMR484, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Mercier, O.; Dartevelle, Ph. [Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery and Heart-lung Transplantation, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, Le Pleissy-Robinson (France); Commo, F.; Taranchon, E. [Laboratory of Translational Research, IGR, Villejuif (France); Validire, P. [Department of Pathology, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Paris (France); Italiano, A. [Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Antoine-Lacassagne - Laboratory of Solid Tumor Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Nice Cedex (France)

    2009-07-01

    Introduction: The use of bio-markers to evaluate the presence of a target or to select a specific therapy is increasingly advocated. The correlation of bio-marker expression between the primary tumor and its corresponding metastasis has not yet been well documented and analyzed in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), excision repair cross-complementing (ERCC1), vascular-endothelial growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 was immuno-histo-chemically analyzed in tumor samples of primary NSCLC and one corresponding metastasis in a population of 49 patients. Results: Sixteen cases (33%) displayed clear discordance in the EGFR status between the primary tumor and the metastasis, with a significant trend toward downregulation of EGFR in the metastasis (p = 0.01). The ERCC1 status was discordant in 20 cases (41%), with a trend toward overexpression in brain and adrenal metastases (p = 0.01 and p = 0.08, respectively). The vascular-endothelial growth factor receptor and Ki-67 statuses were discordant in 13 (27%) and 15 (31%) cases, respectively. No difference in expression was observed between synchronous and metachronous metastasis. Conclusion: bio-marker expression is discordant between the primary tumor and its corresponding metastasis in about one third of patients with NSCLC. These findings should be considered in the setting of clinical trials and further explored using frozen material and high-throughput techniques. (authors)

  5. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  6. Fish oil suppresses cell growth and metastatic potential by regulating PTEN and NF-κB signaling in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevali Kansal

    Full Text Available Homeostasis in eukaryotic tissues is tightly regulated by an intricate balance of the prosurvival and antisurvival signals. The tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, a dual-specificity phosphatase, plays a functional role in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. NF-κB and its downstream regulators (such as VEGF play a central role in prevention of apoptosis, promotion of inflammation and tumor growth. Therefore, we thought to estimate the expression of PTEN, Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 and VEGF to evaluate the effect of supplementation of fish oil on apoptotic and inflammatory signaling in colon carcinoma. Male wistar rats in Group I received purified diet while Group II and III received modified diet supplemented with FO∶CO(1∶1&FO∶CO(2.5∶1 respectively. These were further subdivided into controls receiving ethylenediamine-tetra acetic-acid and treated groups received dimethylhydrazine-dihydrochloride (DMH/week for 4 weeks. Animals sacrificed 48 hours after last injection constituted initiation phase and that sacrificed after 16 weeks constituted post-initiation phase. We have analysed expression of PTEN, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 by flowcytometer and nuclear localization of NF-κB by immunofluorescence. PARP and VEGF were assessed by immunohistochemistry. In the initiation phase, animals receiving DMH have shown increased % of apoptotic cells, PTEN, PARP, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 and VEGF however in post-initiation phase no significant alteration in apoptosis with decreased PTEN and increased PARP, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 and VEGF were observed as compared to control animals. On treatment with both ratios of fish oil in both the phases, augmentation in % of apoptotic cells, decreased PTEN, PARP, NF-κBp50, NF-κBp65 and VEGF were documented with respect to DMH treated animals with effect being more exerted with higher ration in post-initiation phase. Hence, fish oil activates

  7. Association of Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 expression of the primary non-small-cell lung cancer lesion with brain metastatic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, Robbin S.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Hachiya, Tsutomu; Milas, Ivan; Ro, Jae Y.; Langford, Lauren; Sawaya, Raymond; Putnam, Joe B.; Allen, Pamela; Cox, James D.; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Brock, William; Hong, Waun K.; Roth, Jack A.; Milas, Luka

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The study was conducted to determine whether immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with a higher rate of brain metastases and whether the intrapatient expression of these biomarkers (in the primary tumors vs. brain lesions) is similar. Methods and Materials: At the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, tumors from 29 case patients with primary lung tumor and brain metastasis and 29 control patients with primary lung tumor but no brain metastasis were resected and examined for immunohistochemical expression. Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 were analyzed in resected primary lung, lymph node, and metastatic brain tumors. Each control patient was matched by age, gender, and histology to a patient with brain metastasis. Results: No significant differences in patient survival characteristics were detected between the case group and control group. Also, difference in patient outcome between the two groups was not generally predicted by biomarker analysis. However, when the groups were combined, the biomarker analysis was predictive for certain patient outcome end points. Using median values as cutoff points between low and high expression of biomarkers, it was observed that high expression of Ki-67 (>40%) in lung primaries was associated with poorer disease-free survival (p=0.04), whereas low expression of p53 in lung primaries was associated with poorer overall survival (p=0.04), and these patients had a higher rate of nonbrain distant metastases (p=0.02). The patients with brain metastases were particularly prone to developing nonbrain distant metastases if the percentage of p53-positive cells in brain metastases was low (p=0.01). There was a positive correlation in the expression of Ki-67 (p=0.02) (r 2 =0.1608), as well as p53 (p 2 =0.7380), between lung primaries and brain metastases. Compared to Ki-67 and p53, bcl-2 was the least predictive. Conclusion: Differences in biomarker expression between the

  8. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine for elderly patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaedo Sueli M

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although modest improvements in the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC can be achieved with cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT, its value is disputed in the geriatric setting. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of vinorelbine/cisplatin CT for elderly NSCLC patients. Methods In this pilot phase I/II trial, all patients received CT with vinorelbine 25 mg/m2, on day 1 and 8, and cisplatin on day 1, in 28 days-cycles. After stratification for age (up to 75 years, younger patients were sequentially allocated to moderate cisplatin doses (80 mg/m2 or 90 mg/m2, and older patients were allocated to lower cisplatin doses (60 mg/m2 or 70 mg/m2. We recruited patients aged over 70 years with newly diagnosed NSCLC, clinical stage III or IV, Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70%, normal serum creatinine, peripheral neuropathy ≤ grade 1, and no prior cancer therapy. Results Analysis was by intention to treat. Main toxicities (grade 3–4 was as follows: neutropenia, 20%; anemia, 11%; and thrombocytopenia, 2%; alopecia, 55%; fatigue, 11%; and peripheral neurotoxicity, 2%. No grade 3–4 emesis or renal toxicity occurred. Global median time to progression (TTP and overall survival (OS were 27.0 (95% CI: 10.1 to 43.7 weeks and 30.1 (95% CI: 24.4 to 35.8 weeks; 1- and 2-year survival rates were 36.3% and 13.2%, respectively. Overall response rate was 50.0% (95% CI: 35.4% to 64.5%, with 1 complete response; no difference on response rate was noticed according to cisplatin dose. Median overall survival was 30.1 weeks, with 1- and 2-year survival rates of 36.3% and 13.2%, respectively. Conclusion Age does not preclude assessment on the role of cisplatin-vinorelbine CT for elderly NSCLC patients with good performance status and adequate bodily functions.

  9. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine for elderly patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, José Rodrigues; Martins, Sandro J; Nikaedo, Sueli M; Ikari, Flora K

    2004-01-01

    Although modest improvements in the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be achieved with cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT), its value is disputed in the geriatric setting. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of vinorelbine/cisplatin CT for elderly NSCLC patients. In this pilot phase I/II trial, all patients received CT with vinorelbine 25 mg/m 2 , on day 1 and 8, and cisplatin on day 1, in 28 days-cycles. After stratification for age (up to 75 years), younger patients were sequentially allocated to moderate cisplatin doses (80 mg/m 2 or 90 mg/m 2 ), and older patients were allocated to lower cisplatin doses (60 mg/m 2 or 70 mg/m 2 ). We recruited patients aged over 70 years with newly diagnosed NSCLC, clinical stage III or IV, Karnofsky performance status ≥ 70%, normal serum creatinine, peripheral neuropathy ≤ grade 1, and no prior cancer therapy. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main toxicities (grade 3–4) was as follows: neutropenia, 20%; anemia, 11%; and thrombocytopenia, 2%; alopecia, 55%; fatigue, 11%; and peripheral neurotoxicity, 2%. No grade 3–4 emesis or renal toxicity occurred. Global median time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) were 27.0 (95% CI: 10.1 to 43.7) weeks and 30.1 (95% CI: 24.4 to 35.8) weeks; 1- and 2-year survival rates were 36.3% and 13.2%, respectively. Overall response rate was 50.0% (95% CI: 35.4% to 64.5%), with 1 complete response; no difference on response rate was noticed according to cisplatin dose. Median overall survival was 30.1 weeks, with 1- and 2-year survival rates of 36.3% and 13.2%, respectively. Age does not preclude assessment on the role of cisplatin-vinorelbine CT for elderly NSCLC patients with good performance status and adequate bodily functions

  10. Effect of Proton Beam on Cancer Progressive and Metastatic Enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Nam, K. S.; Oh, Y. H.; Kim, M. K.; Kim, M. Y.; Jang, J. S.

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of proton beam on enzymes for promotion/progression of carcinogenesis and metastasis of malignant tumor cells to clarify proton beam-specific biological effects. The changes of cancer chemopreventive enzymes in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells irradiated with proton beams were tested by measuring the activities of quinine reductase (QR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), glutathione (GSH) levels, and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We also examined the effect of proton beam on the ODC activity and expression of COX-2 in human breast cancer cell. We then assessed the metastatic capabilities of HT-29 and MDA-MB-231 cells irradiated with proton beam by measuring the invasiveness of cells through Matrigel-coated membrane and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. QR activity of irradiated HT-29 cells was slightly increased. Proton irradiation at dose of 32 Gy in HT-29 cells increased GST activity by 1.23-fold. In addition GSH levels in HT-29 cells was significantly increased 1.23- (p<0.05), 1.32- (p<0.01) and 1.34-fold (p<0.01) with the proton irradiation at doses of 8, 16 and 32 Gy, respectively. These results suggest that colon cancer chemopreventive activity was increased with the proton irradiation by increasing QR and GST activities and GSH levels and inhibiting ODC activity. Proton ion irradiation decreased the invasiveness of TPA-treated HT-29 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells through Matrigel-coated membrane. Proton ion irradiation pretreatment decreased TPA-induced MMP activity in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cells. Further studies are necessary to investigate if these findings could be translated to in vivo situations

  11. Stable and high expression of Galectin-8 tightly controls metastatic progression of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilini, Lucas Daniel; Pérez, Ignacio González; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Chauchereau, Anne; Laderach, Diego Jose; Compagno, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Two decades ago, Galectin-8 was described as a prostate carcinoma biomarker since it is only expressed in the neoplastic prostate, but not in the healthy tissue. To date, no biological function has been attributed to Galectin-8 that could explain this differential expression. In this study we silenced Galectin-8 in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and IGR-CaP1, and designed a pre-clinical experimental model that allows monitoring the pathology from its early steps to the long-term metastatic stages. We show for the first time that the natural and conserved expression of Gal-8 in tumour cells is responsible for the metastatic evolution of prostate cancer. In fact, Gal-8 controls the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and E-Cadherin expression, with a major impact on anoikis and homotypic aggregation of tumour cells, both being essential processes for the survival of circulating tumour cells during metastasis. While localized prostate cancer can be cured, metastatic and advanced disease remains a significant therapeutic challenge, urging for the identification of prognostic markers of the metastatic process. Collectively, our results highlight Galectin-8 as a potential target for anti-metastatic therapy against prostate cancer. PMID:28591719

  12. Hyperglycemia regulates thioredoxin-ROS activity through induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in metastatic breast cancer-derived cells MDA-MB-231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turturro, Francesco; Friday, Ellen; Welbourne, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We studied the RNA expression of the genes in response to glucose from 5 mM (condition of normoglycemia) to 20 mM (condition of hyperglycemia/diabetes) by microarray analysis in breast cancer derived cell line MDA-MB-231. We identified the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), whose RNA level increased as a gene product particularly sensitive to the variation of the level of glucose in culture media. We investigated the kinesis of the TXNIP RNA and protein in response to glucose and the relationship between this protein and the related thioredoxin (TRX) in regulating the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MDA-MB-231 cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were grown either in 5 or 20 mM glucose chronically prior to plating. For glucose shift (5/20), cells were plated in 5 mM glucose and shifted to 20 mM at time 0. Cells were analyzed with Affymetrix Human U133A microarray chip and gene expression profile was obtained. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot was used to validate the expression of TXNIP RNA and protein in response to glucose, respectively. ROS were detected by CM-H2DCFDA (5–6-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) and measured for mean fluorescence intensity with flow cytometry. TRX activity was assayed by the insulin disulfide reducing assay. We found that the regulation of TXNIP gene expression by glucose in MDA-MB-231 cells occurs rapidly within 6 h of its increased level (20 mM glucose) and persists through the duration of the conditions of hyperglycemia. The increased level of TXNIP RNA is followed by increased level of protein that is associated with increasing levels of ROS and reduced TRX activity. The inhibition of the glucose transporter GLUT1 by phloretin notably reduces TXNIP RNA level and the inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase activity by SB203580 reverses the effects of TXNIP on ROS-TRX activity. In this study we show that TXNIP is an oxidative stress responsive gene and its expression is exquisitely regulated by

  13. Hyperglycemia regulates thioredoxin-ROS activity through induction of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in metastatic breast cancer-derived cells MDA-MB-231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friday Ellen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the RNA expression of the genes in response to glucose from 5 mM (condition of normoglycemia to 20 mM (condition of hyperglycemia/diabetes by microarray analysis in breast cancer derived cell line MDA-MB-231. We identified the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP, whose RNA level increased as a gene product particularly sensitive to the variation of the level of glucose in culture media. We investigated the kinesis of the TXNIP RNA and protein in response to glucose and the relationship between this protein and the related thioredoxin (TRX in regulating the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS in MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods MDA-MB-231 cells were grown either in 5 or 20 mM glucose chronically prior to plating. For glucose shift (5/20, cells were plated in 5 mM glucose and shifted to 20 mM at time 0. Cells were analyzed with Affymetrix Human U133A microarray chip and gene expression profile was obtained. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot was used to validate the expression of TXNIP RNA and protein in response to glucose, respectively. ROS were detected by CM-H2DCFDA (5–6-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and measured for mean fluorescence intensity with flow cytometry. TRX activity was assayed by the insulin disulfide reducing assay. Results We found that the regulation of TXNIP gene expression by glucose in MDA-MB-231 cells occurs rapidly within 6 h of its increased level (20 mM glucose and persists through the duration of the conditions of hyperglycemia. The increased level of TXNIP RNA is followed by increased level of protein that is associated with increasing levels of ROS and reduced TRX activity. The inhibition of the glucose transporter GLUT1 by phloretin notably reduces TXNIP RNA level and the inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase activity by SB203580 reverses the effects of TXNIP on ROS-TRX activity. Conclusion In this study we show that TXNIP is an oxidative stress responsive

  14. Challenging metastatic breast cancer with the natural defensin PvD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Tiago N; Oliveira, Filipa D; Almeida, Inês; Mello, Érica O; Gomes, Valdirene M; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Gaspar, Diana

    2017-11-09

    Metastatic breast cancer is a very serious life threatening condition that poses many challenges for the pharmaceutical development of effective chemotherapeutics. As the therapeutics targeted to the localized masses in breast improve, metastatic lesions in the brain slowly increase in their incidence compromising successful treatment outcomes overall. The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is one important obstacle for the management of breast cancer brain metastases. New therapeutic approaches are in demand for overcoming the BBB's breaching by breast tumor cells. In this work we demonstrate the potential dual role of a natural antimicrobial plant defensin, PvD 1 : it interferes with the formation of solid tumors in the breast and concomitantly controls adhesion of breast cancer cells to human brain endothelial cells. We have used a combination of techniques that probe PvD 1 's effect at the single cell level and reveal that this peptide can effectively damage breast tumor cells, leaving healthy breast and brain cells unaffected. Results suggest that PvD1 quickly internalizes in cancer cells but remains located in the membrane of normal cells with no significant damage to its structure and biomechanical properties. These interactions in turn modulate cell adhesiveness between tumor and BBB cells. PvD 1 is a potential template for the design of innovative pharmacological approaches for metastatic breast cancer treatment: the manipulation of the biomechanical properties of tumor cells that ultimately prevent their attachment to the BBB.

  15. Consistent expression of guanylyl cyclase-C in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Danaee

    Full Text Available The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GCC has been found to be expressed in colorectal cancers. However, limited data are available on GCC protein expression in non-colorectal gastrointestinal tumors and few studies have reported whether GCC protein expression was consistently preserved in synchronous primary and metastatic cancer tissues.GCC protein status was assessed by immunohistochemistry in tumor specimens from individuals (n = 627 with gastrointestinal tumors, including esophageal (n = 130, gastric (n = 276, pancreatic (n = 136, and colorectal (n = 85 primary and metastatic tumors. Tissue specimens consisted of tissue microarrays containing esophageal, gastric, pancreatic tumors, and whole-slide tissue sections from colorectal cancer patients with matching primary and metastatic tumors.Among the evaluated esophageal, gastric, and pancreatic tumors, the frequency of GCC positivity at the protein level ranged from 59% to 68%. GCC was consistently expressed in primary and matched/synchronous metastatic lesions of colorectal cancer tissues derived from the same patients.This observational study demonstrated the protein expression of GCC across various gastrointestinal malignancies. In all cancer histotypes, GCC protein localization was observed predominantly in the cytoplasm compared to the membrane region of tumor cells. Consistent immunohistochemistry detection of GCC protein expression in primary colorectal cancers and in their matched liver metastases suggests that the expression of GCC is maintained throughout the process of tumor progression and formation of metastatic disease.

  16. Phase I/II clinical trial of dendritic-cell based immunotherapy (DCVAC/PCa) combined with chemotherapy in patients with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrazil, Michal; Horvath, Rudolf; Becht, Etienne; Rozkova, Daniela; Bilkova, Pavla; Sochorova, Klara; Hromadkova, Hana; Kayserova, Jana; Vavrova, Katerina; Lastovicka, Jan; Vrabcova, Petra; Kubackova, Katerina; Gasova, Zdenka; Jarolim, Ladislav; Babjuk, Marek; Spisek, Radek; Bartunkova, Jirina; Fucikova, Jitka

    2015-07-20

    We conducted an open-label, single-arm Phase I/II clinical trial in metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients eligible for docetaxel combined with treatment with autologous mature dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with killed LNCaP prostate cancer cells (DCVAC/PCa). The primary and secondary endpoints were safety and immune responses, respectively. Overall survival (OS), followed as a part of the safety evaluation, was compared to the predicted OS according to the Halabi and MSKCC nomograms. Twenty-five patients with progressive mCRPC were enrolled. Treatment comprised of initial 7 days administration of metronomic cyclophosphamide 50 mg p.o. DCVAC/PCa treatment consisted of a median twelve doses of 1 × 107 dendritic cells per dose injected s.c. (Aldara creme was applied at the site of injection) during a one-year period. The initial 2 doses of DCVAC/PCa were administered at a 2-week interval, followed by the administration of docetaxel (75 mg/m2) and prednisone (5 mg twice daily) given every 3 weeks until toxicity or intolerance was observed. The DCVAC/PCa was then injected every 6 weeks up to the maximum number of doses manufactured from one leukapheresis. No serious DCVAC/PCa-related adverse events have been reported. The median OS was 19 months, whereas the predicted median OS was 11.8 months with the Halabi nomogram and 13 months with the MSKCC nomogram. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that patients had a lower risk of death compared with both MSKCC (Hazard Ratio 0.26, 95% CI: 0.13-0.51) and Halabi (Hazard Ratio 0.33, 95% CI: 0.17-0.63) predictions. We observed a significant decrease in Tregs in the peripheral blood. The long-term administration of DCVAC/PCa led to the induction and maintenance of PSA specific T cells. We did not identify any immunological parameter that significantly correlated with better OS. In patients with mCRPC, the combined chemoimmunotherapy with DCVAC/PCa and docetaxel was safe and resulted in longer than expected survival. Concomitant chemotherapy

  17. Evaluation of dual energy spectral CT in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer: Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huanhuan [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine (China); Yan, Fuhua; Pan, Zilai; Lin, Xiaozhu; Luo, Xianfu; Shi, Cen [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Xiaoyan [Department of Pathology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Baisong [Department of Biomedical Statistics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang, Huan, E-mail: huanzhangy@126.com [Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer and the status of the regional lymph nodes in rectal cancer is considered to be one of the most powerful prognostic factor in the absence of distant metastatic disease. Detecting LNs metastasis is still a challenging problem due to the presence of microscopic metastasis or inflammatory swelling of LNs. • We investigated the value of dual energy spectral CT in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Our study demonstrated that the quantitative normalized iodine concentration (nIC) could be useful for differentiating metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes. The combination of nIC in portal venous phase and conventional size criterion could improve the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of rectal cancer. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the value of dual energy spectral CT (DEsCT) imaging in differentiating metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes in rectal cancer. Methods: Fifty-five patients with rectal cancer underwent the arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP) contrast-enhanced DEsCT imaging. The virtual monochromatic images and iodine-based material decomposition images derived from DEsCT imaging were interpreted for lymph nodes (LNs) measurement. The short axis diameter and the normalized iodine concentration (nIC) of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs were measured. The two-sample t test was used to compare the short axis diameters and nIC values of metastatic and non-metastatic LNs. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance. Results: One hundred and fifty two LNs including 92 non-metastatic LNs and 60 metastatic LNs were matched using the radiological-pathological correlation. The mean short axis diameter of metastatic LNs was significantly larger than that of the non-metastatic LNs (7.28 ± 2.28 mm vs. 4.90 ± 1.64 mm, P < 0.001). The mean n

  18. EphA2 Is a Potential Player of Malignant Cellular Behavior in Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells but Not in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min Chul; Cho, Sung Yong; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Jeong, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of EphA2 in malignant cellular behavior in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and whether FAK/RhoA signaling can act as downstream effectors of EphA2 on RCC cells. Expression of EphA2 protein in non-metastatic RCC (Caki-2 and A498), metastatic RCC cells (Caki-1 and ACHN), HEK-293 cells and prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU-145; positive controls of EphA2 expression) was evaluated by Western blot. Changes in mRNA or protein expression of EphA2, FAK or membrane-bound RhoA following EphA2, FAK or RhoA small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot. The effect of siRNA treatment on cellular viability, apoptosis and invasion was analyzed by cell counting kit-8, Annexin-V and modified Matrigel-Boyden assays, respectively. In all RCC cell lines, the expression of EphA2 protein was detectable at variable levels; however, in HEK-293 cells, EphA2 expression was very low. Treatment with EphA2 siRNA significantly reduced the expression of EphA2 mRNA and protein in all RCC cell lines. For non-metastatic RCC cells (Caki-2 and A498) but not metastatic RCC cells (Caki-1 and ACHN), cellular viability, invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein and FAK phosphorylation were significantly decreased in EphA2 siRNA-treated cells compared to the control. In non-metastatic RCC cells, FAK siRNA significantly attenuated the invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, as well as expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein without changing protein expression of EphA2. RhoA siRNA significantly decreased the malignant cellular behavior and expression of membrane-bound RhoA protein without changing EphA2 protein expression or FAK phosphorylation. Our data provide the first functional evidence that the EphA2/FAK/RhoA signaling pathway plays a critical role in the malignant cellular behavior of RCC and appears to be functional particularly in the early stage of

  19. Pemetrexed single agent chemotherapy in previously treated patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Francesca; Bearz, Alessandra; Pampaloni, Gianni; The investigators of the Italian Pemetrexed monotherapy of NSCLC group

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of second-line pemetrexed in Stage IIIB or IV NSCLC. Overall, 95 patients received pemetrexed 500 mg/m 2 i.v. over Day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Patients also received oral dexamethasone, oral folic acid and i.m. vitamin B12 supplementation to reduce toxicity. NCI CTC 2.0 was used to rate toxicity. All the adverse events were graded in terms of severity and relation to study treatment. Dose was reduced in case of toxicity and treatment was delayed for up to 42 days from Day 1 of any cycle to allow recovering from study drug-related toxicities. Tumor response was measured using the RECIST criteria. Patients received a median number of 4 cycles and 97.8% of the planned dose. Overall, 75 patients (78.9% of treated) reported at least one adverse event: 34 (35.8%) had grade 3 as worst grade and only 5 (5.2%) had grade 4. Drug-related events occurred in 57.9% of patients. Neutropenia (8.4%) and leukopenia (6.3 %) were the most common grade 3/4 hematological toxicities. Grade 3 anemia and thrombocytopenia were reported in 3.2% and 2.1% of patients, respectively. Diarrhea (6.3%), fatigue (3.2%) and dyspnea (3.2%) were the most common grade 3/4 non-hematological toxicities. The most common drug-related toxicities (any grade) were pyrexia (11.6%), vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and asthenia (9.5%) and fatigue (8.4%). Tumor Response Rate (CR/PR) in treated patients was 9.2%. The survival at 4.5 months (median follow-up) was 79% and the median PFS was 3.1 months. Twenty patients (21.1%) died mainly because of disease progression. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC could benefit from second-line pemetrexed, with a low incidence of hematological and non-hematological toxicities

  20. Identification of genes regulating migration and invasion using a new model of metastatic prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banyard, Jacqueline; Chung, Ivy; Migliozzi, Matthew; Phan, Derek T; Wilson, Arianne M; Zetter, Bruce R; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the complex, multistep process of metastasis remains a major challenge in cancer research. Metastasis models can reveal insights in tumor development and progression and provide tools to test new intervention strategies. To develop a new cancer metastasis model, we used DU145 human prostate cancer cells and performed repeated rounds of orthotopic prostate injection and selection of subsequent lymph node metastases. Tumor growth, metastasis, cell migration and invasion were analyzed. Microarray analysis was used to identify cell migration- and cancer-related genes correlating with metastasis. Selected genes were silenced using siRNA, and their roles in cell migration and invasion were determined in transwell migration and Matrigel invasion assays. Our in vivo cycling strategy created cell lines with dramatically increased tumorigenesis and increased ability to colonize lymph nodes (DU145LN1-LN4). Prostate tumor xenografts displayed increased vascularization, enlarged podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels and invasive margins. Microarray analysis revealed gene expression profiles that correlated with metastatic potential. Using gene network analysis we selected 3 significantly upregulated cell movement and cancer related genes for further analysis: EPCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), ITGB4 (integrin β4) and PLAU (urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)). These genes all showed increased protein expression in the more metastatic DU145-LN4 cells compared to the parental DU145. SiRNA knockdown of EpCAM, integrin-β4 or uPA all significantly reduced cell migration in DU145-LN4 cells. In contrast, only uPA siRNA inhibited cell invasion into Matrigel. This role of uPA in cell invasion was confirmed using the uPA inhibitors, amiloride and UK122. Our approach has identified genes required for the migration and invasion of metastatic tumor cells, and we propose that our new in vivo model system will be a powerful tool to interrogate the metastatic

  1. Periostin is identified as a putative metastatic marker in breast cancer-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaki, Ioulia; Ceder, Sophia; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Baltatzis, George; Foukakis, Theodoros; Panaretakis, Theocharis

    2016-11-15

    Breast cancer (BrCa) is the most frequent cancer type in women and a leading cause of cancer related deaths in the world. Despite the decrease in mortality due to better diagnostics and palliative care, there is a lack of prognostic markers of metastasis. Recently, the exploitation of liquid biopsies and in particular of the extracellular vesicles has shown promise in the identification of such prognostic markers. In this study we compared the proteomic content of exosomes derived from metastatic and non-metastatic human (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) and mouse (67NR and 4T1) cell lines. We found significant differences not only in the amount of secreted exosomes but most importantly in the protein content of exosomes secreted from metastatic versus non-metastatic ones. We identified periostin as a protein that is enriched in exosomes secreted by metastatic cells and validated its presence in a pilot cohort of breast cancer patient samples with localized disease or lymph node (LN) metastasis.

  2. Phase II trial of interleukin 2, interferon alpha, and 5-fluorouracil in metastatic renal cell cancer: a cytokine working group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, J P; Logan, T; Gordon, M; Sosman, J; Weiss, G; Margolin, K; Plasse, T; Mier, J; Lotze, M; Clark, J; Atkins, M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of alternating two outpatient regimens for the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer. These regimens consisted of 4 weeks of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) plus IFN-alpha2B followed by 4 weeks of 5-fluorouracil plus IFN-alpha2B. Fifty patients meeting eligibility criteria of previous Cytokine Working Group studies were treated on an outpatient basis. Patients received s.c. rIL-2 (Proleukin; Chiron, Emeryville, CA) during weeks 1-4 of the 8-week regimen. During weeks 1 and 4, the dosage for rIL-2 was 10 MIU/m2 twice daily on days 3-5, and the dosage for IFN-alpha2B (Intron; Schering Plough, Kenilworth, NJ) was 6 MIU/m2 on day 1. During weeks 2 and 3, the dosage for rIL-2 was 5 MIU/m2 on days 1, 3, and 5, and the dosage for IFN-alpha2B was 6 MIU/m2 on days 1, 3, 5. During weeks 5-8, 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m2) was administered once weekly by i.v. infusion, and IFN-alpha2B (9 MIU/mZ) was administered as a s.c. injection three times weekly. Throughout the treatment, an assessment of quality of life was made and a symptom-distress scale was evaluated. There were two patients with complete responses (CRs) and seven with partial responses (PRs) for an objective response rate of 18% (95% confidence interval, 10-25). The median response duration was 8 months (range, 3-51+ months). The CRs lasted 5 months and 51+ months and the PRs ranged from 3+ to 18 months. After completing at least one course of treatment, eight patients (three with PR, one with minor response, four with stable disease) became CRs after surgery for remaining metastatic disease. Six remain alive at 43+ to 53+ months, and 5 remain disease-free since surgery. The median survival of the study group is 17.5 months, with a maximal follow-up of 53+ months. The range in survival is 1-53+ months. Toxicity was primarily constitutional. and treatment modifications were designed to maintain toxicity at grade 2/3. The most common toxicities during

  3. Clinicopathologic factors associated with de novo metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tiansheng; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2016-12-01

    While breast cancers with distant metastasis at presentation (de novo metastasis) harbor significantly inferior clinical outcomes, there have been limited studies analyzing the clinicopathologic characteristics in this subset of patients. In this study, we analyzed 6126 breast cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2013 to identify factors associated with de novo metastatic breast cancer. When compared to patients without metastasis at presentation, race, histologic grade, estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) and HER2 statuses were significantly associated with de novo metastasis in the entire cohort, whereas age, histologic grade, PR and HER2 status were the significant parameters in the subset of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIB/III). The patients with de novo metastatic breast cancer had a significant older mean age and a lower proportion of HER2-positive tumors when compared to those with metastatic recurrence. Further, the HER2-rich subtype demonstrated a drastically higher incidence of de novo metastasis when compared to the luminal and triple-negative breast cancers in the entire cohort [odds ratio (OR)=5.68 and 2.27, respectively] and in the patients with locally advanced disease (OR=4.02 and 2.12, respectively), whereas no significant difference was seen between de novo metastatic cancers and those with metastatic recurrence. Moreover, the luminal and HER2-rich subtypes showed bone-seeking (OR=1.92) and liver-homing (OR=2.99) characteristics, respectively, for the sites of de novo metastasis, while the latter was not observed in those with metastatic recurrence. Our data suggest that an algorithm incorporating clinicopathologic factors, especially histologic grade and receptor profile, remains of significant benefit during decision making in newly diagnosed breast cancer in the pursuit of precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Dynamics in Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kosuke; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Miki; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Bouvet, Michael; Shimizu, Masahito; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-05-01

    Colon cancer frequently results in metastasis to the liver, where it becomes the main cause of death. However, the cell cycle in primary tumors and metastases is poorly understood. We developed a mouse model of liver metastasis using the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116, which expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the nucleus and red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm (HCT-116-GFP-RFP). HCT-116 GFP-RFP cells were injected into the spleen of nu/nu nude mice. HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells subsequently formed primary tumors in the spleen, as well as metastatic colonies in the liver and retroperitoneum by 28 days after cell transplantation. Using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope, it was possible to clearly image mitosis of the dual-colored colon cancer cells in the primary tumor as well as liver and other metastases. Multi-nucleate cancer cells, in addition to mono-nucleate cancer cells and their mitosis, were observed in the primary tumor and metastasis. Multi-nucleate HCT-116-GFP-RFP cells were also observed after culture of the primary and metastatic tumors. A similar ratio of mono-nucleate, multi-nucleate, and mitotic cells grew from the primary and metastatic tumors in culture, suggesting similarity of the nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics of primary and metastatic cancer cells, further emphasizing the stochastic nature of metastasis. Our results demonstrate a similar heterogeneity of nuclear-cytoplasmic dynamics within primary tumors and metastases, which may be an important factor in the stochastic nature of metastasis. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Drug Resistance and the Kinetics of Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, Krastan B.

    2012-02-01

    Most metastatic cancers after initial response to current drug therapies develop resistance to the treatment. We present cancer data and a theory that explains the observed kinetics of tumor growth in cancer patients and using a stochastic model based on this theory we relate the kinetics of tumor growth to Kaplan-Meyer survival curves. The theory points to the tumor growth rate as the most important parameter determining the outcome of a drug treatment. The overall tumor growth or decay rate is a reflection of the balance between cell division, senescence and apoptosis and we propose that the deviation of the decay rate from exponential is a measure of the emergence of drug resistance. In clinical trials the progression free survival, the overall survival, and the shape of the Kaplan-Meyer plots are determined by the tumor growth rate probability distribution among the patients in the trial. How drug treatments modify this distribution will also be described. At the end of the talk we will discuss the connection between the theory described here and the age related cancer mortality rates in the United States.

  6. Altering adsorbed proteins or cellular gene expression in bone-metastatic cancer cells affects PTHrP and Gli2 without altering cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Page

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contents of this data in brief are related to the article titled “Matrix Rigidity Regulates the Transition of Tumor Cells to a Bone-Destructive Phenotype through Integrin β3 and TGF-β Receptor Type II”. In this DIB we will present our supplemental data investigating Integrin expression, attachment of cells to various adhesion molecules, and changes in gene expression in multiple cancer cell lines. Since the interactions of Integrins with adsorbed matrix proteins are thought to affect the ability of cancer cells to interact with their underlying substrates, we examined the expression of Integrin β1, β3, and β5 in response to matrix rigidity. We found that only Iβ3 increased with increasing substrate modulus. While it was shown that fibronectin greatly affects the expression of tumor-produced factors associated with bone destruction (parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTHrP, and Gli2, poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen were also analyzed as potential matrix proteins. Each of the proteins was independently adsorbed on both rigid and compliant polyurethane films which were subsequently used to culture cancer cells. Poly-l-lysine, vitronectin and type I collagen all had negligible effects on PTHrP or Gli2 expression, but fibronectin was shown to have a dose dependent effect. Finally, altering the expression of Iβ3 demonstrated that it is required for tumor cells to respond to the rigidity of the matrix, but does not affect other cell growth or viability. Together these data support the data presented in our manuscript to show that the rigidity of bone drives Integrinβ3/TGF-β crosstalk, leading to increased expression of Gli2 and PTHrP.

  7. Exosomes enriched in stemness/metastatic-related mRNAS promote oncogenic potential in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marta; Silva, Javier; Herrera, Alberto; Herrera, Mercedes; Peña, Cristina; Martín, Paloma; Gil-Calderón, Beatriz; Larriba, María Jesús; Coronado, M Josés; Soldevilla, Beatriz; Turrión, Víctor S; Provencio, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Bonilla, Félix; García-Barberán, Vanesa

    2015-12-01

    Cancer cells efficiently transfer exosome contents (essentially mRNAs and microRNAs) to other cell types, modifying immune responses, cell growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Here we analyzed the exosomes release by breast tumor cells with different capacities of stemness/metastasis based on CXCR4 expression, and evaluated their capacity to generate oncogenic features in recipient cells. Breast cancer cells overexpressing CXCR4 showed an increase in stemness-related markers, and in proliferation, migration and invasion capacities. Furthermore, recipient cells treated with exosomes from CXCR4-cells showed increased in the same abilities. Moreover, inoculation of CXCR4-cell-derived exosomes in immunocompromised mice stimulated primary tumor growth and metastatic potential. Comparison of nucleic acids contained into exosomes isolated from patients revealed a "stemness and metastatic" signature in exosomes of patients with worse prognosis. Finally, our data supported the view that cancer cells with stem-like properties show concomitant metastatic behavior, and their exosomes stimulate tumor progression and metastasis. Exosomes-derived nucleic acids from plasma of breast cancer patients are suitable markers in the prognosis of such patients.

  8. 2-DE analysis of breast cancer cell lines 1833 and 4175 with distinct metastatic organ-specific potentials: Comparison with parental cell line MDA-MB-231

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Selicharová, Irena; Šanda, Miloslav; Mládková, Jana; Ohri, S. S.; Vashishta, A.; Fusek, M.; Jiráček, Jiří; Vetvicka, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2008), s. 1237-1244 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8323 Grant - others:NIH(US) ROI CAA082159-03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : breast cancer * cell line * 2-DE * organ-specific metastases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.524, year: 2008

  9. Gemcitabine and capecitabine for heavily pre-treated metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Karen-Lise G; Pallisgaard, Niels; Andersen, Rikke F

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and gemcitabin (GemCap) in heavily pre-treated, therapy-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and the clinical importance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) measurement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients' inclusion criteria included...

  10. Prognostic relevance of sunitinib toxicities and comparison of continuous vs. intermittent sunitinib dosing schedule in metastatic renal cell cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Ordu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Sunitinib-related side effects may develop as a result of the pharmacokinetic pathway affects the of the drug. Material and methods : Data on mRCC patients were obtained from the hospital archives. Outcomes of patients were evaluated in terms of related prognostic factors, sunitinib adverse events during the treatment, and two different sunitinib dosing schedules. Results : Seventy patients diagnosed with mRCC and treated with sunitinib were analyzed for prognostic factors and survival rates. During the mean follow-up of 33.5 months, 38 (54% patients were alive and 32 (46% patients died. The median time of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS was 27 months (12–61 and 19 months (5–45, respectively. In univariate analysis, good prognostic risk group according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC, hypothyroidism as sunitinib toxicity and patients on sunitinib treatment more than 1 year were favorable prognostic factors for OS. Leukopenia and fatigue as sunitinib toxicity were poor prognostic factors for OS. PFS and OS of the patients were not significantly different when we compared intermittent (4/2 vs. continuous treatment dosing schedules. Conclusions : As a result of this trial, having hypothyroidism as an adverse effect of sunitinib was a favorable prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients. It was also found that 4/2 and continuous dosing schedules of sunitinib did not give rise to different outcomes in mRCC patients.

  11. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of both. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed or recurrent metastatic squamous neck cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  12. Outcome and cervical metastatic spread of squamous cell cancer of the buccal mucosa, a retrospective analysis of the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheb, Keyvan; Blatt, Sebastian; Kraft, Ina Sophie; Zimmer, Stefanie; Rahimi-Nedjat, Roman-Kia; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Walter, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Because of the low proportion of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the buccal mucosa within the carcinomas of the oral cavity in the Western population, data concerning metastatic pattern are sparse. Therefore, this retrospective study is focusing on the occurrence of cervical metastases (CM) and the overall outcome of this tumor entity. From January 1988 to October 2013, 113 patients were treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mainz, for an oral SCC of the cheek. Metastatic pattern and clinical parameters that are possibly associated with an increased risk for CM as well as overall outcome were analyzed. The average follow-up was 48 months (range: 1-248 months). A total of 55 (49%) patients were female and 58 (51%) male, with an average age of 65 ± 13 years (♀68 ± 14 years; ♂63 ± 11 years). In total, 55% of the patients either smoked and/or consumed alcohol. In total, 34% of the patients had a stage III or IV tumor, with overall 23% having CM at the time of diagnosis. During the follow-up, 50% (n = 56) of the patients developed a relapse after 12 months (median). Tumor size (P = 0.002*) and grading (P cervical metastatic pattern, a selective, ipsilateral neck dissection for this patient group is recommended as the primary management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with renal vein involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Hatsuko; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Megumi; Nagata, Masao; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi

    2015-02-01

    The common sites of breast cancer metastases include bones, lung, brain, and liver. Renal metastasis from the breast is rare. We report a case of breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with extension into the renal vein. A 40-year-old woman had undergone left mastectomy for breast cancer at the age of 38. A gastric tumor, which was later proved to be metastasis from breast cancer, was detected by endoscopy. Computed tomography performed for further examination of the gastric tumor revealed a large left renal tumor with extension into the left renal vein. It mimicked a primary renal tumor. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal tumor confirmed metastasis from breast cancer. Surgical intervention of the stomach and the kidney was avoided, and she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney may present a solitary renal mass with extension into the renal vein, which mimics a primary renal tumor.

  14. Mechanical Entrapment Is Insufficient and Intercellular Adhesion Is Essential for Metastatic Cell Arrest in Distant Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Glinskii

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we challenge a common perception that tumor embolism is a size-limited event of mechanical arrest, occurring in the first capillary bed encountered by blood-borne metastatic cells. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical entrapment alone, in the absence of tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel walls, is not sufficient for metastatic cell arrest in target organ microvasculature. The in vivo metastatic deposit formation assay was used to assess the number and location of fluorescently labeled tumor cells lodged in selected organs and tissues following intravenous inoculation. We report that a significant fraction of breast and prostate cancer cells escapes arrest in a lung capillary bed and lodges successfully in other organs and tissues. Monoclonal antibodies and carbohydrate-based compounds (anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen antibody, anti-galectin-3 antibody, modified citrus pectin, and lactulosyl-L-leucine, targeting specifically β-galactoside-mediated tumor-endothelial cell adhesive interactions, inhibited by >90% the in vivo formation of breast and prostate carcinoma metastatic deposits in mouse lung and bones. Our results indicate that metastatic cell arrest in target organ microvessels is not a consequence of mechanical trapping, but is supported predominantly by intercellular adhesive interactions mediated by cancer-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich glycoantigen and β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-3. Efficient blocking of β-galactoside-mediated adhesion precludes malignant cell lodging in target organs.

  15. Contribution of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cell blocks of metastatic supraclavicular lymph nodes to the diagnosis of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ying Tian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Cell-block samples from US-guided FNA is a promising, relatively noninvasive technique to provide additional information in lung cancer diagnosis. Analysis of cell blocks allows for genetic analysis of the patients with supraclavicular lymph nodes metastasis.

  16. Sequential Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford R Hirsch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC has changed dramatically in the past decade. As the number of available agents, and related volume of research, has grown, it is increasingly complex to know how to optimally treat patients. The authors are practicing medical oncologists at the US Oncology Network, the largest community-based network of oncology providers in the country, and represent the leadership of the Network's Genitourinary Research Committee. We outline our thought process in approaching sequential therapy of mRCC and the use of real-world data to inform our approach. We also highlight the evolving literature that will impact practicing oncologists in the near future.

  17. Rad51 expression levels predict synthetic lethality and metastatic potential in high grade breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegmans, A.P.; Al-Ejeh, F.; Khanna, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Among women with breast cancer, 30-40% will develop metastatic disease and only achieve an overall survival of less than 5 years. Despite new-targeted therapy, breast tumors that harbour similar histology or molecular phenotype differ in their response to treatment. To uncover potential new therapeutic targets and improve outcome, we performed data mining of cancer micro array databases. We found that high expression of the homologous recombination protein, RAD51, was significantly associated with high-grade breast cancer, aggressive subtypes and increased risk of metastasis. We confirmed using immunohistochemistry that RAD5 1 was highly expressed in metastatic tumours and high-grade triple negative, HER2+ and luminal-B tumours. This provided a rationale for targeting RAD5 1 in high-grade, therapy-resistant breast cancers. Here, we report for the first time preclinical evaluation of RAD5 1 as a therapeutic target. We found that, in-vitro high RAD5 expressing cell lines were resistant to PARP inhibitor while knockdown reversed this resistance. In-vivo, knockdown of RAD5 1 inhibited metastatic progression using a syngeneic breast cancer model and the seeding of human xenografts to distant sites, including brain and lung. Concurrent PARP inhibition reduced primary tumor growth and delayed metastasis supporting synthetic lethality in-vivo. Together these insights provide pre-clinical data demonstrating RAD5 1 as a new biomarker and potential therapeutic target against aggressive metastatic breast cancer. (author)

  18. Differential Expression of Ccn4 and Other Genes Between Metastatic and Non-metastatic EL4 Mouse Lymphoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Manpreet S; Ku, H Teresa; Zhang, Zhihong; Legaspi, Christian M; Luo, Angela; Hopkins, Mandi M; Meier, Kathryn E

    Previous work characterized variants of the EL4 murine lymphoma cell line. Some are non-metastatic, and others metastatic, in syngenic mice. In addition, metastatic EL4 cells were stably transfected with phospholipase D2 (PLD2), which further enhanced metastasis. Microarray analyses of mRNA expression was performed for non-metastatic, metastatic, and PLD2-expressing metastatic EL4 cells. Many differences were observed between non-metastatic and metastatic cell lines. One of the most striking new findings was up-regulation of mRNA for the matricellular protein WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (CCN4) in metastatic cells; increased protein expression was verified by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Other differentially expressed genes included those for reproductive homeobox 5 (Rhox5; increased in metastatic) and cystatin 7 (Cst7; decreased in metastatic). Differences between PLD2-expressing and parental cell lines were limited but included the signaling proteins Ras guanyl releasing protein 1 (RGS18; increased with PLD2) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2; decreased with PLD2). The results provide insights into signaling pathways potentially involved in conferring metastatic ability on lymphoma cells. Copyright© 2016, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. RhoC a new target for therapeutic vaccination against metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenandy, L.; Sorensen, R.B.; Straten, P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Most cancer deaths are due to the development of metastases. Increased expression of RhoC is linked to enhanced metastatic potential in multiple cancers. Consequently, the RhoC protein is an attractive target for drug design. The clinical application of immunotherapy against cancer is rapidly...... of cancer makes RhoC a very attractive target for anti-cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we describe an HLA-A3 restricted epitope from RhoC, which is recognized by cytotoxic T cells. Moreover, RhoC-specific T cells show cytotoxic potential against HLA-matched cancer cells of different origin. Thus, RhoC may...... moving forward in multiple areas, including the adoptive transfer of anti-tumor-reactive T cells and the use of "therapeutic" vaccines. The over-expression of RhoC in cancer and the fact that immune escape by down regulation or loss of expression of this protein would reduce the morbidity and mortality...

  20. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Young Rhee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  1. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Pleural Fluid: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ye-Young; Kim, Soo Hee; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Se Hoon

    2018-05-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin that shows locoregional or distant metastasis. Metastasis of MCC to body cavity effusion is extremely rare; only three cases have been reported so far. Metastatic MCC in effusion cytology shows small blue round cells with fine stippled chromatin like other small blue round cell tumors such as small cell lung carcinoma or lymphoma. The diagnosis of metastatic MCC can grant patients good chances at recently advanced therapeutic options. Here, we present a case of metastatic MCC to pleural effusion with characteristic single file-like pattern.

  2. Enzalutamide for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Wijdan H; Kabbara, Wissam K; Al Basiouni Al Masri, Hiba S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review and evaluate current literature on the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug enzalutamide (XTANDI®) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Data sources Literature search was done through PubMed using the terms enzalutamide, MDV3100, abiraterone, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Data from FDA product labels were also used. Study selection and data extraction Recent and relevant studies were included in the review. Collected clinical trials were screened and evaluated. Data synthesis Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor with high selectivity and affinity to the AR. It was approved by the FDA to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in patients previously treated with docetaxel, after a Phase III trial (AFFIRM) that showed a 4.8-month survival benefit in this population. Recently, the FDA expanded the approval of enzalutamide as first-line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who did not receive chemotherapy. Moreover, enzalutamide is shown to be associated with an acceptable safety profile. Conclusion Enzalutamide has been shown to be both safe and effective in improving overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer postchemotherapy with docetaxel and as a first line treatment before initiation of chemotherapy. However, additional studies and head-to-head trials are needed. PMID:25945058

  3. Icotinib plus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Shen, Hong; Hu, Han-Guang; Huang, Jian-Jin

    2015-03-21

    A large majority of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have advanced metastatic disease with unresectable malignancies. Despite treatment advances, the survival benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens and targeted drugs is limited. Moreover, their application is limited in China because of high toxicity and cost. Recently, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor activity have shown promise for the treatment of solid cancers when used in combination with standard therapy. However, these drugs have not been evaluated extensively for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Here, we report the treatment of a 64-year-old male with metastatic pancreatic cancer using a novel regimen of icotinib with gemcitabine. Marked shrinkage of the mass was observed after two treatment cycles, and partial remission was achieved. The abdominal pain was relieved. The adverse effects were tolerable and treatment cost was acceptable. This is the first reported case for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with icotinib plus gemcitabine and demonstrates a promising therapeutic alternative.

  4. Covalent Targeting of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wells S; Tan, Li; Smith, Andrew; Gray, Nathanael S; Wendt, Michael K

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic targeting of late-stage breast cancer is limited by an inadequate understanding of how tumor cell signaling evolves during metastatic progression and by the currently available small molecule inhibitors capable of targeting these processes. Herein, we demonstrate that both β3 integrin and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) are part of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that is required to facilitate metastatic outgrowth in response to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). Mechanistically, β3 integrin physically disrupts an interaction between FGFR1 and E-cadherin, leading to a dramatic redistribution of FGFR1 subcellular localization, enhanced FGF2 signaling and increased three-dimensional (3D) outgrowth of metastatic breast cancer cells. This ability of β3 integrin to drive FGFR signaling requires the enzymatic activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Consistent with these mechanistic data, we demonstrate that FGFR, β3 integrin, and FAK constitute a molecular signature capable of predicting decreased survival of patients with the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. Importantly, covalent targeting of a conserved cysteine in the P-loop of FGFR1-4 with our newly developed small molecule, FIIN-4, more effectively blocks 3D metastatic outgrowth as compared with currently available FGFR inhibitors. In vivo application of FIIN-4 potently inhibited the growth of metastatic, patient-derived breast cancer xenografts and murine-derived metastases growing within the pulmonary microenvironment. Overall, the current studies demonstrate that FGFR1 works in concert with other EMT effector molecules to drive aberrant downstream signaling, and that these events can be effectively targeted using our novel therapeutics for the treatment of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2096-106. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. uPAR Targeted Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTA-AE105 Inhibits Dissemination of Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Juhl, Karina; Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is implicated in cancer invasion and metastatic development in prostate cancer and provides therefore an attractive molecular target for both imaging and therapy. In this study, we provide the first in vivo data on an antimetastatic effect...... of uPAR radionuclide targeted therapy in such lesions and show the potential of uPAR positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for identifying small foci of metastatic cells in a mouse model of disseminating human prostate cancer. Two radiolabeled ligands were generated in high purity and specific...... value of 100 nM in a competitive binding experiment. In vivo, uPAR targeted radionuclide therapy significantly reduced the number of metastatic lesions in the disseminated metastatic prostate cancer model, when compared to vehicle and nontargeted 177Lu groups (p

  6. Metastatic breast cancer - age has a significant effect on survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data on 217 elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) and 209 middleaged postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, from 1976 to 1985 were analysed to determine the effect of age on survival. When considered as a group, the elderly have a more ...

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Regorafenib for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Daniel A; Ahmad, Bilal B; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Flowers, Christopher R

    2015-11-10

    Regorafenib is a standard-care option for treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer that increases median overall survival by 6 weeks compared with placebo. Given this small incremental clinical benefit, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of regorafenib in the third-line setting for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the US payer perspective. We developed a Markov model to compare the cost and effectiveness of regorafenib with those of placebo in the third-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates in 2014. Model robustness was addressed in univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provided an additional 0.04 QALYs (0.13 life-years) at a cost of $40,000, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $900,000 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for regorafenib was > $550,000 per QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Regorafenib provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in the third-line management of metastatic colorectal cancer. The cost-effectiveness of regorafenib could be improved by the use of value-based pricing. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First line chemotherapy plus trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer HER2 positive - Observational institutional study. ... The progression free survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, from the date of first cycle to the date of progression or at the last consultation, and the median was 12.8 months. Trastuzumab ...

  9. Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuaki; Kido, Choichiro

    1987-01-01

    Some techniques of the most recent interventional radiology are very useful for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer and changing the style of hepatic infusion chemotherapy. This report shows our latest results and methods of hepatic infusion chemotherapy for metastatic liver cancer. 1. For the catheter placement, a new catheterization route via the left subclavian artery into the hepatic artery was developed and performed in 132 cases. Superselective catheterization succeeded in 123 cases (93.2 %). This procedure is less invasive than laparotomy and less troublesome than other percutaneous routes. 2. For useful infusion system, an implantable injection port ''Reservoir'' was developed and it was used in 87 cases. This method makes arterial infusion chemotherapy easy, and imploves their quality of life. 3. To acquire adequate drug delivery, arterial redistribution by steel coils was done, and 109 arteries in 80 cases were occluded. This method is very useful to make multiple hepatic artery single and it is important to avoid gasroduodenal complications. 4. Now, using these techniques, the phase II study of 5FU, ADM, MMC combined hepatic infusion in patients with non-resectable metastatic liver cancer is done. Up to this time, such a phase study on arterial infusion chemotherapy was difficult because of technical problems, but these new techniques make it possible. In conclusion, these new methods change the style and conception of hepatic infusion, and these make much progress on the treatment of patients with metastatic liver cancer. (author)

  10. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  11. Visualising and quantifying angiogenesis in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jakobsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumour growth and dissemination. We have recently shown that blood vessel density, determined by image analysis based on microRNA-126 (miRNA-126) in situ hybridization (ISH) in the primary tumours of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC), is predictive...

  12. Cancer of unknown primitive metastatic. About two clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawen, L; Cordoba, A.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the two clinical cases about the unknown primitive metastatic cancer. The main techniques used for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of different s carcinomas are: Electronic microscope, molecular biology and genetics, especially histopathological study, topographic survey, ultrasound, radiography, chemotherapy, radiotherapy

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Breast Cancer Metastasis and Potential Anti-metastatic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungsukruthai, Sucharat; Petpiroon, Nalinrat; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2018-05-01

    Throughout the world, breast cancer is among the major causes of cancer-related death and is the most common cancer found in women. The development of cancer molecular knowledge has surpassed the novel concept of cancer biology and unraveled principle targets for anticancer drug developments and treatment strategies. Metastatic breast cancer cells acquire their aggressive features through several mechanisms, including augmentation of survival, proliferation, tumorigenicity, and motility-related cellular pathways. Clearly, natural product-derived compounds have since long been recognized as an important source for anticancer drugs, several of which have been shown to have promising anti-metastasis activities by suppressing key molecular features supporting such cell aggressiveness. This review provides the essential details of breast cancer, the molecular-based insights into metastasis, as well as the effects and mechanisms of potential compounds for breast cancer therapeutic approaches. As the abilities of cancer cells to invade and metastasize are addressed as the hallmarks of cancer, compounds possessing anti-metastatic effects, together with their defined molecular drug action could benefit the development of new drugs as well as treatment strategies. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Targeted Therapies for Myeloma and Metastatic Bone Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Cancer J Clin 2003; 53:5. Kasugai S, Fujisawa R, Waki Y, Miyamoto K, Ohya K 2000 Selective drug delivery system to bone: small peptide (Asp)6...page. Bone targeted nanoparticles , bone cancer myeloma, mice studies, PLGA , Biodegradable materials. Targeted Therapies for Myeloma and Metastatic Bone...present results from this program at talk at the Particles 2006 –Medical/Biochemical Diagnostic , Pharmaceutical, and Drug Delivery . 3

  15. Value of dual-time-point 18FDG PET-CT imaging on involved-field radiotherapy for hilar and mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Man; Sun Xindong; Liu Ningbo; Gong Heyi; Fu Zheng; Ma Li; Li Xinke; Xu Xiaoqing; Yu Jinming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of dual-time-point 18 FDG PET-CT imaging on involved-field radiotherapy for hilar and mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Fifty-four patients with NSCLC were included in this analysis, including 34 men and 20 women with mean age of 59 (34-76) years. Two sequential PET-CT scans given 3-5 days before surgery were standard single-time-point imaging for the whole body and delayed imaging for the thorax. The pathologic data were used as golden standard to determine the difference between the standard single-time-point and dual-time-point PET-CT imaging in the definition of gross target volume (GTV) of involved-field radiotherapy for metastatic lymph nodes. Results: For hilar metastatic lymph nodes, the GTV defined by single-time-point imaging was consistent with pathologic GTV in 21 patients (39%), comparing with 31 patients (57%) by dual-time-point imaging. Using pathologic data as golden standard, GTV alteration defined by single-time-point imaging had statistically significant difference comparing with that defined by dual-time-point imaging( =519.00, P=0.023). For mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes, the GTV defined by single-time-point imaging was consistent with pathologic GTV in 30 patients (56%), comparing with 36 patients (67%) by dual-time-point imaging. Using pathologic data as golden standard, GTV alteration defined by single-time-point imaging had no statistically significant difference comparing with that defined by dual-time-point imaging (u= 397.50, P=0.616). Conclusions: For patients with NSCLC receiving involved-field radiotherapy, GTV definition for hilar and mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes by dual-time-point imaging is more consistent with that by pathologic data. Dual-time-point imaging has a larger value in terms of target delineation for hilar and mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes. (authors)

  16. Regorafenib Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Metastatic Potential of Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fei-Ting; Sun, Cho-Chin; Wu, Chia-Hsing; Lee, Yen-Ju; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Wei-Shu

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of regorafenib on apoptosis and metastatic potential in TSGH 8301 human bladder carcinoma cells in vitro. Cells were treated with different concentration of regorafenib for different periods of time. Effects of regorafenib on cell viability, apoptosis pathways, metastatic potential, and expression of metastatic and anti-apoptotic proteins were evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, cell migration and invasion assay, and western blotting. We found regorafenib significantly reduced cell viability, cell migration and invasion, and expression of metastatic and anti-apoptotic proteins. In addition, regorafenib significantly induced accumulation of sub-G 1 phase cells, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of active caspase-3 and caspase-8. These results show that regorafenib not only induces apoptosis, but also inhibits metastatic potential in bladder cancer TSGH 8301 cells in vitro. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Feature genes in metastatic breast cancer identified by MetaDE and SVM classifier methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Youlin; An, Ning; Zhang, Ming

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feature genes in metastatic breast cancer samples. A total of 5 expression profiles of metastatic breast cancer samples were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, which were then analyzed using the MetaQC and MetaDE packages in R language. The feature genes between metastasis and non‑metastasis samples were screened under the threshold of PSVM) classifier training and verification. The accuracy of the SVM classifier was then evaluated using another independent dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Finally, function and pathway enrichment analyses for genes in the SVM classifier were performed. A total of 541 feature genes were identified between metastatic and non‑metastatic samples. The top 10 genes with the highest betweenness centrality values in the PPI network of feature genes were Nuclear RNA Export Factor 1, cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), myelocytomatosis proto‑oncogene protein (MYC), Cullin 5, SHC Adaptor Protein 1, Clathrin heavy chain, Nucleolin, WD repeat domain 1, proteasome 26S subunit non‑ATPase 2 and telomeric repeat binding factor 2. The cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), and MYC interacted with CDK2. The SVM classifier constructed by the top 30 feature genes was able to distinguish metastatic samples from non‑metastatic samples [correct rate, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value >0.89; sensitivity >0.84; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) >0.96]. The verification of the SVM classifier in an independent dataset (35 metastatic samples and 143 non‑metastatic samples) revealed an accuracy of 94.38% and AUROC of 0.958. Cell cycle associated functions and pathways were the most significant terms of the 30 feature genes. A SVM classifier was constructed to assess the possibility of breast cancer metastasis, which presented high accuracy in several

  18. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O'Neill, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy

  19. Non-lethal heat treatment of cells results in reduction of tumor initiation and metastatic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo-Shin; Lee, Tae Hoon; O' Neill, Brian E., E-mail: BEOneill@houstonmethodist.org

    2015-08-14

    Non-lethal hyperthermia is used clinically as adjuvant treatment to radiation, with mixed results. Denaturation of protein during hyperthermia treatment is expected to synergize with radiation damage to cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Alternatively, hyperthermia is known to cause tissue level changes in blood flow, increasing the oxygenation and radiosensitivity of often hypoxic tumors. In this study, we elucidate a third possibility, that hyperthermia alters cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction, with particular impact on the cancer stem cell population. We demonstrate that cell heating results in a robust but temporary loss of cancer cell aggressiveness and metastatic potential in mouse models. In vitro, this heating results in a temporary loss in cell mobility, adhesion, and proliferation. Our hypothesis is that the loss of cellular adhesion results in suppression of cancer stem cells and loss of tumor virulence and metastatic potential. Our study suggests that the metastatic potential of cancer is particularly reduced by the effects of heat on cellular adhesion and mechanotransduction. If true, this could help explain both the successes and failures of clinical hyperthermia, and suggest ways to target treatments to those who would most benefit. - Highlights: • Non-lethal hyperthermia treatment of cancer cells is shown to cause a reduction in rates of tumor initiation and metastasis. • Dynamic imaging of cells during heat treatment shows temporary changes in cell shape, cell migration, and cell proliferation. • Loss of adhesion may lead to the observed effect, which may disproportionately impact the tumor initiating cell fraction. • Loss or suppression of the tumor initiating cell fraction results in the observed loss of metastatic potential in vivo. • This result may lead to new approaches to synergizing hyperthermia with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.

  20. Medical image of the week: metastatic testicular cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debo M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year-old man with metastatic embryonal testicular cancer was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain. A contrast enhanced CT of the abdomen demonstrated large metastatic burden throughout the liver and the left adrenal gland (Figures 1 and 2. The mass arising from the left adrenal gland caused significant mass effect. The left kidney was compressed, though without hydronephrosis, and the spleen was displaced laterally. Renal and hepatic functions were preserved. His pain was controlled with opioids and oral steroids with significant improvement.

  1. Everolimus-associated acute kidney injury in patients with metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, everolimus (Evl has been introduced in the management of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, in combination with aromatase inhibitors. Evl-induced acute kidney injury has hitherto been described in other malignancies, especially renal cell cancer, but only once before in a patient with breast cancer. We describe two cases of Evl-associated nephrotoxicity in patients with breast cancer, one of whom underwent a renal biopsy showing acute tubular necrosis. Both our patients improved after withdrawal of the offending agent and have normal renal functions on follow-up.

  2. Treatment paradigms for patients with metastatic non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, squamous lung cancer: first, second and third-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz eAl Farsi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the treatment algorithm applied to non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC was the same for all histologic subtypes. However, recent advances in our understanding of the molecular profiles of squamous and non-squamous NSCLC have changed this perspective. Histologic subtype and the presence of specific molecular abnormalities have predictive value for response to and toxicity from therapy, as well as overall survival. For patients with squamous NSCLC, a platinum agent plus gemcitabine, or paclitaxel is recommended as first-line therapy. The role of EGFR monoclonal antibodies is uncertain. Maintenance therapy is not widely recommended, although data exist for the use of erlotinib. The standard recommendation for second-line therapy is docetaxel and erlotinib should be considered as second or third-line therapy. There is ongoing research identifying molecular targets in squamous NSCLC and many agents are in early phase clinical trials. Immunotherapeutic approaches targeting programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1 and its ligand (PD-L1 appear promising.

  3. Radioembolization for primary and metastatic liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Khairuddin; Lewandowski, Robert J; Kulik, Laura; Riaz, Ahsun; Mulcahy, Mary F; Salem, Riad

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing. Most patients present beyond potentially curative options and are usually affected by underlying cirrhosis. In this scenario, transarterial therapies, such as radioembolization, are rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. Radioembolization is a catheter-based liver-directed therapy that involves the injection of micron-sized embolic particles loaded with a radioisotope by use of percutaneous transarterial techniques. Cancer cells are preferentially supplied by arterial blood and normal hepatocytes by portal venous blood; therefore, radioembolization specifically targets tumor cells with a high dose of lethal radiation and spares healthy hepatocytes. The antitumor effect mostly comes from radiation rather than embolization. The most commonly used radioisotope is yttrium-90. The commercially available devices are TheraSphere (glass based; MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Canada) and SIR-Sphere (resin based; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. The incidence of complications is comparatively less than other locoregional therapies and may include nausea, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, biliary injury, fibrosis, radiation pneumonitis, gastrointestinal ulcers, and vascular injury. However, these complications can be avoided by meticulous pretreatment assessment, careful patient selection, and adequate dosimetry. This article focuses on both the technical and clinical aspects of radioembolization with emphasis on patient selection, uses and complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Jejunum: An Unusual Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Medic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The small intestine is a very uncommon and peculiar site for metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC. We present a clinical presentation of insidious and unusual development of a jejunal metastasis while having stable disease in a remainder of metastatic sites, in a patient undergoing immunotherapy with nivolumab. Due to the extreme rarity of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the lumen of the small bowel, it is easy to overlook and misdiagnose symptoms of this pathologic entity, particularly when the remainder of metastatic disease responds well to ongoing therapy.

  5. Optical detection and virotherapy of live metastatic tumor cells in body fluids with vaccinia strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Metastatic tumor cells in body fluids are important targets for treatment, and critical surrogate markers for evaluating cancer prognosis and therapeutic response. Here we report, for the first time, that live metastatic tumor cells in blood samples from mice bearing human tumor xenografts and in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with cancer were successfully detected using a tumor cell-specific recombinant vaccinia virus (VACV. In contrast to the FDA-approved CellSearch system, VACV detects circulating tumor cells (CTCs in a cancer biomarker-independent manner, thus, free of any bias related to the use of antibodies, and can be potentially a universal system for detection of live CTCs of any tumor type, not limited to CTCs of epithelial origin. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that VACV was effective in preventing and reducing circulating tumor cells in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Importantly, a single intra-peritoneal delivery of VACV resulted in a dramatic decline in the number of tumor cells in the ascitic fluid from a patient with gastric cancer. Taken together, these results suggest VACV to be a useful tool for quantitative detection of live tumor cells in liquid biopsies as well as a potentially effective treatment for reducing or eliminating live tumor cells in body fluids of patients with metastatic disease.

  6. Metastatic Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) of Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, K; Hamaloğlu, E

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, agressive, neurocutaneous malignancy with a high potential to metastasize. We present a 59 year-old woman referred to general surgery department with a complaint of epigastric pain. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed and revealed amass of 3 cm in the head of the pancreas. The significant debate in the patient's medical history was that she had a MCC in size of 5 cm removed from the left gluteal region 7 months ago. Following preoperative preparation a pancreatic oduodenectomy with Whipple procedure was performed fort hepancreatic head mass. As the tumor showed morphologically similar properties with the patient's primary neoplasm, it was accepted as a metastatic MCC. Following the operation the patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and at a 30 months follow-up it was observed that the patient is disease free and has no complications related to the disease progression or recurrence. Although MCC is an aggresive and poor prognostic tumor, good results can be obtained with correct diagnosis and proper surgical treatment. Celsius.

  7. Response gene to complement-32 enhances metastatic phenotype by mediating transforming growth factor beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Liang

    2012-03-01

    RNA silencing and gene overexpression, we further demonstrated that RGC-32 mediated TGF-β-induced EMT and migration in BxPC-3 cells. Conclusions The results above indicated that RGC-32 might be a novel metastasis promoting gene in pancreatic cancer and it enhances metastatic phenotype by mediating TGF-β-induced EMT in human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3.

  8. Cryptotanshinone has diverse effects on cell cycle events in melanoma cell lines with different metastatic capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Punchard, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Cryptotanshinone (CTs) is a major active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is often used as Chinese herbal medicine in cancer therapy. Here, we systematically assessed the anti-tumor effect of CTs on two melanoma cell lines with low/high metastatic capacity (B16/B16BL6). Experimental Approach: MTT and LDH assays were used to evaluate cell growth and cytotoxicity. We assessed the effect of CTs on cell apoptosis or proliferation by Annexin V, TUNEL or BrdU assay. C...

  9. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  10. Unusual presentation of metastatic gall bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 FNx01 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.

  11. Cytoreductive prostatectomy in metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Joachim Aidt; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit of combi......The impact of cytoreductive radical prostatectomy on oncological outcome in patients with prostate cancer and limited number of bone metastases is unclear. Data from cancer registries, multi-institutional databases and a single institutional case-control study indicate a possible benefit...

  12. Development of a green fluorescent protein metastatic-cancer chick-embryo drug-screen model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Vladimir; Plachy, Jiri; Pinterova, Daniela; Kolostova, Katarina; Boubelik, Michael; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    The chick-embryo model has been an important tool to study tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, an imageable model with a genetic fluorescent tag in the growing and spreading cancer cells that is stable over time has not been developed. We report here the development of such an imageable fluorescent chick-embryo metastatic cancer model with the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Lewis lung carcinoma cells, stably expressing GFP, were injected on the 12th day of incubation in the chick embryo. GFP-Lewis lung carcinoma metastases were visualized by fluorescence, after seven days additional incubation, in the brain, heart, and sternum of the developing chick embryo, with the most frequent site being the brain. The combination of streptokinase and gemcitabine was evaluated in this GFP metastatic model. Twelve-day-old chick embryos were injected intravenously with GFP-Lewis lung cancer cells, along with these two agents either alone or in combination. The streptokinase-gemcitabine combination inhibited metastases at all sites. The effective dose of gemcitabine was found to be 10 mg/kg and streptokinase 2000 IU per embryo. The data in this report suggest that this new stably fluorescent imageable metastatic-cancer chick-embryo model will enable rapid screening of new antimetastatic agents.

  13. Circulating Tumor Cell Count Is a Prognostic Factor in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving First-Line Chemotherapy Plus Bevacizumab: A Spanish Cooperative Group for the Treatment of Digestive Tumors Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, M. Luisa; Gómez-España, Auxiliadora; Rivera, Fernando; Valladares, Manuel; Massuti, Bartomeu; Benavides, Manuel; Gallén, Manuel; Marcuello, Eugenio; Abad, Albert; Arrivi, Antonio; Fernández-Martos, Carlos; González, Encarnación; Tabernero, Josep M.; Vidaurreta, Marta; Aranda, Enrique; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background. The Maintenance in Colorectal Cancer trial was a phase III study to assess maintenance therapy with single-agent bevacizumab versus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. An ancillary study was conducted to evaluate the circulating tumor cell (CTC) count as a prognostic and/or predictive marker for efficacy endpoints. Patients and Methods. One hundred eighty patients were included. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and after three cycles. CTC enumeration was carried out using the CellSearch® System (Veridex LLC, Raritan, NJ). Computed tomography scans were performed at cycle 3 and 6 and every 12 weeks thereafter for tumor response assessment. Results. The median progression-free survival (PFS) interval for patients with a CTC count ≥3 at baseline was 7.8 months, versus the 12.0 months achieved by patients with a CTC count <3 (p = .0002). The median overall survival (OS) time was 17.7 months for patients with a CTC count ≥3, compared with 25.1 months for patients with a lower count (p = .0059). After three cycles, the median PFS interval for patients with a low CTC count was 10.8 months, significantly longer than the 7.5 months for patients with a high CTC count (p = .005). The median OS time for patients with a CTC count <3 was significantly longer than for patients with a CTC count ≥3, 25.1 months versus 16.2 months, respectively (p = .0095). Conclusions. The CTC count is a strong prognostic factor for PFS and OS outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. PMID:22643538

  14. Bone-targeted cabazitaxel nanoparticles for metastatic prostate cancer skeletal lesions and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdowski, Andrew S; Ranjan, Amalendu; Sarker, Marjana R; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel cabazitaxel bone targeted nanoparticle (NP) system for improved drug delivery to the bone microenvironment. Nanoparticles were developed using poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and cabazitaxel as the core with amino-bisphosphonate surface conjugation. Optimization of nanoparticle physiochemical properties, in vitro evaluation in prostate cancer cell lines and in vivo testing in an intraosseous model of metastatic prostate cancer was performed. This bone targeted cabazitaxel nanocarrier system showed significant reduction in tumor burden, while at the same time maintaining bone structure integrity and reducing pain in the mouse tumor limb. This bone microenvironment targeted nanoparticle system and clinically relevant approach of evaluation represents a promising advancement for treating bone metastatic cancer.

  15. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Ann F; Naumov, George N; Vantyghem, Sharon A; Tuck, Alan B

    2000-01-01

    Recent technological advances have led to an increasing ability to detect isolated tumour cells and groups of tumour cells in patients' blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow. However, the clinical significance of these cells is unclear. Should they be considered as evidence of metastasis, necessitating aggressive treatment, or are they in some cases unrelated to clinical outcome? Quantitative experimental studies on the basic biology of metastatic inefficiency are providing clues that may help in understanding the significance of these cells. This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients

  16. Activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) attenuates breast cancer cell metastatic behaviors through inhibition of plasminogen activation and extracellular proteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzi, Zainab A.; Lanoue, Danielle; El-Youssef, Mouhanned; Romagnuolo, Rocco; Tubman, Janice; Cavallo-Medved, Dora; Porter, Lisa A.; Boffa, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a plasma zymogen, which can be converted to activated TAFI (TAFIa) through proteolytic cleavage by thrombin, plasmin, and most effectively thrombin in complex with the endothelial cofactor thrombomodulin (TM). TAFIa is a carboxypeptidase that cleaves carboxyl terminal lysine and arginine residues from protein and peptide substrates, including plasminogen-binding sites on cell surface receptors. Carboxyl terminal lysine residues play a pivotal role in enhancing cell surface plasminogen activation to plasmin. Plasmin has many critical functions including cleaving components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which enhances invasion and migration of cancer cells. We therefore hypothesized that TAFIa could act to attenuate metastasis. To assess the role of TAFIa in breast cancer metastasis, in vitro migration and invasion assays, live cell proteolysis and cell proliferation using MDA-MB-231 and SUM149 cells were carried out in the presence of a TAFIa inhibitor, recombinant TAFI variants, or soluble TM. Inhibition of TAFIa with potato tuber carboxypeptidase inhibitor increased cell invasion, migration and proteolysis of both cell lines, whereas addition of TM resulted in a decrease in all these parameters. A stable variant of TAFIa, TAFIa-CIIYQ, showed enhanced inhibitory effects on cell invasion, migration and proteolysis. Furthermore, pericellular plasminogen activation was significantly decreased on the surface of MDA-MB-231 and SUM149 cells following treatment with various concentrations of TAFIa. Taken together, these results indicate a vital role for TAFIa in regulating pericellular plasminogen activation and ultimately ECM proteolysis in the breast cancer microenvironment. Enhancement of TAFI activation in this microenvironment may be a therapeutic strategy to inhibit invasion and prevent metastasis of breast cancer cells

  17. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geukes Foppen, M H; Donia, M; Svane, I M

    2015-01-01

    five years, treatment with immunotherapy (anti CTLA-4, anti PD-1, or the combination of these antibodies) has shown very promising results and was able to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is yet another, but highly...

  18. Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Pancreas: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaun Kian Hong; Chuah, Khoon Leong

    2016-06-01

    The pancreas is an unusual site for tumor metastasis, accounting for only 2% to 5% of all malignancies affecting the pancreas. The more common metastases affecting the pancreas include renal cell carcinomas, melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, breast carcinomas, and sarcomas. Although pancreatic involvement by nonrenal malignancies indicates widespread systemic disease, metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas often represents an isolated event and is thus amenable to surgical resection, which is associated with long-term survival. As such, it is important to accurately diagnose pancreatic involvement by metastatic renal cell carcinoma on histology, especially given that renal cell carcinoma metastasis may manifest more than a decade after its initial presentation and diagnosis. In this review, we discuss the clinicopathologic findings of isolated renal cell carcinoma metastases of the pancreas, with special emphasis on separating metastatic renal cell carcinoma and its various differential diagnoses in the pancreas.

  19. Targeted treatment of advanced and metastatic breast cancer with lapatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Corkery

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Brendan Corkery1,2, Norma O’Donovan2, John Crown1,21St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 2National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, IrelandAbstract: Improved molecular understanding of breast cancer in recent years has led to the discovery of important drug targets such as HER-2 and EGFR. Lapatinib is a potent dual inhibitor of HER-2 and EGFR. Preclinical and phase I studies have shown activity with lapatinib in a number of cancers, including breast cancer, and the drug is well tolerated. The main known drug interactions are with paclitaxel and irinotecan. The most significant side-effects of lapatinib are diarrhea and adverse skin events. Rates of cardiotoxicity compare favorably with trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against HER-2. This paper focuses on lapatinib in advanced and metastatic breast cancer, which remains an important therapeutic challenge. Phase II and III studies show activity as monotherapy, and in combination with chemotherapy or hormonal agents. Results from these studies suggest that the main benefit from lapatinib is in the HER-2 positive breast cancer population. Combinations of lapatinib and trastuzumab are also being studied and show encouraging results, particularly in trastuzumab-refractory metastatic breast cancer. Lapatinib may have a specific role in treating HER-2 positive CNS metastases. The role of lapatinib as neoadjuvant therapy and in early breast cancer is also being evaluated.Keywords: HER-2, EGFR, erbB, lapatinib, Tykerb®, tyrosine kinase

  20. Combination Drug Delivery Approaches in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated metastatic breast cancer needs aggressive treatment due to its reduced response to anticancer treatment and hence low survival and quality of life. Although in theory a combination drug therapy has advantages over single-agent therapy, no appreciable survival enhancement is generally reported whereas increased toxicity is frequently seen in combination treatment especially in chemotherapy. Currently used combination treatments in metastatic breast cancer will be discussed with their challenges leading to the introduction of novel combination anticancer drug delivery systems that aim to overcome these challenges. Widely studied drug delivery systems such as liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, and water-soluble polymers can concurrently carry multiple anticancer drugs in one platform. These carriers can provide improved target specificity achieved by passive and/or active targeting mechanisms.

  1. Metastatic Breast Cancer or Multiple Myeloma? Camouflage by Lytic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hough

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a female with stage I infiltrating ductal carcinoma who received adjuvant therapy including trastuzumab. One year later she developed lytic lesions and was retreated with trastuzumab that was held after she developed symptomatic heart failure. Lytic lesions were attributed to relapse of breast cancer, and cardiac failure attributed to prior trastuzumab therapy. After complications necessitated multiple hospitalizations, a further workup revealed that the lytic lesions were not metastatic breast cancer but multiple myeloma. Her advanced multiple myeloma was associated with systemic amyloidosis involving gut and heart, which ultimately led to her demise. This report addresses the pitfalls of overlapping symptoms and the question of which patients with suspected metastatic disease should undergo a biopsy.

  2. Granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF increases circulating dendritic cells but does not abrogate suppression of adaptive cellular immunity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Micaela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced cancer and chemotherapy are both associated with immune system suppression. We initiated a clinical trial in patients receiving chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer to determine if administration of GM-CSF in this setting was immunostimulatory. Methods Between June, 2003 and January, 2007, 20 patients were enrolled in a clinical trial (NCT00257322 in which they received 500 ug GM-CSF daily for 4 days starting 24 hours after each chemotherapy cycle. There were no toxicities or adverse events reported. Blood was obtained before chemotherapy/GM-CSF administration and 24 hours following the final dose of GM-CSF and evaluated for circulating dendritic cells and adaptive immune cellular subsets by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC expression of γ-interferon and T-bet transcription factor (Tbx21 by quantitative real-time PCR was performed as a measure of Th1 adaptive cellular immunity. Pre- and post-treatment (i.e., chemotherapy and GM-CSF samples were evaluable for 16 patients, ranging from 1 to 5 cycles (median 3 cycles, 6 biologic sample time points. Dendritic cells were defined as lineage (- and MHC class II high (+. Results 73% of patients had significant increases in circulating dendritic cells of ~3x for the overall group (5.8% to 13.6%, p = 0.02 and ~5x excluding non-responders (3.2% to 14.5%, p Tbx21 levels declined by 75% following each chemotherapy cycle despite administration of GM-CSF (p = 0.02. PBMC γ-interferon expression, however was unchanged. Conclusions This clinical trial confirms the suppressive effects of chemotherapy on Th1 cellular immunity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer but demonstrates that mid-cycle administration of GM-CSF can significantly increase the proportion of circulating dendritic cells. As the role of dendritic cells in anti-tumor immunity becomes better defined, GM-CSF administration may provide a non-toxic intervention to augment this arm

  3. Metastatic Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer Presenting Clinically with Esophageal Dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Lilit Karapetyan; Heather Laird-Fick; Reuben Cuison

    2017-01-01

    Background. Intra-abdominal metastases of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC) may be insidious. We report a case of metastatic ILBC that presented with dysphagia within weeks of a negative mammogram and before the development of intra-abdominal symptoms. Case. A 70-year-old female developed esophageal dysphagia. She underwent EGD which showed a short segment of stricture of the distal esophagus without significant mucosal changes. Biopsy was unremarkable and patient underwent lower esophage...

  4. Salvage Lenvatinib Therapy in Metastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole M; Ryder, Mabel M; Hilger, Crystal R; Bible, Keith C

    2017-07-01

    Historical anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) outcomes have been terrible, with a median survival of only five months and <20% one-year survival. Improved outcomes are now achieved with aggressive initial therapy in stages IVA and IVB disease, but patients with distant metastatic disease (stage IVC) still do poorly; improved therapies are sorely needed. Kinase inhibitors have emerged as promising agents in the therapy of advanced medullary and differentiated thyroid cancer, but there are limited data regarding the use of lenvatinib in ATC. The aim of this study was to delineate clinical outcomes in a series of patients with advanced ATC in response to lenvatinib therapy. A retrospective analysis was conducted involving all lenvatinib-treated Mayo Clinic ATC patients in 2015. Of 28 distinct ATC patients seen in 2015, three (11%) with metastatic disease of ECOG performance status 2-3 were treated with lenvatinib. Two patients were male; age range at ATC diagnosis was 57-84 years. All three patients attained successful local control of their disease with surgery and/or combined chemoradiotherapy. Lenvatinib was offered as the second, third, or fourth line of therapy at the time of metastatic disease progression. Two patients incurred minor responses to therapy, with structural regression of distant metastatic tumor disease soon after starting lenvatinib treatment (at one to two months), while one patient achieved stable disease, but no Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors partial responses resulted. Overall survival after starting lenvatinib was two, six, and seven months. Fatigue and hypertension were prominent, and one patient developed pulmonary emboli while on lenvatinib. This initial single-institution experience suggests that lenvatinib may have some disease-modifying activity in metastatic ATC that is otherwise refractory to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Unfortunately, observed benefits were transient, and toxicities were prominent. Clinical trials are required

  5. Immune checkpoint inhibitors for metastatic bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Di Nunno, Vincenzo; Cubelli, Marta; Santoni, Matteo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cheng, Liang; Lopez-Beltran, Anto; Battelli, Nicola; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Chemotherapy has represented the standard therapy for unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma for more than 20 years. The growing knowledge of the interaction between tumour and immune system has led to the advent of new classes of drugs, the immune-checkpoints inhibitors, which are intended to change the current scenario. To date, immunotherapy is able to improve the overall responses and survival. Moreover, thanks to its safety profile immune-checkpoint inhibitors could be proposed also to patients unfit for standard chemotherapy. No doubts that these agents have started a revolution expected for years, but despite this encouraging results it appears clear that not all subjects respond to these agents and requiring the development of reliable predictive response factors able to isolate patients who can more benefit from these treatments as well as new strategies aimed to improve immunotherapy clinical outcome. In this review we describe the active or ongoing clinical trials involving Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1), Programmed Death receptor 1 (PD-1) and Cytotoxic-T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA 4) inhibitors in urothelial carcinoma focusing our attention on the developing new immune-agents and combination strategies with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Albumin nanoparticles with synergistic antitumor efficacy against metastatic lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Seo, Bohyung; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Changkyu; Kim, Jong Oh; Oh, Kyung Taek; Lee, Eun Seong; Choi, Han-Gon; Youn, Yu Seok

    2017-10-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are well-known as effective drug carriers used to deliver hydrophobic chemotherapeutic agents. Albumin nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin and doxorubicin were fabricated using slightly modified nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab™) technology, and the synergistic effects of these two drugs were examined. Albumin nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin, doxorubicin, and both curcumin and doxorubicin were prepared using a high pressure homogenizer. The sizes of albumin nanoparticles were ∼130nm, which was considered to be suitable for the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect. Albumin nanoparticles gradually released drugs over a period of 24h without burst effect. To confirm the synergistic effect of two drugs, in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed using B16F10 melanoma cells. The cytotoxic effect on B16F10 melanoma cells was highest when co-treated with both curcumin and doxorubicin compared to single treatment of either curcumin and doxorubicin. The combined index calculated by medium-effect equation was 0.6069, indicating a synergistic effect. Results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting corresponded to results from an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, indicating synergistic cytotoxicity induced by both drugs. A C57BL/6 mouse model induced by B16F10 lung metastasis was used to study in vivo therapeutic effects. When curcumin and doxorubicin were simultaneously treated, the metastatic melanoma mass in the lungs macroscopically decreased compared to curcumin or doxorubicin alone. Albumin nanoparticles encapsulating two anticancer drugs were shown to have an effective therapeutic result and would be an excellent way to treat resistant lung cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Deconvoluting the Complexity of Bone Metastatic Prostate Cancer via Computational Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    fluent in English and Spanish and have experience in IT, programming, cell culture, teaching , art, graphic design, and leadership skills. Personal...2007) Teacher programme for the translation of science into classrooms University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA (2004-2005) One-Year Academic Exchange...integrated computational modeling approach can be used to predict the temporal behavior of bone metastatic prostate cancer heterogeneous for TGFβ and

  8. The adjuvant value of Andrographis paniculata in metastatic esophageal cancer treatment - from preclinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Wong, Eric Chun-Wai; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Yu, Jun; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Chiu, Philip Wai-Yan

    2017-04-12

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the fourth and sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in China and United States, respectively. The dismal prognosis of EC is mainly attributed to distant metastases, which may not be overcome by chemotherapy alone. Hence, the use of alternative adjuvant treatments, such as herbal medicines, for metastatic EC remains a great desire of patients. Our previous study demonstrated the in vivo anti-tumor and in vitro anti-invasion activities of Andrographis paniculata (AP) in esophageal cancer. In the present study, the chemical constituents of absorbed AP components through human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer were verified for the first time. The anti-migratory activities and suppressive effects on metastasis-related factors such as HER2, MMP2, MMP9, TM4SF3, CXCR4 of the absorbed AP components were revealed in esophageal cancer cells EC-109. The anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of AP water extract (1600 mg/kg) were further confirmed in metastatic esophageal xenograft-bearing mice. Besides, AP water extract acted synergistically with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil on inhibiting tumor nodule growth (with combination index present findings provide evidence on safety and advantages of the combined use of AP with chemotherapeutics in pre-clinical setting.

  9. [10]-gingerol induces apoptosis and inhibits metastatic dissemination of triple negative breast cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ana Carolina B M; Fuzer, Angelina M; Becceneri, Amanda B; da Silva, James Almada; Tomasin, Rebeka; Denoyer, Delphine; Kim, Soo-Hyun; McIntyre, Katherine A; Pearson, Helen B; Yeo, Belinda; Nagpal, Aadya; Ling, Xiawei; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa S; Vieira, Paulo Cézar; Cominetti, Marcia R; Pouliot, Normand

    2017-09-22

    There is increasing interest in the use of non-toxic natural products for the treatment of various pathologies, including cancer. In particular, biologically active constituents of the ginger oleoresin ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe) have been shown to mediate anti-tumour activity and to contribute to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiemetic properties of ginger. Here we report on the inhibitory properties of [10]-gingerol against metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in vitro and in vivo . We show that [10]-gingerol concentration-dependently induces apoptotic death in mouse and human TNBC cell lines in vitro . In addition, [10]-gingerol is well tolerated in vivo , induces a marked increase in caspase-3 activation and inhibits orthotopic tumour growth in a syngeneic mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis. Importantly, using both spontaneous and experimental metastasis assays, we show for the first time that [10]-gingerol significantly inhibits metastasis to multiple organs including lung, bone and brain. Remarkably, inhibition of brain metastasis was observed even when treatment was initiated after surgical removal of the primary tumour. Taken together, these results indicate that [10]-gingerol may be a safe and useful complementary therapy for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and warrant further investigation of its efficacy, either alone or in combination with standard systemic therapies, in pre-clinical models of metastatic breast cancer and in patients.

  10. Metastatic Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer Presenting Clinically with Esophageal Dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilit Karapetyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intra-abdominal metastases of invasive lobular breast cancer (ILBC may be insidious. We report a case of metastatic ILBC that presented with dysphagia within weeks of a negative mammogram and before the development of intra-abdominal symptoms. Case. A 70-year-old female developed esophageal dysphagia. She underwent EGD which showed a short segment of stricture of the distal esophagus without significant mucosal changes. Biopsy was unremarkable and patient underwent lower esophageal sphincter (LES dilation. Severe progressive dysphagia led to esophageal impaction and three LES dilatations. CT scan showed bilateral pleural effusions, more prominent on right side, and ascites. The pleural effusions were transudative. Repeat EGD with biopsy showed lymphocytic esophagitis, and she was started on swallowed fluticasone. Abdominal ultrasound with Doppler showed that the main portal vein had atypical turbulent flow that was felt to possibly be due to retroperitoneal process. The patient underwent diagnostic laparoscopy which revealed diffuse punctate lesions on the peritoneum. Pathology was consistent with metastatic ILBC. Conclusion. Dysphagia in the setting of peritoneal carcinomatosis from metastatic ILBC is a rare finding. The case highlights the importance of metastatic ILBC as a differential diagnosis for female patients with progressive dysphagia and associated ascites or pleural effusions.

  11. Extracellular vesicles for personalized therapy decision support in advanced metastatic cancers and its potential impact for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekmadji, Carolina; Corcoran, Niall M; Oleinikova, Irina; Jovanovic, Lidija; Ramm, Grant A; Nelson, Colleen C; Jenster, Guido; Russell, Pamela J

    2017-10-01

    The use of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, as liquid biopsy-derived biomarkers for cancers have been investigated. CTC enumeration using the CellSearch based platform provides an accurate insight on overall survival where higher CTC counts indicate poor prognosis for patients with advanced metastatic cancer. EVs provide information based on their lipid, protein, and nucleic acid content and can be isolated from biofluids and analyzed from a relatively small volume, providing a routine and non-invasive modality to monitor disease progression. Our pilot experiment by assessing the level of two subpopulations of small EVs, the CD9 positive and CD63 positive EVs, showed that the CD9 positive EV level is higher in plasma from patients with advanced metastatic prostate cancer with detectable CTCs. These data show the potential utility of a particular EV subpopulation to serve as biomarkers for advanced metastatic prostate cancer. EVs can potentially be utilized as biomarkers to provide accurate genotypic and phenotypic information for advanced prostate cancer, where new strategies to design a more personalized therapy is currently the focus of considerable investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterizing the outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connor Wells, John; Donskov, Frede; Fraccon, Anna P

    2017-01-01

    Outcomes of metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) patients are poorly characterized in the era of targeted therapy. A total of 5474 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) were retrospectively analyzed. Outcomes were...... compared between clear cell (ccRCC; n = 5008) and papillary patients (n = 466), and recorded type I and type II papillary patients (n = 30 and n = 165, respectively). Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR) favored ccRCC over pRCC. OS was 8 months longer...

  13. Living with Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis of Physical, Psychological, and Social Sequelae

    OpenAIRE

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Johnson, Courtney; Dickler, Maura; Norton, Larry; Massie, Mary Jane; DuHamel, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Women with metastatic breast cancer face a wide range of medical, practical, and emotional challenges that impact their quality of life. Research to date, however, has not focused on the quality-of-life concerns of metastatic breast cancer patients with significant distress. The present study examined a range of concerns among distressed metastatic breast cancer patients, including physical and emotional distress, social functioning, and existential issues. Forty-four distressed women with me...

  14. Metastatic Gastric Linitis Plastica from Bladder Cancer Mimicking a Primary Gastric Carcinoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Won Sun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Byun, Jae Ho; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2009-01-01

    Primary gastric carcinoma is the most common cause of linitis plastica. Less frequently, metastatic gastric cancer from the breast, omental metastases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the stomach have been reported to show similar radiographic findings as for linitis plastica. A metastatic gastric cancer from bladder cancer is extremely rare. We present an unusual case, the first to our knowledge, of gastric linitis plastica that resulted from a metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  15. Vectors for Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    hMUC-1/ecdCD40L protein (F): bacterial cell lysate (), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)- conjugated hMUC-1 Ag with (E) and without (‚) IFA, and PBS...antimouse CD11C antibody were added to the purified DCs. (iii) Cells exposed to a laser excitatory for phycoerythrin. (iv) Cells exposed to a laser ...under nondenaturing conditions was close to 3 Figure 4. The ecdhMUC1 protein released from Ad-sig-ecdhMUC1/ecdCD40L vector–infected cells forms

  16. Targeting metastatic colorectal cancer – present and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciombor KK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kristen K Ciombor,1 Jordan Berlin21Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Metastatic colorectal cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US and around the world. While several novel cytotoxic and biologic therapies have been developed and proven efficacious in the past two decades, their optimal use in terms of patient selection, drug combinations, and regimen sequences has yet to be defined. Recent investigations regarding anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapies include the comparison of single-agent panitumumab and cetuximab, the benefit of adding cetuximab to chemotherapy in the conversion therapy setting, the comparison of cetuximab and bevacizumab when added to first-line chemotherapy, and predictive biomarkers beyond KRAS exon 2 (codons 12 and 13 mutations. With respect to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies, new data on continuing bevacizumab beyond disease progression on a bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy regimen, the addition of bevacizumab to triplet chemotherapy in the first-line setting, maintenance therapy with bevacizumab plus either capecitabine or erlotinib, the addition of aflibercept to chemotherapy, and regorafenib as monotherapy have emerged. Recent scientific and technologic advances in the field of metastatic colorectal cancer promise to elucidate the biological underpinnings of this disease and its therapies for the goal of improving personalized treatments for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Keywords: cetuximab, panitumumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, biomarker

  17. Surgical resection of synchronously metastatic adrenocortical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Benzon M; Strajina, Veljko; Cayo, Ashley K; Richards, Melanie L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Harmsen, William S; Evans, Doug B; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Bible, Keith C; Young, William F; Perrier, Nancy D; Que, Florencia G; Nagorney, David M; Lee, Jeffrey E; Thompson, Geoffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is rapidly fatal, with few options for treatment. Patients with metachronous recurrence may benefit from surgical resection. The survival benefit in patients with hematogenous metastasis at initial presentation is unknown. A review of all patients undergoing surgery (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors) stage IV ACC between January 2000 and December 2012 from two referral centers was performed. Kaplan-Meier estimates were analyzed for disease-free and overall survival (OS). We identified 27 patients undergoing surgery for stage IV ACC. Metastases were present in the lung (19), liver (11), and brain (1). A complete resection (R0) was achieved in 11 patients. The median OS was improved in patients undergoing R0 versus R2 resection (860 vs. 390 days; p = 0.02). The 1- and 2-year OS was also improved in patients undergoing R0 versus R2 resection (69.9 %, 46.9 % vs. 53.0 %, 22.1 %; p = 0.02). Patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy (eight patients) had a trend towards improved survival at 1, 2, and 5 years versus no neoadjuvant therapy (18 patients) [83.3 %, 62.5 %, 41.7 % vs. 56.8 %, 26.6 %, 8.9 %; p = 0.1]. Adjuvant therapy was associated with improved recurrence-free survival at 6 months and 1 year (67 %, 33 % vs. 40 %, 20 %; p = 0.04) but not improved OS (p = 0.63). Sex (p = 0.13), age (p = 0.95), and location of metastasis (lung, p = 0.51; liver, p = 0.67) did not correlate with OS after operative intervention. Symptoms of hormonal excess improved in 86 % of patients. Operative intervention, especially when an R0 resection can be achieved, following systemic therapy may improve outcomes, including OS, in select patients with stage IV ACC. Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be of use in defining which patients may benefit from surgical intervention. Adjuvant therapy was associated with decreased recurrence but did not improve OS.

  18. Photo-nano immunotherapy for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feifan

    2016-03-01

    We constructed a multifunction nano system SWNT-GC and investigated the synergize photothermal and immunological effects. Here, we improve the SWNT-GC nano system and design a new synergistic nano-particle, both have the photothermal effects and immunological effects. We investigate the therapeutic effects and detect the immune response with metastatic mouse tumor models. We also study the therapeutic mechanism after treatment in vitro and in vivo. With the enhancement of nano-materials on photothermal effects, laser treatment could destroy primary tumor and protect normal tissue with low dose laser irradiation. With the immunological effects of nano-materials, the treatment could trigger specific antitumor immune response, to eliminate the metastasis tumor. It is providing a promising treatment modality for the metastatic cancers.

  19. Combination of TB lymphadenitis and metastatic LAP in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhassan Talaiezadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB may present as pulmonary and extra-pulmonary. TB lymphadenitis is the most common presentation of extra-pulmonary TB. TB lymphadenitis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of different disorders such as metastatic lymphadenopathy. The reported patient was a 65-year-old lady with breast cancer and conglomerated and matted axillary lymphadenopathy who received chemotherapy. She presented with more extensive axillary LAP contrary to our expectation. Modified radical mastectomy was done and pathology analysis reported TB lymphadenitis associated with metastatic LAP. Under cover of anti-TB therapy adjuvant chemoradiation therapy was started. Accordingly, we recommend TB be ruled out in every patient who needs chemotherapy in the endemic region because chemotherapy may cause the extension of TB in the body.

  20. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Shuch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P=0.1. MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R=0.5 and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P=0.39. Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents.

  1. Nanoroughened adhesion-based capture of circulating tumor cells with heterogeneous expression and metastatic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiqiang; Allen, Steven G.; Reka, Ajaya Kumar; Qian, Weiyi; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Jianing; Bao, Liwei; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.; Merajver, Sofia D.; Fu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have shown prognostic relevance in many cancer types. However, the majority of current CTC capture methods rely on positive selection techniques that require a priori knowledge about the surface protein expression of disseminated CTCs, which are known to be a dynamic population. We developed a microfluidic CTC capture chip that incorporated a nanoroughened glass substrate for capturing CTCs from blood samples. Our CTC capture chip utilized the differential adhesion preference of cancer cells to nanoroughened etched glass surfaces as compared to normal blood cells and thus did not depend on the physical size or surface protein expression of CTCs. The microfluidic CTC capture chip was able to achieve a superior capture yield for both epithelial cell adhesion molecule positive (EpCAM+) and EpCAM- cancer cells in blood samples. Additionally, the microfluidic CTC chip captured CTCs undergoing transforming growth factor beta-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (TGF-β-induced EMT) with dynamically down-regulated EpCAM expression. In a mouse model of human breast cancer using EpCAM positive and negative cell lines, the number of CTCs captured correlated positively with the size of the primary tumor and was independent of their EpCAM expression. Furthermore, in a syngeneic mouse model of lung cancer using cell lines with differential metastasis capability, CTCs were captured from all mice with detectable primary tumors independent of the cell lines’ metastatic ability. The microfluidic CTC capture chip using a novel nanoroughened glass substrate is broadly applicable to capturing heterogeneous CTC populations of clinical interest independent of their surface marker expression and metastatic propensity. We were able to capture CTCs from a non-metastatic lung cancer model, demonstrating the potential of the chip to collect the entirety of CTC populations including subgroups of distinct biological and phenotypical properties. Further

  2. Mutational analysis and clinical correlation of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea L; Borger, Darrell R; Szymonifka, Jackie; Ryan, David P; Wo, Jennifer Y; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Kwak, Eunice L; Allen, Jill N; Wadlow, Raymond C; Zhu, Andrew X; Murphy, Janet E; Faris, Jason E; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Haigis, Kevin M; Ellisen, Leif W; Iafrate, Anthony J; Hong, Theodore S

    2014-05-15

    Early identification of mutations may guide patients with metastatic colorectal cancer toward targeted therapies that may be life prolonging. The authors assessed tumor genotype correlations with clinical characteristics to determine whether mutational profiling can account for clinical similarities, differences, and outcomes. Under Institutional Review Board approval, 222 patients with metastatic colon adenocarcinoma (n = 158) and rectal adenocarcinoma (n = 64) who underwent clinical tumor genotyping were reviewed. Multiplexed tumor genotyping screened for >150 mutations across 15 commonly mutated cancer genes. The chi-square test was used to assess genotype frequency by tumor site and additional clinical characteristics. Cox multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of genotype on overall survival. Broad-based tumor genotyping revealed clinical and anatomic differences that could be linked to gene mutations. NRAS mutations were associated with rectal cancer versus colon cancer (12.5% vs 0.6%; P colon cancer (13% vs 3%; P = .024) and older age (15.8% vs 4.6%; P = .006). TP53 mutations were associated with rectal cancer (30% vs 18%; P = .048), younger age (14% vs 28.7%; P = .007), and men (26.4% vs 14%; P = .03). Lung metastases were associated with PIK3CA mutations (23% vs 8.7%; P = .004). Only mutations in BRAF were independently associated with decreased overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-5.27; P = .029). The current study suggests that underlying molecular profiles can differ between colon and rectal cancers. Further investigation is warranted to assess whether the differences identified are important in determining the optimal treatment course for these patients. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  3. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be identified by a gene expression profile that partly overlaps with human breast cancer profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopfleisch, Robert; Lenze, Dido; Hummel, Michael; Gruber, Achim D

    2010-01-01

    Similar to human breast cancer mammary tumors of the female dog are commonly associated with a fatal outcome due to the development of distant metastases. However, the molecular defects leading to metastasis are largely unknown and the value of canine mammary carcinoma as a model for human breast cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression signatures associated with mammary tumor metastasis and asked for parallels with the human equivalent. Messenger RNA expression profiles of twenty-seven lymph node metastasis positive or negative canine mammary carcinomas were established by microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were functionally characterized and associated with molecular pathways. The findings were also correlated with published data on human breast cancer. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas had 1,011 significantly differentially expressed genes when compared to non-metastatic carcinomas. Metastatic carcinomas had a significant up-regulation of genes associated with cell cycle regulation, matrix modulation, protein folding and proteasomal degradation whereas cell differentiation genes, growth factor pathway genes and regulators of actin organization were significantly down-regulated. Interestingly, 265 of the 1,011 differentially expressed canine genes are also related to human breast cancer and, vice versa, parts of a human prognostic gene signature were identified in the expression profiles of the metastatic canine tumors. Metastatic canine mammary carcinomas can be discriminated from non-metastatic carcinomas by their gene expression profiles. More than one third of the differentially expressed genes are also described of relevance for human breast cancer. Many of the differentially expressed genes are linked to functions and pathways which appear to be relevant for the induction and maintenance of metastatic progression and may represent new therapeutic targets. Furthermore, dogs are in some aspects suitable as a

  4. Homodimers of Vanillin and Apocynin Decrease the Metastatic Potential of Human Cancer Cells by Inhibiting the FAK/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantaree, Phatcharida; Lirdprapamongkol, Kriengsak; Kaewsri, Wilailak; Thongsornkleeb, Charnsak; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Atjanasuppat, Korakot; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Svasti, Jisnuson

    2017-03-22

    The spread of cancer cells to distant organs, in a process called metastasis, is the main factor that contributes to most death in cancer patients. Vanillin, the vanilla flavoring agent, has been shown to suppress metastasis in a mouse model. Here, we evaluated the antimetastatic potential of the food additive divanillin, the homodimer of vanillin, and their structurally related compounds, apocynin and diapocynin, in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The Transwell invasion assay showed that the dimeric forms exhibited a potency higher than those of vanillin and apocynin in inhibiting invasion, with IC 50 values of 23.3 ± 7.4 to 41.3 ± 4.2 μM for the dimers, which are 26-34-fold lower than IC 50 values of vanillin and apocynin (p vanillin and apocynin to the Y397 pocket of the FAK FERM domain. Thus, the food additive divanillin has antimetastatic potential greater than that of the flavoring agent vanillin.

  5. Hormone therapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebelameli P

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Only orchiectomy is still commonly used today either as a single therapy or in combination regimens. Hypophysectomy & adrenalectomy showed such devastating effects on the endocrine equilibrium as to be inconsistent with an acceptable quality of life or even with survival. Chemical adrenalectomy was also tried with drugs (eg. aminoglutethmide, spironolactone leading to consequences superimposable to those of surgical adrenalectomy. Along with orchiectomy, three groups of substances are commonly used today for the hormonal therapy of prostate cancer: estrogens, LHRH agonists & anti androgens. Bilateral orchiectomy removes 90-95% of circulating testosterone. Clinical studies document 60-80% of positive responders to castration, on continued evaluation, relapse occurs usually within 6-24 months in responders, with a death rate of 50% within 6 months. The androgenic activity still remaining after castration may explain the partial & progressively decreasing effectiveness of this & other testosterone reducing therapies. Antiandrogens define substances that act directly at the target site, where interacting with steroid hormone receptors, they impede the binding of androgens. A trend towards the combination of testosterone-reducing & androgen-blocking treatment is developing in modern therapy of prostate cancer. This is due to the complementary characteristics of the two different pharmacological mechanisms that are involved. In this study castration+antiandrogen is compared to castration alone. The results demonstrate a significantly greater percentage of positive objective & subjective responses with antiandrogen than with placebo. In addition survival time was increased in patients treated with castration+antiandrogen than castration+placebo.

  6. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia radiologically mimicking osteosarcoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cunningham, Laurence Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old lady with transitional cell carcinoma and no evidence of metastatic disease presenting with gradual weight loss, pretibial swelling and painful weightbearing. Investigations revealed a lesion of the right tibial diaphysis. The radiological and clinical appearance was that of primary osteosarcoma. Biopsy results revealed metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the tibia. Intramedullary nailing was performed which relieved pain on weightbearing. The patient declined radiotherapy and was started on a palliative care regimen. This case illustrates the importance of histological diagnosis in the treatment of diaphyseal lesions.

  7. Metastatic Carcinoma Occurring in a Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: The First Reported Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Groisman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are regarded as benign. However, in rare cases they may contain incipient primary carcinomas. To our knowledge, breast carcinoma metastatic to a gastric hyperplastic polyp has not yet been reported. We describe the case of a 69-year-old woman to whom a gastric polyp was endoscopically excised. The patient had previously undergone a right mastectomy for mixed, invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma 5 years earlier. Histological sections from the gastric lesion showed typical features of hyperplastic polyp with foci of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma including signet ring cells infiltrating the lamina propria. The histologic findings were consistent with a primary gastric cancer. However, the carcinoma cells were immunopositive for estrogen and progesterone receptors and GATA3 and negative for CDX2, Hep Par 1, and MUC5AC. E-cadherin showed membranous reactivity in some of the carcinoma cells while in others it was negative. Accordingly, metastatic mixed, lobular and ductal breast carcinoma was diagnosed. We conclude that metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer can be rarely encountered in hyperplastic gastric polyps.

  8. Rare incidence of tumor lysis syndrome in metastatic prostate cancer following treatment with docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Sharonlin; Varma, Seema

    2018-03-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a serious and sometimes lethal complication of cancer treatment that is comprised of a set of metabolic disturbances along with clinical manifestations. Initiating chemotherapy in bulky, rapidly proliferating tumors causes rapid cell turnover that in turn releases metabolites into circulation that give rise to metabolic derangements that can be dangerous. This syndrome is usually seen in high-grade hematological malignancies. Less commonly, tumor lysis syndrome can present in solid tumors and even rarely in genitourinary tumors. In this report, the authors describe a specific case of tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer following treatment with docetaxel.

  9. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  10. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  11. Tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor-targeted combined chemotherapy for metastatic bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lun Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha is noted during the invasive and metastatic process of transitional cell carcinoma. It will upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and drive proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, and antiapoptotic ability of cancer cells. We proposed that tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, sunitinib malate—(Sutent; Pfizer Inc., Taiwan, combined with chemotherapeutic drug may present synergistic cytotoxic enhancement to transitional cell carcinoma cells with subsequent inhibition of their cellular behaviors, including proliferation, invasiveness, and metastatic activity. The contents of VEGF-A in mouse bladder tumor cells (MBT-2 and culture medium were detected by quantification-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot individually. The inhibitory concentrations of various chemotherapeutic drugs, sunitinib, and their combination treatment in MBT-2 were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Microchamber transmembrane migration assay was applied in evaluation of the inhibitory effects of different dosages of sunitinib and combination treatment on tumor cells. The cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed after combination therapy by flow cytometry. Variation in apoptotic pathway was elucidated by Western blot using specific antibodies with cleaved PARP and caspase-3. Metastatic animal model mimicked by tail vein injection of MBT-2 cells was used to evaluate the treatment efficiency in tumor weight and survival rate. The mRNA and protein level of VEGF-A in MBT-2 cells increased by 70% at 48 hours interval under hypoxia stress condition. In MTT assay, MBT-2 cells had shown the highest sensitivity to epirubicin. Sunitinib combined with epirubicin had shown a synergistic cytotoxic effect to MBT-2 cells. Sunitinib and its combination with epirubicin showed significant inhibition on MBT-2 cells migration in microchambers. G2/M phase arrest and

  12. Importance of Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio in Non-Metastatic, Lymph Node-Invaded Colon Cancer: A Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Arda; Peker, Kemal; Firat, Deniz; Yilmaz, Bahri; Sayar, Ilyas; Idiz, Oguz; Cakir, Coskun; Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ismayil

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic importance of the metastatic lymph node ratio for stage III colon cancer patients and to find a cut-off value at which the overall survival and disease-free survival change. Material/Methods Patients with pathological stage III colon cancer were retrospectively evaluated for: age; preoperative values of Crp, Cea, Ca 19-9, and Afp; pathologic situation of vascular, perineural, lymphatic, and serosal involvement; and metastatic lymph node ratio values were calculated. Results The study included 58 stage III colon cancer patients: 20 (34.5%) females and 38 (65.5%) males were involved in the study. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following variables to evaluate significance for overall survival and disease-free survival: age, Crp, Cea, perineural invasion, and metastatic lymph node ratio. The metastatic lymph node ratio (<0.25 or ≥0.25) is the only independent variable significant for overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions Metastatic lymph node ratio is an ideal prognostic marker for stage III colon cancer patients, and 0.25 is the cut-off value for prognosis. PMID:25087904

  13. Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Concomitant Metastatic Breast Cancer in the Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is an unusual site to find cancer metastasis. When it does occur, such cancer spread is often manifested in multiple metastases and generally suggests a poor prognosis. We presented here a 49-year-old woman recently diagnosed with thyroid cancer, who had been treated for stage IIA breast cancer 8 years ago. After radical right thyroidectomy and left subtotal thyroidectomy, her pathological report showed papillary thyroid carcinoma, right thyroid, with concomitant metastatic breast carcinoma. This is the first case of which we are aware involving coexisting thyroid cancer and metastatic breast cancer in the ipsilateral lobe. Moreover, the circumstances of this case show a very unique clinical course compared with previous studies. Given the unusual circumstances of our case, we further discuss the relationship between thyroid cancer and breast cancer.

  14. Effects of clusterin over-expression on metastatic progression and therapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Louise; Whyte, Lorna; Chatterjee, Namita; Tenniswood, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s) of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis. To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU) that over-expresses clusterin. We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. Orthotopic primary tumors derived from MCF-7CLU cells grow significantly more rapidly than tumors derived from parental MCF-7 cells and, unlike the parental cells, metastasize frequently to the lungs. These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells

  15. Effects of clusterin over-expression on metastatic progression and therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Namita

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusterin is a secreted glycoprotein that is upregulated in a variety of cell lines in response to stress, and enhances cell survival. A second nuclear isoform of clusterin that is associated with cell death has also been identified. The aim of this study was to determine the role(s of the secretory isoform in breast tumor progression and metastasis. Methods To investigate the role of secretory clusterin in the biology of breast cancer tumor growth and resistance to therapy we have engineered an MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7CLU that over-expresses clusterin. We have measured the in vitro effects of clusterin over-expression on cell cycle, cell death, and sensitivity to TNFalpha and tamoxifen. Using an orthotopic model of breast cancer, we have also determined the effects of over-expression of clusterin on tumor growth and metastatic progression. Results In vitro, over-expression of secretory clusterin alters the cell cycle kinetics and decreases the rate of cell death, resulting in the enhancement of cell growth. Over-expression of secretory clusterin also blocks the TNFalpha-mediated induction of p21 and abrogates the cleavage of Bax to t-Bax, rendering the MCF-7CLU cells significantly more resistant to the cytokine than the parental cells. Orthotopic primary tumors derived from MCF-7CLU cells grow significantly more rapidly than tumors derived from parental MCF-7 cells and, unlike the parental cells, metastasize frequently to the lungs. Conclusions These data suggest that secretory clusterin, which is frequently up-regulated in breast cancers by common therapies, including anti-estrogens, may play a significant role in tumor growth, metastatic progression and subsequent drug resistance in surviving cells.

  16. Zeolite scaffolds for cultures of human breast cancer cells. Part II: Effect of pure and hybrid zeolite membranes on neoplastic and metastatic activity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavolaro, Palmira; Martino, Guglielmo; Andò, Sebastiano; Tavolaro, Adalgisa

    2016-11-01

    This work is focused on the response of two invasive phenotypes of human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, grown on synthesized zeolite scaffolds in order to study the influence of those biomaterials in controlled conditions with and without anti-tumoral drug treatments. Our research was directed to the use of doxorubicin (DOX) and bergapten (5-MOP). The former is broadly considered the most active single agent available for the treatment of breast cancer, the second is a natural psoralen with an apoptotic effect. The results indicate that both drugs inhibit the cell viability of all cell lines grown on all zeolite scaffolds and that all Pure Zeolite Membranes are more responsive with respect to all Mixed Matrix Membranes. Moreover, the results after treatment with DOX at a concentration of 7.4μM for 24h, show that the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) is greatly reduced in both cell lines, especially in those adherent on Pure Zeolite Scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Third-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundgaard, M.G.; Ehrnrooth, E.; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The past years' therapy for colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly with the introduction of novel cytotoxic agents such as irinotecan, capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Further advances have been achieved with the integration of targeted agents such as bevacizumab, cetuximab and recently......, panitumumab. As a result, third-line treatment is now a necessary step in the optimal treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a literature review of English language publications on third-line therapy for MCRC from January 2000 to April 2007. Data......OS of 16 months. With irinotecan and 5-FU, mOS around 8 months were reported and with cetuximab combined with irinotecan, the highest mOS was 9.8 months. CONCLUSION: Third-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer may improve mOS for patients with MCRC. Therefore, randomized studies should be conducted...

  18. Nivolumab as the new standard of metastatic kidney cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade was marked by the rapid development of kidney cancer drug treatment and advent of targeted drugs aimed at inhibition of angiogenesis which plays a crucial role in tumor growth. Despite certain success, targeted antiangiogenetic therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR, and monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in most cases do not achieve long-term remission, are highly toxic, and never lead to full cure for the patients. Development of modern immunological approaches to application of inhibitors of the crucial immune response regulators opens up new possibilities in treatment of disseminated kidney cancer. In this review, results of the studies of nivolumab (PD-1 inhibitor, first checkpoint inhibitor registered for treatment of metastatic kidney cancer are presented.

  19. HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer: new possibilities for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Artamonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to modern approaches in HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer therapy. Recently treatment algorithm for this type of cancer included trastuzumab plus cytostatic in first line, continuation of trastuzumab with another chemotherapy regimen in second line, further switch to lapatinib and eventual return to trastuzumab after progression. Nowadays our options are broader owing to new anti-HER-2 agents which are pertruzumab and T-DM1. Now the most effective therapy regimen in first line is double HER-2 blockade (trastuzumab + pertuzumab in combination with docetaxel. Benefit of new agent T-DM1 versus combination of lapatinib and capecitabin is proved in patients progressed on trastuzumab and taxanes. T-DM1 also showed high efficacy as salvage therapy in intensively pretreated patients with meta- static HER-2-positive breast cancer who progressed on taxanes, trastuzumab and lapatinib.

  20. Gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serizawa, Toru; Ono, Junichi; Iuchi, Toshihiko [Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan). Chiba Cancer Center] (and others)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) alone for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer. Two hundred thirty-one consecutive patients with metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer filling the following 4 criteria were analyzed for this study; no prior brain tumor treatment, 25 or fewer lesions, a maximum 5 tumors with diameter of 2 cm or more, no surgically inaccessible tumor 3 cm or greater in diameter. According to the same treatment protocol, large tumors ({>=} 3 cm) were surgically removed and all the other small lesions (<3 cm) were treated with GKS. New lesions were treated with repeated GKS. The tumor-progression-free, overall, neurological, lowered-QOL (quality of life)-free and new-lesion-free survivals were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. The poor prognostic factors for each survival were also analyzed with the Cox's proportional hazard model. The tumor control rate at 1 year was 96.5%. The estimated median overall survival time was 7.7 months. The first-year survival rates were 83.0% in neurological survival and 76.0% in lowered-QOL-free survival. The new-lesion-free survival at 1 year was 27.9%. Multivariate analysis revealed significant poor prognostic factors for neurological and lowered-QOL-free survivals were carcinomatous meningitis and >10 brain lesions. This study suggests the results of GKS for metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer are quite satisfactory considering prevention of neurological death and maintenance of QOL. But cases with carcinomatous meningitis and/or >10 brain lesions are not good candidates for GKS alone. (author)

  1. Metastatic prostate cancer in the modern era of PSA screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Fontenot Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year or earlier (<1 year, respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%, 7 (5%, 69 (44% and 54 (34% patients, respectively. Twenty (13% patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3% patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84% had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94% had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16% patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened.

  2. Metastatic prostate cancer in the modern era of PSA screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Philip A.; Nehra, Avinash; Parker, William; Wyre, Hadley; Mirza, Moben; Duchene, David A.; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey; Thrasher, James Brantley; Veldhuizen, Peter Van; Lee, Eugene K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year) or earlier (<1 year), respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%), 7 (5%), 69 (44%) and 54 (34%) patients, respectively. Twenty (13%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3%) patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84%) had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94%) had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened. PMID:28338310

  3. Injection of Syngeneic Murine Melanoma Cells to Determine Their Metastatic Potential in the Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Joshua J; Cohessy, Sean; Wong, Eric T

    2016-05-24

    Approximately 90% of human cancer deaths are linked to metastasis. Despite the prevalence and relative harm of metastasis, therapeutics for treatment or prevention are lacking. We report a method for the establishment of pulmonary metastases in mice, useful for the study of this phenomenon. Tail vein injection of B57BL/6J mice with B16-BL6 is among the most used models for melanoma metastases. Some of the circulating tumor cells establish themselves in the lungs of the mouse, creating "experimental" metastatic foci. With this model it is possible to measure the relative effects of therapeutic agents on the development of cancer metastasis. The difference in enumerated lung foci between treated and untreated mice indicates the efficacy of metastases neutralization. However, prior to the investigation of a therapeutic agent, it is necessary to determine an optimal number of injected B16-BL6 cells for the quantitative analysis of metastatic foci. Injection of too many cells may result in an overabundance of metastatic foci, impairing proper quantification and overwhelming the effects of anti-cancer therapies, while injection of too few cells will hinder the comparison between treated and controls.

  4. PET-CT in the evaluation of metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, A.M.; Fulham, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent two PET-CT scans for the evaluation of metastatic breast cancer. A radical left mastectomy with axillary dissection (1 of 43 nodes positive) followed by chemotherapy, was performed in 1998. She represented in October 2003 with a left supraclavicular fossa mass. This was confirmed to be recurrent breast cancer on FNAB. She was considered for a radical neck dissection and the surgeon requested a PET scan. Other imaging at this time included a normal bone scan and CT brain. CT neck/chest/abdomen/pelvis showed soft tissue thickening in the left lower neck. The PET-CT scan showed multiple glucose avid lesions in the sternum, mediastinum and neck lymph nodes as well as a small lesion in the proximal left femur consistent with extensive metastatic disease. Surgery was cancelled and Femara chemotherapy commenced. Femara was stopped in March 2004 and the patient began alternative therapies. In October 2004 she presented to her surgeon with new back and chest pain. CT of the neck/chest/abdomen/pelvis showed a soft tissue mass in the upper sternum and a lymph node at the base of the neck highly suspicious for metastatic disease. There were also 2 suspicious lung nodules and a lesion in the proximal left femur reported as an osteoid osteoma. Wholebody PET-CT scans were performed on a Siemens LSO Biograph, 60mins after the injection of 350Mbq of Fl 8-Fag, with arms at the patient's side and head in the field-of-view. On both occasions the patient had to pay for the scan. On the 2004 PET-CT scan, the CT brain revealed multiple hyperdense lesions consistent with hemorrhagic metastases. In addition, there were innumerable glucose avid foci involving viscera, nodes and skeleton consistent with disseminated disease. Our case illustrates: (i) the value of PET in the management of metastatic breast cancer; (ii) the improved accuracy of PET-CT in delineating sites of disease; (iii) the issues of head movement in PET-CT and. (iv) the problem with lack of

  5. Study of metastatic foci by CT in autopsied lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Mitsuru; Nobe, Yoshifumi; Fujii, Kyoichi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors reexamined all of the image diagnoses made during whole hospitalization in 11 lung cancer cases with autopsy. Of 39 metastatic foci observed at autopsy in the liver, kidney, pancreas, adrenal and brain, 12 had been diagnosed on transverse CT images before death. Three foci were missed at initial readings. The period from CT to autopsy was less than 3 months for 9 of 12 correctly diagnosed foci. For 13 of 27 foci undetected by CT, CT was conducted more than 3 months before death. (Chiba, N)

  6. Chyle fistula in advanced and metastatic thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos S; Sánchez, Juan Guillermo; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Chyle fistula (CF) is a rare but challenging condition for the surgeon and the patient's health. A retrospective review of single surgeon's case load in a 12-year period is presented, reviewing the case of those patients presenting with a CF. Three patients were found during this study period from more than 1,050 surgeries performed due to thyroid cancer. Patients underwent extensive lymph node dissection for advanced, metastatic and infiltrative disease. In all patients, a long hospital stay and surgical re-interventions were required. A description of the management of CF is presented along with a review of current Literature.

  7. Assessment of cognitive function in patients with metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Sandvad, Marlene; Lundorff, Lena

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at analyzing the validity and reliability of the continuous reaction time (CRT) test, the finger-tapping test (FTT), the Digit Span Test (DST), the Trail Making Test - part B (TMTB), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in patients with metastatic cancer. METHO......: The findings of the full validation analyses were not clear-cut. However, CRT test, DST, FTT, and TMTB demonstrated partial positive results, indicating that these tests have good potential for use in clinical settings and require further study....

  8. The shifting landscape of metastatic breast cancer to the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Matthew R; Fukui, Olivia; Chew, Brandon; Bhatia, Sanjay; Karlovits, Steven

    2013-07-01

    The improved survival following the diagnosis of breast cancer has potentially altered the characteristics and course of patients presenting with CNS involvement. We therefore sought to define our current cohort of breast cancer patients with metastatic disease to the CNS in regard to modern biomarkers and clinical outcome. Review of clinical and radiographic records of women presenting to a tertiary medical center with the new diagnosis of CNS metastatic disease from breast cancer. This was a retrospective review from patients identities obtained from two prospective databases. There were 88 women analyzed who were treated over the period of January 2003 to February 2010, average age 56.9 years. At the time of initial presentation of CNS disease, 68 % of patients had multiple brain metastases, 17 % had a solitary metastasis, and 15 % had only leptomeningeal disease (LMD). The median survival for all patients from the time of diagnosis of breast disease was 50.0 months, and 9.7 months from diagnosis of CNS involvement. The only factor related to overall survival was estrogen receptor-positive pathology (57.6 v. 38.2 months, p = .02 log-rank); those related to survival post CNS diagnosis were presentation with LMD (p = .004, HR = 3.1, Cox regression) and triple-negative hormonal/HER2 status (p = .02, HR = 2.3, Cox regression). Patients with either had a median survival of 3.1 months (no patients in common). Of the 75 patients who initially presented with metastatic brain lesions, 20 (26 %) subsequently developed LMD in the course of their disease (median 10.4 months), following which survival was grim (1.8 months median). Symptoms of LMD were most commonly lower extremity weakness (14/33), followed by cranial nerve deficits (11/33). The recently described Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) tumor index stratified median survival at 2.5, 5.9, 13.1, and 21.7 months, respectively, for indices of 1-4 (p = .004, log-rank), which

  9. Treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: focus on panitumumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Rebecca Y; Wong, Rachel; Hawkes, Eliza A

    2015-01-01

    Targeted agents are an important therapeutic option in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Panitumumab is a recombinant, fully humanized, immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with efficacy in mCRC as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy. Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) mutation status has emerged as an important biomarker to predict response to anti-EGFR therapy. Optimal timing for panitumumab use in the mCRC treatment algorithm has not been established. This review discusses the mechanism of action, predictive biomarkers, and role of panitumumab in the treatment of mCRC

  10. The external and internal radioimmunodetection of metastatic lymph nodes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Li

    1991-01-01

    A radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (McAb) 6c6 was used to detect the metastatic lymph nodes of breast cancer externally and internally. 111 In was labeled to 6c6 by DTPA method. Iodogen method was used to label 131 I. The radiolabeled 6c6 was injected into the web space of each hand in seven women with breast cancer and one with benign breast tumor. The scans were positive in two axillae with palpable nodes and four with impalpable nodes. Pathologic examination later confirmed metastases in five of the axillae. Two axillae, one of them with palpable nodes, showed negative result, and here no tumor cells were found pathologically. Intraoperative metastatic lymph node detection with a hand-held gamma probe was carried out in six patients. 24 lymph nodes were measured with 17% (1/6) false negative and no false positive result (0/18), indicating that the result detected by the hand-held gamma probe presents the real radioactivity of the tissues being examined. There were 60 lymph nodes that were removed and detected again by well-shape detector after operation. The false positive rate was 14% (6/42), and the false negative rate was 11% (2/18), indicating that the radiolabeled McAb 6c6 could specifically combine with the metastatic lymph nodes of breast cancer in vivo

  11. In vivo assessment of the antiproliferative properties of interferon-alpha during immunotherapy: Ki-67 (MIB-1) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Marcussen, N; Hokland, M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo antiproliferative effect of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Core needle biopsies of metastatic and/or the primary kidney cancer were obtained before interleukin-2 (IL-2)- and IFN...

  12. Metastatic clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma of the vulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, M J; Richardson, M S; Smith, M T; King, L; Gallup, D G

    1993-02-01

    Clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma is a malignant tumor of sweat gland origin. It is most often found on the trunk, head, and extremities. This case report describes a rare occurrence of this tumor on the vulva of a young woman. The discovery of metastatic disease reflects the potentially aggressive nature of this tumor.

  13. Exosomes from bulk and stem cells from human prostate cancer have a differential microRNA content that contributes cooperatively over local and pre-metastatic niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Catherine A; Andahur, Eliana I; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Castellón, Enrique A; Fullá, Juan A; Ramos, Christian G; Triviño, Juan C

    2016-01-26

    The different prostate cancer (PCa) cell populations (bulk and cancer stem cells, CSCs) release exosomes that contain miRNAs that could modify the local or premetastatic niche. The analysis of the differential expression of miRNAs in exosomes allows evaluating the differential biological effect of both populations on the niche, and the identification of potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Five PCa primary cell cultures were established to originate bulk and CSCs cultures. From them, exosomes were purified by precipitation for miRNAs extraction to perform a comparative profile of miRNAs by next generation sequencing in an Illumina platform. 1839 miRNAs were identified in the exosomes. Of these 990 were known miRNAs, from which only 19 were significantly differentially expressed: 6 were overexpressed in CSCs and 13 in bulk cells exosomes. miR-100-5p and miR-21-5p were the most abundant miRNAs. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that differentially expressed miRNAs are highly related with PCa carcinogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, differentiation and migration, and angiogenesis. Besides, miRNAs from bulk cells affects osteoblast differentiation. Later, their effect was evaluated in normal prostate fibroblasts (WPMY-1) where transfection with miR-100-5p, miR-21-5p and miR-139-5p increased the expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2, -9 and -13 and RANKL and fibroblast migration. The higher effect was achieved with miR21 transfection. As conclusion, miRNAs have a differential pattern between PCa bulk and CSCs exosomes that act collaboratively in PCa progression and metastasis. The most abundant miRNAs in PCa exosomes are interesting potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  14. Severe complications of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with concomitant radiotherapy in inoperable non-metastatic squamous cell oesophageal cancer after intubation - early termination of a prospective randomised trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberts, A.S.; Friediger, D.; Nel, J. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Radiotherapy); Burger, W.; Schoeman, L.; Falkson, G. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Oncology); Greeff, F.; Steyn, E.; Schmid, E.U. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Surgery)

    This brief letter describes a randomized trial in which radiotherapy is added to concomitant 5- fluorouracil and cisplatin therapy in patients with inoperable non-mestastatic squamous cell oesophageal cancer after palliative intubation. An interim analysis showed that patients randomized to observation had a median survival of 19 weeks while patients treated with radiotherapy, 5- fluorouracil and cisplatin had a median survival of 11 weeks. This difference in survival was due to the toxicity of the combined chemoradiotherapy and tube which resulted in early termination of the trial. (UK).

  15. Unforeseen clonal evolution of tumor cell population in recurrent and metastatic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensel Oh

    Full Text Available Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP is a very rare soft tissue sarcoma, generally of low-grade malignancy. DFSP is locally aggressive with a high recurrence rate, but metastasis occurs rarely. To investigate the mechanism of metastasis in DFSP, we analyzed the whole exome sequencing data of serial tumor samples obtained from a patient who had a 10-year history of recurrent and metastatic DFSP. Tracking various genomic alterations, namely somatic mutations, copy number variations, and chromosomal rearrangements, we observed a dramatic change in tumor cell population during the occurrence of metastasis in this DFSP case. The new subclone that emerged in metastatic DFSP harbored a completely different set of somatic mutations and new focal amplifications, which had not been observed in the primary clone before metastasis. The COL1A1-PDGFB fusion, characteristic of DFSP, was found in all of the serial samples. Moreover, the break position on the fusion gene was identical in all samples. Based on these observations, we suggest a clonal evolution model to explain the mechanism underlying metastasis in DFSP and identified several candidate target genes responsible for metastatic DFSP by utilizing The Cancer Genome Atlas database. This is the first study to observe clonal evolution in metastatic DFSP and provide insight for a possible therapeutic strategy for imatinib-resistant or metastatic DFSP.

  16. Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrices: An Alternative Cell Culture System That Increases Metastatic Cellular Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Scherzer

    Full Text Available Poor survival rates from lung cancer can largely be attributed to metastatic cells that invade and spread throughout the body. The tumor microenvironment (TME is composed of multiple cell types, as well as non-cellular components. The TME plays a critical role in the development of metastatic cancers by providing migratory cues and changing the properties of the tumor cells. The Extracellular Matrix (ECM, a main component of the TME, has been shown to change composition during tumor progression, contributing to cancer cell invasion and survival away from the primary cancer site. Although the ECM is well-known to influence the fate of tumor progression, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that are affected by the cancer cell-ECM interactions. It is imperative that these mechanisms are elucidated in order to properly understand and prevent lung cancer dissemination. However, common in vitro studies do not incorporate these interactions into everyday cell culture assays. We have adopted a model that examines decellularized human fibroblast-derived ECM as a 3-dimensional substrate for growth of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Here, we have characterized the effect of fibroblast-derived matrices on the properties of various lung-derived epithelial cell lines, including cancerous and non-transformed cells. This work highlights the significance of the cell-ECM interaction and its requirement for incorporation into in vitro experiments. Implementation of a fibroblast-derived ECM as an in vitro technique will provide researchers with an important factor to manipulate to better recreate and study the TME.

  17. [A case of metastatic gastric cancer originating from transverse colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nushijima, Youichirou; Nakano, Katsutoshi; Sugimoto, Keishi; Nakaguchi, Kazunori; Kan, Kazuomi; Maruyama, Hirohide; Doi, Sadayuki; Okamura, Shu; Murata, Kohei

    2014-11-01

    Metastatic gastric cancer is uncommon, and metastasis of colorectal cancer to the stomach is extremely rare. We report a case of metastatic gastric cancer that originated from transverse colon cancer. A 52-year-old woman underwent a left hemicolectomy and D3 lymph node dissection based on a diagnosis of transverse colon cancer. The pathology results were as follows: mucinous adenocarcinoma, type 2, 6 × 11 cm, ss, ly1 v1, pm (-), dm (-), n1 (+), P0, H0, M0, Stage IIIa. The patient received XELOX as postoperative adjuvant therapy for 6 months. One year and 3 months after the left hemicolectomy, gastroscopy revealed a submucosal tumor in the lower body of the stomach and an incipient cancer in the cardia of the stomach, and a colonoscopy revealed an incipient cancer in the transverse colon. An endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspiration biopsy of the submucosal tumor in the lower body of the stomach was performed. Histology showed that this tumor was a mucinous adenocarcinoma similar to the primary transverse colon cancer, which led to a diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer originating from transverse colon cancer. Distant metastasis was not detected. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the incipient gastric cancer was performed, as were distal gastrectomy and partial colectomy. Peritoneal dissemination and para-aortic lymph node recurrence were detected 7 months after the second surgery.

  18. Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the small bowel mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Yu Yang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an uncommon cutaneous malignant tumor that presents as a rapidly growing skin nodule on sun-exposed areas of the body. MCC is aggressive with regional nodal and distant metastases to the skin, lung, and bones. There have been no reports of metastatic MCC to the mesentery and 6 reports describing metastasis to the small intestine. We present a case of metastatic MCC to the mesentery with infiltration to the small bowel, 8 years after original tumor resection. This is the 5th metastasis and it encased the small bowel resulting in a hair-pin loop contributing to the unusual clinical presentation. Although MCC metastatic to the bowel is uncommon, it is not rare. It is important to recognize the unusual manifestations of this disease as they are becoming more common in the future. Routine radiologic surveillance and thorough review of systems are important to patient follow-up.

  19. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  20. A phase 2 study of high-activity {sup 186}Re-HEDP with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer metastatic to bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.M. [Queen' s University Belfast/Belfast City Hospital, Department of Oncology, Belfast (United Kingdom); Norman, A.R. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Computing, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); McCready, V.R.; Flux, G.; Buffa, F.M. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Physics, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Johnson, B. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Bob Champion Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Coffey, J.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.A.; Parker, C.C.; Dearnaley, D.P. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Academic Unit of Urology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Cook, G. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Treleaven, J. [Royal Marsden Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Haematology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    We investigated the potential for improvement in disease control by use of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) to permit administration of high activities of {sup 186}Re-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP) in patients with progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Eligible patients had progressive HRPC metastatic to bone, good performance status and minimal soft tissue disease. Patients received 5,000 MBq of {sup 186}Re-HEDP i.v., followed 14 days later by PBSCT. Response was assessed using PSA, survival, pain scores and quality of life. Thirty-eight patients with a median age of 67 years (range 50-77) and a median PSA of 57 ng/ml (range 4-3,628) received a median activity of 4,978 MBq {sup 186}Re-HEDP (range 4,770-5,100 MBq). The most serious toxicity was short-lived grade 3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (21%) patients. The median survival of the group is 21 months (95%CI 18-24 months) with Kaplan-Meier estimated 1- and 2-year survival rates of 83% and 40% respectively. Thirty-one patients (81%, 95% CI 66-90%) had stable or reduced PSA levels 3 months post therapy while 11 (29%, 95% CI 15-49%) had PSA reductions of >50% lasting >4 weeks. Quality of life measures were stable or improved in 27 (66%) at 3 months. We have shown that it is feasible and safe to deliver high-activity radioisotope therapy with PBSCT to men with metastatic HRPC. Response rates and survival data are encouraging; however, further research is needed to define optimal role of this treatment approach. (orig.)

  1. Solitary metastatic cancer to the thyroid: a report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoroev Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three men and 2 women with ages ranging from 37 to 70 years, clinically and histologically confirmed solitary, palpable metastatic cancers to the thyroid (SMCT and preoperative cytologic investigation of their thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration (FNA, were reviewed. Four patients were known to have a solid cancer treated by radical surgery 1 to 4 years prior [1 bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma, 1 parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 renal cell carcinoma (RCC and 1 cutaneous melanoma], and 1 patient had no past history of cancer. Direct smears prepared from the patients' thyroid FNAs were fixed in 95% ethanol and stained with the Papanicolaou method. In 3 cases, immunostaining of the aspirated tumor cells with thyroglobulin antibody was performed, and in 1 case an aspiration smear was stained with commercial HMB-45 antibody. A correct cytodiagnosis of metastatic cancer to the thyroid was made in all 5 cases. In 1 patient the thyroid FNA revealed a metastatic RCC that led to the discovery of a clinically occult RCC. All 5 patients died of metastatic disease 27 to 40 months after surgical resection of their SMCTs.

  2. A randomized phase II study of immunization with dendritic cells modified with poxvectors encoding CEA and MUC1 compared with the same poxvectors plus GM-CSF for resected metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael A; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Marshall, John L; Garrett, Christopher; Chang, David Z; Aklilu, Mebea; Crocenzi, Todd S; Cole, David J; Dessureault, Sophie; Hobeika, Amy C; Osada, Takuya; Onaitis, Mark; Clary, Bryan M; Hsu, David; Devi, Gayathri R; Bulusu, Anuradha; Annechiarico, Robert P; Chadaram, Vijaya; Clay, Timothy M; Lyerly, H Kim

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether 1 of 2 vaccines based on dendritic cells (DCs) and poxvectors encoding CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and MUC1 (PANVAC) would lengthen survival in patients with resected metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recurrences after complete resections of metastatic CRC remain frequent. Immune responses to CRC are associated with fewer recurrences, suggesting a role for cancer vaccines as adjuvant therapy. Both DCs and poxvectors are potent stimulators of immune responses against cancer antigens. Patients, disease-free after CRC metastasectomy and perioperative chemotherapy (n = 74), were randomized to injections of autologous DCs modified with PANVAC (DC/PANVAC) or PANVAC with per injection GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Endpoints were recurrence-free survival overall survival, and rate of CEA-specific immune responses. Clinical outcome was compared with that of an unvaccinated, contemporary group of patients who had undergone CRC metastasectomy, received similar perioperative therapy, and would have otherwise been eligible for the study. Recurrence-free survival at 2 years was similar (47% and 55% for DC/PANVAC and PANVAC/GM-CSF, respectively) (χ P = 0.48). At a median follow-up of 35.7 months, there were 2 of 37 deaths in the DC/PANVAC arm and 5 of 37 deaths in the PANVAC/GM-CSF arm. The rate and magnitude of T-cell responses against CEA was statistically similar between study arms. As a group, vaccinated patients had superior survival compared with the contemporary unvaccinated group. Both DC and poxvector vaccines have similar activity. Survival was longer for vaccinated patients than for a contemporary unvaccinated group, suggesting that a randomized trial of poxvector vaccinations compared with standard follow-up after metastasectomy is warranted. (NCT00103142).

  3. New agents for the management of resistant metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anampa, Jesus; Sparano, Joseph A

    2017-12-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is an incurable disease and treatment is directed towards symptom palliation and survival prolongation. Treatment selection in patients is based on tumor biology, age, comorbidities, performance status, tumor burden, and prior treatment history. Areas covered: This present review summarizes the recent treatment strategies in the management of MBC, highlighting regimens after first-line therapy. Topics discussed include new strategies for endocrine therapy, anti-HER2 therapy, and promising strategies for the management of triple negative breast cancer. Expert opinion: MBC is a heterogeneous entity and despite recent advances, there is significant room for improvement of treatment beyond first-line therapies. Combination regimens that can maximize clinical efficacy while minimizing toxicities are required. Current investigation approaches in advanced stages of clinical development include immunoconjugates, immune checkpoint blockade, novel cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitors, and PARP inhibitors for MBC associated with germline BRCA mutations. We recommend that every patient with MBC should be evaluated for clinical trial options.

  4. Genome wide single cell analysis of chemotherapy resistant metastatic cells in a case of gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjortland, Geir Olav; Fodstad, Oystein; Smeland, Sigbjorn; Hovig, Eivind; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Beiske, Klaus; Ree, Anne H; Tveito, Siri; Hoifodt, Hanne; Bohler, Per J; Hole, Knut H; Myklebost, Ola

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic progression due to development or enrichment of therapy-resistant tumor cells is eventually lethal. Molecular characterization of such chemotherapy resistant tumor cell clones may identify markers responsible for malignant progression and potential targets for new treatment. Here, in a case of stage IV adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, we report the successful genome wide analysis using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of DNA from only fourteen tumor cells using a bead-based single cell selection method from a bone metastasis progressing during chemotherapy. In a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, the progression of bone metastasis was observed during a chemotherapy regimen of epirubicin, oxaliplatin and capecitabine, whereas lung-, liver and lymph node metastases as well as the primary tumor were regressing. A bone marrow aspirate sampled at the site of progressing metastasis in the right iliac bone was performed, and single cell molecular analysis using array-CGH of Epithelial Specific Antigen (ESA)-positive metastatic cells, and revealed two distinct regions of amplification, 12p12.1 and 17q12-q21.2 amplicons, containing the KRAS (12p) and ERBB2 (HER2/NEU) (17q) oncogenes. Further intrapatient tumor heterogeneity of these highlighted gene copy number changes was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in all available primary and metastatic tumor biopsies, and ErbB2 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. ERBB2 was heterogeneously amplified by FISH analysis in the primary tumor, as well as liver and bone metastasis, but homogenously amplified in biopsy specimens from a progressing bone metastasis after three initial cycles of chemotherapy, indicating a possible enrichment of erbB2 positive tumor cells in the progressing bone marrow metastasis during chemotherapy. A similar amplification profile was detected for wild-type KRAS, although more heterogeneously

  5. Unsupported off-label chemotherapy in metastatic colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Jonas A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newer systemic therapies have the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality from metastatic colorectal cancer, yet such therapies are costly and have side effects. Little is known about their non-evidence-based use. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using commercial insurance claims from UnitedHealthcare, and identified incident cases of metastatic colon cancer (mCC from July 2007 through April 2010. We evaluated the use of three regimens with recommendations against their use in the National Comprehensive Cancer Center Network Guidelines, a commonly used standard of care: 1 bevacizumab beyond progression; 2 single agent capecitabine as a salvage therapy after failure on a fluoropyridimidine-containing regimen; 3 panitumumab or cetuximab after progression on a prior epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. We performed sensitivity analyses of key assumptions regarding cohort selection. Costs from a payer perspective were estimated using the average sales price for the entire duration and based on the number of claims. Results A total of 7642 patients with incident colon cancer were identified, of which 1041 (14% had mCC. Of those, 139 (13% potentially received at least one of the three unsupported off-label (UOL therapies; capecitabine was administered to 121 patients and 49 (40% likely received it outside of clinical guidelines, at an estimated cost of $718,000 for 218 claims. Thirty-eight patients received panitumumab and six patients (16% received it after being on cetuximab at least two months, at an estimated cost of $69,500 for 19 claims. Bevacizumab was administered to 884 patients. Of those, 90 (10% patients received it outside of clinical guidelines, at an estimated costs of $1.34 million for 636 claims. Conclusions In a large privately insured mCC cohort, a substantial number of patients potentially received UOL treatment. The economic costs and treatment toxicities of these therapies warrant

  6. Evaluating human cancer cell metastasis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yong; Xie, Xiayang; Walker, Steven; White, David T; Mumm, Jeff S; Cowell, John K

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metastasis assays have traditionally been performed in mice, but the process is inefficient and costly. However, since zebrafish do not develop an adaptive immune system until 14 days post-fertilization, human cancer cells can survive and metastasize when transplanted into zebrafish larvae. Despite isolated reports, there has been no systematic evaluation of the robustness of this system to date. Individual cell lines were stained with CM-Dil and injected into the perivitelline space of 2-day old zebrafish larvae. After 2-4 days fish were imaged using confocal microscopy and the number of metastatic cells was determined using Fiji software. To determine whether zebrafish can faithfully report metastatic potential in human cancer cells, we injected a series of cells with different metastatic potential into the perivitelline space of 2 day old embryos. Using cells from breast, prostate, colon and pancreas we demonstrated that the degree of cell metastasis in fish is proportional to their invasion potential in vitro. Highly metastatic cells such as MDA231, DU145, SW620 and ASPC-1 are seen in the vasculature and throughout the body of the fish after only 24–48 hours. Importantly, cells that are not invasive in vitro such as T47D, LNCaP and HT29 do not metastasize in fish. Inactivation of JAK1/2 in fibrosarcoma cells leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and in zebrafish these cells show limited spread throughout the zebrafish body compared with the highly metastatic parental cells. Further, knockdown of WASF3 in DU145 cells which leads to loss of invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo also results in suppression of metastasis in zebrafish. In a cancer progression model involving normal MCF10A breast epithelial cells, the degree of invasion/metastasis in vitro and in mice is mirrored in zebrafish. Using a modified version of Fiji software, it is possible to quantify individual metastatic cells in the transparent larvae to correlate with

  7. H Ferritin Gene Silencing in a Human Metastatic Melanoma Cell Line: A Proteomic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Sanzo, Maddalena; Gaspari, Marco; Misaggi, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Ferritin, the major intracellular iron-storage protein, is made of 24 subunits of two types, H and L. Besides regulating intracellular iron homeostasis, it has been found that ferritin, in particular the H subunit (FHC), is involved in different biological events such as cell differentiation...... and pathologic states (i.e., neurodegeneration and cancer). This study is aimed at investigating the whole-cell proteome of FHC-expressing and sh-RNA-silenced human metastatic melanoma cells (MM07(m)) in the attempt to identify and classify the highest number of proteins directly or indirectly controlled...... of H ferritin signaling pathways and lend support to the hypothesis that specific targeting of this gene might be an attractive and potentially effective strategy for the management of metastatic melanoma....

  8. BP1 Homeoprotein Enhances Metastatic Potential in ER-negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yebo; Lian, Yi; Kim, Kyung Soon; Zhang, Lei; Hindle, A. Katharine; Brody, Fred; Siegel, Robert S.; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Fu, Sidney W.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis remain a major cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. It was reported that BP1, a homeobox isoform of DLX4, is overexpressed in 80% of breast cancer patients and in 100% of estrogen receptor negative (ER-) tumors. The prevalence of BP1 positive cells and the intensity of BP1 immunoreactivity increased with the extent of ductal proliferation and tumorigenesis. These findings imply that BP1 may play an important role in ER- breast cancer. We sought to determine the effects and mechanisms of BP1 on cell proliferation and metastasis using ER- Hs578T cells as a model. Cells were transfected with either pcDNA3.2 plasmid containing BP1 gene, or pcDNA3.2 vector, then selected and cloned. Overexpression of BP1 increased cell proliferation rate by 2-5 fold (p=2.0. Of those genes, 49 were up-regulated and 22 were down-regulated. Significant pathways were identified involving cell proliferation and metastasis. These data demonstrated that overexpression of BP1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation and metastatic potential in ER- Hs578T cells. Further analysis with more ER- cell lines and patient samples is warranted to establish BP1 as a therapeutic target for ER- breast cancer. PMID:20842225

  9. Therapeutic dendritic cell vaccination of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a clinical phase 1/2 trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Annika; Trepiakas, Redas; Wenandy, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic dendritic cell (DC) vaccination against cancer is a strategy aimed at activating the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells. In this nonrandomized phase 1/2 trial, we investigated the safety, feasibility, induction of T-cell response, and clinical response after treatment...... with a DC-based vaccine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-seven patients with progressive cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma were vaccinated with DCs loaded with either a cocktail of survivin and telomerase peptides or tumor lysate depending on their HLA-A2 haplotype......, and low-dose IL-2 was administered concomitantly. Tumor response, immune response, and serum IL-6 and YKL-40 were measured during treatment. Vaccine generation was successful in all patients and no serious adverse events were observed. None of the patients had an objective response but 13/27 patients...

  10. Third-line Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Results from the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J Connor; Stukalin, Igor; Norton, Craig; Srinivas, Sandy; Lee, Jae Lyun; Donskov, Frede; Bjarnason, Georg A; Yamamoto, Haru; Beuselinck, Benoit; Rini, Brian I; Knox, Jennifer J; Agarwal, Neeraj; Ernst, D Scott; Pal, Sumanta K; Wood, Lori A; Bamias, Aristotelis; Alva, Ajjai S; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Choueiri, Toni K; Heng, Daniel Y C

    2017-02-01

    The use of third-line targeted therapy (TTT) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is not well characterized and varies due to the lack of robust data to guide treatment decisions. This study examined the use of third-line therapy in a large international population. To evaluate the use and efficacy of targeted therapy in a third-line setting. Twenty-five international cancer centers provided consecutive data on 4824 mRCC patients who were treated with an approved targeted therapy. One thousand and twelve patients (21%) received TTT and were included in the analysis. Patients were analyzed for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival using Kaplan-Meier curves, and were evaluated for overall response. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the statistical association between OS and the six factors included in the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) prognostic model. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients stratified by their IMDC prognostic risk status. Everolimus was the most prevalent third-line therapy (27.5%), but sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, temsirolimus, and axitinib were all utilized in over ≥9% of patients. Patients receiving any TTT had an OS of 12.4 mo, a progression-free survival of 3.9 mo, and 61.1% of patients experienced an overall response of stable disease or better. Patients not receiving TTT had an OS of 2.1 mo. Patients with favorable- (7.2%) or intermediate-risk (65.3%) disease had the highest OS with TTT, 29.9 mo and 15.5 mo, respectively, while poor-risk (27.5%) patients survived 5.5 mo. Results are limited by the retrospective nature of the study. TTT remains highly heterogeneous. The IMDC prognostic criteria can be used to stratify third-line patients. TTT use in favorable- and intermediate-risk patients was associated with the greatest OS. Patients with favorable- and intermediate-prognostic criteria disease treated with third-line targeted therapy have an associated

  11. Abiraterone plus Prednisone in Metastatic, Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizazi, Karim; Tran, NamPhuong; Fein, Luis; Matsubara, Nobuaki; Rodriguez-Antolin, Alfredo; Alekseev, Boris Y; Özgüroğlu, Mustafa; Ye, Dingwei; Feyerabend, Susan; Protheroe, Andrew; De Porre, Peter; Kheoh, Thian; Park, Youn C; Todd, Mary B; Chi, Kim N

    2017-07-27

    Abiraterone acetate, a drug that blocks endogenous androgen synthesis, plus prednisone is indicated for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We evaluated the clinical benefit of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone with androgen-deprivation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed, metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1199 patients to receive either androgen-deprivation therapy plus abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily, given once daily as four 250-mg tablets) plus prednisone (5 mg daily) (the abiraterone group) or androgen-deprivation therapy plus dual placebos (the placebo group). The two primary end points were overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival. After a median follow-up of 30.4 months at a planned interim analysis (after 406 patients had died), the median overall survival was significantly longer in the abiraterone group than in the placebo group (not reached vs. 34.7 months) (hazard ratio for death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.76; P<0.001). The median length of radiographic progression-free survival was 33.0 months in the abiraterone group and 14.8 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.55; P<0.001). Significantly better outcomes in all secondary end points were observed in the abiraterone group, including the time until pain progression, next subsequent therapy for prostate cancer, initiation of chemotherapy, and prostate-specific antigen progression (P<0.001 for all comparisons), along with next symptomatic skeletal events (P=0.009). These findings led to the unanimous recommendation by the independent data and safety monitoring committee that the trial be unblinded and crossover be allowed for patients in the placebo group to receive abiraterone. Rates of grade 3 hypertension and hypokalemia were higher in the abiraterone group. The addition of abiraterone

  12. Tumor mutational load and immune parameters across metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Guillermo; Miao, Diana; Voss, Martin H.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Hsieh, James J.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Appleman, Leonard J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Choueiri, Toni K.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have better overall survival when treated with nivolumab, a cancer immunotherapy that targets the immune checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), rather than everolimus (a chemical inhibitor of mTOR and immunosuppressant). Poor-risk mRCC patients treated with nivolumab seemed to experience the greatest overall survival benefit, compared to patients with favorable or intermediate-risk, in an analysis of the CheckMate-025 trial subgroup of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic risk groups. Here we explore whether tumor mutational load and RNA expression of specific immune parameters could be segregated by prognostic MSKCC risk strata and explain the survival seen in the poor-risk group. We queried whole exome transcriptome data in RCC patients (n = 54) included in The Cancer Genome Atlas that ultimately developed metastatic disease or were diagnosed with metastatic disease at presentation and did not receive immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nonsynonymous mutational load did not differ significantly by MSKCC risk group, nor was the expression of cytolytic genes –granzyme A and perforin – or selected immune checkpoint molecules different across MSKCC risk groups. In conclusion, this analysis found that mutational load and expression of markers of an active tumor microenvironment did not correlate with MSKCC risk prognostic classification in mRCC. PMID:27538576

  13. MET Activation and Physical Dynamics of the Metastatic Process: The Paradigm of Cancers of Unknown Primary Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia M. Stella

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and cellular mechanisms which drive metastatic spread are the topic of constant debate and scientific research due to the potential implications for cancer patients' prognosis. In addition to genetics and environmental factors, mechanics of single cells and physical interaction with the surrounding environment play relevant role in defining invasive phenotype. Reconstructing the physical properties of metastatic clones may help to clarify still open issues in disease progression as well as to lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In this perspective cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP identify the ideal model to study physical interactions and forces involved in the metastatic process. We have previously demonstrated that MET oncogene is mutated with unexpected high frequency in CUPs. We here analyze and discuss how the MET activation by somatic mutation may affect physical properties in giving rise to such a highly malignant syndrome, as that defined by CUP.

  14. Avelumab for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, L M; Gulley, J L

    2017-07-01

    Avelumab is a promising new therapeutic agent for patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare and aggressive type of neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Until the recent approval of avelumab (Bavencio), no therapies were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. In a recent trial, avelumab, an anti-programmed death ligand-1 antibody, demonstrated an objective response in 28 of 88 patients (31.8% [95.9% CI, 21.9-43.1]) with advanced, chemotherapy-refractory Merkel cell carcinoma. Overall, avelumab was well tolerated at a dose of 10 mg/kg administered intravenously every 2 weeks. Serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in 5 patients (6%), but no grade 4 adverse events or treatment-related deaths were reported. Preliminary data evaluating avelumab in chemotherapy-naive patients is also encouraging. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  15. Australian contemporary management of synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, Phillip; Gibbs, Peter; Shapiro, Jeremy; Sockler, Jim; Bell, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines the current Australian multidisciplinary treatment of synchronous metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and assesses the factors that influence patient outcome. This is a retrospective analysis of the prospective 'Treatment of Recurrent and Advanced Colorectal Cancer' registry, describing the patient treatment pathway and documenting the extent of disease, resection of the colorectal primary and metastases, chemotherapy and biological therapy use. Cox regression models for progression-free and overall survival were constructed with a comprehensive set of clinical variables. Analysis was intentionn-ton-treat, quantifying the effect of treatment intent decided at the multidisciplinary team meeting (MDT). One thousand one hundred and nine patients presented with synchronous metastatic disease between July 2009 and November 2015. Median follow-up was 15.8 months; 4.4% (group 1) had already curative resections of primary and metastases prior to MDT, 22.2% (group 2) were considered curative but were referred to MDT for opinion and/or medical oncology treatment prior to resection and 70.2% were considered palliative at MDT (group 3). Overall, 83% received chemotherapy, 55% had their primary resected and 23% had their metastases resected; 13% of resections were synchronous, 20% were staged with primary resected first and 62% had only the colorectal primary managed surgically. Performance status, metastasis resection (R0 versus R1 versus R2 versus no resection), resection of the colorectal primary and treatment intent determined at MDT were the most significant factors for progression-free and overall survival. This is the largest Australian series of synchronous metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and offers insight into the nature and utility of contemporary practice. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Murine macrophage heparanase: inhibition and comparison with metastatic tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savion, N.; Disatnik, M.H.; Nevo, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Circulating macrophages and metastatic tumor cells can penetrate the vascular endothelium and migrate from the circulatory system to extravascular compartments. Both activated murine macrophages and different metastatic tumor cells attach, invade, and penetrate confluent vascular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro, by degrading heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the subendothelial extracellular matrix. The sensitivity of the enzymes from the various sources degrading the heparan sulfate proteoglycan was challenged and compared by a series of inhibitors. Activated macrophages demonstrate a heparanase with an endoglycosidase activity that cleaves from the [ 35 S]O 4 - -labeled heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix 10 kDa glycosaminoglycan fragments. The degradation of [ 35 S]O 4 - -labeled extracellular matrix proteoglycans by the macrophages' heparanase is significantly inhibited in the presence of heparan sulfate (10μg/ml), arteparon (10μg/ml), and heparin at a concentration of 3 μg/ml. Degradation of this heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a two-step sequential process involving protease activity followed by heparanase activity. B16-BL6 metastatic melanoma cell heparanase, which is also a cell-associated enzyme, was inhibited by heparin to the same extent as the macrophage haparanase. On the other hand, heparanase of the highly metastatic variant (ESb) of a methylcholanthrene-induced T lymphoma, which is an extracellular enzyme released by the cells to the incubation medium, was more sensitive to heparin and arteparon than the macrophages' heparanase. These results may indicate the potential use of heparin or other glycosaminoglycans as specific and differential inhibitors for the formation in certain cases of blood-borne tumor metastasis

  17. RNA interference suppression of A100A4 reduces the growth and metastatic phenotype of human renal cancer cells via NF-kB-dependent MMP-2 and bcl-2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-C; Wang, X; Luo, L; Dong, D-H; Yu, Q-C; Wang, X-S; Zhao, K

    2013-06-01

    S100A4 is a well established marker and mediator of metastatic disease, but the exact mechanisms responsible for the metastasis promoting effects are less well defined. We tested a hypothesis that the S100A4 gene plays a role in the proliferation and invasiveness of human renal cancer cells (RCC) and may be associated with its metastatic spread. The small interference RNA vector pcDNA3.1-S100A4 siRNA was transfected in to the human renal cancer cell lines ACHN, Ketr-3, OS-RC-2, CaKi-2 and HTB-47, then treated with ABT-737 or BB94. Cell apoptosis and cell viability was detected by flow cytometry and MTT assay. Matrigel was used for cell motility and invasion assay. MMP-2, bcl-2 and S100A4 was detected by RT-PCR and western blot assay. NF-kB subunit p65 activity was detected by confocal microscopy assay. We then determine the effect S100A4 sliencing on tumor growth, lung metastasis development in vivo. Immunohistochemistry was used to detected the expression of S100A4, bcl-2, MMP-2, p65 and CD31. S100A4 silencing in ACHN cells by RNA interference significantly inhibited NF-kB and NF-kB-mediated MMP-2 and bcl-2 activation and cellular migration, proliferation, and promoted apoptosis. Furthermore, re-expression of S100A4 in S100A4-siRNA-transfected ACHN cells by transient S100A4 cDNA transfection restored the NF-kB and NF-kB-mediated MMP-2 and bcl-2 activation and their high migratory and cellular proliferative ability. An inhibitor ABT-737 (the Bcl-2 antagonist targets Bcl-2) against Bcl-2 suppressed cellular proliferation and promoted apoptosis induced by S100A4 re-expression in S100A4-siRNA-transfected ACHN cells. A inhibitor BB94 against MMPs to neutralize MMP-2 protein suppressed cellular invasion and migration induced by S100A4 re-expression in S100A4-siRNA-transfected ACHN cells. In the prevention model, S100A4 silencing inhibited primary tumor growth by (tumor weight) (76 ± 8%) and (tumor volum) (78 ± 4%) respectively and promoted apoptosis and the formation

  18. Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Aritro; Chan, Christina

    2016-01-04

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

  19. STUDY ON ADHERENCE TO CAPECITABINE AMONG PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER AND METASTATIC BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiel Goes de FIGUEIREDO JUNIOR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Capecitabine, an oral drug, is as effective as traditional chemotherapy drugs. Objectives To investigate the adhesion to treatment with oral capecitabine in breast and colorectal cancer, and to determine any correlation with changes in patient’s quality of life. Methods Patients with colorectal cancer or breast cancer using capecitabine were included. The patients were asked to bring any medication left at the time of scheduled visits. The QLQ-C30 questionnaire was applied at the first visit and 8-12 weeks after treatment. Results Thirty patients were evaluated. Adherence was 88.3% for metastatic colon cancer, 90.4% for non-metastatic colon cancer, 94.3% for rectal cancer and 96.2% for metastatic breast cancer. No strong correlation between adherence and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 functional or symptom scale rates had been found. There was no statistically significant correlation between compliance and the functional and symptom scales of the questionnaire before and after chemotherapy, with the exception of dyspnea. Conclusions Although no absolute adherence to oral capecitabine treatment had been observed, the level of adherence was good. Health professionals therefore need a greater focus in the monitoring the involvement of patients with oral treatment regimens. Patients with lesser degrees of dyspnea had greater compliance.

  20. Surgical management of prostate cancer metastatic to the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J; Fox, Benjamin D; Sciubba, Daniel M; Suki, Dima; Tu, Shi Ming; Kuban, Deborah; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Rhines, Laurence D; Rao, Ganesh

    2009-05-01

    Significant improvements in neurological function and pain relief are the benefits of aggressive surgical management of spinal metastatic disease. However, there is limited literature regarding the management of tumors with specific histological features. In this study, a series of patients undergoing spinal surgery for metastatic prostate cancer were reviewed to identify predictors of survival and functional outcome. The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who were treated with surgery for prostate cancer metastases to the spine between 1993 and 2005 at a single institution. Particular attention was given to initial presentation, operative management, clinical and neurological outcomes, and factors associated with complications and overall survival. Forty-four patients underwent a total of 47 procedures. The median age at spinal metastasis was 66 years (range 50-84 years). Twenty-four patients had received previous external-beam radiation to the site of spinal involvement, with a median dose of 70 Gy (range 30-74 Gy). Frankel scores on discharge were significantly improved when compared with preoperative scores (p = 0.001). Preoperatively, 32 patients (73%) were walking and 33 (75%) were continent. On discharge, 36 (86%) of 42 patients were walking, and 37 (88%) of 42 were continent. Preoperatively, 40 patients (91%) were taking narcotics, with a median morphine equivalent dose of 21.5 mg/day, and 28 patients (64%) were taking steroids, with a median dose of 16 mg/day. At discharge, the median postoperative morphine equivalent dose was 12 mg/day, and the median steroid dose was 0 mg/day (p or = 65 years at the time of surgery was an independent predictor of a postoperative complication (p = 0.005). In selected patients with prostate cancer metastases to the spine, aggressive surgical decompression and spinal reconstruction is a useful treatment option. The results show that on average, neurological outcome is improved and use of analgesics

  1. Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome Associated with Metastatic Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Haghighi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is characterized by gastrointestinal and ectodermal manifestations. In this paper, we describe a 64-year-old Iranian male, presenting with Cronkhite-Canada syndrome with metastatic colon cancer. The patient was suffering from hair loss, which occurred on the scalp at first and then, during 5 months, extended to the whole body. After that, his sense of taste was impaired, and 2 months later, gastrointestinal symptoms gradually started, with weight loss of 20 kg over 2 months with an initial weight of 100 kg. Finally, he was admitted to our center 10 months after the onset of symptoms. On skin examination, generalized hair loss and hyperpigmentation and dysmorphic nail changes were observed. Multiple polyps within the colon and sigmoid were observed on colonoscopy. According to biopsies, a serrated adenoma and an invasive adenocarcinoma were reported in the ascending colon and sigmoid, respectively. Other polyps were pseudopolyps, and their characteristics were not significant. Computed tomography of the lungs and abdomen showed multiple adenopathies. On biopsy, metastatic adenocarcinoma was reported. The patient underwent chemotherapy with FOLFIRI and ERBITUX. Finally, after 5 courses of chemotherapy, his regimen was changed to FOLFOX and Avastin because of evidence of progression on computed tomography. The etiology of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome is currently unknown, and the optimal therapy has not been reported so far. This syndrome has many complications; the major of them is malignancy, and the prognosis is poor with a mortality rate of 50%. Therefore, annual monitoring is necessary in these patients.

  2. Metastatic gastric cancer – focus on targeted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meza-Junco J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Judith Meza-Junco, Michael B SawyerDepartment of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gastric cancer (GC is currently the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide; unfortunately, most patients will present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Despite recent progress in diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, prognosis remains poor. A better understanding of GC biology and signaling pathways is expected to improve GC therapy, and the integration of targeted therapies has recently become possible and appears to be promising. This article focuses on anti-Her-2 therapy, specifically trastuzumab, as well as other epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists such as cetuximab, panitumub, matuzumab, nimotzumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib. Additionally, drugs that target angiogenesis pathways are also under investigation, particulary bevacizumab, ramucirumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, and cediranib. Other targeted agents in preclinical or early clinical development include mTOR inhibitors, anti c-MET, polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors, anti-insulin-like growth factor, anti-heat shock proteins, and small molecules targeting Hedgehog signaling.Keywords: gastric cancer, targeted therapy, antiangiogenesis drugs, anti-EGFR drugs

  3. Automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Junki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Kimura, Shouta; Hasegawa, Junichi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Nawano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast X-ray CT images is investigated. Because even in Japan, cases of metastatic liver cancers are increased due to recent Europeanization and/or Americanization of Japanese eating habits, development of a system for computer aided diagnosis of them is strongly expected. Our automated extraction procedure consists of following four steps; liver region extraction, density transformation for enhancement of cancer regions, segmentation for obtaining candidate cancer regions, and reduction of false positives by shape feature. Parameter values used in each step of the procedure are decided based on density and shape features of typical metastatic liver cancers. In experiments using practical 20 cases of metastatic liver tumors, it is shown that 56% of true cancers can be detected successfully from CT images by the proposed procedure. (author)

  4. The Gαh-PLCδ1 signaling axis drives metastatic progression in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shang-Pen; Liu, Pei-Yao; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Chen, Chi-Long; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Tsai, Yu-Hui; Lin, Yuan-Feng

    2017-06-02

    Distant metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to other organs, e.g., the lungs, has been correlated with poor survival rates among breast cancer patients. Therefore, the identification of useful therapeutic targets to prevent metastasis or even inhibit tumor growth of TNBC is urgently needed. Gαh is a novel GTP-binding protein and known as an inactive form of calcium-dependent tissue transglutaminase. However, the functional consequences of transamidating and G-protein activities of tissue transglutaminase in promoting cancer metastasis are still controversial. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to estimate the prognostic values of Gαh and PLCδ1 by utilizing public databases and performing immunohistochemical staining experiments. Cell-based invasion assays and in vivo lung colony-forming and orthotropic lung metastasis models were established to evaluate the effectiveness of interrupting the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between Gαh and PLCδ1 in inhibiting the invasive ability and metastatic potential of TNBC cells. Here, we showed that the increased level of cytosolic, not extracellular, Gαh is a poor prognostic marker in breast cancer patients and correlates with the metastatic evolution of TNBC cells. Moreover, clinicopathological analyses revealed that the combined signature of high Gαh/PLCδ1 levels indicates worse prognosis in patients with breast cancer and correlates with lymph node metastasis of ER-negative breast cancer. Blocking the PPI of the Gαh/PLCδ1 complex by synthetically myristoylated PLCδ1 peptide corresponding to the Gαh-binding interface appeared to significantly suppress cellular invasiveness in vitro and inhibit lung metastatic colonies of TNBC cells in vivo. This study establishes Gαh/PLCδ1 as a poor prognostic factor for patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancers, including TNBCs, and provides therapeutic value by targeting the PPI of the Gαh/PLCδ1 complex to combat the metastatic progression

  5. Psychological interventions for women with non-metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassim, Ghufran A; Whitford, David L; Hickey, Anne; Carter, Ben

    2015-05-28

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. It is a distressing diagnosis and, as a result, considerable research has examined the psychological sequelae of being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Breast cancer is associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and reduced quality of life. As a consequence, multiple studies have explored the impact of psychological interventions on the psychological distress experienced after a diagnosis of breast cancer. To assess the effects of psychological interventions on psychological morbidities, quality of life and survival among women with non-metastatic breast cancer. We searched the following databases up to 16 May 2013: the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO; and reference lists of articles. We also searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) search portal and ClinicalTrials.gov for ongoing trials in addition to handsearching. Randomised controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of psychological interventions for non-metastatic breast cancer in women. Two review authors independently appraised and extracted data from eligible trials. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion. Extracted data included information about participants, methods, the intervention and outcome. Twenty-eight randomised controlled trials comprising 3940 participants were included. The most frequent reasons for exclusion were non-randomised trials and the inclusion of women with metastatic disease. A wide range of interventions were evaluated, with 24 trials investigating a cognitive behavioural therapy and four trials investigating psychotherapy compared to control. Pooled standardised mean differences (SMD) from baseline indicated less depression (SMD -1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.83 to -0.18; P = 0.02; 7 studies, 637 participants, I(2) = 95%, low quality evidence), anxiety

  6. Gastric cancer metastatic to neck lipoma. A case report with imaging consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Shuko [Tohoku University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); National Sendai Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Kurihara, Noriko [National Sendai Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Ishikawa, Tomohiko; Tateda, Masaru [National Sendai Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Sakurada, Junko [National Sendai Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2018-04-15

    A 71-year-old man visited our hospital for examination of a soft neck mass. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a well-circumscribed large lipomatous tumor with multiple nodules inside. Atypical lipomatous tumor or lipoma involving the lymph nodes was considered. Pathological examination of the surgical specimen suggested typical lipoma including multiple metastatic foci from gastric cancer. Subsequent endoscopy revealed a gastric tumor, which was histologically proven to be signet-ring cell carcinoma. Considering these findings, this case was diagnosed as tumor-to-tumor metastasis to lipoma. We present the first such case with imaging and clinical characteristics. (orig.)

  7. Targeting Mitochondrial Inhibitors for Metastatic Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215...enzymatically active PSA within extracellular fluid (ECF) at sites of mCRPC. The advantage of ECF hydrolysis is that only a fraction of cancer cells need to...hydrolysis is that only a fraction of cancer cells need to secrete PSA since its enzymatic activity amplifies the level of liberated cell penetrant MTs

  8. Can urologists introduce the concept of “oligometastasis” for metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy?

    OpenAIRE

    Ogihara, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Watanabe, Keitaro; Kufukihara, Ryohei; Yanai, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Kimiharu; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Hara, Satoshi; Oyama, Masafumi; Monma, Tetsuo; Masuda, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Shintaro; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014. We extracted independent predictors for identifying a favorable. Occurrence that fulfilled all 4 criteria which were independently associated with cancer-specific death was defined as oligometastasis: a so...

  9. 'Tablet burden' in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Marina; Foster, Anna; Rihawi, Karim; Anthoney, Alan; Twelves, Chris

    2016-03-01

    The implications for patients with cancer, of the 'tablet burden' resulting from increasing use of oral anticancer drugs and medication for co-morbidities have not previously been well explored. We sought to (i) quantify tablet burden in women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), (ii) establish which groups of drug contribute most to this burden and (iii) gain insight into patients' attitudes towards oral anti-cancer treatment. One hundred patients with MBC anonymously completed a questionnaire describing their medication histories and attitudes towards their tablets. The patients (mean age 60, range 31-95) were all female and taking a median of six tablets (range 0-31) daily; 37 patients were taking >10 tablets. Oral anticancer treatment constituted the category of treatment taken by the highest proportion of patients, followed by symptomatic cancer treatments, proton pump inhibitors and cardiovascular medication. Numerically, however, symptomatic drugs accounted for 44% of all tablets and specific anti-cancer treatment for 15%; medication not directly related to the cancer accounted for the remaining 40% of tablets. A quarter of patients reported inconvenience in taking their tablets, the main reason being tablet size and one third reported forgetting their tablets at least once a week. Nearly two thirds of patients expressing a preference favoured oral anticancer treatment, the commonest reason being greater convenience. Tablet burden is considerable for many patients with MBC and can be problematic. A significant proportion of tablets represent treatment for co-morbidities, the significance of which may be questionable in women with MBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cyclophosphamide on laser immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Rabei, Sheyla; Sikes, Allie; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2014-02-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. The current mode of operation in LIT is through interstitial laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. Cyclophosphamide is a chemotherapy drug that suppresses regulatory T cells when used in low doses. In this study tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT using an 805-nm laser with a power of 2.0 W and low-dose cyclophosphamide. Glycated chitosan was used as an immunological stimulant. The goal was to observe the effects of different doses of cyclophosphamide in addition to LIT on the survival of the tumor-bearing rats.

  11. Comparison of miRNA and gene expression profiles between metastatic and primary prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaimin; Liang, Zuowen; Li, Fubiao; Wang, Hongliang

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify the regulatory mechanisms associated with the metastasis of prostate cancer (PC). The microRNA (miRNA/miR) microarray dataset GSE21036 and gene transcript dataset GSE21034 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following pre-processing, differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples from patients with primary prostate cancer (PPC) and metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) with |log 2 fold change (FC)| >1 and a false discovery rate terms (36 terms), followed by miR-494 (24 terms), miR-30d (18 terms), miR-181a (15 terms), hsa-miR-196a (8 terms), miR-708 (7 terms) and miR-486-5p (2 terms). Therefore, these miRNAs may serve roles in the metastasis of PC cells via downregulation of their corresponding target DEGs.

  12. First-line targeted therapies in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer – role of cetuximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Tonini

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Tonini, Alice Calvieri, Bruno Vincenzi, Daniele SantiniMedical Oncology, University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignant disease and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western nations. In 2008 there were an estimated 148,810 new cases and 49,960 deaths in the US. For several years different chemotherapeutic regimens, based on floropyrimidines, irinotecan and oxaliplatin, have been used in advanced CRC, but survival is still unsatisfactory. New targeted therapies, including drugs and monoclonal antibodies (MoABs , show great promise in the fight against CRC and have shown activity in different disease settings. Cetuximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds to the extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, is active in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. As an IgG1 antibody, cetuximab may exert its antitumor efficacy through both EGFR antagonism and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The combination of this drug with classical chemotherapies has shown better clinical profiles reflected in an improvement in overall and progression-free survival. Clinical trials established the role of cetuximab, particularly with irinotecan, in irinotecan-refractory/heavily pretreated patients. Whereas cetuximab has a clear indication in the salvage setting, its role in first-line therapy remains investigational. It is particularly encouraging that cetuximab may enhance curative opportunities in patients with early metastatic disease, suggesting that adding cetuximab in first-line therapy may downstage disease in some patients, and, as a result, allow potentially curative resection of previously unresectable metast