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Sample records for metasequoia glyptostroboides miki

  1. Antibacterial abietane-type diterpenoid, taxodone from Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek K Bajpai; Sun Chul Kang

    2010-12-01

    In an attempt to isolate bioactive constituents, ethyl acetate cone extract of Metasequoia glyptostroboides was subjected to a column chromatographic analysis that resulted in isolation of an abietane-type diterpenoid, taxodone. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic means. Further, taxodone showed potential antibacterial effect as diameters of zones of inhibition against foodborne pathogenic bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19166, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC 2515, S. enteritidis KCTC 2021, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888, Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and S. aureus KCTC 1916, were found in the range of 9.4 to 14.2 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of taxodone against the employed bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 250 to 1000 and 250 to < 2000 g/ml, respectively. Also the compound had a strong antibacterial effect on the viable counts of the tested bacteria. These findings indicate that the bioactive compound taxodone present in M. glyptostroboides could be used as an antibacterial agent in food industry to inhibit the growth of certain important foodborne pathogens.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the relict woody plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Xu, Haibin; Yang, Liming; Liu, Guangxin; Sheng, Yu; Zheng, Chen; Zheng, Weiwei; Cheng, Tielong; Shi, Jisen

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng, which belongs to the Cupressaceae family. There were around 10 species in the Metasequoia genus, which were widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous of the Mesozoic and in the Cenozoic. M. glyptostroboides is the only remaining representative of this genus. Here, we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence and the cp genomic features of M. glyptostroboides. The M. glyptostroboides cp genome is 131,887 bp in length, with a total of 117 genes comprised of 82 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. In this genome, 11 forward repeats, nine palindromic repeats, and 15 tandem repeats were detected. A total of 188 perfect microsatellites were detected through simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis and these were distributed unevenly within the cp genome. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order to those of several other land plants indicated that a copy of the inverted repeat (IR) region, which was found to be IR region A (IRA), was lost in the M. glyptostroboides cp genome. The five most divergent and five most conserved genes were determined and further phylogenetic analysis was performed among plant species, especially for related species in conifers. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that M. glyptostroboides is a sister species to Cryptomeria japonica (L. F.) D. Don and to Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata. The complete cp genome sequence information of M. glyptostroboides will be great helpful for further investigations of this endemic relict woody plant and for in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the coniferous cp genomes, especially for the position of M. glyptostroboides in plant systematics and evolution.

  3. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a "living fossil" species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  4. Atomic force microscopic observation on substructure of pollen exine in Cedrus deodara and Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The substructure of pollen exine in Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. and Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng has been examined with an atomic force microscope (AFM). The results indicate that the exine substructure units containing sporopollenin in two species are similar in shape, which are granular, but slightly different in size. In Cedrus the substructure unit of pollen exine appears to be 56-99 nm long and 42-74 nm wide, while in Metasequoia it appears to be 81-118 nm long and 43-98 nm wide. It has been observed that the subunits of pollen exine in Cedrus arranged tightly to form short-rod-like or spheroidal pollen exine units, several or more than ten of which formed an island-like structure. There are various spaces among these island-like structures which are interconnected to occupy the entire pollen exine. In Metasequoia, the subunits of pollen exine also arranged tightly with a distribution tendency of cluster of 3-10, however, no obvious boundary exists among these clusters. From our results, it is concluded that there is no tendency of helical arrangement for the subunits of pollen exine in Cedrus and Metasequoia, and the results support Southworth' view that subunits of pollen exine are granular shape in lattice structure.

  5. Analysis of the change in the original Metasequoia glyptostroboides population and its environment in Lichuan, Hubei from 1948 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiqun; MA Lüyi; GUO Baoxiang; FAN Shenhou; TAN Jianxi

    2006-01-01

    Lichuan,located at the foot of the Wuling Mountain in southwest Hubei Province of central China,is well known in the world for the discovery of the living fossil Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & Cheng in the 1940s.Its natural habitat has been well protected by the Chinese government.In order to provide a scientific foundation for the protection of the Metasequoia resource,it has become necessary to analyze the changes in the original,natural Metasequoia mother trees (ONMMT) and their environment from 1948 to 2003.The results and countermeasures are as follows:First,the distribution areas have little changed,involving four towns/farmland,45 villages,5,746 individual trees in 1983 and 5,388 trees in 2003,covering nearly 600 km2,with an average density of less than 0.1 tree/hm2.The Metasequoia distribution consists of two main types:a scattered distribution type found mainly at the foothills or near houses,roads,villages and rivers while the population distribution type is found mainly at the mountains and valleys with a minority at low elevations in the mountains and basins.The largest Metasequoia populations have 105 and 123 trees.Second,in the past,attention was only paid to the protection of individual trees while the protection of the Metasequoia population and environment was neglected.This led to a shift from the past mixed forests to pure Metasequoia forests,with a simpler structure,reduced biodiversity and conditions non-conducive for natural renewal.From 1983 to 2003,386 original Metasequoia mother trees died.So it is vital to enhance the protection of the only original Metasequoia population in the world and its habitat.Third,modem ecological means should be taken to protect the original Metasequoia population and its habitat.Research on the restoration and rehabilitation of Metasequoia vegetation should be carried out.Restoration and rehabilitation should be put into practice in the Xiaohe Valley,where the highest concentration of Metasequoia is found

  6. Anti-listerial synergism of leaf essential oil of Metasequoia glyptostroboides with nisin in whole, low and skim milks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek K Bajpai; Jung In Yoon; Monika Bhardwaj; Sun Chul Kang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To examine the individual and synergistic anti-listerial effect of nisin and leaf essential oil ofMetasequoia glyptostroboides(M. glyptostroboides) against one of the leading foodborne pathogensListeria monocytogenes(L. monocytogenes)ATCC19116 in milk samples. Methods:The whole(8%), low(1%) and skim(no fat content) milk samples were inoculated withL. monocytogenesATCC19116 along with leaf essential oil ofM. glyptostroboides or nisin alone as well in combinations.Results:In this study, the leaf essential oil at the concentrations of2% and5% revealed strong anti-listerial effect againstL. monocytogenesATCC19116 in all categories of milk samples.Nisin at the concentrations of250 and500IU/mL displayed a strong inhibitory effect againstATCC19116 as compared to the control group.Additionally, synergistic combinations of leaf essential oil(1%) and nisin(62.5,125,250 and500IU/mL) also had a remarkable anti-listerial synergism in all the tested milk samples including whole, low and skim milk after14 days.Conclusions:As a major finding, the leaf essential oil ofM. glyptostroboides might be a useful candidate for using in food industry to control the growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria as confirmed by its potent anti-listerial synergistic effect with nisin againstL. monocytogenesATCC19116 in different milk samples.

  7. Growing with dinosaurs: natural products from the Cretaceous relict Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu & Cheng-a molecular reservoir from the ancient world with potential in modern medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvik, Ole Johan; Nguyen, Xuan Hong Thy; Andersen, Heidi Lie; Fossen, Torgils

    2016-01-01

    After the sensational rediscovery of living exemplars of the Cretaceous relict Metasequoia glyptostroboides-a tree previously known exclusively from fossils from various locations in the northern hemisphere, there has been an increasing interest in discovery of novel natural products from this unique plant source. This article includes the first complete compilation of natural products reported from M. glyptostroboides during the entire period in which the tree has been investigated (1954-2014) with main focus on the compounds specific to this plant source. Studies on the biological activity of pure compounds and extracts derived from M. glyptostroboides are reviewed for the first time. The unique potential of M. glyptostroboides as a source of bioactive constituents is founded on the fact that the tree seems to have survived unchanged since the Cretaceous era. Since then, its molecular defense system has resisted the attacks of millions of generations of pathogens. In line with this, some recent landmarks in Metasequoia paleobotany are covered. Initial spectral analysis of recently discovered intact 53 million year old wood and amber of Metasequoia strongly indicate that the tree has remained unchanged for millions of years at the molecular level.

  8. 水杉木材DNA提取及条形码分子鉴定%DNA extraction from wood Metasequoia glyptostroboides and molecule barcode identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨星宇; 杨路路; 余志伟; 杨建明

    2011-01-01

    通过对水杉不同年限及不同部位的木材DNA提取及片段扩增实验,结果显示改良后的CTAB(十六烷基三甲基溴化铵)法、SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)法及高盐低pH法均可以用于水杉木材DNA的提取,经过纯化后的木材DNA可以进行片段扩增.在提取木材DNA过程中,边材比心材更适合,所提取的DNA数量和质量更有保障;试验显示水杉木材DNA分子大多为23 kbp.运用DNA条形码筛选分析、序列特征分析、遗传距离秩和检验、barcodinggap检验,进行木材DNA分子系列物种鉴定,结果表明序列ITS2、trnL-F比较适合其DNA条形码技术要求,可以作为水杉木材鉴定序列.%Through wood DNA fragments extraction and PCR experiment, in different fixed number of year and in different parts of Metasequoia glyptostroboides , the results showed the method of CTAB (16 alkyl three methyl brominated ammonium), SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and high-salt-low pH after improvement could be used in the Metasequoia glyptostroboides wood's DNA extracted. After purification in wood DNA, the experiment proved it could be PCR. During the extracting, the sapwood was better than heartwood, sapwood DNA s quantity and quality was more reliable. The experiments showed that the Metasequoia glyptostroboides wood's DNA molecules was about 23 kbp. In the use of wood DNA molecular series, we carried the analysis of testing DNA sequence, bar code screening, characteristics of the genetic distance, rank and inspection, barcoding gap inspection, the results indicated that the sequence ITS2, trnL-F was suitable to its DNA bar code technology requirements. It could be used as identification Metasequoia glyptostroboides wood.

  9. The impact of long-term water stress on relative growth rate and morphology of needles and shoots of Metasequoia glyptostroboides seedlings: research toward identifying mechanistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Equiza, Maria Alejandra; Zheng, Quanshui; Tyree, Melvin T

    2011-09-01

    Leaf morphology in the upper canopy of trees tends to be different from that lower down. The effect of long-term water stress on leaf growth and morphology was studied in seedlings of Metasequoia glyptostroboides to understand how tree height might affect leaf morphology in larger trees. Tree height increases water stress on growing leaves through increased hydraulic resistance to water flow and increased gravitational potential, hence we assume that water stress imposed by soil dehydration will have an effect equivalent to stress induced by height. Seedlings were subjected to well-watered and two constant levels of long-term water stress treatments. Drought treatment significantly reduced final needle count, area and mass per area (leaf mass area, LMA) and increased needle density. Needles from water-stressed plants had lower maximum volumetric elastic modulus (ε(max)), osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψ¹⁰⁰(π)) (and at zero turgor (Ψ⁰(π)) (than those from well-watered plants. Palisade and spongy mesophyll cell size and upper epidermal cell size decreased significantly in drought treatments. Needle relative growth rate, needle length and cell sizes were linear functions of the daily average water potential at the time of leaf growth (r² 0.88-0.999). We conclude that water stress alone does mimic the direction and magnitude of changes in leaf morphology observed in tall trees. The results are discussed in terms of various models for leaf growth rate. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  10. 水杉种子中总黄酮含量及其清除自由基能力分析%Determination of Total Flavonoids in the Seed of Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Its Anti-radical Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰; 王海燕; 张耀洲

    2013-01-01

    用紫外分光光度法,以芦丁作对照,测定水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides)种子中的总黄酮含量,以BHT和维生素C作对照,比较其对DPPH自由基的清除能力.结果表明,水杉种子中总黄酮含量为34.7 mg/g,其清除DPPH自由基的能力随质量浓度升高而增强,达到EC=145.6 μg/mL,低浓度时低于BHT,随着浓度增高,高于相同质量浓度的BHT,低于维生素C,但在400 μg/mL时,与维生素C持平.水杉种子中黄酮有较高利用价值,作为天然抗氧化剂有良好的应用价值.%The content of total flavonoids in the seed of Metasequoia glyptostroboides was determined by UV-spectrophotometry using rutin as the control.The anti-radical efficiency against DPPH free radical was compared with BHT and vitamin C.The results showed that the total content of flavonoids in the seed reached to 34.7 mg/g.The anti-radical efficiency against DPPH free radical increased with the increase of concentration of total flavonoids,which was worse than BHT at low concentration (the EC value was 145.6 μg/mL) while better than the same concentration of BHT at high level,lower than that of vitamin C,but was equivalent to vitamin C at the 400 μg/mL level.In conclusion,the seed of M.glyptostroboides as a natural antioxidant source had good application value.

  11. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C.Cheng. 1. Evidence from pressure-volume curve analysis of dead tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Pan, Shaoan; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    This paper provides a mini-review of evidence for negative turgor pressure in leaf cells starting with experimental evidence in the late 1950s and ending with biomechanical models published in 2014. In the present study, biomechanical models were used to predict how negative turgor pressure might be manifested in dead tissue, and experiments were conducted to test the predictions. The main findings were as follows: (i) Tissues killed by heating to 60 or 80 °C or by freezing in liquid nitrogen all became equally leaky to cell sap solutes and all seemed to pass freely through the cell walls. (ii) Once cell sap solutes could freely pass the cell walls, the shape of pressure-volume curves was dramatically altered between living and dead cells. (iii) Pressure-volume curves of dead tissue seem to measure negative turgor defined as negative when inside minus outside pressure is negative. (iv) Robinia pseudoacacia leaves with small palisade cells had more negative turgor than Metasequoia glyptostroboides with large cells. (v) The absolute difference in negative turgor between R. pseudoacacia and M. glyptostroboides approached as much as 1.0 MPa in some cases. The differences in the manifestation of negative turgor in living versus dead tissue are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Analysis of Genomic Microsatellite Sequence and Development of SSR Markers in Metasequoia glyptostroboides%水杉基因组微卫星分析及标记开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新叶; 张亚东; 彭婵; 宋丛文; 杨彦伶

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the partial genome of Metasequoia glyptostroboides, a rare plant, was sequenced by using the ROCHE-454 GLX high-throughput sequencing platform. Through sequence assembly and microsatellite finding, 1 965 microsatellite loci were obtained in the sequence and the repeat unit length was 2 - 5 base pairs, by which 921 pairs of primer were designed with the Primer 3 Plus software. Analysis of these microsatellite sequences showed that tetranucleotide microsatellite was the most abundant, accounting for 38.8% of the total repeat sequences, followed by dinucleotide (31.8%), trinucleotide (22%) and pentanucleotide (7.4%) in the M. glyptostroboides genome. Among the dinucleotide repeat types, AG type was the most, accounting for 13.9% of total repeats and 43.8% of dinucleotide repeats. In the eight trinucleotide repeat types, AAG type accounted for 8.3% of total repeats and 37.7% of trinucleotide repeats, followed by ATG (23.1%), AAC (16.%) and AAT (13.0%). The analysis of different lengths of the microsatellite repeat unit showed that the most abundant variants were dinucleotide microsatellite and there were 23 different types of repeat lengths, followed by the tetranucleotide repeat (10 types), trinucleotide repeat (8 types) and pentanucleotide repeat (3 types). The validation of SSR markers showed that, 87 pairs brought about clear products and 46 pairs had polymorphic products, accounting for 62. 14% and 32.86% out of the 140 primer pairs,respectively.

  13. 3种杉科植物挥发性有机化合物成分%Composition of Volatile Organic Compounds in Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Taxodium ascendens and Taxodium distichum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷倩; 俞益武; 高岩; 丁倩倩; 薛丹; 张倩倩

    2013-01-01

      为了探究水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng)、池杉(Taxodium ascendens Brongn.)和落羽杉(T.distichum (Linn.) Rich.)挥发性有机化合物(VOCs)的差异,从植物挥发性有机化合物角度为其园林配置提供理论依据,试验采用动态顶空气体循环采集法和热脱附气质联用技术(TDS-GC-MS)对3种杉科植物挥发物进行成分分析。结果表明:萜烯类化合物是3种杉科植物挥发性有机化合物的主要成分。其中从水杉中鉴定出26种成分,主要为β-蒎烯(相对峰面积50.41%),水芹烯(13.42%),柠檬烯(6.96%),3-蒈烯(4.92%)和α-蒎烯(3.77%);从池杉中鉴定出37种成分,主要为β-蒎烯(40.18%),水芹烯(12.01%),柠檬烯(8.10%),石竹烯(5.77%)和顺-3-己烯醇(5.30%);从落羽杉中鉴定出28种成分,主要为β-蒎烯(42.97%),柠檬烯(30.53%),水芹烯(6.54%),莰烯(3.44%)和石竹烯(2.46%)。%  An experiment was conducted to study the constituents of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in-tostroboides, Taxodium ascendens and Taxodium distichum for their landscape application.The VOCs were identified with the thermal desorption system gas chromatography /mass spectrometer technique (TDS-GC/MS).The major compounds of the VOCs in the three plants are terpenes: β-pinene (relative content of 50.41%), phellandrene (13.42%), D-limonene (6.96%), 3-Carene (4.92%) and α-pinene (3.77%) in Metasequoia glyptostroboides, β-pinene (40.18%), phellan-drene (12.01%), D-limonene (8.10%), caryophyllene (5.77%) and cis-3-hexene-1-ol (5.30%) in Taxodium ascen-dens, and β-pinene (42.97%), D-limonene (30.53%), phellandrene (6.54%), camphene (3.44%) and caryo-

  14. 中新世水杉叶片和白垩纪松型球果化石中的挥发性成分%Volatiles from Two Gymnosperm Fossils: Miocene Leaves of Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Early Cretaceous Seed Cone of Pityostrobus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵友兴; 武素功; 张和; 罗晓东; 刘玉清; 周俊

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-one and nineteen compounds were detected respectively from the volatile extracts from the fossils of Miocene leaves of Metasequoia glyptostroboides and early Cretaceous seed cone of Pityostrobus spp. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. These compounds were found belonging to n-alkanes, n-alkenes, n-alkanols, long chain fatty acids and their esters, phthalates, terpenoids and aromatic compounds, and three compounds of them, abietane diterpenoid, heptadecanoic acid and retene were considered as biomarkers for gymnosperm plants. Fig 1, Tab 2, Ref 22%采用气相色谱-质谱联用分析技术从中新世水杉叶片和白垩纪松型球果两种裸子植物化石中分别鉴定了51个和19个挥发性成分,类型涉及烷烃、烷烯、烷醇、长链脂肪酸及其酯、邻苯二甲酸酯、萜类和芳香族化合物.其中3种成分--松香烷型二萜、饱和十七碳脂肪酸和惹烯是裸子植物的生物标志分子.图1 表2 参22

  15. Miki ja Rosa hõivasid Tartu / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2001-01-01

    Lühidalt viiest kunstinäitusest - Vaikust lõhestas vali kärgatus (Peeter Allik), Küla, mida on põletanud punased õhtud (Imat Suumann), Rosa Permanente (Ruth Huimerind), Miki-Hiire kirik (Erki Meister, Christer Hägglund), Aledoia (Andrus Joonas)

  16. Miki ja Rosa hõivasid Tartu / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-2016

    2001-01-01

    Lühidalt viiest kunstinäitusest - Vaikust lõhestas vali kärgatus (Peeter Allik), Küla, mida on põletanud punased õhtud (Imat Suumann), Rosa Permanente (Ruth Huimerind), Miki-Hiire kirik (Erki Meister, Christer Hägglund), Aledoia (Andrus Joonas)

  17. 水杉种子GC/MS联用指纹图谱的建立%Establishment of GC/MS ifngerprint of volatile oil of seeds ofMetasequoia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰; 王海燕; 马俊义

    2014-01-01

    The volatile oil was extracted by water stream distillation method from 10 batches ofMetasequoia glyptostroboides seeds, analyzed by GC/MS, the GC/MS fingerprint was established. The results show that there were 8 common characteristic peaks, the relative retention time of each peak was consistent (RRSD<0.5%),the correlation coefficient (≥ 94%), similarity (≥ 90%), included angle cosine (≥ 95%), similarity ratio (≥0.89) all reached good level. This established GC/MSifngerprint had better characteristics, reflected the differences of origin, and can be used for the identiifcation of the seeds ofM. glyptostroboides.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法从10批水杉种子中提取挥发油,采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)分析挥发油的主要化学成分及其相对含量,建立水杉种子的GC/MS指纹图谱。结果表明:水杉种子挥发油主要含有8个共有特征峰,各峰的相对保留时间基本一致(RSD<0.5%),其相关系数(≥94%)、相似度(≥90%)、夹角余弦(≥95%)、相似性比(≥0.89)均达良好水平。本指纹图谱具有较好的特征性,能够反映产地差异情况,可用于水杉种子的质量鉴别。

  18. A new project for developing a prototype COIL module at Miki Pulley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Kazuyoku; Sugimoto, Daichi; Ito, T.; Watanabe, Goro; Vyskubenko, Oleg; Takeuchi, Noriyuki; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2003-11-01

    Miki Pulley has pursued the development of a prototype COIL module for field and industrial applications since its transfer from Tokai University in 2000. The test module has already been constructed in our laboratory. The current status of the development is presented. The achieved chemical efficiency was 17.5% at the chlorine flow rate of 13.2mol/min. The corresponding laser power was 3.5kW.

  19. Pengaruh Bauran Promosi Terhadap Keputusan Konsumen Berkunjung ke Mikie Holiday Fundland Berastagi Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilya, Fetty

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing to decision purchase. This research collects empirical evidence. This research was conducted at Mikie Holiday Fundland, Jamin Ginting street, 50 km Pecen village, Berastagi, North Sumatra, with a total sample of 100 respondents. Based on the research, the results of significance test the effect simultaneously with the F test, the variable of advertising, sales pr...

  20. Serbia from Miki and Kupinovo to Europe: Public performance and the social role of celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of public performance and social role of a media star in the post-socialist Serbia on the example of Miki Đuričić, the participant of the first series of reality show Big brother in this region. The issues are regarded through the prism of theater anthropology of Erving Goffman, corrected and complemented with Baudrillard's concepts of simulacrum and simulation. Discursive, symbolic, social, cultural and political practices are discussed as well as the impact of that performance and the efforts of their representation in the light of 'new face of Serbia'.

  1. Michela/Miki: storia vera di un uomo che non si è mai sentito donna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paola Lacatena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quella raccontata da un paziente del Dipartimento Dipendenze Patologiche della ASL di Taranto, Michela prima e Miki poi, è la storia di un'infanzia difficile, consumata in una casa in cui la violenza e la scarsa attenzione nei confronti dei bisogni sono la cifra principale. La protagonista non accetta le sue sembianze femminili, non si sente donna, vive come se non lo fosse. Da subito, si percepisce uomo in un corpo femminile. Miki non è un personaggio frutto di fantasia, dove quest'ultima rischierebbe di essere superata per drammaticità dalla realtà. È una persona che non ha saputo né voluto coltivare una menzogna esistenziale. Inizialmente provandoci con tutta la rabbia verso la vita di cui Michela era capace e successivamente con la consapevolezza di non essere solo distruttività e rabbia. Il desiderio profondo di vedere realizzata la propria autenticità lo conduce al rifiuto di darsi in pasto all'annientamento completo decidendo, dopo un accumulo di sofferenze e rifiuti, di decidere chi e come essere nel mondo. Rifiutando il rifiuto, cercandosi profondamente, la sfida non è stata più contro il resto del mondo ma a favore di sé e, conseguentemente degli Altri.

  2. Effects of sediment and its re-suspension on the growth of Vallisneria asiatica Miki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Ze-xiang; XIE Yi-fa; XU De-lan; LIU Zheng-wen

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytic growth and its distribution in eutrophic lakes are described in relation to its sediment type and irradiance. Hence, it is necessary to characterize the response of macrophytic growth to lake sediment and its re-suspension. We conducted two independent experiments to measure the effects of sediment and its re-suspension on the growth of Vallisneria asi-atica Miki. Based on our study, we conclude that the amount of total biomass of V. asiatica is related, in important ways, to the type of sediment and its re-suspension. According to our comparison, plants and biomass cultured on lake sediments are 2.1 times and 1.5 times greater than that on brown clay from nearby places beside Lake Taihu. The number of plants and the amount of biomass in a turbid water column are smaller than those in a clear water column. The results indicate that the nutrient-rich lake sediments have promoted the growth of V. asiatica, while the re-suspension of the sediment leads to a high turbid level and low light penetra-tion which has a negative impact on the growth of V. asiatica.

  3. Impact of suspended sediments on the survival of seagrass: Halodule pinifolia (Miki den Hartog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satumanatpan, S.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the level of suspended sediments on the survival of Halodule pinifolia (Miki den Hartog. Three experiments were conducted. Broad concentration of suspended sediments covering the level found in nature were employed in the first experiment. The impact concentration of suspended sediments on the survival of H. pinifolia was extended in more detail in the second and third experiments. H. pinifolia was planted by washing off the mud and holding it with a grating. An air pump was used to stir the sediment in suspension during the experiments and necessary water parameters were strictly control. The suspended sediment was spread by siphon and conducted in a period of 30 days for the first and second experiments, and 45 days for the third experiment. The result indicated that suspended sediments with a concentration of 1-64 mg/l had no impact on the survival of H. pinifolia within 30 days. Initially, suspended sediments of 66 mg/l lowered H. pinifolia's survival to 95% at day 30. Concentration of suspended sediments higher than 66 mg/l affected the survival of H. pinifolia. The decreasing survival was noticed during days 20 -25 of the experiment and all died during days 40-45. However, the life span of H. pinifolia, would be very important and might also affect the survival of H. pinifolia after 30 days.

  4. The Life of Medical Historian(醫史學者 Miki Sakae, and the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM Ho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Miki Sakae was a Medical historian, who is well known for his studies of Korean medicine. He authored the renowned trilogy which dealt with subjects of Korean medicine and diseases, namely the , , and , during the Japanese Occupation period. He was born in 1903 in Osaka, Japan, and graduated from the Kyushu(九州 College of Medicine. In 1928 he was assigned to the Gyeongseong Imperial University's College of Medicine as a professor, and also served as Chief of the Suweon Provincial Hospital while he was staying in Korea. During the 18-year period of his stay, he widely collected medical books of Korea and also thoroughly studied them. He returned to Japan in 1944 due to the illness of his father, but continued his studies of Korean medicine, and in 1955 published the for the first time. Following such accomplishment, was published in 1956, the next year, and finally was published a few decades later, in 1985. Since the 1950s, aside of continuing to study and author the history of Korean medicine, he had also engaged himself in a joint effort associated with the members of the Medical History Association of Japan in a group study of Huseya Soteki 伏屋素狄 the first Japanese Experimental Physiologist. He also attempted at establishing an academic branch which could be referred to as Experimental Historical Studies of Medicine, by recreating the experiments of Huseya Sotek 伏屋素狄 with his own son 三木謙. Later he also expanded his interest and studies to the medical history of the world and also the area of Medical Ethics. But his ultimate interest and passion were always targeted at the Medicine of Korea, and the one consistent position he maintained during his entire life regarding the Korean medicine, was that 'One can only talk about the medicine of China and Japan when he or she is well versed in the medicine of Korea'. And his lifetime achievement, was authored upon the basis established by such conviction and philosophy. First

  5. Molecular hydrogen isotope analysis of living and fossil plants——Metasequoia as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yang; Qin Leng

    2009-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen isotope analysis preformed on modern and fossil plants has made a significant impact on diverse research fields in biology and geology. Using living and fossil Metasequoia as an example, we review the technology of online GC-IRMS that made the molecular analysis of hydrogen isotope possible and discuss critical issues concerning with the studies of molecular δD and its applica-tions. The apparent hydrogen fractionation factors between lipid molecules and source water (δwater lipid) vary across plant taxonomy and differ among biomolecules and are affected by multiple environmental factors in which precipitation δD values exercise the first order of control. Eco-physiological factors and environmental parameters are also known to influence δD in plants. Molecular hydrogen isotope analysis of chemically stable lipid molecules, such as n-alkanes, finds a wide range of applications in detecting source sediments, recon-struction of paleoclimatic parameters, inference of air-mass trajectory, as well as in petroleum industry and environmental studies.2009 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Pb isotopes during crustal melting and magma mingling - A cautionary tale from the Miki Fjord macrodike, central east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  7. Pb isotopes during crustal melting and magma mingling - A cautionary tale from the Miki Fjord macrodike, central east Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  8. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eZhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metasequoiaglyptostroboidies is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as5-to-7years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia.

  9. [The life of medical historian Miki Sakae, and the "history of Korean medicine and of diseases in Korea"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho

    2005-12-01

    Miki Sakae was a Medical historian, who is well known for his studies of Korean medicine. He authored the renowned trilogy which dealt with subjects of Korean medicine and diseases, namely the "History of Korean Medicine and of Diseases in Korea", "Bibliography of Korean Medical Books", and "The Chronological Table of Medical Events in Korea"), during the Japanese Occupation period. He was born in 1903 in Osaka, Japan, and graduated from the Kyushu College of Medicine. In 1928 he was assigned to the Gyeongseong Imperial University's College of Medicine as a professor, and also served as Chief of the Suweon Provincial Hospital while he was staying in Korea. During the 18-year period of his stay, he widely collected medical books of Korea and also thoroughly studied them. He returned to Japan in 1944 due to the illness of his father, but continued his studies of Korean medicine, and in 1955 published the "History of Korean Medicine and of Diseases in Korea" for the first time. Following such accomplishment, "Bibliography of Korean Medical Books" was published in 1956, the next year, and finally "The Chronological Table of Medical Events in Korea" was published a few decades later, in 1985. Since the 1950s, aside of continuing to study and author the history of Korean medicine, he had also engaged himself in a joint effort associated with the members of the Medical History Association of Japan (which also included the alumni of the Kyushu College of Medicine) in a group study of Huseya Soteki, the first Japanese Experimental Physiologist. He also attempted at establishing an academic branch which could be referred to as Experimental Historical Studies of Medicine, by recreating the experiments of Huseya Soteki with his own son. Later he also expanded his interest and studies to the medical history of the world and also the area of Medical Ethics. But his ultimate interest and passion were always targeted at the Medicine of Korea, and the one consistent position he

  10. Experimental evidence for negative turgor pressure in small leaf cells of Robinia pseudoacacia L versus large cells of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et W.C. Cheng. 2. Höfler diagrams below the volume of zero turgor and the theoretical implication for pressure-volume curves of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongmei; Li, Junhui; Ding, Yiting; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-03-01

    The physiological advantages of negative turgor pressure, Pt , in leaf cells are water saving and homeostasis of reactants. This paper advances methods for detecting the occurrence of negative Pt in leaves. Biomechanical models of pressure-volume (PV) curves predict that negative Pt does not change the linearity of PV curve plots of inverse balance pressure, PB , versus relative water loss, but it does predict changes in either the y-intercept or the x-intercept of the plots depending on where cell collapse occurs in the PB domain because of negative Pt . PV curve analysis of Robinia leaves revealed a shift in the x-intercept (x-axis is relative water loss) of PV curves, caused by negative Pt of palisade cells. The low x-intercept of the PV curve was explained by the non-collapse of palisade cells in Robinia in the PB domain. Non-collapse means that Pt smoothly falls from positive to negative values with decreasing cell volume without a dramatic change in slope. The magnitude of negative turgor in non-collapsing living cells was as low as -1.3 MPa and the relative volume of the non-collapsing cell equaled 58% of the total leaf cell volume. This study adds to the growing evidence for negative Pt . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 不同基质和不同生长调节剂对金叶水杉扦插生根的影响%Effect of Different Substrates and Growth Regulators on Cutting Propagation of Metasequoia glyptostroboides ‘Gold Rush’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚维红; 夏猛

    2015-01-01

    为进一步探讨金叶水杉的扦插技术,研究了不同基质、不同生长调节剂对金叶水杉扦插生根的影响.结果表明:以珍珠岩为基质能显著提高生根率,生根率达76.9%;3种生长调节剂中,以200 mg·L-1IBA生长调节剂处理1h为最佳,其生根率能迭82.1%,比清水对照高出103.2%.

  12. Extraction, Isolation, Structural Characterization and Anti-Tumor Properties of an Apigalacturonan-Rich Polysaccharide from the Sea Grass Zostera caespitosa Miki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjing Lv

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An apigalacturonan (AGA-rich polysaccharide, ZCMP, was isolated from the sea grass Zostera caespitosa Miki. The depolymerized fragments derived from ZCMP were obtained by either acidic degradation or pectinase degradation, and their structures were characterized by electrospray ionization collision-induced-dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS2 and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The average molecular weight of ZCMP was 77.2 kD and it consisted of galacturonic acid (GalA, apiosefuranose (Api, galactose (Gal, rhamnose (Rha, arabinose (Ara, xylose (Xyl, and mannose (Man, at a molar ratio of 51.4꞉15.5꞉6.0꞉11.8꞉4.2꞉4.4꞉4.2. There were two regions of AGA (70% and rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-Ι, 30% in ZCMP. AGA was composed of an α-1,4-D-galactopyranosyluronan backbone mainly substituted at the O-3 position by single Api residues. RG-Ι possessed a backbone of repeating disaccharide units of →4GalAα1,2Rhaα1→, with a few α-L-arabinose and β-D-galactose residues as side chains. The anti-angiogenesis assay showed that ZCMP inhibited the migratory activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs, with no influence on endothelial cells growth. ZCMP also promoted macrophage phagocytosis. These findings of the present study demonstrated the potential anti-tumor activity of ZCMP through anti-angiogenic and immunoregulatory pathways.

  13. 金叶水杉繁育技术及在园林中的应用%Breeding Techniques of Metasequoia glyptostroboides‘Gold Rush’and Its Application in Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚维红; 沈耀明; 夏猛

    2014-01-01

    金叶水杉树形端庄,叶色优美,抗性强,耐霜冻、耐水淹;抗污染、抗病虫,耐寒耐热,是华东地区城市绿化不可多得的彩叶类大型落叶乔木。本文主要阐述金叶水杉的扦插繁殖、嫁接繁殖及其在园林中的应用,以期为苗木生产者、园林设计者提供技术、设计指导。%Metasequoia glyptostroboides‘Gold Rush’leaf color dignified,beautiful,strong resistance,frost resis-tance,water flooding;anti pollution,disease and insect resistance,cold and heat,is the East China area city greening rare colorful large deciduous trees. This paper mainly describes the application of cutting leaf Metasequoia breeding,grafting propagation in gardening and landscaping,in order to seedling producers,land-scape designers to provide technical,design guide.

  14. Ancient and Famous Trees in Dandong:Investigation,Management and Protection%丹东市主要古树名木及管理现状和保护建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳红

    2008-01-01

    初步调查得知,丹东市现有古树名木20多种,其中达到辽宁省比较古老的树种的有6种:最古的银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、五针松(Pinus parviflora)、赤松(Pinus densiflora)、腺柳(Salix chaenomeloides)、水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides)、圆柏(Sabina chinensis)、榆树(Ulmus pumila).同时指出了丹东市古树名木管理的不足以及整改的有关措施.

  15. 基于光照因子的绿化树种配置探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚敏元

    2014-01-01

    According to light effects on tree species configuration, taking urban park, green area, yard of neighborhoods and green area of village in Taining county as study area, Lagerstroemia indica, Aucuba japonica and Camellia japon-ica were selected to study greening configuration of sun species, shade species and neutral tree species. Metasequoia glyptostroboides was selected as study species to study garden tree plays roles in lowering temperature in summer and heating in winter. The author also proposes some tactics on greening tree species configuration so as to provide refer-ence for selecting greening tree species in urban and rural area in terms of technology.%本文针对光照因子对树种选择配置效果的影响,以福建省泰宁县城区公园绿地、单位庭院及乡村绿地为研究区域,着重选择紫薇(Lagerstriemia indica )、桃叶珊瑚(Aucuba japonica )、山茶花(Camellia japonica )3个树种为例分别对阳性树种、阴性树种和中性树种(半阴树种)的绿化应用配置情况,并以水杉(Metasequoia glyp-tostroboides )为例对本地区利用园林树木遮阴降温和透光采暖效能的绿化现状进行调查研究,通过典型案例分析,深入探讨了基于光照因子的绿化树种配置问题,总结提出了相应树种的技术配置要点,以期在技术层面为城乡绿化树种选择配置提供借鉴。

  16. Retrato de un grupo teatral: La fura dels Baus y Miki Espuma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urša Geršak

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Invadieron las calles, el metro, los mataderos, los jardines y las fábricas. El día 20 de octubre pasaron nueve años desde que La fura dels Baus conquistó par primera vez las letras calientes de los periódicos con su espectaculo Accions que fue estrenado en el festival internacional del teatro de Sitges. La furiosa destrucción de Ia carroceria del cache que al final fue sacrificada a las llamas, dejó a los dioses satisfechos. Nació un teatro lleno de energía y dinamismo.

  17. 不同类型绿地对南京热岛效应的缓解作用%Mitigative effects of different vegetations on heat island effect in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐罗忠; 李职奇; 严春风; 孙储华; 徐新; 相恒让

    2009-01-01

    通过研究南京市区林地、有行道树的道路、草坪地、水泥地面篮球场4种城市土地利用类型的气温、空气相对湿度、太阳辐射强度、地面辐射强度和地表温度等因子,比较了不同类型绿地对城市热岛效应的缓解作用.结果表明,在夏季,悬铃木(Platanus acerifolia willd)、水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng)、薄壳山核桃(Carya illinoensis K.Koch)行道树以及马褂木(Liriodendron chinense ×L.tulipifera)林能有效阻止阳光直射,太阳辐射强度明显低于篮球场和马尼拉草坪(Zoysia matrella L.Merr);地面辐射强度、地表温度和气温从高到低依次为篮球场,草坪,行道树,马褂木林;而空气相对湿度则表现出相反的趋势;从热岛效应的缓解效果看,树林最强,行道树次之,草坪较弱.

  18. Evaluation ofnest site preferences ofa nest dismantler, the Hair-crested Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus) inDongzhai National Nature Reserve ofcentral China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Cantrell; Lei Lv; Yong Wang; Jianqiang Li; Zhengwang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Hair-crested Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus) exhibits a unique nest-dismantling behavior after the lfedging of the young. One hypothesis explaining this behavior is dismantling one’s own nest may reduce potential competition for nest sites in the following breeding season because suitable breeding habitat might be limited, and sites are often reused. Methods: By comparing the habitat features at nest and random locations, we determined the nest habitat prefer-ence of the Hair-crested Drongo within Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan, China. We also compared habitat features with nesting success to determine if any trends could be detected. Results: We found that nest tree height, diameter at breast height, live crown ratio, tree rank, and presence of overstory were signiifcantly higher at nesting locations than random locations; slope, leaf litter cover percentage and depth, presence of understory and midstory, and number of trees per hectare were signiifcantly lower at nest sites than random sites. Drongos preferred to use some tree species, such asMetasequoia glyptostroboides,Castanea mollis-sima, andPterocarya stenoptera for nesting. Failed nests were often associated with habitat with higher percentage of leaf litter on the ground. Conclusion: Our data support that selection of nest sites does occur for this species at this site and therefore support the hypothesis that breeding habitat limitation could be one of the driving forces for the development of the nest-dismantling behavior in this species.

  19. Exposure experiments of trees to sulfur dioxide gas. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, A.

    1974-12-01

    The effects of gaseous sulfur dioxide on trees were studied. Twenty species of plant seedlings (70 cm in height) including Cedrus deodara, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Ginkgo biloba, Celmus parvifolia var. albo-marginata, Pinus thumbergii, P. densiflora, Cryptomeria japonica, and Quercus myrsinaefolia, were exposed in a room to gaseous sulfur dioxide at 0.8 ppm for 7.5 hr/day (from 9 am to 4:30 pm) for 24 days at a temperature of 20-35 deg C and RH of 55-75%. Visible damage to plants was lighter in C.j. and Chamae cyparis obtusa, more severe in P.t., G.b., and C.d. The damage appeared earlier in G.b., Cinnamomum camphona, and Ilex rotunda, and the change of early symptoms was smaller in P.t., C.j., and C.o. The leaves of the 4-5th positions from the sprout were apt to be damaged. Although the sulfur content of exposed leaves increased markedly, that in other parts did not increase. Because of the high concentration of the gas and the short period of exposure, the absorption of sulfur into leaves should have differed from the situation in fields where longer exposure to lower concentrations of the gas would be expected. 6 references.

  20. Promote rare and endangered plants conservation through reasonable utilization%通过合理利用促进珍稀濒危植物保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万开元; 陈防; 陈树森; 罗刚; 吴彩云; 柯雷辉

    2008-01-01

    文章分别以银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、杜仲(Eucommia ulmoides)、水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides)、厚朴(Magnolia officinalis)、红豆杉(Taxus wallichiana)等珍稀濒危物种为例,从正反两方面阐述了采用合理利用手段能对珍稀濒危物种的保护起直接作用.提出应该改变人们竭泽而渔的消费观念;加强珍稀濒危物种的育种与栽培研究,提高产业化程度;加强"致死性"利用物种的替代性研究,减少对野生资源的毁灭性利用;加强立法执法,规范市场;注重产业化过程中的知识产权保护与国家资源流失问题等多个方面着手开展工作,最终达到实现利用与保护的和谐统一.

  1. Modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate for the sensitivity to acid rain of 21 plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihuai; Gou, Shuzhen; Sun, Baiye; Lv, Wenlin; Li, Yuanwei; Peng, Hong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of plant species to acid rain based on the modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate (P (N)) of 21 types of plant species, subjected to the exposure of simulated acid rain (SAR) for 5 times during a period of 50 days. Variable responses of P (N) to SAR occurred depending on the type of plant. A majority (13 species) of the dosage-response relationship could be described by an S-shaped curve and be fitted with the Boltzmann model. Model fitting allowed quantitative evaluation of the dosage-response relationship and an accurate estimation of the EC(10), termed as the pH of the acid rain resulting in a P (N) 10 % lower than the reference value. The top 9 species (Camellia sasanqua, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. EC(10) ≤ 3.0) are highly endurable to very acid rain. The rare, relict plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides was the most sensitive species (EC(10) = 5.1) recommended for protection.

  2. 浙江省常见15个树种的光合特性%Photosynthetic characteristics for fifteen potted seedlings common to Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 张明如; 温国胜; 张俊; 邹伶俐; 吴刚

    2012-01-01

    为比较不同树种对光的适应能力和耐荫性,探讨树种在植被恢复过程中的配置依据,利用Licor-6400便携式光合仪,于2010年秋季测定了苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,木荷Schima superba,杜英Elaeocarpus decipiens等15个浙江常见树种的光响应过程和光合日进程,并计算上述树种的光能利用率.研究结果表明:①所测15个树种的净光合速率日变化均呈单峰型,无“光合午休”现象.②东南石栎Lithocarpus harlandii,红豆杉Taxus chinensis,美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa分别是阔叶、针叶和灌木树种中光能利用率峰值较高的树种.③光饱和点苦槠最高,浙江楠Phoebe chekiongensis最低;光补偿点马尾松Pinusmassoniana最高,红豆杉最低.④对光补偿点和光饱和点进行聚类分析,认为马尾松,乌冈Quercus phillyraeoides,属于强阳性树种;苦槠,美丽胡枝子,水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboide,东南石栎归属于阳性树种;红花(槛)木Loropetalum chinense,红叶石楠Photinia×fraseri,杜英,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,木荷,石栎Lithocarpus glaber,竹柏Podocarpus nagi,红豆杉和浙江楠归类为耐荫树种,对弱光的利用能力较强.图5表1参16%To compare the light adaptation anil shade tolerance of 15 different tree species, and to provide development bases for tree species in the vegetative recovery process, diurnal changes of photosynthesis and light response characteristics for Castanopsis sclerophyila, Schima superba, Elaeocarpus decipiens, Sapium sebiferum, Lithocarpus harlandii, Lithocarpus glaber, Phoebe chekiangensis, Quercus phillyraeoides, Podocarpus nagi, Pinus massoniana, Metasequoia glyptostroboides , Taxus chinensis, Photinia x fraseri, Les-pedeza formosa, and Loropetaium chinense var. rubrum were measured by Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system in the autumn of 2010, Then, light use efficiency of the 15 potted seedlings was determined. Results showed that: 1) the diurnal process of the net

  3. Stjórnmál og vísindi: eða af hverju er stundum bullað svona mikið?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Páll Jónsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vísindi og stjórnmál sem svið mannlegra samskipta eiga margt sameiginlegt. Um bæði þessi svið gilda eftirfarandi sex staðhæfingar: (1 Fólk setur fram skoðanir eða staðhæfingar. (2 Þær staðhæfingar sem fólk setur fram eru um veruleikann. (3 Fólk gagnrýnir þær staðhæfingar sem settar eru fram um veruleikann. (4 Fólk notar margvísleg gögn til að styðja það sem það heldur fram. (5 Mjög fáar staðhæfingar, sem settar eru fram, eru ónæmar fyrir gagnrýni. (6 Fólk beitir almennum lögmálum eða reglum til að skilja og rökstyðja það sem staðhæfingarnar eru um. Stjórnmál og vísindi eru samt mjög ólík svið mannlegra samskipta, m.a. vegna þess að það er svo miklu meira bull í stjórnmálum en í vísindum. Í greininni nota ég hugmyndir frá Harry Frankfurt og Georg Orwell til að varpa ljósi á hvað bull sé og hvers vegna það sé jafn útbreytt og raunin er. Einnig nota ég hugmyndir Mikaels M. Karlssonar um afmörkun siðferðisins, til að varpa fram spurningum um siðferði stjórnmálavettvangsins, sem vettvangs sem einkennist af bulli.

  4. Urban tree species show the same hydraulic response to vapor pressure deficit across varying tree size and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ewers, Brent E

    2012-01-01

    The functional convergence of tree transpiration has rarely been tested for tree species growing under urban conditions even though it is of significance to elucidate the relationship between functional convergence and species differences of urban trees for establishing sustainable urban forests in the context of forest water relations. We measured sap flux of four urban tree species including Cedrus deodara, Zelkova schneideriana, Euonymus bungeanus and Metasequoia glyptostroboides in an urban park by using thermal dissipation probes (TDP). The concurrent microclimate conditions and soil moisture content were also measured. Our objectives were to examine 1) the influence of tree species and size on transpiration, and 2) the hydraulic control of urban trees under different environmental conditions over the transpiration in response to VPD as represented by canopy conductance. The results showed that the functional convergence between tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree canopy transpiration amount (E(c)) was not reliable to predict stand transpiration and there were species differences within same DBH class. Species differed in transpiration patterns to seasonal weather progression and soil water stress as a result of varied sensitivity to water availability. Species differences were also found in their potential maximum transpiration rate and reaction to light. However, a same theoretical hydraulic relationship between G(c) at VPD = 1 kPa (G(cref)) and the G(c) sensitivity to VPD (-dG(c)/dlnVPD) across studied species as well as under contrasting soil water and R(s) conditions in the urban area. We concluded that urban trees show the same hydraulic regulation over response to VPD across varying tree size and environmental conditions and thus tree transpiration could be predicted with appropriate assessment of G(cref).

  5. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  6. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  7. Evaluation of nest site preferences of a nest dismantler,the Hair-crested Drongo(Dicrurus hottentottus) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve of central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Cantrell; Lei Lv; Yong Wang; Jianqiang Li; Zhengwang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Background:The Hair-crested Drongo(Dicrurus hottentottus) exhibits a unique nest-dismantling behavior after the fledging of the young.One hypothesis explaining this behavior is dismantling one’s own nest may reduce potential competition for nest sites in the following breeding season because suitable breeding habitat might be limited,and sites are often reused.Methods:By comparing the habitat features at nest and random locations,we determined the nest habitat preference of the Hair-crested Drongo within Dongzhai National Nature Reserve,Henan,China.We also compared habitat features with nesting success to determine if any trends could be detected.Results:We found that nest tree height,diameter at breast height,live crown ratio,tree rank,and presence of overstory were significantly higher at nesting locations than random locations;slope,leaf litter cover percentage and depth,presence of understory and midstory,and number of trees per hectare were significantly lower at nest sites than random sites.Drongos preferred to use some tree species,such as Metasequoia glyptostroboides,Castanea mollissima,and Pterocarya stenoptera for nesting.Failed nests were often associated with habitat with higher percentage of leaf litter on the ground.Conclusion:Our data support that selection of nest sites does occur for this species at this site and therefore support the hypothesis that breeding habitat limitation could be one of the driving forces for the development of the nestdismantling behavior in this species.

  8. Cloning and sequence analysis of nine novel MYB genes in Taxodiaceae plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-quan LU; Qing JIA; Zai-kang TONG

    2014-01-01

    Myeloblastosis (MYB) is one of the largest transcribed factor families in plants. To gain an overall picture of the evolution of MYB genes in relict plants, we cloned nine novel MYB genes in Taxodiaceae plants (Taxodium distichum, Taxodium ascendens, Cryptomeria japonica var. Sinensis, Cryptomeria japonica cv. Araucarioides, Cryptomer Ja-ponica, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Tai-wania cryptomerioides and Glyptostrobus pensilis). The deduced amino acid sequences for MYBs showed that the nine MYB proteins contained two DNA binding domains. The first domain is from amino acid position 29 to 78, wherein three tryptophanes at 33, 53 and 73 were separated by 19 amino acids, respectively. The second domain is from amino acid position 82 to 127, wherein three tryptophanes at 86, 105 and 124 were separated by 18 amino acids, respectively, whereas the first tryptophane at amino acid position 86 is replaced by a phenylalanine. The characteri-zation of these conserved domains at nine MYBs indicated that they all belong to the R2R3-MYB group. The secondary structure analysis showed that α-helix and β-turn are the major motifs of the predicted secondary structure of MYBs. The three dimensional model of each MYB protein showed that the structure is like clip, making it more flexi-ble and mobile. The similarities between the nine MYB proteins in Taxodiaceae were calculated. The highest identical value of 99% is be-tween CjsMYB, CjMYB and CjaMYB, whereas the lowest value of 82%is between TaMYB and ClMYB. According to the phylogenetic tree, the distances between different genera were relatively large whereas those within genera were relatively small. As expected, accessions of the same genus formed a subgroup before being grouped with other genera.

  9. Primary Report on Discovering Vessel in Plants of Coniferae and Taxinae%在松柏纲、红豆杉纲植物中发现导管初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉源; 廖文波

    2004-01-01

    对马尾松Pinus massoniana Lamb.、水杉 Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng、圆柏 Sabina chinensis(Linn.)Ant.、兴安圆柏Sabina davurica(Pall)Ant.、南洋杉Araucaria cunninghamia Sweet、长叶竹柏Nageia fleuryi(Hickel)de Laubenf.、陆均松Dacrydium pectinatum de Laubenf.、海南粗榧Cephalotaxus mannii Hook.f.和云南红豆杉Taxus yunnanensis Cheng et Fu的茎或茎、叶进行组织结构离析,光学显微镜和电镜观察,发现各种类的组织中均具有导管.每个种的导管类型中均有环纹、螺纹、网纹和孔纹导管,部分种类有梯纹导管.此研究的结果,对于进一步探讨这些类群的系统进化过程,以及为何在大部分裸子植物已经灭绝的情况下,这些类群依然能经受得住各类严酷的环境胁迫,而顽强地生存、繁衍至今等方面均具有重要的意义;论文如裸子植物的系统学、解剖学和生态学研究提供了新的证据.

  10. Leaf anatomical structure for 15 tree species' seedlings in Zhejiang Province%浙江省15个树种苗期叶片解剖结构特征比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣欣; 张明如; 邹伶俐; 吴刚; 阴卓越; 吕钺香

    2013-01-01

    植物叶片结构与其耐阴性具有密切关系.为揭示浙江西部常见树种叶片对光环境的适应性,采用常规石蜡切片制片法,比较观察了苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,木荷Schima superba,杜英Elaeocarpus decipiens,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,短尾柯Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,石栎Lithocarpus glaber,浙江楠Phoebe chekiangensis,乌冈栎Quercus phillyraeoides,竹柏Podocarpus nagi,马尾松Pinus massoniana,水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboides,红豆杉Taxus chinensis,红叶石楠Photinia × fraseri,美丽胡枝子Lespedeza formosa和红花檀木Loropetalum chinense var.rubrum等15个树种叶片的解剖结构特征.结果表明:①水杉和红豆杉上、下表皮均为1层,栅栏组织和海绵组织均不发达.马尾松叶片为2针1束,横截面为半圆形.②9个阔叶树种栅栏和海绵组织平均厚度最厚;木荷、乌桕和竹柏栅栏组织为1层,短尾柯、杜英、石栎和浙江楠为2层,苦槠和乌冈栎栅栏组织最发达,为3层;海绵组织均排列疏松.③灌木树种栅栏组织、海绵组织厚度排序均为红叶石楠>美丽胡枝子>红花檀木.④对15个树种叶片解剖结构特征进行聚类分析,认为竹柏为耐荫树种;马尾松为强阳性树种;乌桕、红叶石楠、苦槠、乌冈栎归类为阳性树种;短尾柯、美丽胡枝子、浙江楠、杜英、木荷、水杉、红豆杉、石栎和红花栏木归为中性树种.研究结果可为调控现有马尾松单优群落的结构组成,恢复亚热带低山丘陵区地带性森林植被提供理论依据.%To reveal leaf adaptability to the light environment for tree species common to the Western Zhejiang,characteristics of the leaf anatomical structure in 15 tree species'seedlings:Castanopsis sclerophylla,Schima superba,Elaeocarpus decipiens,Sapium sebiferum,Lithocarpus brevicaudatus,Lithocarpus glaber,Phoebe chekiangensis,Quercus phillyraeoides,Podocarpus nagi,Pinus massoniana,Metasequoia glyptostroboides

  11. Miki-le-toss ou comment repérer un guech en quelques leçons’: l’identité ethnique ‘tos’ en France à travers les blogs de jeunes lusodescendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Fernandes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze the ‘tos’ ethnic identity, as expressed in blogs written by French-Portuguese teenagers in France, also called ‘lusodescendants,’ who are the children of Portuguese residents. Starting in the eighties, the reclaiming of this ethnic identity has been reinforced by Portugal’s entry in the European Union in 1986, the institutionalization of links between the lusodescendants and Portugal, and France’s recent opening to its migrant populations. Influenced by the Chicano cultural movement, the ‘tos’ movement shares some of its foundational features: a myth of origin, a privileging of unity, and a conservative notion of family. Despite this movement’s nationalist tendencies, I argue that it does not threaten this youth’s integration to France or to Europe, especially since lusodescendants, who are often Portuguese and French nationals, feel ‘twice European.’ In their case, European identity, to which they never refer in the blogs, is a mere sum of national identities. If a common European identity were needed, it should not be in the form of assimilationist policies replacing national cultures by a ‘European culture.’ Indeed, most European countries share a history of dictatorships and nationalisms, i.e. of official cultures being forced onto people. This dictatorial and nationalist past is directly responsible for the Portuguese diaspora and the lusodescendants’ ethnic identity claims today.

  12. 京杭运河淮安段不同植物护坡模式消风减噪及小气候效应%Effects of Pattern of Vegetative Protection of River Slopes on Wind, Noise and Micrometeorology Along the Huai'an Section of the Grand Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬林; 张小茜; 金雅琴; 许波

    2012-01-01

    对京杭运河淮安段5种植物护坡模式的消风减噪及小气候效应进行测定,结果表明,植物护坡对风速、噪声、光照强度、气温、相对湿度等均有明显调节作用.与无植物对照地相比,有芦苇(Phragmites australis)分布的近水区风速明显变小,噪声降低,随着苇群密度和宽度的增加,其削减效果加强.桃树(Prunus persica)+芦苇群落消风、遮光和增湿效应明显,并有一定经济收益,在京杭运河护坡设计中可进一步推广应用;水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides)+芦苇群落具有一定的降温和增湿作用,但减噪和遮光效果不好,可设计在地势低洼的河岸带,利于人们冬季休闲观光;梨树(Pyrus bretschneideri)+芦苇群落有明显的消风和减噪作用,但由于人为干扰等原因影响了群落小气候效应的发挥;狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)草地+芦苇群落生态效应明显不足,在河岸带护坡设计中应尽量避免使用该模式.%Effects of five different patterns of vegetative protection of river slopes on wind, noise and micrometeoroiogy a-long the Huai'an Section of the Grand Canal were studied. Results show that the effects of vegetative protection regulating wind speed, noise level, sunlight intensity, air temperature and relative humidity were quite obvious. Compared with the control of vegetation-free slope, the slope with Phragmites australis had lower wind speed and noise level at the water side and the effects became stronger with the reed community growing wider and denser. The vegetative protection formed of Prunus persica + Phragmites australis was very effective in reducing wind speed, providing shade and increasing humidity, and what's more, in creating some economic profit, so that, it is a pattern worth further extrapolating along the Grand Canal. The vegetative protection composed of Metasequoia glyplostroboides + Phragmites australis had certain effect of reducing air temperature and increasing humidity

  13. Mesocosm-Scale Experimental Quantification of Plant-Fungi Associations on Carbon Fluxes and Mineral Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M. Y.; Palmer, B.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.; Beerling, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The rise of land plants in the Paleozoic is classically implicated as driving lower atmospheric CO2 levels through enhanced weathering of Ca and Mg bearing silicate minerals. However, this view overlooks the fact that plants coevolved with associated mycorrhizal fungi over this time, with many of the weathering processes usually ascribed to plants actually being driven by the combined activities of roots and mycorrhizal fungi. Here we present initial results from a novel mesocosm-scale laboratory experiment designed to allow investigation of plant-driven carbon flux and mineral weathering at different soil depths under ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (1500 ppm) atmospheric CO2. Four species of plants were chosen to address evolutionary trends in symbiotic mycorrhizal association and rooting depth on biologically driven silicate weathering under the different CO2 regimes. Gymnosperms were used to investigate potential differences in weathering capabilities of two fungal symbioses: Sequoia sempervirens and Metasequoia glyptostroboides (arbuscular mycorrhizal, AM) and Pinus sylvestris (ectomycorrhizal, EM), and the shallow rooted ancient fern, Osmunda regalis, used to provide a contrast to the three more deeply rooted trees. Plants were grown in a cylindrical mesocosm with four horizontal inserts at each depth. These inserts are a mesh-covered dual-core unit whereby an inner core containing silicate minerals can be rotated within an outer core. The mesh excludes roots from the cylinders allowing fungal-rock pairings to be examined at each depth. Each core contains either basalt or granite, each with severed (rotated cores) or intact (static cores) mycorrhizae. This system provides a unique opportunity to examine the ability of a plant to weather minerals with and without its symbiotic fungi. Preliminary results indicate marked differences in nutritional and water requirements, and response to elevated CO2 between the species. The bulk solution chemistries (p

  14. Experimental insights into angiosperm origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Barry; Lee, Alex; Smilie, Ian; Knight, Charles; Upchurch, Garland

    2017-04-01

    The angiosperms occupy almost every habitat type on Earth and comprise nearly 90% of extant plant species. Yet this ascendency is a relatively recent (geological) phenomenon. Palaeobotanical evidence indicates a likely first occurrence in the Early Cretaceous followed by a relatively rapid increase in diversity with their rise to dominance marking the onset of modern world. Understanding this diversification event has been a key research question since Darwin commented on this "abominable mystery", and it remains one of the most significant unanswered questions in plant biology. Sequencing work shows that the diversification and radiation was accompanied by successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events. Furthermore proxy data and predictions from long-term carbon cycle models indicate that the angiosperm diversification was accompanied by a decline in atmospheric CO2. These observation raise the intriguing possibility that declining atmospheric CO2 concentration and capacity to undergo polyploidy could have given angiosperms a competitive advantage when compared to other plant groups. Using comparative ecophysiology we set out to test the effects of declining atmospheric CO2 by growing a six species (Ranunculus acris and Polypodium vulgare, chosen to represent Cretaceous understorey angiosperms and pteridophytes respectively. Liquidambar styraciflua and Laurus nobilis represented canopy angiosperms and Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides canopy gymnosperms) in controlled conditions across a CO2 gradient (2000, 1200, 800 and 400 ppm) to simulate Cretaceous CO2decline. To test for WGDs we use the relationship between guard cell size and genome size to reconstruct angiosperm genome size as they radiated. Analysis of our fossil dataset shows that earliest angiosperms had a small genome size. Our experimental work shows that angiosperms have a greater capacity for acclimation suggesting that declining CO2 could have acted as a trigger for the angiosperm

  15. Re-evaluating the isotopic divide between angiosperms and gymnosperms using n-alkane δ13C values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, R. T.; McInerney, F. A.

    2009-12-01

    Angiosperm δ13C values are typically 1-3‰ more negative than those of co-occurring gymnosperms. This is known for both bulk leaf and compound-specific values from n-alkanes, which are stable, straight-chain hydrocarbons (C23-C35) found in the epicuticular leaf wax of vascular plants. For n-alkanes, there is a second distinction between the δ13C values of angiosperms and gymnosperms—δ13C values generally decrease with increasing chain-length in angiosperms, while in gymnosperms they increase. These two distinctions have been used to support the ‘plant community change hypothesis’ explaining the difference between the terrestrial and marine carbon isotope excursions during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM.) Preserved n-alkanes from terrestrial paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming reveal a negative carbon isotope excursion during the PETM of 4-5‰, which is 1-2‰ greater than the excursion recorded by marine carbonates. The local plant community, known from macrofossils as well as palynoflora, shifted from a deciduous, mixed angiosperm/gymnosperm flora to a suite of evergreen angiosperm species during the PETM. At the end of the PETM, the community returned to a mixed deciduous flora very similar to the original. This change in the plant community could thus magnify the terrestrial negative carbon isotope excursion to the degree necessary to explain its divergence from the marine record. However, the comparison between modern angiosperms and gymnosperms has been made mostly between broadleaf, deciduous angiosperms and evergreen, coniferous gymnosperms. New data analyzing deciduous, coniferous gymnosperms, including Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Taxodium distichum, suggests that the division previously ascribed to taxonomy may actually be based on leaf habit and physiology, specifically broadleaf, deciduous versus needle-leaf, evergreen plants. If differences in n-alkane δ13C values can be described not as angiosperms versus gymnosperms

  16. Special issue on Ecology, evolution, and conservation of plants in China: Introduction and some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, J. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has one of the world’s richest floras with around 33,000 vascular plants, of which up to 17,000 are endemic. Besides these astonishing figures, the Chinese flora is very interesting from the point of view of evolution, as it shows a strong relictual character with some truly “living fossils” such as Ginkgo biloba or Metasequoia glyptostroboides. At the same time, China probably harbours the most important ‘‘evolutionary front’’ of the world’s temperate flora, the Hengduan Mountains. Unfortunately, the flora of China also includes a high number of threatened species (with nearly 4000, mostly due to the destruction of natural habitats and the over-exploitation of natural resources. This special issue, which corresponds to volume 34 of Collectanea Botanica, is aimed to contribute to the knowledge of Chinese flora through a series of contributions (seven full-length articles and one short note spanning several topics such as biogeography, conservation, demography, ecology, evolution, and plant-animal interactions.China tiene una de las floras más ricas del mundo con alrededor 33.000 plantas vasculares, de las cuales hasta 17.000 son endémicas. Además de estas cifras asombrosas, la flora china es muy interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución, ya que muestra un fuerte carácter relictual con algunos auténticos «fósiles vivientes» como Ginkgo biloba o Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Al mismo tiempo, China probablemente alberga el «frente evolutivo» más importante de las floras templadas del mundo, las montañas Hengduan. Por desgracia, la flora de China también destaca por el elevado número de especies amenazadas (casi 4000, sobre todo debido a la destrucción de los hábitats y la sobreexplotación de los recursos naturales. Este número especial, que corresponde al volumen 34 de Collectanea Botanica, tiene como objetivo contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de China a través de una serie de contribuciones

  17. Comparison of Litter Decomposition of Six Species of Coniferous and Broad-leaved Trees in Subtropical China%亚热带6种针叶和阔叶树种凋落叶分解比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭培培; 江洪; 余树全; 马元丹; 窦荣鹏; 宋新章

    2009-01-01

    针叶和阔叶树种分别代表了不同的生活型,其凋落叶片具有不同的分解速率.应用分解网袋法,在中国亚热带地区,选取了具有代表性的3种针叶树种(马尾松Pinus massoniana、水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboides和杉木Cunninghamia lanceolata)和3种阔叶树种(木荷Schima superb、乐昌含笑Michelis chapensis和青冈Cyclobalanopsisgtauca)的凋落叶,放置于样地杭州千岛湖的林地中,经过1 a的分解实验,分析不同类型树种凋落叶的分解特征.6种树种凋落叶质量损失过程基本符合Olson指数模型,其中,3种针叶树种(马尾松、水杉和杉木)凋落叶的分解系数k值(分别为0.51、0.30和0.44),明显小于3种阔叶树种(木荷、乐昌含笑和青冈)凋落叶的分解系数k值(分别为0.55、1.12和0.66);同时,针叶树种(马尾松、水杉和杉木)凋落叶分解50%和95%所需时间(分别为1.36、2.31、1.78 a和5.87、9.99、7.68 a),大于阔叶树种(木荷、乐昌含笑和青冈)凋落叶的分解时间(分别为1.26、0.62、1.05 a和5.45、2.68、4.54a).多元回归分析表明,凋落物分解系数与初始钾元素含量显著相关(P<0.05).一元线性回归分析表明,凋落物的分解系数与初始钾元素和初始木质素含量均具有显著性差异(P<0.05).亚热带地区针、阔叶树种凋落叶分解的差异与自身质量密切相关,其中初始木质素与钾元素含量是控制凋落物分解的主要因素.图2表2参23%Coniferous and broad-leaved trees represent different life types, and their litters differ in decomposition rates. Six species (Pinus massoniana, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Schima superb, Michelis chapensis, Cyclobalanopsis glauca) representing typical coniferous and broad-leaved trees were sampled as experimental material for studying leaf litter decomposition in the subtropical region of china. The collected leaf litters were put in litter bags and placed in the forests of the Qiandao

  18. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    1750 m3/ha, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng in the same crop forms 1478 m3/ha, Liquidambar styraciflua L. 1000 m3/ha, Liriodendron tulipifera L. forms 852 m3/ha. The most productive local tree species Abies nordmanniana (Stev. Spach of 50 year age forms a tree stand with timber stock of 350 m3/ha. It is noted that the negative impact on the state of forests and forestry in the region has a significant impact on management of forest resources, as well as global climate change of the planet, and example of which is desiccation of fir forests as a result of climate warming. For efficient use of forest resources, an environmentally and socio-economically sound development strategy for the forest industry in the region must be developed.More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of

  19. Novel Wavelength Standards in the Near IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Bernard, A. A. Madej, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 79, 45 (2004). 6. A. Onae, K. Okumura, Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa , E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K...Y. Miki, T. Kurosawa , E. Sakuma, J. Yoda, and K. Nakagawa, "Saturation spectroscopy of an acetylene molecule in the 1550 nm region using an erbium

  20. 大连市公园绿地植物配置模式研究%Studies on the Plants Disposition Patterns in Green Space of Public Gardens in Dalian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭甜; 梁冰; 车凤鸣; 周广柱; 赵惠恩

    2012-01-01

    In order to further understand and improve the plants disposition patterns in green space of public gardens in Dalian city,by using typical sample sampling method, the plants disposition patterns in 5 parks have been researched. What's more, the plants composition, growth form, community density, the ratio of arbores and bushes and coverage in the given thirty quadrats were surveyed. The results showed thatz (1)The arborshrub-grass disposition pattern took up 70 percent,the arbor-shrub disposition pattern took up 10 percent and the arbor-grass disposition pattern took up 20 percent. The arbor-shrub-grass disposition pattern was mainly used. (2)The coverage of arbor was 62.94 percent,the coverage of shrub was 6.95 percent and the coverage of grass was 66.51 percent. The overall coverage was high and the middle structure was simple. (3)The average density of arbors was 14 plant per 300 mz ,the average density of shrubs was 17 plant per 300 m2 and the latter was slightly bigger than the former. (4)The.;ost: used arbors were Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Ginkgo biloba ,etc. 7 plants;the most used shrubs were Ilex purpurea ,Buxus sinica ,etc. 8 plantsiHosta planta ginea 'Fairy variegata' and Petunia hybrid ,etc. 12 herbal plants were used as cover ptant;The Poa was used as the only type turfgrass.%为进一步了解和改善大连市公园绿地植物配置模式,采用典型样地取样法,对大连市5个公园样地的植物配置模式进行了研究,并在设置的30个样方内进行了植物组成、生长型、群落密度、乔灌比和覆盖度等的调查。结果表明:(1)配置模式所占比例分别为乔灌草型70%,乔灌型10%和乔草型20%,主要采用乔灌草型;(2)乔木覆盖度是62,94%,灌木覆盖度是6.95%,草本覆盖度是66.51%。总体覆盖度较高,中层结构简单;(3)乔木层的平均密度为每300m2 14株,灌木层的平均密度为每300m2 17株,灌

  1. Piilupart Donald sai tähe Hollywoodi kuulsuste alleel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Walt Disney joonistatud Piilupart ilmus ekraanile esmakordselt 1934. aastal joonisfilmis "Tark tibu". Nüüd sai ka tema Hollywoodi tähtede alleel oma staaritähe Miki-Hiire, Pluuto ja Daisy kõrvale

  2. Donalda Daka udostoili zvezdõ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Walt Disney joonistatud Piilupart ilmus ekraanile esmakordselt 1934. aastal joonisfilmis "Tark tibu". Nüüd sai ka tema Hollywoodi tähtede alleel oma staaritähe Miki-Hiire, Pluuto ja Daisy kõrvale

  3. Kooskõlas mälu ja loodusega / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Holokausti Hariduskeskus (arhitekt Keisuke Maeda) Fukuyamas. Tuhandeid inimesi spordiürituste või katastroofi korral mahutav Slowtecture M-nimeline hall (arhitekt Shuhei Endo) Miki maavärina ohvrite memoriaalpargis

  4. Main: FEB4 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fixation system and their functional improvement Carbon dioxide fixation enzymes Kunio Miki Graduate School ...have determined the structures and functions of the two novel enzymes - Design of Tk-Rubisco with improve

  5. Effect of the partially purified fumonisins on humoral and cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flavio

    2Department of Food Science and Technology, State University of Londrina, P. O. ... and Food Science, Kagawa University, Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Kagawa, Japan. ..... Burel C, Tanguy M, Guerre P, Boilletot E, Cariolet R, Queguiner M,.

  6. Piilupart Donald sai tähe Hollywoodi kuulsuste alleel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Walt Disney joonistatud Piilupart ilmus ekraanile esmakordselt 1934. aastal joonisfilmis "Tark tibu". Nüüd sai ka tema Hollywoodi tähtede alleel oma staaritähe Miki-Hiire, Pluuto ja Daisy kõrvale

  7. Donalda Daka udostoili zvezdõ

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Walt Disney joonistatud Piilupart ilmus ekraanile esmakordselt 1934. aastal joonisfilmis "Tark tibu". Nüüd sai ka tema Hollywoodi tähtede alleel oma staaritähe Miki-Hiire, Pluuto ja Daisy kõrvale

  8. Kooskõlas mälu ja loodusega / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Holokausti Hariduskeskus (arhitekt Keisuke Maeda) Fukuyamas. Tuhandeid inimesi spordiürituste või katastroofi korral mahutav Slowtecture M-nimeline hall (arhitekt Shuhei Endo) Miki maavärina ohvrite memoriaalpargis

  9. Characteristics of Spermatophyte Flora of Mt^Wulingshan Region from Central China and Its Phytogeographical Significance%武陵山地区种子植物区系特征及植物地理学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈功锡; 廖文波; 张宏达

    2001-01-01

    Mt.Wulingshan region locate at 27°28′~30°05′N and 107°02′~111°33′E,covering an area of about 100 000 km+2.The altitude ranges from 189.4 m to 2 570 m. This paper reported the results of study on floristic feature of the spermatophytic flora of Mt.Wulingshan region.The results showed:① The flora was considerably rich.There are 4 119 species belonging to 1 005 genera and 201 families.The subtropical-temperate geographical elements of genera was dominant(56.8 of the total genera and 90.49 of total species),in which 64 genera and 2 682 species were Chinese endemic (among them 126 species are endemic to Mt. Wulingshan and 675 species were endemic to Central China);② The flora was rich of relic species and original taxa,e.g.Metasequoia glyptostroboides,Liriodendron chinense,Eucommia ulmoides,Euptelea pleiospermum,etc.Moreover,some families and genera,such as Helwiniaceae,Davidiaceae,Taiwania, Asteropyrum, Dysoma,etc.Probably originated form Mt. Wulingshan and its neighboring regions;③ The flora of Mt. Wulingshan had extensive relationship with surrounding floras.Our analysis indicated that Mt. Wulingshan was probably situated at a special distribution boundary, e.g. it was the east,west,south and north boundary of 109,96,67 and 109 species,respectively;④ Based upon the distribution patterns and migration routes of some East-Asian elements, Mt. Wulingshan region was one of the key region of the East|Asian elements.Among 359 species which migration patterns being mentioned by Wang Wen-cai as from the west to the east,303 species presented in this region.Further,Mt.Wulingshan as an important floristic channel,i.e.Wulingshan channel is considered.%武陵山地区地处湘鄂川黔交界, 面积约10万km+2.从科、属、种水平对该区种子植物区系特征进行研究, 结果表明:①该区产种子植物201科、1 005属、4 119种; 地理成分以亚热带(至温带)分布为主(占总属数的56.8和总种数的90.49);中国特有属64

  10. 贵州毕节野生大型经济真菌调查%Wild economic macro-fungi in Bijie District of Guizhou Province, Southwest China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 刘培贵

    2011-01-01

    A field investigation on the wild economic macro-fungi was conducted at 14 locations in the Bijie District of Guizhou Province. A total of 437 fungal specimens were collected and identified, with 100 species ( varieties and forms) of 52 genera and 31 families newly discovered, and 187 species of 86 genera of 44 families retraced from literatures. Family Russulaceae had the largest species number ( 34) , occupying 18.2% of the total, followed by Polyporaceae (17 species and 9. 1% ) , and Agaricaceae ( 14 species and 7.5% ) and Boletaceae ( 14 species and 7. 5% ). Among the economic fungi, 141 taxa were edible, and 46 taxa were medical. Ectomycorthizal fungi reached 96 species, occupying 51. 3% of the total, and the rests were saprotrophic fungi (88 species) , parasitic fungi (2 species) , and entomogenous fungi (1 species) , indicating that in the District, ectomycorrhizal fungi covered more than half of the total, being of significance in stabilizing local forest ecosystems. The analysis on the distribution patterns of the fungi at different altitudes and in different forest types and seasons showed that the species number decreased with increasing altitude but kept stable when the altitude reached a certain level, fungal growth was most prosperous in July-August and September-October, and the ranking of the species number in different forest types was Pinus armandii and Castanea seguinii mixed forest > Camellia spp. + Metasequoia glyptostroboides + Pinus yunnanensis mixed forest > PinuS armandii forest > Rhododendron natural forest. In contrast with the rather rich economic fungi in Bijie, only 16 species (8. 6% of the total) were found in the local markets, suggesting that the exploitation and unitization potential of wild mushrooms in the District was still to be excavated.%通过对贵州毕节地区野外调查,采集并鉴定标本437份,共计发现野生大型经济真菌31科52属100种(含变种、变型),加上文献记载的

  11. MCAK and Stathmin Upregulation in Breast Cancer Cells: Etiology and Response to Pharmacologic Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    transfection re- transport MCAK along the MT protofilament toward MT agent iMBI Fermentas), Cells were cultured for 24 h after transfertion and ends where...Miki, H. et aL (2001) All kinesin superfamily protein, KIF, genes 2therapies. 65 in mouse and human. Prix . Natl. Acad. Sci, U. S. A. 98, 7004-7011 66

  12. Pakendidisain : ühekordne alumiiniumlusikas / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini osakonna IV kursuse üliõpilane Riho Tiivel võitis Itaalias toimunud disainikonkursi ReAL 13 (Recycling Aluminium) "Eating Anywhere" peapreemia oma alumiiniumist lusikaga "Spoon Container". II - Giulio Iacchetti, III - Miki Astori, Linda Bigatti, ergutuspreemia - Sam Sannia. 4 ill

  13. 国外文摘(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of factors affecting the long-term functional outcome of patients with skull base meningioma.J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Jul;18(7):895-8. Epub 2011 May 11. Nakao N, Ohkawa T, Miki J, Nishibayahsi H, Ogura M, Uematsu Y, Italsura T.

  14. Muusikamaailm : Martinu festival Prahas. Arnold Schönberg Berliinis. Grawemeyeri preemia jäi USAsse. Auhind Theodorakisele. / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    Prahas 7. ئ 13.XII toimunud VII Bohuslav Martinu festivalist. Berliini Kunstideakadeemia korraldatud Arnold Schönbergi 50. surma-aastapäeva puhul toimunud üritustest. Grawemeyeri preemia kompositsiooni alal sai ameerika helilooja Aaron Jay Kernis oma tshellokontserdiga "Colored Field". Bonnis rahvusvahelisel filmimuusika biennaalil anti Erich Wolfgang Korngoldi nimeline filmimuusika preemia kreeka helilooja Mikis Theodorakisele

  15. Simple Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and patterns. Works and performances by the following artists are presented: Yuji DOGANE - Yukio FUJIMOTO - Atsuhiro ITO - Soichiro MIHARA - Atsushi NISHIJIMA - Jio SHIMIZU - Toshiya TSUNODA - Tetsuya UMEDA - Miki YUI The book presents texts by Minoru HATANAKa; Takashi KOJIMA, Rune SØCHTING and the editors...

  16. Muusikamaailm : Kevadfestivalide sadu Euroopas. Theodorakis kultuuriolümpiale / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Euroopa kultuurifestivalidest: Viini pidunädalad (10. V - 16. VI), Firenze Maggio Musicale Fiorentino (11. V - 6. VII), "Praha kevad", Wiesbadeni maifestival (27. IV - 1. VI), Münchenis VIII rahvusvahelise uue muusikateatri biennaal (27. IV - 11. V). Kreeke helilooja Mikis Theodorakis loob olümpiale muusikat

  17. Whittaker Vector of Deformed Virasoro Algebra and Macdonald Symmetric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Shintarou

    2016-03-01

    We give a proof of Awata and Yamada's conjecture for the explicit formula of Whittaker vector of the deformed Virasoro algebra realized in the Fock space. The formula is expressed as a summation over Macdonald symmetric functions with factored coefficients. In the proof, we fully use currents appearing in the Fock representation of Ding-Iohara-Miki quantum algebra.

  18. Pakendidisain : ühekordne alumiiniumlusikas / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini osakonna IV kursuse üliõpilane Riho Tiivel võitis Itaalias toimunud disainikonkursi ReAL 13 (Recycling Aluminium) "Eating Anywhere" peapreemia oma alumiiniumist lusikaga "Spoon Container". II - Giulio Iacchetti, III - Miki Astori, Linda Bigatti, ergutuspreemia - Sam Sannia. 4 ill

  19. Reference: 295 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 295 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16284313i Fujita Yasunari...5 Dec The Plant cell Fujita Miki|Fujita Yasunari|Hiratsu Keiichiro|Maruyama Kyonoshin|Ohme-Takagi Masaru|Par

  20. Speaking without words: Zorba's dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnaraki Maria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Quinn 'teaching dance' on the island of Crete to the music of Mikis Theodorakis is a popular image that portrays Greeks as extremely emotional passionate and spontaneous. This paper shows the importance of dancing in Greek culture and how Greeks talk through their body by examining Kazantzakis character, Zorba, who 'has many things to say but would rather dance them'.

  1. [The introduction of compendium of materia medica and praxis in the late Joseon dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chaekun; Kim, Yongjin

    2011-06-30

    Sakae Miki said Classified Emergency Materia Medica had been the dominant standard of herbology throughout Joseon Dynasty, and that Compendium of Materia Medica had only been accepted so lately that a few books used herbological result of it in the late Joseon Dynasty. But according to Visiting Old Beijing Diary written by Munjoong Seo in 1690, Compendium of Materia Medica was in fact introduced before the year 1712, the year Miki Sakae argued to be the year Compendium of Materia Medica was accepted to Joseon officially. Now, we can assume that the introducing year of Compendium of Materia Medica was faster than Miki Sakae's opinion by the following reasons; the effort of Joseon government and intellectuals to buy new books of Ming & Ching; the publishing year of the book for living in countryside regarded as the first citing literature of Compendium of Materia Medica. And the True Records of the Joseon Dynasty and many collections written by intellectuals in the 18th century show that the herbological knowledge from Compendium of Materia Medica had already spread to the corners of Joseon Dynasty. Thus we can make the following assumption: Classified Emergency Materia Medica and Compendium of Materia Medica had coexisted in the late Joseon Dynasty. Sakae Miki suggested 6 examples which used Compendium of Materia Medica in the late Joseon Dynasty. I reviewed two of them in this paper, Essentials of Materia Medica & Handbook of Prescriptions from Materia Medica. Essentials of Materia Medica quoted Compendium of Materia Medica briefly focusing clinical use, and Handbook of Prescriptions from Materia Medica also re-compiled Compendium of Materia Medica to practical use according to the form of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine. It means that the results of Compendium of Materia Medica have been used positively, based on the herbology of materia medica from countryside. From this point of view, the hyphothesis there weren't any herbological progress after accepting

  2. Cyclocarya cf. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja (Juglandaceae) from the Hunchun Formation (Eocene), Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-Xing SUN; Albert G. ABLAEV; Yu-Fei WANG; Cheng-Sen LI

    2005-01-01

    The leaflet architecture of Cyclocarya cf. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja from the Hunchun Formation (Middle Eocene) shows similarity to that of modern C. paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja and the specimen is the oldest fossil record in Europe and Asia. The distributions of C. cf. paliurus and other fossil records,such as Glyptostrobus, Metasequoia, Nyssa, and Liquidambar, in Hunchun flora show that it would have been a warmer-temperature to subtropical climate in Hunchun District during the Eocene period.

  3. Genomewide Search of Oncogenic Pathways Cooperating With ETS Fusions in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    studies demonstrated that ERG and ETV1 control a common transcriptional network but largely in an opposing fashion. In particular, while ERG negatively...by sequence tag analysis of genomic enrichment. Nat Methods 2: 47–53. Kim J, Chu J, Shen X, Wang J, Orkin SH. 2008. An extended transcriptional ... network for pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Cell 132: 1049–1061. Kimura T, Furusato B, Miki J, Yamamoto T, Hayashi N, Takahashi H, Kamata Y, van

  4. Superkangelased, kommertshiired ja sõjakad idaeurooplased / Joonas Sildre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildre, Joonas

    2003-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline koomiksifestival Berliinis 27.-31. VIII. Tuntumaid esinejaid - Roger Sabin. Näitused: "Ümber maailma 80 pildiga - rahvusvaheline koomiksikunst", "Kinderkids in Wonderland", "Miki ja Donaldi maailm läbi aegade", Art Spiegelmani "Kisses from New York", Helge Reumanni väljapanek. Eesti koomiks (Veiko Tammjärve, Joonas Sildre tööd) on esindatud Sloveenia koomiksikirjastuse Strip Core väljaannetes

  5. Photo-Activated Synthesis of Functional Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    033107 (2008). [14] N. Asakuma, H. Hirashima, H. Imai, T. Fukui, A. Maruta, M. Toki and K. Awazu, Journal of Applied Physics , 92 (10), 5707 (2002...15] H. Imai, A. Tominaga, H. Hirashima, M. Toki and N. Asakuma, Journal of Applied Physics , 85 (1), 203 (1999). [16] K. Nishizawa, T. Miki, K...20 (11), 3133 (2005). [18] Y. Zhao, K. Kita, K. Kyuno and A. Toriumi, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics , 46 (7), 4189 (2007). [19] M. Tsuchiya

  6. Whittaker vector of deformed Virasoro algebra and Macdonald symmetric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Yanagida, Shintarou

    2014-01-01

    We give a proof of Awata and Yamada's conjecture for the explicit formula of Whittaker vector of the deformed Virasoro algebra realized in the Fock space. The formula is expressed as a summation over Macdonald symmetric functions with factored coefficients. In the proof we fully use currents appearing in the Fock representation of Ding-Iohara-Miki quantum algebra. We also mention an interpretation of Whittaker vector in terms of the geometry of the Hilbert schemes of points on the affine plane.

  7. Identification of a common microdeletion cluster in 7q21.3 subband among patients with myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asou, Hiroya; Matsui, Hirotaka; Ozaki, Yuko; Nagamachi, Akiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Aki, Daisuke [Department of Molecular Oncology and Leukemia Program Project, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Inaba, Toshiya, E-mail: tinaba@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Oncology and Leukemia Program Project, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2009-05-29

    Monosomy 7 and interstitial deletions in the long arm of chromosome 7 (-7/7q-) is a common nonrandom chromosomal abnormality found frequently in myeloid disorders including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Using a short probe-based microarray comparative genomic hybridization (mCGH) technology, we identified a common microdeletion cluster in 7q21.3 subband, which is adjacent to 'hot deletion region' thus far identified by conventional methods. This common microdeletion cluster contains three poorly characterized genes; Samd9, Samd9L, and a putative gene LOC253012, which we named Miki. Gene copy number assessment of three genes by real-time PCR revealed heterozygous deletion of these three genes in adult patients with AML and MDS at high frequency, in addition to JMML patients. Miki locates to mitotic spindles and centrosomes and downregulation of Miki by RNA interference induced abnormalities in mitosis and nuclear morphology, similar to myelodysplasia. In addition, a recent report indicated Samd9 as a tumor suppressor. These findings indicate the usefulness of the short probe-based CGH to detect microdeletions. The three genes located to 7q21.3 would be candidates for myeloid tumor-suppressor genes on 7q.

  8. Josephine Baker: A Chanteuse and a Fighter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konomi Ara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This excerpt is from her newly-published biography of Josephine Baker, “A Fighting Diva.” It tells the intriguing story of Baker’s travels to Japan, her close friendship with the Japanese humanitarian Miki Sawada, and her adoption of a pair of Japanese orphans. Even after she achieved celebrity in France, Baker’s experience as a Black American led her to develop an antiracist philosophy at a worldwide level, and she combined political militancy in the public sphere with a personal commitment through the formation of an international multiracial household of children, the “Rainbow Tribe.”

  9. Josephine Baker: A Chanteuse and a Fighter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konomi Ara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This excerpt is from her newly-published biography of Josephine Baker, “A Fighting Diva.” It tells the intriguing story of Baker’s travels to Japan, her close friendship with the Japanese humanitarian Miki Sawada, and her adoption of a pair of Japanese orphans. Even after she achieved celebrity in France, Baker’s experience as a Black American led her to develop an antiracist philosophy at a worldwide level, and she combined political militancy in the public sphere with a personal commitment through the formation of an international multiracial household of children, the “Rainbow Tribe.”

  10. Neutralino Clumps and Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Salati, P

    2007-01-01

    The halo of the Miky Way might contain numerous and dense substructures inside which the putative weakly interacting massive particles (suggested as the main constituent of the astronomical dark matter) would produce a stronger annihilation signal than in the smooth regions. The closer the nearest clump, the larger the positron and antiproton cosmic ray fluxes at the Earth. But the actual distribution of these substructures is not known. The predictions on the antimatter yields at the Earth are therefore affected by a kind of cosmic variance whose analysis is the subject of this contribution. The statistical tools to achieve that goal are presented and Monte Carlo simulations are compared to analytic results.

  11. Coherent states in quantum $\\mathcal{W}_{1+\\infty}$ algebra and qq-character for 5d Super Yang-Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Matsuo, Yutaka; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Rui-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The instanton partition functions of $\\mathcal{N}=1$ 5d super Yang-Mills are built using elements of the representation theory of quantum $\\mathcal{W}_{1+\\infty}$ algebra: Gaiotto state, intertwiner, vertex operator. This algebra is also known under the names of Ding-Iohara-Miki and quantum toroidal $\\widehat{\\mathfrak{gl}}(1)$ algebra. Exploiting the explicit action of the algebra on the partition function, we prove the regularity of the 5d qq-characters. These characters provide a solution to the Schwinger-Dyson equations, and they can also be interpreted as a quantum version of the Seiberg-Witten curve.

  12. Contribution on the Tabanidae (Diptera Fauna of Antalya Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Altunsoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, carried out 35 species in Antalya province. Totally 35 species, belonging Tabanidae were determined. The species Silvius alpinus, Chrysops viduatus, Atylotus loewianus, Tabanus atropathenicus, T. bifarius, T. cordiger, T. darimonti, T. glaucopis, T. leleani, T. lunatus, T. maculicornis; T. miki, T. portschinski, T. prometheus, T. spodopteroides, T. tinctus, T. sudeticus, Hemotopota italica, H. ocelligera, H. pallens, and H. subcylindrica are the first records for this province. The total number of determined species in Antalya province reaches to 52 with the result of this study and the previous studies.

  13. Style and ideology: The cold war 'blend' in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanu Keti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes cultural policy in Greece from the end of World War II up to the fall of the junta of colonels in 1974. The writer's object is to show how the Cold War favoured defeated Western countries, which participated effectively in the globalisation of American culture, as in the Western world de-nazification was transformed into a purge of communism. Using the careers of three composers active in communist resistance organizations as examples (Iannis Xenakis, Mikis Theodorakis and Alecos Xenos, the writer describes the repercussions of this phenomenon in Greek musical life and creativity.

  14. Random incidence absorption coefficients of porous absorbers based on local and extended reaction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Room surfaces have been extensively modeled as locally reacting in room acoustic predictions although such modeling could yield significant errors under certain conditions. Therefore, this study aims to propose a guideline for adopting the local reaction assumption by comparing predicted random...... incidence acoustical characteristics of typical building elements made of porous materials assuming extended and local reaction. For each surface reaction, five well-established wave propagation models, the Delany-Bazley, Miki, Beranek, Allard-Champoux, and Biot model, are employed. Effects of the flow...

  15. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...

  16. Explicit examples of DIM constraints for network matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Awata, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Morozov, Andrey; Ohkubo, Yusuke; Zenkevich, Yegor

    2016-01-01

    Dotsenko-Fateev and Chern-Simons matrix models, which describe Nekrasov functions for SYM theories in different dimensions, are all incorporated into network matrix models with the hidden Ding-Iohara-Miki (DIM) symmetry. This lifting is especially simple for what we call balanced networks. Then, the Ward identities (known under the names of Virasoro/W-constraints or loop equations or regularity condition for qq-characters) are also promoted to the DIM level, where they all become corollaries of a single identity.

  17. The nature and genesis of marginal Cu-PGE-Au sulphide mineralisation in Paleogene Macrodykes of the Kangerlussuaq region, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwell, David A.; Abraham-James, Thomas; Keays, Reid R.; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kangerlussuaq region of East Greenland hosts a variety of early Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks related to continental break up and the passage of the ancestral Iceland plume. These intrusive bodies include a number of gabbroic macrodykes, two of which—the Miki Fjord Macrodyke, and the newly discovered Togeda Macrodyke—contain Cu-PGE-Au sulphide mineralisation along their margins. Sulphides occur as disseminated interstitial blebs and rounded globules of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite with some Fe-Ti oxides and platinum-group minerals, comprising largely Pd bismuthides and tellurides. The globules are interpreted to have formed from fractionation of trapped droplets of an immiscible Cu- and Pd-rich sulphide melt and show geopetal indicators. Sulphur isotopes imply a local crustal source of S in these from pyritic sediments of the Kangerlussuaq Basin. Thus, generation of these sulphide occurrences was controlled by local country rock type. Low Ni/Cu and Pt/Pd ratios, also present in the Platinova reefs in the Skaergaard Intrusion, indicate that early fractionation of olivine may have depleted the magma of Ni and suggest the likely presence of a large magma chamber at depth. Xenoliths of Ni-rich olivine cumulates in the Miki Fjord Macrodyke may have been sourced from such a body. The location of thus far unidentified conduit or feeder zones to the macrodykes beneath the present day surface may represent potential targets for more massive sulphide orebodies.

  18. Áhrif tæknifrjóvgana á líðan og lífsgæði kvenna. Fræðileg samantekt.

    OpenAIRE

    Margrét Inga Gísladóttir 1983

    2015-01-01

    Það fylgir mannlegu eðli að vilja eignast barn og sjá flestir framtíðina fyrir sér umvafða börnum og barnabörnum á efri árum. Raunin er þó sú að það geta ekki allir átt börn og það getur reynst mikið áfall fyrir einstaklinga þegar tilraunir til barneigna takast ekki. Flestir leita þá eftir aðstoð meðferðarstofnanna sem bjóða upp á tæknifrjóvgunarmeðferðir. Rannsóknir hafa sýnt að slíkum meðferðum fylgir mikið andlegt álag og streita auk þess sem kostnaður við slíkar meðferðir er mikill og get...

  19. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Wolfe

    Full Text Available We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma, revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae. The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18O and δ(2H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  20. Pristine Early Eocene wood buried deeply in kimberlite from northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Alexander P; Csank, Adam Z; Reyes, Alberto V; McKellar, Ryan C; Tappert, Ralf; Muehlenbachs, Karlis

    2012-01-01

    We report exceptional preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.3±0.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood originated from forest surrounding the eruption zone and collapsed into the diatreme before resettling in volcaniclastic kimberlite to depths >300 m, where it was mummified in a sterile environment. Anatomy of the unpermineralized wood permits conclusive identification to the genus Metasequoia (Cupressaceae). The wood yields genuine cellulose and occluded amber, both of which have been characterized spectroscopically and isotopically. From cellulose δ(18)O and δ(2)H measurements, we infer that Early Eocene paleoclimates in the western Canadian subarctic were 12-17°C warmer and four times wetter than present. Canadian kimberlites offer Lagerstätte-quality preservation of wood from a region with limited alternate sources of paleobotanical information.

  1. Paleoenvironmental implications from biomarker and stable isotope investigations on the Pliocene Velenje lignite seam (Slovenia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Markic, M.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [Montan University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    A Pliocene lignite seam up to 160 m thick occurs in the Velenje basin (Slovenia). The seam originated in a topogenous mire and evolved within a non-marine, transgressive setting. Differences in soluble organic matter yield and hydrocarbon content of borehole samples from the lignite are related to differences in the composition of free lipids of microbial origin and/or hydrocarbons derived from the biogeochemical degradation of plant tissue. Variations of the redox conditions within the mire are reflected by pristane/phytane ratios. The abundance of terpenoid biomarkers indicates the predominance of gymnosperms over angiosperms, which is consistent with palynomorphic spectra dominated by pollen of the Sequoia-Taxodium-Metasequoia plant community rather than by angiosperms. Evidence is also provided that the content of land plant derived biomarkers and the preservation of plant tissue is controlled by the input of resin-rich, decay-resistant conifers.

  2. Hreinsun og nýting affallsvatns frá Silfurstjörnunni hf.

    OpenAIRE

    Orri Filippusson 1991

    2015-01-01

    Fiskeldi hefur aukist mikið seinustu á árum og margt sem bendir til þess að það eigi eftir að aukast ennfrekar á næstu árum. Við fiskeldi fellur til úrgangur, rétt eins og við ræktun annarra dýra, en næringarefni eru í úrgangnum, aðallega fosfór og köfnunarefni. Silfurstjarnan er lax- og bleikjueldisstöð staðsett í Öxarfirði. Til þess að hindra losun á úrgangi frá stöðinni rennur affallsvatnið í settjörn en þar safnast úrgangurinn saman og myndar seyru. Tæma þarf tjörnina eftir þörfum þeg...

  3. Pb isotopes during mingling and melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waight, Tod Earle; Lesher, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Pb isotopic data are presented for hybrid rocks formed by mingling between mantle-derived tholeiitic magma of the Eocene Miki Fjord macrodike (East Greenland) and melt derived from the adjacent Precambrian basement. Bulk mixing and AFC processes between end-members readily identified in the field...... fail to model the Pb isotope systematics. Selective contamination during diffusional exchange, which can explain the complex Sr and Nd isotope compositions of the hybrid rocks (Blichert-Toft et al., 1992), cannot fully account for the variability of the Pb isotopic data using the identified crustal end......-members. The crustal anatectic end-member, although similar in Sr and Nd isotope composition, has a markedly different Pb isotopic composition than its source gneiss. The differences are consistent with preferential incorporation of radiogenic Pb from accessory phases such as metamict zircon or loosely-bound Pb from...

  4. Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from seagrass rhizosphere soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Upasana; Subhashini, Ponnambalam; Dilipan, Elangovan; Raja, Subramanian; Thangaradjou, Thirunavukarassu; Kannan, Lakshmanan

    2012-03-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (6 Nos.) were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of two seagrasses ( Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook and Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog) in the Vellar estuary. Experimental studies found that the strain PSSG6 was effective in phosphate solubilization with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E = 375 ± 8.54, followed by the strain PSSG5 with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E = 275 ± 27.3. Of the 6 strains isolated, the strains PSSG4 and PSSG5 belonged to the genus Bacillus, and PSSG1, PSSG2 and PSSG3 were identified as Citrobacter sp., Shigella sp., and Klebsiella sp., respectively, by conventional method, and PSSG6 was identified as Bacillus circulans using conventional and molecular methods.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria from Seagrass Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Upasana Ghosh; Ponnambalam Subhashini; Elangovan Dilipan; Subramanian Raja; Thirunavukarassu Thangaradjou; Lakshmanan Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (6 Nos.) were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of two seagrasses (Halophila ovalis (R.Br.) Hook and Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog) in the Vellar estuary.Experimental studies found that the strain PSSG6was effective in phosphate solubilization with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E=375 ± 8.54,followed by the strain PSSG5with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E=275 ± 27.3.Of the 6 strains isolated,the strains PSSG4 and PSSG5 belonged to the genus Bacillus,and PSSG1,PSSG2 and PSSG3 were identified as Citrobacter sp.,Shigella sp.,and Klebsiella sp.,respectively,by conventional method,and PSSG6 was identified as Bacillus circulans using conventional and molecular methods.

  6. Lífsorkumeðferð

    OpenAIRE

    Elfar Þór Bragason 1981

    2013-01-01

    Í þessari ritgerð eru þrír frumkvöðlar innan sálfræði kynntir til sögunar, þeir Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Reich og Alexander Lowen. Farið er í gegnum sögu þeirra og kenningar. Freud er þekkt nafn í heimi sálfræðinnar og frá honum kom mikið af kenningum og hugmyndum um sálarlíf einstaklingsins. Farið er í gegnum þær þekkingargreinar Freuds sem höfðu áhrif á og tengdust kenningum þeirra Reich og Lowen. Reich var lærisveinn Freuds og út frá hugmyndum Freuds þróaði Reich sínar eigin aðferðir. Reich ...

  7. Greining á stefnumörkun Sparisjóðs Vestfirðinga

    OpenAIRE

    Alfreð Erlingsson

    2005-01-01

    Hvernig fellur ferli stefnumörkunar Sparisjóðs Vestfirðinga að forsendum viðkenndra stefnumótunarfræða og hvaða árangri skilar sú stefnumótunarvinna fyrirtækinu? Þessa spurningu setti höfundur fram til grundvallar uppbyggingar verkefnisins. Höfundur fór í greiningarvinnu með aðstoð stjórnar SPVF sem og tengiliðum hans við fyrirtækið. Til viðmiðunar auk annarra fræðilegra heimilda var mikið stuðst við aðferðafræði úr bókinni Crafting and Executing Strategy eftir Arthur A. Thompson Jr. & A....

  8. Effects of tiotropium on sympathetic activation during exercise in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitada S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Yoshimura, Ryoji Maekura, Toru Hiraga, Seigo Kitada, Keisuke Miki, Mari Miki, Yoshitaka TateishiDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Toneyama National Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: Tiotropium partially relieves exertional dyspnea and reduces the risk of congestive heart failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, its effect on the sympathetic activation response to exercise is unknown.Aims: This study aimed to determine whether tiotropium use results in a sustained reduction in sympathetic activation during exercise.Methods: We conducted a 12-week, open-label (treatments: tiotropium 18 µg or oxitropium 0.2 mg × 3 mg, crossover study in 17 COPD patients. Treatment order was randomized across subjects. The subjects underwent a pulmonary function test and two modes of cardiopulmonary exercise (constant work rate and incremental exercise testing using a cycle ergometer, with measurement of arterial catecholamines after each treatment period.Results: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were significantly larger in the tiotropium treatment group. In constant exercise testing, exercise endurance time was longer, with improvement in dyspnea during exercise and reduction in dynamic hyperinflation in the tiotropium treatment group. Similarly, in incremental exercise testing, exercise time, carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation at peak exercise were significantly higher in the tiotropium treatment group. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations and dyspnea intensity were also lower during submaximal isotime exercise and throughout the incremental workload exercise in the tiotropium treatment group.Conclusion: Tiotropium suppressed the increase of sympathetic activation during exercise at the end of the 6-week treatment, as compared with the effect of oxipropium. This effect might be attributed to improvement in lung function and exercise capacity and reduction in exertional dyspnea

  9. Quantitative comparison of the in situ microbial communities in different biomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ringelberg, D.B.; Palmer, R.J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

    1995-12-31

    A system to define microbial communities in different biomes requires the application of non-traditional methodology. Classical microbiological methods have severe limitations for the analysis of environmental samples. Pure-culture isolation, biochemical testing, and/or enumeration by direct microscopic counting are not well suited for the estimation of total biomass or the assessment of community composition within environmental samples. Such methods provide little insight into the in situ phenotypic activity of the extant microbiota since these techniques are dependent on microbial growth and thus select against many environmental microorganisms which are non- culturable under a wide range of conditions. It has been repeatedly documented in the literature that viable counts or direct counts of bacteria attached to sediment grains are difficult to quantitative and may grossly underestimate the extent of the existing community. The traditional tests provide little indication of the in situ nutritional status or for evidence of toxicity within the microbial community. A more recent development (MIDI Microbial Identification System), measure free and ester-linked fatty acids from isolated microorganisms. Bacterial isolates are identified by comparing their fatty acid profiles to the MIKI database which contains over 8000 entries. The application of the MIKI system to the analysis of environmental samples however, has significant drawbacks. The MIDI system was developed to identify clinical microorganisms and requires their isolation and culture on trypticase soy agar at 27{degrees}C. Since many isolates are unable to grow at these restrictive growth conditions, the system does not lend itself to identification of some environmental organisms. A more applicable methodology for environmental microbial analysis is based on the liquid extrication and separation of microbial lipids from environmental samples, followed by quantitative analysis using gas chromatography/

  10. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF STEM FRAGMENTS IN NARROW ENDEMIC AND WIDESPREAD PLANTS OF THE AQUATIC GENUS MYRIOPHYLLUM%狐尾藻属狭域种和广布种断枝的生长与再生能力比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 王东

    2012-01-01

    For some aquatic macrophytes, stem fragment formed by disturbance plays a key role in the dispersal and establishment of the species. Previous studies have been focused on the regeneration abilities of sterm fragments of a range of aquatic species. However, the information on regeneration ability of fragments between narrow endemic and its congeneric widespread species is lacking. Our study examined the combined effects of fragment length and fragment location on regeneration performances of narrow endemic (Myriophyllum oguraense Miki subsp. Yangtzense Wang) and widespread (M. Spicatum L.) species, two submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes of the lower Yangtze River basin of China, by an outdoor experiment. Stem fragments from one genotype of population were planted separately in plastic pots by three fragment lengths (5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm) and three fragment locations (apex, midstem and bottom). The objective of this study were to determine (1) whether fragment length and location correlate with the growth and regeneration abilities of the studied species, and (2) whether the growth and regeneration abilities of fragments differ between the narrow endemic and its congenetic widespread species. The results showed that total plant biomass, total branch biomass and branch number increased significantly with increasing fragment length between all treatments at the fragment level for both species. Total plant biomass, total branch biomass and branch number were greatly different between three length treatments, which were the greatest for fragments of 15 cm in length compared with the other two fragment length treatments. Additionally, the growth and regeneration performance of the studied species were significantly affected by fragment location. There were remarkable differences between the growth of sterm fragments with apices and those without apices. Plant from apical fragments had the largest plant biomass, and midstem fragments regenerated the largest branch

  11. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere VI. Analysis of fossil resins from Axel Heiberg Island Canadian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (United States); LePage, B.A. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-06-01

    Ambers are well known and abundant in terrestrial sediments all over the world; however, due largely to the absence of definite morphological characteristics, the precise botanical origin of most amber samples, are at best, often a matter of speculation. This has severely restricted the usefulness of amber in paleobotanical and paleoecological interpretations. The molecular composition and structural characteristics of fossil resins however, may preserve evidence of their botanical origin, which could be of great value in both geochemical, paleobotanical, and paleoenvironmental studies. The remains of a number of exceptionally well-preserved Taxodiaceae-dominated swamp-forest communities have been identified in the sediments of the middle Eocene (45 million years old) Buchanan Lake Formation of Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The amber collected from these ancient in situ forests provides a unique opportunity to characterize these resins chemically and taxonomically. Resinite associated with Metasequoia, Pinus and Pseudolarix has been characterized using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. This method provides a direct analysis of the molecular structure and composition of the resin. In several cases, both bled resin and cone-resin samples have been characterized. The results of these analyses are presented and discussed. The implications of these results for the botanical origins of other ambers represented in the fossil record (including succinite) will also be discussed.

  13. Stable carbon isotope ratios and intrinsic water-use efficiency of Miocene fossil leaves compared to modern congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.D.; Zhang, J.; Rember, W.C.; Jennings, D.; Larson, P. (Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Miocene fossil leaves of forest trees were extracted from the Clarkia, Idaho fossil beds and their stable carbon isotope ratios were analyzed. Fossils had higher lignin concentrations and lower cellulose concentrations that modern leaves due to diagenesis and the HF used to extract the fossils. Therefore, [delta][sup 13]C of extracted fossil lignin was compared to that of modern lignin. Fossil lignin [delta][sup 13]C was significantly different from that of congeneric modern leaves (paired t-test, P<0.0001), but was 1.9% less negative. Gymnosperms (Metasequoia, Taxodium) were less negative than angiosperms (e.g., Magnolia, Quercus, Acer, Persea), but no difference between evergreen and deciduous species was detected. Using published estimates of the concentration and [delta][sup 13]C of atmospheric CO[sub 2] during the Miocene was estimated the CO[sub 2] partial pressure gradient across the stomata (intrinsic water-use efficiency). Intrinsic water-use efficiency was at least 70% higher during this past [open quotes]greenhouse[close quotes] period than at present.

  14. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chae-Kun

    2012-08-31

    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in

  15. Pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD improves exercise time rather than exercise tolerance: effects and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Miki,1 Ryoji Maekura,1 Seigo Kitada,1 Mari Miki,1 Kenji Yoshimura,1 Hiroshi Yamamoto,2 Toshiko Kawabe,2 Hiroyuki Kagawa,1 Yohei Oshitani,1 Akitoshi Satomi,1 Kohei Nishida,1 Nobuhiko Sawa,1 Kimiko Inoue2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Toneyama National Hospital, Toyonaka, Japan Background: COPD patients undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation (PR show various responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible mechanisms and predictors of the response to PR in COPD patients.Methods: Thirty-six stable COPD patients underwent PR including a 4-week high-intensity exercise training program, and they were evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. All patients (mean age 69 years, severe and very severe COPD 94% were classified into four groups by whether the exercise time (Tex or the peak oxygen uptake (VO2 increased after PR: two factors increased (both the Tex and the peak VO2 increased; two factors decreased; time only increased (the Tex increased, but the peak VO2 economized; and VO2 only increased (the Tex decreased, but the peak VO2 increased. Within all patients, the relationships between baseline variables and the post-to-pre-change ratio of the time–slope, Tex/(peak minus resting VO2, were investigated.Results: Compared with the two factors increased group (n=11, in the time only increased group (n=18, the mean differences from pre-PR at peak exercise in 1 minute ventilation (VE (P=0.004, VO2 (P<0.0001, and carbon dioxide output (VCO2 (P<0.0001 were lower, 2 VE/VO2 (P=0.034 and VE/VCO2 (P=0.006 were higher, and 3 the dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD/VT and the dyspnea level were similar. After PR, there was no significant difference in the ratio of the observed peak heart rate (HR to the predicted peak HR (220 – age [years] between the two groups. A significant negative correlation with the baseline time–slope (r=-0.496, P=0.002 and a

  16. COPD is frequent in conditions of comorbidity in patients treated with various diseases in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamasaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Akira Yamasaki, Kiyoshi Hashimoto, Yasuyuki Hasegawa, Ryota Okazaki, Miki Yamamura, Tomoya Harada, Shizuka Ito, Soichiro Ishikawa, Hiroki Takami, Masanari Watanabe, Tadashi Igishi, Yuji Kawasaki, Eiji ShimizuDivision of Medical Oncology and Molecular Respirology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, JapanBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the leading causes of death and loss of disability-adjusted life-years. However, many COPD patients are not diagnosed because of underrecognition or underdiagnosis of this disease among many patients and physicians. One possible reason is underrecognition of spirometry. In this study, we examined the prevalence of airflow limitation and underlying disease in patients with airflow limitation.Methodology: From April 2006 to March 2008, patients who had spirometry performed were examined. The original disease of patients, pulmonary function tests, smoking status, and respiratory symptoms were surveyed from their medical records.Results: Of all patients who had spirometry performed, 15.8% showed airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC < 0.7. A variety of diseases were observed in patients with airflow limitation. Among all diseases, cardiovascular disease was the highest and gastrointestinal malignant disease had the second highest prevalence in patients with airflow limitation.Conclusion: COPD might be frequent in conditions of comorbidity in patients treated for various diseases. Attention should be paid to the possibility of co-existence of COPD and the influence of COPD on these patients.Keywords: airflow limitation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, comorbidity, spirometry, prevalence

  17. Proactive vs. reactive learning on buildings response and earthquake risks, in schools of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DOBRE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years, many specific activities of earthquake education and preparedness were initiated and supported in Romania by drafting materials for citizens, students, professors etc. (Georgescu et al., 2004, 2006. The education, training and information on earthquake disaster potential are important factors to mitigate the earthquake effects. Such activities, however, need time to be developed and may take different forms of presentation in order to capture the attention, to increase interest, to develop skills and attitudes in order to induce a proper behavior towards safety preparedness. It shall also be based on the accumulation of concerns and knowledge, which are, in principle, a consequence of the motivation, but which depend on the methods applied and actions taken for efficient earthquake preparedness, assessed and updated following actual earthquakes (Masuda, Midorikawa, Miki and Ohmachi, 1988. We are now at a crossroad and the proactive attitude and behavior (anticipative and participative needs to be extended in learning, within institutional framework, but correlated with the usual targets of schools and teenagers proactive issue (ROEDUSEIS-NET; Page and Page, 2003, by encouraging students in activities closer to earthquake engineering.

  18. Samfélagsgerð og uppeldishættir foreldra

    OpenAIRE

    Anika Rós Guðjónsdóttir 1985

    2014-01-01

    Tilgangur ritgerðarinnar er að vekja athygli á ólíkum samfélögum með tilliti til uppeldisáherslna foreldra. Leitast var við að svara spurningunni: hvernig getur samfélagsgerð endurspeglast í uppeldisaðferðum foreldra? Stuðst var við þær uppeldisaðferðir sem Diana Baumrind hafði áður fundið og nokkur samfélög skoðuð eftir því hvort þau voru einstaklingshyggju eða samfélagshyggju samfélög með hliðsjón af uppeldisáherslum Baumrind. Íslenska samfélagið hefur þróast mikið á frá því það var bændas...

  19. Real-Time Classification of Seagrass Meadows on Flat Bottom with Bathymetric Data Measured by a Narrow Multibeam Sonar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Hamana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows, one of the most important habitats for many marine species, provide essential ecological services. Thus, society must conserve seagrass beds as part of their sustainable development efforts. Conserving these ecosystems requires information on seagrass distribution and relative abundance, and an efficient, accurate monitoring system. Although narrow multibeam sonar systems (NMBSs are highly effective in resolving seagrass beds, post-processing methods are required to extract key data. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method capable of detecting seagrass meadows and estimating their relative abundance in real time using an NMBS. Because most seagrass meadows grow on sandy seafloors, we proposed a way of discriminating seagrass meadows from the sand bed. We classify meadows into three categories of relative seagrass abundance using the 95% confidence level of beam depths and the depth range of the beam depth. These are respectively two times the standard deviation of beam depths, and the difference between the shallowest and the deepest depths in a 0.5 × 0.5 m grid cell sampled with several narrow beams. We examined Zostera caulescens Miki, but this simple NMBS method of seagrass classification can potentially be used to map seagrass meadows with longer shoots of other species, such as Posidonia, as both have gas filled cavities.

  20. Some Sufficient Conditions for Tunnel Numbers of Connected Sum of Two Knots Not to Go Down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qiu YANG; Feng Chun LEI

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we show the following result:Let Ki be a knot in a closed orientable 3-manifold Mi such that (Mi,Ki) is not homeomorphic to (S2 × S1,x0 × S1),i =1,2.Suppose that the Euler Characteristic of any meridional essential surface in each knot complement E(Ki) is less than the difference of one and twice of the tunnel number of Ki.Then the tunnel number of their connected sum will not go down.If in addition that the distance of any minimal Heegaard splitting of each knot complement is strictly more than 2,then the tunnel number of their connected sum is super additive.We further show that if the distance of a Heegaard splitting of each knot complement is strictly bigger than twice the tunnel number of the knot (twice the sum of the tunnel number of the knot and one,respectively),then the tunnel number of connected sum of two such knots is additive (super additive,respectively).

  1. On Factorization of Generalized Macdonald Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kononov, Ya

    2016-01-01

    A remarkable feature of Schur functions -- the common eigenfunctions of cut-and-join operators from $W_\\infty$ -- is that they factorize at the peculiar two-parametric topological locus in the space of time-variables, what is known as the hook formula for quantum dimensions of representations of $U_q(SL_N)$ and plays a big role in various applications. This factorization survives at the level of Macdonald polynomials. We look for its further generalization to generalized Macdonald polynomials (GMP), associated in the same way with the toroidal Ding-Iohara-Miki algebras, which play the central role in modern studies in Seiberg-Witten-Nekrasov theory. In the simplest case of the first-coproduct eigenfunctions, where GMP depend on just two sets of time-variables, we discover a weak factorization -- on a one- (rather than four-) parametric slice of the topological locus, what is already a very non-trivial property, calling for proof and better understanding.

  2. Mat markaðarins á vörumerkinu Herbalife: Hver er staðfærsla og ímynd Herbalife á Íslandi?

    OpenAIRE

    Ívar Freyr Sturluson 1987

    2013-01-01

    Mikið hefur verið fjallað um vörumerkið Herbalife í gegnum árin og virðast skoðanir fólks skiptast í tvo flokka. Við erum annarsvegar með þá einstaklinga sem nota vörur frá Herbalife og líkar vel við og hinsvegar þá sem leggjast virkilega á móti jafnt vörunum og þeim sem sjá um að selja þær og koma þeim á framfæri, hinum svokölluðu Herbalife-dreifingaraðilum/leiðbeinendum. Markaður fyrir sölu fæðubótarefna á Íslandi virðist hafa farið stækkandi á síðustu árum og fannst því höfundi, sem er sjá...

  3. Hrognkelsi (Cyclopterus lumpus) : ný eldistegund

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvía Kolbrá Hákonardóttir 1993

    2016-01-01

    Á undanförnum árum hefur hrognkelsi orðið vinsæll eldisfiskur í Noregi og Færeyjum þar sem fiskurinn hefur reynst góður bandamaður laxeldis gagnvart sjólús. Sjólýs eru mikið vandamál í eldi á laxfiskum, lýsnar hafa ekki einungis áhrif á heilsu og velferð laxafiska í eldi heldur gefa þær neikvæða ímynd af fiskeldi vegna mögulegra áhrifa á villta laxastofna. Notkun hreinfiska í sameldi með laxi hefur aukist og eru niðurstöður jákvæðar þegar kemur að lúsaáti. Í þessari ritgerð verður fjallað um ...

  4. On factorization of generalized Macdonald polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, Ya.; Morozov, A.

    2016-08-01

    A remarkable feature of Schur functions—the common eigenfunctions of cut-and-join operators from W_∞ —is that they factorize at the peculiar two-parametric topological locus in the space of time variables, which is known as the hook formula for quantum dimensions of representations of U_q(SL_N) and which plays a big role in various applications. This factorization survives at the level of Macdonald polynomials. We look for its further generalization to generalized Macdonald polynomials (GMPs), associated in the same way with the toroidal Ding-Iohara-Miki algebras, which play the central role in modern studies in Seiberg-Witten-Nekrasov theory. In the simplest case of the first-coproduct eigenfunctions, where GMP depend on just two sets of time variables, we discover a weak factorization—on a one- (rather than four-) parametric slice of the topological locus, which is already a very non-trivial property, calling for proof and better understanding.

  5. Líkamsmynd drengja

    OpenAIRE

    María Jonný Sæmundsdóttir 1987

    2012-01-01

    Líkamsmynd vísar til þess hvernig við upplifum líkama okkar og hvað okkur finnst um hann. Líkamsmynd mótast bæði af persónulegum þáttum, eins og líkamlegum einkennum, félagslegum þáttum, svo sem ríkjandi fegurðarstöðlum og samskiptum okkar við aðra. Talið er að líkamsmynd eigi hvað stærstan þátt í að móta sjálfsálit einstaklinga. Sjálfsálit einstaklinga stjórnast einstaklega mikið af skynjun þeirra og tilfinningum gagnvart eigin þyngd og líkamslögun. Unglingsdrengir eru þar engin undantekning...

  6. Í gegnum kynjagleraugun. Karlar, konur og námsefni í íslensku frá Námsgagnastofnun

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Klara Eyjólfsdóttir 1962

    2014-01-01

    Það hefur mikið verið rætt um jafnrétti í námsefni undanfarin ár og þá sérstalega eftir útkomu skýrslu sem Jafnréttisstofa gaf út árið 2011 eftir að hafa rannsakað námsefni í sögu frá Námsgagnastofnun og fann út að verulega hallaði á hlut kvenna í námsefninu. Markmið með þessari ritgerð er að finna hlutfall karla og kvenna sem eru höfundar, ritstjórar og teiknarar í hluta af því námsefni sem er gefið út í íslensku hjá Námsgagnastofnun fyrir öll skólastig. Höfundar bóka eru skráðir og höfundar...

  7. Benjamín H. J. Eiríksson (Inngangur eftir Gylfa Zoëga: Outline of an Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jóhannes Hraunfjörð Karlsson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Í tilefni þess að 100 ár eru liðin frá fæðingu dr. Benjamíns H. J. Eiríksonar var ráðist í endurútgáfu doktorsritgerðar hans. Benjamín tilheyrir fjórðu kynslóð austuríska skólans, en upphafsmaður hans er Carl Menger. Þetta er mikið verk, 372 blaðsíður sem skiptist í 28 kafla. Gylfi Zoëga, prófessor í hagfræði, setur verkið síðan í hagsögulegt samhengi með inngangi sínum. Meginviðfangsefni doktorsritgerðar Benjamíns eru peningar, vextir og hagsveiflur og er mikill fengur að útgáfunni núna fyrir alla áhugamenn um peningahagfræði.

  8. A universal bubble-growth equation for pure liquids and binary solutions with a non-volatile solute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyatake, Osamu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Tanaka, Itsuo [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biological Production System; Lior, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    1996-12-31

    A simple equation suitable for predicting the growth rate of a vapor bubble in uniformly-superheated pure liquids and in binary solutions with a non-volatile solute was developed. The equation also improves on the popular pure-liquid bubble growth expression of Mikie et al. (1970) in that it is valid throughout the bubble growth history, i.e., in the surface-tension-, inertia-, and heat-transfer-controlled regimes, it accounts for bubble growth acceleration effects, and uses correctly-related and variable fluid properties. It was found to agree very well with experimental data for pure water and for aqueous NaCl solutions. As the bubble growth in superheated solutions with a non-volatile solute was found to be quite insensitive to diffusion and non-equilibrium effects in a broad range of common solution properties, this equation is likely to be universally valid for many liquids and solutions. Bubble growth in superheated fluids is of key interest in boiling phenomena in general and in flash evaporation in particular. Applications include a wide variety of separation processes such as water desalination, and energy conversion processes such as ocean-thermal energy conversion, geothermal power generation, and nuclear reactor safety.

  9. On factorization of generalized Macdonald polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kononov, Ya. [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); HSE, Math Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Morozov, A. [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Information Transmission Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    A remarkable feature of Schur functions - the common eigenfunctions of cut-and-join operators from W{sub ∞} - is that they factorize at the peculiar two-parametric topological locus in the space of time variables, which is known as the hook formula for quantum dimensions of representations of U{sub q}(SL{sub N}) and which plays a big role in various applications. This factorization survives at the level of Macdonald polynomials. We look for its further generalization to generalized Macdonald polynomials (GMPs), associated in the same way with the toroidal Ding-Iohara-Miki algebras, which play the central role in modern studies in Seiberg-Witten-Nekrasov theory. In the simplest case of the first-coproduct eigenfunctions, where GMP depend on just two sets of time variables, we discover a weak factorization - on a one- (rather than four-) parametric slice of the topological locus, which is already a very non-trivial property, calling for proof and better understanding. (orig.)

  10. Takmarkanir íslenskra sveitarfélaga

    OpenAIRE

    Birna Eyjólfsdóttir 1983

    2010-01-01

    Í þessari ritgerð verður fjallað um takmarkanir íslenskra sveitarfélaga út frá hugmyndum og rökum sem snúa að eflingu sveitarstjórnarstigsins á Íslandi. Þróun mála hefur verið sú að með sameiningu sveitarfélaga hefur þeim fækkað mikið frá árinu 1950 og íslensk stjórnvöld hafa reynt að ýta undir frekari fækkun sveitarfélaga í þeim tilgangi að úr verði stærri og sterkari sveitarfélög. Þau rök sem notuð hafa verið fyrir eflingu sveitarstjórnarstigsins tengjast lýðræði, hagkvæmni og efnahagslegum...

  11. Matarvenjur og matvendni barna með offitu

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnhildur Gunnarsdóttir 1990

    2016-01-01

    Inngangur: Fæðuuppeldi foreldra er talið hafa mikil áhrif á fæðumynstur, fæðuval og þyngd barna. Margar rannsóknir sýna að offita barna hefur aukist mikið á undanförnum árum. Matvendni barna, líkt og offita barna getur valdið talsverðum vanda í fjölskyldum og í sumum tilvikum haft bein áhrif á hegðun barna og hugsanlega einnig foreldra þeirra. Matvendni er skilgreint út frá því að barn geti annaðhvort verið með fæðusérvisku og fæðuval þess sé einhæft eða nýfælni þar sem barn sýnir ótta við að...

  12. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  13. Eastern Asian endemic seed plant genera and their paleogeographic history throughout the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven R. MANCHESTER; Zhi-Duan CHEN; An-Ming LU; Kazuhiko UEMURA

    2009-01-01

    We review the fossil history of seed plant genera that are now endemic to eastern Asia. Although the majority of eastern Asian endemic genera have no known fossil record at all, 54 genera, or about 9%, are reliably known from the fossil record. Most of these are woody (with two exceptions), and most are today either broadly East Asian, or more specifically confined to Sino-Japanese subcategory rather than being endemic to the Sino-Himalayan area. Of the "eastern Asian endemic" genera so far known from the fossil record, the majority formerly occurred in Europe and/or North America, indicating that eastern Asia served as a late Tertiary or Quaternary refugium for taxa. Hence, many of these genera may have originated in other parts of the Northern Hemisphere and expanded their ranges across continents and former sea barriers when tectonic and climatic conditions al-lowed, leading to their arrival in eastern Asia. Although clear evidence for paleoendemism is provided by the gymnosperms Amentotaxus, Cathaya, Cephalotaxus, Cunninghamia, Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Ginkgo, Ketel-eeria, Metasequoia, Nothotsuga, Pseudolarix, Sciadopitys, and Taiwania, and the angiosperms Cercidiphyllum, Choerospondias, Corylopsis, Craigia, Cyclocarya, Davidia, Dipelta, Decaisnea, Diplopanax, Dipteronia, Em-menopterys, Eucommia, Euscaphis, Hemiptelea, Hovenia, Koelreuteria, Paulownia, Phellodendron, Platycarya, Pteroceltis, Rehderodendron, Sargentodoxa, Schizophragma, Sinomenium, Tapiscia, Tetracentron, Toricellia,Trapella, and Trochodendron, we cannot rule out the possibility that neoendemism plays an important role espe-cially for herbaceous taxa in the present-day flora of Asia, particularly in the Sino-Himalayan region. In addition to reviewing paleobotanical occurrences from the literature, we document newly recognized fossil occurrences that expand the geographic and stratigraphic ranges previously known for Dipelta, Pteroceltis, and Toricellia.

  14. Taxation Policy in Iceland Skattastefna Íslendinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefán Ólafsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Hér er fjallað um skattastefnu Íslendinga með hliðsjón af þróun skattastefnu annarra vestrænna ríkja á síðustu áratugum. Gerð er grein fyrir þremur ólíkum leiðum í skattheimtu: heildstæðum skattkerfum (Comprehensive Income Taxation-CIT, tvíþættum skattkerfum (Dual Income Taxation-DIT og kerfum með flatan skatt (Flat Income Taxation-FIT. Þróun heildarskattheimtu á Íslandi er skoðuð í samanburði við OECD-ríkin og einnig skattbyrði af ólíkum tegundum skatta (svo sem tekjusköttum einstaklinga og fyrirtækja, neyslusköttum, eignasköttum og fjármagnstekjusköttum. Þá er breytt tekjuskattbyrði ólíkra tekjuhópa sýnd og skýrð sem og ýmis einkenni íslenska skattkerfisins. Allir alþjóðlegir mælikvarðar á heildarskattbyrði sýna að skattbyrði hefur aukist mikið á Íslandi síðan 1995 og raunar á Ísland heimsmet í aukningu skattbyrðarinnar á tímabilinu frá 1995 til 2005. Þessi aukning heildarskattheimtu er nær eingöngu vegna aukinnar tekjuskattheimtu af einstaklingum og fjölskyldum, sem lagðist með mestum þunga á fólk úr lægri tekjuhópunum, lífeyrisþega og ungar barnafjölskyldur. Skattbyrði þess tíunda hluta þjóðarinnar sem hafði hæstar tekjur lækkaði hins vegar mikið, mest hjá þeim allra tekjuhæstu. Skattbyrði lágtekjufólks og meðaltekjufólks jókst vegna rýrnunar skattleysismarkanna og þrátt fyrir að álagningarhlutfall skatta hafi lækkað. OECD hefur staðfest þessa þróun með afdráttarlausum hætti í nýlegri skýrslu sinni um efnahagsmál á Íslandi árið 2005 (Economic Survey: Iceland. Ísland hefur mörg sérkenni í skattastefnu sinni og víkur með afgerandi hætti frá helstu skattkerfum vestrænna þjóða. Raunar virðist Ísland nú nálgast það að mega teljast skattaparadís fyrir fjárfesta og eigendur fyrirtækja um leið og skattbyrði þorra almennings er mikil, meðal annars vegna

  15. Results of Rocket-Triggered Lightning Studies at Camp Blanding, Florida: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakov, V. A.

    2003-12-01

    In this review, we present selected results of triggered-lightning experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. After a general update, the following three topics will be covered in more detail. (1)Mechanism of cutoff and re-establishment of current in rocket-triggered lightning. We will present evidence (electric and magnetic fields, channel-base current, time-resolved optical records) that the gap resulting from the vaporization of the triggering wire by the upward positive leader current is bridged by a leader/return-stroke type process (Rakov et al., 2003). Characterization of the attempted interruption and following re-establishment of current to ground in rocket-triggered lightning may have important implications for the understanding of channel current cutoff in natural lightning flashes and may provide new insights into the formation of strokes occurring in the same channel within a millisecond or less. (2)Estimation of input energy in rocket-triggered lightning. In 2000, the electric fields in the immediate vicinity (within 0.1 to 1.6 m) of the triggered lightning channel were measured with Pockels sensors (Miki et al., 2002). We used these fields and associated currents measured at the base of a 2-m strike object to compute power and energy, each per unit channel length and as a function of time (up to 10 ms), associated with return strokes in rocket-triggered lightning. In doing so, we assumed that the vertical component of the electric field at horizontal distances of 0.1 to 1.6 m from the lightning attachment point is not much different from the longitudinal electric field inside the channel (Borovsky, 1995). The estimated mean input energy over the first 50 μs or so is between 1 and 10 kJ/m, consistent with predictions of gas dynamic models. (3)Multiple-station measurements of electric and magnetic fields and their time derivatives produced by close natural lightning discharges. In 2002

  16. Micropropagação de violeta-africana (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.: efeito da Benzilaminopurina na multiplicação Micropropagation of African-Violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.: effect of Benzylaminopurine on multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Karam Lucas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A violeta-africana (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. é uma espécie cultivada como ornamental pela beleza de suas flores e folhagem. A Benzilaminopurina (BAP pode ser utilizada na multiplicação in vitro dessa espécie, no entanto, inexistem informações mais detalhadas sobre as respostas obtidas sobre a multiplicação, em uma faixa ampla de concentrações. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o efeito do BAP na multiplicação in vitro de violeta-africana. Foram utilizados, como explantes, tufos de brotações das cultivares Optimara Miki, Optimara Maki e Optimara Akemi, com tamanhos entre 0,8 e 2,0 cm. Empregou-se o meio MS, com concentrações de nutrientes minerais e vitaminas reduzidas à metade, suplementado com mio-inositol (100mg L-1, sacarose (30 g L-1 e ágar (7 g L-1. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: 0,0; 0,44; 1,78; 3,08 e 4,44 mM de BAP. O pH do meio foi ajustado para 5,8 antes da esterilização. O material vegetal permaneceu em temperatura de 24 ± 2 ºC, fotoperíodo de 14 horas e densidade de fluxo luminoso de 40 mmol c4m-2 s-1. As avaliações do número total de brotações e do número e altura de brotações maiores que 3 mm foram realizadas aos 46 dias. A adição de BAP ao meio de cultura foi essencial para a multiplicação das culturas. As respostas aos tratamentos variaram entre os genótipos utilizados. Maiores resultados de número total de brotações e número de brotações superiores que três milímetros foram observados em concentrações de BAP situadas entre 1,78 e 4,44 mM. A altura das brotações decresceu com a utilização de BAP.African-Violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. is an ornamental plant widely cultivated, because of its beautiful foliage and flowers. Benzylaminopurine (BAP can be used to violet multiplication, but there weren't information about results with several concentrations. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of different concentrations of BAP on the multiplication of

  17. [Editing style of Imwon-Gyeongjeji, Inje-ji and inclusion of the medicinal knowledge of the late period of Joseon - Comparing mainly with Dongui-Bogam -].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jongwook; Jo, Changrock

    2012-12-01

    Imwon-Gyeongjeji which was created by Seo Yu-gu in the first half of the 19th century is a encyclopedia of practical use in rural life. It consists of 113 volumes, 16 fields, and 2.52 million total characters. Of these, the field of medicine comes 11th of the contents covering 28 volumes and 1.1 million characters. Its name is Inje-ji. This paper examines the academic background of Seo Yu-gu and his life work briefly, and investigates the characteristics of medical knowledge of late Joseon period contained in the Imwon-Gyeongjeji, Inje-ji Here, we made key comparisons especially with Dongui-Bogam, Joseon's leading medical book. Of the pioneers of medical history studies of Joseon, a Japanese researcher Miki Sakae has made a negative evaluation to Inje-ji. But after concrete investigation we have come to conclude as follows. First, familial ancestors of Seo Yu-gu were engaged in the introduction of foreign-language books, so Seo Yu-gu as an officer of proof-reading and editing of the various books, also had a lot of knowledge on the medical books ever in history. On this background and experience, for over 36 years from 1,806 retirement from official position to his death, he had compiled and edited Imwon-Gyeongjeji. Second, unlike Dongui-Bogam which included improving health skill, Inje-ji focused on curing medicine readily accessible from the major population of that time. Its main features are as follows: i) prescriptions directly linked to the diseases and symptoms, ii) greatly increased medicinal knowledge especially on infectious diseases and trauma, iii) detailed index easy to look up for prescription and iv) his 'own opinions'[an-seol] which can indicate relevant contents within the book and organically combines the whole knowledge in it. Third, "Inje-ji" utilizing medical books in China and Korea even those of Japan, collected more massively almost all the medical knowledge, new illness, herbs of local area, private prescription. Meanwhile Inje-ji modified

  18. Aviel D. Rubin: Brave New Ballot - The Battle to Safeguard Democracy in the Age of Electronic Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haukur Arnþórsson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Um síðustu aldamót náðu hátindi sínum vonir og ótti um nýja möguleika upplýsingatækni til að breyta lýðræðinu. Þá urðu margir til að segja að lýðræðið eins og við þekkjum það væri komið að endimörkum sínum og að bein þátttaka almennings í stjórnmálum á Netinu væri framundan, meðal annars með rafrænum kosningum (e-voting. Hér á landi heyrðust þessar raddir. Síðan þá hefur myndin af framtíðinni smám saman breyst og takmarkanir og möguleikar upplýsingatækninnar orðið ljósari. Nú, sex árum síðar, talar enginn lengur um rafrænt lýðræði, nema þeir sem hafa atvinnu af því, en mikið hófstilltara hugtak, rafræn þátttaka, berst fyrir viðurkenningu og tilverurétti sínum á takmörkuðum sviðum.

  19. The association of sleep quality with dry eye disease: the Osaka study

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    Kawashima M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motoko Kawashima,1 Miki Uchino,1,2 Norihiko Yokoi,3 Yuichi Uchino,1,2 Murat Dogru,1 Aoi Komuro,3 Yukiko Sonomura,3 Hiroaki Kato,3 Shigeru Kinoshita,3 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, 2Ryogoku Eye Clinic, Sumida-ku, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To investigate the association of dry eye disease with sleep quality. Methods: In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the employees, mainly young and middle-aged Japanese office workers, who used visual display technology, at a company in Osaka, Japan (N=672; age range =26–64 years. The participants were classified according to the Japanese dry eye diagnosis criteria by dry eye examination results including the Schirmer test, fluorescein and lissamine green staining, tear film break-up time, and symptom questionnaire into three groups as follows: definite dry eye disease, probable dry eye disease, and no dry eye disease. To determine sleep quality, Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (global score was implemented. The global score (range =0–21 was calculated by summing seven sleep variable scores (scale, 0–3; scores ≥5.5 indicated poor sleep. Results: The total mean global score was 5.1±2.3 (completed N=383; 45% of the dry eye disease participants reported having poor sleep quality, while 34% of the no dry eye disease participants did so, with a significant difference found in the global score (P=0.002. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was observed between the global score and dry eye disease (P=0.005. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality is associated with dry eye disease, especially with dry eye symptoms. Keywords: dry eye, sleep quality, symptom, questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, tear film break-up time, visual display terminals

  20. 丹参提取物中酚酸类含量的快速检测法%Quick Determination of Salvianolic Acid in the Extract of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    励娜; 胡荣; 蒋成英; 杨荣平; 张小梅

    2013-01-01

    建立丹参提取物中酚酸类含量的快速检测方法.以丹酚酸B为对照,采用分光光度法于482 nm处测定丹参提取物中酚酸类的含量.结果表明丹酚酸B在0.0782~1.0166 mg(r=0.9977)范围内线性关系良好,回收率为101.652%,RSD值为0.81%(n=9).该提取物中酚酸类含量测定结果为19.636%.该方法快速简便、准确、重现性好,可作为快速检测丹参中总酚酸含量的方法.%The objective of this study was to establisha fast method for the determination of salvianolic acid in the extract of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma. Using salvianolic acid B as a reference substance, the concentration of salvianolic acid in extract of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma was determined by UV absorption at wavelength 482 run. The linear relationship of salvianolic acid B was good in the ranges of 0.0782-1.0166 mg( r = 0.9977). The average recovery was 101.652% and RSD was 0.81% (n=9). The concentration of salvianolic acid in the extract of Salviae milti-orrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma was 19.636%. The method was simple, rapid and accurate for quality control of Salviae miki-orrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma.

  1. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives

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    Kobara H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Kobara,1 Hirohito Mori,1 Kazi Rafiq,2 Shintaro Fujihara,1 Noriko Nishiyama,1 Maki Ayaki,1 Tatsuo Yachida,1 Tae Matsunaga,1 Johji Tani,1 Hisaaki Miyoshi,1 Hirohito Yoneyama,1 Asahiro Morishita,1 Makoto Oryu,1 Hisakazu Iwama,3 Tsutomu Masaki1 1Department of Gastroenterology and Neurology, 2Department of Pharmacology, 3Life Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kita-Gun, Kagawa, Japan Abstract: Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments. Keywords: submucosal endoscopy, submucosal tunneling method, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, peroral endoscopic myotomy, gastrointestinal subepithelial tumor, functional and motility disorders

  2. A case involving an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve transferred from the vitreous into the anterior chamber of the eye with a silicone oil tamponade for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

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    Miki M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Miki, Mari Ueki, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Shota Kojima, Tsunehiko IkedaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, JapanPurpose: To report the short-term efficacy and safety of the transfer of an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve (AGV™ tube from the vitreous into the anterior chamber, in a patient with neovascular glaucoma who had undergone pars plana AGV™ implantation and ultimately needed a silicone oil tamponade.Case: A 41-year-old male with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes was referred to us for treatment in December 2009. Although the patient previously underwent several surgeries, he ultimately lost vision in his right eye. His left eye suffered from neovascular glaucoma after undergoing a pars plana vitrectomy for tractional retinal detachment. After several vitreous and glaucoma surgeries, the patient underwent implantation of a pars plana AGV™. Postoperatively, although his intraocular pressure was stabilized at approximately 10 mmHg, he had repeated vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema without improvement. He ultimately underwent PPV with a silicone oil tamponade and at the same time, the AGV™ tube was pulled out from the vitreous and inserted into the anterior chamber in order to avoid complications caused by the silicone oil.Results: At 19 months postoperative, the patient’s intraocular pressure had stabilized at 10 mmHg with no recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema. Eventually, he lost vision in his left eye because of cerebral hemorrhage.Conclusion: The findings show that insertion of a pars plana AGV™ tube into the anterior chamber in a patient undergoing a silicone oil tamponade is both effective and safe in the short-term.Keyword: tube implantation, glaucoma surgery, tube transfer, pars plana, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure

  3. Joint unloading implant modifies subchondral bone trabecular structure in medial knee osteoarthritis: 2-year outcomes of a pilot study using fractal signature analysis

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    Miller LE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Larry E Miller,1,2 Miki Sode,3 Thomas Fuerst,3 Jon E Block2 1Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, USA; 2The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Bioclinica, Newark, CA, USA Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA is largely attributable to chronic excessive and aberrant joint loading. The purpose of this pilot study was to quantify radiographic changes in subchondral bone after treatment with a minimally invasive joint unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System.Methods: Nine patients with unilateral medial knee OA resistant to nonsurgical therapy were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for 2 years. Main outcomes included Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC pain, function, and stiffness subscores and independent core laboratory determinations of joint space width and fractal signature of the tibial cortex.Results: WOMAC scores, on average, improved by 92% for pain, 91% for function, and 79% for stiffness over the 2-year follow-up period. Joint space width in the medial compartment of the treated knee significantly increased from 0.9 mm at baseline to 3.1 mm at 2 years; joint space width in the medial compartment of the untreated knee was unchanged. Fractal signatures of the vertically oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment decreased by 2.8% in the treated knee and increased by 2.1% in the untreated knee over 2 years. No statistically significant fractal signature changes were observed in the horizontally oriented trabeculae in the medial compartment or in the horizontal or vertical trabeculae of the lateral compartment in the treated knee.Conclusion: Preliminary evidence suggests that the KineSpring System may modify knee OA disease progression by increasing joint space width and improving subchondral bone trabecular integrity, thereby reducing pain and improving joint function. Keywords: disease modification, KineSpring, joint space, pain, trabecular

  4. Property of individual conducting-polymer nanowires: conductance and FET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Tomihiro

    2006-03-01

    Electronic devices using organic molecules and nanowires have been intensively studied in dream of a smart life utilizing charming functions of organic materials, that are thin, light, flexible and yet inexpensive and safe for environment. A key step for measuring the property of organic nanowires and evaluating the performance of the nanowire devices is how to access them by appropriate nanoscopic methods. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based nanofabrication (SP nanofabrication) has been used to fabricate two- or four-probe fine electrodes and several kinds of nanowires made of conducting polymers have been evaluated by SPM and the fine electrodes made with Pt thin film fabricated on SiO2/doped Si or sapphire substrates [1,2]. We have tested conductivity of single poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) / poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) nanowires. After cutting each nanowires placed on the fine electrodes, the current was checked and we were able to confirm that the conductivity was derived from the PEDOT nanowires themselves. The temperature dependence of the conductivity was explained by the quasi one-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) model. We also will discuss on the field-effect-transistor (FET) made of a single nanowire. In collaboration with: S. Heike, M. Fujimori, Y. Suwa (ARL), H. Ichihara, S. Samitsu, A. Inomata, T. Shimomura, K. Ito (Univ. Tokyo), K. Miki, T. Ohno (NIMS), H. Mizuseki (IMR), Y. Terada, H. Shigekawa (Univ. Tsukuba). [1] J. P. Hill, W. Jin, A. Kosaka, T. Fukushima, H. Ichihara, T. Shimomura, K. Ito, T. Hashizume, N. Ishii, and T. Aida, Science 304, 1481 (2004). [2] S. Samitsu, T. Shimomura, K. Ito, S. Heike, M. Fujimori, S. Heike, and T. Hashizume, Appl. Phys. Lett., 86, 233103 (2005).

  5. [Trends in research on the history of medicine in Korea before the modern era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongwon

    2010-06-30

    Research on the history of medicine in Korea in the form of modern scholarship began with the publication in 1930 of Yi Neunghwa's "A History of the Development of Medicine in Korea." The purpose of the present study lies in surveying studies on the history of medicine in Korea in the past 80 years since the publication of Yi's paper. In terms of periodization, research on the history of medicine in Korea is bifurcated by the publication of two comprehensive histories-i. e., Miki Sakae's A History of Medicine and Disease in Korea (1963) and Kim Du-jong's The Complete History of Medicine in Korea (1966). Indeed, all earlier studies converged in these two books. Because Miki and Kim both had majored in Western medicine and conducted research based on similar perspectives, data, and methods, the two works overlap considerably, and Kim's book, as the later of the two, unfortunately lost the initiative to the former to a considerable extent. As a result of these two scholars' research, it became possible to trace the overall flow of the history of medicine in Korea. Following the publication of works by Miki and Kim and with the advent of the 1980's, research on the history of medicine in premodern Korea was renovated with the emergence of no fewer than some dozen new doctoral degree holders in the field. In fact, these young scholars went beyond surveying trends in each era to expand the scope of specific discussions and topics per era, to delve into the actual contents, and to elucidate the function of medicine in society. The fruits of studies conducted in the past 80 years on the history of medicine in premodern Korea can be summarized as follows. 1) before the 5th century AD: the existence of a comprehensive medical practice in regions inhabited by those considered to be the ancestors of the Korean people; and information on medication including ginseng. 2) 5th-10th centuries: the existence of professional medical posts; the management of medicine by the royal

  6. Lakeshore Wetland Construction in Dianchi Lake:Technology of Planting Humidogene Arbor%滇池湖滨带湿生乔木湿地构建技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 孔德平; 范亦农; 李杰; 杨发昌; 赵琳娜; 陈彦君

    2012-01-01

    采用以草本植物为主构建的湖滨湿地存在的主要问题是挺水植物繁殖速度快,生物量大,如每年不及时对死亡植株进行收割,会加快湖泊淤积速度,对湖泊水体造成二次污染;大面积湿地挺水植物的管护和收割,势必造成湿地管理强度和费用大幅提高.针对上述问题,文章重点介绍了在滇池草海湖滨带中以湿生乔木植物代替草本挺水植物的湖滨湿地构建技术现场试验研究成果,在湖滨带基底修复的基础上,选择垂柳、滇杨、中山杉、水杉、池杉和竹子等湿生植物开展现场试验,研究结果推荐适应能力较强、成活率较高和景观效果好的垂柳、中山杉为滇池湖滨带湿生乔木湿地构建的主要树种,为受损湖泊湖滨带生态修复提供借鉴.%In construction of lakeshore wetlands in Dianchi Lake, emergent aquatic plants, mostly herbaceous plant featuring fast growing, has been planted massively, however, which ought to be cut every year, otherwise the dead plant in great amount, with high biomass, brought about secondary pollution. The plant-cutting involving cumbersome and time-consuming work added in workload and cost in managing the wetland. Experiments were thus conducted to develop a technology of planting arbor trees in the lakeshore which would substitute for the existing herbaceous plant. With the preparatory ground work along the lakeside done, trees like weeping willow, Yunnan poplar, Zhongshan cedar, metasequoia, taxodium and bamboo were planed on trial, among which weeping willow and Zhongshan cedar have been selected as the fittest due to their strong viability, as well as their better visual effect for lakeshore landscape.

  7. Cough and asthma diagnosis: physicians’ diagnosis and treatment of patients complaining of acute, subacute and chronic cough in rural areas of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamasaki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Akira Yamasaki1, Keichi Hanaki2, Katsuyuki Tomita3, Masanari Watanabe1, Yasuyuki Hasagawa1, Ryota Okazaki1, Miki Yamamura1, Kouji Fukutani4, Yuji Sugimoto5, Kazuhiro Kato4, Masahiro Kodani6, Toshikazu Ikeda7, Tatsuya Konishi8, Yuji Kawasaki9, Hirokazu Tokuyasu9, Hiroki Yajima3, Hitoshi Sejima10, Takeshi Isobe11, Eiji Shimizu1, SAN-IN Asthma Research Group1Third Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Tottori University, Japan; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hakuai Hospital, Japan; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, San-in Rosai Hospital,  Japan; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tottori Prefectural Central Hospital, Japan; 6Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tottori Red Cross Hospital, Japan; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Organization, Matsue Hospital, Japan; 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, Matsue City Hospital, Japan; 9Department of Respiratory Medicine, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, Japan; 10Department of Pediatrics,  11Department of Internal Medicine, Shimane University, Shimane, JapanBackground: Cough is one of the most common reasons for visiting a clinic. The causes of cough differ according to the duration of cough. Infectious disease is commonly observed in acute cough while noninfectious disease is commonly observed in chronic cough. On the other hand, cough is frequently observed in patients with asthma/cough variant asthma (CVA.Objective: In this study, we investigated the causes of cough in a rural region in Japan and the clinical examination and treatment for the patients diagnosed as asthma/CVA.Methods: We analyzed 124 patients who complained of cough.Results: The most common reason for acute cough was respiratory tract infection while asthma/CVA is the most common reason for subacute and chronic cough. The diagnostic procedure for asthma/CVA depends on clinical symptoms in asthmatic patients with acute cough. While in asthmatic patients with subacute and chronic cough, diagnosis

  8. Implications of 3.2 Ga deep seawater from sulfur isotopic analysis of barite crystals in Pilbara, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Takahata, N.; Ishida, A.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Sano, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur isotopic (δ34S) analysis is used as one of the methods of Precambrian environmental reconstruction. It has been pointed out that δ34S fluctuations of sulfate and sulfide have close relationship with rise of oxygen level and increase in biological activity of sulfate reducing bacteria. For example, the difference of δ34S between sulfate and sulfide is small in Archean while it gets larger after evolution of oxygen level and biological activity (e.g. Canfield and Farquhar, 2009).  However, evidence of δ34S difference between sulfate and sulfide in Archean is scarce. In this study, we focused on barite and pyrite occurred at the layer in the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation in coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia.  We found pyrites in from the bottom of the Black Chert Member to the Varicolored Chert Member of the Dixon Island Formation. Particularly, we can see pyrite layers of a few millimeters thick which make an alternate layers with black chert layers in the Varicolored Chert Member. The bulk δ34S values of these layers are -10.1~+26.8‰ (Sakamoto, 2010MS) and micro-meter scale heterogeneity of δ34S can be seen in minute spherical shell pyrite which was formed at early stage of diagenesis (Miki, 2015MS).  On the other hand, barite layers are remained in the lower part of the Black Chert Member in the Dixon Island Formation. In these layers, columnar quartz crystals were representative which are considered to be a pseudomorph of barite. Such equigranular occurrences of barite are typical character in submarine hydrothermal system (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). There exist small crystals of barite (less than 200 um in diameter) which are expected to be remnants of original barite. We performed microscale sulfur isotope analyses using a NanoSIMS.  As a preliminary result, we obtained δ34S value of +3.4~+9.1‰ (n=11). These values are similar to the reported values of barite which are considered to be a hydrothermal origin in 3.47 Ga North Pole

  9. Optic nerve head analysis of superior segmental optic hypoplasia using Heidelberg retina tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Miki1,2, Motohiro Shirakashi1, Kiyoshi Yaoeda1, Atsushi Fukushima1, Mineo Takagi1, Haruki Abe11Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, JapanPurpose: To evaluate the optic disc characteristics of eyes with superior segmental optic hypoplasia (SSOH using the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT.Patients and methods: Thirteen eyes of 13 Japanese patients with SSOH were studied with the HRT (software version: 3.0. The group included six males and seven females, with a mean age of 34.7 years. Six optic disc parameters in the six sectors derived from the patients with SSOH were compared with those of 13 eyes of 13 normal controls. In addition, the diagnostic classification performance of the Frederick S Mikelberg (FSM discriminant function, glaucoma probability score (GPS, and Moorfields regression analysis (MRA were assessed.Results: When compared with normal subjects, many of the optic disc parameters were significantly altered in SSOH in the superior sectors. The area under the curve (AUC for the receiver operating characteristic was 0.932 for the rim area, 0.926 for the cup-to-disc area ratio, and 0.882 for the cup shape measure. Among the HRT parameters, the largest AUC (0.988 was found for the cup shape measure in the nasal superior segment. The proportion classified as outside normal limits by the FSM discriminant function was 92.3% (12 eyes. For GPS, six eyes (46.2% were classified as outside normal limits. For MRA, when borderline cases were considered test-negative or test-positive, 10 eyes (76.9% or 11 eyes (84.6% were classified as outside normal limits, respectively. The AUCs were 0.976 for the FSM discriminant function, 0.914 for the MRA overall classification, and 0.710 for the GPS overall classification.Conclusions: In eyes with SSOH, there is a significant thinning of the rim

  10. An investigation of coseismic OSL / TL time zeroing of quartz gouge based on low- to high-velocity friction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasegawa, K.; Oohashi, K.; Hasebe, N.; Miura, K.

    2016-12-01

    . References Okumura, T., and Shitaoka, Y., 2011. Engineering Geology of Japan, No. 1, 5-17. Hiraga, S., Yoshimoto, A., and Shimamoto, T., 2004. Bull. Nara Univ. Educ., Vol. 53, No. 2, 17-29. Ikeya, M., Miki, T. and Tanaka, K. 1982. Seience, 215, 1392-1393. Kim, J. H., Choi, J. H., Chauhan, N., Lee, S., Hirose, T., and Ree, J. H, 2014. AGU, Fall Meeting 2014.

  11. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  12. Deep Structure and Earthquake Generating Properties in the Yamasaki Fault Zone Estimated from Dense Seismic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, K.; Shibutani, T.; Katao, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Mamada, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Energy Safety Organization (JNES). Fig.1 (a) Horizontal distribution of relative scattering coefficients, averaged for a depth range from 0 to 15 km. Open and solid symbols represent stronger and weaker scattering than the average, respectively. (b) Distribution of relative scattering coefficients, inside the rectangular area shown in (a), projected on a vertical cross section along the Yamasaki fault zone. Red crosses show distribution of microearthquakes in 2002, 2003, 2008 and 2009 (JMA data). The Yamasaki fault zone is composed of Ohara (OF), Hijima (HF), Yasutomi (YF), Kuresakatoge (KF), Biwako (BF), and Miki faults (MF), whose approximate location is shown at the top.

  13. Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

  14. Consumption of nattokinase is associated with reduced blood pressure and von Willebrand factor, a cardiovascular risk marker: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter North American clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen GS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gitte S Jensen,1 Miki Lenninger,1 Michael P Ero,2 Kathleen F Benson,1 1NIS Labs, Klamath Falls, OR, 2Machaon Diagnostics, Inc., Oakland, CA, USA Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of consumption of nattokinase on hypertension in a North American hypertensive population with associated genetic, dietary, and lifestyle factors. This is in extension of, and contrast to, previous studies on Asian populations.Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm clinical study was performed to evaluate nattokinase (NSK-SD, a fermented soy extract nattō from which vitamin K2 has been removed. Based on the results from previous studies on Asian populations, 79 subjects were enrolled upon screening for elevated blood pressure (BP; systolic BP ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg who consumed placebo or 100 mg nattokinase/d for the 8-week study duration. Blood collections were performed at baseline and 8 weeks for testing plasma renin activity, von Willebrand factor (vWF, and platelet factor-4. Seventy-four people completed the study with good compliance.Results: Consumption of nattokinase was associated with a reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP. The reduction in systolic BP was seen for both sexes but was more robust in males consuming nattokinase. The average reduction in diastolic BP in the nattokinase group from 87 mmHg to 84 mmHg was statistically significant when compared to that in the group consuming placebo, where the average diastolic BP remained constant at 87 mmHg (P<0.05, and reached a high level of significance for males consuming nattokinase, where the average diastolic BP dropped from 86 mmHg to 81 mmHg (P<0.006. A decrease in vWF was seen in the female population consuming nattokinase (P<0.1. In the subpopulation with low plasma renin activity levels at baseline (<0.29 ng/mL/h, an increase was seen for 66% of the people after 8-week consumption of nattokinase (P

  15. Management of the Israeli National Water System under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, U.; Housh, M.; Ostfeld, A.; Zaide, M.

    2009-12-01

    ., Academic Press, London. Zaide, M. (2006) A Model for Management of Water Quantity and Quality in the Israeli National System", MSc Thesis, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technion. http://urishamir.wri.technion.ac.il/files/documents/Miki%20Zaide%20-%20Thesis%20Final%2015.03.06.pdf

  16. Acoustical model of a Shoddy fibre absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, John Peter

    Shoddy fibres or "Shoddies" are a mixture of post-consumer and post-industrial fibres diverted from textile waste streams and recycled into their raw fibre form. They have found widespread use as a raw material for manufacturing sound absorbers that include, but are not limited to: automotive, architectural and home appliance applications. The purpose of this project is to develop a simple acoustic model to describe the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbers composed primarily of Shoddy fibres. The model requires knowledge of the material's bulk density only. To date, these materials have not been the focus of much published research and acoustical designers must rely on models that were developed for other materials or are overly complex. For modelling purposes, an equivalent fluid approach is chosen to balance complexity and accuracy. In deriving the proposed model, several popular equivalent fluid models are selected and the required input parameters for each model identified. The models are: the model of Delaney and Bazley, two models by Miki, the model of Johnson in conjunction with the model of Champoux and Allard and the model of Johnson in conjunction with the model of Lafarge. Characterization testing is carried out on sets of Shoddy absorbers produced using three different manufacturing methods. The measured properties are open porosity, tortuosity, airflow resistivity, the viscous and thermal characteristic lengths and the static thermal permeability. Empirical relationships between model parameters and bulk density are then derived and used to populate the selected models. This yields several 'simplified' models with bulk density as the only parameter. The most accurate model is then selected by comparing each model's prediction to the results of normal incidence sound absorption tests. The model of Johnson-Lafarge populated with the empirical relations is the most accurate model over the range of frequencies considered (approx. 300 Hz - 4000 Hz

  17. Efficacy and visual prognostic factors of intravitreal bevacizumab as needed for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Miki Hirose, Wataru Matsumiya, Shigeru Honda, Makoto NakamuraDepartment of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: Our aim was to investigate the efficacy and prognostic factors of intraocular injections of bevacizumab as needed in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO.Methods: This is a retrospective study including 28 eyes of 27 consecutive patients with macular edema due to CRVO and followed for at least 6 months. The mean age of the patients was 66.3 years. The patients underwent an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg at the initial visit. Retreatments were performed when macular edema was persistent or worsened (as-needed regimen. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. The change in central retinal thickness (CRT was evaluated as the secondary outcome. Finally, the factors useful for predicting BCVA outcome were determined.Results: The mean number of injections was 1.8 over a period of 6 months. The mean BCVA (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution was significantly improved at 1 (-0.097, 3 (-0.14, and 6 months (-0.25 after the initial injection (P<0.05, <0.01, and <0.001, respectively. The mean CRT was also improved significantly at 1 (-250.4, 3 (-150.0, and 6 months (-187.2 (P<0.001 each. Earlier treatment and better improvement in BCVA at 1 month after the initial treatment were the prognostic factors significantly associated with better visual outcomes at 6 months (P=0.047 and 0.029, respectively.Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as needed significantly improved visual acuity and macular edema in CRVO patients. Time before the treatment and early response to the treatment were important factors for the visual outcome.Keywords: central retinal vein occlusion, bevacizumab, macular edema, efficacy, prognostic factor, pro re nata regimen

  18. 四川盆周西缘山地典型人工林下苔藓和凋落物的持水特性%Water Holding Capacities of Bryophyte and Litter Layer under Typical Artificial Stands of Western Sichuan Ba-sin Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玖金; 马海燕; 张晓庆; 张健; 朱必清

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the water holding capacities of artificial stands, the field survey and the water immersion were con-ducted to study the water holding capacities of bryophyte and litter layer including un-decomposed litter layer and incom-pletely and completely decomposed under typical artificial stands of western Sichuan basin border.The highest storage a-mount bryophyte was in mixed forest, and the lowest storage amount bryophyte was in Cryptomeria fortune artificial stands. Phoebe zhennan had the highest storage amount of litter, and C.fortune had the lowest storage amount of litter.There were no significant different water holding capacities between C.fortune and M.glyptostroboides, P.zhennan and mixed forest, respectively.The water holding capacities in F, H layer was higher than that in L layer in both C.fortune and M.glyp-tostroboides artificial stands, respectively, and F,H layer was lower than that in L layer were in both P.zhennan and mixed forest, respectively.The water holding rate of bryophyte decreased quickly in the first two hours, and litter decreased quickly in the first six hours.Water absorption rates of bryophyte layer under all stands decreased according to V=ktb with time immersed in water in significance level.%为了解人工林生态系统的持水性特征,采用野外实地观测和室内浸水法对3种主要人工林下苔藓和凋落物层(未分解层、半分解和分解层)的持水特性进行了研究。结果显示:①苔藓层蓄积量以混交林最高(0.52 t· hm-2),柳杉林最低(0.10 t· hm-2);凋落物层均以楠木林最高,柳杉林最低。②柳杉和水杉林间、楠木和混交林间苔藓层最大持水性差异均不明显;柳杉和水杉林凋落物半分解层和已分解层最大持水率大于未分解层,而楠木和混交林则是未分解层大于半分解层和已分解层。③各林分苔藓层吸水速率到2h后均趋于平缓,凋落物半分解层和已

  19. Climate and Phenology Variations in Sichuan and Chongqing%川渝地区气候与物候的变化特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳赟; 范广洲; 董一平; 华维; 周定文; 朱丽华; 张琪

    2011-01-01

    According to the daily temperature and precipitation data of 44 stations in 1961-2007 and part of the woody plant data of Beibei observation stations and Renshou observation stations in 1963 - 1988, the Chinese A-cademy of phenological observation network in Sichuan-Chongqing, temperature, precipitation, season, woody plant phenology variation were analyzed. The results showed that mean annual temperature of the last 10 years were 0.68 ℃ higher than the previous 37 years, and mean annual precipitation basically unchanged. Low tem-perature is mainly distributed in the western Sichuan Plateau, and the number of low temperature days and accu-mulated low temperature decreased. Mean daily maximum temperature in the southern region of the western Si-chuan Plateau tended to decrease, while that in other regions increased. Mean daily minimum temperature was confirmed to have wanning trends, and that in the southwestern Sichuan and the northern Sichuan Plateau grew faster. Precipitation in the central and southern of Sichuan Basin declined, southwest of Chongqing and western Sichuan plateau tended to increase. Precipitation days in the western Sichuan Plateau demonstrated an increasing trend, that in other regions tended to decrease, especially, those decreased rapidly in the east of Sichuan and Chongqing. According to Zhang Baokun Designate Temperature Method to define seasons, spring starting time delayed in Renshou, advanced in Beibei, and autumn starting time delayed in those two stations. In the leaf ex-pansion phase, apricot and black locust of Renshou, and black locust, Metasequoia, Bauhinia, Indus of Beibei delayed, wisteria, peaches of Beibei advanced. In the leaf defoliation stage, black locust of Renshou advanced, but all plants of Beibei delayed.%利用川渝地区44个气象台站的气象资料和2个物候观测站的物候资料分析了该地区的气候与物候变化特征:最近10 a年均温度比前30多a高0.68℃,年均降水量基本无变化.低

  20. Possible impact of the CYP2D6*10 polymorphism on the nonlinear pharmacokinetic parameter estimates of paroxetine in Japanese patients with major depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruwatari J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junji Saruwatari,1 Hiroo Nakashima,1 Shoko Tsuchimine,2 Miki Nishimura,1 Naoki Ogusu,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori21Division of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, JapanAbstract: It has been suggested that the reduced function allele with reduced cytochrome P450 (CYP 2D6 activity, CYP2D6*10, is associated with the interindividual differences in the plasma paroxetine concentrations, but there is no data presently available regarding the influence of the CYP2D6*10 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetic parameters, eg, Michaelis–Menten constant (Km and maximum velocity (Vmax, in Asian populations. The present study investigated the effects of the CYP2D6 polymorphisms, including CYP2D6*10, on the pharmacokinetic parameters of paroxetine in Japanese patients with major depressive disorders. This retrospective study included 15 Japanese patients with major depressive disorders (four males and eleven females who were treated with paroxetine. The CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*18, CYP2D6*39, and CYP2D6*41 polymorphisms were evaluated. A total of 56 blood samples were collected from the patients. The Km and Vmax values of paroxetine were estimated for each patient. The allele frequencies of CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*5, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*18, CYP2D6*39, and CYP2D6*41 were 6.7%, 0%, 10.0%, 56.7%, 0%, 26.7%, and 0%, respectively. The mean values of Km and Vmax were 50.5±68.4 ng/mL and 50.6±18.8 mg/day, respectively. Both the Km and Vmax values were significantly smaller in CYP2D6*10 allele carriers than in the noncarriers (24.2±18.3 ng/mL versus 122.5±106.3 ng/mL, P=0.008; 44.2±16.1 mg/day versus 68.3±15.0 mg/day, P=0.022, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate that the CYP2D6*10 polymorphism could affect the nonlinear pharmacokinetic parameter estimates of

  1. A comparison between amblyopic and fellow eyes in unilateral amblyopia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Syunsuke Araki,1 Atsushi Miki,1,2 Tsutomu Yamashita,1,2 Katsutoshi Goto,1,2 Kazuko Haruishi,1 Yoshiaki Ieki,1 Junichi Kiryu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Japan; 2Department of Sensory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan Purpose: To compare the macular retinal thickness and characteristics of optic nerve head (ONH parameters in amblyopic and fellow eyes in patients with unilateral amblyopia.Patients and methods: A total of 21 patients with unilateral amblyopia (14 patients with anisometropic amblyopia, four patients with strabismic amblyopia, and three patients with both were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±3.5 years. The examined parameters included the mean macular (full, inner, and outer, ganglion cell complex and circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL thicknesses, and ONH parameters (rim volume, nerve head volume, cup volume, rim area, optic disc area, cup area, and cup-to-disc area ratio.Results: The amblyopic eyes were significantly more hyperopic than the fellow eyes (P<0.001. Among the macular retinal thickness parameters, the cpRNFL thickness (P<0.01, macular full retinal thickness (3 mm region (P<0.01, and macular outer retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions (P<0.05 were significantly thicker in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes, while the ganglion cell complex thickness, macular full retinal thickness (1 mm region, and macular inner retinal thickness (1 and 3 mm regions were not significantly different. Among the ONH parameters, the rim area was significantly larger and the cup-to-disc area ratio was smaller in the amblyopic eyes than in the fellow eyes (P<0.05. None of the other ONH parameters were significantly different between the investigated eyes. The differences in the cpRNFL thickness and macular outer retinal thickness in the 1 mm

  2. Geta aðferðir mannauðsstjórnunar aukið gæði ráðninga hjá hinu opinbera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Dalmann Aðalsteinsson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Á undanförnum misserum hafa ráðningar hjá hinu opinbera verið mikið í umræðunni. Í kjölfar embættisveitinga hafa gjarnan komið fram miklar umræður um stöðuveitingarnar og sitt sýnist hverjum. Þó nokkur umræða hefur verið um vinnulag eða vinnubrögð í ráðningarferlinu. Í þessari grein verður fjallað um ráðningarferlið út frá mannauðsstjórnun (human resource management. Gerð verður grein fyrir því hvernig mannauðsstjórnun sem fræðigrein fjallar um ráðningarferlið með það eitt að leiðarljósi að finna aðferð sem spáir vel fyrir um framtíðar frammistöðu starfsmanna þannig að sá hæfasti verður ráðinn hverju sinni. Með ráðningarferlinu er átt við það tímabil frá því að auglýsing um starf birtist og þangað til búið að ganga frá ráðningu í starfið. Í umræðunni um ráðningar hjá hinu opinbera er því stundum haldið fram að ráðning hafi verið fagleg. Faglega ráðningu má skilja sem þá ráðningu sem unnin hefur verið á faglegum forsendum, eftir fyrirframgefnum aðferðum sem hefur það markmið að nota bestu hlutlægu aðferðir hverju sinni sem völ er á við ráðningar til að ráða þann hæfasta óháð kyni, kynþætti eða stjórnmálaskoðunum. Fagleg ráðning er þá ráðning sem unninn er af sérþekkingu. Gera verður þá kröfu til stjórnvalda að fulls jafnræðis sé gætt við ráðningar, allir umsækjendur sitji við sama borð í ráðningarferlinu og allir fái sömu möguleika til að tryggja sér starfið slíkt er í anda mannauðsstjórnunar.

  3. Alkalis in Coal and Coal Cleaning Products / Alkalia W Węglu I Productach Jego Wzbogacania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnar, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    ły ilaste, sporadycznie też miki oraz skalenie. Udział alkaliów zawartych w wilgoci węgli stosowanych do produkcji koksu w ogólnej ilości zawartych w nim alkaliów wynosi dla badanych węgli od 17.8 do 62.0%. Obecność sodu i potasu w wilgoci węgla związana jest wyłącznie z obecnością w niej jonów chlorkowych. Wyniki analizy wody odprowadzanej z procesu wirowania flotokoncentratu wskazują, że stosunek masowy Na do K w wilgoci węgla wynosi 20:1. Wzrost zawartość wilgoci w koksie będący wynikiem ich zwiększonej ilości w mieszance węglowej prowadzi do wzrostu reaktywności (wskaźnik CRI) oraz spadku wytrzymałości (wskaźnik CSR) oznaczonych metoda Nippon Steel Co.

  4. Til varnar hagfræðinni. Á hagfræðin að skýra kulnun sólar, finna lækningu við krabbameini og skýra uppruna alheimsins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þórólfur Matthíasson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Það er orðið nokkuð vinsælt tómstundagaman hjá álitsgjöfum og bloggurum hérlendis og erlendis að láta niðrandi ummæli falla um hagfræði og hagfræðinga. Ekki er ástæða, hvorki fyrir fræðigreinina né iðkendur hennar að amast við gagnrýni sé markmið hennar að stuðla að endurbótum og uppbyggingu. Sleggjudómar, órökstuddar fullyrðingar og samsærisbrigsl eru hins vegar ekki til uppbyggingar fallin. Hin opinbera umfjöllun um hagfræði ber með sér að álitsgjafar og bloggarar hafi ólíkar hugmyndir um hvað hagfræði sé. Það er þess vegna rétt að byrja á að skilgreina viðfangsefnið. Orðabókarskilgreiningin er sú að hagfræði sé fræðigrein sem fjallar um framleiðslu, dreifingu og neyslu vöru og þjónustu. Markmið greinarinnar er að skilja á hvaða grundvelli einstaklingar skiptast á vörum og þjónustu. Til að ná markmiðum sínum stunda iðkendur greinarinnar víðtæka söfnun gagna og upplýsinga. Þetta má kalla hina lýsandi hlið hagfræðinnar. Til að skilja þessi gögn og setja þessar upplýsingar í samhengi setja iðkendurnir fram kenningar um atferli og markmið einstaklinga og hópa einstaklinga. Á grundvelli kenninganna eru síðan settar fram tilgátur sem reynt er að styðja eða fella. Skylda vísindamannsins er leggja að minnsta kosti jafn mikið á sig til að fella tilgátu, sem hann hefur sett fram, eins og til að styðja hana. Að þessu leyti eru kröfur til iðkenda í fræðistörfum með öðrum hætti en kröfur til stjórnmálamanna, bloggara eða álitsgjafa.

  5. Sedimentary Rocks Associated with the Coal Seams of the Saddle Beds from the Chwałowice Trough - West Part of Upper Silesian Coal Basin / Skały Osadowe Towarzyszące Pokładom Węgla Warstw Siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej - Zachodnia Część Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanienda, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    kaolinit i illit, węglanów i chalcedonu, chociaż wyniki dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej potwierdziły występowanie w spoiwie badanych piaskowców również halitu. Na podstawie składu mineralnego piaskowców, dokonano ich klasyfikacji, stosując podziały skał okruchowych Krynina (1948) i Pettijohn'a-Potter'a-Siever'a (1973). Według klasyfikacji Krynina badane piaskowce reprezentują szarogłazy (szarowaki). W klasyfikacji Pettijohn'a, próbki 6, 8 i 13 reprezentują arenity lityczne, natomiast próbki 3 i 10- waki. Mułowce i iłowce zbudowane SA głównie z minerałów ilastych. Można w nich również spotkać ziarna kwarcu oraz miki. Wyższy udział kwarcu i mik jest jednak charakterystyczny dla mułowców. Skały towarzyszące pokładom węgla warstw siodłowych Niecki Chwałowickiej zawierają również domieszki substancji organicznej.

  6. What were the voters thinking? The presidential election in Iceland 2012 Hvað voru kjósendur að hugsa? Forsetakosningar á Íslandi 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Helgi Kristinsson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists have not done much research on presidential elections in Iceland and therefore little is known about the factors which affect their results. The presidential election on June 30th 2012 was unusual partly because the incumbent president faced more serious opponents and received a lower share of the votes than ever before and partly because the campaign was characterized by more debate about the nature of the office itself than ever before. This article examines the factors that affected the outcome of the election. The findings indicate that voters in general were more preoccupied with personal factors,such as perceived competence, image and honesty, than with the issues or the political opinions of the candidates, although it appears that voters of the two leading candidates had very different perceptions of the role of the president. It seems likely that voters’ attitudes towards the government were the strongest factor affecting the election results. Candidates with a small following were adversely affected by tactical voting but it is unlikely to have had an impact on the outcome of the election.Forsetakosningar á Íslandi hafa ekki mikið verið rannsakaðar af félagsvísindafólki og lítið er þess vegna vitað um hvaða þættir hafa áhrif á úrslit þeirra. Forsetakosningarnar 30. júní 2012 voru óvenjulegar annars vegar vegna þess að sitjandi forseti hlaut alvarlegri mótframboð og lægra hlutfall atkvæða en áður eru dæmi um í forsetakosningum á Íslandi og hins vegar vegna þess að meiri deilur urðu um eðli embættisins sjálfs. Í þessari grein er fjallað um það hvaða þættir höfðu áhrif á úrslitin, á grundvelli könnunar sem gerð var á netinu og annarra gagna. Niðurstöðurnar benda til þess að kjósendur hafi almennt lagt meira upp úr persónulegum þáttum eins og hæfni, ímynd og heiðarleika en málefnum eða stjórnmálaskoðunum frambjóðenda þegar þeir útsk

  7. Supermodernity, distraction, schizophrenia: walking in Tokyo & Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ho-Yin Fong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture in a supermodern city has no sense of the place where it is located. This paper discusses how schizophrenia and distraction, through walking, respond to supermodernity by referring to how three dislocated subjects, Fumiya Takemura, Aiichiro Fukuhara and Fai in Tokyo and Hong Kong, are respectively depicted in the novel, Adrift in Tokyo written by Fujita Yoshinaga in 1999, with a film adaptation by Satoshi Miki (2007, and the film To Live and Die in Mongkok directed by Wong Jing in 2009. It suggests that Hong Kong is more supermodern than Tokyo. After his release from prison, Fai in To Live and Die in Mongkok finds that Mongkok is a completely different place from the one in which he used to live. The living conditions are no better than those in the prison. He hallucinates about the past. Adrift in Tokyo can be read as a story about walking. Fukuhara, a debt collector, killed his wife; before surrendering to the police, he orders his debtor, Takemura, to walk with him in Tokyo in order to re-experience the walks he enjoyed with his wife. If Takemura agrees, the debt can be paid off. This paper discusses how the repressed heterogeneous time and place can be approached by walking in a way that the rhythm of life can be (re-experienced; in other words, when the body moves forward physically, the past appears as specter haunting the walker. This paper discusses how Adrift in Tokyo and To Live and Die in Mongkok read cities in distractive and schizophrenic ways. In the film version of Adrift in Tokyo, Takemura’s failed relationship with his father may unconsciously drive him to walk with Fukuhara. The novel may imply that the lost relationship with his mother drives him to walk. The film and the novel both address a kind of locality which should be inseparable from the birth parents. To Live and Die in Mongkok suggests that supermodernity kills mother and father. The Father-son relationship disappears at the very beginning of the

  8. Pierre Bourdieu (höfundur; Davíð Kristinsson (ritstjóri, ritar inngang; Björn Þorsteinsson, Egill Arnarson og Gunnar Harðarson (þýðendur: Almenningsálitið er ekki til

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Þ. Harðarson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ég hlakkaði til að lesa þetta kver eftir Bourdieu, enda hef ég rannsakað lýðræði, kosningar og almenningsálit í þrjátíu ár og kennt námskeið um efnið. Hafði auk þess heyrt ýmsa tala um þennan Frakka af lotningu, en er lítt eða ekki kunnugur verkum hans, enda skólaður í engilsaxneskri hefð. Ekki hafði ég lengi lesið þegar í hugann kom: Þetta hef ég lesið áður! Hressileg aðkenning að desjavú. Uppúr 1970 las ég tvo franska strúktúralíska marxista nokkuð vel (og var lengi að því, Althusser og Poulantzas. Þá voru þeir í tísku - seinna fór illa fyrir báðum en það skiptir ekki máli hér. Lesturinn á þeim tvímenningum reyndist mér afar gagnlegur. Ég lærði að tyrfinn texti þarf ekki endilega að segja mikið þegar hann hefur verið "afbyggður". Ég lærði að nokkur virðing fyrir staðreyndum getur farið saman við kennilega kreddufestu: Ný-marxistarnir uppúr 1970 sögðu m.a. að það væri að vísu rétt að ýmis svið samfélagsins byggju við tiltekið sjálfstæði (relative autonomy, t.d. pólitíska sviðið og menningarsviðið. Samfélagið væri flóknara en svo að ríkisvaldið væri einbert framkvæmdaráð borgarastéttarinnar. En - og það var stórt en - samt væri það hagkerfið sem réði þegar allt kæmi til alls (determinant in the last instance. Þótt komið væri dálítið á móts við staðreyndir og gögn var áfram trúað á kredduna.

  9. Measuring quality of sleep and autonomic nervous function in healthy Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Miki Sato,1 Yuko Yasuhara,2 Tetsuya Tanioka,2 Yukie Iwasa,2 Masafumi Miyake,3 Toshiyuki Yasui,2 Masahito Tomotake,2 Haruo Kobayashi,4 Rozzano C Locsin51Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Shikoku University, 2Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3Tokushima Prefectural Minami Health Care Center, Tokushima, 4Faculty of Medical Welfare, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare, Kurashiki, Japan; 5Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and autonomic nervous functioning in healthy adult Japanese women using three measures, namely, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI for subjective assessment of sleep quality, actigraphy for objective assessment of sleep, and heart rate variability using high frequency and low frequency domains. Participants were 31 healthy women in their 20s to 40s who met the selection criteria, including having normal monthly menstrual periods. Participants were categorized as good or poor sleepers according to their PSQI score. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and high frequency were −0.62 (range −0.43 to −0.84 for good sleepers and −0.45 (range 0.003 to −0.64 for poor sleepers. Good sleepers showed a significantly higher correlation of activity count and high frequency (Z=−2.11, P<0.05. Median correlation coefficients of activity count and low frequency/high frequency were 0.54 (range 0.29–0.73 for good sleepers and 0.41 (range 0.11–0.63 for poor sleepers. The PSQI, actigraphy data, and heart rate variability results showed positive correlations between sleep time as measured by PSQI and duration of inactivity as measured by actigraphy (r=0.446, P<0.05 and sleep time as measured by actigraphy (r=0.377, P<0.05, and a negative correlation between sleep time as measured by PSQI and the

  10. Leaf Litter Decomposition of Main Subtropical Plants with Different Origin Time in the South Subtropical Asia%不同起源时间的亚热带主要树种凋落物在南亚热带的分解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜小丽; 窦荣鹏; 江洪; 余树全; 马元丹

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] Study the leaf litter decomposition of main plants with different origin time in the south subtropical Chinese. [ Method ] Leaf litter decomposition of 9 species with different origin time was studied in the Dinghushan region, using iitterbag method, the time was 840 days, to study the variation of litter dry weight remaining and carbon dynamics in evolutionary process. [ Result ] The range of the annual litter decomposition coefficient(k) was 0.14 to 0. 71. The 95% decomposition time ranged from 4. 22 to 21.40 a, and the 50% decomposition time ranged from 0. 98 to 4. 95 a. The difference of litter decomposition rate with monocotyledon, gymnosperm, pteridophyte was significant( P C. glauca > S. superba > P. massoniana > C. lanceolata > M, glyptostroboides > C. revoluta > A. spinulosa > D. dichotoma. The mean litter decomposition rate of the 4 taxa was monocotyledon > dicotyledon > gymnosperm > pteridophyte. The carbon loss of the 4 taxa was dicotyledon > monocotyledon > gymnosperm > pteridophyte.%[目的]研究不同起源时间的亚热带主要树种凋落物的分解过程.[方法]选择9种起源时间不同的植物的凋落物,采用分解袋法,在南亚热带的鼎湖山地区进行分解实验,实验时间为840d,研究进化过程中凋落物的干重剩余率和碳素动态变化规律.[结果]凋落物分解系数k值的范围在0.14~0.71间.凋落物分解95%所需时间集中在4.22~21.40 a,50%分解时间集中在0.98 ~4.95a.单子叶植物、裸子植物和蕨类植物两两之间分解速率均具有显著差异(P<0.05),但双子叶植物与单子叶植物和裸子植物分解速率之间显著性差异不明显,仅与蕨类植物的分解速率具有显著差异(P<0.05).凋落物总碳量的总体变化趋势表现为下降,在分解过程中均出现2次不同程度的升高过程,出现时间集中在分解的第240天和660天,此时正值冬季,凋落物分解较慢,碳元素出现积累.双子叶植物、裸子植

  11. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TWO DIFFERENT STRAINS OF CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS (DIPTERS: CULICIDAE) TO EIGHT PLANT EXTRACTS%8种植物提取物对2种不同品系淡色库蚊的敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立新; 丁永健; 马磊; 孙艳; 董慧琴; 朱昌亮

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究开发有效的天然植物杀虫剂. 方法按照WHO推荐的蚊幼虫敏感性测定方法,用8种植物的叶、茎、果和皮等提取物,对野生和敏感2个品系淡色库蚊进行敏感性测定. 结果 银杏外果皮提取物对淡色库蚊2个品系杀虫效果最强,其次为三尖杉和水杉,其他5种植物(重阳木、乌桕、香椿、杜仲和山茱萸)杀虫效果较弱.随后用银杏外果皮提取物对淡色库蚊卵、幼虫、蛹进行毒力测定,结果表明,Ⅰ龄幼虫最敏感,其次为Ⅱ龄、Ⅲ龄和Ⅳ龄幼虫.银杏外果皮提取物对敏感品系Ⅰ龄、Ⅱ龄、Ⅲ龄和Ⅳ龄的LC50分别为2.52、8.62、3.3 和 18.6 mg/L;对野生品系Ⅰ龄、Ⅱ龄、Ⅲ龄和Ⅳ龄的LC50分别为7.4、15.2、19.2和 25.0 mg/L,明显高于敏感品系.银杏外果皮提取物在5~100 mg/L浓度范围内不影响卵的孵化,在100 mg/L以上时,影响蛹的羽化. 结论 8种植物提取物对淡色库蚊的敏感性各不相同,银杏外果皮提取物有明显的杀幼效果,值得进一步研究和开发.%Objective To study effective and affordable natural insecticides. Methods The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, barks, fruits and exocarps of eight plants against the susceptible and field strains of the fourth instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens were determined by following the standard World Health Organization larval susceptibility test methods. Results Extract of Ginkgo exocarps is the most toxic, followed by extracts of Cephalotaxaceae and Metasequoia. Other five plants (Chinese Bishopwood, China Tallowtree, China Toona, Eucommia and Fructus Corni) have limited effect against these two strains of Cx. pipiens pallens. Toxicity of extract of Ginkgo exocarps to the eggs, larvae and pupae of the two strains of Cx. pipiens pallens was studied in succession. The most susceptible developmental stage of mosquito is the 1st instar, followed by the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar. The

  12. 林带对太湖地区农业非点源的控制效应研究%Controlling effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands in Taihu Lake area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金林; 侍璐璐; 张爱国

    2002-01-01

    太湖地区是高度发达的农业生产区之一,大量使用化肥和杀虫剂加重该地区的环境污染水质污染。本研究选择以油菜-水稻和小麦-水稻为轮作方式的两片农田为农田生态系统,5年生的杨树林带和8年生的水杉林带为研究对象,通过采集水体、作物、林地下的氮和磷的样本,对农田生态系统中 N、P等(主要水污染物)迁移和淋失进行了研究,并对林带作对农业非点源污染的控制效应进行了分析。结果表明:农田生态系统中 N、P等迁移、淋失状况随轮作方式、作物种类及施肥状况而变化;农田与沟渠间的缓冲林带具有截留和净化土壤径流中的N、P等物质的作用,从而在一定程度上控制农业非点源污染。研究表明:当农田与林带宽度比例为100∶40时,在油菜-水稻轮作方式下,50.05%流失N和29.3% 的流失P可以被林带所吸收, 在小麦-水稻的轮作方式下,30.98 %流失N和86.73% P可以被林带所吸收; 当农田与林带宽度比例为150∶40,在油菜-水稻轮作方式下, 33.7%流失N和19.58%P可以被林带吸收,在小麦-水稻的轮作方式下,20.65%流失N和57.82% 流失P可以被林带所吸收。因而,农田与林带宽度比例100∶40或150∶40较为合理,这种模型既能少占耕地,又能净化水质、保护生态环境。杨树生长快、用途广,适于太湖地区营造水环境保护林带。%Taihu Lake area is one of the most developed areas in agricultural production. Application of fertilizers and pesticides in large quantities greatly aggravate environmental pollution of this area, and water pollution has worsened to an unbearable condition. Two sampling farms (respectively 1 hm2) under rape-rice rotation and wheat-rice rotation were selected as studied ecosystem and a 5-yr-old Poplar forest and 8-yr-old Metasequoia forest were chosen in the selected areas. By collecting samples of Nitrogen, Phosphorus

  13. Influence of pigment substitution on the electrochemical properties of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 601 reaction centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU; YOnglong(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Deisenhofer. J., Epp, O.. Miki, K. et al., Structure of the protein subunits in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis at 3A resolution, Nature, 1985, 318: 618-624.[2]Marcus, R. A., Election transfer reaction in chemistry: Theory and experiment (Nobel lecture), Angewandte Chemie, 1993,32: 1111-1121.[3]Woodbury, N. W., Becker, M., Middendorf, D. et al., Picosecond kinetics of the initial photochemical electron-transfer reaction in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers, Biochemistry, 1985, 24 (26): 7516-7521.[4]Scheer, H., Struck, A., Bacterial reaction centers with modified tetrapyrrole chromophores, in The Photosynthetic Reaction Center (Ⅰ) (eds. Deisenhofer, J., Norris, J.), San Diego: Academic Press, 1993, 157-192.[5]Meyer, M., Scheer, H., Reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 containing C-3 acetyl and vinyl (bacterio)pheophytines at sites HA,B, Photosynth. Res., 1995, 44: 55-65.[6]Schmidt, S., Arlt, T., Hamm, P. et al., Energetics of the primary electron transfer reaction revealed by ultrafast spectroscopy on modified bacterial reaction centers, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1994, 223: 116-120.[7]Kennis, J. T. M., Shkuropatov, A. Y., Van Stokkum, I. H. M. et al., Formation of a long-lived P+BA- state in plant pheophytin-exchanged reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides R26 at low temperature, Biochemistry, 1997, 36:16231-16238.[8]Tasayco, M. L., Carey, J., Ordered self-assembly of polypeptide fragments to form native like dimeric trp repressor, Science. 1992, 255: 594-597.[9]Kong, J. L., Lu, Z. Q., Lvov, Y. M. et al., Direct electrochemistry of cofactor redox sites in a bacterial photosynthetic reaction center protein, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120 (29): 7371-7372.[10]Nassar, A. E. F., Bobbitt, J. M., Stuart, J. M. et al., Catalytic reduction of organohalide pollutants by myoglobin in a biomembrane-like surfactant film, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1995, 117: 10986-10993.[11]Zeng, X. H., Wu, Y

  14. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 (Sendai, Japan, 12-16 July 2010) Invited papers from ISAMMA 2010 (Sendai, Japan, 12-16 July 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; Saito, H.

    2011-02-01

    Yanagihara, Yuta Toyoda and Eiji Kita Monte Carlo simulations of the magnetocaloric effect in magnetic Ni-Mn-X (X = Ga, In) Heusler alloys V D Buchelnikov, V V Sokolovskiy, S V Taskaev, V V Khovaylo, A A Aliev, L N Khanov, A B Batdalov, P Entel, H Miki and T Takagi Changes in electronic states and magnetic free energy in La1-zCez(FexSi1-x)13 magnetic refrigerants A Fujita, S Fujieda and K Fukamichi Garnet composite films with Au particles fabricated by repetitive formation for enhancement of Faraday effect H Uchida, Y Mizutani, Y Nakai, A A Fedyanin and M Inoue Control of magnetic domain wall displacement using spin current in small in-plane magnetic field in Permalloy nanowires Yoshihiko Togawa, Takashi Kimura, Ken Harada, Akira Tonomura and Yoshichika Otani Magnetic-field tunable transmittance in a ferrofluid-filled silicon nitride photonic crystal slab H M Lee, L Horng and J C Wu Evaluation of a miniature magnetostrictive actuator using Galfenol under tensile stress Toshiyuki Ueno, Hidemitsu Miura and Sotoshi Yamada Sub-nm resolution depth profiling of the magnetic structure of thin films by the depth-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism technique K Amemiya and M Sakamaki

  15. Banking collapse, image and trust Bankahrun, ímynd og traust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þórhallur Guðlaugsson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Í greininni er fjallað um afmarkaðan þátt í kjölfar hruns íslensku bankanna 2008, þ.e. ímynd þeirra. Rannsóknarspurningin er: "Hvaða áhrif hefur bankahrun á ímynd banka og sparisjóða?" Fjallað er almennt um hvernig ímynd verður til og hvernig markaðsstarf hefur þróast í þá átt að beina tilboði skipulagsheildar að vel skilgreindum markhópi og leggja áherslu á að mynda tengsl við hann. Í rannsókninni er bæði lagt mat á ímynd einstakra banka í samanburði við aðra, sk. hlutfallslegur samanburður, og þróun meðaltals ímyndarþátta fyrir einstaka banka og greinina í heild. Rannsóknin byggir á aðferðafræði vörukorta en í greininni er gerð ítarleg grein fyrir henni. Rannsóknin styðst við niðurstöður úr þremur könnunum meðal háskólanema við Háskóla Íslands sem gerðar voru í apríl 2008, febrúar 2009 og apríl 2009. Niðurstöður kannananna eftir hrunið eru bornar saman við niðurstöður fyrir það og af þeim samanburði dregnar ályktanir. Enn fremur er horft til eldri kannana en ímynd banka og sparisjóða hefur verið mæld með sömu aðferð frá 2004. Megin niðurstaða rannsóknarinnar er að ímynd Landsbankans virðist hafa skaðast mest í kjölfar bankahrunsins. Eftir hrunið tengist bankinn sterkar við spillingu en áður en fyrir það tengdist hann sterkt við eiginleika eins og traust og samfélagsleg ábyrgð. Bankahrunið virðist ekki aðeins hafa skaðað tiltekin vörumerki á markaðinum heldur hefur atvinnugreinin sem slík orðið fyrir miklum ímyndarlegum skaða. Meðaleinkunn jákvæðra eiginleika lækkar umtalsvert á meðan að meðaleinkunn eiginleika eins og spilling hækkar mikið hjá öllum bönkunum. Spilling virðist því vera sá eiginleiki sem helst einkennir íslenskan bankamarkað eftir bankahrunið. Þekkt er að skortur á trausti dregur úr virkni hagkerfisins og hefur áhrif á hagvöxt.

  16. Cues for Cure; From within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2016-05-01

    transplantation of exogenous stem cells, adult cells or precursors, though forms the main stream approach in regenerative medicine, in vivo stimulation of tissue resident stem cells has been postulated as a promising regenerative approach [5], probably owing to its safety compared to transplantation of exogenous cells, especially pluripotent stem cells. Further, even if exogenous cells are administered in cell-based therapies, it is the tissue resident cells with regenerative capability which actually contribute to the regeneration. Hence, unless the local niche/environment and other factors contributing to the maintenance of tissue resident stem cells or progenitor cells are studied and steps to recapitulate their contribution in moulding the function of exogenous stem cells to contribute to regeneration are performed in vitro, translational approaches in regeneration may not realize their expected outcome. The studies by Takeuchi et al and Jones and Connor in the current issue fall in line with this ideology and more such studies need to be encouraged for developing better therapies for the future. References: Barker N, Bartfeld S, Clevers H. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs. Cell Stem Cell. 2010; 7(6:656-70. Miki K, Uenaka H, Saito A, Miyagawa S, Sakaguchi T, Higuchi T, Shimizu T, Okano T, Yamanaka S, Sawa Y. Bioengineered myocardium derived from induced pluripotent stem cells improves cardiac function and attenuates cardiac remodeling following chronic myocardial infarction in rats. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2012; 1(5:430-7. Takeuchi T, Tonooka A, Okuno Y, Hattori-Kato M, Mikami K. Oct4B, CD90, and CD73 are upregulated in bladder tissue following electro-resection of the bladder. J Stem Cells Regen Med 2016; 12(1 :10-15. Jones KS, Connor BJ. The Effect of Pro-Neurogenic Gene Expression on Adult Subventricular Zone Precursor Cell Recruitment and Fate Determination After Excitotoxic Brain Injury. J Stem Cells Regen Med 2016; 12(1 :25

  17. COASTALT Project's contribution to the development and dissemination of coastal altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollini, P.; Benveniste, J.

    2012-04-01

    , Machiel Bos, Valborg Byfield, Marco Caparrini, Peter Challenor, Paolo Cipollini, Henrique Coelho, Salvatore Dinardo, M. Joana Fernandes, Scott Gleason, Jesus Gómez-Enri, Christine Gommenginger, Clara Lázaro, Bruno M. Lucas, Cristina Martin-Puig, Laura Moreno, Alexandra Nunes, Nelson Pires, Graham Quartly, Andrea Scozzari, Helen Snaith, Mikis Tsimplis, Stefano Vignudelli, Luke J. West, Judith Wolf, Phil Woodworth

  18. 极度濒危植物水松大孢子发生、雌配子体发育及胚形成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐刚标; 刘雄盛; 梁文斌

    2015-01-01

    proembryony free nuclei. The fertilization is the type of pre-mitotic syngamy. The proembryony belongs to the standard type of coniferales, and has simple polyembyrony pattern. The proembryony only developed into the prosuspensor but not formed the primary suspensor. It has been observed that severe insufficient pollination during fertilization.[Conclusion]The gametophyte development and embryogenesis in G. pensilis,such as number of free nuclei of megagametophyte,archegonia and neck cells,the type and position of archegonia,development process of central cell and proembryony,were quite similar to genera Taiwania, Metasequoia, Cryptomeria, Taxodium,reflecting a closer taxonomic relationship to these genera than to genus Cunninghamia. Insufficient pollination might be an important cause for‘empty seeds’in G. pensilis.

  19. The Top Income Groups: On the development of the income distribution 1993-2007 Heimur hátekjuhópanna. Um þróun tekjuskiptingar á Íslandi 1993-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldur Sölvi Kristjánsson

    2009-06-01

    öfðu aukið hlut sinn af heildartekjum fjölskyldna úr 21,8% árið 1993 í 39,4% árið 2007. Hjá hinum 90% fjölskyldnanna minnkaði tekjuhlutdeildin að sama skapi úr um 78% í rúm 60% á sama tíma. Í samræmi við ofangreint hækkuðu meðaltekjur efstu tekjuhópanna gríðarlega mikið. Efsta 1% fjölskyldna var að jafnaði með 1,6 millj. kr. í fjölskyldutekjur á mánuði 1993 (á föstu verðlagi en hafði hækkað í 18,2 millj. kr. á mánuði 2007 (allar tekjur meðtaldar: atvinnutekjur, lífeyristekjur og fjarmagnstekjur. Aukningin hjá þessum hæstu tekjuhópum var margföld aukning meðaltekjufólks eða lágtekjufólks á sama tíma. Skattastefnan jók ójöfnuðinn enn frekar. Auk þess rýrðu stjórnvöld bæði barna- og vaxtabætur til ungra fjölskyldna umtalsvert frá 1995 til um 2006, sem einnig dró úr jöfnunaráhrifum skatta- og bótakerfisins. Niðurfelling hátekjuskattsins á árabilinu 2003-2007 magnaði þessa þróun enn frekar. Þannig var beinum ívilnunum úthlutað til hátekjufólks um leið og skattbyrði lágtekjufólks (lífeyrisþega, ungra barnafjölskyldna, einstæðra mæðra og fólks í lágt launuðum störfum á vinnumarkaði var aukin. Um leið og markaðurinn jók ójöfnuð tekna fyrir skatta verulega, juku stjórnvöld á Íslandi ójöfnuðinn enn frekar með skattastefnu sinni. Þessi framvinda var um margt einstök í samfélagi vestrænu þjóðanna.

  20. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    (University of Tsukuba, Japan) K Itoh (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) S-I Itoh (Kyushu University, Japan) F Jenko (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany) D Kalupin (Institut für Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany) Y Kamada (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) N Kasuya (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) I Katanuma (University of Tsukuba, Japan) M Kimura (Kyushu University, Japan) A Kirk (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) S Kitajima (Tohoku University, Japan) S Kobayashi (Kyoto University, Japan) T Kobuchi (Tohoku University, Japan) J Kohagura (University of Tsukuba, Japan) P T Lang (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Germany) S V Lebedev (Ioffe Institute, Russia) A W Leonard (General Atomics, USA) J Q Li (Kyoto University, Japan) A Malaquias (International Atomic Energy Agency) Y R Martin (Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Switzerland) C J McDevitt (University of California, San Diego, USA) D C McDonald (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) H Meyer (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) C A Michael (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) K Miki (Kyushu University, Japan) R Minami (University of Tsukuba, Japan) T Minami (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) Y Miyata (University of Tsukuba, Japan) N Miyato (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) Y Motegi (University of Tsukuba, Japan) V Mukhovatov (ITER Organization) S Murakami (Kyoto University, Japan) Y Nagashima (Kyushu University, Japan) Y Nakashima (University of Tsukuba, Japan) T Numakura (University of Tsukuba, Japan) S Ohshima (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) T Oishi (National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan) T Onjun (Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thailand) T H Osborne (GENERAL Atomics, USA) N Oyama (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) T Ozeki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan) V Parail (EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, UK) A Polevoi (ITER Organization, France) J E Rice (MIT Plasma Science

  1. 国外文献速报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    434 020405 Masuda Y.镁压铸铸件的精加工(日).Alutopia,2000 ,30(2):20~24 020406 谷口 尚司.材料电磁加工新展开(日).材料とぺロセス,2000,13(1):74 020407 Flender E,Saillard M,Sturm J C.数值模拟:铸钢 和铸铁成形铸件质量保证的有效工具(法).Hommes fonderia,2000(302):16~20 020408 Bentivogli M.压铸模用水基溶液清洗系统(意).Tra tt.Finit.,2000,40(1/2):74~78 020409 Richter U.改革Saxony网络,利用现代铸造方法 研究和生产高性能轻金属汽车部件(德).Giesserei,2000,87(5):71~75 020410 Murakami A,Miki T,Nakao M.利用H∞控制理 论平稳控制连续铸机(英).Kobelco Technol.Rev.,2000(23):11~14 020411 Kuzimina L I,Rotenberg A M,Shifnn I N.连续铸 机结晶器中液态金属电磁混合器定子的优化设计(俄).Tyazheloe Mashinotri.,2000(5):10 ~15 计算机应用技术 020501 Kim S B,Yoon J M,Chang J Y.利用热及流动数学模 型控制6xxx系列Al圆坯连续铸造过程的最优条件(韩).J.Korean Inst.Met.Mater.,1999,37( 9):1 106~1 116 020502 Huespe A E,Cardona A,Fachinotti V.连续铸造过 程的热机械模型(英).Comput.Methods Appl.Mech.Eng.,2000,182(3/4):439~455 020503 Im I T,Kim W S.铸造过程中同时模拟充填和凝固过 程(韩).Trans.Korean Soc.Mech.Eng.,1999,23(8):987~996 020504 Alexandrou A,Bardinet F,Loue W.半固态金属加工 中模型充填过程数值计算模型的作成(英).J.Mater.Process Technol.,1999,96(1/3):59~7 2 020505 Griffiths D W.水平或垂直向下定向凝固Al-7wt%Si合金铸件的传热系数模型(英).Mater.Sci.Te chnol.,2000,16(3):255~260 020506 是津 文章.压铸铸造的残余应力模拟(日).丰田织机 技报,2000(40):16~20 020507 Shenefelt J R,Luck R,Berry J T.Al合金铸件凝固 模型及缩松的控制(英).ASME MED,1999(10):507~511 020508 Yarlagdda P K D V.利用人工神经网络预测锌压铸 加工参数(英).Int.J.Prod.Res.,2000,38(1):119~139 020509

  2. Unified requirements to papers presented to “Endocrine surgery” journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2011-03-01

    есто издания. Примеры оформления (обратите внимание на знаки препинания Книги: Фадеев В.В. Заглавие (обязательно полное. М.: Видар, 2005. Руководство по хирургии. В 3-х томах. Т. 1. Н.А. Иванов (ред.. М.: Медицина; 1998. 15–37. Laws E.R. Jr., Sheehan J.P. (eds. Pituitary Surgery – A Modern Approach. Front Horm Res. Basel: Karger,2006. Журналы: Nishioka H., Haraoka J., Miki T. Spontaneous remission of functioning pituitary adenomas without hypopituitarism following infarctive apoplexy: two case reports. Endocr. J. 2005; 52 (1:117–123. Ларин Д.Р., Сомин Е.Н., Назыров Д.У. Название статьи. Название журнала (сокращенное без кавычек. 2000; 16 (2: 6–10. Nishioka H., Haraoka J., Miki T. et al. Spontaneous remission of functioning pituitary adenomas withouthypopituitarism following infarctive apoplexy: two case reports. Lancet 2005; 52 (1:117–123. Если более четырех авторов, то указываются три и др. (et al. Диссертации: Петров В.А. Название диссертации: Дис. ... д-ра мед. наук. М., 2002. Никитин Д.Л. Название диссертации: Автореф. дис. ... канд. мед. наук. М., 2005.14. Редакция оставляет за собой право редактирования статей, а также изменения стиля оформления, не оказывающее влияние на содержание. Кроме того, редакция может потребовать от автора предоставления исходных данных, с использованием которых были получены описываемые в статье результаты, для