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Sample records for metapneumovirus nipah west

  1. Enhancing preparation for large Nipah outbreaks beyond Bangladesh: Preventing a tragedy like Ebola in West Africa

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    Halsie Donaldson

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nipah virus has been transmitted from person-to-person via close contact in non-urban parts of India (including Kerala May 2018, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. It can cause encephalitis and pneumonia, and has a high case fatality rate. Nipah is a One Health zoonotic infectious disease linked to fruit bats, and sometimes pigs or horses. We advocate anticipating and preparing for urban and larger rural outbreaks of Nipah. Immediate enhanced preparations would include standardized guidance on infection prevention and control, and personal protective equipment, from the World Health Organization (WHO on their OpenWHO website and 2018 “Managing Epidemics” handbook, along with adding best clinical practices by experts in countries with multiple outbreaks such as Bangladesh and India. Longer-term enhanced preparations include accelerating development of field diagnostics, antiviral drugs, immune-based therapies, and vaccines. WHO-coordinated multi-partner protocols to test investigational treatments, diagnostics, and vaccines are needed, by analogy to such protocols for Ebola during the unanticipated pan-epidemic in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Anticipating and preparing now for urban and rural Nipah outbreaks in nations with no experience with Nipah will help avoid the potential for what the United Nations 2016 report on Ebola in West Africa called a “preventable tragedy”. Keywords: Nipah epidemics beyond Bangladesh, Nipah countermeasures, Nipah, One Health

  2. Metapneumovirus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), an acute upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, and is also associated with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens and egg production losses in layers. Since the first TRT reported in the late 1970s in South Africa, the virus...

  3. Avian Metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...

  4. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  5. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

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    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  6. Nipah virus transmission in a hamster model.

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    Emmie de Wit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiological data, it is believed that human-to-human transmission plays an important role in Nipah virus outbreaks. No experimental data are currently available on the potential routes of human-to-human transmission of Nipah virus. In a first dose-finding experiment in Syrian hamsters, it was shown that Nipah virus was predominantly shed via the respiratory tract within nasal and oropharyngeal secretions. Although Nipah viral RNA was detected in urogenital and rectal swabs, no infectious virus was recovered from these samples, suggesting no viable virus was shed via these routes. In addition, hamsters inoculated with high doses shed significantly higher amounts of viable Nipah virus particles in comparison with hamsters infected with lower inoculum doses. Using the highest inoculum dose, three potential routes of Nipah virus transmission were investigated in the hamster model: transmission via fomites, transmission via direct contact and transmission via aerosols. It was demonstrated that Nipah virus is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and inefficiently via fomites, but not via aerosols. These findings are in line with epidemiological data which suggest that direct contact with nasal and oropharyngeal secretions of Nipah virus infected individuals resulted in greater risk of Nipah virus infection. The data provide new and much-needed insights into the modes and efficiency of Nipah virus transmission and have important public health implications with regards to the risk assessment and management of future Nipah virus outbreaks.

  7. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  8. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

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    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  9. A Reverse Genetics Approach for the Design of Methyltransferase-Defective Live Attenuated Avian Metapneumovirus Vaccines.

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    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. aMPV belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae which includes many important human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3). The family also includes highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus, as well as agriculturally important viruses such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). For many of these viruses, there is no effective vaccine. Here, we describe a reverse genetics approach to develop live attenuated aMPV vaccines by inhibiting the viral mRNA cap methyltransferase. The viral mRNA cap methyltransferase is an excellent target for the attenuation of paramyxoviruses because it plays essential roles in mRNA stability, efficient viral protein translation and innate immunity. We have described in detail the materials and methods used to generate recombinant aMPVs that lack viral mRNA cap methyltransferase activity. We have also provided methods to evaluate the genetic stability, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity of live aMPV vaccine candidates in turkeys.

  10. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults

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    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  11. Metapneumovirus aviar: diagnóstico y control (Avian Metapneumovirus: diagnosis and control)

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    Acevedo Beiras, Ana María.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEl Metapneumovirus aviar (aMPV) causa una infección aguda, altamente contagiosa del tracto respiratorio superior principalmente en pavos y pollos.SummaryAvian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an acute highly contagious upper respiratory tract infection primarily of turkeys and chickens.

  12. Nipah Virus: A Public Health Concern

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    Abu Bakar Siddique

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus, a member of the genus Henipavirus, a new class of virus in the Paramyxoviridae family, has drawn attention as an emerging zoonotic virus in South-East and South Asian region. Case fatality rate of Nipah virus infection ranges from 40–70% although it has been as high as 100% in some outbreaks. Many of the outbreaks were attributed to pigs consuming fruits, partially eaten by fruit bats, and transmission of infection to humans. In Bangladesh, Nipah virus infection was associated with contact with a sick cow, consumption of fresh date palm sap (potentially contaminated with pteropid bat saliva, and person-to-person transmission. In 2014, 18 cases of Nipah virus infection have been reported in Bangladesh, of which 9 cases died. In the most recent epidemic at least 6 people died out of nine cases due to Nipah virus infection in the remote northern Bangladesh in 2015. Human infections range from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Some people can also experience atypical pneumonia and severe respiratory problems. The virus is detected by ELISA, PCR, immunofluoroscence assay and isolation by cell culture. Treatment is mostly symptomatic and supportive as the effect of antiviral drugs is not satisfactory, and an effective vaccine is yet to be developed. So the very high case fatality addresses the need for adequate and strict control and preventive measures.

  13. Cluster of Nipah virus infection, Kushtia District, Bangladesh, 2007.

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    Nusrat Homaira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In March 2007, we investigated a cluster of Nipah encephalitis to identify risk factors for Nipah infection in Bangladesh. METHODS: We defined confirmed Nipah cases by the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against Nipah virus in serum. Case-patients, who resided in the same village during the outbreak period but died before serum could be collected, were classified as probable cases. RESULTS: We identified three confirmed and five probable Nipah cases. There was a single index case. Five of the secondary cases came in close physical contact to the index case when she was ill. Case-patients were more likely to have physical contact with the index case (71% cases versus 0% controls, p = <0.001. The index case, on her third day of illness, and all the subsequent cases attended the same religious gathering. For three probable cases including the index case, we could not identify any known risk factors for Nipah infection such as physical contact with Nipah case-patients, consumption of raw date palm juice, or contact with sick animals or fruit bats. CONCLUSION: Though person-to-person transmission remains an important mode of transmission for Nipah infection, we could not confirm the source of infection for three of the probable Nipah case-patients. Continued surveillance and outbreak investigations will help better understand the transmission of Nipah virus and develop preventive strategies.

  14. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

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    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  15. Antigenic and genetic variability of human metapneumoviruses

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    S. Herfst (Sander); L. Sprong; P.A. Cane; E. Forleo-Neto; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); R.L. de Swart (Rik); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHuman metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a member of the subfamily Pneumovirinae within the family Paramyxo- viridae. Other members of this subfamily, respiratory syncytial virus and avian pneumovirus, can be divided into subgroups on the basis of genetic or antigenic differences or both. For

  16. Quantitative estimation of Nipah virus replication kinetics in vitro

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    Hassan Sharifah

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus isolated from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The virus causes infections in humans, pigs, and several other domestic animals. It has also been isolated from fruit bats. The pathogenesis of Nipah virus infection is still not well described. In the present study, Nipah virus replication kinetics were estimated from infection of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero using the one-step SYBR® Green I-based quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assay. Results The qRT-PCR had a dynamic range of at least seven orders of magnitude and can detect Nipah virus from as low as one PFU/μL. Following initiation of infection, it was estimated that Nipah virus RNA doubles at every ~40 minutes and attained peak intracellular virus RNA level of ~8.4 log PFU/μL at about 32 hours post-infection (PI. Significant extracellular Nipah virus RNA release occurred only after 8 hours PI and the level peaked at ~7.9 log PFU/μL at 64 hours PI. The estimated rate of Nipah virus RNA released into the cell culture medium was ~0.07 log PFU/μL per hour and less than 10% of the released Nipah virus RNA was infectious. Conclusion The SYBR® Green I-based qRT-PCR assay enabled quantitative assessment of Nipah virus RNA synthesis in Vero cells. A low rate of Nipah virus extracellular RNA release and low infectious virus yield together with extensive syncytial formation during the infection support a cell-to-cell spread mechanism for Nipah virus infection.

  17. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

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    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  18. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

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    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  19. Avian Metapneumovirus Molecular Biology and Development of Genetically Engineered Vaccines

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    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important pathogen of turkeys with a worldwide distribution. aMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. The genome of aMPV is a non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA of 1...

  20. RENDEMEN TEPUNG BUAH NIPAH (Nyfa fruticans WURMB BERDASARKAN JARAK TEMPAT TUMBUH

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    Fatriani Fatriani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract.  This study aims to determine the magnitude of the yield of wheat grown fruit Nipah by site. Nipah fruit yield of flour was 27.69% submerged in water, slightly submerged in water is 25.00% and grown on land which is 24.73%, Based on the analysis of the growing diversity was no significant effect on the yield of the resulting flour. Factors that influence the magnitude of the yield of fruit flour Nipah is the raw material used, Nipah fruit size, equipment used in the production process, and rigor in the process of flour production Nipah fruit. Based on the results obtained it is necessary to study Nipah fruit yield of flour from various regions, with special techniques and tools in the fruit paring Nipah. Keywords: Nipah, starch, sucrose content ABSTRAK.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui besarnya rendemen  tepung buah Nipah berdasarkan tempat tumbuh. Rendemen tepung buah Nipah yang terendam air adalah 27,69% ,yang agak terendam air adalah 25,00% dan yang tumbuh di daratan  adalah 24,73%, Berdasarkan analisis keragaman ternyata tempat tumbuh tidak memberikan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap rendemen tepung yang dihasilkan. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi besarnya rendemen tepung buah Nipah adalah bahan baku yang digunakan, ukuran buah Nipah, peralatan yang digunakan dalam proses produksi, dan ketelitian dalam proses produksi tepung buah Nipah. Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh maka perlu penelitian rendemen tepung buah Nipah dari berbagai daerah,  dengan teknik dan alat khusus dalam pengupasan buah Nipah. Katakunci : Nipah, tepung, rendemen

  1. The distribution of henipaviruses in Southeast Asia and Australasia: is Wallace's line a barrier to Nipah virus?

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    Andrew C Breed

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV (Genus Henipavirus is a recently emerged zoonotic virus that causes severe disease in humans and has been found in bats of the genus Pteropus. Whilst NiV has not been detected in Australia, evidence for NiV-infection has been found in pteropid bats in some of Australia's closest neighbours. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of henipaviruses in fruit bat (Family Pteropodidae populations to the north of Australia. In particular we tested the hypothesis that Nipah virus is restricted to west of Wallace's Line. Fruit bats from Australia, Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia were tested for the presence of antibodies to Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus, and tested for the presence of HeV, NiV or henipavirus RNA by PCR. Evidence was found for the presence of Nipah virus in both Pteropus vampyrus and Rousettus amplexicaudatus populations from East Timor. Serology and PCR also suggested the presence of a henipavirus that was neither HeV nor NiV in Pteropus alecto and Acerodon celebensis. The results demonstrate the presence of NiV in the fruit bat populations on the eastern side of Wallace's Line and within 500 km of Australia. They indicate the presence of non-NiV, non-HeV henipaviruses in fruit bat populations of Sulawesi and Sumba and possibly in Papua New Guinea. It appears that NiV is present where P. vampyrus occurs, such as in the fruit bat populations of Timor, but where this bat species is absent other henipaviruses may be present, as on Sulawesi and Sumba. Evidence was obtained for the presence henipaviruses in the non-Pteropid species R. amplexicaudatus and in A. celebensis. The findings of this work fill some gaps in knowledge in geographical and species distribution of henipaviruses in Australasia which will contribute to planning of risk management and surveillance activities.

  2. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  3. Avian Metapneumovirus circulation in Italian broiler farms.

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    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2018-02-01

    With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Complete nucleotide sequences of avian metapneumovirus subtype B genome.

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    Sugiyama, Miki; Ito, Hiroshi; Hata, Yusuke; Ono, Eriko; Ito, Toshihiro

    2010-12-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences were determined for subtype B avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), the attenuated vaccine strain VCO3/50 and its parental pathogenic strain VCO3/60616. The genomes of both strains comprised 13,508 nucleotides (nt), with a 42-nt leader at the 3'-end and a 46-nt trailer at the 5'-end. The genome contains eight genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-F-M2-SH-G-L-5', which is the same order shown in the other metapneumoviruses. The genes are flanked on either side by conserved transcriptional start and stop signals and have intergenic sequences varying in length from 1 to 88 nt. Comparison of nt and predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of VCO3/60616 with those of other metapneumoviruses revealed higher homology with aMPV subtype A virus than with other metapneumoviruses. A total of 18 nt and 10 deduced aa differences were seen between the strains, and one or a combination of several differences could be associated with attenuation of VCO3/50.

  5. Recombinant measles virus vaccine expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge.

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    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G. Vaccinated hamsters were completely protected against NiV challenge, while the mortality of unvaccinated control hamsters was 90%. We trialed our vaccine in a non-human primate model, African green monkeys. Upon intraperitoneal infection with NiV, monkeys showed several clinical signs of disease including severe depression, reduced ability to move and decreased food ingestion and died at 7 days post infection (dpi. Intranasal and oral inoculation induced similar clinical illness in monkeys, evident around 9 dpi, and resulted in a moribund stage around 14 dpi. Two monkeys immunized subcutaneously with rMV-Ed-G showed no clinical illness prior to euthanasia after challenge with NiV. Viral RNA was not detected in any organ samples collected from vaccinated monkeys, and no pathological changes were found upon histopathological examination. From our findings, we propose that rMV-NiV-G is an appropriate NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.

  6. Fusion protein is the main determinant of metapneumovirus host tropism.

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    de Graaf, Miranda; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Herfst, Sander; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2009-06-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (AMPV-C) infect humans and birds, respectively. This study confirmed the difference in host range in turkey poults, and analysed the contribution of the individual metapneumovirus genes to host range in an in vitro cell-culture model. Mammalian Vero-118 cells supported replication of both HMPV and AMPV-C in contrast to avian quail fibroblast (QT6) cells in which only AMPV-C replicated to high titres. Inoculation of Vero-118 and QT6 cells with recombinant HMPV in which genes were exchanged with those of AMPV-C revealed that the metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein is the main determinant for host tropism. Chimeric viruses in which polymerase complex proteins were exchanged between HMPV and AMPV-C replicated less efficiently compared with HMPV in QT6 cells. Using mini-genome systems, it was shown that exchanging these polymerase proteins resulted in reduced replication and transcription efficiency in QT6 cells. Examination of infected Vero-118 and QT6 cells revealed that viruses containing the F protein of AMPV-C yielded larger syncytia compared with viruses containing the HMPV F protein. Cell-content mixing assays revealed that the F protein of AMPV-C was more fusogenic compared with the F protein of HMPV, and that the F2 region is responsible for the difference observed between AMPV-C and HMPV F-promoted fusion in QT6 and Vero-118 cells. This study provides insight into the determinants of host tropism and membrane fusion of metapneumoviruses.

  7. Methyltransferase-defective avian metapneumovirus vaccines provide complete protection against challenge with the homologous Colorado strain and the heterologous Minnesota strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Rauf, Abdul; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shilo, Konstantin; Yu, Qingzhong; Saif, Y M; Lu, Xingmeng; Yu, Lian; Li, Jianrong

    2014-11-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. Since its discovery in the 1970s, aMPV has been recognized as an economically important pathogen in the poultry industry worldwide. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2'-O positions. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant aMPV (raMPV) Colorado strains carrying mutations in the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding site in the CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2'-O, but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) young turkeys. Importantly, turkeys vaccinated with these MTase-defective raMPVs triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody and were completely protected from challenge with homologous aMPV Colorado strain and heterologous aMPV Minnesota strain. Collectively, our results indicate (i) that aMPV lacking 2'-O methylation is highly attenuated in vitro and in vivo and (ii) that inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for aMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses. Paramyxoviruses include many economically and agriculturally important viruses such as avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human parainfluenza virus type 3, and measles virus, and highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus. For many of them, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral drug. These viruses share common strategies for viral gene

  8. [Respiratory infections caused by metapneumovirus in elderly patients].

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    Fica C, Alberto; Hernández C, Loreto; Porte T, Lorena; Castro S, Marcelo; Weitzel, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Human metapneumovirus infections are increasingly recognized among adult patients and the aim of this report is to present a series of 4 cases admitted during the winter of 2010. All were detected by direct fluorescence anti-bodies assay of respiratory samples and all were female patients with an age range of 79 to 95 years, including two bedridden cases, one with dementia and three with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. One patient presented with parainfluenza 3 virus coinfection. Patients presented with pneumonía in 3 cases (interstitial pattern in 2 and lobar consolidation in the other) or acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis in the remaining case. Symptoms were present for 3 to 7 days before admission and 3 have wheezing. All had hypoxemic or global respiratory failure and lymphopenia (ventilation. Human metapneumovirus infections can decompensate elderly patients with chronic respiratory diseases generating hospital admission and a prolonged morbidity marked by obstructive manifestations and sometimes can become into death.

  9. Rational design of avian metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccines by inhibiting viral messenger RNA cap methyltransferase

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    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...

  10. Specificity and functional interaction of the polymerase complex proteins of human and avian metapneumoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); S. Herfst (Sander); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); Y. Choi (Ying); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHuman metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) have a similar genome organization and protein composition, but a different host range. AMPV subgroup C (AMPV-C) is more closely relaled to HMPV than other AMPVs. To investigate the specificity and functional interaction of

  11. KAJIAN ASPEK TEKNIS DAN FINASIAL USAHA RUMAH TANGGA BRIKET BIOMASSA DARI KULIT NIPAH DENGAN TEMPURUNG KELAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martanto Martanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nipah merupakan salah satu tanaman  didaerah pasang surut. Di Indonesia terdapat Sekitar tujuh juta hektar (7 Ha  tanaman Nipah. Pemanfaatan kulit nipah  sampai saat ini belum maksimal. Penelitian ini mencoba membuat briket arang dengan campuran arang kelapa. Metode pernelitian ini menggunakan eksperimen untuk pembuatan briket kulit nipah dan metode kuantitatif tehadap nilai ekonomisnya Dari hasil penelitian didapat kadar air 9,2 % ,kadar abu 3,51 % dan kadar zat menguap  2,62 %. Hasil penelitian tersebut layak dan kulaitasnya hampir sama dengan batu bara muda. Dari perhitungan analisa finansial perhitungan NPV, IRR, Payback period  B/C ratio adalah masing-masing menghasilkan nilai masing-masing adalah 8.843.001, 41 %, 3 tahun 7 bulan dan  2,04. Sehingga usaha briket arang dari kulit nipah dengan tempurung kelapa sangat layak untuk dijadikan usaha skala rumah tangga

  12. A mature and fusogenic form of the Nipah virus fusion protein requires proteolytic processing by cathepsin L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pager, Cara Theresia; Craft, Willie Warren; Patch, Jared; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2006-01-01

    The Nipah virus fusion (F) protein is proteolytically processed to F 1 + F 2 subunits. We demonstrate here that cathepsin L is involved in this important maturation event. Cathepsin inhibitors ablated cleavage of Nipah F. Proteolytic processing of Nipah F and fusion activity was dramatically reduced in cathepsin L shRNA-expressing Vero cells. Additionally, Nipah virus F-mediated fusion was inhibited in cathepsin L-deficient cells, but coexpression of cathepsin L restored fusion activity. Both purified cathepsin L and B could cleave immunopurified Nipah F protein, but only cathepsin L produced products of the correct size. Our results suggest that endosomal cathepsins can cleave Nipah F, but that cathepsin L specifically converts Nipah F to a mature and fusogenic form

  13. Biochemical characterization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiji; Song, Minxun; Demers, Andrew; Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Wang, Dan; Kaushik, Radhey S; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a paramyxovirus that has three membrane proteins (G, F, and SH). Among them, the SH protein is a small type II integral membrane protein that is incorporated into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses. In the present study, we show that the AMPV SH protein is modified by N-linked glycans and can be released into the extracellular environment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that glycosylated AMPV SH proteins form homodimers through cysteine-mediated disulfide bonds, which has not been reported previously for SH proteins of paramyxoviruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nipah virus in the fruit bat Pteropus vampyrus in Sumatera, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    Full Text Available Nipah virus causes periodic livestock and human disease with high case fatality rate, and consequent major economic, social and psychological impacts. Fruit bats of the genus Pteropus are the natural reservoir. In this study, we used real time PCR to screen the saliva and urine of P. vampyrus from North Sumatera for Nipah virus genome. A conventional reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR assay was used on provisionally positive samples to corroborate findings. This is the first report of Nipah virus detection in P. vampyrus in Sumatera, Indonesia.

  15. Recovery of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C from cDNA: cross-recognition of avian and human metapneumovirus support proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Buchholz, Ursula J; Samal, Siba K

    2006-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an acute respiratory disease in turkeys and is associated with "swollen head syndrome" in chickens, contributing to significant economic losses for the U.S. poultry industry. With a long-term goal of developing a better vaccine for controlling AMPV in the United States, we established a reverse genetics system to produce infectious AMPV of subgroup C entirely from cDNA. A cDNA clone encoding the entire 14,150-nucleotide genome of AMPV subgroup C strain Colorado (AMPV/CO) was generated by assembling five cDNA fragments between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme of a transcription plasmid, pBR 322. Transfection of this plasmid, along with the expression plasmids encoding the N, P, M2-1, and L proteins of AMPV/CO, into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase resulted in the recovery of infectious AMPV/CO. Characterization of the recombinant AMPV/CO showed that its growth properties in tissue culture were similar to those of the parental virus. The potential of AMPV/CO to serve as a viral vector was also assessed by generating another recombinant virus, rAMPV/CO-GFP, that expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a foreign protein. Interestingly, GFP-expressing AMPV and GFP-expressing human metapneumovirus (HMPV) could be recovered using the support plasmids of either virus, denoting that the genome promoters are conserved between the two metapneumoviruses and can be cross-recognized by the polymerase complex proteins of either virus. These results indicate a close functional relationship between AMPV/CO and HMPV.

  16. Date palm sap collection: exploring opportunities to prevent Nipah transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Hossain, M Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-06-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a seasonal disease in Bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. Raw date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in Bengali culture. If fruit bats that are infected with NiV gain access to the sap for drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. In February 2007, we conducted a qualitative study in six villages, interviewing 27 date palm sap collectors (gachhis) within the geographical area where NiV outbreaks have occurred since 2001. Gachhis reported that bats pose a challenge to successful collection of quality sap, because bats drink and defecate into the sap which markedly reduces its value. They know some methods to prevent access by bats and other pests but do not use them consistently, because of lack of time and resources. Further studies to explore the effectiveness of these methods and to motivate gachhis to invest their time and money to use them could reduce the risk of human Nipah infection in Bangladesh.

  17. Pertumbuhan dan Struktur Umur Kerang Kepah (Meretrix meretrix) di Kampung Nipah Desa Sei Nagalawan Kecamatan Perbaungan Kabupaten Serdang Bedagai

    OpenAIRE

    Nafi Sakila; Dinda Ayu Ramadhani; Ani Suryanti

    2017-01-01

    Sei Nipah has enormous potential for natural resources. Natural resources that serve as the main livelihood in fulfilling daily needs in Kampung Nipah is shellfish. Shellfish (M. meretrix) is one of the shells that many interested by the surrounding community. The purpose of this research is to know growth parameter and age group of shellfish (M. meretrix) in Kampung Nipah. The sampling technique was done randomly (simple random sampling). Sampling time is done at low tide. Sampling was condu...

  18. Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction : Perangkat Diagnostic Alternatif untuk Melacak Virus Nipah (REAL TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION : AN ALTERNATIVE DIAGNOSTIC TOOL TO DETECT NIPAH VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nipah is a dangerous zoonotic disease with a high social, economical and psychological impact. Fruitbat Pteropus sp. is one of the nipah virus  reservoir host. As the virus is categorized as a dangerous zoonoticdisease that cause fatal in human, all works related to live virus should be conducted in a laboratory withBSL4 facilities. The detection of nipah virus using real time PCR to replace virus isolastion can thereforebe conducted in a laboratory without BSL4 facilities. The results was further  confirmed at referencelaboratory at   Australian Animal Health Laboratory ( AAHL Geelong, Australia, indicated that nipahvirus can be detected in saliva of fruit bat P. vampyrus in Medan North Sumatera.

  19. Field avian metapneumovirus evolution avoiding vaccine induced immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Cecchinato, Mattia; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Brown, Paul; Naylor, Clive J

    2010-01-22

    Live avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccines have largely brought turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) under control in Europe but unexplained outbreaks still occur. Italian AMPV longitudinal farm studies showed that subtype B AMPVs were frequently detected in turkeys some considerable period after subtype B vaccination. Sequencing showed these to be unrelated to the previously applied vaccine. Sequencing of the entire genome of a typical later isolate showed numerous SH and G protein gene differences when compared to both a 1987 Italian field isolate and the vaccine in common use. Experimental challenge of vaccinated birds with recent virus showed that protection was inferior to that seen after challenge with the earlier 1987 isolate. Field virus had changed in key antigenic regions allowing replication and leading to disease in well vaccinated birds.

  20. Nipah virus encephalitis: A cause for concern for Indian neurologists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Amit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and only recorded outbreak of Nipah virus (NV encephalitis in India occurred in the winter of 2001, although the causative organism could only be identified 5 years down the line in 2006. The first ever-recorded outbreak of NV encephalitis occurred in the Malaysian peninsula in 1998-99; though between 2001 and 2005, at least four outbreaks occurred in our neighboring country of Bangladesh. The threat of further outbreaks of this dangerous disease looms large on the Indian subcontinent, given the natural reservoir of the definitive host, namely, fruit-eating bats of the genus Pteropus. This review would briefly highlight the epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis of NV encephalitis to enlighten the neurological community of the country for early detection and implementation of preventive measures in the event of further outbreaks, especially those which are generally passed of as ′mystery diseases′ in the lay press and even by governmental agencies.

  1. Determination of hydrocyanic acid in Nipah fruit (Nypa fruticans)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zaidi Mat Satar; Mohd wahid samsudin; Mohamed Rozali Othman

    2011-01-01

    A study on hydrocyanic acid (anti nutrition) content in nipah (Nypa fruticans) plant components have been carried out. Analysis involve a sample of husk, seed and sap of Nypa fruticans collected from three different sampling location located at Seberang Perak (Perak), Merchang (Terengganu) and Kuala Sanglang (Perlis). A quantitative alkaline titration method was used to determine the content of hydrocyanic acid in all samples. Study carried out has proved that husk of Nypa fruticans fruit has higher content of hydrocyanic acid at all sampling location followed by seed and sap. Hydrocyanic content at all sampling location ranged from 0.03-0.06, 0.03-0.05 and 0.02-0.03 mg/ 100 g for husk, seed and sap of Nypa fruticans respectively. Statistical test carried out using one way ANOVA (at 95 % confidential level) signify that the different of sampling location and hydrocyanic acid content is significant (p<0.05) for husk of Nypa fruticans only. (author)

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A Strain Isolated from Chicken (Gallus gallus) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rizotto, La?s S.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Cardoso, Tereza C.; Sim?o, Raphael M.; Caserta, Leonardo C.; Benassi, Julia C.; Keid, Lara B.; Oliveira, Tr?cia M. F. de S.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Arns, Clarice W.; Van Borm, Steven; Ferreira, Helena L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) isolated from a tracheal tissue sample of a commercial layer flock. The complete genome sequence of aMPV-A/chicken/Brazil-SP/669/2003 was obtained using MiSeq (Illumina, Inc.) sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome classified the isolate as avian metapneumovirus subtype A.

  3. Generation of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in length of the G gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication, pathogenicity and immunity is unknown. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for avian metapneumovirus C a...

  4. UJI FITOKIMIA SENYAWA KIMIA AKTIF AKAR NIPAH (Nyfa Fruticans WURMB SEBAGAI TUMBUHAN OBAT DI KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidah R Radam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nipa (Nypa fruticans WURMB classified in Palma family and grow in riptide area. This Research aims to know active Chemical compounds in Nipa root. We Hope that this Research will provide new information about active Chemical compounds in Nipa root, so that we can improve the benefit value of Nipa as One of the medicinal herb. Nipa root samples is taken in Tanah Bumbu District, samples examined in Laboratory of F-MIPA UNLAM. The observed parameters in thus Chemical Test are the active Chemical compounds: alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, flavonoid, and tannin. The Content of active Chemical compound is presented in Table and concluded descriptively. The Result of active Chemical compound consist in Nipa’s root shows that Alkaloid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Flavonoid , and tannin compound is do contains in Nipa root. This active Chemical compound in Nipa root can be Led as the basic Chemical informative to utilize Nipa root as analgesics Medical for such disease. Nipah (nypa fruticans WURMB merupakan tumbuhan yang termasuk famili Palmae dan   tumbuh di daerah  pasang   surut.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui  kandungan senyawa-senyawa kimia aktif pada akar nipah. Manfaat dari penelitian ini untuk memberikan informasi baru tentang senyawa aktif yang terdapat pada akar nipah, sehingga dapat meningkatkan nilai guna dan manfaat tumbuhan nipah sebagai salah satu tanaman obat. Pengambilan sample akar nipah dilakukan Kabupaten Tanah Bumbu  sedangkan pengujian sample akar nipah dilakukan di Laboratorium F-MIFA UNLAM. Parameter-parameter yang diamati pada pengujian kimia tersebut adalah senyawa-senyawa kimia aktif yaitu alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid flavonoid, dan tanin. Data hasil uji kandungan senyawa kimia aktif  ditabulasi dan disimpulkan secara diskriptif. Hasil pengujian terhadap senyawa kimia aktif yang terkandung dalam akar Nifah ini menunjukan bahwa senyawa Alkaloid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Flavonoid , dan tanin memang dikandung

  5. Topology and cellular localization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qiji; Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Demers, Andrew; Song, Minxun; Wang, Dan; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng

    2011-09-01

    The small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type II integral membrane protein that is packaged into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses including metapneumovirus. In addition to a highly divergent primary sequence, SH proteins vary significantly in size amongst the different viruses. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) encodes the smallest SH protein consisting of only 64 amino acids, while metapneumoviruses have the longest SH protein ranging from 174 to 179 amino acids in length. Little is currently known about the cellular localization and topology of the metapneumovirus SH protein. Here we characterize for the first time metapneumovirus SH protein with respect to topology, subcellular localization, and transport using avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (AMPV-C) as a model system. We show that AMPV-C SH is an integral membrane protein with N(in)C(out) orientation located in both the plasma membrane as well as within intracellular compartments, which is similar to what has been described previously for SH proteins of other paramyxoviruses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AMPV-C SH protein localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and cell surface, and is transported through ER-Golgi secretory pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia B. dos Santos; Matheus C. Martini; Helena L. Ferreira; Luciana H.A. da Silva; Paulo A. Fellipe; Fernando R. Spilki; Clarice W. Arns

    2012-01-01

    Santos M.B., Martini M.C., Ferreira H.L., Silva L.H.A., Fellipe P.A., Spilki F.R. & Arns C.W. 2012. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 32(12):1257-1262. Laboratorio de Virologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato s/n, Cx. Postal 6109, Campinas, SP 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail: Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respirator...

  7. Chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Daniel Dunnavant, F.; Singh, Sudha P.; Ellis, Wendy D.; Payne, Daniel C.; Zhu, Yuwei; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.

    2017-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children's hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  8. Chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Daniel Dunnavant, F.; Singh, Sudha P.; Ellis, Wendy D. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Payne, Daniel C. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhu, Yuwei [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States); Griffin, Marie R. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Health Policy, Nashville, TN (United States); Edwards, Kathryn M. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Williams, John V. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children's hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  9. Detection and subtyping avian metapneumovirus from turkeys in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayahi, Mansour; Momtaz, Hassan; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Zamani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes diseases like rhinotracheitis in turkeys, swollen head syndrome in chickens and avian rhinotracheitis in other birds. Causing respiratory problems, aMPV adversely affects production and inflicts immense economic losses and mortalities, especially in turkey flocks. In recent years, several serological and molecular studies have been conducted on this virus, especially in poultry in Asia and Iran. The purpose of the present study was detecting and subtyping aMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from non-vaccinated, commercial turkey flocks in Iran for the first time. Sixty three meat-type unvaccinated turkey flocks from several provinces of Iran were sampled in major turkey abattoirs. Samples were tested by RT-PCR for detecting and subtyping aMPV. The results showed that 26 samples from three flocks (4.10%) were positive for viral RNA and all of the viruses were found to be subtype B of aMPV. As a result, vaccination especially against subtype B of aMPV should be considered in turkey flocks in Iran to control aMPV infections.

  10. Molecular detection and isolation of avian metapneumovirus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Martínez-Bautista, Rebeca; Ríos-Cambre, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to detect and isolate avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) in two highly productive poultry areas in Mexico. A total of 968 breeder hens and pullets from 2 to 73 weeks of age were analysed. Serology was performed to detect aMPV antibodies and 105 samples of tracheal tissue were collected, pooled by age, and used for attempted virus isolation and aMPV nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). The serological analysis indicated that 100% of the sampled chickens showed aMPV antibodies by 12 weeks of age. Five pools of pullet samples collected at 3 to 8 weeks of age were positive by nRT-PCR and the sequences obtained indicated 98 to 99% similarity with the reported sequences for aMPV subtype A. Virus isolation of nRT-PCR-positive samples was successfully attempted using chicken embryo lung and trachea mixed cultures with subsequent adaptation to Vero cells. This is the first report of detection and isolation of aMPV in Mexico.

  11. Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea.

  12. Selective receptor expression restricts Nipah virus infection of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederich Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes severe diseases in animals and humans. Endothelial cell (EC infection is an established hallmark of NiV infection in vivo. Despite systemic virus spread via the vascular system, EC in brain and lung are preferentially infected whereas EC in other organs are less affected. As in vivo, we found differences in the infection of EC in cell culture. Only brain-derived primary or immortalized EC were found to be permissive to NiV infection. Using a replication-independent fusion assay, we could show that the lack of infection in non-brain EC was due to a lack of receptor expression. The NiV entry receptors ephrinB2 (EB2 or ephrinB3 were only expressed in brain endothelia. The finding that EB2 expression in previously non-permissive aortic EC rendered the cells permissive to infection then demonstrated that EB2 is not only necessary but also sufficient to allow the establishment of a productive NiV infection. This strongly suggests that limitations in receptor expression restrict virus entry in certain EC subsets in vivo, and are thus responsible for the differences in EC tropism observed in human and animal NiV infections.

  13. Lethal Nipah virus infection induces rapid overexpression of CXCL10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Mathieu

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a recently emerged zoonotic Paramyxovirus that causes regular outbreaks in East Asia with mortality rate exceeding 75%. Major cellular targets of NiV infection are endothelial cells and neurons. To better understand virus-host interaction, we analyzed the transcriptome profile of NiV infection in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We further assessed some of the obtained results by in vitro and in vivo methods in a hamster model and in brain samples from NiV-infected patients. We found that NiV infection strongly induces genes involved in interferon response in endothelial cells. Among the top ten upregulated genes, we identified the chemokine CXCL10 (interferon-induced protein 10, IP-10, an important chemoattractant involved in the generation of inflammatory immune response and neurotoxicity. In NiV-infected hamsters, which develop pathology similar to what is seen in humans, expression of CXCL10 mRNA was induced in different organs with kinetics that followed NiV replication. Finally, we showed intense staining for CXCL10 in the brain of patients who succumbed to lethal NiV infection during the outbreak in Malaysia, confirming induction of this chemokine in fatal human infections. This study sheds new light on NiV pathogenesis, indicating the role of CXCL10 during the course of infection and suggests that this chemokine may serve as a potential new marker for lethal NiV encephalitis.

  14. Topology and cellular localization of the small hydrophobic protein of avian metapneumovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type II integral membrane protein that is packaged into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses including metapneumovirus. In addition to a highly divergent primary sequence, SH proteins vary significantly in size among the different viruses. Hu...

  15. Prevalence and clinical symptoms of human metapneumovirus infection in hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette); G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); J.C. Fockens (John); J.J. Cornelissen (Jan); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); R. de Groot (Ronald); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDuring a 17-month period, we performed retrospective analyses of the prevalence of and clinical symptoms associated with human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection, among patients in a university hospital in The Netherlands. All available nasal-aspirate, throat-swab, sputum, and

  16. Development of Recombinant Newcastle Disease Viruses Expressing the Glycoprotein (G) of Avian Metapneumovirus as Bivalent Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, B or C, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintaine...

  17. Development and optimization of a direct plaque assay for human and avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Junan; Li, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae and family Paramyxoviridae includes only two viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), which cause respiratory disease in humans and birds, respectively. These two viruses grow poorly in cell culture and other quantitation methods, such as indirect immuno-staining and immuno-fluorescent assays, are expensive, time consuming, and do not allow for plaque purification of the virus. In order to enhance research efforts for studying these two viruses, a direct plaque assay for both hMPV and aMPV has been developed. By optimizing the chemical components of the agarose overlay, it was found that both hMPV with a trypsin-independent F cleavage site and aMPV formed clear and countable plaques in a number of mammalian cell lines (such as Vero-E6 and LLC-MK2 cells) after 5 days of incubation. The plaque forming assay has similar sensitivity and reliability as the currently used immunological methods for viral quantitation. The plaque assay is also a more simple, rapid, and economical method compared to immunological assays, and in addition allows for plaque purification of the viruses. The direct plaque assay will be a valuable method for the quantitation and evaluation of the biological properties of some metapneumoviruses. PMID:22684013

  18. The Central Role of the Matrix Protein in Nipah Virus Assembly and Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-23

    prepared and isolated by sucrose gradient floatation . VLPs from the resulting fractions were adsorbed to copper grids and immunolabeled using antibodies...Grosjean, M. C. Courbot, V. Deubel, R. Buckland, and T. F. Wild. 2006. Antibody prophylaxis and therapy against Nipah virus infection in hamsters. J Virol

  19. Human neuronal cell protein responses to Nipah virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sharifah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus (NiV, a recently discovered zoonotic virus infects and replicates in several human cell types. Its replication in human neuronal cells, however, is less efficient in comparison to other fully susceptible cells. In the present study, the SK-N-MC human neuronal cell protein response to NiV infection is examined using proteomic approaches. Results Method for separation of the NiV-infected human neuronal cell proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE was established. At least 800 protein spots were resolved of which seven were unique, six were significantly up-regulated and eight were significantly down-regulated. Six of these altered proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS and confirmed using MS/MS. The heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP F, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein, voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2 and cytochrome bc1 were present in abundance in the NiV-infected SK-N-MC cells in contrast to hnRNPs H and H2 that were significantly down-regulated. Conclusion Several human neuronal cell proteins that are differentially expressed following NiV infection are identified. The proteins are associated with various cellular functions and their abundance reflects their significance in the cytopathologic responses to the infection and the regulation of NiV replication. The potential importance of the ratio of hnRNP F, and hnRNPs H and H2 in regulation of NiV replication, the association of the mitochondrial protein with the cytopathologic responses to the infection and induction of apoptosis are highlighted.

  20. Vaccine potential of Nipah virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramila Walpita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV was first recognized in 1998 in a zoonotic disease outbreak associated with highly lethal febrile encephalitis in humans and a predominantly respiratory disease in pigs. Periodic deadly outbreaks, documentation of person-to-person transmission, and the potential of this virus as an agent of agroterror reinforce the need for effective means of therapy and prevention. In this report, we describe the vaccine potential of NiV virus-like particles (NiV VLPs composed of three NiV proteins G, F and M. Co-expression of these proteins under optimized conditions resulted in quantifiable amounts of VLPs with many virus-like/vaccine desirable properties including some not previously described for VLPs of any paramyxovirus: The particles were fusogenic, inducing syncytia formation; PCR array analysis showed NiV VLP-induced activation of innate immune defense pathways; the surface structure of NiV VLPs imaged by cryoelectron microscopy was dense, ordered, and repetitive, and consistent with similarly derived structure of paramyxovirus measles virus. The VLPs were composed of all the three viral proteins as designed, and their intracellular processing also appeared similar to NiV virions. The size, morphology and surface composition of the VLPs were consistent with the parental virus, and importantly, they retained their antigenic potential. Finally, these particles, formulated without adjuvant, were able to induce neutralizing antibody response in Balb/c mice. These findings indicate vaccine potential of these particles and will be the basis for undertaking future protective efficacy studies in animal models of NiV disease.

  1. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  2. Characterization of the Fusion and Attachment Glycoproteins of Human Metapneumovirus and Human Serosurvey to Determine Reinfection Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    Metapneumovirus genus. The Paramyxoviridae are in the taxonomical order Mononegavirales which includes Bornaviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Filoviridae which... Rhabdoviridae plant virus, replicate in the cytoplasm (66). The Paramyxoviridae are enveloped viruses and have been defined by the fusion glycoprotein

  3. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  4. Structural and Functional Studies on the Fusion and Attachment Envelope Glycoproteins of Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bossart, Katharine

    2003-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) virus are emerging, biosafety level 4 paramyxoviruses responsible for fatal zoonotic infections of humans from pigs and horses, respectively, and are the prototypic members of a new Paramyxovirinae...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A Strain Isolated from Chicken (Gallus gallus) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizotto, Laís S; Scagion, Guilherme P; Cardoso, Tereza C; Simão, Raphael M; Caserta, Leonardo C; Benassi, Julia C; Keid, Lara B; Oliveira, Trícia M F de S; Soares, Rodrigo M; Arns, Clarice W; Van Borm, Steven; Ferreira, Helena L

    2017-07-20

    We report here the complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) isolated from a tracheal tissue sample of a commercial layer flock. The complete genome sequence of aMPV-A/chicken/Brazil-SP/669/2003 was obtained using MiSeq (Illumina, Inc.) sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome classified the isolate as avian metapneumovirus subtype A. Copyright © 2017 Rizotto et al.

  6. A neutralizing human monoclonal antibody protects against lethal disease in a new ferret model of acute nipah virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine N Bossart

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a broadly tropic and highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus whose natural reservoirs are several species of Pteropus fruit bats. Nipah virus has repeatedly caused outbreaks over the past decade associated with a severe and often fatal disease in humans and animals. Here, a new ferret model of Nipah virus pathogenesis is described where both respiratory and neurological disease are present in infected animals. Severe disease occurs with viral doses as low as 500 TCID(50 within 6 to 10 days following infection. The underlying pathology seen in the ferret closely resembles that seen in Nipah virus infected humans, characterized as a widespread multisystemic vasculitis, with virus replicating in highly vascular tissues including lung, spleen and brain, with recoverable virus from a variety of tissues. Using this ferret model a cross-reactive neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, m102.4, targeting the henipavirus G glycoprotein was evaluated in vivo as a potential therapeutic agent. All ferrets that received m102.4 ten hours following a high dose oral-nasal Nipah virus challenge were protected from disease while all controls died. This study is the first successful post-exposure passive antibody therapy for Nipah virus using a human monoclonal antibody.

  7. A human lung xenograft mouse model of Nipah virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Valbuena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a member of the genus Henipavirus (family Paramyxoviridae that causes severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans with high mortality rates (up to 92%. NiV can cause Acute Lung Injury (ALI in humans, and human-to-human transmission has been observed in recent outbreaks of NiV. While the exact route of transmission to humans is not known, we have previously shown that NiV can efficiently infect human respiratory epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms of NiV-associated ALI in the human respiratory tract are unknown. Thus, there is an urgent need for models of henipavirus infection of the human respiratory tract to study the pathogenesis and understand the host responses. Here, we describe a novel human lung xenograft model in mice to study the pathogenesis of NiV. Following transplantation, human fetal lung xenografts rapidly graft and develop mature structures of adult lungs including cartilage, vascular vessels, ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, and primitive "air" spaces filled with mucus and lined by cuboidal to flat epithelium. Following infection, NiV grows to high titers (10(7 TCID50/gram lung tissue as early as 3 days post infection (pi. NiV targets both the endothelium as well as respiratory epithelium in the human lung tissues, and results in syncytia formation. NiV infection in the human lung results in the production of several cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IP-10, eotaxin, G-CSF and GM-CSF on days 5 and 7 pi. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that NiV can replicate to high titers in a novel in vivo model of the human respiratory tract, resulting in a robust inflammatory response, which is known to be associated with ALI. This model will facilitate progress in the fundamental understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis and virus-host interactions; it will also provide biologically relevant models for other respiratory viruses.

  8. Nipah virus infection and glycoprotein targeting in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisner Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV causes fatal respiratory and brain infections in animals and humans. The major hallmark of the infection is a systemic endothelial infection, predominantly in the CNS. Infection of brain endothelial cells allows the virus to overcome the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and to subsequently infect the brain parenchyma. However, the mechanisms of NiV replication in endothelial cells are poorly elucidated. We have shown recently that the bipolar or basolateral expression of the NiV surface glycoproteins F and G in polarized epithelial cell layers is involved in lateral virus spread via cell-to-cell fusion and that correct sorting depends on tyrosine-dependent targeting signals in the cytoplasmic tails of the glycoproteins. Since endothelial cells share many characteristics with epithelial cells in terms of polarization and protein sorting, we wanted to elucidate the role of the NiV glycoprotein targeting signals in endothelial cells. Results As observed in vivo, NiV infection of endothelial cells induced syncytia formation. The further finding that infection increased the transendothelial permeability supports the idea of spread of infection via cell-to-cell fusion and endothelial cell damage as a mechanism to overcome the BBB. We then revealed that both glycoproteins are expressed at lateral cell junctions (bipolar, not only in NiV-infected primary endothelial cells but also upon stable expression in immortalized endothelial cells. Interestingly, mutation of tyrosines 525 and 542/543 in the cytoplasmic tail of the F protein led to an apical redistribution of the protein in endothelial cells whereas tyrosine mutations in the G protein had no effect at all. This fully contrasts the previous results in epithelial cells where tyrosine 525 in the F, and tyrosines 28/29 in the G protein were required for correct targeting. Conclusion We conclude that the NiV glycoprotein distribution is responsible for

  9. Avian metapneumovirus subtype C in Wild Waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, C M; Parmley, E J; Buchanan, T; Nituch, L; Ojkic, D

    2018-02-18

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an emerging poultry pathogen that has a significant economic impact on poultry production worldwide. The geographic range of the virus continues to expand, and wild birds have been implicated as reservoirs of aMPV that have the potential to spread the virus over long distances. Our objective was to determine the apparent prevalence of aMPV subtype C in wild waterfowl in Ontario, Canada. Wild waterfowl were captured in August and September, 2016 as part of routine migratory waterfowl population monitoring by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and placed together for aMPV testing using real-time RT-PCR. A total of 374 live wild birds from 23 lakes were sampled and tested for aMPV. Among all ducks tested, 84 (22%) were positive for aMPV. The proportion of samples that tested positive ranged from 0% in ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis) to 44% (8 of 18) in American black ducks (A. rubripes). Waterfowl positive for aMPV were found at 14 of 23 lakes in the study area and the percent positive at these 14 lakes ranged between 5% and 84%. Although subtype C aMPV has been detected in a variety of wild birds in North America, this is the first report of aMPV in wild ducks in Ontario, Canada. The high apparent prevalence, particularly in mallards and American black ducks (37 and 44%, respectively), suggests that these species may be important reservoirs of aMPV. Given the potential impact of aMPV on domestic poultry and the potential role of wild birds as reservoirs of the virus, further investigation of the geographic distribution, risk factors associated with aMPV carriage in wild waterfowl and potential role of other birds in the epidemiology of aMPV in Canada is warranted. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Comparison of in vivo toxicity, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Keong Yeap, Swee; Beh, Boon Keen; Romli, Muhammad Firdaus; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2018-01-01

    Vinegar is widely used as a food additive, in food preparation and as a food supplement. This study compared the phenolic acid profiles and in vivo toxicities, and antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars, which were respectively prepared via a two-step fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7013 INRA and Acetobacter aceti vat Europeans. Pineapple juice vinegar, which had the highest total phenolic acid content, also exhibited the greatest in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. Following acute and sub-chronic in vivo toxicity evaluation, no toxicity and mortality were evident and there were no significant differences in the serum biochemical profiles between mice administered the vinegars versus the control group. In the sub-chronic toxicity evaluation, the highest liver antioxidant levels were found in mice fed with pineapple juice vinegar, followed by coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. However, compared to the pineapple juice and nipah juice vinegars, the mice fed with coconut juice vinegar, exhibited a higher population of CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocytes in the spleen, which was associated with greater levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ cytokines. Overall, the data suggested that not all vinegar samples cause acute and sub-chronic toxicity in vivo. Moreover, the in vivo immunity and organ antioxidant levels were enhanced, to varying extents, by the phenolic acids present in the vinegars. The results obtained in this study provide appropriate guidelines for further in vivo bioactivity studies and pre-clinical assessments of vinegar consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Antiviral activity of gliotoxin, gentian violet and brilliant green against Nipah and Hendra virus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Adam G

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a recently described monolayer assay amenable to high throughput screening format for the identification of potential Nipah virus and Hendra virus antivirals, we have partially screened a low molecular weight compound library (>8,000 compounds directly against live virus infection and identified twenty eight promising lead molecules. Initial single blind screens were conducted with 10 μM compound in triplicate with a minimum efficacy of 90% required for lead selection. Lead compounds were then further characterised to determine the median efficacy (IC50, cytotoxicity (CC50 and the in vitro therapeutic index in live virus and pseudotype assay formats. Results While a number of leads were identified, the current work describes three commercially available compounds: brilliant green, gentian violet and gliotoxin, identified as having potent antiviral activity against Nipah and Hendra virus. Similar efficacy was observed against pseudotyped Nipah and Hendra virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus type 3 while only gliotoxin inhibited an influenza A virus suggesting a non-specific, broad spectrum activity for this compound. Conclusion All three of these compounds have been used previously for various aspects of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal therapy and the current results suggest that while unsuitable for internal administration, they may be amenable to topical antiviral applications, or as disinfectants and provide excellent positive controls for future studies.

  12. Comparison of initial high resolution computed tomography features in viral pneumonia between metapneumovirus infection and severe acute respiratory syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Cheuk Kei Kathy; Lai, Vincent; Wong, Yiu Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review and compare initial high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with metapneumovirus pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Coronovirus). Materials and methods: 4 cases of metapneumovirus pneumonia (mean age of 52.3 years) in an institutional outbreak (Castle Peak Hospital) in 2008 and 38 cases of SARS-coronovirus (mean age of 39.6 years) admitted to Tuen Mun hospital during an epidemic outbreak in 2003 were included. HRCT findings of the lungs for all patients were retrospectively reviewed by two independent radiologists. Results: In the metapneumovirus group, common HRCT features were ground glass opacities (100%), consolidation (100%), parenchymal band (100%), bronchiectasis (75%). Crazy paving pattern was absent. They were predominantly subpleural and basal in location and bilateral involvement was observed in 50% of patients. In the SARS group, common HRCT features were ground glass opacities (92.1%), interlobular septal thickening (86.8%), crazy paving pattern (73.7%) and consolidation (68%). Bronchiectasis was not seen. Majority of patient demonstrated segmental or lobar in distribution and bilateral involvement was observed in 44.7% of patients. Pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy were of consistent rare features in both groups. Conclusion: Ground glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening and consolidations were consistent HRCT manifestations in both metapneumovirus infection and SARS. The presence of bronchiectasis (0% in SARS) may point towards metapneumovirus while crazy paving pattern is more suggestive of SARS.

  13. The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport pathway is not involved in avian metapneumovirus budding in a virus-like-particle expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Harmon, Aaron; Xiang, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Qiji; Song, Minxun; Wang, Dan; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng

    2011-05-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a paramyxovirus that principally causes respiratory disease and egg production drops in turkeys and chickens. Together with its closely related human metapneumovirus (HMPV), they comprise the genus Metapneumovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Little is currently known about the mechanisms involved in the budding of metapneumovirus. By using AMPV as a model system, we showed that the matrix (M) protein by itself was insufficient to form virus-like-particles (VLPs). The incorporation of M into VLPs was shown to occur only when both the viral nucleoprotein (N) and the fusion (F) proteins were co-expressed. Furthermore, we provided evidence indicating that two YSKL and YAGL segments encoded within the M protein were not a functional late domain, and the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery was not involved in metapneumovirus budding, consistent with a recent observation that human respiratory syncytial virus, closely related to HMPV, uses an ESCRT-independent budding mechanism. Taken together, these results suggest that metapneumovirus budding is independent of the ESCRT pathway and the minimal budding machinery described here will aid our future understanding of metapneumovirus assembly and egress.

  14. Chimeric Recombinant Human Metapneumoviruses with the Nucleoprotein or Phosphoprotein Open Reading Frame Replaced by That of Avian Metapneumovirus Exhibit Improved Growth In Vitro and Attenuation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh N.; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2005-01-01

    Chimeric versions of recombinant human metapneumovirus (HMPV) were generated by replacing the nucleoprotein (N) or phosphoprotein (P) open reading frame with its counterpart from the closely related avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. In Vero cells, AMPV replicated to an approximately 100-fold-higher titer than HMPV. Surprisingly, the N and P chimeric viruses replicated to a peak titer that was 11- and 25-fold higher, respectively, than that of parental HMPV. The basis for this effect is not known but was not due to obvious changes in the efficiency of gene expression. AMPV and the N and P chimeras were evaluated for replication, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in hamsters. AMPV was attenuated compared to HMPV in this mammalian host on day 5 postinfection, but not on day 3, and only in the nasal turbinates. In contrast, the N and P chimeras were reduced approximately 100-fold in both the upper and lower respiratory tract on day 3 postinfection, although there was little difference by day 5. The N and P chimeras induced a high level of neutralizing serum antibodies and protective efficacy against HMPV; AMPV was only weakly immunogenic and protective against HMPV challenge, reflecting antigenic differences. In African green monkeys immunized intranasally and intratracheally, the mean peak titer of the P chimera was reduced 100- and 1,000-fold in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, whereas the N chimera was reduced only 10-fold in the lower respiratory tract. Both chimeras were comparable to wild-type HMPV in immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Thus, the P chimera is a promising live HMPV vaccine candidate that paradoxically combines improved growth in vitro with attenuation in vivo. PMID:16306583

  15. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  16. Clinical Features of Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Ambulatory Children Aged 5-13 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Leigh M; Edwards, Kathryn M; Zhu, Yuwei; Griffin, Marie R; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Szilagyi, Peter G; Staat, Mary A; Payne, Daniel C; Williams, John V

    2018-05-15

    We detected human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in 54 (5%) of 1055 children aged 5 to 13 years with acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified by outpatient and emergency department surveillance between November and May 2003-2009. Its clinical features were similar to those of HMPV-negative ARI, except a diagnosis of pneumonia was more likely (13% vs 4%, respectively; P = .005) and a diagnosis of pharyngitis (7% vs 24%, respectively; P = .005) was less likely in patients with HMPV- positive ARI than those with HMPV-negative ARI.

  17. Population dynamics and rates of molecular evolution of a recently emerged paramyxovirus, avian metapneumovirus subtype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary

    2009-02-01

    We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 x 10(-3) to 7 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes examined show a concordant demographic pattern which is characterized by a rapid increase in population size followed by stable population grown until the present.

  18. Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of Nipah virus W protein involves multiple discrete interactions with the nuclear import and export machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audsley, Michelle D.; Jans, David A.; Moseley, Gregory W.

    2016-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses replicate in the cytoplasm with no obvious requirement to interact with the nucleus. Nevertheless, the W protein of the highly lethal bat-borne paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) is known to undergo specific targeting to the nucleus, mediated by a single nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within the C-terminal domain. Here, we report for the first time that additional sites modulate nucleocytoplasmic localisation of W. We show that the N-terminal domain interacts with importin α1 and contributes to nuclear accumulation of W, indicative of a novel N-terminal NLS. We also find that W undergoes exportin-1 mediated nuclear export, dependent on a leucine at position 174. Together, these data enable significant revision of the generally accepted model of W trafficking, with implications for understanding of the mechanisms of NiV immune evasion. - Highlights: • A new model for Nipah virus W protein nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is proposed. • Nipah W protein is shown to undergo active nuclear export via exportin-1. • Nipah W nuclear import is mediated by multiple nuclear localisation signals.

  19. Production of monoclonal antibodies for Avian Metapneumovirus (SHS-BR-121 isolated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LT Coswig

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV, also called Turkey Rhinotracheitis Virus (TRTV, is an upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, chickens and other avian species. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were created against the Brazilian isolate (SHS-BR-121 of aMPV, MAbs 1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 of IgG1 and MAb 1C1F8 of IgG2a. Four Mabs (1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 showed neutralizing activity and three (1A5B8; 1C1C4 and 2A4C3 inhibited cellular fusion in vitro. These MAbs were used to investigate antigenic relationship among three strains (SHS-BR-121, STG 854/88 and TRT 1439/91 of aMPV subtypes A and B using cross-neutralization test. The results confirm that the monoclonal antibodies described can be used as a valuable tool in the epizootiological and serological studies, and also for the specific diagnosis of the subtypes in the infection for Avian Metapneumovirus.

  20. Avian metapneumovirus subtype A in China and subtypes A and B in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoade, A A; Ducatez, M F; Hübschen, J M; Sausy, A; Chen, H; Guan, Y; Muller, C P

    2008-09-01

    In order to detect and characterize avian metapneumovirus, organs or swabs were collected from 697 chicken and 110 turkeys from commercial farms in Southwestern Nigeria and from 107 chickens from live bird markets in Southeastern China. In Nigeria, 15% and 6% of the chicken and turkey samples, respectively, and 39% of the chicken samples from China, were positive for aMPV genome by PCR. The sequence of a 400 nt fragment of the attachment protein gene (G gene) revealed the presence of aMPV subtype A in both Nigeria and Southeastern China. Essentially identical subtype A viruses were found in both countries and were also previously reported from Brazil and the United Kingdom, suggesting a link between these countries or a common source of this subtype. In Nigeria, subtype B was also found, which may be a reflection of chicken importations from most major poultry-producing countries in Europe and Asia. In order to justify countermeasures, further studies are warranted to better understand the metapneumoviruses and their impact on poultry production.

  1. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Alexis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.

  2. Serologic evidence of avian metapneumovirus infection among adults occupationally exposed to Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayali, Ghazi; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Chorazy, Margaret L; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Webby, Richard J; Gray, Gregory C

    2011-11-01

    Genetically similar, the avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and the human MPV (hMPV) are the only viruses in the Metapneumovirus genus. Previous research demonstrated the ability of hMPV to cause clinical disease in turkeys. In this controlled, cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study, we examined the hypothesis that aMPV might infect humans. We enrolled 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys and 82 nonexposed controls. Sera from study participants were examined for antibodies against aMPV and hMPV. Both in bivariate (OR=3.2; 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and in multivariate modelling adjusting for antibody to hMPV (OR=4.1; 95% CI: 1.3-13.1), meat-processing workers were found to have an increased odds of previous infection with aMPV compared to controls. While hMPV antibody cross-reactivity is evident, these data suggest that occupational exposure to turkeys is a risk factor for human infection with aMPV. More studies are needed to validate these findings, to identify modes of aMPV transmission, and to determine risk factors associated with infection.

  3. Human metapneumovirus - what we know now [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazly Shafagati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection, particularly in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. HMPV, which is closely related to avian metapneumovirus subtype C, has circulated for at least 65 years, and nearly every child will be infected with HMPV by the age of 5. However, immunity is incomplete, and re-infections occur throughout adult life. Symptoms are similar to those of other respiratory viral infections, ranging from mild (cough, rhinorrhea, and fever to more severe (bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The preferred method for diagnosis is reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as HMPV is difficult to culture. Although there have been many advances made in the past 16 years since its discovery, there are still no US Food and Drug Administration-approved antivirals or vaccines available to treat HMPV. Both small animal and non-human primate models have been established for the study of HMPV. This review will focus on the epidemiology, transmission, and clinical manifestations in humans as well as the animal models of HMPV pathogenesis and host immune response.

  4. Genetic diversity and evolution of human metapneumovirus fusion protein over twenty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-Fen; Wang, Chiaoyin K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Piyaratna, Rohith; Lintao, Linda D; Chu, Marla; Liem, Alexis; Mark, Mary; Spaete, Richard R; Crowe, James E; Williams, John V

    2009-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion) gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years). Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C) 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years). Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently. PMID:19740442

  5. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Johnston

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4 plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  6. Use of monoclonal antibodies against Hendra and Nipah viruses in an antigen capture ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiropoulou Christina F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of Hendra (HeV and Nipah (NiV viruses have been reported starting in 1994 and 1998, respectively. Both viruses are capable of causing fatal disease in humans and effecting great economical loss in the livestock industry. Results Through screening of hybridomas derived from mice immunized with γ-irradiated Nipah virus, we identified two secreted antibodies; one reactive with the nucleocapsid (N protein and the other, the phosphoprotein (P of henipaviruses. Epitope mapping and protein sequence alignments between NiV and HeV suggest the last 14 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus of the N protein is the target of the anti-N antibody. The anti-P antibody recognizes an epitope in the amino-terminal half of P protein. These monoclonal antibodies were used to develop two antigen capture ELISAs, one for virus detection and the other for differentiation between NiV and HeV. The lower limit of detection of the capture assay with both monoclonal antibodies was 400 pfu. The anti-N antibody was used to successfully detect NiV in a lung tissue suspension from an infected pig. Conclusion The antigen capture ELISA developed is potentially affordable tool to provide rapid detection and differentiation between the henipaviruses.

  7. Hendra and Nipah viruses: pathogenesis, animal models and recent breakthroughs in vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingartl HM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hana M Weingartl National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: Hendra and Nipah viruses are two highly pathogenic zoonotic members of the genus Henipavirus, family Paramyxoviridae, requiring work under biosafety level 4 conditions due to a lack of effective therapy and human vaccines. Several vaccine candidates were protective in animal models: recombinant vaccinia virus expressing Nipah virus (NiV F and G proteins in hamsters against NiV; recombinant ALVAC–NiV F and G in swine against NiV; recombinant Hendra virus (HeV soluble G protein (sGHeV against HeV and NiV in cats, ferrets, horses, and African green monkeys (AGM; recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vectors expressing NiV F or G against NiV in hamsters and ferrets; measles virus-based NiV G vaccine candidate in hamsters and AGMs against NiV; and adenoassociated virus expressing NiG protein, which protected hamsters against NiV. The sGHeV was licensed for use in horses (Equivac HeV® in 2012. It is the first vaccine candidate licensed against a biosafety level 4 agent. With the development of suitable animal models (ferret, hamster and, importantly, AGM, progress can be made toward development of a human vaccine.Keywords: henipavirus, equine, swine, human infection, animal models, vaccine candidates

  8. Kualitas Papan Partikel dari Pelepah Nipah dengan Perekat Asam Sitrat dan Sukrosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Santoso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan perekat alami dan bahan baku non kayu dalam pembuatan papan partikel masih sangat terbatas. Sukrosa dan asam sitrat adalah dua bahan alami yang potensial sebagai perekat alami pengganti perekat sintetik berbasis formaldehida. Nipah (Nypa fruticans Wurmb. merupakan bahan non kayu yang potensial dijadikan alternatif bahan baku papan partikel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas papan partikel pelepah nipah yang direkat dengan sukrosa/asam sitrat (100/0, 87,5/12,5 dan 75/25. Papan partikel yang dibuat berukuran 25 cm × 25 cm × 1 cm, target kerapatan 0,8 g/cm3. Variabel perekatan antara lain jumlah perekat 20%, waktu kempa 10 menit, suhu kempa 180°C dan tekanan spesifik 3,6 MPa. Sifat fisika dan mekanika papan partikel diuji berdasarkan standar JIS A 5908:2003, kekasaran permukaan diukur menggunakan metode yang dilakukan oleh Hiziroglu (1996. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan asam sitrat terhadap sukrosa berpengaruh positif terhadap sebagian besar sifat papan partikel pelepah nipah. Papan partikel pelepah nipah dengan perekat sukrosa/asam sitrat 87,5/12,5 mampu memberikan hasil terbaik dengan memenuhi standar JIS A 5908:2003. Karakteristik papan partikel tersebut adalah kerapatan 0,89 g/cm3, kadar air 10,21%, pengembangan tebal 2,45%, penyerapan air 23,55%, kekasaran permukaan 5,13 μm, keteguhan rekat internal 0,39 MPa, keteguhan patah 9,80 MPa dan keteguhan elastisitas 3,19 GPa. Kata kunci: papan partikel, pelepah nipah, perekat alami, sukrosa, asam sitrat   Quality of the Nipa Frond Particleboard Bonded with Citric acid and Sucrose Abstract Utilization of natural binder for non-wood composite is still limited. Sucrose and citric acid are potential natural binding agents for composite products. Nipa (Nypa fruticans Wurmb. was non-wood materials which are potentially to be used as an alternative raw material for particleboards. This study aimed to determine the quality of the nipa frond

  9. A Wild Goose Metapneumovirus Containing a Large Attachment Glycoprotein Is Avirulent but Immunoprotective in Domestic Turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard S.; LaRue, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel; Yu, Qingzhong; Nagaraja, K. V.; Halvorson, David A.; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2005-01-01

    The genomic structure and composition of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) recently isolated from wild Canada geese (goose 15a/01) in the United States, together with its replication, virulence, and immunogenicity in domestic turkeys, were investigated. The sizes of seven of the eight genes, sequence identity, and genome organization of goose aMPV were similar to those of turkey aMPV subtype C (aMPV/C) strains, indicating that it belonged to the subtype. However, the goose virus contained the largest attachment (G) gene of any pneumovirus or metapneumovirus, with the predicted G protein of 585 amino acids (aa) more than twice the sizes of G proteins from other subtype C viruses and human metapneumovirus and more than 170 aa larger than the G proteins from the other aMPV subtypes (subtypes A, B, and D). The large G gene resulted from a 1,015-nucleotide insertion at 18 nucleotides upstream of the termination signal of the turkey aMPV/C G gene. Three other aMPV isolates from Canada geese had similarly large G genes, whereas analysis of recent aMPV strains circulating in U.S. turkeys did not indicate the presence of the goose virus-like strain. In vitro, the goose virus replicated to levels (2 × 105 to 5 × 105 50% tissue culture infective dose) comparable to those produced by turkey aMPV/C strains. More importantly, the virus replicated efficiently in the upper respiratory tract of domestic turkeys but with no clinical signs in either day-old or 2-week-old turkeys. The virus was also horizontally transmitted to naïve birds, and turkey infections with goose 15a/01 induced production of aMPV-specific antibodies. Challenging day-old or 2-week-old turkeys vaccinated with live goose aMPV resulted in lower clinical scores in 33% of the birds, whereas the rest of the birds had no detectable clinical signs of the upper respiratory disease, suggesting that the mutant virus may be a safe and effective vaccine against aMPV infection outbreaks in commercial turkeys. PMID:16282483

  10. Matrix proteins of Nipah and Hendra viruses interact with beta subunits of AP-3 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weina; McCrory, Thomas S; Khaw, Wei Young; Petzing, Stephanie; Myers, Terrell; Schmitt, Anthony P

    2014-11-01

    Paramyxoviruses and other negative-strand RNA viruses encode matrix proteins that coordinate the virus assembly process. The matrix proteins link the viral glycoproteins and the viral ribonucleoproteins at virus assembly sites and often recruit host machinery that facilitates the budding process. Using a co-affinity purification strategy, we have identified the beta subunit of the AP-3 adapter protein complex, AP3B1, as a binding partner for the M proteins of the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Binding function was localized to the serine-rich and acidic Hinge domain of AP3B1, and a 29-amino-acid Hinge-derived polypeptide was sufficient for M protein binding in coimmunoprecipitation assays. Virus-like particle (VLP) production assays were used to assess the relationship between AP3B1 binding and M protein function. We found that for both Nipah virus and Hendra virus, M protein expression in the absence of any other viral proteins led to the efficient production of VLPs in transfected cells, and this VLP production was potently inhibited upon overexpression of short M-binding polypeptides derived from the Hinge region of AP3B1. Both human and bat (Pteropus alecto) AP3B1-derived polypeptides were highly effective at inhibiting the production of VLPs. VLP production was also impaired through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of AP3B1 from cells. These findings suggest that AP-3-directed trafficking processes are important for henipavirus particle production and identify a new host protein-virus protein binding interface that could become a useful target in future efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors to combat paramyxoviral infections. Henipaviruses cause deadly infections in humans, with a mortality rate of about 40%. Hendra virus outbreaks in Australia, all involving horses and some involving transmission to humans, have been a continuing problem. Nipah virus caused a large outbreak in Malaysia in 1998, killing 109 people

  11. Structural dissection of human metapneumovirus phosphoprotein using small angle x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Max; Paesen, Guido C; Grison, Claire M; Granier, Sébastien; Grimes, Jonathan M; Leyrat, Cédric

    2017-11-01

    The phosphoprotein (P) is the main and essential cofactor of the RNA polymerase (L) of non-segmented, negative-strand RNA viruses. P positions the viral polymerase onto its nucleoprotein-RNA template and acts as a chaperone of the nucleoprotein (N), thereby preventing nonspecific encapsidation of cellular RNAs. The phosphoprotein of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) forms homotetramers composed of a stable oligomerization domain (P core ) flanked by large intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Here we combined x-ray crystallography of P core with small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS)-based ensemble modeling of the full-length P protein and several of its fragments to provide a structural description of P that captures its dynamic character, and highlights the presence of varyingly stable structural elements within the IDRs. We discuss the implications of the structural properties of HMPV P for the assembly and functioning of the viral transcription/replication machinery.

  12. Excretion patterns of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus among young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Koch, A

    2006-01-01

    of the infected children showed to have an upper respiratory tract infection when following up. CONCLUSION: Viral RNA was present in nasal secretions, saliva, sweat, and faeces, but whether or not the virions were infectious and constitute a potential mode of transmission remains to be shown in future studies.......BACKGROUND: As respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) cause serious respiratory tract infections, the routes of transmission of these viruses are important to elucidate. We examined the modes of virus shedding and shedding duration of RSV and hMPV in young children....... METHODS: From each child in a group of 44 children (37 RSV-positive, 6 hMPV-positive, and 1 co-infected child), aged between 0.5-38 months, hospitalised at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, one nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), saliva, urine, and faeces sample were collected at inclusion and weekly...

  13. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young.......6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...

  14. First Identification and Molecular Characterization of Avian metapneumovirus Subtype B from Chickens in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Andreopoulou, Marianna; Franzo, Giovanni; Prentza, Zoi; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2017-09-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is considered a major pathogen for turkeys but its impact on chicken production is still partially neglected, even though it is fully acknowledged as a primary pathogen in chickens as well. The lack of structured diagnostic surveys does not allow a pervasive understanding of aMPV epidemiology. Being that aMPV is almost an everyday challenge for farmers and veterinarians, a more accurate report of its presence should be detailed, posing the basis for a deep and global epidemiologic analysis. With these premises, the present work aims to report the first detection and molecular characterization of aMPV subtype B field strains from unvaccinated chickens in Greece. The Greek strains appear to be phylogenetically related among each other and with other recent Mediterranean strains while being distant from the currently applied vaccines, thus stressing once more the necessity to evaluate aMPV diffusion and evolution.

  15. Hatchability, serology and virus excretion following in ovo vaccination of chickens with an avian metapneumovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Heincz, U

    2004-12-01

    The present investigation describes for the first time the effect of an avian metapneumovirus vaccine administered in ovo to 18-day-old chicken embryos. The application of the vaccine had no adverse effect on the hatchability or the health of the chicks post hatch. The antibody titres achieved were higher than those determined for birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Not only were the mean titres in the in ovo vaccinated groups higher, but many more birds developed a measurable antibody response than birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Variation of the vaccine dose used in ovo had little effect on the serological responses that peaked 21 to 28 days post hatch. Re-isolation of the vaccine virus was much more successful from birds vaccinated in ovo than from birds vaccinated at 1 day old, and detection of the nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction correlated with the results of live virus isolation.

  16. A turkey rhinotracheitis outbreak caused by the environmental spread of a vaccine-derived avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, Caterina; Cecchinato, Mattia; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Naylor, Clive J; Catelli, Elena

    2011-10-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype A was isolated from 7-week-old turkeys showing respiratory disease typical of turkey rhinotracheitis. Comparison of the virus sequence with previously determined vaccine marker sequences showed that the virulent virus had originated from a licensed live subtype A aMPV vaccine. The vaccine had neither been in use on the farm within a period of at least 6 months nor had it been used on farms within a distance of approximately 5 km. Isolation of the virus and exposure to naive turkeys caused disease typical of a virulent aMPV field strain. The study shows that disease was caused by exposure to aMPV vaccine-derived virus that was present in the environment, and indicates that such virus is able to circulate for longer than was previously envisaged.

  17. Development of a vaccine-challenge model for avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T; Noll, Sally L; Thachil, Anil J; Shaw, Daniel P; Goyal, Sagar M; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2007-02-26

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different preparations of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C as vaccine challenge in turkeys. Two aMPV isolates and their respective nasal turbinate homogenates after propagation in turkeys were used in the study. Significantly higher clinical sign scores were recorded in birds inoculated with 20 or 2% turbinate homogenate of recent isolate. Birds in the above groups showed more pronounced histopathological lesions, and a higher percentage of birds showed viral RNA and antigen in tissues. The data demonstrated that nasal turbinate homogenate of recent isolate produced severe clinical signs and lesions in turkeys and could be an ideal candidate for vaccine-challenge studies.

  18. Production of monoclonal antibodies for Avian Metapneumovirus (SHS-BR-121) isolated in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Coswig,LT; Stach-Machado,DR; Arns,CW

    2007-01-01

    Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV), also called Turkey Rhinotracheitis Virus (TRTV), is an upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, chickens and other avian species. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were created against the Brazilian isolate (SHS-BR-121) of aMPV, MAbs 1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 of IgG1 and MAb 1C1F8 of IgG2a. Four Mabs (1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3) showed neutralizing activity and three (1A5B8; 1C1C4 and 2A4C3) inhibited cellular fusion in vitro. These MAbs were used to ...

  19. Contribution of the attachment G glycoprotein to pathogenicity and immunogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2010-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys leading to serious economic losses to the turkey industry. The G glycoprotein of AMPV is known to be associated with viral attachment and pathogenesis. In this study, we determined the role of the G glycoprotein in the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of AMPV strain Colorado (AMPV/CO). Recombinant AMPV/CO lacking the G protein (rAMPV/CO-deltaG) was generated using a reverse-genetics system. The recovered rAMPV/CO-deltaG replicated slightly better than did wild-type AMPV in Vero cells. However, deletion of the G gene in AMPV resulted in attenuation of the virus in turkeys. The mutant virus induced less-severe clinical signs and a weaker immune response in turkeys than did the wild-type AMPV. Our results suggest that the G glycoprotein is an important determinant for the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of AMPV.

  20. Density and white shrimp growth pattern (penaeus merguiensis) in kampung nipah waters of perbaungan north sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Silaen, Sri; Budi Mulya, Miswar

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the density and pattern of growth of white shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis)of the village Nipah waters. The data collection was conducted by sampling using nets and fishing gear “Langge” (a tool) to determine the density of the three observation stations. The result showed that the distribution of white shrimp in the waters of the estuary and surrounding degraded over the past ten years. The highest density at station II is 0.56 and 5/m2 and at least at the third station as much as 0.42 and 6/m2 The correlation between the density of shrimp with depth as well as the fraction of the base substrate showed that only the depth of the waters who has any significant correlation with the density of shrimp, although the closeness of the relationship is small.

  1. Efficacy of gamithromycin against Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkey poults pre-infected with avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watteyn, Anneleen; Devreese, Mathias; Plessers, Elke; Wyns, Heidi; Garmyn, An; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-10-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is an avian respiratory pathogen that affects turkeys. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of gamithromycin (GAM) against O. rhinotracheale in turkeys. The birds were inoculated oculonasally with 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of O. rhinotracheale, preceded by infection with avian metapneumovirus. In addition to a negative (CONTR-) and a positive control group (CONTR+) there were two treated groups administered GAM (6 mg/kg) either subcutaneously (GAM SC) or orally (GAM PO) by administration as a single bolus at one-day post-bacterial infection (p.b.i.). From the start of the avian metapneumovirus infection until the end of the experiment, the turkeys were examined clinically and scored daily. In addition, tracheal swabs were collected at several days p.b.i. Necropsy was performed at 4, 8 and 12 days p.b.i. to evaluate the presence of gross lesions, and to collect trachea and lung tissue samples and air sac swabs for O. rhinotracheale quantification. The clinical score of the GAM SC group showed slightly lower values and birds recovered earlier than those in the GAM PO and CONTR+ groups. O. rhinotracheale cfus were significantly reduced in tracheal swabs of the SC group between 2 and 4 days p.b.i. At necropsy, CONTR+ showed higher O. rhinotracheale cfu in lung tissues compared to the treated groups. Moreover, at 8 days p.b.i. only the lung samples of CONTR+ were positive. In conclusion, the efficacy of GAM against O. rhinotracheale was demonstrated, especially in the lung tissue. However, the PO bolus administration of the commercially available product was not as efficacious as the SC bolus.

  2. Localization of a region in the fusion protein of avian metapneumovirus that modulates cell-cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M; Iorio, Ronald M; Li, Jianrong

    2012-11-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented.

  3. Pertumbuhan dan Struktur Umur Kerang Kepah (Meretrix meretrix di Kampung Nipah Desa Sei Nagalawan Kecamatan Perbaungan Kabupaten Serdang Bedagai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafi Sakila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sei Nipah has enormous potential for natural resources. Natural resources that serve as the main livelihood in fulfilling daily needs in Kampung Nipah is shellfish. Shellfish (M. meretrix is one of the shells that many interested by the surrounding community. The purpose of this research is to know growth parameter and age group of shellfish (M. meretrix in Kampung Nipah. The sampling technique was done randomly (simple random sampling. Sampling time is done at low tide. Sampling was conducted in March - May 2017. The results showed differences in the length of different shells each month. The size group of shellfish (M. meretrix found only one size group during the three months of the study. Analysis of shellfish growth parameters based on data of long frequency distribution showed length of infiniti (L? 33,10 mm and growth growth (K that was 1,21 per month. Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters Lt = 33.1 (1-e [-1.21 (t + 0.12] Long infiniti size is seen the growth of shellfish shells can no longer be worked Shells reach maximum length at the age of 13 months with a shell length of 33.10 mm.The youthful shells have rapid growth and as age increases, when it reaches old age the rate of growth will slow even.

  4. Inhibition of Nipah virus infection in vivo: targeting an early stage of paramyxovirus fusion activation during viral entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Porotto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paramyxovirus cell entry process, receptor binding triggers conformational changes in the fusion protein (F leading to viral and cellular membrane fusion. Peptides derived from C-terminal heptad repeat (HRC regions in F have been shown to inhibit fusion by preventing formation of the fusogenic six-helix bundle. We recently showed that the addition of a cholesterol group to HRC peptides active against Nipah virus targets these peptides to the membrane where fusion occurs, dramatically increasing their antiviral effect. In this work, we report that unlike the untagged HRC peptides, which bind to the postulated extended intermediate state bridging the viral and cell membranes, the cholesterol tagged HRC-derived peptides interact with F before the fusion peptide inserts into the target cell membrane, thus capturing an earlier stage in the F-activation process. Furthermore, we show that cholesterol tagging renders these peptides active in vivo: the cholesterol-tagged peptides cross the blood brain barrier, and effectively prevent and treat in an established animal model what would otherwise be fatal Nipah virus encephalitis. The in vivo efficacy of cholesterol-tagged peptides, and in particular their ability to penetrate the CNS, suggests that they are promising candidates for the prevention or therapy of infection by Nipah and other lethal paramyxoviruses.

  5. Metapneumovirus humano (hMPV asociado con exacerbación de asma aguda bronquial severa Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV associated to severe bronchial asthmatic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. López

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available El metapneumovirus humano (hMPV es un nuevo agente causal de infección aguda del tracto respiratorio, recientemente reportado tras su hallazgo en niños, jóvenes, adultos y ancianos. Las manifestaciones clínicas producidas por el hMPV son indistinguibles de aquellas provocadas por los virus respiratorios clásicamente conocidos, y varían desde infección asintomática hasta neumonía complicada. Por otro lado, se han descrito casos de exacerbación de asma bronquial asociados a la infección con hMPV. En este trabajo se describe el caso de un niño hospitalizado que presentó una crisis asmática bronquial severa con sospecha de una infección viral asociada. Por el test de inmunofluorescencia indirecta no se detectaron virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR, adenovirus, virus influenza a - b ni virus parainfluenza 1, 2 y 3. En un intento por detectar la presencia de hMPV, se realizó una RT-PCR para la amplificación de los genes N y F con resultado positivo. Conforme a nuestro conocimiento, esta sería la primera descripción de un caso de exacerbación de asma asociado a hMPV en nuestra región. Los resultados de este estudio serían similares a los reportados por otros autores, quienes postulan que, a semejanza de lo que ocurre con el VSR, una infección por hMPV puede gatillar una enfermedad respiratoria crónica, como el asma.Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV is a recently reported agent of acute infection in the respiratory tract. It has been found in children as well as in young adults and elders. The clinical manifestations produced by hMPV are indistinguishable from those by common respiratory virus, and can evolve from asymptomatic infection into severe pneumonia. On the other hand, some authors have described cases of bronchial asthma exacerbation associated with hMPV infection. In this work we report a case of a child who presented a severe bronchial asthmatic crisis with a suspected viral associated infection. Immunofluorescence tests

  6. Molecular comparisons of full length metapneumovirus (MPV genomes, including newly determined French AMPV-C and -D isolates, further supports possible subclassification within the MPV Genus.

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    Paul A Brown

    Full Text Available Four avian metapneumovirus (AMPV subgroups (A-D have been reported previously based on genetic and antigenic differences. However, until now full length sequences of the only known isolates of European subgroup C and subgroup D viruses (duck and turkey origin, respectively have been unavailable. These full length sequences were determined and compared with other full length AMPV and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV sequences reported previously, using phylogenetics, comparisons of nucleic and amino acid sequences and study of codon usage bias. Results confirmed that subgroup C viruses were more closely related to HMPV than they were to the other AMPV subgroups in the study. This was consistent with previous findings using partial genome sequences. Closer relationships between AMPV-A, B and D were also evident throughout the majority of results. Three metapneumovirus "clusters" HMPV, AMPV-C and AMPV-A, B and D were further supported by codon bias and phylogenetics. The data presented here together with those of previous studies describing antigenic relationships also between AMPV-A, B and D and between AMPV-C and HMPV may call for a subclassification of metapneumoviruses similar to that used for avian paramyxoviruses, grouping AMPV-A, B and D as type I metapneumoviruses and AMPV-C and HMPV as type II.

  7. Molecular Comparisons of Full Length Metapneumovirus (MPV) Genomes, Including Newly Determined French AMPV-C and –D Isolates, Further Supports Possible Subclassification within the MPV Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul A.; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Briand, François-Xavier; Courtillon, Céline; Guionie, Olivier; Allée, Chantal; Toquin, Didier; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Jestin, Véronique; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Four avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroups (A–D) have been reported previously based on genetic and antigenic differences. However, until now full length sequences of the only known isolates of European subgroup C and subgroup D viruses (duck and turkey origin, respectively) have been unavailable. These full length sequences were determined and compared with other full length AMPV and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) sequences reported previously, using phylogenetics, comparisons of nucleic and amino acid sequences and study of codon usage bias. Results confirmed that subgroup C viruses were more closely related to HMPV than they were to the other AMPV subgroups in the study. This was consistent with previous findings using partial genome sequences. Closer relationships between AMPV-A, B and D were also evident throughout the majority of results. Three metapneumovirus “clusters” HMPV, AMPV-C and AMPV-A, B and D were further supported by codon bias and phylogenetics. The data presented here together with those of previous studies describing antigenic relationships also between AMPV-A, B and D and between AMPV-C and HMPV may call for a subclassification of metapneumoviruses similar to that used for avian paramyxoviruses, grouping AMPV-A, B and D as type I metapneumoviruses and AMPV-C and HMPV as type II. PMID:25036224

  8. Human Metapneumovirus Induces Formation of Inclusion Bodies for Efficient Genome Replication and Transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Branttie, Jean; Slaughter, Kerri Beth; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2017-12-15

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) causes significant upper and lower respiratory disease in all age groups worldwide. The virus possesses a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 13.3 kb encapsidated by multiple copies of the nucleoprotein (N), giving rise to helical nucleocapsids. In addition, copies of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large RNA polymerase (L) decorate the viral nucleocapsids. After viral attachment, endocytosis, and fusion mediated by the viral glycoproteins, HMPV nucleocapsids are released into the cell cytoplasm. To visualize the subsequent steps of genome transcription and replication, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was established to detect different viral RNA subpopulations in infected cells. The FISH probes were specific for detection of HMPV positive-sense RNA (+RNA) and viral genomic RNA (vRNA). Time course analysis of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells infected with HMPV revealed the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) from early times postinfection. HMPV IBs were shown to be cytoplasmic sites of active transcription and replication, with the translation of viral proteins being closely associated. Inclusion body formation was consistent with an actin-dependent coalescence of multiple early replicative sites. Time course quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis suggested that the coalescence of inclusion bodies is a strategy to efficiently replicate and transcribe the viral genome. These results provide a better understanding of the steps following HMPV entry and have important clinical implications. IMPORTANCE Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered pathogen that affects human populations of all ages worldwide. Reinfections are common throughout life, but no vaccines or antiviral treatments are currently available. In this work, a spatiotemporal analysis of HMPV replication and transcription in bronchial epithelial cell-derived immortal cells was performed. HMPV was shown to

  9. Phosphorylation of Human Metapneumovirus M2-1 Protein Upregulates Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Mijia; Liang, Xueya; Jennings, Ryan; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2016-08-15

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major causative agent of upper- and lower-respiratory-tract infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. Like all pneumoviruses, hMPV encodes the zinc binding protein M2-1, which plays important regulatory roles in RNA synthesis. The M2-1 protein is phosphorylated, but the specific role(s) of the phosphorylation in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that hMPV M2-1 is phosphorylated at amino acid residues S57 and S60. Subsequent mutagenesis found that phosphorylation is not essential for zinc binding activity and oligomerization, whereas inhibition of zinc binding activity abolished the phosphorylation and oligomerization of the M2-1 protein. Using a reverse genetics system, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) lacking either one or both phosphorylation sites in the M2-1 protein were recovered. These recombinant viruses had a significant decrease in both genomic RNA replication and mRNA transcription. In addition, these recombinant viruses were highly attenuated in cell culture and cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs lacking phosphorylation in the M2-1 protein triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with wild-type hMPV. Collectively, these data demonstrated that phosphorylation of the M2-1 protein upregulates hMPV RNA synthesis, replication, and pathogenesis in vivo The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and children. Currently, there is no antiviral or vaccine to combat these diseases. All known pneumoviruses encode a zinc binding protein, M2-1, which is a transcriptional antitermination factor. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of M2-1 is essential for virus

  10. The Nature of Exposure Drives Transmission of Nipah Viruses from Malaysia and Bangladesh in Ferrets.

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    Bronwyn A Clayton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Person-to-person transmission is a key feature of human Nipah virus outbreaks in Bangladesh. In contrast, in an outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia, people acquired infections from pigs. It is not known whether this important epidemiological difference is driven primarily by differences between NiV Bangladesh (NiV-BD and Malaysia (NiV-MY at a virus level, or by environmental or host factors. In a time course study, ferrets were oronasally exposed to equivalent doses of NiV-BD or NiV-MY. More rapid onset of productive infection and higher levels of virus replication in respiratory tract tissues were seen for NiV-BD compared to NiV-MY, corroborating our previous report of increased oral shedding of NiV-BD in ferrets and suggesting a contributory mechanism for increased NiV-BD transmission between people compared to NiV-MY. However, we recognize that transmission occurs within a social and environmental framework that may have an important and differentiating role in NiV transmission rates. With this in mind, ferret-to-ferret transmission of NiV-BD and NiV-MY was assessed under differing viral exposure conditions. Transmission was not identified for either virus when naïve ferrets were cohoused with experimentally-infected animals. In contrast, all naïve ferrets developed acute infection following assisted and direct exposure to oronasal fluid from animals that were shedding either NiV-BD or NiV-MY. Our findings for ferrets indicate that, although NiV-BD may be shed at higher levels than NiV-MY, transmission risk may be equivalently low under exposure conditions provided by cohabitation alone. In contrast, active transfer of infected bodily fluids consistently results in transmission, regardless of the virus strain. These observations suggest that the risk of NiV transmission is underpinned by social and environmental factors, and will have practical implications for managing transmission risk during outbreaks of human disease.

  11. Region of Nipah virus C protein responsible for shuttling between the cytoplasm and nucleus

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    Horie, Ryo; Yoneda, Misako, E-mail: yone@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Uchida, Shotaro; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2016-10-15

    Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe encephalitis in humans, with high mortality. NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) is essential for its pathogenicity, but its functions are unclear. In this study, we focused on NiV-C trafficking in cells and found that it localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but partly in the nucleus. An analysis of NiV-C mutants showed that amino acids 2, 21–24 and 110–139 of NiV-C are important for its localization in the cytoplasm. Inhibitor treatment indicates that the nuclear export determinant is not a classical CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal. We also determined that amino acids 60–75 and 72–75 were important for nuclear localization of NiV-C. Furthermore, NiV-C mutants that had lost their capacity for nuclear localization inhibited the interferon (IFN) response more strongly than complete NiV-C. These results indicate that the IFN-antagonist activity of NiV-C occurs in the cytoplasm. -- Highlights: •Nipah virus (NiV) infection resulted in high mortality, but effective treatment has not been established. •Several reports revealed that NiV nonstructural C protein (NiV-C) was essential for NiV pathogenicity, however, whole of NiV-C function is still unknown. •Although nonstructural C proteins of other Paramyxoviruses are expressed in similar mechanism and exert similar activity, subcellular localization and cellular targets are different. In this study, we evaluated the subcellular localization of NiV-C. •To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that NiV-C shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. We also clarified that NiV-C has nuclear export signal and nuclear localization signal using NiV-C deleted, alanine substitution mutants and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fused proteins. •And we also showed that interferon (IFN) antagonist activity of NiV-C related to its subcellular localization. Our results indicate that NiV-C exert IFN antagonist activity in the cytoplasm.

  12. Comparative evaluation of conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR) for detection of avian metapneumovirus subtype A

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, HL; Spilki, FR; dos Santos, MMAB; de Almeida, RS; Arns, CW

    2009-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...

  13. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  14. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

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    Cha Ra Mi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC and Canada geese (CG were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI, severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  15. Functional motifs responsible for human metapneumovirus M2-2-mediated innate immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Deng, Xiaoling; Deng, Junfang; Zhou, Jiehua; Ren, Yuping; Liu, Shengxuan; Prusak, Deborah J; Wood, Thomas G; Bao, Xiaoyong

    2016-12-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory infection in young children. Repeated infections occur throughout life, but its immune evasion mechanisms are largely unknown. We recently found that hMPV M2-2 protein elicits immune evasion by targeting mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an antiviral signaling molecule. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such inhibition are not known. Our mutagenesis studies revealed that PDZ-binding motifs, 29-DEMI-32 and 39-KEALSDGI-46, located in an immune inhibitory region of M2-2, are responsible for M2-2-mediated immune evasion. We also found both motifs prevent TRAF5 and TRAF6, the MAVS downstream adaptors, to be recruited to MAVS, while the motif 39-KEALSDGI-46 also blocks TRAF3 migrating to MAVS. In parallel, these TRAFs are important in activating transcription factors NF-kB and/or IRF-3 by hMPV. Our findings collectively demonstrate that M2-2 uses its PDZ motifs to launch the hMPV immune evasion through blocking the interaction of MAVS and its downstream TRAFs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic diversity of human metapneumovirus in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagušić, Maja; Slović, Anamarija; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana; Forčić, Dubravko

    2017-11-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is recognized as a global and frequent cause of acute respiratory tract infections among people of all ages. The objectives of this study were molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of HMPV strains which produced moderate and severe acute respiratory tract infections in children in Croatia during four consecutive seasons (2011-2014). A total of 117 HMPV-positive samples collected from hospitalized pediatric patients presenting with acute respiratory tract infections and tested by direct immunofluorescence assay were first analyzed by amplifying a part of the F gene. Sixteen samples were further analyzed based on complete F, G, and SH gene sequences. HMPV genome was identified in 92 of 117 samples (78%) and the circulation of multiple lineages of HMPV was confirmed. In 2011, 2012, and 2014, subgroups A2 and B2 co-circulated, while B1 gained prevalence in 2013 and 2014. The study established the presence of a novel subcluster A2c in Croatia. This subcluster has only recently been detected in East and Southeast Asia. This study provides new insights into epidemiology and genetic diversity of HMPV in this part of Europe. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) associated to severe bronchial asthmatic crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M A; Kusznierz, G F; Imaz, M S; Cociglio, R; Tedeschi, F A; Zalazar, F E

    2006-01-01

    Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently reported agent of acute infection in the respiratory tract. It has been found in children as well as in young adults and elders. The clinical manifestations produced by hMPV are indistinguishable from those by common respiratory virus, and can evolve from asymptomatic infection into severe pneumonia. On the other hand, some authors have described cases of bronchial asthma exacerbation associated with hMPV infection. In this work we report a case of a child who presented a severe bronchial asthmatic crisis with a suspected viral associated infection. Immunofluorescence tests yielded negative results for sincitial respiratory virus, adenovirus, a-b influenza virus and parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, virus. In an attempt to detect the presence of hMPV, a RT-PCR was carried out to amplify sequences from both N and F genes. Using this approach, a positive result for hMPV was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of asthma exacerbation associated to hMPV in our region. In addition, these results are similar to previous reports where it was hypothesized that, like RSV, hMPV can trigger a respiratory chronic disease as asthma.

  18. Comparative epidemiology of human metapneumovirus- and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, John P; Arvelo, Wences; Ortíz, José; Reyes, Lissette; Gray, Jennifer; Estevez, Alejandra; Castañeda, Oscar; Langley, Gayle; Lindblade, Kim A

    2014-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infections (ARI), but little is known about how it compares with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Central America. Objectives In this study, we describe hospitalized cases of HMPV- and RSV-ARI in Guatemala. Methods We conducted surveillance at three hospitals (November 2007–December 2012) and tested nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab specimens for HMPV and RSV using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We calculated incidence rates, and compared the epidemiology and outcomes of HMPV-positive versus RSV-positive and RSV-HMPV-negative cases. Results We enrolled and tested specimens from 6288 ARI cases; 596 (9%) were HMPV-positive and 1485 (24%) were RSV-positive. We observed a seasonal pattern of RSV but not HMPV. The proportion HMPV-positive was low (3%) and RSV-positive high (41%) for age Guatemala, but HMPV hospitalizations are less frequent than RSV and, in young children, less severe than other etiologies. Preventive interventions should take into account the wide variation in incidence by age and unpredictable timing of incidence peaks. PMID:24761765

  19. Human Metapneumovirus Infection is Associated with Severe Respiratory Disease in Preschool Children with History of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo

    2016-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same family as that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, however, it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with a history of severe prematurity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool-age children (≤5 years) with and without history of severe prematurity (prematurity. Preschool children with a history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity, and history of asthma. Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with a history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Molecular detection of infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumoviruses in Oman backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure and self-assembly of the calcium binding matrix protein of human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrat, Cedric; Renner, Max; Harlos, Karl; Huiskonen, Juha T; Grimes, Jonathan M

    2014-01-07

    The matrix protein (M) of paramyxoviruses plays a key role in determining virion morphology by directing viral assembly and budding. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human metapneumovirus M at 2.8 Å resolution in its native dimeric state. The structure reveals the presence of a high-affinity Ca²⁺ binding site. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) predict a secondary lower-affinity site that correlates well with data from fluorescence-based thermal shift assays. By combining small-angle X-ray scattering with MDS and ensemble analysis, we captured the structure and dynamics of M in solution. Our analysis reveals a large positively charged patch on the protein surface that is involved in membrane interaction. Structural analysis of DOPC-induced polymerization of M into helical filaments using electron microscopy leads to a model of M self-assembly. The conservation of the Ca²⁺ binding sites suggests a role for calcium in the replication and morphogenesis of pneumoviruses. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Flinders Technology Associates cards for storage and molecular detection of avian metapneumoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Faez; Baylis, Matthew; Jones, Richard C; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards for the molecular detection of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was investigated. Findings showed that no virus isolation was possible from aMPV-inoculated FTA cards, confirming viral inactivation upon contact with the cards. The detection limits of aMPV from the FTA card and tracheal organ culture medium were 10(1.5) median ciliostatic doses/ml and 10(0.75) median ciliostatic doses/ml respectively. It was possible to perform molecular characterization of both subtypes A and B aMPV using inoculated FTA cards stored for up to 60 days at 4 to 6°C. Tissues of the turbinate, trachea and lung of aMPV-infected chicks sampled either by direct impression smears or by inoculation of the tissue homogenate supernatants onto the FTA cards were positive by RT-PCR. However, the latter yielded more detections. FTA cards are suitable for collecting and transporting aMPV-positive samples, providing a reliable and hazard-free source of RNA for molecular characterization.

  3. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a respiratory pathogen associated with the swollen head syndrome (SHS in chickens. In Brazil, live aMPV vaccines are currently used, but subtypes A and, mainly subtype B (aMPV/A and aMPV/B are still circulating. This study was conducted to characterize two Brazilian aMPV isolates (A and B subtypes of chicken origin. A challenge trial to explore the replication ability of the Brazilian subtypes A and B in chickens was performed. Subsequently, virological protection provided from an aMPV/B vaccine against the same isolates was analyzed. Upon challenge experiment, it was shown by virus isolation and real time PCR that aMPV/B could be detected longer and in higher amounts than aMPV/A. For the protection study, 18 one-day-old chicks were vaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age. Using virus isolation and real time PCR, no aMPV/A was detected in the vaccinated chickens, whereas one vaccinated chicken challenged with the aMPV/B isolate was positive. The results showed that aMPV/B vaccine provided a complete heterologous virological protection, although homologous protection was not complete in one chicken. Although only one aMPV/B positive chicken was detected after homologous vaccination, replication in vaccinated animals might allow the emergence of escape mutants.

  4. Diagnosis of human metapneumovirus infection in immunosuppressed lung transplant recipients and children evaluated for pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Ryan; Sanghavi, Sonali; Bullotta, Arlene; Keightley, Maria-Cristina; George, Kirsten St; Wadowsky, Robert M; Paterson, David L; McCurry, Kenneth R; Reinhart, Todd A; Husain, Shahid; Rinaldo, Charles R

    2007-02-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered paramyxovirus that is known to cause respiratory tract infections in children and immunocompromised individuals. Given the difficulties of identifying hMPV by conventional culture, molecular techniques could improve the detection of this virus in clinical specimens. In this study, we developed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay designed to detect the four genetic lineages of hMPV. This assay and a commercial real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) were used to determine the prevalence of hMPV in 114 immunosuppressed asymptomatic and symptomatic lung transplant recipients and 232 pediatric patients who were being evaluated for pertussis. hMPV was detected in 4.3% of the immunosuppressed lung transplant recipients and in 9.9% of children evaluated for pertussis. Both RT-PCR and NASBA assays were efficient in detection of hMPV infection in respiratory specimens. Even though hMPV was detected in a small number of the lung transplant recipients, it was still the most prevalent etiologic agent detected in patients with respiratory symptoms. In both of these diverse patient populations, hMPV infection was the most frequent viral respiratory tract infection identified. Given our findings, infection with hMPV infection should be determined as part of the differential diagnosis of respiratory illnesses.

  5. Diagnosis of Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Immunosuppressed Lung Transplant Recipients and Children Evaluated for Pertussis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Ryan; Sanghavi, Sonali; Bullotta, Arlene; Keightley, Maria-Cristina; George, Kirsten St.; Wadowsky, Robert M.; Paterson, David L.; McCurry, Kenneth R.; Reinhart, Todd A.; Husain, Shahid; Rinaldo, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered paramyxovirus that is known to cause respiratory tract infections in children and immunocompromised individuals. Given the difficulties of identifying hMPV by conventional culture, molecular techniques could improve the detection of this virus in clinical specimens. In this study, we developed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay designed to detect the four genetic lineages of hMPV. This assay and a commercial real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) were used to determine the prevalence of hMPV in 114 immunosuppressed asymptomatic and symptomatic lung transplant recipients and 232 pediatric patients who were being evaluated for pertussis. hMPV was detected in 4.3% of the immunosuppressed lung transplant recipients and in 9.9% of children evaluated for pertussis. Both RT-PCR and NASBA assays were efficient in detection of hMPV infection in respiratory specimens. Even though hMPV was detected in a small number of the lung transplant recipients, it was still the most prevalent etiologic agent detected in patients with respiratory symptoms. In both of these diverse patient populations, hMPV infection was the most frequent viral respiratory tract infection identified. Given our findings, infection with hMPV infection should be determined as part of the differential diagnosis of respiratory illnesses. PMID:17065270

  6. Avian metapneumovirus excretion in vaccinated and non-vaccinated specified pathogen free laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Mudzamiri, R; Heincz, U

    2004-02-01

    Vaccinated and non-vaccinated specified pathogen-free White Leghorn laying chickens were challenged at peak of lay by the intravenous or oculonasal route with a virulent avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype B chicken strain. Severe clinical signs and a drop in egg production were induced in the non-vaccinated intravenously challenged birds whereas the vaccinates were not affected. Live virus excretion was demonstrated in the faeces and respiratory tract of non-vaccinated hens for up to 7 days post intravenous challenge. After oculonasal challenge, virus excretion could only be demonstrated in the respiratory tract for up to 5 days. No live virus excretion was found in either the faeces or the respiratory tract of vaccinated birds. Concurrent with live virus isolation, the presence of viral RNA was demonstrated by single reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Nested RT-PCR was more sensitive and viral RNA could be detected in non-vaccinated birds up to 28 days post either intravenous or oculonasal challenge, at which time the experiment was terminated. Viral RNA was detected for up to 12 days in vaccinated birds. This is the first study investigating excretion of aMPV and viral RNA in vaccinated and non-vaccinated laying hens challenged under experimental conditions. The results are of importance with regard to the persistence of aMPV and the appropriate diagnostic detection method in laying birds.

  7. Detection of avian metapneumovirus subtypes in turkeys using RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongor, H; Karahan, M; Kalin, R; Bulut, H; Cetinkaya, B

    2010-03-20

    This study investigated the prevalence of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and the detection of molecular subtypes of field strains of the virus using RT-PCR in clinically healthy turkeys and those showing signs of respiratory disease. In the RT-PCR examination of 624 tracheal tissue samples collected from a local turkey abattoir, 2.9 per cent (18/624) of samples tested positive. In the examination of tracheal swab samples collected from flocks with respiratory problems, 18 of 20 samples tested positive. When the results were assessed at flock level, aMPV infection was detected in only one of the 23 clinically healthy turkey flocks, whereas all four flocks with respiratory problems were infected. Molecular typing using primers specific to the attachment glycoprotein (G) gene showed that all 36 positive samples belonged to subtype B. Partial sequence analysis of DNA samples showed 95 per cent homology between the field types and the reference strain aMPV subtype B. Whereas clinically healthy turkeys had been vaccinated with a subtype A virus vaccine, the flocks with respiratory problems had been vaccinated with a subtype B virus vaccine. Despite four blind passages of RT-PCR-positive samples on Vero and chicken embryo fibroblast cells, no cytopathic effect was detected by microscopic examination.

  8. Immunization with avian metapneumovirus harboring chicken Fc induces higher immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sarita; Easwaran, Maheswaran; Jang, Hyun; Jung, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Joo-Hun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2016-07-15

    In this study, we evaluated the immune responses of avian metapneumovirus harboring chicken Fc molecule. Stable Vero cells expressing chicken Fc chimera on its surface (Vero-cFc) were established, and we confirmed that aMPV grown in Vero-cFc incorporated host derived chimera Fc into the aMPV virions. Immunization of chicken with aMPV-cFc induced higher level of antibodies and inflammatory cytokines; (Interferon (IFN)-γ and Interleukin (IL)-1β) compared to those of aMPV. The increased levels of antibodies and inflammatory cytokines in chicken immunized with aMPV-cFc were statistically significantly (p<0.05) to that of aMPV and control. The aMPV-cFc group also generated the highest neutralizing antibody response. After challenges, chickens immunized with aMPV-cFc showed much less pathological signs in nasal turbinates and trachea so that we could confirm aMPV-cFc induced higher protection than that of aMPV. The greater ability of aMPV harboring chicken Fc to that of aMPV presented it as a possible vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro antiviral activity of chestnut and quebracho woods extracts against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, C; Cecchinato, M; Scagliarini, A; Graziani, R; Catelli, E

    2009-12-01

    Field evidences have suggested that a natural extract, containing tannins, could be effective against poultry enteric viral infections. Moreover previous studies have shown that vegetable tannins can have antiviral activity against human viruses. Based on this knowledge three different Chestnut (Castanea spp.) wood extracts and one Quebracho (Schinopsis spp.) wood extract, all containing tannins and currently used in the animal feed industry, were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against avian reovirus (ARV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the 50% cytotoxic compounds concentration (CC(50)) on Vero cells. The antiviral properties were tested before and after the adsorption of the viruses to Vero cells. Antiviral activities were expressed as IC(50) (concentration required to inhibit 50% of viral cytopathic effect). CC(50)s of tested compounds were > 200 microg/ml. All compounds had an extracellular antiviral effect against both ARV and AMPV with IC(50) values ranging from 25 to 66 microg/ml. Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity (IC(50) 24 microg/ml). These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings.

  10. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C induces autophagy through the ATF6 UPR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Quan, Rong; Li, Zixuan; Liu, Jue

    2017-10-03

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that macroautophagy/autophagy plays an important role in the infectious processes of diverse pathogens. However, it remains unknown whether autophagy is induced in avian metapneumovirus (aMPV)-infected host cells, and, if so, how this occurs. Here, we report that aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) induces autophagy in cultured cells. We demonstrated this relationship by detecting classical autophagic features, including the formation of autophagsomes, the presence of GFP-LC3 puncta and the conversation of LC3-I into LC3-II. Also, we used pharmacological regulators and siRNAs targeting ATG7 or LC3 to examine the role of autophagy in aMPV/C replication. The results showed that autophagy is required for efficient replication of aMPV/C. Moreover, infection with aMPV/C promotes autophagosome maturation and induces a complete autophagic process. Finally, the ATF6 pathway, of which one component is the unfolded protein response (UPR), becomes activated in aMPV/C-infected cells. Knockdown of ATF6 inhibited aMPV/C-induced autophagy and viral replication. Collectively, these results not only show that autophagy promotes aMPV/C replication in the cultured cells, but also reveal that the molecular mechanisms underlying aMPV/C-induced autophagy depends on regulation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway.

  11. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Yu, Qingzhong; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-01-30

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  12. Investigations on the protective role of passively transferred antibodies against avian metapneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2009-12-01

    The avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is the causative agent of an acute respiratory disease in turkeys, which causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Currently attenuated live and inactivated vaccines are widely used to control the disease, but vaccine breaks are frequently observed. For improvement of current vaccination strategies it is necessary to gain enhanced knowledge of the immune mechanisms against aMPV infection. Field observations suggest that vaccine-induced aMPV-specific antibodies are not indicative for protection. In the present study we investigated the role of antibodies in protection of turkeys against aMPV. In two experiments, commercial turkey poults received aMPV-specific antibodies by intravenous injection. The antibody transfer resulted in increased antibody levels in the sera. Virus-specific antibodies were also detected on mucosal surfaces such as the trachea, conjunctivae and gall bladder. Turkeys were subsequently challenged with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Development of clinical signs, virus detection by polymerase chain reaction and histopathological changes of tracheal mucosa in challenged turkeys with and without passively transferred antibodies were comparable with each other. Our results suggest that humoral immunity does not provide sufficient protection against aMPV infection. Thus, the measurement of vaccine-induced aMPV antibody response may not be considered as an adequate indicator of vaccine efficacy. Further research on the protective role of cell-mediated immune mechanisms is necessary to improve current vaccine strategies.

  13. Comparative pathogenicity of early and recent isolates of avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T; Noll, Sally L; Thachil, Anil J; Halvorson, David A; Shaw, Daniel P; Goyal, Sagar M; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the pathogenicity of early and recent isolates of avian metapneumovirus subtype-C (aMPV-C) in turkeys. Two-week-old turkeys were inoculated with early and recent isolates of aMPV-C. Clinical signs were monitored. Tissues were examined for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA), lesions, and viral antigen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), histopathology and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Birds infected with the recent isolate had higher clinical sign scores than those infected with the early isolate. Only the recent isolate produced a multifocal loss of cilia in the nasal turbinate of infected birds. Immunohistochemistry revealed intense staining of aMPV antigen in turbinate and trachea of birds infected with the recent isolate. The findings indicate that the recent isolate produced more severe clinical signs and lesions in turkeys compared to the early isolate. The recent isolate could be ideal for the development of a challenge model for aMPV infection in turkeys.

  14. Propagation of avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B using chicken embryo related and other cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Lia Treptow; dos Santos, Márcia Bianchi; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Ferreira, Helena Lage; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2010-07-01

    Primary isolation of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is carried out using tracheal organ culture (TOC) or chicken embryonated eggs with subsequent adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) or Vero cultures. This study was conducted to evaluate six different cell lines and two avian culture systems for the propagation of aMPV subtypes A and B. The chicken embryo related (CER) cells were used successfully for primary isolation. In addition to Vero and baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, CER cells were also shown to be the most appropriate for propagation of aMPV considering high titres. Propagation of A and B subtypes in CEF and TOC remained efficient after the primary isolation and several passages of viruses in the CER cell line. The growth curves were created using CER, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines. Compared with growth, both yielded higher titres in CER cells during the first 30 h after infection, but no significant difference was observed in the results obtained from CER and Vero cells. This data show that CER cells are adequate for aMPV subtypes A and B propagation, giving similar results to Vero cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Species-specific deletion of the viral attachment glycoprotein of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Foster, Linda K; Foster, Douglas N

    2008-03-01

    The avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) genome encodes the fusion (F), small hydrophobic (SH), and attachment glycoprotein (G) as envelope glycoproteins. The F and G proteins mainly function to allow viral entry into host cells during the early steps of the virus life cycle. The highly variable AMPV G protein is a major determinant for distinguishing virus subtypes. Sequence analysis was used to determine if any differences between avian or mammalian cell propagated subtype C AMPV could be detected for the 1.8kb G gene. As a result, the complete 1.8kb G gene was found to be present when AMPV was propagated in our immortal turkey turbinate (TT-1) cell line regardless of passage number. Surprisingly, AMPV propagated for 15 or more passages in mammalian Vero cells revealed an essentially deleted G gene in the viral genome, resulting in no G gene mRNA expression. Although the Vero cell propagated AMPV genome contained a small 122 nucleotide fragment of the G gene, no other mRNA variants were detected from either mammalian or avian propagated AMPV. The G gene truncation might be caused by cellular molecular mechanisms that are species-specific. The lack of viral gene deletions suggests that avian cell propagated AMPV will provide a better alternative host for live recombinant vaccine development based on a reverse genetics system.

  16. Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) attachment protein involvement in probable virus evolution concurrent with mass live vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Clubbe, Jayne; Battilani, Mara; Naylor, Clive J

    2010-11-20

    Avian metapneumoviruses detected in Northern Italy between 1987 and 2007 were sequenced in their fusion (F) and attachment (G) genes together with the same genes from isolates collected throughout western European prior to 1994. Fusion protein genes sequences were highly conserved while G protein sequences showed much greater heterogeneity. Phylogenetic studies based on both genes clearly showed that later Italian viruses were significantly different to all earlier virus detections, including early detections from Italy. Furthermore a serine residue in the G proteins and lysine residue in the fusion protein were exclusive to Italian viruses, indicating that later viruses probably arose within the country and the notion that these later viruses evolved from earlier Italian progenitors cannot be discounted. Biocomputing analysis applied to F and G proteins of later Italian viruses predicted that only G contained altered T cell epitopes. It appears likely that Italian field viruses evolved in response to selection pressure from vaccine induced immunity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. B-cell infiltration in the respiratory mucosa of turkeys exposed to subtype C avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2007-09-01

    Turkeys exposed to avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C showed extensive lymphoid cell infiltrations in the nasal turbinates of the upper respiratory tract. The cellular infiltration occurred after the first virus exposure but not after re-exposure. Quantitation of the relative proportions of mucosal immunoglobulin (Ig)A+, IgG+, and IgM+ cells in controls and virus-exposed turkeys revealed that at 7 days after the first virus exposure, when mucosal infiltration was well pronounced, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the numbers of infiltrating IgA+ but not of IgG+ and IgM+ cells. After the second virus exposure, although the overall numbers of mucosal lymphoid cells were similar in the virus-exposed and control turkeys, the relative proportions of IgA+ and IgG+ cells were significantly higher in the virus-exposed turkeys (P < 0.05) than in controls. Furthermore, elevated levels of aMPV-specific IgA were detected in the nasal secretions and the bile of virus-exposed birds after the second but not after the first virus exposure. These results suggest, for the first time, the possible involvement of local mucosal immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of aMPV in turkeys.

  18. Single reaction, real time RT-PCR detection of all known avian and human metapneumoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, E; Allée, C; Vabret, A; Eterradossi, N; Brown, P A

    2018-01-01

    Current molecular methods for the detection of avian and human metapneumovirus (AMPV, HMPV) are specifically targeted towards each virus species or individual subgroups of these. Here a broad range SYBR Green I real time RT-PCR was developed which amplified a highly conserved fragment of sequence in the N open reading frame. This method was sufficiently efficient and specific in detecting all MPVs. Its validation according to the NF U47-600 norm for the four AMPV subgroups estimated low limits of detection between 1000 and 10copies/μL, similar with detection levels described previously for real time RT-PCRs targeting specific subgroups. RNA viruses present a challenge for the design of durable molecular diagnostic test due to the rate of change in their genome sequences which can vary substantially in different areas and over time. The fact that the regions of sequence for primer hybridization in the described method have remained sufficiently conserved since the AMPV and HMPV diverged, should give the best chance of continued detection of current subgroups and of potential unknown or future emerging MPV strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic utility of egg yolk for the detection of avian metapneumovirus antibodies in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Yoo, Yae-Na; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2010-12-01

    Surveillance and diagnosis of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection typically involve measurement of serum antibodies. In the current study, eggs instead of serum samples were used for the detection of AMPV antibodies in egg-laying chicken hens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AMPV-free commercial layer hens were experimentally challenged with AMPV strain SC1509 through intravenous or oculonasal administration. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. AMPV antibodies were detected in egg yolks from challenged hens by 7 days postinoculation (dpi), with the peak titer at 16 dpi. Antibody levels in eggs laid at 28 dpi correlated well (r = 0.93) with sera taken 28 dpi from the same hens. In a field trial of the yolk ELISA, six broiler breeder farms were surveyed, and all tested positive for AMPV antibodies in hen eggs, although positivity varied from farm to farm. Abnormal discolored eggs collected from outbreak farms had significantly higher titers of AMPV yolk antibodies than normal eggs from the same farm, unlike clinically healthy farms, where normal and abnormal eggs had similar antibody titers. These results indicate that diagnosis of AMPV infection by yolk ELISA to detect anti-AMPV antibodies may be a suitable alternative to serologic testing.

  20. Pathogenic and immunogenic responses in turkeys following in ovo exposure to avian metapneumovirus subtype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Mutnal, Manohar; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2011-03-15

    Commercial turkey eggs, free of antibodies to avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C), were inoculated with aMPV/C at embryonation day (ED) 24. There was no detectable effect of virus inoculation on the hatchability of eggs. At 4 days post inoculation (DPI) (the day of hatch (ED 28)) and 9 DPI (5 days after hatch), virus replication was detected by quantitative RT-PCR in the turbinate, trachea and lung but not in the thymus or spleen. Mild histological lesions characterized by lymphoid cell infiltration were evident in the turbinate mucosa. Virus exposure inhibited the mitogenic response of splenocytes and thymocytes and upregulated gene expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in the turbinate tissue. Turkeys hatching from virus-exposed eggs had aMPV/C-specific IgG in the serum and the lachrymal fluid. At 3 week of age, in ovo immunized turkeys were protected against a challenge with pathogenic aMPV/C. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Avian metapneumovirus subtypes circulating in Brazilian vaccinated and nonvaccinated chicken and turkey farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Jorge Luis; Mizuma, Matheus; Vejarano, Maria P; Toquín, Didier; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Patnayak, Devi P; Goyal, Sagar M; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2011-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens, which is usually accompanied by secondary infections that increase mortality. AMPVs circulating in Brazilian vaccinated and nonvaccinated commercial chicken and turkey farms were detected using a universal reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay that can detect the four recognized subtypes of AMPV. The AMPV status of 228 farms with respiratory and reproductive disturbances was investigated. AMPV was detected in broiler, hen, breeder, and turkey farms from six different geographic regions of Brazil. The detected viruses were subtyped using a nested RT-PCR assay and sequence analysis of the G gene. Only subtypes A and B were detected in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated farms. AMPV-A and AMPV-B were detected in 15 and 23 farms, respectively, while both subtypes were simultaneously found in one hen farm. Both vaccine and field viruses were detected in nonvaccinated farms. In five cases, the detected subtype was different than the vaccine subtype. Field subtype B virus was detected mainly during the final years of the survey period. These viruses showed high molecular similarity (more than 96% nucleotide similarity) among themselves and formed a unique phylogenetic group, suggesting that they may have originated from a common strain. These results demonstrate the cocirculation of subtypes A and B in Brazilian commercial farms.

  2. Protection by recombinant viral proteins against a respiratory challenge with virulent avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Parag; Njenga, M Kariuki; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2005-12-15

    Protection by recombinant avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) N or M proteins against a respiratory challenge with virulent aMPV was examined. N, M or N+M proteins were administered intramuscularly (IM) with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) or by the oculonasal (ON) route with cholera toxin-B (CTB). Each turkey received 40 or 80 microg of each recombinant protein. Birds were considered protected against challenge if the challenge virus was not detectable in the choanal swabs by RT-PCR. At a dose of 40 microg/bird, N protein given with IFA by the IM route protected eight out of nine birds. M protein at the same dose protected three out of seven birds, while a combination of N+M proteins (40 microg each) protected three out of four birds. At a dose of 80 microg of each of N and M proteins per bird given with IFA by the IM route, 100% protection was achieved. ON immunization with a mixture of N and M proteins induced partial protection when the proteins were given with CTB; no detectable protection was noted without CTB. N and M proteins induced anti-aMPV antibodies, although protection against virulent virus challenge did not appear to be associated with the level or presence of antibodies.

  3. Protection against avian metapneumovirus subtype C in turkeys immunized via the respiratory tract with inactivated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M

    2011-01-10

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes a severe upper respiratory tract (URT) infection in turkeys. Turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with inactivated aMPV/C adjuvanted with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly IC). Immunized turkeys had elevated numbers of mucosal IgA+ cells in the URT and increased levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA in the lachrymal fluid and IgG in the serum. After 7 or 21 days post immunization, turkeys were challenged oculonasally with pathogenic aMPV/C. Immunized groups were protected against respiratory lesions induced by the challenge virus. Further, the viral copy number of the challenge virus in the URT were significantly lower in the immunized turkeys than in the unimmunized turkeys (P<0.05). These results showed that inactivated aMPV/C administered by the respiratory route induced protective immunity against pathogenic virus challenge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microsphere Suspension Array Assays for Detection and Differentiation of Hendra and Nipah Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Foord

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsphere suspension array systems enable the simultaneous fluorescent identification of multiple separate nucleotide targets in a single reaction. We have utilized commercially available oligo-tagged microspheres (Luminex MagPlex-TAG to construct and evaluate multiplexed assays for the detection and differentiation of Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV. Both these agents are bat-borne zoonotic paramyxoviruses of increasing concern for veterinary and human health. Assays were developed targeting multiple sites within the nucleoprotein (N and phosphoprotein (P encoding genes. The relative specificities and sensitivities of the assays were determined using reference isolates of each virus type, samples from experimentally infected horses, and archival veterinary diagnostic submissions. Results were assessed in direct comparison with an established qPCR. The microsphere array assays achieved unequivocal differentiation of HeV and NiV and the sensitivity of HeV detection was comparable to qPCR, indicating high analytical and diagnostic specificity and sensitivity.

  5. Serum from Nipah Virus Patients Recognises Recombinant Viral Proteins Produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Vunjia; Lam, Chui-Wan; Phoon, Wai-Hong; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Chang, Li-Yen

    2017-01-24

    The genes for Nipah virus (NiV) proteins were amplified from viral RNA, cloned into the plasmid pTriEx-3 Hygro, expressed, and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The recombinant N, F, and G NiV proteins (rNiV-N, rNiV-F, and rNiV-G), were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with a yield of 4, 16, and 4 mg/L, respectively. All 3 recombinant viral proteins reacted with all 19 samples of NiV-positive human sera. The rNiV-N and rNiV-G proteins were the most immunogenic. The recombinant viral proteins did not react with any of the 12 NiV-negative sera. However, serum from a patient with a late-onset relapsing NiV infection complication was found to be primarily reactive to rNiV-G only. Additionally, there is a distinctive variation in the profile of antigen-reactive bands between the sample from a case of relapsing NiV encephalitis and that of acute NiV infection. The overall findings of this study suggest that the recombinant viral proteins have the potential to be developed further for use in the detection of NiV infection, and continuous biosurveillance of NiV infection in resource-limited settings.

  6. Comparison of Shear Strength Properties for Undisturbed and Reconstituted Parit Nipah Peat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Abdullah, M. E.; Zakaria, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Shear strength of soil is required to determine the soil stability and design the foundations. Peat is known as a soil with complex natural formations which also contributes problems to the researchers, developers, engineers and contractors in constructions and infrastructures. Most researchers conducted experiment and investigation of shear strength on peat using shear box test and simple shear test, but only a few had discovered the behavior of peat using triaxial consolidated undrained test. The aim of this paper is to determine the undrained shear strength properties of reconstituted peat and undisturbed peat of Parit Nipah, Johor for comparison purposes. All the reconstituted peat samples were formed with the size that passed opening sieve 3.35 mm and preconsolidation pressure at 100 kPa. The result of undrained shear strength of reconstituted peat was 21kPa for cohesion with the angle of friction, 41° compare to the undisturbed peat with cohesion 10 kPa and angle of friction, 16°. The undrained shear strength properties result obtained shows that the reconstituted peat has higher strength than undisturbed peat. For relationship deviator stress-strain, σd max and excess pore pressure, Δu, it shows that both of undisturbed and reconstituted gradually increased when σ’ increased, but at the end of the test, the values are slightly dropped. The physical properties of undisturbed and reconstituted peat were also investigated to correlate with the undrained shear strength results.

  7. Localization of a Region in the Fusion Protein of Avian Metapneumovirus That Modulates Cell-Cell Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M.; Iorio, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented. PMID:22915815

  8. Ubiquitin-regulated nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix protein is important for viral budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao E Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Paramyxoviruses are known to replicate in the cytoplasm and bud from the plasma membrane. Matrix is the major structural protein in paramyxoviruses that mediates viral assembly and budding. Curiously, the matrix proteins of a few paramyxoviruses have been found in the nucleus, although the biological function associated with this nuclear localization remains obscure. We report here that the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix (NiV-M protein and associated post-translational modification play a critical role in matrix-mediated virus budding. Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic emerging paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans, and is classified as a Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4 pathogen. During live NiV infection, NiV-M was first detected in the nucleus at early stages of infection before subsequent localization to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. Mutations in the putative bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS and the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES found in NiV-M impaired its nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking and also abolished NiV-M budding. A highly conserved lysine residue in the NLS served dual functions: its positive charge was important for mediating nuclear import, and it was also a potential site for monoubiquitination which regulates nuclear export of the protein. Concordantly, overexpression of ubiquitin enhanced NiV-M budding whereas depletion of free ubiquitin in the cell (via proteasome inhibitors resulted in nuclear retention of NiV-M and blocked viral budding. Live Nipah virus budding was exquisitely sensitive to proteasome inhibitors: bortezomib, an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor for treating multiple myeloma, reduced viral titers with an IC(50 of 2.7 nM, which is 100-fold less than the peak plasma concentration that can be achieved in humans. This opens up the possibility of using an "off-the-shelf" therapeutic against acute NiV infection.

  9. Population Dynamics and Rates of Molecular Evolution of a Recently Emerged Paramyxovirus, Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype C▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary

    2008-01-01

    We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 × 10−3 to 7 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes exam...

  10. Population Dynamics and Rates of Molecular Evolution of a Recently Emerged Paramyxovirus, Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype C▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary

    2009-01-01

    We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 × 10−3 to 7 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes examined show a concordant demographic pattern which is characterized by a rapid increase in population size followed by stable population grown until the present. PMID:19052092

  11. Clinical Significance of Human Metapneumovirus in Refractory Status Epilepticus and Encephalitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Aysel Vehapoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis is a complex neurological disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and the etiology of the disease is often not identified. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children. Few reports are available showing possible involvement of hMPV in development of neurologic complications. Here, we describe an infant, the youngest case in literature, with refractory status epilepticus and severe encephalitis in whom hMPV was detected in respiratory samples and review diagnostic workup of patient with encephalitis.

  12. SIFAT FISIKA MEKANIKA PAPAN PARTIKEL DARI PELEPAH NIPAH (Nyfa fruticans Wurmb DAN SERBUK GERGAJI DENGAN PEREKAT UREA FORMALDEHYDE Physical-mechanical Properties of Particle Boards Made From Nipah (Nyfa fruticans wurmb and Sawdust with Urea Formaldehyde Adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Mirad Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat fisika dan mekanika papan buatan dari pelepah nipah dan serbuk gergaji yang meliputi kerapatan, kadar air, penyerapan air, pengembangan tebal, keteguhan lengkung dan keteguhan patah. Penelitian dan pengujian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Teknologi Hasil Hutan untuk pembuatan partikel, dan pengujian sifat fisik mekanik dilakukan di Balai Riset dan Standarisasi Industri Banjarbaru. Pengujian sifat fisik yang meliputi pengujian kadar air, kerapatan, penyerapan air dan pengembangan tebal, pengujian sifat mekanik meliputi pengujian MOE dan MOR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan Kadar air dari papan partikel hampir semuanya masuk standar SNI  kecuali pada perlakuan A yaitu sebesar  16,74 %, semua perlakuan untuk kerapatan telah memenuhi standar SNI yaitu  0,40 kg/cm2 – 0,90 kg/cm2, penyerapan air yang masuk standar SNI adalah perlakuan D yaitu 28,88 % dan 23,42 %, kisaran nilai perlakuan pengembangan tebal  3,82 % - 12,29 % telah memenuhi standar SNI, semua sifat mekanika MOE tidak ada yang memenuhi standar SNI kecuali pada MOR untuk perlakuan D yaitu sebesar 85,43 kg/cm2. Kata kunci:  Sifat Fisik  Mekanik, Pelepah Nipah dan Serbuk Gergaji, Urea Formaldehide

  13. Effects of Cyclosporin A induced T-lymphocyte depletion on the course of avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Dalgaard, Tina S; Kothlow, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    The avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an economically important acute respiratory disease in turkeys (turkey rhinotracheitis, TRT).While antibodies were shownto be insufficient for protection against a MPV-infection, the role of T-lymphocytes in the control of aMPV-infection is not clear...... to untreated controls (P infection...

  14. Biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene in cultured cells and SPF turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in length of the glycoprotein (G) gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication and pathogenicity is unknown. In this study, we generated two Colorado (CO) strain-based recombinan...

  15. Generation of recombinant newcastle disease viruses, expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus, subtype A, or B, for use as bivalent vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, or B, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses, rLS/aMPV-A G and rLS/aMPV-B G, were slightly att...

  16. Deletion of the M2-2 Gene from Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C (aMPV-C) Impairs Virus Replication and Immunogenicity in Turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second matrix (M2) gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), encoding two putative proteins, M2-1 and M2-2. Both proteins are believed to be involved in either viral RNA transcription or replication. To further characterize the f...

  17. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Asam Sitrat dan Suhu Pengempaan terhadap Kualitas Papan Partikel Pelepah Nipah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil Widyorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Papan partikel tanpa perekat sintesis atau binderlessboard merupakan alternatif produk ramah lingkungan yang potensial dikembangkan di Indonesia. Kelemahan produk tersebut diantaranya adalah kestabilan dimensinya yang relatif rendah. Alternatif perbaikan produk bisa dilakukan dengan menambahkan bahan pengaktif komponen kimia. Asam sitrat memiliki tiga gugus karboksil dan diharapkan dapat membentuk ikatan ester dengan gugus hidroksil pada permukaan kayu. Penelitian menggunakan asam sitrat relatif baru dan belum banyak dikembangkan, oleh karena itu penelitian ini ditujukan untuk pengembangan produk biokomposit dengan menggunakan asam sitrat sebagai bahan pengikat. Bahan yang digunakan adalah pelepah nipah dengan ukuran partikel (halus dan kasar, konsentrasi asam sitrat (0% dan 10%, dan suhu pengempaan (180ºC dan 200°C. Pengujian sifat fisika dan mekanika dilakukan berdasarkan Japanese Industrial Standard untuk papan partikel (JIS A 5908. Penambahan asam sitrat memperlihatkan kenaikan sifat fisika (penyerapan air dan mekanika papan partikel. Perbedaan ukuran partikel mempengaruhi sifat mekanika papan partikel dimana ukuran partikel kasar memberikan nilai mekanika yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan ukuran partikel halus. Kualitas papan partikel optimum diperoleh pada kondisi pengempaan 180ºC, penambahan asam sitrat 10% dari partikel ukuran kasar dengan nilai pengembangan tebal 2,4%, penyerapan air 41%, kekuatan rekat internal 0,2 MPa, modulus patah 5,5 MPa, dan modulus elastisitas 1,6 GPa. Kata kunci: asam sitrat, pelepah nipah, konsentrasi asam sitrat, suhu pengempa   Effect of Citric Acid Concentration and Pressing Temperature on the Quality of Particleboard from Nypa Frond Abstract Binderlessboard is one of the potential eco friendly products that can be developed in Indonesia. However, its boards usually have low in dimensional stability. Addition of the chemical agent, such as citric acid, that can improve the dimensional stability is

  18. Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011–2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-30

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011–2014.  Created: 6/30/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/30/2016.

  19. Solution and crystallographic structures of the central region of the phosphoprotein from human metapneumovirus.

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    Cedric Leyrat

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV of the family Paramyxoviridae is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Phosphoproteins (P from Paramyxoviridae are essential co-factors of the viral RNA polymerase that form tetramers and possess long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs. We located the central region of HMPV P (P(ced which is involved in tetramerization using disorder analysis and modeled its 3D structure ab initio using Rosetta fold-and-dock. We characterized the solution-structure of P(ced using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and carried out direct fitting to the scattering data to filter out incorrect models. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS and ensemble optimization were employed to select correct models and capture the dynamic character of P(ced. Our analysis revealed that oligomerization involves a compact central core located between residues 169-194 (P(core, that is surrounded by flexible regions with α-helical propensity. We crystallized this fragment and solved its structure at 3.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement, using the folded core from our SAXS-validated ab initio model. The RMSD between modeled and experimental tetramers is as low as 0.9 Å, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach. A comparison of the structure of HMPV P to existing mononegavirales P(ced structures suggests that P(ced evolved under weak selective pressure. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using SAXS in combination with ab initio modeling and MDS to solve the structure of small, homo-oligomeric protein complexes.

  20. Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Jordanian Children: Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Severe Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jennifer E.; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Faouri, Samir; Shehabi, Asem; Johnson, Monika; Wang, Li; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Williams, John V.; Halasa, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in young children. Our objectives were to define HMPV epidemiology and circulating strains and determine markers of severe disease in Jordanian children. Methods We conducted a prospective study March 16, 2010-March 31, 2013 using quantitative RT-PCR to determine the frequency of HMPV infection among children <2 years old admitted with fever and/or acute respiratory illness to a major government hospital in Amman, Jordan. Results HMPV was present in 273/3168 (8.6%) of children presenting with ARTI. HMPV A2, B1, and B2, but not A1, were detected during the 3-year period. HMPV-infected children were older and more likely to be diagnosed with bronchopneumonia than HMPV-negative children. HMPV-infected children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) had higher rates of cough and shortness of breath than children with LRTI infected with other or no identifiable viruses. Symptoms and severity were not different between children with HMPV only compared with HMPV co-infection. Children with HMPV subgroup A infection were more likely to require supplemental oxygen. In a multivariate analysis, HMPV subgroup A and age <6 months were independently associated with supplemental oxygen requirement. Conclusions HMPV is a leading cause of acute respiratory tract disease in Jordanian children <2 years old. HMPV A and young age were associated with severe disease. Ninety percent of HMPV-infected hospitalized children were full-term and otherwise healthy, in contrast to high-income nations; thus, factors contributing to disease severity likely vary depending on geographic and resource differences. PMID:26372450

  1. Avian metapneumovirus subtype B experimental infection and tissue distribution in chickens, sparrows, and pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M

    2012-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.

  2. First evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype A infection in turkeys in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azeem, Abdel-Azeem Sayed; Franzo, Giovanni; Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Martini, Marco; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2014-08-01

    Although avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection has been reported in most regions of the world, to date, only subtype B has been detected in Egypt. At the end of November 2013, dry oropharyngeal swabs were collected during an outbreak of respiratory diseases in a free-range, multi-age turkey dealer farm in Northern Upper Egypt. The clinical signs that appeared when turkeys were 3 weeks-old were characterized by ocular and nasal discharge and swelling of sinuses. aMPV of subtype A was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In order to confirm the results and obtain more information on the molecular characteristics of the virus, F and G protein genes were partially sequenced and compared with previously published sequences deposited in GenBank by using BLAST. Subtype of the strain was confirmed by sequencing of partial F and G protein genes. The highest percentages of identity were observed when G sequence of the Egyptian strain was compared with the sequence of an aMPV-A isolated in Nigeria (96.4 %) and when the F sequence was compared with strains isolated respectively in Italy and in UK (97.1 %). Moreover, the alignment of the sequences with commercial subtype A vaccine or vaccine-derived strains showed differences in the Egyptian strain that indicate its probable field origin. The detection of aMPV in the investigated turkey flock highlights some relevant epidemiological issues regarding the role that multi-age farms and dealers may play in perpetuating aMPV infection within and among farms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aMPV subtype A in Egypt.

  3. Analysis of expression and glycosylation of avian metapneumovirus attachment glycoprotein from recombinant baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lizhong; Nishi, Krista; MacLeod, Erin; Sabara, Marta I; Li, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Recently, we reported the expression and glycosylation of avian metapneumovirus attachment glycoprotein (AMPV/C G protein) in eukaryotic cell lines by a transient-expression method. In the present study, we investigated the biosynthesis and O-linked glycosylation of the AMPV/C G protein in a baculovirus expression system. The results showed that the insect cell-produced G protein migrated more rapidly in SDS-PAGE as compared to LLC-MK2 cell-derived G proteins owing to glycosylation differences. The fully processed, mature form of G protein migrated between 78 and 86 kDa, which is smaller than the 110 kDa mature form of G expressed in LLC-MK2 cells. In addition, several immature G gene products migrating at 40-48 and 60-70 kDa were also detected by SDS-PAGE and represented glycosylated intermediates. The addition of the antibiotic tunicamycin, which blocks early steps of glycosylation, to insect cell culture resulted in the disappearance of two glycosylated forms of the G protein and identified a 38 kDa unglycosylated precursor. The maturation of the G protein was completely blocked by monensin, suggesting that the O-linked glycosylation of G initiated in the trans-Golgi compartment. The presence of O-linked sugars on the mature protein was further confirmed by lectin Arachis hypogaea binding assay. Furthermore, antigenic features of the G protein expressed in insect cells were evaluated by ELISA. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan

    2014-07-25

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.

  5. Emergence of a virulent type C avian metapneumovirus in turkeys in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T; McComb, Brian; Bennett, Richard S; Lopes, Vanessa C; Shaw, Daniel; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V

    2005-12-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the pathogenesis of a recent isolate of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) in turkeys and to evaluate the quantitative distribution of the virus in various tissues during the course of infection. Seventy 2-week-old turkey poults were divided equally into two groups. One group was inoculated with aMPV (MN 19) with a titer of 10(5.5) TCID50 oculonasally. Birds in the second group were maintained as sham-inoculated controls. Birds showed severe clinical signs in the form of copious nasal discharge, swollen sinus, conjunctivitis, and depression from 4 days postinoculation (PI) to 12 days PI. Samples from nasal turbinates, trachea, conjunctiva, Harderian gland, infraorbital sinus, lungs, liver, and spleen were collected at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 days PI. Histopathologic lesions such as a multifocal loss of cilia were prominent in nasal turbinate and were seen from 3 to 11 days PI. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of aMPV from 3 to 9 days PI in nasal turbinate and trachea. Viral RNA could be detected for 14 days PI from nasal turbinate and for 9 days from trachea. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of aMPV from 1 to 11 days PI in nasal turbinates and from 3 to 9 days PI in the trachea. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data showed the presence of a maximum amount of virus at 3 days PI in nasal turbinate and trachea. Clinically and histopathologically, the new isolate appears to be more virulent compared to the early isolates of aMPV in the United States.

  6. Glycoprotein gene truncation in avian metapneumovirus subtype C isolates from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T; Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos N; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; Halvorson, David A

    2008-10-01

    The length of the published glycoprotein (G) gene sequences of avian metapneumovirus subtype-C (aMPV-C) isolated from domestic turkeys and wild birds in the United States (1996-2003) remains controversial. To explore the G gene size variation in aMPV-C by the year of isolation and cell culture passage levels, we examined 21 turkey isolates of aMPV-C at different cell culture passages. The early domestic turkey isolates of aMPV-C (aMPV/CO/1996, aMPV/MN/1a-b, and 2a-b/97) had a G gene of 1,798 nucleotides (nt) that coded for a predicted protein of 585 amino acids (aa) and showed >97% nt similarity with that of aMPV-C isolated from Canada geese. This large G gene got truncated upon serial passages in Vero cell cultures by deletion of 1,015 nt near the end of the open reading frame. The recent domestic turkey isolates of aMPV-C lacked the large G gene but instead had a small G gene of 783 nt, irrespective of cell culture passage levels. In some cultures, both large and small genes were detected, indicating the existence of a mixed population of the virus. Apparently, serial passage of aMPV-C in cell cultures and natural passage in turkeys in the field led to truncation of the G gene, which may be a mechanism of virus evolution for survival in a new host or environment.

  7. Avian metapneumovirus infection of chicken and turkey tracheal organ cultures: comparison of virus-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sandra; Sid, Hicham; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, which can cause high economic losses in infected poultry. aMPV mainly causes infection of the upper respiratory tract in both chickens and turkeys, although turkeys seem to be more susceptible. Little is known about virus-host interactions at epithelial surfaces after aMPV infection. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) are a suitable model to investigate virus-host interaction in the respiratory epithelium. Therefore, we investigated virus replication rates and lesion development in chicken and turkey TOC after infection with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Aspects of the innate immune response, such as interferon-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression, as well as virus-induced apoptosis were determined. The aMPV-replication rate was higher in turkey (TTOC) compared to chicken TOC (CTOC) (P < 0.05), providing circumstantial evidence that indeed turkeys may be more susceptible. The interferon-α response was down-regulated from 2 to 144 hours post infection in both species compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05); this was more significant for CTOC than TTOC. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly up-regulated in aMPV-A-infected TTOC and CTOC compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05). However, the results suggest that NO may play a different role in aMPV pathogenesis between turkeys and chickens as indicated by differences in apoptosis rate and lesion development between species. Overall, our study reveals differences in innate immune response regulation and therefore may explain differences in aMPV - A replication rates between infected TTOC and CTOC, which subsequently lead to more severe clinical signs and a higher rate of secondary infections in turkeys.

  8. Orchitis in roosters with reduced fertility associated with avian infectious bronchitis virus and avian metapneumovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, L Y B; Brandão, P E; Chacón, J L; Assayag, M S; Maiorka, P C; Raffi, P; Saidenberg, A B S; Jones, R C; Ferreira, A J P

    2007-12-01

    The pathogenesis of infection involving both infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes reproductive damage in hens after viral replication in the epithelium of the oviduct, resulting in loss of cilia and degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial and glandular cells. Although IBV has been indicated as a possible cause of the formation of calcium stones in the epididymus of roosters, a definitive association has not been confirmed. This report describes the detection of IBV and aMPV in the testes of roosters from a Brazilian poultry broiler breeder's flock with epididymal stones and low fertility. Samples of testis, trachea, and lungs from breeder males aged 57 wk were positive for IBV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and virus isolation and testis samples were also positive for aMPV by RT-PCR. The inoculation of testis samples into embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic cavity resulted in curled, hemorrhagic, and stunted embryos typical of IBV infection. The allantoic fluid was positive by RT-PCR aimed to amplify the region coding for the S1 subunit of the IBV S gene, but it was not positive for aMPV. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment revealed a close relationship with European IBV genotype D274, previously unreported in Brazil. These results indicate that IBV and perhaps aMPV are likely to have played a role in the pathogenesis of the testicular disease described and should be regarded as factors that can influence male fertility disease in chickens.

  9. The human metapneumovirus matrix protein stimulates the inflammatory immune response in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bagnaud-Baule

    Full Text Available Each year, during winter months, human Metapneumovirus (hMPV is associated with epidemics of bronchiolitis resulting in the hospitalization of many infants. Bronchiolitis is an acute illness of the lower respiratory tract with a consequent inflammation of the bronchioles. The rapid onset of inflammation suggests the innate immune response may have a role to play in the pathogenesis of this hMPV infection. Since, the matrix protein is one of the most abundant proteins in the Paramyxoviridae family virion, we hypothesized that the inflammatory modulation observed in hMPV infected patients may be partly associated with the matrix protein (M-hMPV response. By western blot analysis, we detected a soluble form of M-hMPV released from hMPV infected cell as well as from M-hMPV transfected HEK 293T cells suggesting that M-hMPV may be directly in contact with antigen presenting cells (APCs during the course of infection. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy allowed determining that M-hMPV was taken up by dendritic cells (moDCs and macrophages inducing their activation. Furthermore, these moDCs enter into a maturation process inducing the secretion of a broad range of inflammatory cytokines when exposed to M-hMPV. Additionally, M-hMPV activated DCs were shown to stimulate IL-2 and IFN-γ production by allogeneic T lymphocytes. This M-hMPV-mediated activation and antigen presentation of APCs may in part explain the marked inflammatory immune response observed in pathology induced by hMPV in patients.

  10. Ephrin-B2 expression critically influences Nipah virus infection independent of its cytoplasmic tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Hellmut G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell entry and cell-to-cell spread of the highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV requires binding of the NiV G protein to cellular ephrin receptors and subsequent NiV F-mediated fusion. Since expression levels of the main NiV entry receptor ephrin-B2 (EB2 are highly regulated in vivo to fulfill the physiological functions in axon guidance and angiogenesis, the goal of this study was to determine if changes in the EB2 expression influence NiV infection. Results Surprisingly, transfection of increasing EB2 plasmid concentrations reduced cell-to-cell fusion both in cells expressing the NiV glycoproteins and in cells infected with NiV. This effect was attributed to the downregulation of the NiV glycoproteins from the cell surface. In addition to the influence on cell-to-cell fusion, increased EB2 expression significantly reduced the total amount of NiV-infected cells, thus interfered with virus entry. To determine if the negative effect of elevated EB2 expression on virus entry is a result of an increased EB2 signaling, receptor function of a tail-truncated and therefore signaling-defective ΔcEB2 was tested. Interestingly, ΔcEB2 fully functioned as NiV entry and fusion receptor, and overexpression also interfered with virus replication. Conclusion Our findings clearly show that EB2 signaling does not account for the striking negative impact of elevated receptor expression on NiV infection, but rather that the ratio between the NiV envelope glycoproteins and surface receptors critically influence cell-to-cell fusion and virus entry.

  11. Nipah virus infects specific subsets of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Stachowiak

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV, a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166 highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.

  12. The nonstructural proteins of Nipah virus play a key role in pathogenicity in experimentally infected animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV P gene encodes P protein and three accessory proteins (V, C and W. It has been reported that all four P gene products have IFN antagonist activity when the proteins were transiently expressed. However, the role of those accessory proteins in natural infection with NiV remains unknown. We generated recombinant NiVs lacking V, C or W protein, rNiV(V-, rNiV(C-, and rNiV(W-, respectively, to analyze the functions of these proteins in infected cells and the implications in in vivo pathogenicity. All the recombinants grew well in cell culture, although the maximum titers of rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- were lower than the other recombinants. The rNiV(V-, rNiV(C- and rNiV(W- suppressed the IFN response as well as the parental rNiV, thereby indicating that the lack of each accessory protein does not significantly affect the inhibition of IFN signaling in infected cells. In experimentally infected golden hamsters, rNiV(V- and rNiV(C- but not the rNiV(W- virus showed a significant reduction in virulence. These results suggest that V and C proteins play key roles in NiV pathogenicity, and the roles are independent of their IFN-antagonist activity. This is the first report that identifies the molecular determinants of NiV in pathogenicity in vivo.

  13. Molecular characterization of Nipah virus from Pteropus hypomelanus in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Samseeneam, Panumas; Phermpool, Mana; Kaewpom, Thongchai; Rodpan, Apaporn; Maneeorn, Pattarapol; Srongmongkol, Phimchanok; Kanchanasaka, Budsabong; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-03-25

    Nipah virus (NiV) first emerged in Malaysia in 1998, with two bat species (Pteropus hypomelanus and P. vampyrus) as the putative natural reservoirs. In 2002, NiV IgG antibodies were detected in these species from Thailand, but viral RNA could not be detected for strain characterization. Two strains of NiV (Malaysia and Bangladesh) have been found in P. lylei in central Thailand, although Bangladesh strain, the causative strain for the outbreak in Bangladesh since 2001, was dominant. To understand the diversity of NiV in Thailand, this study identified NiV strain, using molecular characterizations, from P. hypomelanus in southern Thailand. Pooled bat urine specimens were collected from plastic sheet underneath bat roosts in April 2010, and then monthly from December 2010 to May 2011 at an island in southern Thailand. Five in 184 specimens were positive for NiV, using duplex nested RT-PCR assay on partial nucleocapsid fragment (357 bp). Whole sequences of nucleocapsid gene from four bats were characterized. All 5 partial fragments and 4 whole nucleocapsid genes formed a monophyletic with NiV-MY. Our study showed that P. hypomelanus in southern Thailand and from Malaysia, a bordering country, harbored similar NiV. This finding indicates that NiV is not limited to central Thailand or P. lylei species, and it may be a source of inter-species transmission. This indicates a higher potential for a widespread NiV outbreak in Thailand. NiV surveillance in Pteropus bats, the major natural reservoirs, should be conducted continuously in countries or regions with high susceptibility to outbreaks.

  14. Exploration of nucleoprotein α-MoRE and XD interactions of Nipah and Hendra viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xu; Chu, Wenting; Chu, Xiakun; Xu, Liufang; Longhi, Sonia; Wang, Jin

    2018-04-24

    Henipavirus, including Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), is a newly discovered human pathogen genus. The nucleoprotein of Henipavirus contains an α-helical molecular recognition element (α-MoRE) that folds upon binding to the X domain (XD) of the phosphoprotein (P). In order to explore the conformational dynamics of free α-MoREs and the underlying binding-folding mechanism with XD, atomic force field-based and hybrid structure-based MD simulations were carried out. In our empirical force field-based simulations, characteristic structures and helicities of α-MoREs reveal the co-existence of partially structured and disordered conformations, as in the case of the well characterized cognate measles virus (MeV) α-MoRE. In spite of their overall similarity, the two α-MoREs display subtle helicity differences in their C-terminal region, but much different from that of MeV. For the α-MoRE/XD complexes, the results of our hybrid structure-based simulations provide the coupled binding-folding landscapes, and unveil a wide conformational selection mechanism at early binding stages, followed by a final induce-fit mechanism selection process. However, the HeV and NiV complexes have a lower binding barrier compared to that of MeV. Moreover, the HeV α-MoRE/XD complex shows much less coupling effects between binding and folding compared to that from both NiV and MeV. Our analysis revealed that contrary to NiV and MeV, the N- and C-terminal regions of the HeV α-MoRE maintains a low helicity also in the bound form.

  15. Stability of the glycoprotein gene of avian metapneumovirus (Canada goose isolate 15a/01) after serial passages in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chockalingam, Ashok K; Chander, Yogesh; Halvorson, David A; Goyal, Sagar M

    2010-06-01

    The glycoprotein (G) gene sequences of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtypes A, B, C, and D are variable in size and number of nucleotides. The G gene of early U.S. turkey isolates of aMPV-C have been reported to be 1798 nucleotides (nt) (585 aa) in length, whereas the G genes of more recent turkey isolates have been reported to be 783 nucleotides. In some studies, the G gene of aMPV-C turkey isolates was found to be truncated to a smaller G gene of 783 nt (261 aa) upon serial passages in Vero cells. This is believed to be due to the deletion of 1015 nt near the end of the open reading frame. The purpose of this study was to determine variation, if any, in the G gene of an aMPV-C isolated from a wild bird (Canada goose [Branta canadensis]) following serial passages in Vero cells. No size variation was observed for up to 50 passages, except for a few amino acid changes in the extracellular domain at the 50th passage level. The G gene of this wild bird isolate appears to be unique from subtype C metapneumoviruses of turkeys.

  16. Nipah Encephalitis – A Dangerous Zooanthroponosis Of Indo-Malaysian Region Of South-Еast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Lukin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The review provides information on a new zooanthroponosis – Nipah encephalitis. Characteristics of the pathogen and its ecology and clinic are presented. The purpose of the review is to get Russian specialist acquainted with new dangerous disease unknown in Russia. The research method – analytical. Infection by humans were first described in Malaysia (1999, after in Bangladesh (2004 and India (2006. The causative agent was identified as a new member of paramyxoviruses and then, together with related Hendra virus, separated in a new genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae (2000. Reservoir in nature – fruit bats, predominantly carnivorous flying foxes of 8 species of the genus Pteropus, secondary reservoir – domestic pigs. Nipah virus is highly contagious for humans and swine. The last act as amplifying and reservoir host. The disease inhumans is characterized by symptoms and signs of acute encephalitis and pulmonary insufficiency. Rapidly developing coma, lethality – up to 92,0%. Outbreaks with transmission of the virus from person-to-person are known. Specific treatment has not been developed, prevention is nonspecific.

  17. Antioxidant and Atibacterial Activities of Nipah (Nypa fruticans against Vibrio sp. Isolated From Mud Crab (Scylla sp.

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    Imra Imra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nipah (Nypa fruticans is the potential plant for source of active compound such as antioksidant and antibacterial substances. The plants are dispersed in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua Island. The aim of this research were determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity from of nipah (fruit and leaf that it extraction with methanol, and than determine toxicity and active compound contained in this extract. Diffusion agar and DPPH method were use for antibacterial and antioxsidant assay, respectively. Antioxsidant activity from nipah’s leaf extract was more effective (22,5 µg/mL than nipah’s fruit extract (415 µg/mL. This activity to be classified to the strong antioxidant activity (IC50<50 µg/mL. The antibacterial activity from leaf extract was strong to inhibited Vibrio sp. with inhibition zone 8,75 mm. The crude extract of nipah’s leaf was toxic with toxicity value is 663,598 µg/mL. Flavonoids, steroids, tanin, saponin and phenol hidroquinon were the active compounds contained in the extract of nipah’s leaf.

  18. Antioxidant and Atibacterial Activities of Nipah (Nypa fruticans against Vibrio sp. Isolated From Mud Crab (Scylla sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imra Imra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNipah (Nypa fruticans is the potential plant for source of active compound such as antioksidant and antibacterial substances. The plants are dispersed in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku and Papua Island. The aim of this research were determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activity from of nipah (fruit and leaf that it extraction with methanol, and than determine toxicity and active compound contained in this extract. Diffusion agar and DPPH method were use for antibacterial and antioxsidant assay, respectively. Antioxsidant activity from nipah’s leaf extract was more effective (22,5 μg/mL than nipah’s fruit extract (415 μg/mL. This activity to be classified to the strong antioxidant activity (IC50<50 μg/mL. The antibacterial activity from leaf extract was strong to inhibited Vibrio sp. with inhibition zone 8,75 mm. The crude extract of nipah’s leaf was toxic with toxicity value is 663,598 μg/mL. Flavonoids, steroids, tanin, saponin and phenol hidroquinon were the active compounds contained in the extract of nipah’s leaf.

  19. The YPLGVG sequence of the Nipah virus matrix protein is required for budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lianying

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nipah virus (NiV is a recently emerged paramyxovirus capable of causing fatal disease in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Together with Hendra virus (HeV, they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Recombinant expression systems have played a crucial role in studying the cell biology of these Biosafety Level-4 restricted viruses. Henipavirus assembly and budding occurs at the plasma membrane, although the details of this process remain poorly understood. Multivesicular body (MVB proteins have been found to play a role in the budding of several enveloped viruses, including some paramyxoviruses, and the recruitment of MVB proteins by viral proteins possessing late budding domains (L-domains has become an important concept in the viral budding process. Previously we developed a system for producing NiV virus-like particles (VLPs and demonstrated that the matrix (M protein possessed an intrinsic budding ability and played a major role in assembly. Here, we have used this system to further explore the budding process by analyzing elements within the M protein that are critical for particle release. Results Using rationally targeted site-directed mutagenesis we show that a NiV M sequence YPLGVG is required for M budding and that mutation or deletion of the sequence abrogates budding ability. Replacement of the native and overlapping Ebola VP40 L-domains with the NiV sequence failed to rescue VP40 budding; however, it did induce the cellular morphology of extensive filamentous projection consistent with wild-type VP40-expressing cells. Cells expressing wild-type NiV M also displayed this morphology, which was dependent on the YPLGVG sequence, and deletion of the sequence also resulted in nuclear localization of M. Dominant-negative VPS4 proteins had no effect on NiV M budding, suggesting that unlike other viruses such as Ebola, NiV M accomplishes budding independent of MVB cellular proteins

  20. TMPRSS12 Is an Activating Protease for Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Yongzhen; Guan, Xiaolu; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2016-12-15

    The entry of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) into host cells initially requires the fusion of viral and cell membranes, which is exclusively mediated by fusion (F) protein. Proteolysis of aMPV F protein by endogenous proteases of host cells allows F protein to induce membrane fusion; however, these proteases have not been identified. Here, we provide the first evidence that the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS12 facilitates the cleavage of subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F protein. We found that overexpression of TMPRSS12 enhanced aMPV/B F protein cleavage, F protein fusogenicity, and viral replication. Subsequently, knockdown of TMPRSS12 with specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) reduced aMPV/B F protein cleavage, F protein fusogenicity, and viral replication. We also found a cleavage motif in the aMPV/B F protein (amino acids 100 and 101) that was recognized by TMPRSS12. The histidine, aspartic acid, and serine residue (HDS) triad of TMPRSS12 was shown to be essential for the proteolysis of aMPV/B F protein via mutation analysis. Notably, we observed TMPRSS12 mRNA expression in target organs of aMPV/B in chickens. Overall, our results indicate that TMPRSS12 is crucial for aMPV/B F protein proteolysis and aMPV/B infectivity and that TMPRSS12 may serve as a target for novel therapeutics and prophylactics for aMPV. Proteolysis of the aMPV F protein is a prerequisite for F protein-mediated membrane fusion of virus and cell and for aMPV infection; however, the proteases used in vitro and vivo are not clear. A combination of analyses, including overexpression, knockdown, and mutation methods, demonstrated that the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS12 facilitated cleavage of subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F protein. Importantly, we located the motif in the aMPV/B F protein recognized by TMPRSS12 and the catalytic triad in TMPRSS12 that facilitated proteolysis of the aMPV/B F protein. This is the first report on TMPRSS12 as a protease for proteolysis of viral envelope

  1. Viral replication and lung lesions in BALB/c mice experimentally inoculated with avian metapneumovirus subgroup C isolated from chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV emerged as an important respiratory pathogen causing acute respiratory tract infection in avian species. Here we used a chicken aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C isolate to inoculate experimentally BALB/c mice and found that the aMPV/C can efficiently replicate and persist in the lungs of mice for at least 21 days with a peak viral load at day 6 postinoculation. Lung pathological changes were characterized by increased inflammatory cells. Immunochemical assay showed the presence of viral antigens in the lungs and significant upregulation of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were detected following inoculation. These results indicate for the first time that chicken aMPV/C may replicate in the lung of mice. Whether aMPV/C has potential as zoonotic pathogen, further investigation will be required.

  2. Mucosal vaccination with formalin-inactivated avian metapneumovirus subtype C does not protect turkeys following intranasal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Perkins, Laura L; Sellers, Holly S

    2008-03-01

    Studies were performed to determine if mucosal vaccination with inactivated avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C protected turkey poults from clinical disease and virus replication following mucosal challenge. Decreases in clinical disease were not observed in vaccinated groups, and the vaccine failed to inhibit virus replication in the tracheas of 96% of vaccinated birds. Histopathologically, enhancement of pulmonary lesions following virus challenge was associated with birds receiving the inactivated aMPV vaccine compared to unvaccinated birds. As determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), all virus-challenged groups increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA antibody production against the virus following challenge; however, the unvaccinated aMPV-challenged group displayed the highest increases in virus-neutralizing antibody. On the basis of these results it is concluded that intranasal vaccination with inactivated aMPV does not induce protective immunity, reduce virus shedding, or result in decreased histopathologic lesions.

  3. Detection of infectious bronchitis virus 793B, avian metapneumovirus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, S; Bettridge, J; Christley, R; Habte, T; Ganapathy, K

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry. Mycoplasma gallisepticum was also found to be present; however, infectious laryngotracheitis virus was not detected by PCR. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was not detected by PCR, but variable levels of anti-NDV HI antibody titres shows possible exposure to virulent strains or poor vaccine take, or both. For the burgeoning-intensive industry in Ethiopia, this study highlights several circulating infectious respiratory pathogens that can impact on poultry welfare and productivity.

  4. First Report of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype B Field Strain in a Romanian Broiler Flock During an Outbreak of Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Enache, Mirel; Bejan, Violeta; Ramon, Gema; Koutoulis, Konstantinos C; Cecchinato, Mattia

    2017-06-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) represents one of the most prevalent diseases of turkey, especially in combination with other pathogens, and its frequency is also increasing among chickens. Despite this evidence, epidemiologic data are poor and scattered, severely preventing control of the disease even in highly developed areas such as Europe. In the present study, the detection and characterization of an aMPV subtype B strain circulating in a vaccinated but symptomatic Romanian broiler flock is reported for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis based on the partial G gene sequence demonstrates the close relationship of the Romanian virus with a group of recently emerged Italian field strains for which vaccine-induced protection was experimentally proven to be partial. These preliminary results allow us to hypothesize the spreading of vaccine-escaping aMPV subtype B strains through Europe and, consequently, dictate the carrying out of a more systematic survey to confirm this theory and enforce adequate countermeasures.

  5. Viral replication and lung lesions in BALB/c mice experimentally inoculated with avian metapneumovirus subgroup C isolated from chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Wang, Jing; Yan, Xu; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; Quan, Rong; Li, Zixuan; Du, Fang; Wei, Ting; Liu, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) emerged as an important respiratory pathogen causing acute respiratory tract infection in avian species. Here we used a chicken aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) isolate to inoculate experimentally BALB/c mice and found that the aMPV/C can efficiently replicate and persist in the lungs of mice for at least 21 days with a peak viral load at day 6 postinoculation. Lung pathological changes were characterized by increased inflammatory cells. Immunochemical assay showed the presence of viral antigens in the lungs and significant upregulation of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were detected following inoculation. These results indicate for the first time that chicken aMPV/C may replicate in the lung of mice. Whether aMPV/C has potential as zoonotic pathogen, further investigation will be required.

  6. Towards understanding of Nipah virus attachment protein assembly and the role of protein affinity and crowding for membrane curvature events.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C.; Hayden, Carl C.; Negrete, Oscar.; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Sasaki, Darryl Y

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic viruses are a primary threat to our national security and to the health and economy of our world. Effective defense strategies to combat viral infection and spread require the development of understanding of the mechanisms that these pathogens use to invade the host cell. We present in this report results of our research into viral particle recognition and fusion to cell membranes and the role that protein affinity and confinement in lipid domains plays in membrane curvature in cellular fusion and fission events. Herein, we describe 1) the assembly of the G attachment protein of Nipah virus using point mutation studies to define its role in viral particle fusion to the cell membrane, 2) how lateral pressure of membrane bound proteins induce curvature in model membrane systems, and 3) the role of membrane curvature in the selective partitioning of molecular receptors and specific affinity of associated proteins.

  7. In-Vitro Antiviral Activities of Extracts of Plants of The Brazilian Cerrado against the Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV

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    LK Kohn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAvian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA enveloped virus of the Metapneumovirus genus belonging to theParamyxoviridae family. This virus may cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry, despite vaccination, which is the main tool for controlling and preventing aMPV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity of extracts of four different native plants of the Brazilian Cerrado against aMPV. The antiviral activity against aMPV was determined by titration. This technique measures the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 to 2.5 µg mL-1 to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE of the virus, expressed as inhibition percentage (IP. The maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC of the extracts used in antiviral assay was 25 µg mL-1for Aspidosperma tomentosumand Gaylussacia brasiliensis, and 2.5 µg mL-1for Arrabidaea chicaand Virola sebifera. Twelve different extracts derived from four plant species collected from the Brazilian Cerrado were screened for antiviral activity against aMPV. G. brasiliensis, A. chica,and V. sebifera extracts presented inhibition rates of 99% in the early viral replication stages, suggesting that these extracts act during the adsorption phase. On the other hand, A. tomentosum inhibited 99% virus replication after the virus entered the cell. The biomonitored fractioning of extracts active against aMPV may be a tool to identify the active compounds of plant extracts and to determine their precise mode of action.

  8. Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705) against a Broad Range of Paramyxoviruses In Vitro and against Human Metapneumovirus in Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochmans, D; van Nieuwkoop, S; Smits, S L; Neyts, J; Fouchier, R A M; van den Hoogen, B G

    2016-08-01

    The clinical impact of infections with respiratory viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae argues for the development of antiviral therapies with broad-spectrum activity. Favipiravir (T-705) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against multiple RNA virus families and is presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. Here we demonstrate in vitro activity of T-705 against the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, measles virus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian metapneumovirus. In addition, we demonstrate activity against HMPV in hamsters. T-705 treatment inhibited replication of all paramyxoviruses tested in vitro, with 90% effective concentration (EC90) values of 8 to 40 μM. Treatment of HMPV-challenged hamsters with T-705 at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in 100% protection from infection of the lungs. In all treated and challenged animals, viral RNA remained detectable in the respiratory tract. The observation that T-705 treatment had a significant effect on infectious viral titers, with a limited effect on viral genome titers, is in agreement with its proposed mode of action of viral mutagenesis. However, next-generation sequencing of viral genomes isolated from treated and challenged hamsters did not reveal (hyper)mutation. Polymerase activity assays revealed a specific effect of T-705 on the activity of the HMPV polymerase. With the reported antiviral activity of T-705 against a broad range of RNA virus families, this small molecule is a promising broad-range antiviral drug candidate for limiting the viral burden of paramyxoviruses and for evaluation for treatment of infections with (re)emerging viruses, such as the henipaviruses. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Estudos experimentais com isolados do metapneumovirus aviário (aMPV) subtipos A e B em frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Bianchi dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O Metapneumovirus aviário (aMPV) pertence à família Paramyxoviridae, subfamília Pneumovirinae, gênero Metapneumovirus. O vírus, relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil em 1995, é o agente etiológico da Rinotraqueíte em perus (TRT) e está associado também à Síndrome da Cabeça Inchada (SHS) em frangos e poedeiras comerciais. O presente estudo foi dividido em três partes. Na primeira foi avaliada a suscetibilidades de oito sistemas celulares para a propagação de amostras virais do aMPV subt...

  10. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

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    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  11. Trypsin- and low pH-mediated fusogenicity of avian metapneumovirus fusion proteins is determined by residues at positions 100, 101 and 294.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Gao, Yanni; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-26

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are members of the genus Metapneumovirus in the subfamily Pneumovirinae. Metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein mediates the fusion of host cells with the virus membrane for infection. Trypsin- and/or low pH-induced membrane fusion is a strain-dependent phenomenon for hMPV. Here, we demonstrated that three subtypes of aMPV (aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C) F proteins promoted cell-cell fusion in the absence of trypsin. Indeed, in the presence of trypsin, only aMPV/C F protein fusogenicity was enhanced. Mutagenesis of the amino acids at position 100 and/or 101, located at a putative cleavage region in aMPV F proteins, revealed that the trypsin-mediated fusogenicity of aMPV F proteins is regulated by the residues at positions 100 and 101. Moreover, we demonstrated that aMPV/A and aMPV/B F proteins mediated cell-cell fusion independent of low pH, whereas the aMPV/C F protein did not. Mutagenesis of the residue at position 294 in the aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C F proteins showed that 294G played a critical role in F protein-mediated fusion under low pH conditions. These findings on aMPV F protein-induced cell-cell fusion provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion and pathogenesis of aMPV.

  12. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antiviral de extratos de plantas frente ao metapneumovirus aviário (AMPV) e vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV)

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Cavalheiro Martini

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Para avaliar a atividade antiviral dos extratos de plantas brasileiras foram eleitos o Metapneumovirus aviário (aMPV) e o vírus Respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV) pertences à família Paramyxoviridae, subfamília Pneumovirinae, gêneros Metapneumovirus e Pneumovirus respectivamente. Tanto o aMPV quanto o BRSV são vírus semelhantes aos que causam doenças em humanos como o vírus respiratório sincicial humano (HRSV) e metapneumovírus humano (hMPV). O objetivo do presente trabalho foi aval...

  13. Epidemiology and genetic variability of human metapneumovirus during a 4-year-long study in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Danielle B L; Durigon, Edison L; Carvalho, Ariane C L; Leal, Andréa L; Souza, Thereza S; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Moraes, Claudia T P; Vieira, Sandra E; Gilio, Alfredo E; Stewien, Klaus E

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) were compared with human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) in infants and young children admitted for acute lower respiratory tract infections in a prospective study during four consecutive years in subtropical Brazil. GeneScan polymerase chain assays (GeneScan RT-PCR) were used to detect hMPV and hRSV in nasopharyngeal aspirates of 1,670 children during January 2003 to December 2006. hMPV and hRSV were detected, respectively, in 191 (11.4%) and in 702 (42%) of the children admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections at the Sao Paulo University Hospital. Sequencing data of the hMPV F gene revealed that two groups of the virus, each divided into two subgroups, co-circulated during three consecutive years. It was also shown that a clear dominance of genotype B1 occurred during the years 2004 and 2005, followed by genotype A2 during 2006. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Incidence and Risk Factors for Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infections among Children in the Remote Highlands of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andrew; Budge, Philip J.; Williams, John; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Johnson, Monika; Zhu, Yuwei; Hartinger, Stella; Verastegui, Hector; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grijalva, Carlos G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The disease burden and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (MPV) infections among children living in remote, rural areas remain unclear. Materials and Methods We conducted a prospective, household-based cohort study of children aged factors for RSV detection included younger age (RR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03), the presence of a smoker in the house (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.38), residing at higher altitudes (RR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.25-3.00 for 2nd compared to 1st quartile residents; RR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.26-3.13 for 3rd compared to 1st quartile residents). Having an unemployed household head was significantly associated with MPV risk (RR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.12-4.01). Conclusion In rural high altitude communities in Peru, childhood ARI due to RSV or MPV were common and associated with higher morbidity than ARI due to other viruses or with no viral detections. The risk factors identified in this study may be considered for interventional studies to control infections by these viruses among young children from developing countries. PMID:26107630

  15. Detection of Nuclear Protein Profile Changes by Human Metapneumovirus M2-2 Protein Using Quantitative Differential Proteomics

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    Yuping Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in pediatric populations globally. This study examined proteomic profile changes in A549 cells infected with hMPV and two attenuated mutants with deleted PDZ domain-binding motif(s in the M2-2 protein. These motifs are involved in the interruption of antiviral signaling, namely the interaction between the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS proteins. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the overall and novel impact of M2-2 motifs on cellular responses via an unbiased comparison. Tandem mass tagging, stable isotope labeling, and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used for quantitative proteomic analysis. Using quantitative proteomics and Venn analysis, 1248 common proteins were detected in all infected samples of both technical sets. Hierarchical clustering of the differentiated proteome displayed distinct proteomic signatures that were controlled by the motif(s. Bioinformatics and experimental analysis confirmed the differentiated proteomes, revealed novel cellular biological events, and implicated key pathways controlled by hMPV M2-2 PDZ domain-binding motif(s. This provides further insight for evaluating M2-2 mutants as potent vaccine candidates.

  16. In vitro antiviral activity of Brazilian plants (Maytenus ilicifolia and Aniba rosaeodora) against bovine herpesvirus type 5 and avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, L K; Queiroga, C L; Martini, M C; Barata, L E; Porto, P S S; Souza, L; Arns, C W

    2012-10-01

    Medicinal plants are well known for their use in traditional folk medicine as treatments for many diseases including infectious diseases. Six Brazilian medicinal plant species were subjected to an antiviral screening bioassay to investigate and evaluate their biological activities against five viruses: bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), murine hepatitis virus type 3, porcine parvovirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The antiviral activity was determined by a titration technique that depends on the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 or 2.5 µg/mL) to inhibit the viral induced cytopathic effect and the extracts' inhibition percentage (IP). Two medicinal plant species showed potential antiviral activity. The Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (Lauraceae) extract had the best results, with 90% inhibition of viral growth at 2.5 µg/mL when the extract was added during the replication period of the aMPV infection cycle. The Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad.) Planch. (Celastraceae) extracts at a concentration of 2.5 µg/mL exhibited antiviral activity during the attachment phase of BHV-5 (IP = 100%). The biomonitored fractionation of the active extracts from M. ilicifolia and A. rosaeodora could be a potential tool for identifying their active compounds and determining the exact mechanism of action.

  17. Detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and molecular characterization of subtype B avian metapneumovirus isolated in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Jorge Luis; Brandão, Paulo E; Buim, Marcos; Villarreal, Laura; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2007-10-01

    Subtype B avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) was isolated and detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in Brazilian commercial laying chicken flocks with no history of vaccination against aMPV and presenting respiratory signs and decreased egg production. RT-PCR results from samples from three affected flocks revealed that the three isolates were subtype B. Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the samples belonged to subtype B and were not of the vaccine type. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the G gene of the three Brazilian aMPV samples with subtype B isolates from other countries revealed 95.1% to 96.1% identity. Nucleotide sequences showed 100% identity among the Brazilian subtype B samples and 95.6% identity with the subtype B vaccine strain used in Brazil. This work describes the circulation of subtype B aMPV in Brazil and discusses its importance in terms of disease epidemiology.

  18. A sensitive, reproducible, and economic real-time reverse transcription PCR detecting avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, G; Drigo, M; Lupini, C; Catelli, E; Laconi, A; Listorti, V; Bonci, M; Naylor, C J; Martini, M; Cecchinato, M

    2014-06-01

    Use of real-time PCR is increasing in the diagnosis of infectious disease due to its sensitivity, specificity, and speed of detection. These characteristics make it particularly suited for the diagnosis of viral infections, like avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), for which effective control benefits from continuously updated knowledge of the epidemiological situation. Other real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCRs have been published based on highly specific fluorescent dye-labeled probes, but they have high initial cost, complex validation, and a marked susceptibility to the genetic variability of their target sequence. With this in mind, we developed and validated a SYBR Green I-based quantitative RT-PCR for the detection of the two most prevalent AMPV subtypes (i.e., subtypes A and B). The assay demonstrated an analytical sensitivity comparable with that of a previously published real-time RT-PCR and the ability to detect RNA equivalent to approximately 0.5 infectious doses for both A and B subtypes. The high efficiency and linearity between viral titer and crossing point displayed for both subtypes make it suited for viral quantification. Optimization of reaction conditions and the implementation of melting curve analysis guaranteed the high specificity of the assay. The stable melting temperature difference between the two subtypes indicated the possibility of subtyping through melting temperature analysis. These characteristics make our assay a sensitive, specific, and rapid tool, enabling contemporaneous detection, quantification, and discrimination of AMPV subtype A and B.

  19. Avian metapneumovirus M2:2 protein inhibits replication in Vero cells: modification facilitates live vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubbe, Jayne; Naylor, Clive J

    2011-11-28

    Throughout the world, avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection of subtype A is principally controlled by two live vaccines both derived from UK field strain #8544. Improvements of those vaccines by use of reverse genetics technology was found to be hampered by the inability of #8544 to replicate in the commonly exploited Vero cell based reverse genetics system. A systematic reverse genetics based genome modification of a DNA copy of #8544, employing sequence data from a Vero grown, #8544 derived, live vaccine; was used to determine mutations required to facilitate virus recovery and replication in Vero cells. This identified a single coding substitution in the M2:2 reading frame as responsible. Furthermore, ablation of M2:2 was found to elicit the same outcome. M2:2 sequence analysis of seven AMPVs found Vero cell adaption to be associated with non similar amino acid changes in M2:2. The study shows that M2:2 modification of field virus #8544 will enable research leading to improved vaccines. This may have more general application to other AMPV field strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of antigenic cross-reactivity between subgroup C avian pneumovirus and human metapneumovirus by using recombinant fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L; Sabara, M I; Li, Y

    2009-10-01

    Avian pneumovirus subgroup C (APV/C) has recently been reported to be more closely related to human metapneumovirus (hMPV) as determined by sequence analysis. To examine the antigenic relationship between APV/C and hMPV, the APV/C fusion (F) gene was cloned and expressed as an uncleaved glycoprotein in a baculovirus system. The reactivity of the APV/C F protein with antibodies against APV subgroups A, B, C, and hMPV was examined by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the expressed APV/C F protein was not only recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies but also by antibodies raised against hMPV. Previously expressed recombinant hMPV F protein also reacted with APV/C-specific antibodies, suggesting that there was significant antigenic cross-reactivity and a potential evolutionary relationship between hMPV and APV/C. Interestingly, the recombinant F proteins from APV/C and hMPV were not recognized by polyclonal antibodies specific to APV subgroups A and B.

  1. A single polymerase (L) mutation in avian metapneumovirus increased virulence and partially maintained virus viability at an elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul A; Lupini, Caterina; Catelli, Elena; Clubbe, Jayne; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Naylor, Clive J

    2011-02-01

    Previously, a virulent avian metapneumovirus, farm isolate Italy 309/04, was shown to have been derived from a live vaccine. Virulence due to the five nucleotide mutations associated with the reversion to virulence was investigated by their addition to the genome of the vaccine strain using reverse genetics. Virulence of these recombinant viruses was determined by infection of 1-day-old turkeys. Disease levels resulting from the combined two matrix mutations was indistinguishable from that produced by the recombinant vaccine, whereas the combined three L gene mutations increased disease to a level (P<0.0001) that was indistinguishable from that caused by the revertant Italy 309/04 virus. Testing of the L mutations individually showed that two mutations did not increase virulence, while the third mutation, corresponding to an asparagine to aspartic acid substitution, produced virulence indistinguishable from that caused by Italy 309/04. In contrast to the vaccine, the virulent mutant also showed increased viability at temperatures typical of turkey core tissues. The notion that increased viral virulence resulted from enhanced ability to replicate in tissues away from the cool respiratory tract, cannot be discounted.

  2. Avian metapneumovirus SH gene end and G protein mutations influence the level of protection of live-vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Clive J; Ling, Roger; Edworthy, Nicole; Savage, Carol E; Easton, Andrew J

    2007-06-01

    A prototype avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccine (P20) was previously shown to give variable outcomes in experimental trials. Following plaque purification, three of 12 viruses obtained from P20 failed to induce protection against virulent challenge, whilst the remainder retained their protective capacity. The genome sequences of two protective viruses were identical to the P20 consensus, whereas two non-protective viruses differed only in the SH gene transcription termination signal. Northern blotting showed that the alterations in the SH gene-end region of the non-protective viruses led to enhanced levels of dicistronic mRNA produced by transcriptional readthrough. A synthetic minigenome was used to demonstrate that the altered SH gene-end region reduced the level of protein expression from a downstream gene. The genomes of the remaining eight plaque-purified viruses were sequenced in the region where the P20 consensus sequence differed from the virulent progenitor. The seven protective clones were identical, whereas the non-protective virus retained the virulent progenitor sequence at two positions and contained extensive alterations in its attachment (G) protein sequence associated with a reduced or altered expression pattern of G protein on Western blots. The data indicate that the efficacy of a putative protective vaccine strain is affected by mutations altering the balance of G protein expression.

  3. Unraveling a three-step spatiotemporal mechanism of triggering of receptor-induced Nipah virus fusion and cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    Full Text Available Membrane fusion is essential for entry of the biomedically-important paramyxoviruses into their host cells (viral-cell fusion, and for syncytia formation (cell-cell fusion, often induced by paramyxoviral infections [e.g. those of the deadly Nipah virus (NiV]. For most paramyxoviruses, membrane fusion requires two viral glycoproteins. Upon receptor binding, the attachment glycoprotein (HN/H/G triggers the fusion glycoprotein (F to undergo conformational changes that merge viral and/or cell membranes. However, a significant knowledge gap remains on how HN/H/G couples cell receptor binding to F-triggering. Via interdisciplinary approaches we report the first comprehensive mechanism of NiV membrane fusion triggering, involving three spatiotemporally sequential cell receptor-induced conformational steps in NiV-G: two in the head and one in the stalk. Interestingly, a headless NiV-G mutant was able to trigger NiV-F, and the two head conformational steps were required for the exposure of the stalk domain. Moreover, the headless NiV-G prematurely triggered NiV-F on virions, indicating that the NiV-G head prevents premature triggering of NiV-F on virions by concealing a F-triggering stalk domain until the correct time and place: receptor-binding. Based on these and recent paramyxovirus findings, we present a comprehensive and fundamentally conserved mechanistic model of paramyxovirus membrane fusion triggering and cell entry.

  4. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Juliet R C; Epstein, Jonathan H; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A; Hyatt, Alex D; Field, Hume E; Dobson, Andrew P; Daszak, Peter

    2012-01-07

    Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens.

  5. Estudio clínico-epidemiológico y molecular de Metapneumovirus Humano en pacientes con Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA) en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar H, Cerraf E; Moncho S, Alessandra; Fernandez S, David; Aguilar M, Marwan S; Morón, Dulce

    2014-01-01

    El Metapneumovirus Humano (MPVh) ha sido asociado con Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA) en pacientes de todas las edades. Estudios epidemiológicos indican la prevalencia del MPVh alrededor del mundo, sin embargo, en Venezuela poco se conoce sobre su comportamiento en la población. Este estudio pretende describir el comportamiento epidemiológico de la infección por MPVh en pacientes venezolanos. Se evaluaron por RT-PCR multiplex 1812 hisopados nasales (HN) provenientes de pacientes con di...

  6. Protection by recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype A or B against challenge with virulent NDV and aMPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are threatening avian pathogens that cause sporadic but serious respiratory diseases in poultry worldwide. Although, vaccination, combined with strict biosecurity practices, has been the recommendation for controlling these diseases in t...

  7. Evaluation of a LaSota strain-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subgroup A or B as a bivalent vaccine in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    To develop a bivalent vaccine candidate, a LaSota strain-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) clone expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subgroup A or B was generated using reverse genetics. Vaccination of turkeys with the NDV/aMPV-A G or NDV/aMPV-B G recombinan...

  8. Generation and evaluation of recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV challenges in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we generated a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine, which provided a partial protection against aMPV-C challenge in turkeys. To improve the vaccine efficacy,...

  9. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV-C challenges in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. Previously we generated a NDV r...

  10. Deduced amino acid sequence of the small hydrophobic protein of US avian pneumovirus has greater identity with that of human metapneumovirus than those of non-US avian pneumoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Abdul S; Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Huang, Zhuhui; Samal, Siba K

    2003-05-01

    We report here the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus strain Colorado (APV/CO). The SH gene of APV/CO is 628 nucleotides in length from gene-start to gene-end. The longest ORF of the SH gene encoded a protein of 177 aas in length. Comparison of the deduced aa sequence of the SH protein of APV/CO with the corresponding published sequences of other members of genera metapneumovirus showed 28% identity with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV), but no discernable identity with the APV subgroup A or B. Collectively, this data supports the hypothesis that: (i) APV/CO is distinct from European APV subgroups and belongs to the novel subgroup APV/C (APV/US); (ii) APV/CO is more closely related to hMPV, a mammalian metapneumovirus, than to either APV subgroup A or B. The SH gene of APV/CO was cloned using a genomic walk strategy which initiated cDNA synthesis from genomic RNA that traversed the genes in the order 3'-M-F-M2-SH-G-5', thus confirming that gene-order of APV/CO conforms in the genus Metapneumovirus. We also provide the sequences of transcription-signals and the M-F, F-M2, M2-SH and SH-G intergenic regions of APV/CO.

  11. Zinc binding activity of human metapneumovirus M2-1 protein is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Sun, Jing; Liang, Xueya; Li, Jianrong

    2015-06-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a member of the Pneumovirinae subfamily in the Paramyxoviridae family that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. Unlike members of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily, the polymerase complex of pneumoviruses requires an additional cofactor, the M2-1 protein, which functions as a transcriptional antitermination factor. The M2-1 protein was found to incorporate zinc ions, although the specific role(s) of the zinc binding activity in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that the third cysteine (C21) and the last histidine (H25) in the zinc binding motif (CCCH) of hMPV M2-1 were essential for zinc binding activity, whereas the first two cysteines (C7 and C15) play only minor or redundant roles in zinc binding. In addition, the zinc binding motif is essential for the oligomerization of M2-1. Subsequently, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) carrying mutations in the zinc binding motif were recovered. Interestingly, rhMPV-C21S and -H25L mutants, which lacked zinc binding activity, had delayed replication in cell culture and were highly attenuated in cotton rats. In contrast, rhMPV-C7S and -C15S strains, which retained 60% of the zinc binding activity, replicated as efficiently as rhMPV in cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs that lacked zinc binding activity triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with rhMPV. Taken together, these results demonstrate that zinc binding activity is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. These results also suggest that inhibition of zinc binding activity may serve as a novel approach to rationally attenuate hMPV and perhaps other pneumoviruses for vaccine purposes. The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the leading causes of acute

  12. Human metapneumovirus M2-2 protein inhibits innate immune response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Ren

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC, an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2 produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs, plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.

  13. Clinical features of human metapneumovirus genotypes in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sai-Zhen; Xiao, Ni-Guang; Zhong, Li-Li; Yu, Tian; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-11-01

    To explore the epidemiological and clinical features of different human metapneumovirus (hMPV) genotypes in hospitalized children. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR was employed to screen for both hMPV and other common respiratory viruses in 2613 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens collected from children with lower respiratory tract infections from September 2007 to February 2011 (a period of 3.5 years). The demographics and clinical presentations of patients infected with different genotypes of hMPV were compared. A total of 135 samples were positive for hMPV (positive detection rate: 5.2%). Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 45.9% (62/135) of cases, and human bocavirus was the most common additional respiratory virus. The most common symptoms included cough, fever, and wheezing. The M gene was sequenced for 135 isolates; of these, genotype A was identified in 72.6% (98/135) of patients, and genotype B was identified in 27.4% (37/135) of patients. The predominant genotype of hMPV changed over the 3.5-year study period from genotype A2b to A2b or B1 and then to predominantly B1. Most of clinical features were similar between patients infected with different hMPV genotypes. These results suggested that hMPV is an important viral pathogen in pediatric patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. The hMPV subtypes A2b and B1 were found to co-circulate. The different hMPV genotypes exhibit similar clinical characteristics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Visual detection of the human metapneumovirus using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with hydroxynaphthol blue dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a major cause of acute respiratory infections ranging from wheezing to bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children worldwide. The objective of this study is to develop a visual reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP assay for the detection of hMPV and applied to the clinical samples. Results In this study, visual RT-LAMP assay for hMPV was performed in one step with the addition of hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB, and were used to detect respiratory samples. Six primers, including two outer primers (F3 and B3, two inner primers (FIP, BIP and two loop primers (LF and LB, were designed for hMPV N gene by the online software. Moreover, the RT-LAMP assay showed good specificity and no cross-reactivity was observed with human rhinovirus (HRV, human respiratory syncytial Virus (RSV, or influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was approximately ten viral RNA copies, lower than that of traditional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR 100 RNA copies. In the 176 nasopharyngeal samples, 23 (13.1% were conformed as hMPV positive by RT-LAMP, but 18 (10.2% positive by RT-PCR. Conclusion Compared with conventional RT-PCR, the visual hMPV RT-LAMP assay performed well in the aspect of detect time, sensitivity, specificity and visibility. It is anticipated that the RT-LAMP will be used for clinical tests in hospital or field testing during outbreaks and in emergency.

  15. Longitudinal field studies of avian metapneumovirus and turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus in turkeys suffering from colibacillosis associated mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanardi, Davide; Lupini, Caterina; Pesente, Patrizia; Rossi, Giulia; Ortali, Giovanni; Catelli, Elena

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the exposure to Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and/or to Turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) was significant for the induction of episodes of colibacillosis in aMPV and THEV vaccinated turkeys. Colibacillosis-associated mortality was recorded and longitudinal virological studies performed in three consecutive turkey flocks reared in the same farm. aMPV and THEV diagnostic swabs and blood samples were made once a week up to 14 weeks of age. Swabs were processed by molecular techniques for viruses detection and antibody titres were evaluated. Field subtype B aMPVs were detected in all flocks at different ages of life always associated with respiratory signs and increase of colibacillosis-associated mortality. THEV has been consistently detected in all flocks since the 9th week of age. Vaccination with a single dose of the THEV commercial inactivated vaccine available in Italy seems does not protect the birds from the infection. Sequence comparison of the hexon protein of one of the THEV strains detected, and strains isolated worldwide, revealed high similarity between them. These results are consistent with the notion that the hexon protein, being the major antigenic component of the virus, is highly conserved between the strains. Results showed that field aMPV infection is directly correlated to colibacillosis-associated mortality. Less clear appears the role of THEV because the endemicity of aMPV makes difficult to evaluate its role in predisposing colibacillosis in absence of aMPV. It would be interesting to further investigate this issue through experimental trials in secure isolation conditions.

  16. Deletion of the M2-2 gene from avian metapneumovirus subgroup C impairs virus replication and immunogenicity in Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos N; Roth, Jason P; Hu, Haixia; Zsak, Laszlo

    2011-06-01

    The second matrix (M2) gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), encoding two putative proteins, M2-1 and M2-2. Both proteins are believed to be involved in viral RNA transcription or replication. To further characterize the function of the M2-2 protein in virus replication, the non-overlapping region of the M2-2 ORF was deleted from an infectious cDNA clone of the aMPV-C strain, and a viable virus was rescued by using reverse genetics technology. The recombinant virus, raMPV-C ΔM2-2, was characterized in vitro and in vivo. In Vero cells, raMPV-C ΔM2-2 replicated slightly less efficiently than the parental virus, 10-fold reduction at 48-h post-infection. The raMPV-C ΔM2-2 virus induced typical cytopathic effects (CPE) that were indistinguishable from those seen with the parental virus infection. In specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys, raMPV-C ΔM2-2 was attenuated and caused no clinical signs of disease. Less than 20% of the inoculated birds shed detectable virus in tracheal tissue during the first 5 days post-infection, and no virus shedding was detected afterward. Forty percent of infected birds produced a weak antibody response at 14 days post-infection. Upon challenge with a virulent aMPV-C strain, more than 80% of the raMPV-C ΔM2-2-inoculated birds showed typical disease signs and virus shedding in tracheal tissue. These results suggest that the M2-2 protein of aMPV-C virus is not essential for virus replication in vitro, but is required for sufficient virus replication to maintain pathogenicity and immunogenicity in the natural host.

  17. Evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C infection of wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, E A; Stallknecht, D E; Slemons, R D; Zsak, L; Swayne, D E

    2008-06-01

    Metapneumoviruses (MPVs) were first reported in avian species (aMPVs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. Although aMPVs have been reported in Europe and Asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the United States in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. To examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in aMPV spread, our study focused on determining whether populations of wild birds have evidence of aMPV infection. Serum samples from multiple species were initially screened using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to aMPVs were identified in five of the 15 species tested: American coots, American crows, Canada geese, cattle egrets, and rock pigeons. The presence of aMPV-specific antibodies was confirmed with virus neutralization and western blot assays. Oral swabs were collected from wild bird species with the highest percentage of aMPV-seropositive serum samples: the American coots and Canada geese. From these swabs, 17 aMPV-positive samples were identified, 11 from coots and six from geese. Sequence analysis of the matrix, attachment gene and short hydrophobic genes revealed that these viruses belong to subtype C aMPV. The detection of aMPV antibodies and the presence of virus in wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio demonstrates that wild birds can serve as a reservoir of subtype C aMPV, and may provide a potential mechanism to spread aMPVs to poultry in other regions of the United States and possibly to other countries in Central and South America.

  18. Use of ovotransferrin as an antimicrobial in turkeys naturally infected with Chlamydia psittaci, avian metapneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Dossche, Liesbeth; Wauman, Toon; Van Lent, Sarah; Phan, Thao T T; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2011-12-15

    Respiratory pathogens are difficult to control in large-scale turkey production. This report describes a clinical trial of antimicrobial ovoTF aerosol on a large Belgian turkey farm. ovoTF was administered to reduce Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) infections and to study the impact of this action on the occurrence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (O. rhinotracheale) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infections. Two subsequent broods were included; (i) a control brood receiving no ovoTF and (ii) an ovoTF brood receiving ovoTF aerosol (5mg/animal) at the age of 2 weeks, continuing daily for 12 days. Twenty-four one-day-old toms of the control and ovoTF brood were tagged and monitored for 15 weeks. The control brood experienced two periods of respiratory disease, the first (2-3 weeks of age) due to C. psittaci and the second (8-17 weeks of age) in the presence of C. psittaci, O. rhinotracheale and maybe aMPV. Extensive antibiotic treatment was needed in 2, 8 and 9 week-old toms. In the ovoTF brood, toms stayed healthy until the age of 9 weeks, whereafter respiratory disease occurred in the presence of C. psittaci, O rhinotracheale and aMPV. OvoTF administration: (i) reduced the amount of C. psittaci in the air as demonstrated by bioaerosol monitoring, (ii) prevented respiratory disease during the first half of the brood period, (iii) was associated with 46% reduction of mortality, and (iv) reduced the antibiotic cost. Our results justify additional clinical trials to explore the use of this innovative antimicrobial strategy for poultry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection of and phylogenetic studies with avian metapneumovirus recovered from feral pigeons and wild birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe, Paulo Anselmo; Silva, Luciana Helena Antoniassi da; Santos, Márcia Bianchi Dos; Sakata, Sonia Tatsumi; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether avian metapneumovirus (aMPV)-related viruses were present in wild and synanthropic birds in Brazil. Therefore, we analysed samples from wild birds, feral pigeons and domestic chickens in order to perform a phylogenetic comparison. To detect the presence of aMPV, a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed with the aim of amplifying a fragment of 270 bases for subtype A and 330 bases for subtype B, comprising the gene coding the G glycoprotein. Positive samples for aMPV subtypes A and B were found in seven (13.2%) different asymptomatic wild birds and pigeons (50%) that had been received at the Bosque dos Jequitibás Zoo Triage Center, Brazil. Also analysed were positive samples from 15 (12.9%) domestic chickens with swollen head syndrome from several regions of Brazil. The positive samples from wild birds, pigeons and domestic chickens clustered in two major phylogenetic groups: some with aMPV subtype A and others with subtype B. The similarity of the G fragment nucleotide sequence of aMPV isolated from chickens and synanthropic and wild avian species ranged from 100 to 97.5% (from 100 to 92.5% for the amino acids). Some positive aMPV samples, which were obtained from wild birds classified in the Orders Psittaciformes, Anseriformes and Craciformes, clustered with subtype A, and others from the Anas and Dendrocygma genera (Anseriformes Order) with subtype B. The understanding of the epizootiology of aMPV is very important, especially if this involves the participation of non-domestic bird species, which would add complexity to their control on farms and to implementation of vaccination programmes for aMPV.

  20. Indirect ELISA based on Hendra and Nipah virus proteins for the detection of henipavirus specific antibodies in pigs.

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    Kerstin Fischer

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV belong to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Henipavirus infections were first reported in the 1990's causing severe and often fatal outbreaks in domestic animals and humans in Southeast Asia and Australia. NiV infections were observed in humans in Bangladesh, India and in the first outbreak in Malaysia, where pigs were also infected. HeV infections occurred in horses in the North-Eastern regions of Australia, with singular transmission events to humans. Bats of the genus Pteropus have been identified as the reservoir hosts for henipaviruses. Molecular and serological indications for the presence of henipa-like viruses in African fruit bats, pigs and humans have been published recently. In our study, truncated forms of HeV and NiV attachment (G proteins as well as the full-length NiV nucleocapsid (N protein were expressed using different expression systems. Based on these recombinant proteins, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA were developed for the detection of HeV or NiV specific antibodies in porcine serum samples. We used the NiV N ELISA for initial serum screening considering the general reactivity against henipaviruses. The G protein based ELISAs enabled the differentiation between HeV and NiV infections, since as expected, the sera displayed higher reactivity with the respective homologous antigens. In the future, these assays will present valuable tools for serosurveillance of swine and possibly other livestock or wildlife species in affected areas. Such studies will help assessing the potential risk for human and animal health worldwide by elucidating the distribution of henipaviruses.

  1. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, psap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  2. Effect of amino acid sequence variations at position 149 on the fusogenic activity of the subtype B avian metapneumovirus fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bingling; Gao, Yanni; Liu, Yongzhen; Guan, Xiaolu; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Liu, Changjun; Cui, Hongyu; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells requires the fusion of viral and cell membranes. These membrane fusion reactions are mediated by virus-encoded glycoproteins. In the case of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), the fusion (F) protein alone can mediate virus entry and induce syncytium formation in vitro. To investigate the fusogenic activity of the aMPV F protein, we compared the fusogenic activities of three subtypes of aMPV F proteins using a TCSD50 assay developed in this study. Interestingly, we found that the F protein of aMPV subtype B (aMPV/B) strain VCO3/60616 (aMPV/vB) was hyperfusogenic when compared with F proteins of aMPV/B strain aMPV/f (aMPV/fB), aMPV subtype A (aMPV/A), and aMPV subtype C (aMPV/C). We then further demonstrated that the amino acid (aa) residue 149F contributed to the hyperfusogenic activity of the aMPV/vB F protein. Moreover, we revealed that residue 149F had no effect on the fusogenic activities of aMPV/A, aMPV/C, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) F proteins. Collectively, we provide the first evidence that the amino acid at position 149 affects the fusogenic activity of the aMPV/B F protein, and our findings will provide new insights into the fusogenic mechanism of this protein.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [psap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, psap in trees with bamboo (psap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (psap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human. PMID:22905160

  4. Recovery of human metapneumovirus from cDNA: optimization of growth in vitro and expression of additional genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biacchesi, Stephane; Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Tran, Kim C.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2004-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently recognized causative agent of respiratory tract disease in individuals of all ages and especially young infants. HMPV remains poorly characterized and has been reported to replicate inefficiently in vitro. Complete consensus sequences were recently determined for two isolates representing the two proposed HMPV genetic subgroups (Biacchesi et al., Virology 315 (1) (2003) 1). We have developed a reverse genetic system to produce one of these isolates, CAN97-83, entirely from cDNA. We also recovered a version, rHMPV-GFP, in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed from a transcription cassette inserted as the first gene, leaving the 41-nt leader region and first 16 nt of the N gene undisturbed. The ability to monitor GFP expression in living cells greatly facilitated the initial recovery of this slow-growing virus. In addition, the ability to express a foreign gene from an engineered transcription cassette confirmed the identification of the HMPV transcription signals and identified the F gene-end signal as being highly efficient for transcription termination. The ability to recover virus containing a foreign insert in this position indicated that the viral promoter is contained within the 3'-terminal 57 nt of the genome. Recombinant HMPV replicated in vitro as efficiently as biologically derived HMPV, whereas the kinetics and final yield of rHMPV-GFP were reduced several-fold. Conditions for trypsin treatment were investigated, providing for improved virus yields. Another version of HMPV, rHMPV+G1F23, was recovered that contained a second copy of the G gene and two extra copies of F in promoter-proximal positions in the order G1-F2-F3. Thus, this recombinant genome would encode 11 mRNAs rather than eight and would be 17.3 kb long, 30% longer than that of the natural virus. Nonetheless, the rHMPV+G1F23 virus replicated in vitro with an efficiency that was only modestly reduced compared to rHMPV and was

  5. Local and systemic immune responses following infection of broiler-type chickens with avian Metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenschlein, Silke; Aung, Ye Htut; Haase, Christine

    2011-03-15

    Infections with avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) are often associated with swollen head syndrome in meat type chickens. Previous studies in turkeys have demonstrated that local humoral and cell-mediated immunity plays a role in aMPV-infection. Previous experimental and field observations indicated that the susceptibility of broilers and their immune reactions to aMPV may differ from turkeys. In the presented study local and systemic immune reactions of broilers were investigated after experimental infections with subtypes A and B aMPV of turkey origin. Both virus subtypes induced a mild respiratory disease. The recovery from respiratory signs correlated with the induction of local and systemic aMPV virus-neutralizing antibodies, which began to rise at 6 days post infection (dpi), when the peak of clinical signs was observed. In a different manner to the virus neutralizing (VN) and IgG-ELISA serum antibody titres, which showed high levels until the end of the experiments between 24 and 28 dpi, the specific IgA-ELISA and VN-antibody levels in tracheal washes decreased by 10 and 14 dpi, respectively, which may explain the recurring aMPV-infections in the field. Ex vivo cultured spleen cells from aMPV-infected broilers released at 3 and 6 dpi higher levels of IFN-γ after stimulation with Concanavalin A as compared to virus-free birds. In agreement with studies in turkeys, aMPV-infected broilers showed a clear CD4+ T cell accumulation in the Harderian gland (HG) at 6 dpi (P<0.05). In contrast to other investigations in turkeys aMPV-infected broilers showed an increase in the number of CD8alpha+ cells at 6 dpi compared to virus-free birds (P<0.05). The numbers of local B cells in the Harderian gland were not affected by the infection. Both aMPV A and B induced up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA-expression in the nasal turbinates, while in the Harderian gland only aMPV-A induced enhanced IFN-γ expression at 3 dpi. The differences in systemic and local T cell and

  6. Two key residues in ephrinB3 are critical for its use as an alternative receptor for Nipah virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available EphrinB2 was recently discovered as a functional receptor for Nipah virus (NiV, a lethal emerging paramyxovirus. Ephrins constitute a class of homologous ligands for the Eph class of receptor tyrosine kinases and exhibit overlapping expression patterns. Thus, we examined whether other ephrins might serve as alternative receptors for NiV. Here, we show that of all known ephrins (ephrinA1-A5 and ephrinB1-B3, only the soluble Fc-fusion proteins of ephrinB3, in addition to ephrinB2, bound to soluble NiV attachment protein G (NiV-G. Soluble NiV-G bound to cell surface ephrinB3 and B2 with subnanomolar affinities (Kd = 0.58 nM and 0.06 nM for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that the relatively lower affinity of NiV-G for ephrinB3 was largely due to a faster off-rate (K(off = 1.94 x 10(-3 s(-1 versus 1.06 x 10(-4 s(-1 for ephrinB3 and B2, respectively. EphrinB3 was sufficient to allow for viral entry of both pseudotype and live NiV. Soluble ephrinB2 and B3 were able to compete for NiV-envelope-mediated viral entry on both ephrinB2- and B3-expressing cells, suggesting that NiV-G interacts with both ephrinB2 and B3 via an overlapping site. Mutational analysis indicated that the Leu-Trp residues in the solvent exposed G-H loop of ephrinB2 and B3 were critical determinants of NiV binding and entry. Indeed, replacement of the Tyr-Met residues in the homologous positions in ephrinB1 with Leu-Trp conferred NiV receptor activity to ephrinB1. Thus, ephrinB3 is a bona fide alternate receptor for NiV entry, and two residues in the G-H loop of the ephrin B-class ligands are critical determinants of NiV receptor activity.

  7. Identification of a truncated nucleoprotein in avian metapneumovirus-infected cells encoded by a second AUG, in-frame to the full-length gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rene; Seal, Bruce S

    2005-01-01

    Background Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory disease with low mortality, but high morbidity primarily in commercial turkeys. There are three types of aMPV (A, B, C) of which the C type is found only in the United States. Viruses related to aMPV include human, bovine, ovine, and caprine respiratory syncytial viruses and pneumonia virus of mice, as well as the recently identified human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The aMPV and hMPV have become the type viruses of a new genus within the Metapneumovirus. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N) amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. Based on predicted antigenicity of consensus protein sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of peptide-antigens and antisera. Results The presence of two aMPV nucleoprotein (N) gene encoded polypeptides was detected in aMPV/C/US/Co and aMPV/A/UK/3b infected Vero cells. Nucleoprotein 1 (N1) encoded from the first open reading frame (ORF) was predicted to be 394 amino acids in length for aMPV/C/US/Co and 391 amino acids in length for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 43.3 kilodaltons and 42.7 kilodaltons, respectively. Nucleoprotein 2 (N2) was hypothesized to be encoded by a second downstream ORF in-frame with ORF1 and encoded a protein predicted to contain 328 amino acids for aMPV/C/US/Co or 259 amino acids for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 36 kilodaltons and 28.3 kilodaltons, respectively. Peptide antibodies to the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the aMPV N protein confirmed presence of these products in both aMPV/C/US/Co- and aMPV/A/UK/3b-infected Vero cells. N1 and N2 for aMPV/C/US/Co ORFs were molecularly cloned and expressed in Vero cells utilizing eukaryotic expression vectors to confirm identity of the aMPV encoded proteins. Conclusion This is the first reported identification of potential, accessory in-frame N2 ORF gene products among members of the

  8. Identification of a truncated nucleoprotein in avian metapneumovirus-infected cells encoded by a second AUG, in-frame to the full-length gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Rene

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV cause an upper respiratory disease with low mortality, but high morbidity primarily in commercial turkeys. There are three types of aMPV (A, B, C of which the C type is found only in the United States. Viruses related to aMPV include human, bovine, ovine, and caprine respiratory syncytial viruses and pneumonia virus of mice, as well as the recently identified human metapneumovirus (hMPV. The aMPV and hMPV have become the type viruses of a new genus within the Metapneumovirus. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. Based on predicted antigenicity of consensus protein sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of peptide-antigens and antisera. Results The presence of two aMPV nucleoprotein (N gene encoded polypeptides was detected in aMPV/C/US/Co and aMPV/A/UK/3b infected Vero cells. Nucleoprotein 1 (N1 encoded from the first open reading frame (ORF was predicted to be 394 amino acids in length for aMPV/C/US/Co and 391 amino acids in length for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 43.3 kilodaltons and 42.7 kilodaltons, respectively. Nucleoprotein 2 (N2 was hypothesized to be encoded by a second downstream ORF in-frame with ORF1 and encoded a protein predicted to contain 328 amino acids for aMPV/C/US/Co or 259 amino acids for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 36 kilodaltons and 28.3 kilodaltons, respectively. Peptide antibodies to the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the aMPV N protein confirmed presence of these products in both aMPV/C/US/Co- and aMPV/A/UK/3b-infected Vero cells. N1 and N2 for aMPV/C/US/Co ORFs were molecularly cloned and expressed in Vero cells utilizing eukaryotic expression vectors to confirm identity of the aMPV encoded proteins. Conclusion This is the first reported identification of potential, accessory in-frame N2 ORF gene products among

  9. Individual contributions of the human metapneumovirus F, G, and SH surface glycoproteins to the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Biacchesi, Stephane; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Surman, Sonja R.; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the individual contributions of the three surface glycoproteins of human metapneumovirus (HMPV), namely the fusion F, attachment G, and small hydrophobic SH proteins, to the induction of serum HMPV-binding antibodies, serum HMPV-neutralizing antibodies, and protective immunity. Using reverse genetics, each HMPV protein was expressed individually from an added gene in recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) and used to infect hamsters once or twice by the intranasal route. The F protein was highly immunogenic and protective, whereas G and SH were only weakly or negligibly immunogenic and protective, respectively. Thus, in contrast to other paramyxoviruses, the HMPV attachment G protein is not a major neutralization or protective antigen. Also, although the SH protein of HMPV is a virion protein that is much larger than its counterparts in previously studied paramyxoviruses, it does not appear to be a significant neutralization or protective antigen

  10. Estudo do efeito da interferencia por RNA (RNAi) na replicação do metapneumovirus aviario (AMPV) subtipo A in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Lage Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: O metapneumovírus aviário (AMPV) é o agente primário da rinotraqueíte dos perus (TRT). O AMPV pertence à família Paramyxoviridae, subfamília Pneumovirinae, gênero Metapneumovirus. Também está associado à síndrome da cabeça inchada (SHS) em galinhas e é responsável por significativas perdas econômicas em sua produção. O presente estudo foi dividido em três partes. A primeira parte do trabalho consistiu em avaliar a beta-actina, gene utilizado como controle interno das técnicas molecula...

  11. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta interacts with the 5' untranslated region of the M gene of Nipah virus to promote mRNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shotaro; Sato, Hiroki; Yoneda, Misako; Kai, Chieko

    2016-09-01

    Nipah virus belongs to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, and its RNA genome is larger than those of other paramyxoviruses because it has long untranslated regions (UTRs) in each gene. However, the functions of these UTRs are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the functions of the 5' UTRs and found that the 5' UTR of the M gene upregulated the translation of a reporter gene. Using an RNA pull-down assay, we showed that eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta (EEF1B2) interacts with nucleotides 81-100 of the M 5' UTR and specifically enhances its translation efficiency. Our results suggest that the M 5' UTR promotes the production of M protein and viral budding by recruiting EEF1B2.

  12. Genetic variability of attachment (G and Fusion (F protein genes of human metapneumovirus strains circulating during 2006-2009 in Kolkata, Eastern India

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    Chawla-Sarkar Mamta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is associated with the acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI in all the age groups. However, there is limited information on prevalence and genetic diversity of human metapneumovirus (hMPV strains circulating in India. Objective To study prevalence and genomic diversity of hMPV strains among ARTI patients reporting in outpatient departments of hospitals in Kolkata, Eastern India. Methods Nasal and/or throat swabs from 2309 patients during January 2006 to December 2009, were screened for the presence of hMPV by RT-PCR of nucleocapsid (N gene. The G and F genes of representative hMPV positive samples were sequenced. Results 118 of 2309 (5.11% clinical samples were positive for hMPV. The majority (≈80% of the positive cases were detected during July−November all through the study period. Genetic analysis revealed that 77% strains belong to A2 subgroup whereas rest clustered in B1 subgroup. G sequences showed higher diversity at the nucleotide and amino acid level. In contrast, less than 10% variation was observed in F gene of representative strains of all four years. Sequence analysis also revealed changes in the position of stop codon in G protein, which resulted in variable length (217-231 aa polypeptides. Conclusion The study suggests that approximately 5% of ARTI in the region were caused by hMPV. This is the first report on the genetic variability of G and F gene of hMPV strains from India which clearly shows that the G protein of hMPV is continuously evolving. Though the study partially fulfills lacunae of information, further studies from other regions are necessary for better understanding of prevalence, epidemiology and virus evolution in Indian subcontinent.

  13. The effect of reduced treatment time and dosage of enrofloxacin on the course of respiratory disease caused by avian metapneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Froyman, R; Ludwig, C; Nauwynck, H; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F

    2009-11-01

    A dose titration and reduced duration medication study were performed to evaluate the current enrofloxacin treatment schedule in growing turkeys experimentally infected with avian metapneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. Experimental groups of 17 four-week-old turkeys were first infected with avian metapneumovirus and 3 d later with O. rhinotracheale. Enrofloxacin treatment in the drinking water was started 24 h after O. rhinotracheale inoculation. In the dose titration study, enrofloxacin doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of BW were administered for 5 successive days. In the reduced duration medication study, the following enrofloxacin regimens were compared: 25 mg/kg of BW per day on d 0 and 2; 15 mg/kg of BW per day on d 0, 2, and 4; and 10 mg/kg of BW for 5 successive days. In both studies, all enrofloxacin treatments were equally efficacious (i.e., equally capable of shortening the course of clinical disease), eliminating O. rhinotracheale from the respiratory tract and reducing gross lesions. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale bacteria were not recovered from any of the birds on enrofloxacin-supplemented media, indicating that none of the used treatment regimens promoted the selection of bacterial clones with reduced susceptibility or resistance to this antimicrobial agent. In conclusion, none of the alternative enrofloxacin treatment regimens yielded better results than the current prescribed treatment (i.e., 10 mg/kg of BW for 5 successive days) of O. rhinotracheale infections in turkeys. However, the reduced duration of application would offer a less time-consuming and equally effective alternative.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of interventions to impede date palm sap contamination by bats to prevent nipah virus transmission in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Uddin Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm's sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. METHODS: During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. RESULTS: During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control, dhoincha skirt (p<0.001 or polythene covering (p<0.001, but bats did contact sap during one night (7% with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

  15. Rational design of human metapneumovirus live attenuated vaccine candidates by inhibiting viral mRNA cap methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cai, Hui; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-10-01

    The paramyxoviruses human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) are responsible for the majority of pediatric respiratory diseases and inflict significant economic loss, health care costs, and emotional burdens. Despite major efforts, there are no vaccines available for these viruses. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at positions guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2'-O. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant hMPVs carrying mutations in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site in CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2'-O methylation but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of cotton rats. Importantly, vaccination of cotton rats with these recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) with defective MTases triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody, and the rats were completely protected from challenge with wild-type rhMPV. Collectively, our results indicate that (i) amino acid residues in the SAM binding site in the hMPV L protein are essential for 2'-O methylation and (ii) inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for hMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses, such as hRSV and hPIV3. Human paramyxoviruses, including hRSV, hMPV, and hPIV3, cause the majority of acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans, particularly in infants, children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine available. A formalin-inactivated vaccine is not suitable for these viruses because it causes enhanced lung damage upon reinfection with the same virus. A live attenuated vaccine is the most promising

  16. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  17. Infección por metapneumovirus humano en niños hospitalizados por una enfermedad respiratoria aguda grave: Descripción clínico- epidemiológica A human metapneumovirus infection in hospitalized infant patients with severe acute respiratory tract infection: A clinical and epidemiological view

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME LOZANO C; LETICIA YÁÑEZ P; MICHELANGELO LAPADULA A; MÓNICA LAFOURCADE R; FELIPE BURGOS F; LUIS HERRADA H; ISOLDA BUDNIK O

    2009-01-01

    El metapneumovirus humano (hMPV) es un virus de reciente diagnóstico. Se asocia con infecciones respiratorias agudas altas y bajas (IRAb). Se efectuó un estudio prospectivo durante dos años con el objetivo de evaluar la tasa de circulación y los hallazgos clínicos asociados a la infección por hMPV en niños hospitalizados por una IRAb grave. Resultados: hMPV fue demostrado en 24 (10,5%) de los 229 niños enrolados. 42% de los pacientes con hMPV eran menores de 12 meses de edad y el 58% tenía al...

  18. Ekosistem mangrove sebagai habitat kepiting bakau (Scylla Serrata di Kampung Nipah Desa Sei Nagalawan Kecamatan Perbaungan Serdang Bedagai Provinsi Sumatera Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Marina Saragi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly Utilization of Mangrove field as cultivation field of fish and recreation and tour site by people have big posses to the abundance of Mangrove crab (Scylla serrata because of mangrove play role as habitats of mangrove crabs. The research was conducted for two months from December 2016 to January 2017. This study aims to see the structure of mangrove vegetation, the abundance of Mangrove Crab and the influence of mangrove vegetation structure on the abundance of Mangrove Crab in Kampung Nipah. The results of this research are Vegetation structure of Mangrove in the station I and II show high density, whereas density in station III wide apart. The abundance of mangrove crab in the station I and II showed the higher result from station III. The Influence of Vegetation Structure of Mangrove and Abundance of Mangrove Crab can be related by using regression analysis Y = 0.0241x + 113.6. The correlation coefficient (r that value obtained as 0.79 have a meaning the connection between mangrove density and abundance of mangrove crab are rated in the strong category that has a value 79%. The density of Mangrove to 1000 units will rise up the abundance of mangrove crab to 43.5 an individual.  Tingginya pemanfaatan mangrove sebagai lahan budidaya ikan dan sebagai wisata rekreasi oleh masyarakat sangat mempengaruhi kelimpahan Kepiting Bakau (Scylla serrata karena hutan mangrove merupakan habitat bagi Kepiting Bakau. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama dua bulan yaitu bulan Desember 2016 sampai Januari 2017. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat struktur vegetasi mangrove, kelimpahan Kepiting Bakau dan pengaruh struktur vegetasi mangrove terhadap kelimpahan Kepiting Bakau di Kampung Nipah. Hasil dari penelitian struktur vegetasi mangrove di stasiun I dan II memiliki kerapatan sangat padat, sedangkaan kerapatan di stasiun III jarang. Kelimpahan Kepiting Bakau di Stasiun I dan II lebih tinggi dari kelimpahan di stasiun III. Pengaruh kerapatan mangrove

  19. Contribution of Human Lung Parenchyma and Leukocyte Influx to Oxidative Stress and Immune System-Mediated Pathology following Nipah Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaffre, Olivier; Saito, Tais B; Juelich, Terry L; Ikegami, Tetsuro; Smith, Jennifer K; Perez, David D; Atkins, Colm; Levine, Corri B; Huante, Matthew B; Nusbaum, Rebecca J; Endsley, Janice J; Freiberg, Alexander N; Rockx, Barry

    2017-08-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic emerging paramyxovirus that can cause fatal respiratory illness or encephalitis in humans. Despite many efforts, the molecular mechanisms of NiV-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remain unclear. We previously showed that NiV replicates to high titers in human lung grafts in NOD-SCID/γ mice, resulting in a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, these mice can undergo human immune system reconstitution by the bone marrow, liver, and thymus (BLT) reconstitution method, in addition to lung tissue engraftment, giving altogether a realistic model to study human respiratory viral infections. Here, we characterized NiV Bangladesh strain (NiV-B) infection of human lung grafts from human immune system-reconstituted mice in order to identify the overall effect of immune cells on NiV pathogenesis of the lung. We show that NiV-B replicated to high titers in human lung grafts and caused similar cytopathic effects irrespective of the presence of human leukocytes in mice. However, the human immune system interfered with virus spread across lung grafts, responded to infection by leukocyte migration to small airways and alveoli of the lung grafts, and accelerated oxidative stress in lung grafts. In addition, the presence of human leukocytes increased the expression of cytokines and chemokines that regulate inflammatory influx to sites of infection and tissue damage. These results advance our understanding of how the immune system limits NiV dissemination and contributes to ALI and inform efforts to identify therapeutic targets. IMPORTANCE Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging paramyxovirus that can cause a lethal respiratory and neurological disease in humans. Only limited data are available on NiV pathogenesis in the human lung, and the relative contribution of the innate immune response and NiV to acute lung injury (ALI) is still unknown. Using human lung grafts in a human immune system-reconstituted mouse model, we showed that the NiV Bangladesh

  20. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  1. Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Rt-pcr And Real-time Rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) For Detection Of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A [comparação Entre As Técnicas De Rt-pcr Convencional E Rt-pcr Em Tempo Real Para A Detecção Do Metapneumovírus Aviários Subtipo A

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira H.L.; Spilki F.R.; dos Santos M.M.A.B.; de Almeida R.S.; Arns C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus infection induces higher Toll-like receptor-3 expression and TNF-α production than human metapneumovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dou

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV are common causes of respiratory infections in children. Diseases caused by hMPV are generally considered to be less severe than those caused by RSV; the underlying mechanisms, however, remain unknown. In the present study, the expressions of TLRs in airway epithelial cells and lungs of BALB/c mice infected by hMPV or RSV were measured in an attempt to explore the differences in the airway inflammation caused by the two viruses. Our results demonstrate that both hMPV and RSV infection upregulated the expressions of TLRs and inflammatory cytokines. Specifically, the TLR3 expression was revealed to be elevated in vitro and in mouse lungs. IFN-α produced by A549 cells after RSV or hMPV infection remained undistinguishable, whereas production of TNF-α was significantly higher after RSV infection than hMPV infection either in the presence or absence of Poly I:C. This study provides a clue that more severe clinical syndrome of RSV infection may be due to the greater magnitude of induction of airway inflammation by RSV involving TLR3 activation and production of TNF-α.

  3. Laboratory evaluation of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection and identification of the four subgroups of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionie, O; Toquin, D; Sellal, E; Bouley, S; Zwingelstein, F; Allée, C; Bougeard, S; Lemière, S; Eterradossi, N

    2007-02-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is an important pathogen causing respiratory diseases and egg drops in several avian species. Four AMPV subgroups have been identified. The laboratory diagnosis of AMPV infections relies on serological methods, on labour-intensive virus isolation procedures, and on recently developed subgroup specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) protocols. In the present study, both the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) for the detection and identification of the four AMPV subgroups were evaluated. Fifteen non-AMPV avian viruses belonging to 7 genera and 32 AMPV belonging to the 4 subgroups were tested. No non-AMPV virus was detected, whereas all AMPV viruses were identified in agreement with their previous molecular and antigenic subgroup assignment. The sensitivity and quantitating ability of the RRT-PCR assay were determined using serial dilutions of RNA derived either from AMPV virus stocks or from runoff transcripts. In all cases, linear dose/responses were observed. The detection limits of the different subgroups ranged from 500 to 5000 RNA copies and from 0.03 to 3.16TCID50/ml. The results were reproducible under laboratory conditions, thus showing that quantitative RRT-PCR is a new and powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection, identification and quantitation of AMPVs.

  4. Immune responses and interactions following simultaneous application of live Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis and avian metapneumovirus vaccines in specific-pathogen-free chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard; Ganapathy, Kannan

    2015-02-01

    Interactions between live Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines following simultaneous vaccination of day old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks were evaluated. The chicks were divided into eight groups: seven vaccinated against NDV, aMPV and IBV (single, dual or triple) and one unvaccinated as control. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) NDV antibody titres were similar across all groups but were above protective titres. aMPV vaccine when given with other live vaccines suppressed levels of aMPV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies. Cellular and local immunity induced by administration of NDV, aMPV or IBV vaccines (individually or together) showed significant increase in CD4+, CD8+ and IgA bearing B-cells in the trachea compared to the unvaccinated group. Differences between the vaccinated groups were insignificant. Simultaneous vaccination with live NDV, aMPV and IBV did not affect the protection conferred against aMPV or IBV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Nucleoprotein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using a Synthetic Peptide Antigen for Detection of Avian Metapneumovirus Antibodies in Turkey Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rene; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Scott, Melissa; Seal, Bruce S.

    2004-01-01

    Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory tract disease with low mortality but high morbidity, primarily in commercial turkeys, that can be exacerbated by secondary infections. There are three types of aMPV, of which type C is found only in the United States. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N) amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. On the basis of the predicted antigenicity of consensus sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of a peptide antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (aMPV N peptide-based ELISA) to detect aMPV-specific antibodies among turkeys. Sera from naturally and experimentally infected turkeys were used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies reactive to the chemically synthesized aMPV N peptides. Subsequently, aMPV N peptide 1, which had the sequence 10-DLSYKHAILKESQYTIKRDV-29, with variations at only three amino acids among aMPV serotypes, was evaluated as a universal aMPV ELISA antigen. Data obtained with the peptide-based ELISA correlated positively with total aMPV viral antigen-based ELISAs, and the peptide ELISA provided higher optical density readings. The results indicated that aMPV N peptide 1 can be used as a universal ELISA antigen to detect antibodies for all aMPV serotypes. PMID:15013970

  6. Effects of cyclosporin A induced T-lymphocyte depletion on the course of avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Dalgaard, Tina S; Kothlow, Sonja; Juul-Madsen, Helle R; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2010-05-01

    The avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an economically important acute respiratory disease in turkeys (turkey rhinotracheitis, TRT). While antibodies were shown to be insufficient for protection against aMPV-infection, the role of T-lymphocytes in the control of aMPV-infection is not clear. In this study we investigated the role of T-lymphocytes in aMPV-pathogenesis in a T-cell-suppression model in turkeys. T-cell-intact turkeys and turkeys partly depleted of functional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes by Cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment were inoculated with the virulent aMPV subtype A strain BUT 8544. CsA-treatment resulted in a significant reduction of absolute numbers of circulating CD4(+) and CD8alpha(+) T-lymphocytes by up to 82 and 65%, respectively (P<0.05). Proportions of proliferating T-cells within mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reduced by similar levels in CsA-treated birds compared to untreated controls (P<0.05). CsA-treated turkeys showed delayed recovery from aMPV-induced clinical signs and histopathological lesions and a prolonged detection of aMPV in choanal swabs. The results of this study show that T-lymphocytes play an important role in the control of primary aMPV-infection in turkeys. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Avian metapneumovirus RT-nested-PCR: a novel false positive reducing inactivated control virus with potential applications to other RNA viruses and real time methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchieri, Marco; Brown, Paul A; Catelli, Elena; Naylor, Clive J

    2012-12-01

    Using reverse genetics, an avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) was modified for use as a positive control for validating all stages of a popular established RT-nested PCR, used in the detection of the two major AMPV subtypes (A and B). Resultant amplicons were of increased size and clearly distinguishable from those arising from unmodified virus, thus allowing false positive bands, due to control virus contamination of test samples, to be identified readily. Absorption of the control virus onto filter paper and subsequent microwave irradiation removed all infectivity while its function as an efficient RT-nested-PCR template was unaffected. Identical amplicons were produced after storage for one year. The modified virus is likely to have application as an internal standard as well as in real time methods. Additions to AMPV of RNA from other RNA viruses, including hazardous examples such HIV and influenza, are likely to yield similar safe RT-PCR controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversion to virulence of a subtype B avian metapneumovirus vaccine: is it time for regulators to require availability of vaccine progenitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, M; Catelli, E; Lupini, C; Ricchizzi, E; Prosperi, S; Naylor, C J

    2014-08-06

    Empirically derived live avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccines developed during the late 80s and early 90s have generally performed well in controlling turkey rhinotracheitis. Nonetheless, unstable attenuation was previously demonstrated in an AMPV subtype A vaccine. Until now this had not been investigated in subtype B vaccines due to lack of any similar availability of a vaccine progenitor or its sequence. The publication of the full genome sequence for the VCO3 vaccine progenitor facilitated a conclusive investigation of two AMPVs isolated from poults on a farm which had been vaccinated with VCO3 derived vaccine. Full genome sequencing of the isolates and their comparison to sequences of the vaccine and its progenitor, confirmed their vaccine origin. After determining the absence of extraneous infectious agents, one of these virus isolates was inoculated into 1-day-old turkeys in disease secure isolators and shown to cause disease with a severity similar to that caused by virulent field virus. This suggests that instability in live AMPV vaccines may be generalized and highlights the need for availability of vaccine progenitor sequences for the field assessment of all live viral vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compromised T-cell immunity in turkeys may lead to an unpredictable avian metapneumovirus vaccine response and variable protection against challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2010-10-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an important respiratory pathogen of turkeys with considerable economic impact on poultry production. Although vaccination is widely used for the control of the disease, questions regarding vaccine safety and efficacy remain to be elucidated. This report describes the problems associated with reproducibility of the aMPV-vaccine response, comparing T-lymphocyte-compromised and T-cell-intact turkeys. In three consecutive experiments, turkeys partially depleted of T-lymphocytes by treatment with cyclosporin A as well as untreated turkeys were vaccinated with a commercial live aMPV subtype A (aMPV-A) vaccine at 2 weeks of age. Two weeks later they were challenged with a virulent aMPV-A strain. Despite similar genetic background of the turkeys, comparable housing conditions under isolation and the application of the same aMPV-A vaccine, considerable variation was observed among the experiments regarding replication of the vaccine virus, vaccine-induced clinical signs and protection against challenge infection. The results indicate that differences in the outcome of aMPV-A vaccination may be associated with T-lymphocyte suppression and additionally with an interfering aMPV-B vaccine exposure at the hatchery in two of the experiments. Our study provides possible explanations for the variable protection provided by aMPV vaccines under field conditions.

  10. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-07-08

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Field estimation of the flock-level diagnostic specificity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Avian metapneumovirus antibodies in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Trampel, Darrell; Hanson, Tim; Harrison, Kristen; Goyal, Sagar; Cortinas, Roberto; Lauer, Dale

    2009-03-01

    Routine serologic testing for Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection of turkey flocks at slaughter is currently being used to monitor changes in the occurrence of AMPV infection in endemic areas and can also be used to detect the emergence of infection in currently unaffected areas. Because of the costs associated with false-positive results, particularly in areas that are free of AMPV infection, there is a need to obtain improved estimates of flock-level specificity (SP). The objective of this study was to estimate flock-level SP of a program to monitor AMPV infection in turkey flocks at processing using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A study was carried out in which 37 AMPV-free flocks from 7 Midwest operations were followed serologically. Six percent, 3%, and 0.2% of total samples tested AMPV positive at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and at processing, respectively. Overall, flock-level SP increased as the cutoff increased and as age increased. Flock-level SP at processing was 97%, if a cutoff of 1 was used (the flock was classified as positive if at least 1 sample tested positive), and 100%, if any other cutoff was used. Administration of antibiotics (P = 0.02) and vaccination for Bordetella avium (P = 0.08) were positively associated with the probability of (false) positive test results. These findings suggest possible cross-reactions with other infections and highlight the need to consider variable diagnostic performance depending on farm conditions.

  12. Role of trypsin in the replication of Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (strain MN-2a) and its entry into the Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Sarita; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2015-12-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms of Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and the requirements involved in the infection and fusion, trypsin treatment was done in the different stages of virus; before infection, during entry and after virus infection followed by aMPV infection. The growth kinetics of aMPV was compared in time dependent manner. The effect of trypsin was found in the later stage of aMPV infection increasing the numbers of infected cells with the significant higher titer of infectious virions to that of trypsin treated before infection, during entry and aMPV. A serine protease inhibitor reduced aMPV replication in a significant way, whereas cysteine peptidase (E-64), aspartic protease (pepstatin A), and metalloprotease (phosphoramidon) inhibitors had no effect on aMPV replication. Inoculation of aMPV on Vero cells expressing the membrane-associated protease TMPRSS2 resulted in higher virus titers than that inoculated on normal Vero cells and is statistically significant (p < 0.05). Also, an inhibitor of clathrin/caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect on virus progeny, indicating that aMPV does not use the endocytic pathway for entry but undergoes direct fusion. The effect of lysosomotropic agents was not significant, suggesting that aMPV does not require low-pH environment in endosomes to fuse its envelope with the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrin αvβ1 Modulation Affects Subtype B Avian Metapneumovirus Fusion Protein-mediated Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547

  14. Kecernaan In Vitro Fraksi Serat (NDF, ADF dan Selulosa Lima Jenis Rumput Laut Coklat dari Pantai Sungai Nipah Kabupaten Pesisir Selatan Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L. Dewi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kecernaan fraksi serat (NDF, ADF dan Selulosa lima jenis rumput laut coklat dari Pantai Sungai Nipah Kabupaten Pesisir Selatan Sumatera Barat secara in vitro. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK terdiri dari lima perlakuan rumput laut coklat yang berbeda jenis ( A = Padina australis, B = Turbinaria decurrens, C = Turbinaria murayana, D = Sargassum crassifolium dan E = Sargassum binderi dan masing-masing perlakuan diulang 3 kali sebagai kelompok. Kelompok didasarkan atas tiga kali pengambilan cairan rumen kambing yang berbeda. Parameter yang diamati pada penelitian ini adalah kecernaan NDF, kecernaan ADF dan kecernaan selulosa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 5 jenis rumput laut coklat berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap kecernaan NDF, kecernaan ADF dan kecernaan selulosa. Hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa rumput laut Sargassum crassifolium dan Sargassum binderi memiliki kecernaan NDF tertinggi (15,65% dan 20,56% dan ADF tertinggi (15,43% dan 17,80% dibandingkan dengan jenis rumput laut coklat lainnya.

  15. Endothelial galectin-1 binds to specific glycans on nipah virus fusion protein and inhibits maturation, mobility, and function to block syncytia formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omai B Garner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus targets human endothelial cells via NiV-F and NiV-G envelope glycoproteins, resulting in endothelial syncytia formation and vascular compromise. Endothelial cells respond to viral infection by releasing innate immune effectors, including galectins, which are secreted proteins that bind to specific glycan ligands on cell surface glycoproteins. We demonstrate that galectin-1 reduces NiV-F mediated fusion of endothelial cells, and that endogenous galectin-1 in endothelial cells is sufficient to inhibit syncytia formation. Galectin-1 regulates NiV-F mediated cell fusion at three distinct points, including retarding maturation of nascent NiV-F, reducing NiV-F lateral mobility on the plasma membrane, and directly inhibiting the conformational change in NiV-F required for triggering fusion. Characterization of the NiV-F N-glycome showed that the critical site for galectin-1 inhibition is rich in glycan structures known to bind galectin-1. These studies identify a unique set of mechanisms for regulating pathophysiology of NiV infection at the level of the target cell.

  16. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  17. It’s not only what you say, it’s also how you say it: communicating Nipah virus prevention messages during an outbreak in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Parveen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During a fatal Nipah virus (NiV outbreak in Bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of NiV transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. Field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak. Methods We explored residents’ beliefs and perceptions about the illness and care-seeking practices and explained prevention messages following an interactive strategy with the aid of photos showed the types of contact that can lead to NiV transmission from bats to humans by drinking raw date palm sap and from person-to-person. Results The residents initially believed that the outbreak was caused by supernatural forces and continued drinking raw date palm sap despite messages from local health authorities to stop. Participants in community meetings stated that the initial messages did not explain that bats were the source of this virus. After our intervention, participants responded that they now understood how NiV could be transmitted and would abstain from raw sap consumption and maintain safer behaviours while caring for patients. Conclusions During outbreaks, one-way behaviour change communication without meaningful causal explanations is unlikely to be effective. Based on the cultural context, interactive communication strategies in lay language with supporting evidence can make biomedical prevention messages credible in affected communities, even among those who initially invoke supernatural causal explanations.

  18. It's not only what you say, it's also how you say it: communicating nipah virus prevention messages during an outbreak in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shahana; Islam, M Saiful; Begum, Momtaz; Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Sazzad, Hossain M S; Sultana, Rebeca; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S; Hossain, M Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P

    2016-08-05

    During a fatal Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of NiV transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. Field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak. We explored residents' beliefs and perceptions about the illness and care-seeking practices and explained prevention messages following an interactive strategy with the aid of photos showed the types of contact that can lead to NiV transmission from bats to humans by drinking raw date palm sap and from person-to-person. The residents initially believed that the outbreak was caused by supernatural forces and continued drinking raw date palm sap despite messages from local health authorities to stop. Participants in community meetings stated that the initial messages did not explain that bats were the source of this virus. After our intervention, participants responded that they now understood how NiV could be transmitted and would abstain from raw sap consumption and maintain safer behaviours while caring for patients. During outbreaks, one-way behaviour change communication without meaningful causal explanations is unlikely to be effective. Based on the cultural context, interactive communication strategies in lay language with supporting evidence can make biomedical prevention messages credible in affected communities, even among those who initially invoke supernatural causal explanations.

  19. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...... the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  20. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  1. Co-circulation of genetically distinct human metapneumovirus and human bocavirus strains in young children with respiratory tract infections in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Alessandra; Canuti, Marta; Frati, Elena; Pariani, Elena; Perin, Silvana; Ruzza, Maria Lorena; Farina, Claudio; Podestà, Alberto; Zanetti, Alessandro; Amendola, Antonella; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human Bocavirus (hBoV) identified the etiological causes of several cases of acute respiratory tract infections in children. This report describes the molecular epidemiology of hMPV and hBoV infections observed following viral surveillance of children hospitalized for acute respiratory tract infections in Milan, Italy. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from 240 children ≤3 years of age (130 males, 110 females; median age, 5.0 months; IQR, 2.0-12.5 months) and tested for respiratory viruses, including hMPV and hBoV, by molecular methods. hMPV-RNA and hBoV-DNA positive samples were characterized molecularly and a phylogenetical analysis was performed. PCR analysis identified 131/240 (54.6%) samples positive for at least one virus. The frequency of hMPV and hBoV infections was similar (8.3% and 12.1%, respectively). Both infections were associated with lower respiratory tract infections: hMPV was present as a single infectious agent in 7.2% of children with bronchiolitis, hBoV was associated with 18.5% of pediatric pneumonias and identified frequently as a single etiological agent. Genetically distinct hMPV and hBoV strains were identified in children examined with respiratory tract infections. Phylogenetic analysis showed an increased prevalence of hMPV genotype A (A2b sublineage) compared to genotype B (80% vs. 20%, respectively) and of the hBoV genotype St2 compared to genotype St1 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, respectively). Interestingly, a shift in hMPV infections resulting from A2 strains has been observed in recent years. In addition, the occurrence of recombination events between two hBoV strains with a breakpoint located in the VP1/VP2 region was identified. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Humane metapneumovirus (HMPV) associated pulmonary infections in immunocompromised adults—Initial CT findings, disease course and comparison to respiratory-syncytial-virus (RSV) induced pulmonary infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syha, R.; Beck, R.; Hetzel, J.; Ketelsen, D.; Grosse, U.; Springer, F.; Horger, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To describe computed tomography (CT)-imaging findings in human metapneumovirus (HMPV)-related pulmonary infection as well as their temporal course and to analyze resemblances/differences to pulmonary infection induced by the closely related respiratory-syncytial-virus (RSV) in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: Chest-CT-scans of 10 HMPV PCR-positive patients experiencing pulmonary symptoms were evaluated retrospectively with respect to imaging findings and their distribution and results were then compared with data acquired in 13 patients with RSV pulmonary infection. Subsequently, we analyzed the course of chest-findings in HMPV patients. Results: In HMPV, 8/10 patients showed asymmetric pulmonary findings, whereas 13/13 patients with RSV-pneumonia presented more symmetrical bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Image analysis yielded in HMPV patients following results: ground-glass-opacity (GGO) (n = 6), parenchymal airspace consolidations (n = 5), ill-defined nodular-like centrilobular opacities (n = 9), bronchial wall thickening (n = 8). In comparison, results in RSV patients were: GGO (n = 10), parenchymal airspace consolidations (n = 9), ill-defined nodular-like centrilobular opacities (n = 10), bronchial wall thickening (n = 4). In the course of the disease, signs of acute HMPV interstitial pneumonia regressed transforming temporarily in part into findings compatible with bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Conclusions: Early chest-CT findings in patients with HMPV-related pulmonary symptoms are compatible with asymmetric acute interstitial pneumonia accompanied by signs of bronchitis; the former transforming with time into bronchitis and bronchiolitis before they resolve. On the contrary, RSV-induced pulmonary infection exhibits mainly symmetric acute interstitial pneumonia.

  3. Humane metapneumovirus (HMPV) associated pulmonary infections in immunocompromised adults—Initial CT findings, disease course and comparison to respiratory-syncytial-virus (RSV) induced pulmonary infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syha, R., E-mail: roland.syha@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Beck, R. [Institute of Medical Virology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Elfriede-Authorn-Str. 6, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Hetzel, J. [Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Otfried-Müller-Str. 10, 72070 Tübingen (Germany); Ketelsen, D.; Grosse, U.; Springer, F.; Horger, M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: To describe computed tomography (CT)-imaging findings in human metapneumovirus (HMPV)-related pulmonary infection as well as their temporal course and to analyze resemblances/differences to pulmonary infection induced by the closely related respiratory-syncytial-virus (RSV) in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: Chest-CT-scans of 10 HMPV PCR-positive patients experiencing pulmonary symptoms were evaluated retrospectively with respect to imaging findings and their distribution and results were then compared with data acquired in 13 patients with RSV pulmonary infection. Subsequently, we analyzed the course of chest-findings in HMPV patients. Results: In HMPV, 8/10 patients showed asymmetric pulmonary findings, whereas 13/13 patients with RSV-pneumonia presented more symmetrical bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Image analysis yielded in HMPV patients following results: ground-glass-opacity (GGO) (n = 6), parenchymal airspace consolidations (n = 5), ill-defined nodular-like centrilobular opacities (n = 9), bronchial wall thickening (n = 8). In comparison, results in RSV patients were: GGO (n = 10), parenchymal airspace consolidations (n = 9), ill-defined nodular-like centrilobular opacities (n = 10), bronchial wall thickening (n = 4). In the course of the disease, signs of acute HMPV interstitial pneumonia regressed transforming temporarily in part into findings compatible with bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Conclusions: Early chest-CT findings in patients with HMPV-related pulmonary symptoms are compatible with asymmetric acute interstitial pneumonia accompanied by signs of bronchitis; the former transforming with time into bronchitis and bronchiolitis before they resolve. On the contrary, RSV-induced pulmonary infection exhibits mainly symmetric acute interstitial pneumonia.

  4. Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitaled for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Li, Yu-Ning; Tang, Yi-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Yang, Xue-Mei; Li, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Jun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV, and twelve additional respiratory viruses. Bronchiolitis was the leading diagnoses both in RSV and HMPV positive patients. A significantly greater frequency of wheezing (52% vs. 33.52%, P = 0.000) was noted in RSV positive and negative patients. The RSV viral load was significant higher in children aged infections (P = 0.000). No difference was found in the clinical features of HMPV positive and negative patients. The HMPV viral load had no correlation with any clinical characteristics. The incidences of severe disease were similar between single infection and coinfection for the two viruses (RSV, P = 0.221; HMPV, P = 0.764) and there has no statistical significance between severity and viral load (P = 0.166 and P = 0.721). Bronchiolitis is the most common disease caused by RSV and HMPV. High viral load or co-infection may be associated with some symptoms but neither has a significant impact on disease severity for the two viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:589-597, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C as a bivalent vaccine in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haixia; Roth, Jason P; Estevez, Carlos N; Zsak, Laszlo; Liu, Bo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2011-11-03

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling both NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. In the present study, an NDV based, LaSota strain recombinant vaccine virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) was generated as a bivalent vaccine using a reverse genetics approach. The recombinant virus, rLS/aMPV-C G was slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintained similar growth dynamics, cytopathic effects, and virus titers in vitro when compared to the parental LaSota virus. Expression of the aMPV G protein in rLS/aMPV-C G-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of turkeys with one dose of rLS/aMPV-C G induced moderate aMPV-C-specific immune responses and comparable NDV-specific serum antibody responses to a LaSota vaccination control. Partial protection against pathogenic aMPV-C challenge and complete protection against velogenic NDV challenge was conferred. These results suggest that the LaSota recombinant virus is a safe and effective vaccine vector and that expression of the aMPV-C G protein alone is not sufficient to provide full protection against an aMPV-C infection. Expression of other immunogenic protein(s) of the aMPV-C virus alone or in conjunction with the G protein may be needed to induce a stronger protective immunity against the aMPV-C disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification, quantitation and differentiation of avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Munoz Pogoreltseva, Olga Svetlana; Listorti, Valeria; Mondin, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, special attention has been paid to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) diagnosis, due to its numerous advantages over classical PCR. A new multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) with molecular beacon probe assay, designed to target the SH gene, was developed. The test was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, and compared with conventional RT nested-PCR based on the G gene. All of the AMPV subtype A and B strains tested were amplified and specifically detected while no amplification occurred with other non-target bird respiratory pathogens. The detection limit of the assay was 10(-0.41) median infectious dose/ml and 10(1.15) median infectious dose/ml when the AMPV-B strain IT/Ty/B/Vr240/87 and the AMPV-A strain IT/Ty/A/259-01/03 were used, respectively, as templates. In all cases, the amplification efficiency was approximately 2 and the error values were 0.9375) between crossing point values and virus quantities, making the assay herein designed reliable for quantification. When the newly developed qRT-PCR was compared with a conventional RT nested-PCR, it showed greater sensitivity with RNA extracted from both positive controls and from experimentally infected birds. This assay can be effectively used for the detection, identification, differentiation and quantitation of AMPV subtype A or subtype B to assist in disease diagnosis and to carry out rapid surveillance with high levels of sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Italian field survey reveals a high diffusion of avian metapneumovirus subtype B in layers and weaknesses in the vaccination strategy applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Falchieri, Marco; Meini, Amelio; Jones, Richard C; Catelli, Elena

    2012-12-01

    The current information on the prevalence of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in layers is fragmentary and its true impact on egg production often remains unknown or unclear. In order to draw an epidemiologic picture of aMPV presence in layer flocks in Italy, a survey was performed on 19 flocks of pullets and layers based on longitudinal studies or sporadic samplings. aMPV was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and blood samples were collected for serology by aMPV ELISA. Occurrences of respiratory signs and a drop in egg production were recorded. Possible involvement of infectious bronchitis (IB) and egg drop syndrome (EDS) viruses that could have caused loss of egg production we ruled out for IB virus by RT-PCR, and EDS virus was ruled out by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI). Only subtype B of aMPV was found in both pullet and layer farms. Surveys of pullets showed that most groups became infected prior to the onset of lay without showing clear respiratory signs. At the point of lay, these groups were serologically positive to aMPV. In two layer flocks, egg drops were observed and could be strongly linked to the presence of aMPV infection. Results were correlated with aMPV vaccination programs applied to the birds in three flocks on the same farm. Only a vaccination program which included two live and one killed vaccines gave complete protection from aMPV infection to the birds, while a single live vaccine application was not efficacious. The current study gives an inside view of field aMPV diffusion in Italy and its control in layers.

  8. Reproducibility of swollen sinuses in broilers by experimental infection with avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B of turkey origin and their comparative pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ye Htut; Liman, Martin; Neumann, Ulrich; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2008-02-01

    Swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype A or subtype B in broilers and broiler breeders has been reported worldwide. Data about pathogenesis of aMPV subtypes A and B in broilers are scarce. It has been difficult to reproduce swollen sinuses in chickens with aMPV under experimental conditions. In the field, SHS in broilers is suspected to be induced by combined infections with different respiratory pathogens. The objectives of the present study were to compare the pathogenesis of subtypes A and B aMPV in commercial broilers and to investigate the reproducibility of clinical disease. In two repeat experiments, commercial broilers free of aMPV maternal antibodies were inoculated with aMPV subtypes A and B of turkey origin. The clinical signs such as depression, coughing, nasal exudates, and frothy eyes appeared at 4 days post inoculation, followed by swelling of periorbital sinuses at 5 days post inoculation. Higher numbers of broilers showed clinical signs in subtype-B-inoculated compared with subtype-A-inoculated groups. Seroconversion to aMPV was detectable from 10 to 11 days post inoculation. The appearance of serum aMPV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies and the clearance of the aMPV genome coincided. Subtype B aMPV showed a broader tissue distribution and longer persistence than subtype A. Histopathological changes were observed in the respiratory tract tissues of aMPV-inoculated broilers, and also in paraocular glands, such as the Harderian and lachrymal glands. Overall, our study shows that representative strains of both aMPV turkey isolates induced lesions in the respiratory tract, accompanied by swelling of infraorbital sinuses, indicating the role of aMPV as a primary pathogen for broilers.

  9. Generation and biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos; Song, Minxun; Kapczynski, Darrell; Zsak, Laszlo

    2010-02-01

    Genetic variation in length of the G gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication, pathogenicity and immunity is unknown. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for aMPV-C and generated two Colorado (CO) strain-based recombinant viruses containing either the full-length G gene derived from a Canadian goose isolate or a C-terminally truncated G gene of the CO strain. The truncated short G (sG) gene encoded 252 amino acids (aa), which is 333 aa shorter than the full-length G (585 aa). The biological properties of these two recombinant G variants were assessed in Vero cells and in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys. In Vero cells, the short G variant displayed a similar level of growth dynamics and virus titers as the parental aMPV-CO strain, whereas the full-length G variant replicated less efficiently than the sG variant during the first 72 h post-infection. Both of the G variants induced typical cytopathic effects (CPE) that were indistinguishable from those seen with the parental aMPV-CO infection. In SPF turkeys, both of the G variants were attenuated and caused little or no disease signs, but the full-length G variant appeared to grow more readily in tracheal tissue than the sG variant during the first 5 days post-infection. Both G variants were immunogenic and induced a slightly different level of antibody response. These results demonstrated that the large portion (333 aa) of the extracellular domain of the viral attachment protein is not essential for virus viability in vitro and in vivo, but may play a role in enhancing virus attachment specificity and immunity in a natural host. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Protection conferred by a live avian metapneumovirus vaccine when co-administered with live La Sota Newcastle disease vaccine in chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Ganapathy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects on specific pathogen-free (SPF chicks when avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV La Sota strain vaccines are co-administered. Day-old SPF chicks were divided into five groups. The first group was inoculated with sterile water (SW and the rest of the groups were inoculated with live NDV vaccine VG/GA by the oculo-oral route. At 21 days-old, the unvaccinated chicks were again inoculated with SW. The four VG/GA-vaccinated groups were further inoculated with (i SW, (ii live aMPV vaccine, (iii live NDV La Sota, or (iv combined live NDV La Sota and live aMPV, respectively. Chicks were monitored for post-vaccination reactions and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for vaccines detection. Blood samples were collected to detect aMPV ELISA and NDV haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies. Twenty-one days following the second vaccination, six chicks from each group were challenged with virulent NDV or aMPV respectively. Chicks were monitored for clinical signs and mortality and oropharyngeal swabs collected for aMPV detection. Results showed that, when challenged with a virulent aMPV, both chicks previously vaccinated with VG/GA and subsequently given aMPV vaccine singly or in combination with La Sota were equally protected against clinical signs. Chicks that were vaccinated against NDV either once with VG/GA or followed by La Sota (singly or in combination with aMPV were fully protected when challenged with velogenic NDV. We concluded that simultaneous administration of live aMPV and NDV La Sota vaccines have no adverse effects on protection conferred by either live vaccine.

  11. Pathogenesis of Riemerella anatipestifer in turkeys after experimental mono-infection via respiratory routes or dual infection together with the avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Ryll, Martin; Behr, Klaus-Peter; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2009-12-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is the causative agent of septicaemic and exudative diseases in a variety of bird species. Despite numerous outbreaks, little is known about the pathogenicity of RA for turkeys. We investigated the development of RA-induced disease in commercial turkey poults following RA inoculation via different respiratory routes. Inoculation by aerosol or injection into the abdominal air sac led to systemic infection and mild gross lesions, including pericarditis, epicarditis and airsacculitis, which were less pronounced compared with field outbreaks. It was speculated, that viral pathogens, such as the avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), may exacerbate RA pathogenesis under field conditions. We inoculated turkey poults with virulent aMPV. Subsequently, aMPV-infected and virus-free birds were exposed 3 to 5 days later to a high dose of RA by aerosol (>10(10) colony-forming units/ml in 8 ml aerosol per 11 or 12 birds) or were inoculated 4 days later with a low RA dose (10(4.9) colony-forming units per bird) via the intranasal route. Intranasal RA inoculation with the low bacterial dose led to a respiratory and systemic RA infection in aMPV-infected birds, while virus-free birds remained RA-negative. Following exposure to a high RA dose by aerosol, aMPV-infected groups showed slightly enhanced incidences of gross lesions and RA re-isolation. The present study clearly confirms that RA is pathogenic for turkeys after experimental inoculation via respiratory routes, which are speculated to be the natural route of infection. However, experimental models in this study did not reproduce the severity of RA-related disease as observed under field conditions, which emphasizes the importance of other contributing factors. aMPV-induced respiratory lesions may serve as a predisposing factor for the establishment of RA infection, since they favour colonization of the bacterium.

  12. A genetically engineered prime-boost vaccination strategy for oculonasal delivery with poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles against infection of turkeys with avian Metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Martin; Peiser, Lieselotte; Zimmer, Gert; Pröpsting, Marcus; Naim, Hassan Y; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2007-11-14

    In this study we demonstrated the use of an oculonasally delivered poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticle (PLGA-MP)-based and genetically engineered vaccination strategy in the avian system. An avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein-encoding plasmid vaccine and the corresponding recombinant protein vaccine were produced and bound to or encapsulated by PLGA-MP, respectively. The PLGA-MP as the controlled release system was shown in vitro to not induce any cytopathic effects and to efficiently deliver the F protein-based aMPV-vaccines to avian cells for further processing. Vaccination of turkeys was carried out by priming with an MP-bound F protein-encoding plasmid vaccine and a booster-vaccination with an MP-encapsulated recombinant F protein. Besides the prime-boost F-specific vaccinated birds, negative control birds inoculated with a mock-MP prime-boost regimen as well as non-vaccinated birds and live vaccinated positive control birds were included in the study. The MP-based immunization of turkeys via the oculonasal route induced systemic humoral immune reactions as well as local and systemic cellular immune reactions, and had no adverse effects on the upper respiratory tract. The F protein-specific prime-boost strategy induced partial protection. After challenge the F protein-specific MP-vaccinated birds showed less clinical signs and histopathological lesions than control birds of mock MP-vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups did. The vaccination improved viral clearance and induced accumulation of local and systemic CD4+ T cells when compared to the mock MP-vaccination. It also induced systemic aMPV-neutralizing antibodies. The comparison of mock- and F protein-specific MP-vaccinated birds to non-vaccinated control birds suggests that aMPV-specific effects as well as adjuvant effects mediated by MP may have contributed to the overall protective effect.

  13. Receptor-Targeted Nipah Virus Glycoproteins Improve Cell-Type Selective Gene Delivery and Reveal a Preference for Membrane-Proximal Cell Attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben R Bender

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-targeted lentiviral vectors (LVs can be an effective tool for selective transfer of genes into distinct cell types of choice. Moreover, they can be used to determine the molecular properties that cell surface proteins must fulfill to act as receptors for viral glycoproteins. Here we show that LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted Nipah virus (NiV glycoproteins effectively enter into cells when they use cell surface proteins as receptors that bring them closely enough to the cell membrane (less than 100 Å distance. Then, they were flexible in receptor usage as demonstrated by successful targeting of EpCAM, CD20, and CD8, and as selective as LVs pseudotyped with receptor-targeted measles virus (MV glycoproteins, the current standard for cell-type specific gene delivery. Remarkably, NiV-LVs could be produced at up to two orders of magnitude higher titers compared to their MV-based counterparts and were at least 10,000-fold less effectively neutralized than MV glycoprotein pseudotyped LVs by pooled human intravenous immunoglobulin. An important finding for NiV-LVs targeted to Her2/neu was an about 100-fold higher gene transfer activity when particles were targeted to membrane-proximal regions as compared to particles binding to a more membrane-distal epitope. Likewise, the low gene transfer activity mediated by NiV-LV particles bound to the membrane distal domains of CD117 or the glutamate receptor subunit 4 (GluA4 was substantially enhanced by reducing receptor size to below 100 Å. Overall, the data suggest that the NiV glycoproteins are optimally suited for cell-type specific gene delivery with LVs and, in addition, for the first time define which parts of a cell surface protein should be targeted to achieve optimal gene transfer rates with receptor-targeted LVs.

  14. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  15. Induction of local and systemic immune reactions following infection of turkeys with avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtypes A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2007-02-15

    Most of the studies regarding the immunopathogenesis of avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) have been done with subtype C of aMPV. Not much is known about the immunopathogenesis of aMPV subtypes A and B in turkeys. Specifically, local immune reactions have not been investigated yet. We conducted two experiments in commercial turkeys. We investigated local and systemic humoral and cell mediated immune reactions following infection with an attenuated vaccine strain of aMPV subtype B (Experiment I) and virulent strains of aMPV subtypes A and B (Experiment II). Turkeys infected with virulent aMPV strains developed mild respiratory signs while birds inoculated with the attenuated aMPV did not show any clinical signs. Virus neutralizing antibodies were detected locally in tracheal washes and systemically in serum as soon as 5-7 days post aMPV infection (PI) independent of the strain used. Virus neutralizing antibody titres peaked at 7 days PI and then antibody levels declined. The peak of serum ELISA antibody production varied between infected groups and ranged from 14 and 28 days PI. All aMPV strains induced an increase in the percentage of CD4+ T cell populations in spleen and Harderian gland at days 7 or 14 PI. Furthermore, as shown in Experiment I, infection with the attenuated aMPV-B strain stimulated spleen leukocytes to release significantly higher levels of interferons (IFNs), interleukin-6 and nitric oxide in ex vivo culture in comparison to virus-free controls up to 7 days PI (P<0.05). As detected by quantitative real time RT-PCR in Experiment II, infection with virulent aMPV induced an increased IFNgamma expression in the Harderian gland in comparison to virus-free controls. IFNgamma expression in the spleen varied between aMPV strains and days PI. Overall, our study demonstrates that aMPV subtypes A and B infection induced humoral and cell mediated immune reactions comparable to subtype C infections. We observed only temporary stimulation of serum virus neutralizing

  16. Vaccination of commercial broiler chicks against avian metapneumovirus infection: a comparison of drinking-water, spray and oculo-oral delivery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Kannan; Bufton, Andrew; Pearson, Andrew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard C

    2010-05-21

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) has become an important cause of viral respiratory infections in turkey and chickens. Live and inactivated vaccinations are available worldwide for prevention of disease and economic losses caused by this pathogen. The efficacy of these vaccines is vigorously tested under laboratory conditions prior to use in the field. In this study, a live subtype B aMPV vaccine was administered by spray, drinking water or oculo-oral methods to separate groups of broiler chicks under field conditions. Following this, the chicks were immediately transferred to separate rooms in an experimental isolation house, monitored and challenged with virulent subtype B aMPV. No clinical signs were recorded following the vaccination methods. In the oculo-oral vaccinated chicks, 40-60% of the birds were vaccine virus positive by RT-PCR. In addition, in comparison to other groups, statistically higher levels of aMPV ELISA antibodies were detected. After spray vaccination, the number of chicks positive for the vaccine virus increased gradually from 10% at one week to 30% by 3 weeks post vaccination. Following drinking water vaccination, 30% of chicks were aMPV positive at 1 week but negative by 3 weeks post vaccination. In both, spray and drinking water vaccinated groups, no ELISA antibodies were detected, but when challenged all chicks were protected against disease. At 5 days post challenge, 100% of chicks in the unvaccinated and those vaccinated by spray or drinking water routes but only 20% of the oculo-oral-vaccinated chicks were aMPV positive by RT-PCR. At 10 days post challenge, 10% of chicks in each group were aMPV RT-PCR positive. On challenge, all vaccinated chicks were protected against disease. It appears that when aMPV vaccine is accurately applied to chicks by spray or drinking water routes, both are capable of giving protection against clinical disease equal to that induced in those chicks vaccinated individually by the oculo-oral route. Copyright 2010

  17. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  18. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  19. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  20. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  1. [Investigation of the presence of human metapneumovirus in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma and its relationship with the attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilvan, Ahmet; Aslan, Gönül; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Calıkoğlu, Mukadder; Yılmaz, Fatma Mehtap; Tezcan, Seda; Taş, Dilaver; Ayrık, Cüneyt; Uygungül, Evren; Sezer, Ogün; Emekdaş, Gürol

    2013-10-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), an enveloped RNA virus classified in Paramyxoviridae family, was first characterized in 2001 from children with acute respiratory tract infection. Recent studies have suggested hMPV to play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma attacks. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of hMPV in patients with COPD and asthma, its effects on the severity of the attacks and the relationship between demographical and clinical factors. A total of 123 patients, including 66 with COPD (45 were in attack and 21 were stable) and 57 with asthma (33 were in attack and 24 were under control) diagnosed according to the criteria of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, respectively, were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples collected from all of the patients have been evaluated for the presence of hMPV-RNA by using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting F gene region of the virus. hMPV-RNA positivity rates in patients with COPD and asthma were observed as 30.3% (20/66) and 31.6% (18/57), respectively, and the difference between the groups were not statistically significant (p= 1.00). When patients were compared according to their disease status, hMPV was detected in 31.1% (14/45) of patients with COPD attack and 28.6% of stable patients (p> 0.05). These rates were found as 36.4% (12/33) and 25% (6/24) in patients with asthma attack and controlled asthma, respectively (p> 0.05). Although the virus detection rates in patients with COPD and asthma attacks (26/78; 33.3%) were higher than the patients with stable/controlled disease (12/45; 26.7%), the difference was not found as statistically significant (p= 0.57). The detection rate of hMPV-RNA was 26.1% in patients who can be treated at home and hospital without any need of intensive care and mechanical ventilation, while this rate was 36

  2. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-28

    resume of his 5 years on the job. Jagmetti makes use of a revealing image in assessing his job. "Given the choice of attending a lecture on the global ...the Netherlands and in West Germany with Hawk and now also Patriot surface-to-air guided missiles. The Nike will be phased out within the...becomes obsolete, it should be modernized to fly for another 20-25 years. This kind of thing is very common in the navy, but it is a brand new idea

  3. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  4. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  5. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  6. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  7. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  8. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  10. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  11. Drop of egg production in chickens by experimental infection with an avian metapneumovirus strain PLE8T1 derived from swollen head syndrome and the application to evaluate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Miki; Koimaru, Hiroyuki; Shiba, Masahiro; Ono, Eriko; Nagata, Tadashi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2006-08-01

    Decreases in egg production and increased incidence of abnormal eggs due to malformation of egg shells were observed in specific pathogen free (SPF) 173-day-old laying hens inoculated intravenously with an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) strain PLE8T1. This strain was derived from an isolate from broiler birds exhibiting swollen head syndrome (SHS). Some SPF birds inoculated with the virus showed, slight diarrhea without any respiratory symptoms. Thus, the PLE8T1 strain was used as a challenge virus to evaluate efficacy of aMPV vaccines. SPF chickens which received a live attenuated aMPV vaccine (NEMOVAC; Merial) at 7 or 77 days old and an inactivated aMPV vaccine (OVO-4; Merial) at 105 days old were protected against poor egg production caused by the challenge with the PLE8T1 strain. Thus, aMPV, the PLE8T1 strain passaged 22 times after isolation, from birds exhibiting SHS, could induce a drop in egg production in laying hens accompanied by malformation of egg shells. It was suggested that this challenge system could be applied to evaluate the efficacy of aMPV vaccine.

  12. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... To furnish a means whereby appropriate international medical and health organisations may transmit information to medical scientists in medical institutions of West Africa and elsewhere.

  13. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an ... In fact, a study in Zambia, which discussed ... als in West Africa via pre and post didactic examinations .... teaching tools for the participants who came from a va-.

  14. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy Metapneumovirus aviário subtipos A e B brasileiros: infecção experimental em frangos de corte e eficácia vacinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a respiratory pathogen associated with the swollen head syndrome (SHS in chickens. In Brazil, live aMPV vaccines are currently used, but subtypes A and, mainly subtype B (aMPV/A and aMPV/B are still circulating. This study was conducted to characterize two Brazilian aMPV isolates (A and B subtypes of chicken origin. A challenge trial to explore the replication ability of the Brazilian subtypes A and B in chickens was performed. Subsequently, virological protection provided from an aMPV/B vaccine against the same isolates was analyzed. Upon challenge experiment, it was shown by virus isolation and real time PCR that aMPV/B could be detected longer and in higher amounts than aMPV/A. For the protection study, 18 one-day-old chicks were vaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age. Using virus isolation and real time PCR, no aMPV/A was detected in the vaccinated chickens, whereas one vaccinated chicken challenged with the aMPV/B isolate was positive. The results showed that aMPV/B vaccine provided a complete heterologous virological protection, although homologous protection was not complete in one chicken. Although only one aMPV/B positive chicken was detected after homologous vaccination, replication in vaccinated animals might allow the emergence of escape mutants.O Metapneumovírus aviário (aMPV é um patógeno respiratório associado à síndrome da cabeça inchada (SHS em galinhas. Apesar de vacinas vivas contra o aMPV serem utilizadas no Brasil, os subtipos A e B (aMPV/A e aMPV/B são ainda encontrados no país, com predominância do subtipo B. Este estudo foi conduzido com o intuito de estudar dois isolados brasileiros de aMPV (subtipos A e B isolados de frango. Para isto, um desafio experimental em frangos foi conduzido com o intuito de explorar a capacidade de replicação dos subtipos A e B Brasileiros. Posteriormente, a protecção virológica conferida por uma vacina do subtipo B em pintos foi realizada

  15. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  16. Evaluation of the PrimerDesign™ genesig real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay and the INFINITI® Respiratory Viral Panel Plus assay for the detection of human metapneumovirus in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turab, Mariam; Chehadeh, Wassim; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Nakib, Widad

    2012-04-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory pathogen that was discovered in 2001 and is considered a major cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. A sensitive, fast, and high-throughput diagnostic test is needed for the detection of hMPV that may assist in the clinical management as well as in the reduction of inappropriate therapy. Therefore, a comparison assessment was performed in this study between the PrimerDesign™ genesig real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) Assay and the INFINITI(®) Respiratory Viral Panel Plus Assay (RVP-Plus) for the detection of hMPV infection in patients with respiratory tract infections. A total of 200 respiratory samples were collected from 185 hospitalized patients, during the winter season in Kuwait. Of 185 patients, 10 (5.4%) were positive for hMPV RNA by the in-house RT-PCR assay, while 7 (4%) were positive for hMPV RNA by the real-time RT-PCR assay and 9 (5%) were positive for hMPV RNA by the INFINITI(®) RVP-Plus assay. The high incidence rate (60%) of hMPV infection was in January 2011. The sensitivity of the real-time RT-PCR and INFINITI(®) RVP-Plus assays was 70% and 90%, respectively, with specificity of 100% for both assays. hMPV types A and B could be identified in this study; however, discordant genotyping results were found between the direct sequencing method and the INFINITI(®) RVP-Plus assay in 33% of hMPV-positive patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleotide and Predicted Amino Acid Sequence-Based Analysis of the Avian Metapneumovirus Type C Cell Attachment Glycoprotein Gene: Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Epidemiology of U.S. Pneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rene; Lwamba, Humphrey M.; Kapczynski, Darrell R.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Seal, Bruce S.

    2003-01-01

    A serologically distinct avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) was isolated in the United States after an outbreak of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) in February 1997. The newly recognized U.S. virus was subsequently demonstrated to be genetically distinct from European subtypes and was designated aMPV serotype C (aMPV/C). We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the cell attachment glycoprotein (G) of aMPV/C (Colorado strain and three Minnesota isolates) and predicted amino acid sequence by sequencing cloned cDNAs synthesized from intracellular RNA of aMPV/C-infected cells. The nucleotide sequence comprised 1,321 nucleotides with only one predicted open reading frame encoding a protein of 435 amino acids, with a predicted Mr of 48,840. The structural characteristics of the predicted G protein of aMPV/C were similar to those of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) attachment G protein, including two mucin-like regions (heparin-binding domains) flanking both sides of a CX3C chemokine motif present in a conserved hydrophobic pocket. Comparison of the deduced G-protein amino acid sequence of aMPV/C with those of aMPV serotypes A, B, and D, as well as hRSV revealed overall predicted amino acid sequence identities ranging from 4 to 16.5%, suggesting a distant relationship. However, G-protein sequence identities ranged from 72 to 97% when aMPV/C was compared to other members within the aMPV/C subtype or 21% for the recently identified human MPV (hMPV) G protein. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes were greater than one in the G gene when comparing the more recent Minnesota isolates to the original Colorado isolate. Epidemiologically, this indicates positive selection among U.S. isolates since the first outbreak of TRT in the United States. PMID:12682171

  18. Lack of correlation between virus barosensitivity and the presence of a viral envelope during inactivation of human rotavirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and avian metapneumovirus by high-pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Fangfei; Neetoo, Hudaa; Li, Junan; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong

    2011-12-01

    High-pressure processing (HPP) is a nonthermal technology that has been shown to effectively inactivate a wide range of microorganisms. However, the effectiveness of HPP on inactivation of viruses is relatively less well understood. We systematically investigated the effects of intrinsic (pH) and processing (pressure, time, and temperature) parameters on the pressure inactivation of a nonenveloped virus (human rotavirus [HRV]) and two enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] and avian metapneumovirus [aMPV]). We demonstrated that HPP can efficiently inactivate all tested viruses under optimal conditions, although the pressure susceptibilities and the roles of temperature and pH substantially varied among these viruses regardless of the presence of a viral envelope. We found that VSV was much more stable than most food-borne viruses, whereas aMPV was highly susceptible to HPP. When viruses were held for 2 min under 350 MPa at 4°C, 1.1-log, 3.9-log, and 5.0-log virus reductions were achieved for VSV, HRV, and aMPV, respectively. Both VSV and aMPV were more susceptible to HPP at higher temperature and lower pH. In contrast, HRV was more easily inactivated at higher pH, although temperature did not have a significant impact on inactivation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the damage of virion structure by disruption of the viral envelope and/or capsid is the primary mechanism underlying HPP-induced viral inactivation. In addition, VSV glycoprotein remained antigenic although VSV was completely inactivated. Taken together, our findings suggest that HPP is a promising technology to eliminate viral contaminants in high-risk foods, water, and other fomites.

  19. Loss in lung volume and changes in the immune response demonstrate disease progression in African green monkeys infected by small-particle aerosol and intratracheal exposure to Nipah virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM model following intratracheal (IT and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV. This study utilized computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to temporally assess disease progression. The host immune response and changes in immune cell populations over the course of disease were also evaluated. This study found that IT and small-particle administration of NiV caused similar disease progression, but that IT inoculation induced significant congestion in the lungs while disease following small-particle aerosol inoculation was largely confined to the lower respiratory tract. Quantitative assessment of changes in lung volume found up to a 45% loss in IT inoculated animals. None of the subjects in this study developed overt neurological disease, a finding that was supported by MRI analysis. The development of neutralizing antibodies was not apparent over the 8-10 day course of disease, but changes in cytokine response in all animals and activated CD8+ T cell numbers suggest the onset of cell-mediated immunity. These studies demonstrate that IT and small-particle aerosol infection with NiV in the AGM model leads to a severe respiratory disease devoid of neurological indications. This work also suggests that extending the disease course or minimizing the impact of the respiratory component is critical to developing a model that has a neurological component and more accurately reflects the human

  20. Loss in lung volume and changes in the immune response demonstrate disease progression in African green monkeys infected by small-particle aerosol and intratracheal exposure to Nipah virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yu; Lentz, Margaret R; Lara, Abigail; Alexander, Isis; Bartos, Christopher; Bohannon, J Kyle; Hammoud, Dima; Huzella, Louis; Jahrling, Peter B; Janosko, Krisztina; Jett, Catherine; Kollins, Erin; Lackemeyer, Matthew; Mollura, Daniel; Ragland, Dan; Rojas, Oscar; Solomon, Jeffrey; Xu, Ziyue; Munster, Vincent; Holbrook, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM) model following intratracheal (IT) and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV. This study utilized computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to temporally assess disease progression. The host immune response and changes in immune cell populations over the course of disease were also evaluated. This study found that IT and small-particle administration of NiV caused similar disease progression, but that IT inoculation induced significant congestion in the lungs while disease following small-particle aerosol inoculation was largely confined to the lower respiratory tract. Quantitative assessment of changes in lung volume found up to a 45% loss in IT inoculated animals. None of the subjects in this study developed overt neurological disease, a finding that was supported by MRI analysis. The development of neutralizing antibodies was not apparent over the 8-10 day course of disease, but changes in cytokine response in all animals and activated CD8+ T cell numbers suggest the onset of cell-mediated immunity. These studies demonstrate that IT and small-particle aerosol infection with NiV in the AGM model leads to a severe respiratory disease devoid of neurological indications. This work also suggests that extending the disease course or minimizing the impact of the respiratory component is critical to developing a model that has a neurological component and more accurately reflects the human condition.

  1. Cover Crops in West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sasakawa Global 2000 — Bénin, 04 BP 1091, Cotonou, Benin ..... and West African farmers have been remarkably creative with GMCCs, developing and ...... Journal d'agriculture tropicale et de botanique appliquée, 4(5). ...... political; the best approach is therefore thought to be to accept this limitation and work with it.

  2. West Virginia's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  3. West Virginia's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  4. West Virginia's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; B.J. Butler; G.W. Cook

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  5. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and. Cellular Immune Responses. Lymphadénite Tuberculeuse: Peau Réaction d'hypersensibilité Retardée de Type et les Réponses. Immunitaires Cellulaires. E. A. G. Khalil†*, A. A. Elnour†, A. M. Musa†, ...

  6. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  7. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  8. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  9. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  10. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  11. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  12. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  13. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  14. West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  16. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  17. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  18. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  19. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  20. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat...

  1. The West Bank: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-20

    78 percent Muslim, 9.6 percent Christian, 11 percent Jewish and I percent other. The Muslim population was distributed in urban and rural aleas ...to cluster in the mountains and hill country as a refuge from depredations by Beduins in the plains. Village feuds and the pressures of Turkish tax...modern living patterns, industry, and co-merce--well developed in the coastal areas--were, by comparison, primitive in the mountainous West Bank

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  3. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  4. Epistemological failures : everyday terrorism in the west

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, Caron Eileen

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to problematize the disparate level of attention paid to similar violences globally, whereby violence against women in the developing world is seen as a security concern to the West and yet violence against women in the West is minimized or ignored. It will do this first by demonstrating that everyday violences, better known as everyday terrorism, in the West are subjugated knowledges within Terrorism Studies. To demonstrate this, Half the Sky, Sex and World Peace, and T...

  5. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  6. Archives: West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of ...

  7. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions To Authors Papers for submission to the West African Journal of Applied Ecology should be written in English and should not exceed 8,000 words in total ... Authors publish in the Journal with the understanding that they assign their copyright to the West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology.

  8. West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecologyis on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Other websites related to this journal are http://apps.ug.edu.gh/wajae/.

  9. West African Journal of Radiology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The West African Journal of Radiology (WAJR) is a publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. It is enlisted on AJOL (African Journals on-line). The Journal accepts for publication, original work in the science and technology of radiology, radiotherapy allied subjects, ...

  10. Medical women of the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, A L

    1988-01-01

    The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578

  11. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  12. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  13. Biomass burning in West African savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaut, J.C.; Abbadie, L.; Lavenu, F.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter approaches the influence of West African savanna ecosystems on the regional climate by giving, as precisely as possible, the amount of volatilized elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) annually released by bush fires into the atmosphere. In spite of the relative functional similarity of West African savannas, fire behavior and effects vary with the different bioclimatic and phytogeographic zones of the region: Guinea or humid zone; Sudan or mesic zone; and, Sahel or arid zone. In order to reach an acceptable accuracy, results are given for each of the zones described and summarized for West Africa

  14. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  15. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  16. Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  17. 2012 OLC Lidar: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  18. 2012 OLC Lidar DEM: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  19. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials ... The agricultural sector in the 1960s provided the main source of employment, .... their fathers and mothers' occupation were majorly trading (43.3%) and trading.

  20. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  2. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  3. Haematological characteristics and performance of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length ... performance of 36 young West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was investigated in order to simulate the .... cause antibody depression, alter white blood cell counts,.

  4. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  6. IDRC in the West Bank and Gaza

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    stress. Researchers from Birzeit Univer- sity and Canada's Queen's University studied more than ... Research Institute, West Bank. The economy of ... youth. Research findings will inform the work ... Grantee: The American Near East. Refugee ...

  7. Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, globalization has put a new spin on igration, which results in greater economic opportunities for the developed ...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  9. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  10. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...... past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about...

  11. Human metapneumovirus: a new respiratory pathogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    countries, the mortality is higher in developing countries. (Shapiro 1998). The risk of pneumonia is 3-6 times higher in children from developing countries (10-20%) as compared to developed countries (3–4%) (Victora et al 1999). Approximately 0.5 million children die due to ALRI in. India each year, accounting for one ...

  12. Human metapneumovirus: a new respiratory pathogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    All classes of micro organisms including viruses, bacteria and protozoa are ... Through genetic analysis it has been characterized into two groups A .... Figure 2. Genomic organization of RSV and hMPV. (Modified from Easton et al 2004.) ...

  13. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  14. Microbial keratitis in West and East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Ratnalingam; Thiageswari Umapathy; Kala Sumugam; Hanida Hanafi; Shamala Retnasabapathy

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most com...

  15. Writing the west: critical approaches to Shane

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, R

    2007-01-01

    Representations of the American West have perhaps resonated most strongly in the western film genre, yet at the same time, the literary Western is a highly developed and sophisticated genre in its own right. Meanwhile, critical approaches to the West have become increasingly wide-ranging, spanning historical/literary studies; film/cultural studies; genre; gender studies; philosophy, structuralism and, most recently, post-modernism. In light of such critical diversity, this article places a li...

  16. Travellers and Cowboys: Myths of the Irish West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisplinghoff, Gretchen

    The recent Irish film "Into the West" (1992) explores the myth of the West on two continents. Images from television and movies appear as a visual reference point within "Into the West"; the main characters, two young Irish boys, are fascinated with the American West of cowboys and Indians as depicted in countless Hollywood…

  17. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  18. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  19. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  20. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  1. Electricity sector integration in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Regional and global integration initiatives push for more electricity sector integration everywhere in the world, including West Africa. The creation of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) in 2000 and important investments under this new structure in 2006 are concrete actions that will result in a more integrated West African electricity sector. But will this integrated sector be more functional than the previous ones? Will the identified electricity sector problems be solved with the new power pool? This paper analyzes how power sector integration is presented by international institutions (the UN Economic Commission for Africa, World Energy Council and World Bank) and identifies three problematic issues with the current integration approach: lack of African ownership, unclear and conflicting reform objectives and uncertainty of integration outcomes

  2. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  3. Coupling West WRF to GSSHA with GSSHApy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    The West WRF output data is in the gridded NetCDF output format containing the required forcing data needed to run a GSSHA simulation. These data include precipitation, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, cloud cover, wind speed, and solar radiation. Tools to reproject, resample, and reformat the data for GSSHA have recently been added to the open source Python library GSSHApy (https://github.com/ci-water/gsshapy). These tools have created a connection that has made it possible to run forecasts using the West WRF forcing data with GSSHA to produce both streamflow and lake level predictions.

  4. Audit committees in West Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Bowrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the regulatory framework governing audit committees (AC of publicly traded companies in the West Indies and examines the extent to which the provisions of these AC regulations are similar to the International Federation of Accountants guidelines for AC. Also, it examines the actual AC policies of publicly traded West Indian firms and determines whether they vary systematically with industry affiliation or firm size. The sample comprised companies traded on Barbados, Jamaica Stock Exchange, and Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchanges in 2002. Larger companies and those in the financial industry provided better audit committee disclosures than their smaller counterparts and those in non-financial industries.

  5. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing... the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 West Yellowstone, MT [Amended] West Yellowstone, Yellowstone Airport...

  6. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  7. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  8. Solar radiation at Parsons, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Patric; Stanley Caruso

    1978-01-01

    Twelve years of solar radiation data, measured with a Kipp-Zonen pyranometer, were recorded near Parsons, West Virginia. The data agree well with calculated values of potential and average radiation for the vicinity and are applicable to the central Appalachian region.

  9. West Virginia Dropout Study, 1985-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston. Div. of General and Special Educational Development.

    Reported in this document are dropout statistics from the State of West Virginia for the school year 1985-86. This annual survey of the 55 county school systems has been conducted since the 1968-69 school year. Topics surveyed include Education Consolidation and Improvement Act (ECIA) status, exit interviews, grade at exit, month dropout left…

  10. West Nile virus: Immunity and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Lim (Stephanie); P. Koraka (Penelope); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWest Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic, arthropod-borne flavivirus that is maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds, but can also infect and cause disease in horses and humans. WNV is endemic in parts of Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, and since 1999 has

  11. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  12. Structural preconditions of West Bohemia earthquake swarms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Miroslav; Špičák, Aleš; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2013), s. 491-519 ISSN 0169-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia earthquake swarm s * depth-recursive refraction tomography * CEL09 refraction profile Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 5.112, year: 2013

  13. Portal vein thrombosis complicating appendicitis | Ayantunde | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 23, No 4 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  14. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  15. Laserjet Printer Troubleshooting Expert System | Adesola | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file ...

  16. IDRC in the West Bank and Gaza

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By examining issues such as household dynamics, access to justice, the right to work, education, health, political participation, and migration, researchers are identifying ways for policymakers to enhance women's rights. □ Transitional justice, lasting peace. Funding for West Bank and Gaza: $225,000. Duration: 2008–2011.

  17. Forest ecosystem health in the inland west

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Neil Sampson; Lance R. Clark; Lynnette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    For the past four years, American Forests has focused much of its policy attention on forest health, highlighted by a forest health partnership in southern Idaho. The partnership has been hard at work trying to better understand the forests of the Inland West. Our goal has been to identify what is affecting these forests, why they are responding differently to climate...

  18. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than half (55.6%) of them were favourably disposed to the programme while respondents' farming background (r=3.740, p ≤ 0.05) was significantly related to their perception of the programme. It was recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials should focus more attention on ...

  19. Design and manufacturing of WEST Baffle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Tristan; Firdaouss, Mehdi; Richou, Marianne; Ferlay, Fabien; Larroque, Sébastien; Gargiulo, Laurent; Dupas, Timothée; Verger, Jean-Marc; Doceul, Louis; Samaille, Franck; Bucalossi, Jérôme; Salami, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Disruption's torque in the PFC was simulated thanks to ANSYS. • The ANSYS thermal results comply with WEST project requirements. • The cycling analysis complies with WEST project requirements. • 316L components comply with A level RCC-MRx criteria. - Abstract: The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an X-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST project, launched in support to the Iter tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST Baffle aims to evacuate particles by creating a toroidal pumping throat. It also protects the lower divertor cooling pipes and the passive stabilization plate from heat fluxes. The Baffle is made of actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs), with underneath a passive stabilization plate and a support beam. The Baffle design is presented in a first part. In a second time the different ANSYS simulations are described: electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical results are presented. The design choices are justified for the different results obtained thanks to the simulation. In a final part, some aspects of the PFC manufacturing are presented.

  20. Encephalocele and associated skull defects | Komolafe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  1. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by West Virginia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  2. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...

  3. Semen Characteristics and Haematological Parmeters of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was carried out on eight West African Dwarf breeding Bucks weighing between 13kg-15kg and aged 18-24 months. The experiment spanned through 14 weeks. The animals were divided into two groups (T1 and T2) of four bucks each. 5mls of 20% and 30% Chaya leaf extract ...

  4. Thermophysiological Responses of West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the physiological responses of West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks fed Pennisetum purpureum (PP) and unripe plantain peels (UPP). Thirty 30 growingWAD bucks with average weight of 7.00 ± 0.55kg and aged between 8 and 9 months old, were allotted to three (3) dietary treatments (A, ...

  5. Drinking Among West Chester University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Almutairi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When the theory of reasoned action is perceived in relation to the reduction of binge drinking among West Chester students it will be important to consider the drinking as a behavior which is in need of imminent change.

  6. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  7. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  8. 77 FR 40793 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... enumerated in Senate Bill 579 will ease the strain placed on the Fund. Formatting and style changes have been..., 30 CFR part 948 is amended as set forth below: PART 948--WEST VIRGINIA 0 1. The authority citation... amendments. * * * * * Date of Original amendment submission publication of Citation/description of approved...

  9. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  10. Haematological characteristics and performance of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding crude petroleum contaminated forage on haematological characteristics and performance of 36 young West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was investigated in order to simulate the impact of real crude oil spillage on livestock and game. Graded levels (0.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g per kg forage) of stabilized “Bonny ...

  11. Russian gas in the west European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

  12. West Virginia harvest and utilization study, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Shawn. Grushecky

    2014-01-01

    Thirty active harvesting operations were part of a harvest and utilization study conducted in West Virginia in 2008. Data were collected on roundwood product and residue yields obtained from trees of different sizes, species, and qualities. This study was modeled after studies conducted on a regular and frequent basis by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit in the...

  13. Gazprom joins scramble for West-Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Hoedt, R.

    2008-03-15

    Gazprom has announced that it wants to become involved in gas production in West-Africa. A normal business decision for a company that wants to be a global player, say some analysts. Others are worried that the Russian move is intended to sabotage Europe's strategy to diversify its supplies.

  14. Gazprom joins scramble for West-Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Hoedt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Gazprom has announced that it wants to become involved in gas production in West-Africa. A normal business decision for a company that wants to be a global player, say some analysts. Others are worried that the Russian move is intended to sabotage Europe's strategy to diversify its supplies

  15. Why We Need West Nile Virus Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-27

    Dr. Rodrigo Hasbun, a professor of infectious diseases at McGovern Medical School at UT Health, discusses the need for West Nile virus testing in Texas.  Created: 9/27/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2016.

  16. Ecosystem variability in west Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, E.; Pedersen, Søren Anker; Ribergaard, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the climate conditions off West Greenland during the past 50 years shows large variability in the atmospheric, oceanographic and sea-ice variables, as well as in fish stocks. A positive relationship is found between water temperature and the recruitment of cod and redfish, whereas the...

  17. Familiarity with modern health management trends by West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Familiarity with modern health management trends by West African Surgeons. ... of the West African College of Surgeons, which was held in Calabar, Nigeria, from ... We recommend for a well-focussed short time duration health management ...

  18. Achievements in emergency medical rescue service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... In North-West province this process of provincialisation took place in ... Emergency Medical Rescue Service, Department of Health, North-West. Victor R .... recovery after CPR treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3940 West Nile... detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West Nile...

  20. Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Second, baroclinic Kelvin waves generated in the Bay of Bengal at periods shorter than about 120 ... significant energy remains trapped to the Indian west coast. .... ary condition, enables us to isolate the response of the West India Coastal ...

  1. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  2. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  4. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  5. 75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... West Coast Vancouver Island (WCVI) troll and sport fishery and 15 percent in Alaska's Southeast Alaska... Chinook recreational TAC for north of Cape Falcon (C.5). --Cape Alava to Queets River (La Push Subarea...

  6. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  7. The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, a strategy to improve disease surveillance and epidemic control in West Africa. ... The program includes four countries: Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Togo with an overarching goal to progressively cover all French speaking countries in West Africa ...

  8. The West African currency board and economic integration of British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WACB) as an economic integration effort in British West Africa. Through a collaborative effort between this public institution and a private company, the Bank of British West Africa, British West African colonies were not only unified but also the way ...

  9. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques ...... Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa.......Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques...

  10. Tectonics in the Northwestern West Philippine Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Xianglong; Wu Shiguo; Shinjo Ryuichi

    2008-01-01

    The West Philippine basin (WPB) is a currently inactive marginal basin belonging to Philippine Sea plate, which has a complex formation history and various crust structures. Based on gravity, magnetic and seismic data, the tectonics in West Philippine basin is characterized by amagnma spreading stage and strike slip fractures. NNE trending Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone is a large fracture zone with apparent geomorphology and shows a right-handed movement. The results of joint gravity-magnetic-seismic inversion suggest that the Okinawa-Luzon fracture zone has intensive deformation and is a transform fault. Western existence of the NW trending fractures under Ryukyu Islands Arc is the main cause of the differences between south and north Okinawa Trough. The Urdaneta plateau is not a remained arc, but remnant of mantle plume although its lava chemistry is similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB).

  11. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted by histor......Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted...... by historians and the ‘mobile space’ approach developed by geographers view exchange centres as nodes of transnational trade networks and places in production territories, and perceive spatial dynamics as highly dependent on shifts of trade flows and production activities. The objective of this article...

  12. Copenhagens's West End a 'Paradise Lost'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz Larsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Why have many of the prestige developments in Copenhagen’s West End built during the golden days of the welfare state morphed into neglected and stigmatized territories? This paper seeks to answer this question by deploying a field-analytical approach inspired by Bourdieu and Wacquant. The emerge...... and a dualizing urban policy which have converged to privilege private ownership at the cost of nonprofit housing for the past fifty years.......Why have many of the prestige developments in Copenhagen’s West End built during the golden days of the welfare state morphed into neglected and stigmatized territories? This paper seeks to answer this question by deploying a field-analytical approach inspired by Bourdieu and Wacquant...

  13. Seismic hazard in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mueller, Charles; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 national seismic-hazard model for the conterminous United States incorporates new scientific results and important model adjustments. The current model includes updates to the historical catalog, which is spatially smoothed using both fixed-length and adaptive-length smoothing kernels. Fault-source characterization improved by adding faults, revising rates of activity, and incorporating new results from combined inversions of geologic and geodetic data. The update also includes a new suite of published ground motion models. Changes in probabilistic ground motion are generally less than 10% in most of the Intermountain West compared to the prior assessment, and ground-motion hazard in four Intermountain West cities illustrates the range and magnitude of change in the region. Seismic hazard at reference sites in Boise and Reno increased as much as 10%, whereas hazard in Salt Lake City decreased 5–6%. The largest change was in Las Vegas, where hazard increased 32–35%.

  14. Marriage and ethnicity in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahnazarian, A

    1984-01-01

    "This paper will focus on ethnic differentials in the nuptiality of West Malaysia and on their evolution since the Second World War. The growing similarity of nuptiality patterns in the Malay, Chinese, and Indian communities will be outlined and the influence of age and sex distributions on the observed changes will be examined. The sources of data for this study are the 1947, 1957, and 1970 Population Censuses and the 1974 Malaysian Family and Fertility Survey." excerpt

  15. West Africa LP gas market development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Jointly sponsored with the World Bank, this essential study explores the opportunity for greatly expanded LP Gas use in the West Africa region. LP Gas supply in the area is increasing rapidly, This offers the opportunity for bringing modern energy to millions without current access, protects forests the only current source of energy for many, and encourages governments to adopt proactive policies that will reap benefits of the increasing availability of LP Gas. (author)

  16. Solar Heater in a West Virginia College

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar space-heating and hot water system installed at Alderson-Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia, is described in 87-page document. Report contains description of building and its solar-energy system; specifications for solar-energy system, including collectors, coolant, storage tanks, circulation equipment, piping, controls, and insulation; acceptance test data; and discussion of problems with installation, their solution, and recommendations for dealing with excess solar energy.

  17. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  18. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  19. Collaborative work between the West and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-12-01

    The "Collaborative Work between the West and Asia" session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  20. Development of new diagnostics for WEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotte, P.; Moreau, P.; Gil, C.

    2015-01-01

    WEST, the upgraded superconducting tokamak Tore Supra, will be an international experimental platform aimed to support ITER Physics program. The main objective of WEST is to provide relevant plasma conditions for validating plasma facing component (PFC) technology, in particular the actively cooled Tungsten divertor monoblocks, and also assessing high heat flux and high fluence plasma wall interactions with Tungsten in order to prepare ITER divertor operation. In parallel, WEST will also open new experimental opportunities for developing integrated H mode operation and exploring steady state scenarios in a metallic environment. In order to fulfil the Scientific Program of WEST, new diagnostics have been developed in addition to the already existing diagnostics of Tore Supra, modified and improved during the shutdown. For the PFC technology validation program, new tools have been implemented, like a full infrared survey of the PFC, a new calorimetry system, local temperature measurements (thermocouple and Bragg grating optical fiber), and several sets of Langmuir probes. For the analysis of long pulse H mode operation, new plasma diagnostics will be implemented, among which the Visible Spectroscopy diagnostic for W sources and transport studies, the Soft-Xray diagnostic based on gas electron multiplier detectors for transport and MHD studies, the X-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy diagnostic with advanced solid state detector properties for ion temperature, ion density and plasma rotation velocity measurements, and the ECE Imaging diagnostic for MHD and turbulence studies. Most of these new diagnostics are developed with the participation of French Universities or through international collaborations. This paper focuses on the description of these four plasma diagnostics. (author)

  1. Islamic women's organisations on the West Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Kjøstvedt, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Islamic organisations’ role in improving women’s position in society is often dismissed. Instead, they are believed to be devoted to charitable work and entrench patriarchal structures in line with traditional religious norms rather than challenge them. This brief nuances this picture, and describes some of the goals and activities of Islamic women’s organisations on the West Bank. In addition, the brief highlights factors that challenge the allegations that Islamic women’s organisations are ...

  2. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  3. History and the West Indian nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birbalsingh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. STEWART BROWN (ed.. Bridgend, Wales: Seren/Poetry Wales Press, 1995. 275 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Atlantic Passages: History, Community, and Language in the Fiction of Sam Selvon. MARK LOOKER. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. x + 243 pp. (Cloth n.p. Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History. SUPRIYA NAIR. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. viii + 171 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.50 Phyllis Shand Allfrey: A Caribbean Life. LlZABETH PARAVISINI-GEBERT. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. xii + 335 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 18.95 Of the four books to be considered here, those on Brathwaite, Selvon, and Lamming fit snugly together into a natural category of literature that has to do with the emergence of a Creole or African-centered Caribbean culture, and related issues of race, color, class, history, and nationality. The fourth is a biography of Phyllis Shand Allfrey, a white West Indian, who is of an altogether different race, color, and class than from the other three. Yet the four books are linked together by nationality, for Allfrey and the others are all citizens of one region, the English-speaking West Indies, which, as the Federation of the West Indies between 1958 and 1962, formed a single nation.

  4. NGA-West2 Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgnia, Yousef; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Al Atik, Linda; Ancheta, Timothy D.; Atkinson, Gail M.; Baker, Jack W.; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Boore, David M.; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Chiou, Brian S.J.; Darragh, Robert B.; Day, Steve; Donahue, Jennifer; Graves, Robert W.; Gregor, Nick; Hanks, Thomas C.; Idriss, I. M.; Kamai, Ronnie; Kishida, Tadahiro; Kottke, Albert; Mahin, Stephen A.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Rowshandel, Badie; Seyhan, Emel; Shahi, Shrey; Shantz, Tom; Silva, Walter; Spudich, Paul A.; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Watson-Lamprey, Jennie; Wooddell, Kathryn; Youngs, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The NGA-West2 project is a large multidisciplinary, multi-year research program on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. The research project has been coordinated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), with extensive technical interactions among many individuals and organizations. NGA-West2 addresses several key issues in ground-motion seismic hazard, including updating the NGA database for a magnitude range of 3.0–7.9; updating NGA ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for the “average” horizontal component; scaling response spectra for damping values other than 5%; quantifying the effects of directivity and directionality for horizontal ground motion; resolving discrepancies between the NGA and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site amplification factors; analysis of epistemic uncertainty for NGA GMPEs; and developing GMPEs for vertical ground motion. This paper presents an overview of the NGA-West2 research program and its subprojects.

  5. Internal migration in West Germany and implications for east-west salary convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decressin, J W

    1994-01-01

    "Using a simple model of gross migration [in West Germany], the paper shows that provided economic agents are sufficiently risk averse, migrational flows are likely to be procyclical. The econometric results confirm that flows are highly procyclical. They further indicate that changes in regional economic disparities significantly affect migrational flows. However, given the widening of regional disparities in the 1980s accompanied by a worsening in aggregate conditions, migration seems least effective in offsetting the differentiated impact of labor market shocks when it would be most useful. The paper concludes by applying the results to the issue of east-west migration and salary convergence." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  6. Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2014-01-01

    if necessary. The Alaskan Iñupiaq has an opposition between past, present and future. In Inuktitut and West Greenlandic tense is marked by optional derivational affixes. In Inuktitut the tense affixes have developed a complicated remoteness system (future and past) (Swift, 2004). In West Greenlandic the future...... is unmarked and past time reference can be marked if necessary. The Alaskan Iñupiaq has an opposition between past, present and future. In Inuktitut and West Greenlandic tense is marked by optional derivational affixes. In Inuktitut the tense affixes have developed a complicated remoteness system (future......Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic Unlike European languages tense in the West Greenlandic (WG) language is not marked in the inflection, but it is marked by derivational affixes (henceforth affixes). The West Greenlandic language belongs to Inuit-languages, (Iñupiaq (Alaska...

  7. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  8. West Edmonton Mall : buying into energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K. [West Edmonton Mall, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    The West Edmonton Mall consists of 600 stores and services, as well as attractions including a marine life lagoon, a skating rink, the largest indoor wave pool in the world, and an amusement park. Lighting retrofits, power-factor correction equipment, and tenant energy-saving criteria all combine to make the West Edmonton Mall a model of energy efficiency. An energy consultant was hired in 2001 to develop an energy management plan in an attempt to find ways to save energy while providing a return on investment. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are a consequence of reduced energy consumption. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) were recently installed on heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) fans, with assistance from the Energy Innovators Initiative (EII) of Natural Resources Canada. In addition, the West Edmonton Mall is now signed up with Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. The retrofit involved the conversion of 42 constant speed, variable-pitch supply and return fans to a fixed pitch. The total cost of the retrofit was $970,000, and the energy savings are expected to reach $524,295 annually. A brief overview of energy savings measures implemented since 1985 was provided. Separate metering and billing for new tenants is a strategy to make sure that they are aware of their energy costs. This strategy makes them more active in reducing their energy consumption. An awareness and accountability system was put in place, and a variety of potential projects are being evaluated, such as a cogeneration system, updating fluid pumps, and adding new controls to hot water heaters. 1 tab.

  9. East-West cooperation at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    From left to right: H. Bokemeyer, in charge of physics for INTAS, J. Sinnaeve, INTAS' general secretary and R. Landua, ATHENA spokesman, visit the ATHENA experiment installations. Heads of INTAS (International Association for the promotion and cooperation of the new independent states of the former Soviet Union) visited CERN on 11 October. This association is in charge of preserving and promoting the scientific potential of the former Soviet Union countries through a cooperation between East and West. In recents years, a certain number of projects related to the LHC experiments have been co-financed by INTAS. The support for young researchers coming from these countries is also a big success.

  10. Fragrance and Perfume in West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Moeran, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Fragrance and perfume connect with our most basic and primitive window on the world – our sense of smell. Animals use their sense of smell to find food, sense danger and mate. So, too, do human beings. Mothers and their babies bond through smell. Smell triggers memories buried long in our unconscious, probably because our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the oldest part of the brain, which is the seat of emotion and memory. Throughout the ages in Weste...

  11. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  12. East, West German gas pipeline grids linked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Ruhrgas AG, Essen, has started up the first large diameter gas pipeline linking the gas grids of former East and West Germany. Ruhrgas last month placed in service a 40 in., 70 km line at Vitzeroda, near Eisenach, linking a new Ruhrgas pipeline in Hesse state with a 330 km gas pipeline built last year in Thuringia and Saxony states by Erdgasversorgungs GmbH (EVG), Leipzig. The new link enables pipeline operator EVG to receive 70 bcf/year of western European gas via Ruhrgas, complementing the 35 bcf/year of gas coming from the Commonwealth of Independent States via Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG), Leipzig

  13. The West Family Chiropractic Dynasty: celebrating a century of accomplishment in Canada: Part I: Archibald B. West, DC, Samuel H. West, DC and Stephen E. West, DC: The Founding Father, his Son and Grandson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas M

    2010-09-01

    This historical treatise documents the unbroken legacy of the West family of chiropractors which has flourished in Canada for over 100 years. Part I, unearths the origins, development and careers of Archibald West, the founder of this dynasty, his son Samuel and grandson Stephen. Part II, not yet ready for publication, will delve into the lives of Archibald's brother Samson and his chiropractic progeny, as well as a nephew of Stephen and another relative of Frederick West.

  14. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  15. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    .... Discussion of Proposed Rule On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach... representative via VHF radio on channel 16, to request authorization. If authorization to enter, transit through... between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among...

  16. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Championship. On June 1, 2013, Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon... VHF radio on channel 16, to request authorization. If authorization to enter, transit through, anchor... government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of...

  17. Shared decision making in West Africa: The forgotten area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ndeye Thiab; Ben Charif, Ali; Adisso, Lionel; Adekpedjou, Rhéda; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Agbadjé, Titilayo Tatiana; Dogba, Mama Joyce; Garvelink, Mirjam Marjolein

    2017-06-01

    Up to now, little attention has been paid to West Africa when it comes to shared decision making (SDM). West African countries seem to lag behind with regard to SDM initiatives compared to many other countries in the world. There is some interest in informed decision making or informed consent, but little in a full SDM process. Few decision-making tools are available for healthcare professionals and the majority are not designed to support decision-making with patients. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, there are no training programs for implementing SDM in healthcare teams. Many barriers exist to implementing SDM in West Africa, including lack of options, few or poor health resources and low levels of education. However, African countries present many opportunities for SDM as well. Existing SDM innovations developed for other populations with low literacy could be explored and adapted to the West African context, and research on implementation and outcomes in West Africa could contribute to SDM worldwide. West African countries are in an excellent position to both learn from other countries and contribute to SDM development in other parts of the world. In this paper we reflect on SDM challenges and opportunities, and propose a research agenda for West Africa. We hope to awaken interest in SDM in West Africa and encourage future collaborations on SDM with various West African stakeholders, including patients, healthcare professionals, policymakers, non-government organisations (NGOs) and academic institutions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    rocks of the central west coast of India. Vol. 10, No.2, 1990 bonate and Miliolite Problems of Gujarat, PRL Ahmedabad:41 42 Kale VS, RajagllIU SN (1985) Neogene and Quaternary transgres sional and regressional history of the west coast of India... (1990) 10: 111-115 Geo-Marine Letters ~1990 Springtr-Vtrlng Ntw Yolldnc. Beach Rocks of the Central West Coast of India B. G. Wagle National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India, 403004 Abstract Along the central west coast of India several...

  19. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  20. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  1. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  2. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  3. Women's participation in developing west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D

    2000-06-01

    In China, the underdeveloped economy of the west has limited women's employment opportunities compared with their counterparts in the eastern and central region. Most women workers are engaged in agricultural production offering few opportunities for career development. Education, awareness of participation, fertility level, and health conditions are the compounding factors that hindered women's employment. According to a 10% sampling survey of the 4th population census in 1990, a high percentage of illiterates and semi-illiterates and a high dropout rate among girl students are noted. Moreover, a survey of maternal mortality rates indicated that the rate in west China was still far higher than that in central and eastern areas. In the context of its fertility, it is evident that the average age at first marriages and childbirth for women are considerably lower than the national average, while the percentage of women having multiple children is markedly higher than the national level. The paper proposes the following: improve education for women, especially girls; promote gender equality; publicize and implement the family planning policy; and increase spending on improving young girls' nutrition and on acquisition of medical equipment in western China for a balanced national economic development.

  4. Empowerment model of biomass in west java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, C.; Fitriani, N. I.; Saad, A.; Yuliah, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the search of renewable energy sources as the substitution. In West Java, biomass has potential to be developed into bio-briquette because the resources are abundant. The objectives of this research are mapping the potency of biomass as bio-briquette in West Java, and making the model of the empowerment biomass potential involving five fundamental step which are raw material, pre-processing process, conversion mechanism, products, and end user. The main object of this model focused on 3 forms which are solid, liquid, and gas which was made by involving the community component as the owner biomass, district government, academics and researcher communities, related industries as users of biomass, and the central government as the policy holders and investors as a funder. In the model was described their respective roles and mutual relationship one with another so that the bio-briquette as a substitute of fossil fuels can be realized. Application of this model will provide the benefits in renewability energy sources, environmental, socio economical and energy security.

  5. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  6. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  7. Upgrade of the Proton West secondary beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel, L.

    1989-01-01

    As originally designed and operated, protons entering PW6 were steered by a series of EPB dipoles into a single interaction length beryllium target, some 43 feet from the enclosure wall. Ensuing secondary beams, either p + /π + or p - /π - , were collected by a string of quadrupoles following the target, steered westward, away from the Proton Center line, through PW6 and PW7, and ultimately focussed on experiment production targets located within the large PW8 hall. Around the Spring of 1988 it was decided to upgrade the existing Proton West secondary beamline to allow for transport of a primary proton beam, anticipated to be either 800 or 900 GeV/c, through PW8. This upgrade project, which is now nearing completion, was largely motivated by the then recent approval of E-771, a hadronic beauty production experiment located in PW8. E-771 represents the third in a series of experiments for the large-acceptance dimuon spectrometer presently located at the end of the Proton West beamline. This Technical Memo is a summary of the upgrade --- an explanation of the underlying strategy and a documentation of the final locations of the secondary beamline elements. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Architecture of WEST plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenel, N.; Nouailletas, R.; Barana, O.; Brémond, S.; Moreau, P.; Guillerminet, B.; Balme, S.; Allegretti, L.; Mannori, S.

    2014-01-01

    To operate advanced plasma scenario (long pulse with high stored energy) in present and future tokamak devices under safe operation conditions, the control requirements of the plasma control system (PCS) leads to the development of advanced feedback control and real time handling exceptions. To develop these controllers and these exceptions handling strategies, a project aiming at setting up a flight simulator has started at CEA in 2009. Now, the new WEST (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project deals with modifying Tore Supra into an ITER-like divertor tokamak. This upgrade impacts a lot of systems including Tore Supra PCS and is the opportunity to improve the current PCS architecture to implement the previous works and to fulfill the needs of modern tokamak operation. This paper is dealing with the description of the architecture of WEST PCS. Firstly, the requirements will be presented including the needs of new concepts (segments configuration, alternative (or backup) scenario, …). Then, the conceptual design of the PCS will be described including the main components and their functions. The third part will be dedicated to the proposal RT framework and to the technologies that we have to implement to reach the requirements

  9. High yielding rice mutants for West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, A.R.; Sen, S.

    1980-01-01

    Four high yielding mutants with specific genetic corrections of the simply inherited characters were developed from IR-8 through X-irradiation. Recurrent selections of the promising isolates were made under diverse agro-climatic conditions in Winter and Summer seasons of West Bengal. The isolates CNM 6 and CNM 25 belonging to early maturity group and CNM 20 and CNM 31, to mid-early maturity group were finally selected at X 5 generation on the basis of their resistance qualities, maturity period and grain yield. They were evaluated upto X 10 qeneration at multi-locations as Pre-release and Minikit Varieties at State level. They were also placed at the National Screening Nursery (NSN) for screening against multiple diseases and pests at the National level. CNM 6 is reported to be promising in IRTP nurseries. It is reported that CNM 25 (IET 5646) ranked 2nd on the basis of average grain yield, CNM 20 (IET 5937) and CNM 31 (IET 5936) were resistant to diseases and with yield comparable to Jaya. These four productive mutants of superior types are widely accepted. CNM 6 is recommended for cultivation in Bankura and Birbhum districts and CNM 25 and CNM 31 in the different agro-climatic zones of West Bengal. (author)

  10. Comparative evaluation of conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR for detection of avian metapneumovirus subtype A Comparação entre as técnicas de RT-PCR convencional e RT-PCR em tempo real para a detecção do metapneumovírus aviários subtipo A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lage Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F gene and nucleocapsid (N gene were compared with an established test for the attachment (G gene. All the RT-PCR tested assays were able to detect the AMPV/A. The lower detection limits were observed using the N-, F- based RRT-PCR and F-based conventional RT-PCR (10(0.3 to 10¹ TCID50 mL-1. The present study suggests that the conventional F-based RT-PCR presented similar detection limit when compared to N- and F-based RRT-PCR and they can be successfully used for AMPV/A detection.O metapneumovírus aviário (AMPV pertence ao gênero Metapneumovirus, família Paramyxoviridae. Isolamento viral, sorologia e detecção do RNA genômico são atualmente as técnicas utilizadas para o diagnóstico desse agente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a detecção de RNA viral de seis isolados de AMPV, subtipo A (AMPV/A, utilizando diferentes métodos de RT-PCR convencional e real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR. Duas novas técnicas de RT-PCR convencional e duas técnicas de RRT-PCR, ambas para a detecção dos genes da nucleoproteína (N e da proteína de fusão (F, foram comparadas com um RT-PCR previamente estabelecido para a detecção do AMPV (gene da glicoproteína -G. Todos esses métodos foram capazes de detectar os isolados AMPV/A. As técnicas RRT-PCR (genes F e N mostraram os menores limites de detecção (10(0.3 to 10¹ TCID50 mL-1. Os resultados sugerem que as técnicas RT-PCR convencional (gene F e as técnicas de RRT-PCR (gene F e N desenvolvidas no presente estudo podem ser utilizadas com sucesso para a detecção do

  11. 77 FR 42430 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...-0155; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASW-1] Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Memphis, AR AGENCY: Federal... at West Memphis, AR. Separation of existing Class E airspace surrounding West Memphis Municipal... the West Memphis, AR, area, creating controlled airspace at West Memphis Municipal Airport (77 FR...

  12. 76 FR 9351 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From West Virginia Center for Patient Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Patient Safety, a component entity of West Virginia Hospital Association, West Virginia Medical Institute (WVMI), and West Virginia State Medical. Association (WVSMA), of its status as a Patient Safety... Patient Safety, a component entity of West Virginia Hospital Association, West Virginia Medical Institute...

  13. Compendium of NASA data base for the global tropospheric experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic/continental sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental and marine sulfur sources. The PEM West program encompassed two expeditions. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air was from mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) was modified by Asian outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum Asian outflow. Results from PEM West-A and B are public domain. PEM West-A data are summarized in NASA TM 109177 (published February 1995). Flight experiments were based at Guam, Hong Kong, and Japan. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The DAAC includes numerous other data such as meteorological and modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  14. A history of tree planting in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Carvell

    2012-01-01

    West Virginia has often been described by botanists as “the most southern of the northern states, the most northern of the southern states, the most eastern of the western states, and the most western of the eastern states." Truly, West Virginia, "the Mountain State," is the cross roads for many species of trees and herbaceous vegetation, and even today...

  15. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls for ... experienced military coup leading to military rule in most cases. ... study, we shall examine the closely knit nature of inter-state relationships in West ... It is instructive to note that the military juntas did not fare better in office. ..... Sweden: SIPRI.

  16. Dateline USA: Settling the West, 1800-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Barbara; O'Laughlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of titles related to the theme "Settling the West" which are appropriate for primary, elementary, and middle grades. Topics include overviews of Western history; early 19th century; the gold rush; the pony express; travelers by trail, rail, and ship; settling the West; cowboys and cattle; and the…

  17. Tokamak WEST připraven ke startu!

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    Květen (2017) ISSN 2464-7888 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * ITER * tokamak * WEST * Tora Supra * divertor Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://www.3pol.cz/cz/rubriky/jaderna-fyzika-a-energetika/2014-tokamak-west-pripraven-ke- start u

  18. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The democratization efforts of the 1990s in West Africa appeared to have put paid to military political adventurism which had been the plague of that region since independence in the 1960s. But since the year 2000 there has been a resurgence of military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls ...

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Loroño-Pino, María A; Marlenee, Nicole L; Díaz, Francisco J; González-Rojas, José I; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J

    2004-07-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002.

  20. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African dwarf goats fed ensiled cassava leaves with molasses and caged layer waste. Eighteen West African dwarf goats were randomly assigned to three experimental diets consisting of cassava leaves ensiled alone ...

  1. Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and blood biochemical indices of West African dwarf goats vaccinated against Pestes des petit ruminants (PPR) ... blood biochemical indices of forty randomly selected West African dwarf (WAD) goats were studied. Packed cell volume ... neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and white blood cells (WBC) than females.

  2. The West Africa Initiative to Strengthen Capacities through Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    West Africa has many of the lowest development indicators in the world - 10 of the 15 member states of the West African Community number among the world's 35 low-income countries. The World Health Organization reports that 14 of the member states have a high maternal mortality ratio, defined as 300 or more maternal ...

  3. Seasonal abundance and molecular identification of West Nile virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal abundance and molecular identification of West Nile virus vectors, Culex pipens and Culex ... Background: West Nile virus (WNV) infection, is an arbovirus infection with high morbidity and mortality, the vector respon- sible for both human ... Major diseases transmitted are known as Arboviral dis- eases because ...

  4. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  5. West Virginia ITS/CVO mainstreaming business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This West Virginia ITS/CVO business plan has been developed with the cooperation of the several state agencies that administer CVO programs as well as the West Virginia Motor Truck Association and its members. The basic tenants of this plan include t...

  6. West Nile virus in overwintering mosquitoes, central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, I.; Betášová, L.; Blažejová, H.; Venclíková, Kristýna; Straková, P.; Šebesta, O.; Mendel, J.; Bakonyi, T.; Schaffner, F.; Nowotny, N.; Hubálek, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, 2 October (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku 452. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : West Nile fever * West Nile virus * Flavivirus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  7. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    We discuss a method to obtain the spatial estimates of rainfall on the Indian west coast for calculating the surface water budget. The region includes the basin of the Mandovi River, a typical west-coast river whose catchment area includes...

  8. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  9. Forest gradients in West Africa : a spatial gradient analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, van R.S.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and

  10. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis plant, supplement 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Supplement 18 contains the following additions to Appendix II--5.0 Geology and Seismology: Section 12 ''Seismic Investigations for Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facility at West Valley, New York,'' October 20, 1975, and Section 13 ''Earthquake Return Period Analysis at West Valley, New York, for Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.'' November 5, 1975

  11. Roundwood markets and utilization in West Virginia and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Jan Wiedenbeck; Ben. Spong

    2011-01-01

    West Virginia and Ohio have similar forest resources and extensive forest-based economies. Roundwood is harvested throughout this central Appalachian region and supports a diverse primary and secondary forest products sector. The objective of this research was to investigate the utilization of the forest resource harvested in West Virginia and Ohio. Utilization and...

  12. Towards a Typology of Imams of the West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2018-01-01

    To understand the relevant and signifijicant diffferences between imams of the West, this chapter suggests a typology of imams according to variations of institutional authority – that is, the signifijicant dimensions of institutionally embedded authority available in the West – and what has been...

  13. Delivery patterns among women at the Tamale West Hospital from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to assess delivery patterns among women in the Tamale West Hospital for the four years under study. Retrospective cohort study design was used for this study. The data for the research work was from the Public Health Unit of Tamale West Hospital. Findings from the research revealed that for ...

  14. Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the possible growth promoting effect of rare earth elements (REE) in growing West African dwarf sheep as well as their influence on the haematological and blood serum biochemical changes was conducted for 12 weeks. Forty West African dwarf sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: a ...

  15. 77 FR 69490 - West Virginia; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... determined that the emergency conditions in the State of West Virginia resulting from Hurricane Sandy... State of West Virginia have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency: Emergency... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  16. Missing Chapters II: West Virginia Women in History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Frances S., Ed.

    This collection of essays chronicles the contributions of 14 West Virginia women active in individual and group endeavors from 1824 to the present. Because the achievements of these women are absent from previous histories of West Virginia, their stories constitute missing chapters in the state's history. Some of these women made contributions in…

  17. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  18. BRONX HEALTH EDUCATION PROJECT FOR WEST AFRICAN IMMIGRANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca Dover; Elgoghail, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The transition from a traditional West African diet and lifestyle to a modern diet has a significant impact on health and the risk of chronic disease. To implement a health education program for West African immigrants in the U.S. to address health risks associated with the modern diet. A health education program model targeted at West African immigrants in the Bronx was determined based on existing health education programs with educational materials, group education sessions, and targeted individual counseling. A health education program was successfully implemented at a clinic comprised of West African immigrant patients in the Bronx. This project demonstrates an example of a targeted health education program for West African immigrants to address health risks related to diet.

  19. West Nile virus ecology in a tropical ecosystem in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Alvarez, Danilo; López, María R; Betoulle, Jean-Luc; Sosa, Silvia M; Müller, María L; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Lanciotti, Robert S; Johnson, Barbara W; Powers, Ann M; Cordón-Rosales, Celia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus ecology has yet to be rigorously investigated in the Caribbean Basin. We identified a transmission focus in Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, and established systematic monitoring of avian abundance and infection, seroconversions in domestic poultry, and viral infections in mosquitoes. West Nile virus transmission was detected annually between May and October from 2005 to 2008. High temperature and low rainfall enhanced the probability of chicken seroconversions, which occurred in both urban and rural sites. West Nile virus was isolated from Culex quinquefasciatus and to a lesser extent, from Culex mollis/Culex inflictus, but not from the most abundant Culex mosquito, Culex nigripalpus. A calculation that combined avian abundance, seroprevalence, and vertebrate reservoir competence suggested that great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is the major amplifying host in this ecosystem. West Nile virus transmission reached moderate levels in sentinel chickens during 2007, but less than that observed during outbreaks of human disease attributed to West Nile virus in the United States.

  20. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa...... in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals...

  1. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C; Kramer, Laura D; Komar, Nicholas; Estrada-Franco, José Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006-2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  2. Radioactive waste management in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.

  3. Petroleum reserves in West Africa: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copinschi, Ph.; Favennec, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea region in West Africa is one in which production and reserves have increased the most during the last few years, essentially due to offshore operation. It is also there that the most spectacular discoveries have been made in recent years, particularly with deep-sea drilling. The low production costs and enthusiastic welcome for foreign investors make the region a favoured destination for large international companies, even if uncertainties and political tensions remain to make the situation delicate. In these conditions, the relationship between the host State and the foreign petrol companies are changing. Beyond the purely formal aspects of these new contacts, the whole former system of 'reserved markets' is being threatened by the increasing tendency to open the sector to competition. Eight countries are examined in detail: Nigeria, Angola, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, the Ivory Coast and Chad. (authors)

  4. Spectrophotometry of Comet West 1976 VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenbush, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained for the coma, nuclear fragments A and D, and tail of Comet West 1976 VI on April 1, 2 and 7, 1976 are noted to encompass coma spectra which differed from those of the nuclear fragments, which exhibited a strong continuum with superimposed emissions that included a stronger CO(+)-band system than that of the coma. A detailed comparison between fragment spectra has revealed great differences in both quasi-simultaneously obtained and five-day-separated cases. The relative intensities of different CO(+) bands are compared to the theoretical ones, and the abundances of CO(+) ions corresponding to different vibrational transitions are determined relative to that of CN. 24 references

  5. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  6. November 2016 West Hackberry Subsidence Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Subsidence monitoring is a critical component to understanding the cavern integrity of salt storage caverns. This report looks at historical and recent data from two of the three West Hackberry dome cavern operators. DOE SPR and LA Storage are coordinating subsidence surveys to create a comprehensive understanding of ground movement above the dome. Data from annual level and rod surveys, GPS, and tiltmeter data show the sites are experiencing typical ground movement. The highest subsidence rate is seen in the middle of the DOE SPR site at just under one inch per year with less ground movement around the edge of the site. A GPS and tiltmeter instrument in the northeast areas of the DOE SPR site has not seen any trend change since the devices were installed in 2013. Comparison between recent ground movement data and historical trends suggest that there is no reason to believe that any DOE SPR or LA Storage caverns have been structurally compromised.

  7. [Birds, mosquitoes and West Nile virus: little risk of West Nile fever in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Janneke W; Stroo, C J Arjan; Braks, Marieta A H

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased incidence of West Nile fever (WNF) in Europe and the rapid spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in the US, it is commonly thought that it will only be a matter of time before WNV reaches the Netherlands. However, assessing whether WNV is really a threat to the Dutch population is challenging, due to the numerous factors affecting transmission of the virus. Some of these factors are known to limit the risk of WNF in the Netherlands. This risk is determined by the interaction between the pathogen (WNV), the vectors (Culex mosquitoes), the reservoirs (birds) and the exposure of humans to infected mosquitoes. In this paper, we discuss the factors influencing introduction, establishment and spread of WNV in the Netherlands. The probability that each of these three phases will occur in the Netherlands is currently relatively small, as is the risk of WNF infection in humans in the Netherlands.

  8. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  9. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. L.; Scott, A. D., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. The PEM- West program encompassed two expeditions to study contrasting meteorological regimes in the Pacific. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental versus marine sulfur sources. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air is from the mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) is modified/mixed with Asian continental outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum continental outflow. PEM-B data (not included) will become public domain during the Summer of 1995. PEM West-A flight experiments were based at Japan, Hong Kong, and Guam. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), which include numerous data such as meteorological observations, modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  10. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... 101206604-1758-02] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  11. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    .... 101206604-1620-01] RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  12. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    .... 120813333-2647-01] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... SUMMARY: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  13. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    .... 120813333-3107-02] RIN 0648-BC28 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational...

  14. „NEW“ – Neue Energien West eG und Bürger-Energiegenossenschaft West eG

    OpenAIRE

    Amschler, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Helmut Amschler, Vorstand der Stadtwerke Grafenwöhr, stellt in seinem Beitrag 2 konkrete Genossenschaften – die Neue Energien West eG und die Bürger-Energiegenossenschaft West eG vor. Dabei diskutiert er u. a. Kriterien wie Bürgerbeteiligung und Transparenz.

  15. The Strategy of KPID West Java in Socializing Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Pujasari Supratman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The socialization strategy of media literacy which has done by KPID West Java (Regional-Indonesia Broadcasting Commission aims to strengthen national integration, national identity, and educate the nation. This study focused on the strategies of KPID West Java as an independent institution of the state in disseminating a variety of media literacy programs that have been run by the West Java KPID period 2015-2018 to promote media literacy. The author used a descriptive case study method. In this study, a case to be analyzed is in how KPID West Java disseminated the media literacy. The essence of media literacy conducted by KPID West Java is to grow the wise society in gratification media and to encourage the broadcaster’s institution to produce quality broadcasting content. KPID West Java as a representative of the public continues to call for media literacy socialization which is harder to be censored if there is no public participation in reporting a content violation. This form of socialization by using new media approach encourage KPID West Java Period 2015-2018 to develop steps of innovative media literacy along with the technology development.

  16. West-East migration in Germany since 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Grit

    2011-01-01

    Not only did 2.5 million people migrate from East Germany to West Germany between 1991 and 2006, 1.5 million people also moved from West to East Germany. This counter-current movement took placed largely unnoticed by the public and researchers alike. This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative data to first of all examine how the population structure in the New Länder has changed as a result of interregional migration between Länder in East and West Germany. It goes on to study the moti...

  17. [Herpesvirus detection in clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusioscastaneus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, R E; Heckers, K O; Heynol, V; Weider, K; Behncke, H

    2015-01-01

    First description of a herpesvirus in West African mud turtles. A herpesvirus was detected in two clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusios castaneus) by PCR during a quarantine exam. The animals had been imported from Togo, West Africa to Germany for the pet trade. Analysis of a portion of the genome of the detected virus showed that it is a previously unknown virus related to other chelonid herpesviruses. The virus was named pelomedusid herpesvirus 1. This case highlights the importance of testing for infectious agents during quarantine, even in clinically healthy animals.

  18. Minesoil development in central West Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, W.J.; Sencindiver, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Immediately after mining and regrading, minesoils usually have little or no horizon development. Over time, horizons begin to form and definite diagnostic properties develop. The purpose of this study was to document the genesis of a 13-year-old minesoil. The study site was a reclaimed surface mine in Upshur County, West Virginia. Transects were established in 1983 across the site immediately after mining and regrading but before revegetation. Soil pits were excavated to 100+ cm at nine points along those transects. Soil profiles were described at each point, and each minesoil horizon was sampled for analyses. In 1983, only C horizons were described because no structure had developed. In 1996, all nine profiles had developed A horizons ranging in thickness from 2 to 9 cm (mean 6.1 cm). Subsurface horizons (AC, Bw, or C/B), ranging in thickness from 7 to 17 cm (mean 11.8 cm), also had formed in each profile. The A horizons were identified by colors that were darker than the subsoil horizons and the presence of weak fine granular or subangular blocky structure. The AC, Bw and C/B horizons had weak fine to very coarse subangular blocky or weak medium to very thick platy structure. Chemical and physical properties of the minesoils supported the morphological properties indicating that definite pedogenic horizons have formed in 13 years

  19. Nuclear wastes at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.; Rose, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A two-tiered approach is proposed for separating questions of who manages nuclear wastes from who pays for the management. The proper role of the Federal government in the nuclear fuel cycle is explored in the historical context of the West Valley, New York reprocessing plant, which operated on a private basis from 1966 to 1972. The plant reprocessed 600 metric tons for fuel and produced 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste, most of which remains in a carbon steel tank waiting for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or some other agency to assume responsibility for it. A review of the plant's purposes, operations, and shutdown illustrates the difficulties of establising policies and rules for managing the wastes. Future use of the site will dictate the extent of decontamination and decommissioning that is needed, while legal and political issues of responsibility will also affect the rules. The case is made for conducting the cleanup as an experiment, using a prudent, rational, resolute, and charitable approach to taking necessary risks. A step-by-step process of decision and rule-making is proposed as an acknowledgement of the fact that all the answers are not known. ERDA is felt to be the best-suited for management, with guidelines formulated by the NRC. Financial responsibility could be divided between the National Science Foundation and Federal and state governments

  20. GENDERED SPACE IN WEST SUMBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Asih NURDIAH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendell stated that gender representation underlined the production of space in architecture both symbolically and functionally in certain cultures (Rendell et al. 2000. Thus, an exploration on the spatial functionality of traditional houses could show how cultural gender rules and roles generate the spatial arrangements. This empirical research explored the traditional houses in two kampongs: Tarung and Ratenggaro of West Sumba, Indonesia, which spaces are divided into two distinct spaces: male’s space and female’s space, each with its own entrance. This firm division leads to the questions on its relation with the traditional gender roles are represented inside the house. Interestingly, the spatial arrangement is not intended to create separation between men and women inside the house or to pose that the status and roles of men are higher than those of women. The research found that the space separation actually is a manifestation of the dynamic roles of male and female members of the house and the circular arrangement of the space around the fireplace at the centre of the house follows the dynamic of gender duality in Sumba culture.