Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), an acute upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, and is also associated with swollen head syndrome (SHS) in chickens and egg production losses in layers. Since the first TRT reported in the late 1970s in South Africa, the virus...
Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Dalgaard, Tina S; Kothlow, Sonja
The avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an economically important acute respiratory disease in turkeys (turkey rhinotracheitis, TRT).While antibodies were shownto be insufficient for protection against a MPV-infection, the role of T-lymphocytes in the control of aMPV-infection is not clear...
Liman, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke
Most of the studies regarding the immunopathogenesis of avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) have been done with subtype C of aMPV. Not much is known about the immunopathogenesis of aMPV subtypes A and B in turkeys. Specifically, local immune reactions have not been investigated yet. We conducted two experiments in commercial turkeys. We investigated local and systemic humoral and cell mediated immune reactions following infection with an attenuated vaccine strain of aMPV subtype B (Experiment I) and virulent strains of aMPV subtypes A and B (Experiment II). Turkeys infected with virulent aMPV strains developed mild respiratory signs while birds inoculated with the attenuated aMPV did not show any clinical signs. Virus neutralizing antibodies were detected locally in tracheal washes and systemically in serum as soon as 5-7 days post aMPV infection (PI) independent of the strain used. Virus neutralizing antibody titres peaked at 7 days PI and then antibody levels declined. The peak of serum ELISA antibody production varied between infected groups and ranged from 14 and 28 days PI. All aMPV strains induced an increase in the percentage of CD4+ T cell populations in spleen and Harderian gland at days 7 or 14 PI. Furthermore, as shown in Experiment I, infection with the attenuated aMPV-B strain stimulated spleen leukocytes to release significantly higher levels of interferons (IFNs), interleukin-6 and nitric oxide in ex vivo culture in comparison to virus-free controls up to 7 days PI (P<0.05). As detected by quantitative real time RT-PCR in Experiment II, infection with virulent aMPV induced an increased IFNgamma expression in the Harderian gland in comparison to virus-free controls. IFNgamma expression in the spleen varied between aMPV strains and days PI. Overall, our study demonstrates that aMPV subtypes A and B infection induced humoral and cell mediated immune reactions comparable to subtype C infections. We observed only temporary stimulation of serum virus neutralizing
Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Dalgaard, Tina S; Kothlow, Sonja; Juul-Madsen, Helle R; Rautenschlein, Silke
The avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an economically important acute respiratory disease in turkeys (turkey rhinotracheitis, TRT). While antibodies were shown to be insufficient for protection against aMPV-infection, the role of T-lymphocytes in the control of aMPV-infection is not clear. In this study we investigated the role of T-lymphocytes in aMPV-pathogenesis in a T-cell-suppression model in turkeys. T-cell-intact turkeys and turkeys partly depleted of functional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes by Cyclosporin A (CsA) treatment were inoculated with the virulent aMPV subtype A strain BUT 8544. CsA-treatment resulted in a significant reduction of absolute numbers of circulating CD4(+) and CD8alpha(+) T-lymphocytes by up to 82 and 65%, respectively (P<0.05). Proportions of proliferating T-cells within mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were reduced by similar levels in CsA-treated birds compared to untreated controls (P<0.05). CsA-treated turkeys showed delayed recovery from aMPV-induced clinical signs and histopathological lesions and a prolonged detection of aMPV in choanal swabs. The results of this study show that T-lymphocytes play an important role in the control of primary aMPV-infection in turkeys. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paul A Brown
Full Text Available Four avian metapneumovirus (AMPV subgroups (A-D have been reported previously based on genetic and antigenic differences. However, until now full length sequences of the only known isolates of European subgroup C and subgroup D viruses (duck and turkey origin, respectively have been unavailable. These full length sequences were determined and compared with other full length AMPV and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV sequences reported previously, using phylogenetics, comparisons of nucleic and amino acid sequences and study of codon usage bias. Results confirmed that subgroup C viruses were more closely related to HMPV than they were to the other AMPV subgroups in the study. This was consistent with previous findings using partial genome sequences. Closer relationships between AMPV-A, B and D were also evident throughout the majority of results. Three metapneumovirus "clusters" HMPV, AMPV-C and AMPV-A, B and D were further supported by codon bias and phylogenetics. The data presented here together with those of previous studies describing antigenic relationships also between AMPV-A, B and D and between AMPV-C and HMPV may call for a subclassification of metapneumoviruses similar to that used for avian paramyxoviruses, grouping AMPV-A, B and D as type I metapneumoviruses and AMPV-C and HMPV as type II.
Brown, Paul A.; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Briand, François-Xavier; Courtillon, Céline; Guionie, Olivier; Allée, Chantal; Toquin, Didier; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Jestin, Véronique; Eterradossi, Nicolas
Four avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroups (A–D) have been reported previously based on genetic and antigenic differences. However, until now full length sequences of the only known isolates of European subgroup C and subgroup D viruses (duck and turkey origin, respectively) have been unavailable. These full length sequences were determined and compared with other full length AMPV and human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) sequences reported previously, using phylogenetics, comparisons of nucleic and amino acid sequences and study of codon usage bias. Results confirmed that subgroup C viruses were more closely related to HMPV than they were to the other AMPV subgroups in the study. This was consistent with previous findings using partial genome sequences. Closer relationships between AMPV-A, B and D were also evident throughout the majority of results. Three metapneumovirus “clusters” HMPV, AMPV-C and AMPV-A, B and D were further supported by codon bias and phylogenetics. The data presented here together with those of previous studies describing antigenic relationships also between AMPV-A, B and D and between AMPV-C and HMPV may call for a subclassification of metapneumoviruses similar to that used for avian paramyxoviruses, grouping AMPV-A, B and D as type I metapneumoviruses and AMPV-C and HMPV as type II. PMID:25036224
Full Text Available ABSTRACTAvian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA enveloped virus of the Metapneumovirus genus belonging to theParamyxoviridae family. This virus may cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry, despite vaccination, which is the main tool for controlling and preventing aMPV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity of extracts of four different native plants of the Brazilian Cerrado against aMPV. The antiviral activity against aMPV was determined by titration. This technique measures the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 to 2.5 µg mL-1 to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE of the virus, expressed as inhibition percentage (IP. The maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC of the extracts used in antiviral assay was 25 µg mL-1for Aspidosperma tomentosumand Gaylussacia brasiliensis, and 2.5 µg mL-1for Arrabidaea chicaand Virola sebifera. Twelve different extracts derived from four plant species collected from the Brazilian Cerrado were screened for antiviral activity against aMPV. G. brasiliensis, A. chica,and V. sebifera extracts presented inhibition rates of 99% in the early viral replication stages, suggesting that these extracts act during the adsorption phase. On the other hand, A. tomentosum inhibited 99% virus replication after the virus entered the cell. The biomonitored fractioning of extracts active against aMPV may be a tool to identify the active compounds of plant extracts and to determine their precise mode of action.
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are threatening avian pathogens that cause sporadic but serious respiratory diseases in poultry worldwide. Although, vaccination, combined with strict biosecurity practices, has been the recommendation for controlling these diseases in t...
Acevedo Beiras, Ana María.
ResumenEl Metapneumovirus aviar (aMPV) causa una infección aguda, altamente contagiosa del tracto respiratorio superior principalmente en pavos y pollos.SummaryAvian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an acute highly contagious upper respiratory tract infection primarily of turkeys and chickens.
Kayali, Ghazi; Ortiz, Ernesto J; Chorazy, Margaret L; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Webby, Richard J; Gray, Gregory C
Genetically similar, the avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and the human MPV (hMPV) are the only viruses in the Metapneumovirus genus. Previous research demonstrated the ability of hMPV to cause clinical disease in turkeys. In this controlled, cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study, we examined the hypothesis that aMPV might infect humans. We enrolled 95 adults occupationally exposed to turkeys and 82 nonexposed controls. Sera from study participants were examined for antibodies against aMPV and hMPV. Both in bivariate (OR=3.2; 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and in multivariate modelling adjusting for antibody to hMPV (OR=4.1; 95% CI: 1.3-13.1), meat-processing workers were found to have an increased odds of previous infection with aMPV compared to controls. While hMPV antibody cross-reactivity is evident, these data suggest that occupational exposure to turkeys is a risk factor for human infection with aMPV. More studies are needed to validate these findings, to identify modes of aMPV transmission, and to determine risk factors associated with infection.
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important virus that is the primary causal agent of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT), also known as avian rhinotracheitis (ART). The virus causes an acute highly contagious infection of the upper respiratory tract in turkeys and was first isolated from tur...
An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...
Márcia Bianchi dos Santos
Resumo: O Metapneumovirus aviário (aMPV) pertence à família Paramyxoviridae, subfamília Pneumovirinae, gênero Metapneumovirus. O vírus, relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil em 1995, é o agente etiológico da Rinotraqueíte em perus (TRT) e está associado também à Síndrome da Cabeça Inchada (SHS) em frangos e poedeiras comerciais. O presente estudo foi dividido em três partes. Na primeira foi avaliada a suscetibilidades de oito sistemas celulares para a propagação de amostras virais do aMPV subt...
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis, is a non-segmented negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, the subfamily Pneumovirinae, and the genus Metapneumovirus. aMPV is the causative agent of respiratory tract infection and ...
Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti
Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.
Márcia B. dos Santos; Matheus C. Martini; Helena L. Ferreira; Luciana H.A. da Silva; Paulo A. Fellipe; Fernando R. Spilki; Clarice W. Arns
Santos M.B., Martini M.C., Ferreira H.L., Silva L.H.A., Fellipe P.A., Spilki F.R. & Arns C.W. 2012. Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 32(12):1257-1262. Laboratorio de Virologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Monteiro Lobato s/n, Cx. Postal 6109, Campinas, SP 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail: Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respirator...
Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Rautenschlein, Silke
The avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is the causative agent of an acute respiratory disease in turkeys, which causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Currently attenuated live and inactivated vaccines are widely used to control the disease, but vaccine breaks are frequently observed. For improvement of current vaccination strategies it is necessary to gain enhanced knowledge of the immune mechanisms against aMPV infection. Field observations suggest that vaccine-induced aMPV-specific antibodies are not indicative for protection. In the present study we investigated the role of antibodies in protection of turkeys against aMPV. In two experiments, commercial turkey poults received aMPV-specific antibodies by intravenous injection. The antibody transfer resulted in increased antibody levels in the sera. Virus-specific antibodies were also detected on mucosal surfaces such as the trachea, conjunctivae and gall bladder. Turkeys were subsequently challenged with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Development of clinical signs, virus detection by polymerase chain reaction and histopathological changes of tracheal mucosa in challenged turkeys with and without passively transferred antibodies were comparable with each other. Our results suggest that humoral immunity does not provide sufficient protection against aMPV infection. Thus, the measurement of vaccine-induced aMPV antibody response may not be considered as an adequate indicator of vaccine efficacy. Further research on the protective role of cell-mediated immune mechanisms is necessary to improve current vaccine strategies.
Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys leading to serious economic losses to the turkey industry. The G glycoprotein of AMPV is known to be associated with viral attachment and pathogenesis. In this study, we determined the role of the G glycoprotein in the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of AMPV strain Colorado (AMPV/CO). Recombinant AMPV/CO lacking the G protein (rAMPV/CO-deltaG) was generated using a reverse-genetics system. The recovered rAMPV/CO-deltaG replicated slightly better than did wild-type AMPV in Vero cells. However, deletion of the G gene in AMPV resulted in attenuation of the virus in turkeys. The mutant virus induced less-severe clinical signs and a weaker immune response in turkeys than did the wild-type AMPV. Our results suggest that the G glycoprotein is an important determinant for the pathogenicity and immunogenicity of AMPV.
Gharaibeh, S; Shamoun, M
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a respiratory virus that infects a range of avian hosts, including chickens and turkeys. Migratory and local wild birds are implicated in aMPV spread among farms, countries, and seasonal outbreaks of the disease. A subtype B aMPV isolate from commercial chicken flocks suffering from respiratory disease was experimentally inoculated oculonasally into 7-week old chickens, young pigeons, and sparrows. Chickens showed minimal tracheal rales, whereas pigeons and sparrows were asymptomatic. Shedding of aMPV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on homogenates from nasal turbinates. At 5 days postinfection, 5 of 5 chickens, 2 of 5 pigeons, and 1 of 5 sparrows were positive; at 10 or 15 days, none were positive. At 2 and 5 days, aMPV antigens were localized at the ciliated boarder of respiratory epithelium in nasal cavity and trachea of chickens, as well as to the conjunctival epithelium. Pigeons had detectable viral antigens in only the trachea at 2 and 5 days; sparrow tissues did not show any positive staining. At the end of the experiment, at 21 days postinfection, 14 of 15 inoculated chickens seroconverted against aMPV, but none of the inoculated pigeons or sparrows did. The authors believe that pigeons and sparrows have the ability to transmit the virus between chicken farms, although they do not consider pigeons and sparrows as natural hosts for aMPV, given that they failed to seroconvert. In conclusion, pigeons and sparrows are partially susceptible to aMPV infection, probably acting more as mechanical vectors because infection is only temporary and short-lived.
Helena Lage Ferreira
Resumo: O metapneumovírus aviário (AMPV) é o agente primário da rinotraqueíte dos perus (TRT). O AMPV pertence à família Paramyxoviridae, subfamília Pneumovirinae, gênero Metapneumovirus. Também está associado à síndrome da cabeça inchada (SHS) em galinhas e é responsável por significativas perdas econômicas em sua produção. O presente estudo foi dividido em três partes. A primeira parte do trabalho consistiu em avaliar a beta-actina, gene utilizado como controle interno das técnicas molecula...
Matheus Cavalheiro Martini
Resumo: Para avaliar a atividade antiviral dos extratos de plantas brasileiras foram eleitos o Metapneumovirus aviário (aMPV) e o vírus Respiratório sincicial bovino (BRSV) pertences à família Paramyxoviridae, subfamília Pneumovirinae, gêneros Metapneumovirus e Pneumovirus respectivamente. Tanto o aMPV quanto o BRSV são vírus semelhantes aos que causam doenças em humanos como o vírus respiratório sincicial humano (HRSV) e metapneumovírus humano (hMPV). O objetivo do presente trabalho foi aval...
Cecchinato, Mattia; Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Clubbe, Jayne; Battilani, Mara; Naylor, Clive J
Avian metapneumoviruses detected in Northern Italy between 1987 and 2007 were sequenced in their fusion (F) and attachment (G) genes together with the same genes from isolates collected throughout western European prior to 1994. Fusion protein genes sequences were highly conserved while G protein sequences showed much greater heterogeneity. Phylogenetic studies based on both genes clearly showed that later Italian viruses were significantly different to all earlier virus detections, including early detections from Italy. Furthermore a serine residue in the G proteins and lysine residue in the fusion protein were exclusive to Italian viruses, indicating that later viruses probably arose within the country and the notion that these later viruses evolved from earlier Italian progenitors cannot be discounted. Biocomputing analysis applied to F and G proteins of later Italian viruses predicted that only G contained altered T cell epitopes. It appears likely that Italian field viruses evolved in response to selection pressure from vaccine induced immunity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hartmann, Sandra; Sid, Hicham; Rautenschlein, Silke
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, which can cause high economic losses in infected poultry. aMPV mainly causes infection of the upper respiratory tract in both chickens and turkeys, although turkeys seem to be more susceptible. Little is known about virus-host interactions at epithelial surfaces after aMPV infection. Tracheal organ cultures (TOC) are a suitable model to investigate virus-host interaction in the respiratory epithelium. Therefore, we investigated virus replication rates and lesion development in chicken and turkey TOC after infection with a virulent aMPV subtype A strain. Aspects of the innate immune response, such as interferon-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression, as well as virus-induced apoptosis were determined. The aMPV-replication rate was higher in turkey (TTOC) compared to chicken TOC (CTOC) (P < 0.05), providing circumstantial evidence that indeed turkeys may be more susceptible. The interferon-α response was down-regulated from 2 to 144 hours post infection in both species compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05); this was more significant for CTOC than TTOC. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly up-regulated in aMPV-A-infected TTOC and CTOC compared to virus-free controls (P < 0.05). However, the results suggest that NO may play a different role in aMPV pathogenesis between turkeys and chickens as indicated by differences in apoptosis rate and lesion development between species. Overall, our study reveals differences in innate immune response regulation and therefore may explain differences in aMPV - A replication rates between infected TTOC and CTOC, which subsequently lead to more severe clinical signs and a higher rate of secondary infections in turkeys.
To develop a bivalent vaccine candidate, a LaSota strain-based recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) clone expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subgroup A or B was generated using reverse genetics. Vaccination of turkeys with the NDV/aMPV-A G or NDV/aMPV-B G recombinan...
Aung, Ye Htut; Liman, Martin; Neumann, Ulrich; Rautenschlein, Silke
Swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype A or subtype B in broilers and broiler breeders has been reported worldwide. Data about pathogenesis of aMPV subtypes A and B in broilers are scarce. It has been difficult to reproduce swollen sinuses in chickens with aMPV under experimental conditions. In the field, SHS in broilers is suspected to be induced by combined infections with different respiratory pathogens. The objectives of the present study were to compare the pathogenesis of subtypes A and B aMPV in commercial broilers and to investigate the reproducibility of clinical disease. In two repeat experiments, commercial broilers free of aMPV maternal antibodies were inoculated with aMPV subtypes A and B of turkey origin. The clinical signs such as depression, coughing, nasal exudates, and frothy eyes appeared at 4 days post inoculation, followed by swelling of periorbital sinuses at 5 days post inoculation. Higher numbers of broilers showed clinical signs in subtype-B-inoculated compared with subtype-A-inoculated groups. Seroconversion to aMPV was detectable from 10 to 11 days post inoculation. The appearance of serum aMPV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies and the clearance of the aMPV genome coincided. Subtype B aMPV showed a broader tissue distribution and longer persistence than subtype A. Histopathological changes were observed in the respiratory tract tissues of aMPV-inoculated broilers, and also in paraocular glands, such as the Harderian and lachrymal glands. Overall, our study shows that representative strains of both aMPV turkey isolates induced lesions in the respiratory tract, accompanied by swelling of infraorbital sinuses, indicating the role of aMPV as a primary pathogen for broilers.
Turpin, E A; Stallknecht, D E; Slemons, R D; Zsak, L; Swayne, D E
Metapneumoviruses (MPVs) were first reported in avian species (aMPVs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. Although aMPVs have been reported in Europe and Asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the United States in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. To examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in aMPV spread, our study focused on determining whether populations of wild birds have evidence of aMPV infection. Serum samples from multiple species were initially screened using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to aMPVs were identified in five of the 15 species tested: American coots, American crows, Canada geese, cattle egrets, and rock pigeons. The presence of aMPV-specific antibodies was confirmed with virus neutralization and western blot assays. Oral swabs were collected from wild bird species with the highest percentage of aMPV-seropositive serum samples: the American coots and Canada geese. From these swabs, 17 aMPV-positive samples were identified, 11 from coots and six from geese. Sequence analysis of the matrix, attachment gene and short hydrophobic genes revealed that these viruses belong to subtype C aMPV. The detection of aMPV antibodies and the presence of virus in wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio demonstrates that wild birds can serve as a reservoir of subtype C aMPV, and may provide a potential mechanism to spread aMPVs to poultry in other regions of the United States and possibly to other countries in Central and South America.
In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...
Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Song, Chang-Seon
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea.
Abdel-Azeem, Abdel-Azeem Sayed; Franzo, Giovanni; Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Martini, Marco; Cecchinato, Mattia
Although avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection has been reported in most regions of the world, to date, only subtype B has been detected in Egypt. At the end of November 2013, dry oropharyngeal swabs were collected during an outbreak of respiratory diseases in a free-range, multi-age turkey dealer farm in Northern Upper Egypt. The clinical signs that appeared when turkeys were 3 weeks-old were characterized by ocular and nasal discharge and swelling of sinuses. aMPV of subtype A was detected by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In order to confirm the results and obtain more information on the molecular characteristics of the virus, F and G protein genes were partially sequenced and compared with previously published sequences deposited in GenBank by using BLAST. Subtype of the strain was confirmed by sequencing of partial F and G protein genes. The highest percentages of identity were observed when G sequence of the Egyptian strain was compared with the sequence of an aMPV-A isolated in Nigeria (96.4 %) and when the F sequence was compared with strains isolated respectively in Italy and in UK (97.1 %). Moreover, the alignment of the sequences with commercial subtype A vaccine or vaccine-derived strains showed differences in the Egyptian strain that indicate its probable field origin. The detection of aMPV in the investigated turkey flock highlights some relevant epidemiological issues regarding the role that multi-age farms and dealers may play in perpetuating aMPV infection within and among farms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aMPV subtype A in Egypt.
Villarreal, L Y B; Brandão, P E; Chacón, J L; Assayag, M S; Maiorka, P C; Raffi, P; Saidenberg, A B S; Jones, R C; Ferreira, A J P
The pathogenesis of infection involving both infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes reproductive damage in hens after viral replication in the epithelium of the oviduct, resulting in loss of cilia and degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial and glandular cells. Although IBV has been indicated as a possible cause of the formation of calcium stones in the epididymus of roosters, a definitive association has not been confirmed. This report describes the detection of IBV and aMPV in the testes of roosters from a Brazilian poultry broiler breeder's flock with epididymal stones and low fertility. Samples of testis, trachea, and lungs from breeder males aged 57 wk were positive for IBV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and virus isolation and testis samples were also positive for aMPV by RT-PCR. The inoculation of testis samples into embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic cavity resulted in curled, hemorrhagic, and stunted embryos typical of IBV infection. The allantoic fluid was positive by RT-PCR aimed to amplify the region coding for the S1 subunit of the IBV S gene, but it was not positive for aMPV. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment revealed a close relationship with European IBV genotype D274, previously unreported in Brazil. These results indicate that IBV and perhaps aMPV are likely to have played a role in the pathogenesis of the testicular disease described and should be regarded as factors that can influence male fertility disease in chickens.
Alvarez, Rene; Seal, Bruce S
Background Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory disease with low mortality, but high morbidity primarily in commercial turkeys. There are three types of aMPV (A, B, C) of which the C type is found only in the United States. Viruses related to aMPV include human, bovine, ovine, and caprine respiratory syncytial viruses and pneumonia virus of mice, as well as the recently identified human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The aMPV and hMPV have become the type viruses of a new genus within the Metapneumovirus. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N) amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. Based on predicted antigenicity of consensus protein sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of peptide-antigens and antisera. Results The presence of two aMPV nucleoprotein (N) gene encoded polypeptides was detected in aMPV/C/US/Co and aMPV/A/UK/3b infected Vero cells. Nucleoprotein 1 (N1) encoded from the first open reading frame (ORF) was predicted to be 394 amino acids in length for aMPV/C/US/Co and 391 amino acids in length for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 43.3 kilodaltons and 42.7 kilodaltons, respectively. Nucleoprotein 2 (N2) was hypothesized to be encoded by a second downstream ORF in-frame with ORF1 and encoded a protein predicted to contain 328 amino acids for aMPV/C/US/Co or 259 amino acids for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 36 kilodaltons and 28.3 kilodaltons, respectively. Peptide antibodies to the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the aMPV N protein confirmed presence of these products in both aMPV/C/US/Co- and aMPV/A/UK/3b-infected Vero cells. N1 and N2 for aMPV/C/US/Co ORFs were molecularly cloned and expressed in Vero cells utilizing eukaryotic expression vectors to confirm identity of the aMPV encoded proteins. Conclusion This is the first reported identification of potential, accessory in-frame N2 ORF gene products among members of the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV cause an upper respiratory disease with low mortality, but high morbidity primarily in commercial turkeys. There are three types of aMPV (A, B, C of which the C type is found only in the United States. Viruses related to aMPV include human, bovine, ovine, and caprine respiratory syncytial viruses and pneumonia virus of mice, as well as the recently identified human metapneumovirus (hMPV. The aMPV and hMPV have become the type viruses of a new genus within the Metapneumovirus. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. Based on predicted antigenicity of consensus protein sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of peptide-antigens and antisera. Results The presence of two aMPV nucleoprotein (N gene encoded polypeptides was detected in aMPV/C/US/Co and aMPV/A/UK/3b infected Vero cells. Nucleoprotein 1 (N1 encoded from the first open reading frame (ORF was predicted to be 394 amino acids in length for aMPV/C/US/Co and 391 amino acids in length for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 43.3 kilodaltons and 42.7 kilodaltons, respectively. Nucleoprotein 2 (N2 was hypothesized to be encoded by a second downstream ORF in-frame with ORF1 and encoded a protein predicted to contain 328 amino acids for aMPV/C/US/Co or 259 amino acids for aMPV/A/UK/3b with approximate molecular weights of 36 kilodaltons and 28.3 kilodaltons, respectively. Peptide antibodies to the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the aMPV N protein confirmed presence of these products in both aMPV/C/US/Co- and aMPV/A/UK/3b-infected Vero cells. N1 and N2 for aMPV/C/US/Co ORFs were molecularly cloned and expressed in Vero cells utilizing eukaryotic expression vectors to confirm identity of the aMPV encoded proteins. Conclusion This is the first reported identification of potential, accessory in-frame N2 ORF gene products among
de Graaf, Miranda; Schrauwen, Eefje J A; Herfst, Sander; van Amerongen, Geert; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (AMPV-C) infect humans and birds, respectively. This study confirmed the difference in host range in turkey poults, and analysed the contribution of the individual metapneumovirus genes to host range in an in vitro cell-culture model. Mammalian Vero-118 cells supported replication of both HMPV and AMPV-C in contrast to avian quail fibroblast (QT6) cells in which only AMPV-C replicated to high titres. Inoculation of Vero-118 and QT6 cells with recombinant HMPV in which genes were exchanged with those of AMPV-C revealed that the metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein is the main determinant for host tropism. Chimeric viruses in which polymerase complex proteins were exchanged between HMPV and AMPV-C replicated less efficiently compared with HMPV in QT6 cells. Using mini-genome systems, it was shown that exchanging these polymerase proteins resulted in reduced replication and transcription efficiency in QT6 cells. Examination of infected Vero-118 and QT6 cells revealed that viruses containing the F protein of AMPV-C yielded larger syncytia compared with viruses containing the HMPV F protein. Cell-content mixing assays revealed that the F protein of AMPV-C was more fusogenic compared with the F protein of HMPV, and that the F2 region is responsible for the difference observed between AMPV-C and HMPV F-promoted fusion in QT6 and Vero-118 cells. This study provides insight into the determinants of host tropism and membrane fusion of metapneumoviruses.
Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue
Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.
Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue
Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infects the respiratory and reproductive tracts of domestic poultry, which may develop into secondary infections that can result in substantial economic losses for producers. Live attenuated vaccines appear to be the most effective in countries where the disease is prev...
M.T. de Graaf (Marieke); S. Herfst (Sander); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); Y. Choi (Ying); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)
textabstractHuman metapneumovirus (HMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) have a similar genome organization and protein composition, but a different host range. AMPV subgroup C (AMPV-C) is more closely relaled to HMPV than other AMPVs. To investigate the specificity and functional interaction of
Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Yun, Bing-Ling; Guan, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Qi, Xiao-Le; Cui, Hong-Yu; Liu, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Gao, Hong-Lei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yu-Long; Wang, Xiao-Mei
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein mediates virus-cell membrane fusion to initiate viral infection, which requires F protein binding to its receptor(s) on the host cell surface. However, the receptor(s) for aMPV F protein is still not identified. All known subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F proteins contain a conserved Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) motif, suggesting that the aMPV/B F protein may mediate membrane fusion via the binding of RDD to integrin. When blocked with integrin-specific peptides, aMPV/B F protein fusogenicity and viral replication were significantly reduced. Specifically we identified integrin αv and/or β1-mediated F protein fusogenicity and viral replication using antibody blocking, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) knockdown, and overexpression. Additionally, overexpression of integrin αv and β1 in aMPV/B non-permissive cells conferred aMPV/B F protein binding and aMPV/B infection. When RDD was altered to RAE (Arg-Ala-Glu), aMPV/B F protein binding and fusogenic activity were profoundly impaired. These results suggest that integrin αvβ1 is a functional receptor for aMPV/B F protein-mediated membrane fusion and virus infection, which will provide new insights on the fusogenic mechanism and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:27226547
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an economically important pathogen of turkeys with a worldwide distribution. aMPV is a member of the genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae. The genome of aMPV is a non-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA of 1...
Rautenschlein, Silke; Aung, Ye Htut; Haase, Christine
Infections with avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) are often associated with swollen head syndrome in meat type chickens. Previous studies in turkeys have demonstrated that local humoral and cell-mediated immunity plays a role in aMPV-infection. Previous experimental and field observations indicated that the susceptibility of broilers and their immune reactions to aMPV may differ from turkeys. In the presented study local and systemic immune reactions of broilers were investigated after experimental infections with subtypes A and B aMPV of turkey origin. Both virus subtypes induced a mild respiratory disease. The recovery from respiratory signs correlated with the induction of local and systemic aMPV virus-neutralizing antibodies, which began to rise at 6 days post infection (dpi), when the peak of clinical signs was observed. In a different manner to the virus neutralizing (VN) and IgG-ELISA serum antibody titres, which showed high levels until the end of the experiments between 24 and 28 dpi, the specific IgA-ELISA and VN-antibody levels in tracheal washes decreased by 10 and 14 dpi, respectively, which may explain the recurring aMPV-infections in the field. Ex vivo cultured spleen cells from aMPV-infected broilers released at 3 and 6 dpi higher levels of IFN-γ after stimulation with Concanavalin A as compared to virus-free birds. In agreement with studies in turkeys, aMPV-infected broilers showed a clear CD4+ T cell accumulation in the Harderian gland (HG) at 6 dpi (P<0.05). In contrast to other investigations in turkeys aMPV-infected broilers showed an increase in the number of CD8alpha+ cells at 6 dpi compared to virus-free birds (P<0.05). The numbers of local B cells in the Harderian gland were not affected by the infection. Both aMPV A and B induced up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA-expression in the nasal turbinates, while in the Harderian gland only aMPV-A induced enhanced IFN-γ expression at 3 dpi. The differences in systemic and local T cell and
Paudel, Sarita; Shin, Hyun-Jin
To understand the molecular mechanisms of Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and the requirements involved in the infection and fusion, trypsin treatment was done in the different stages of virus; before infection, during entry and after virus infection followed by aMPV infection. The growth kinetics of aMPV was compared in time dependent manner. The effect of trypsin was found in the later stage of aMPV infection increasing the numbers of infected cells with the significant higher titer of infectious virions to that of trypsin treated before infection, during entry and aMPV. A serine protease inhibitor reduced aMPV replication in a significant way, whereas cysteine peptidase (E-64), aspartic protease (pepstatin A), and metalloprotease (phosphoramidon) inhibitors had no effect on aMPV replication. Inoculation of aMPV on Vero cells expressing the membrane-associated protease TMPRSS2 resulted in higher virus titers than that inoculated on normal Vero cells and is statistically significant (p < 0.05). Also, an inhibitor of clathrin/caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect on virus progeny, indicating that aMPV does not use the endocytic pathway for entry but undergoes direct fusion. The effect of lysosomotropic agents was not significant, suggesting that aMPV does not require low-pH environment in endosomes to fuse its envelope with the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alvarez, Rene; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Scott, Melissa; Seal, Bruce S.
Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory tract disease with low mortality but high morbidity, primarily in commercial turkeys, that can be exacerbated by secondary infections. There are three types of aMPV, of which type C is found only in the United States. The aMPV nucleoprotein (N) amino acid sequences of serotypes A, B, and C were aligned for comparative analysis. On the basis of the predicted antigenicity of consensus sequences, five aMPV-specific N peptides were synthesized for development of a peptide antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (aMPV N peptide-based ELISA) to detect aMPV-specific antibodies among turkeys. Sera from naturally and experimentally infected turkeys were used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies reactive to the chemically synthesized aMPV N peptides. Subsequently, aMPV N peptide 1, which had the sequence 10-DLSYKHAILKESQYTIKRDV-29, with variations at only three amino acids among aMPV serotypes, was evaluated as a universal aMPV ELISA antigen. Data obtained with the peptide-based ELISA correlated positively with total aMPV viral antigen-based ELISAs, and the peptide ELISA provided higher optical density readings. The results indicated that aMPV N peptide 1 can be used as a universal ELISA antigen to detect antibodies for all aMPV serotypes. PMID:15013970
Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Yoo, Yae-Na; Kwon, Jun-Hun
Surveillance and diagnosis of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection typically involve measurement of serum antibodies. In the current study, eggs instead of serum samples were used for the detection of AMPV antibodies in egg-laying chicken hens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AMPV-free commercial layer hens were experimentally challenged with AMPV strain SC1509 through intravenous or oculonasal administration. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. AMPV antibodies were detected in egg yolks from challenged hens by 7 days postinoculation (dpi), with the peak titer at 16 dpi. Antibody levels in eggs laid at 28 dpi correlated well (r = 0.93) with sera taken 28 dpi from the same hens. In a field trial of the yolk ELISA, six broiler breeder farms were surveyed, and all tested positive for AMPV antibodies in hen eggs, although positivity varied from farm to farm. Abnormal discolored eggs collected from outbreak farms had significantly higher titers of AMPV yolk antibodies than normal eggs from the same farm, unlike clinically healthy farms, where normal and abnormal eggs had similar antibody titers. These results indicate that diagnosis of AMPV infection by yolk ELISA to detect anti-AMPV antibodies may be a suitable alternative to serologic testing.
Ganapathy, Kannan; Bufton, Andrew; Pearson, Andrew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard C
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) has become an important cause of viral respiratory infections in turkey and chickens. Live and inactivated vaccinations are available worldwide for prevention of disease and economic losses caused by this pathogen. The efficacy of these vaccines is vigorously tested under laboratory conditions prior to use in the field. In this study, a live subtype B aMPV vaccine was administered by spray, drinking water or oculo-oral methods to separate groups of broiler chicks under field conditions. Following this, the chicks were immediately transferred to separate rooms in an experimental isolation house, monitored and challenged with virulent subtype B aMPV. No clinical signs were recorded following the vaccination methods. In the oculo-oral vaccinated chicks, 40-60% of the birds were vaccine virus positive by RT-PCR. In addition, in comparison to other groups, statistically higher levels of aMPV ELISA antibodies were detected. After spray vaccination, the number of chicks positive for the vaccine virus increased gradually from 10% at one week to 30% by 3 weeks post vaccination. Following drinking water vaccination, 30% of chicks were aMPV positive at 1 week but negative by 3 weeks post vaccination. In both, spray and drinking water vaccinated groups, no ELISA antibodies were detected, but when challenged all chicks were protected against disease. At 5 days post challenge, 100% of chicks in the unvaccinated and those vaccinated by spray or drinking water routes but only 20% of the oculo-oral-vaccinated chicks were aMPV positive by RT-PCR. At 10 days post challenge, 10% of chicks in each group were aMPV RT-PCR positive. On challenge, all vaccinated chicks were protected against disease. It appears that when aMPV vaccine is accurately applied to chicks by spray or drinking water routes, both are capable of giving protection against clinical disease equal to that induced in those chicks vaccinated individually by the oculo-oral route. Copyright 2010
Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Dossche, Liesbeth; Wauman, Toon; Van Lent, Sarah; Phan, Thao T T; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Vanrompay, Daisy
Respiratory pathogens are difficult to control in large-scale turkey production. This report describes a clinical trial of antimicrobial ovoTF aerosol on a large Belgian turkey farm. ovoTF was administered to reduce Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) infections and to study the impact of this action on the occurrence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (O. rhinotracheale) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infections. Two subsequent broods were included; (i) a control brood receiving no ovoTF and (ii) an ovoTF brood receiving ovoTF aerosol (5mg/animal) at the age of 2 weeks, continuing daily for 12 days. Twenty-four one-day-old toms of the control and ovoTF brood were tagged and monitored for 15 weeks. The control brood experienced two periods of respiratory disease, the first (2-3 weeks of age) due to C. psittaci and the second (8-17 weeks of age) in the presence of C. psittaci, O. rhinotracheale and maybe aMPV. Extensive antibiotic treatment was needed in 2, 8 and 9 week-old toms. In the ovoTF brood, toms stayed healthy until the age of 9 weeks, whereafter respiratory disease occurred in the presence of C. psittaci, O rhinotracheale and aMPV. OvoTF administration: (i) reduced the amount of C. psittaci in the air as demonstrated by bioaerosol monitoring, (ii) prevented respiratory disease during the first half of the brood period, (iii) was associated with 46% reduction of mortality, and (iv) reduced the antibiotic cost. Our results justify additional clinical trials to explore the use of this innovative antimicrobial strategy for poultry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mayahi, Mansour; Momtaz, Hassan; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Zamani, Pejman
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes diseases like rhinotracheitis in turkeys, swollen head syndrome in chickens and avian rhinotracheitis in other birds. Causing respiratory problems, aMPV adversely affects production and inflicts immense economic losses and mortalities, especially in turkey flocks. In recent years, several serological and molecular studies have been conducted on this virus, especially in poultry in Asia and Iran. The purpose of the present study was detecting and subtyping aMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from non-vaccinated, commercial turkey flocks in Iran for the first time. Sixty three meat-type unvaccinated turkey flocks from several provinces of Iran were sampled in major turkey abattoirs. Samples were tested by RT-PCR for detecting and subtyping aMPV. The results showed that 26 samples from three flocks (4.10%) were positive for viral RNA and all of the viruses were found to be subtype B of aMPV. As a result, vaccination especially against subtype B of aMPV should be considered in turkey flocks in Iran to control aMPV infections.
Guionie, O; Toquin, D; Sellal, E; Bouley, S; Zwingelstein, F; Allée, C; Bougeard, S; Lemière, S; Eterradossi, N
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is an important pathogen causing respiratory diseases and egg drops in several avian species. Four AMPV subgroups have been identified. The laboratory diagnosis of AMPV infections relies on serological methods, on labour-intensive virus isolation procedures, and on recently developed subgroup specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) protocols. In the present study, both the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) for the detection and identification of the four AMPV subgroups were evaluated. Fifteen non-AMPV avian viruses belonging to 7 genera and 32 AMPV belonging to the 4 subgroups were tested. No non-AMPV virus was detected, whereas all AMPV viruses were identified in agreement with their previous molecular and antigenic subgroup assignment. The sensitivity and quantitating ability of the RRT-PCR assay were determined using serial dilutions of RNA derived either from AMPV virus stocks or from runoff transcripts. In all cases, linear dose/responses were observed. The detection limits of the different subgroups ranged from 500 to 5000 RNA copies and from 0.03 to 3.16TCID50/ml. The results were reproducible under laboratory conditions, thus showing that quantitative RRT-PCR is a new and powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection, identification and quantitation of AMPVs.
Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.
This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379
Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M; Iorio, Ronald M; Li, Jianrong
The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented.
van Woensel, J. B. M.; Bos, A. P.; Lutter, R.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Schuurman, R.
It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational
van Woensel, J B M; Bos, A P; Lutter, R; Rossen, J W A; Schuurman, R
It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational
Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Ryll, Martin; Behr, Klaus-Peter; Rautenschlein, Silke
Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) is the causative agent of septicaemic and exudative diseases in a variety of bird species. Despite numerous outbreaks, little is known about the pathogenicity of RA for turkeys. We investigated the development of RA-induced disease in commercial turkey poults following RA inoculation via different respiratory routes. Inoculation by aerosol or injection into the abdominal air sac led to systemic infection and mild gross lesions, including pericarditis, epicarditis and airsacculitis, which were less pronounced compared with field outbreaks. It was speculated, that viral pathogens, such as the avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), may exacerbate RA pathogenesis under field conditions. We inoculated turkey poults with virulent aMPV. Subsequently, aMPV-infected and virus-free birds were exposed 3 to 5 days later to a high dose of RA by aerosol (>10(10) colony-forming units/ml in 8 ml aerosol per 11 or 12 birds) or were inoculated 4 days later with a low RA dose (10(4.9) colony-forming units per bird) via the intranasal route. Intranasal RA inoculation with the low bacterial dose led to a respiratory and systemic RA infection in aMPV-infected birds, while virus-free birds remained RA-negative. Following exposure to a high RA dose by aerosol, aMPV-infected groups showed slightly enhanced incidences of gross lesions and RA re-isolation. The present study clearly confirms that RA is pathogenic for turkeys after experimental inoculation via respiratory routes, which are speculated to be the natural route of infection. However, experimental models in this study did not reproduce the severity of RA-related disease as observed under field conditions, which emphasizes the importance of other contributing factors. aMPV-induced respiratory lesions may serve as a predisposing factor for the establishment of RA infection, since they favour colonization of the bacterium.
Chacón, Jorge Luis; Mizuma, Matheus; Vejarano, Maria P; Toquín, Didier; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Patnayak, Devi P; Goyal, Sagar M; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens, which is usually accompanied by secondary infections that increase mortality. AMPVs circulating in Brazilian vaccinated and nonvaccinated commercial chicken and turkey farms were detected using a universal reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay that can detect the four recognized subtypes of AMPV. The AMPV status of 228 farms with respiratory and reproductive disturbances was investigated. AMPV was detected in broiler, hen, breeder, and turkey farms from six different geographic regions of Brazil. The detected viruses were subtyped using a nested RT-PCR assay and sequence analysis of the G gene. Only subtypes A and B were detected in both vaccinated and nonvaccinated farms. AMPV-A and AMPV-B were detected in 15 and 23 farms, respectively, while both subtypes were simultaneously found in one hen farm. Both vaccine and field viruses were detected in nonvaccinated farms. In five cases, the detected subtype was different than the vaccine subtype. Field subtype B virus was detected mainly during the final years of the survey period. These viruses showed high molecular similarity (more than 96% nucleotide similarity) among themselves and formed a unique phylogenetic group, suggesting that they may have originated from a common strain. These results demonstrate the cocirculation of subtypes A and B in Brazilian commercial farms.
Márcia B. dos Santos
Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a respiratory pathogen associated with the swollen head syndrome (SHS in chickens. In Brazil, live aMPV vaccines are currently used, but subtypes A and, mainly subtype B (aMPV/A and aMPV/B are still circulating. This study was conducted to characterize two Brazilian aMPV isolates (A and B subtypes of chicken origin. A challenge trial to explore the replication ability of the Brazilian subtypes A and B in chickens was performed. Subsequently, virological protection provided from an aMPV/B vaccine against the same isolates was analyzed. Upon challenge experiment, it was shown by virus isolation and real time PCR that aMPV/B could be detected longer and in higher amounts than aMPV/A. For the protection study, 18 one-day-old chicks were vaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age. Using virus isolation and real time PCR, no aMPV/A was detected in the vaccinated chickens, whereas one vaccinated chicken challenged with the aMPV/B isolate was positive. The results showed that aMPV/B vaccine provided a complete heterologous virological protection, although homologous protection was not complete in one chicken. Although only one aMPV/B positive chicken was detected after homologous vaccination, replication in vaccinated animals might allow the emergence of escape mutants.
Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva
Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms. The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.
Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-κB, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators
Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Falchieri, Marco; Meini, Amelio; Jones, Richard C; Catelli, Elena
The current information on the prevalence of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in layers is fragmentary and its true impact on egg production often remains unknown or unclear. In order to draw an epidemiologic picture of aMPV presence in layer flocks in Italy, a survey was performed on 19 flocks of pullets and layers based on longitudinal studies or sporadic samplings. aMPV was detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and blood samples were collected for serology by aMPV ELISA. Occurrences of respiratory signs and a drop in egg production were recorded. Possible involvement of infectious bronchitis (IB) and egg drop syndrome (EDS) viruses that could have caused loss of egg production we ruled out for IB virus by RT-PCR, and EDS virus was ruled out by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI). Only subtype B of aMPV was found in both pullet and layer farms. Surveys of pullets showed that most groups became infected prior to the onset of lay without showing clear respiratory signs. At the point of lay, these groups were serologically positive to aMPV. In two layer flocks, egg drops were observed and could be strongly linked to the presence of aMPV infection. Results were correlated with aMPV vaccination programs applied to the birds in three flocks on the same farm. Only a vaccination program which included two live and one killed vaccines gave complete protection from aMPV infection to the birds, while a single live vaccine application was not efficacious. The current study gives an inside view of field aMPV diffusion in Italy and its control in layers.
Yun, Bingling; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Gao, Yanni; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are members of the genus Metapneumovirus in the subfamily Pneumovirinae. Metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein mediates the fusion of host cells with the virus membrane for infection. Trypsin- and/or low pH-induced membrane fusion is a strain-dependent phenomenon for hMPV. Here, we demonstrated that three subtypes of aMPV (aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C) F proteins promoted cell-cell fusion in the absence of trypsin. Indeed, in the presence of trypsin, only aMPV/C F protein fusogenicity was enhanced. Mutagenesis of the amino acids at position 100 and/or 101, located at a putative cleavage region in aMPV F proteins, revealed that the trypsin-mediated fusogenicity of aMPV F proteins is regulated by the residues at positions 100 and 101. Moreover, we demonstrated that aMPV/A and aMPV/B F proteins mediated cell-cell fusion independent of low pH, whereas the aMPV/C F protein did not. Mutagenesis of the residue at position 294 in the aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C F proteins showed that 294G played a critical role in F protein-mediated fusion under low pH conditions. These findings on aMPV F protein-induced cell-cell fusion provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion and pathogenesis of aMPV.
Bennett, Richard S.; LaRue, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel; Yu, Qingzhong; Nagaraja, K. V.; Halvorson, David A.; Njenga, M. Kariuki
The genomic structure and composition of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) recently isolated from wild Canada geese (goose 15a/01) in the United States, together with its replication, virulence, and immunogenicity in domestic turkeys, were investigated. The sizes of seven of the eight genes, sequence identity, and genome organization of goose aMPV were similar to those of turkey aMPV subtype C (aMPV/C) strains, indicating that it belonged to the subtype. However, the goose virus contained the largest attachment (G) gene of any pneumovirus or metapneumovirus, with the predicted G protein of 585 amino acids (aa) more than twice the sizes of G proteins from other subtype C viruses and human metapneumovirus and more than 170 aa larger than the G proteins from the other aMPV subtypes (subtypes A, B, and D). The large G gene resulted from a 1,015-nucleotide insertion at 18 nucleotides upstream of the termination signal of the turkey aMPV/C G gene. Three other aMPV isolates from Canada geese had similarly large G genes, whereas analysis of recent aMPV strains circulating in U.S. turkeys did not indicate the presence of the goose virus-like strain. In vitro, the goose virus replicated to levels (2 × 105 to 5 × 105 50% tissue culture infective dose) comparable to those produced by turkey aMPV/C strains. More importantly, the virus replicated efficiently in the upper respiratory tract of domestic turkeys but with no clinical signs in either day-old or 2-week-old turkeys. The virus was also horizontally transmitted to naïve birds, and turkey infections with goose 15a/01 induced production of aMPV-specific antibodies. Challenging day-old or 2-week-old turkeys vaccinated with live goose aMPV resulted in lower clinical scores in 33% of the birds, whereas the rest of the birds had no detectable clinical signs of the upper respiratory disease, suggesting that the mutant virus may be a safe and effective vaccine against aMPV infection outbreaks in commercial turkeys. PMID:16282483
Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Trampel, Darrell; Hanson, Tim; Harrison, Kristen; Goyal, Sagar; Cortinas, Roberto; Lauer, Dale
Routine serologic testing for Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection of turkey flocks at slaughter is currently being used to monitor changes in the occurrence of AMPV infection in endemic areas and can also be used to detect the emergence of infection in currently unaffected areas. Because of the costs associated with false-positive results, particularly in areas that are free of AMPV infection, there is a need to obtain improved estimates of flock-level specificity (SP). The objective of this study was to estimate flock-level SP of a program to monitor AMPV infection in turkey flocks at processing using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A study was carried out in which 37 AMPV-free flocks from 7 Midwest operations were followed serologically. Six percent, 3%, and 0.2% of total samples tested AMPV positive at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and at processing, respectively. Overall, flock-level SP increased as the cutoff increased and as age increased. Flock-level SP at processing was 97%, if a cutoff of 1 was used (the flock was classified as positive if at least 1 sample tested positive), and 100%, if any other cutoff was used. Administration of antibiotics (P = 0.02) and vaccination for Bordetella avium (P = 0.08) were positively associated with the probability of (false) positive test results. These findings suggest possible cross-reactions with other infections and highlight the need to consider variable diagnostic performance depending on farm conditions.
Wei, Yongwei; Feng, Kurtis; Yao, Xiangjie; Cai, Hui; Li, Junan; Mirza, Anne M.; Iorio, Ronald M.
The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae of the family Paramyxoviridae includes two members, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), causing respiratory tract infections in humans and birds, respectively. Paramyxoviruses enter host cells by fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane. Membrane fusion of hMPV appears to be unique, in that fusion of some hMPV strains requires low pH. Here, we show that the fusion (F) proteins of aMPV promote fusion in the absence of the attachment protein and low pH is not required. Furthermore, there are notable differences in cell-cell fusion among aMPV subtypes. Trypsin was required for cell-cell fusion induced by subtype B but not subtypes A and C. The F protein of aMPV subtype A was highly fusogenic, whereas those from subtypes B and C were not. By construction and evaluation of chimeric F proteins composed of domains from the F proteins of subtypes A and B, we localized a region composed of amino acid residues 170 to 338 in the F protein that is responsible for the hyperfusogenic phenotype of the F from subtype A. Further mutagenesis analysis revealed that residues R295, G297, and K323 in this region collectively contributed to the hyperfusogenicity. Taken together, we have identified a region in the aMPV F protein that modulates the extent of membrane fusion. A model for fusion consistent with these data is presented. PMID:22915815
Generation and evaluation of recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV challenges in turkeys
Previously we generated a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine, which provided a partial protection against aMPV-C challenge in turkeys. To improve the vaccine efficacy,...
Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Buchholz, Ursula J; Samal, Siba K
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) causes an acute respiratory disease in turkeys and is associated with "swollen head syndrome" in chickens, contributing to significant economic losses for the U.S. poultry industry. With a long-term goal of developing a better vaccine for controlling AMPV in the United States, we established a reverse genetics system to produce infectious AMPV of subgroup C entirely from cDNA. A cDNA clone encoding the entire 14,150-nucleotide genome of AMPV subgroup C strain Colorado (AMPV/CO) was generated by assembling five cDNA fragments between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme of a transcription plasmid, pBR 322. Transfection of this plasmid, along with the expression plasmids encoding the N, P, M2-1, and L proteins of AMPV/CO, into cells stably expressing T7 RNA polymerase resulted in the recovery of infectious AMPV/CO. Characterization of the recombinant AMPV/CO showed that its growth properties in tissue culture were similar to those of the parental virus. The potential of AMPV/CO to serve as a viral vector was also assessed by generating another recombinant virus, rAMPV/CO-GFP, that expressed the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a foreign protein. Interestingly, GFP-expressing AMPV and GFP-expressing human metapneumovirus (HMPV) could be recovered using the support plasmids of either virus, denoting that the genome promoters are conserved between the two metapneumoviruses and can be cross-recognized by the polymerase complex proteins of either virus. These results indicate a close functional relationship between AMPV/CO and HMPV.
Full Text Available Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV, also called Turkey Rhinotracheitis Virus (TRTV, is an upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, chickens and other avian species. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were created against the Brazilian isolate (SHS-BR-121 of aMPV, MAbs 1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 of IgG1 and MAb 1C1F8 of IgG2a. Four Mabs (1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 showed neutralizing activity and three (1A5B8; 1C1C4 and 2A4C3 inhibited cellular fusion in vitro. These MAbs were used to investigate antigenic relationship among three strains (SHS-BR-121, STG 854/88 and TRT 1439/91 of aMPV subtypes A and B using cross-neutralization test. The results confirm that the monoclonal antibodies described can be used as a valuable tool in the epizootiological and serological studies, and also for the specific diagnosis of the subtypes in the infection for Avian Metapneumovirus.
Giovanardi, Davide; Lupini, Caterina; Pesente, Patrizia; Rossi, Giulia; Ortali, Giovanni; Catelli, Elena
The aim of this study was to evaluate if the exposure to Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and/or to Turkey hemorrhagic enteritis virus (THEV) was significant for the induction of episodes of colibacillosis in aMPV and THEV vaccinated turkeys. Colibacillosis-associated mortality was recorded and longitudinal virological studies performed in three consecutive turkey flocks reared in the same farm. aMPV and THEV diagnostic swabs and blood samples were made once a week up to 14 weeks of age. Swabs were processed by molecular techniques for viruses detection and antibody titres were evaluated. Field subtype B aMPVs were detected in all flocks at different ages of life always associated with respiratory signs and increase of colibacillosis-associated mortality. THEV has been consistently detected in all flocks since the 9th week of age. Vaccination with a single dose of the THEV commercial inactivated vaccine available in Italy seems does not protect the birds from the infection. Sequence comparison of the hexon protein of one of the THEV strains detected, and strains isolated worldwide, revealed high similarity between them. These results are consistent with the notion that the hexon protein, being the major antigenic component of the virus, is highly conserved between the strains. Results showed that field aMPV infection is directly correlated to colibacillosis-associated mortality. Less clear appears the role of THEV because the endemicity of aMPV makes difficult to evaluate its role in predisposing colibacillosis in absence of aMPV. It would be interesting to further investigate this issue through experimental trials in secure isolation conditions.
Yun, Bingling; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Yongzhen; Guan, Xiaolu; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei
The entry of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) into host cells initially requires the fusion of viral and cell membranes, which is exclusively mediated by fusion (F) protein. Proteolysis of aMPV F protein by endogenous proteases of host cells allows F protein to induce membrane fusion; however, these proteases have not been identified. Here, we provide the first evidence that the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS12 facilitates the cleavage of subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F protein. We found that overexpression of TMPRSS12 enhanced aMPV/B F protein cleavage, F protein fusogenicity, and viral replication. Subsequently, knockdown of TMPRSS12 with specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) reduced aMPV/B F protein cleavage, F protein fusogenicity, and viral replication. We also found a cleavage motif in the aMPV/B F protein (amino acids 100 and 101) that was recognized by TMPRSS12. The histidine, aspartic acid, and serine residue (HDS) triad of TMPRSS12 was shown to be essential for the proteolysis of aMPV/B F protein via mutation analysis. Notably, we observed TMPRSS12 mRNA expression in target organs of aMPV/B in chickens. Overall, our results indicate that TMPRSS12 is crucial for aMPV/B F protein proteolysis and aMPV/B infectivity and that TMPRSS12 may serve as a target for novel therapeutics and prophylactics for aMPV. Proteolysis of the aMPV F protein is a prerequisite for F protein-mediated membrane fusion of virus and cell and for aMPV infection; however, the proteases used in vitro and vivo are not clear. A combination of analyses, including overexpression, knockdown, and mutation methods, demonstrated that the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS12 facilitated cleavage of subtype B aMPV (aMPV/B) F protein. Importantly, we located the motif in the aMPV/B F protein recognized by TMPRSS12 and the catalytic triad in TMPRSS12 that facilitated proteolysis of the aMPV/B F protein. This is the first report on TMPRSS12 as a protease for proteolysis of viral envelope
von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders
The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...
Coswig,LT; Stach-Machado,DR; Arns,CW
Avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV), also called Turkey Rhinotracheitis Virus (TRTV), is an upper respiratory tract infection of turkeys, chickens and other avian species. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were created against the Brazilian isolate (SHS-BR-121) of aMPV, MAbs 1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3 of IgG1 and MAb 1C1F8 of IgG2a. Four Mabs (1A5B8; 1C1C4; 2C2E9 and 2A4C3) showed neutralizing activity and three (1A5B8; 1C1C4 and 2A4C3) inhibited cellular fusion in vitro. These MAbs were used to ...
Al-Shekaili, Thunai; Baylis, Matthew; Ganapathy, Kannan
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) are economically important viral pathogens infecting chickens globally. Identification of endemic IBV and aMPV strains promotes better control of both diseases and prevents production losses. Orophrayngeal swab samples were taken from 2317 birds within 243 different backyard flocks in Oman. Swabs from each flock were examined by RT-PCR using part-S1 and G gene primers for IBV and aMPV respectively. Thirty-nine chicken flocks were positive for IBV. Thirty two of these were genotyped and they were closely related to 793/B, M41, D274, IS/1494/06 and IS/885/00. 793/B-like IBV was also found in one turkey and one duck flock. Five flocks were positive for aMPV subtype B. Though no disease was witnessed at the time of sampling, identified viruses including variant IBV strains, may still pose a threat for both backyard and commercial poultry in Oman. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coswig, Lia Treptow; dos Santos, Márcia Bianchi; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Ferreira, Helena Lage; Arns, Clarice Weis
Primary isolation of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is carried out using tracheal organ culture (TOC) or chicken embryonated eggs with subsequent adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) or Vero cultures. This study was conducted to evaluate six different cell lines and two avian culture systems for the propagation of aMPV subtypes A and B. The chicken embryo related (CER) cells were used successfully for primary isolation. In addition to Vero and baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, CER cells were also shown to be the most appropriate for propagation of aMPV considering high titres. Propagation of A and B subtypes in CEF and TOC remained efficient after the primary isolation and several passages of viruses in the CER cell line. The growth curves were created using CER, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines. Compared with growth, both yielded higher titres in CER cells during the first 30 h after infection, but no significant difference was observed in the results obtained from CER and Vero cells. This data show that CER cells are adequate for aMPV subtypes A and B propagation, giving similar results to Vero cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hilmes, Melissa A.; Daniel Dunnavant, F.; Singh, Sudha P.; Ellis, Wendy D. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Payne, Daniel C. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhu, Yuwei [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States); Griffin, Marie R. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Health Policy, Nashville, TN (United States); Edwards, Kathryn M. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Williams, John V. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children's hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment. (orig.)
Hilmes, Melissa A.; Daniel Dunnavant, F.; Singh, Sudha P.; Ellis, Wendy D.; Payne, Daniel C.; Zhu, Yuwei; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children's hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment. (orig.)
Sugiyama, Miki; Koimaru, Hiroyuki; Shiba, Masahiro; Ono, Eriko; Nagata, Tadashi; Ito, Toshihiro
Decreases in egg production and increased incidence of abnormal eggs due to malformation of egg shells were observed in specific pathogen free (SPF) 173-day-old laying hens inoculated intravenously with an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) strain PLE8T1. This strain was derived from an isolate from broiler birds exhibiting swollen head syndrome (SHS). Some SPF birds inoculated with the virus showed, slight diarrhea without any respiratory symptoms. Thus, the PLE8T1 strain was used as a challenge virus to evaluate efficacy of aMPV vaccines. SPF chickens which received a live attenuated aMPV vaccine (NEMOVAC; Merial) at 7 or 77 days old and an inactivated aMPV vaccine (OVO-4; Merial) at 105 days old were protected against poor egg production caused by the challenge with the PLE8T1 strain. Thus, aMPV, the PLE8T1 strain passaged 22 times after isolation, from birds exhibiting SHS, could induce a drop in egg production in laying hens accompanied by malformation of egg shells. It was suggested that this challenge system could be applied to evaluate the efficacy of aMPV vaccine.
Ferreira, HL; Spilki, FR; dos Santos, MMAB; de Almeida, RS; Arns, CW
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...
Deng, Qiji; Song, Minxun; Demers, Andrew; Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Wang, Dan; Kaushik, Radhey S; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a paramyxovirus that has three membrane proteins (G, F, and SH). Among them, the SH protein is a small type II integral membrane protein that is incorporated into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses. In the present study, we show that the AMPV SH protein is modified by N-linked glycans and can be released into the extracellular environment. Furthermore, we demonstrate that glycosylated AMPV SH proteins form homodimers through cysteine-mediated disulfide bonds, which has not been reported previously for SH proteins of paramyxoviruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV emerged as an important respiratory pathogen causing acute respiratory tract infection in avian species. Here we used a chicken aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C isolate to inoculate experimentally BALB/c mice and found that the aMPV/C can efficiently replicate and persist in the lungs of mice for at least 21 days with a peak viral load at day 6 postinoculation. Lung pathological changes were characterized by increased inflammatory cells. Immunochemical assay showed the presence of viral antigens in the lungs and significant upregulation of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were detected following inoculation. These results indicate for the first time that chicken aMPV/C may replicate in the lung of mice. Whether aMPV/C has potential as zoonotic pathogen, further investigation will be required.
Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Wang, Jing; Yan, Xu; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; Quan, Rong; Li, Zixuan; Du, Fang; Wei, Ting; Liu, Jue
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) emerged as an important respiratory pathogen causing acute respiratory tract infection in avian species. Here we used a chicken aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) isolate to inoculate experimentally BALB/c mice and found that the aMPV/C can efficiently replicate and persist in the lungs of mice for at least 21 days with a peak viral load at day 6 postinoculation. Lung pathological changes were characterized by increased inflammatory cells. Immunochemical assay showed the presence of viral antigens in the lungs and significant upregulation of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including MCP-1, MIP-1α, RANTES, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α were detected following inoculation. These results indicate for the first time that chicken aMPV/C may replicate in the lung of mice. Whether aMPV/C has potential as zoonotic pathogen, further investigation will be required.
Davis, Carly R; Stockmann, Chris; Pavia, Andrew T; Byington, Carrie L; Blaschke, Anne J; Hersh, Adam L; Thorell, Emily A; Korgenski, Kent; Daly, Judy; Ampofo, Krow
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) causes acute respiratory tract infections in infants and children. We sought to measure the clinical and economic burden of HMPV infection in hospitalized children. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2007 to 2013 at Primary Children's Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah. Children <18 years of age with laboratory-confirmed HMPV infection were included. Demographic, clinical, and financial data were abstracted from the electronic medical record. During the study period, 815 children were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed HMPV infection: 16% <6 months, 50% 6-23 months, 23% 2-4 years, and 11% 5-17 years of age. A complex chronic condition was identified in 453 (56%) children hospitalized with HMPV infection; this proportion increased with increasing age (P < .001). There was marked variation in annual HMPV hospitalization rates, ranging from 9 of 100 000 person-years in 2012-2013 to 79 of 100 000 in 2009-2010. Hospitalization rates were highest among children <2 years (200 of 100 000 person-years) and lowest among children 5-17 years of age (5 of 100 000). Of hospitalized children, 18% were treated in the intensive care unit and 6% required mechanical ventilation. The median length of stay was 2.8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1.8-4.6) and did not vary by age. The median total hospital cost per patient was $5513 (IQR, $3850-$9946) with significantly higher costs for patients with chronic medical conditions (P < .001). Human metapneumovirus infection results in a large number of hospitalizations with substantial morbidity, resource utilization, and costs. The development of a safe and effective vaccine could reduce the clinical and economic burden of HMPV. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Velayudhan, Binu T; McComb, Brian; Bennett, Richard S; Lopes, Vanessa C; Shaw, Daniel; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the pathogenesis of a recent isolate of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) in turkeys and to evaluate the quantitative distribution of the virus in various tissues during the course of infection. Seventy 2-week-old turkey poults were divided equally into two groups. One group was inoculated with aMPV (MN 19) with a titer of 10(5.5) TCID50 oculonasally. Birds in the second group were maintained as sham-inoculated controls. Birds showed severe clinical signs in the form of copious nasal discharge, swollen sinus, conjunctivitis, and depression from 4 days postinoculation (PI) to 12 days PI. Samples from nasal turbinates, trachea, conjunctiva, Harderian gland, infraorbital sinus, lungs, liver, and spleen were collected at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 days PI. Histopathologic lesions such as a multifocal loss of cilia were prominent in nasal turbinate and were seen from 3 to 11 days PI. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of aMPV from 3 to 9 days PI in nasal turbinate and trachea. Viral RNA could be detected for 14 days PI from nasal turbinate and for 9 days from trachea. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of aMPV from 1 to 11 days PI in nasal turbinates and from 3 to 9 days PI in the trachea. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data showed the presence of a maximum amount of virus at 3 days PI in nasal turbinate and trachea. Clinically and histopathologically, the new isolate appears to be more virulent compared to the early isolates of aMPV in the United States.
Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Franzo, Giovanni; Lupini, Caterina; Alejo, Carolina Torres; Listorti, Valeria; Mescolini, Giulia; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Martini, Marco; Catelli, Elena; Cecchinato, Mattia
With increasing frequency, avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) is reported to induce respiratory signs in chickens. An adequate knowledge of current aMPV prevalence among Italian broilers is lacking, with little information available on its economical and health impact on the poultry industry. In order to collect preliminary data on the epidemiological context of aMPV in broiler flocks, a survey was performed in areas of Northern Italy with high poultry density from 2014 to 2016. Upper respiratory tract swabs were collected and processed by A and B subtype-specific multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Samples were also screened for infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) by generic RT-PCR and sequencing. Productive data and respiratory signs were detailed where possible. The high prevalence of aMPV was confirmed in broilers older than 26 d and also attested in IBV-negative farms. All aMPV detections belonged to subtype B. Italian strain genetic variability was evaluated by the partial attachment (G) gene sequencing of selected strains and compared with contemporary turkey strains and previously published aMPV references, revealing no host specificity and the progressive evolution of this virus in Italy. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Ongor, H; Karahan, M; Kalin, R; Bulut, H; Cetinkaya, B
This study investigated the prevalence of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and the detection of molecular subtypes of field strains of the virus using RT-PCR in clinically healthy turkeys and those showing signs of respiratory disease. In the RT-PCR examination of 624 tracheal tissue samples collected from a local turkey abattoir, 2.9 per cent (18/624) of samples tested positive. In the examination of tracheal swab samples collected from flocks with respiratory problems, 18 of 20 samples tested positive. When the results were assessed at flock level, aMPV infection was detected in only one of the 23 clinically healthy turkey flocks, whereas all four flocks with respiratory problems were infected. Molecular typing using primers specific to the attachment glycoprotein (G) gene showed that all 36 positive samples belonged to subtype B. Partial sequence analysis of DNA samples showed 95 per cent homology between the field types and the reference strain aMPV subtype B. Whereas clinically healthy turkeys had been vaccinated with a subtype A virus vaccine, the flocks with respiratory problems had been vaccinated with a subtype B virus vaccine. Despite four blind passages of RT-PCR-positive samples on Vero and chicken embryo fibroblast cells, no cytopathic effect was detected by microscopic examination.
Rizotto, La?s S.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Cardoso, Tereza C.; Sim?o, Raphael M.; Caserta, Leonardo C.; Benassi, Julia C.; Keid, Lara B.; Oliveira, Tr?cia M. F. de S.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Arns, Clarice W.; Van Borm, Steven; Ferreira, Helena L.
ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) isolated from a tracheal tissue sample of a commercial layer flock. The complete genome sequence of aMPV-A/chicken/Brazil-SP/669/2003 was obtained using MiSeq (Illumina, Inc.) sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome classified the isolate as avian metapneumovirus subtype A.
Watteyn, Anneleen; Devreese, Mathias; Plessers, Elke; Wyns, Heidi; Garmyn, An; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska
Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is an avian respiratory pathogen that affects turkeys. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of gamithromycin (GAM) against O. rhinotracheale in turkeys. The birds were inoculated oculonasally with 10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of O. rhinotracheale, preceded by infection with avian metapneumovirus. In addition to a negative (CONTR-) and a positive control group (CONTR+) there were two treated groups administered GAM (6 mg/kg) either subcutaneously (GAM SC) or orally (GAM PO) by administration as a single bolus at one-day post-bacterial infection (p.b.i.). From the start of the avian metapneumovirus infection until the end of the experiment, the turkeys were examined clinically and scored daily. In addition, tracheal swabs were collected at several days p.b.i. Necropsy was performed at 4, 8 and 12 days p.b.i. to evaluate the presence of gross lesions, and to collect trachea and lung tissue samples and air sac swabs for O. rhinotracheale quantification. The clinical score of the GAM SC group showed slightly lower values and birds recovered earlier than those in the GAM PO and CONTR+ groups. O. rhinotracheale cfus were significantly reduced in tracheal swabs of the SC group between 2 and 4 days p.b.i. At necropsy, CONTR+ showed higher O. rhinotracheale cfu in lung tissues compared to the treated groups. Moreover, at 8 days p.b.i. only the lung samples of CONTR+ were positive. In conclusion, the efficacy of GAM against O. rhinotracheale was demonstrated, especially in the lung tissue. However, the PO bolus administration of the commercially available product was not as efficacious as the SC bolus.
Dare, Ryan; Sanghavi, Sonali; Bullotta, Arlene; Keightley, Maria-Cristina; George, Kirsten St; Wadowsky, Robert M; Paterson, David L; McCurry, Kenneth R; Reinhart, Todd A; Husain, Shahid; Rinaldo, Charles R
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered paramyxovirus that is known to cause respiratory tract infections in children and immunocompromised individuals. Given the difficulties of identifying hMPV by conventional culture, molecular techniques could improve the detection of this virus in clinical specimens. In this study, we developed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay designed to detect the four genetic lineages of hMPV. This assay and a commercial real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) were used to determine the prevalence of hMPV in 114 immunosuppressed asymptomatic and symptomatic lung transplant recipients and 232 pediatric patients who were being evaluated for pertussis. hMPV was detected in 4.3% of the immunosuppressed lung transplant recipients and in 9.9% of children evaluated for pertussis. Both RT-PCR and NASBA assays were efficient in detection of hMPV infection in respiratory specimens. Even though hMPV was detected in a small number of the lung transplant recipients, it was still the most prevalent etiologic agent detected in patients with respiratory symptoms. In both of these diverse patient populations, hMPV infection was the most frequent viral respiratory tract infection identified. Given our findings, infection with hMPV infection should be determined as part of the differential diagnosis of respiratory illnesses.
Dare, Ryan; Sanghavi, Sonali; Bullotta, Arlene; Keightley, Maria-Cristina; George, Kirsten St.; Wadowsky, Robert M.; Paterson, David L.; McCurry, Kenneth R.; Reinhart, Todd A.; Husain, Shahid; Rinaldo, Charles R.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently discovered paramyxovirus that is known to cause respiratory tract infections in children and immunocompromised individuals. Given the difficulties of identifying hMPV by conventional culture, molecular techniques could improve the detection of this virus in clinical specimens. In this study, we developed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay designed to detect the four genetic lineages of hMPV. This assay and a commercial real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) were used to determine the prevalence of hMPV in 114 immunosuppressed asymptomatic and symptomatic lung transplant recipients and 232 pediatric patients who were being evaluated for pertussis. hMPV was detected in 4.3% of the immunosuppressed lung transplant recipients and in 9.9% of children evaluated for pertussis. Both RT-PCR and NASBA assays were efficient in detection of hMPV infection in respiratory specimens. Even though hMPV was detected in a small number of the lung transplant recipients, it was still the most prevalent etiologic agent detected in patients with respiratory symptoms. In both of these diverse patient populations, hMPV infection was the most frequent viral respiratory tract infection identified. Given our findings, infection with hMPV infection should be determined as part of the differential diagnosis of respiratory illnesses. PMID:17065270
Pancham, Krishna; Sami, Iman; Perez, Geovanny F; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Kurdi, Bassem; Rose, Mary C; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered respiratory pathogen of the family Paramyxoviridae, the same family as that of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Premature children are at high risk of severe RSV infections, however, it is unclear whether HMPV infection is more severe in hospitalized children with a history of severe prematurity. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HMPV infections in preschool-age children (≤5 years) with and without history of severe prematurity (prematurity. Preschool children with a history of prematurity had more severe HMPV disease as illustrated by longer hospitalizations, new or increased need for supplemental O2, and higher severity scores independently of age, ethnicity, and history of asthma. Our study suggests that HMPV infection causes significant disease burden among preschool children with a history of prematurity leading to severe respiratory infections and increasing health care resource utilization due to prolonged hospitalizations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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Schuster, Jennifer E.; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Faouri, Samir; Shehabi, Asem; Johnson, Monika; Wang, Li; Fonnesbeck, Christopher; Williams, John V.; Halasa, Natasha
Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in young children. Our objectives were to define HMPV epidemiology and circulating strains and determine markers of severe disease in Jordanian children. Methods We conducted a prospective study March 16, 2010-March 31, 2013 using quantitative RT-PCR to determine the frequency of HMPV infection among children <2 years old admitted with fever and/or acute respiratory illness to a major government hospital in Amman, Jordan. Results HMPV was present in 273/3168 (8.6%) of children presenting with ARTI. HMPV A2, B1, and B2, but not A1, were detected during the 3-year period. HMPV-infected children were older and more likely to be diagnosed with bronchopneumonia than HMPV-negative children. HMPV-infected children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) had higher rates of cough and shortness of breath than children with LRTI infected with other or no identifiable viruses. Symptoms and severity were not different between children with HMPV only compared with HMPV co-infection. Children with HMPV subgroup A infection were more likely to require supplemental oxygen. In a multivariate analysis, HMPV subgroup A and age <6 months were independently associated with supplemental oxygen requirement. Conclusions HMPV is a leading cause of acute respiratory tract disease in Jordanian children <2 years old. HMPV A and young age were associated with severe disease. Ninety percent of HMPV-infected hospitalized children were full-term and otherwise healthy, in contrast to high-income nations; thus, factors contributing to disease severity likely vary depending on geographic and resource differences. PMID:26372450
Embarek Mohamed, Mona S.; Jacobsen, Sonja; Thabit, Amany G.; Badary, Mohamed S.; Brune, Wolfram; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Osmann, Ahmed H.
Introduction. Since 2001, when Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was isolated in the Netherlands, the virus has been detected in several continents. Although reports have confirmed the prevalence of HMPV worldwide, data from Egypt remain limited. HMPV plays an important role in respiratory tract infections in individuals of all ages particularly in children. This study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of HMPV in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory infection in Upper Egypt and characterizing the circulating Egyptian HMPV strains for the first time. Materials and Methods. From 2005 to 2008, respiratory samples from 520 patients were analyzed for the presence of HMPV by real-time RT-PCR. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses were performed on partial fusion gene sequences of HMPV-positive patients. Results. HMPV-positive patients were detected in 2007-2008. The overall infection rate was 4%, while 57% of the patients were children. Sequence analysis demonstrated circulation of subgroup B viruses with predominance of lineage B2. Nucleotide sequence identity within lineage B1 was 98.8%–99.7% and higher than that in lineage B2 (94.3%–100%). Three new amino acid substitutions (T223N, R229K, and D280N) of lineage B2 were observed. Conclusion. HMPV is a major viral pathogen in the Egyptian population especially in children. During 2007-2008, predominantly HMPV B2 circulated in Upper Egypt. PMID:24669221
Kan-O, Keiko; Ramirez, Ruben; MacDonald, Martin I; Rolph, Michael; Rudd, Penny A; Spann, Kirsten M; Mahalingam, Suresh; Bardin, Philip G; Thomas, Belinda J
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection is implicated in exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Research into the pathogenesis of infection is restricted to animal models, and information about hMPV replication and inflammatory and immune responses in human disease is limited. Human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) from healthy and asthmatic subjects and those with COPD were infected with hMPV, with or without glucocorticosteroid (GCS) exposure. Viral replication, inflammatory and immune responses, and apoptosis were analyzed. We also determined whether adjuvant interferon (IFN) can blunt hMPV infection in vitro and in a murine model. hMPV infected human PBECs and viral replication was enhanced in cells from patients with COPD. The virus induced gene expression of IFN-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56) and IFN-β, as well as IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and more so in cells from patients with COPD. GCS exposure enhanced hMPV replication despite increased IFN expression. Augmented virus replication associated with GCS was mediated by reduced apoptosis via induction of antiapoptotic genes. Adjuvant IFN treatment suppressed hMPV replication in PBECs and reduced hMPV viral titers and inflammation in vivo. hMPV infects human PBECs, eliciting innate and inflammatory responses. Replication is enhanced by GCS and adjuvant IFN is an effective treatment, restricting virus replication and proinflammatory consequences of hMPV infections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Velayudhan, Binu T; Noll, Sally L; Thachil, Anil J; Halvorson, David A; Shaw, Daniel P; Goyal, Sagar M; Nagaraja, Kakambi V
The objective of the present study was to compare the pathogenicity of early and recent isolates of avian metapneumovirus subtype-C (aMPV-C) in turkeys. Two-week-old turkeys were inoculated with early and recent isolates of aMPV-C. Clinical signs were monitored. Tissues were examined for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA), lesions, and viral antigen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), histopathology and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Birds infected with the recent isolate had higher clinical sign scores than those infected with the early isolate. Only the recent isolate produced a multifocal loss of cilia in the nasal turbinate of infected birds. Immunohistochemistry revealed intense staining of aMPV antigen in turbinate and trachea of birds infected with the recent isolate. The findings indicate that the recent isolate produced more severe clinical signs and lesions in turkeys compared to the early isolate. The recent isolate could be ideal for the development of a challenge model for aMPV infection in turkeys.
Comparative Evaluation Of Conventional Rt-pcr And Real-time Rt-pcr (rrt-pcr) For Detection Of Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A [comparação Entre As Técnicas De Rt-pcr Convencional E Rt-pcr Em Tempo Real Para A Detecção Do Metapneumovírus Aviários Subtipo A
Ferreira H.L.; Spilki F.R.; dos Santos M.M.A.B.; de Almeida R.S.; Arns C.W.
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A) viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F) gene and nucleocapsid (N) gene were compared with an establis...
Franzo, G; Drigo, M; Lupini, C; Catelli, E; Laconi, A; Listorti, V; Bonci, M; Naylor, C J; Martini, M; Cecchinato, M
Use of real-time PCR is increasing in the diagnosis of infectious disease due to its sensitivity, specificity, and speed of detection. These characteristics make it particularly suited for the diagnosis of viral infections, like avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), for which effective control benefits from continuously updated knowledge of the epidemiological situation. Other real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCRs have been published based on highly specific fluorescent dye-labeled probes, but they have high initial cost, complex validation, and a marked susceptibility to the genetic variability of their target sequence. With this in mind, we developed and validated a SYBR Green I-based quantitative RT-PCR for the detection of the two most prevalent AMPV subtypes (i.e., subtypes A and B). The assay demonstrated an analytical sensitivity comparable with that of a previously published real-time RT-PCR and the ability to detect RNA equivalent to approximately 0.5 infectious doses for both A and B subtypes. The high efficiency and linearity between viral titer and crossing point displayed for both subtypes make it suited for viral quantification. Optimization of reaction conditions and the implementation of melting curve analysis guaranteed the high specificity of the assay. The stable melting temperature difference between the two subtypes indicated the possibility of subtyping through melting temperature analysis. These characteristics make our assay a sensitive, specific, and rapid tool, enabling contemporaneous detection, quantification, and discrimination of AMPV subtype A and B.
Clubbe, Jayne; Naylor, Clive J
Throughout the world, avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection of subtype A is principally controlled by two live vaccines both derived from UK field strain #8544. Improvements of those vaccines by use of reverse genetics technology was found to be hampered by the inability of #8544 to replicate in the commonly exploited Vero cell based reverse genetics system. A systematic reverse genetics based genome modification of a DNA copy of #8544, employing sequence data from a Vero grown, #8544 derived, live vaccine; was used to determine mutations required to facilitate virus recovery and replication in Vero cells. This identified a single coding substitution in the M2:2 reading frame as responsible. Furthermore, ablation of M2:2 was found to elicit the same outcome. M2:2 sequence analysis of seven AMPVs found Vero cell adaption to be associated with non similar amino acid changes in M2:2. The study shows that M2:2 modification of field virus #8544 will enable research leading to improved vaccines. This may have more general application to other AMPV field strains. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Andreopoulou, Marianna; Franzo, Giovanni; Prentza, Zoi; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Cecchinato, Mattia
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is considered a major pathogen for turkeys but its impact on chicken production is still partially neglected, even though it is fully acknowledged as a primary pathogen in chickens as well. The lack of structured diagnostic surveys does not allow a pervasive understanding of aMPV epidemiology. Being that aMPV is almost an everyday challenge for farmers and veterinarians, a more accurate report of its presence should be detailed, posing the basis for a deep and global epidemiologic analysis. With these premises, the present work aims to report the first detection and molecular characterization of aMPV subtype B field strains from unvaccinated chickens in Greece. The Greek strains appear to be phylogenetically related among each other and with other recent Mediterranean strains while being distant from the currently applied vaccines, thus stressing once more the necessity to evaluate aMPV diffusion and evolution.
Generation and evaluation of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the F and G proteins of avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV-C) as a bivalent vaccine against NDV and aMPV-C challenges in turkeys
Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. Previously we generated a NDV r...
Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Zheng, Xiaotian; Li, Haijing; Tetreault, Janice; Ratkiewicz, Irene; Meng, Shufang; Hamilton, Pamela; Tang, Yi-Wei
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV (Directigen EZ RSV; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) for RSV (Bartels; Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA), and two DFAs for hMPV manufactured by Diagnostic Hybrids Inc. (DHI; Athens, OH) and Imagen (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom). The clinical specimens tested comprised 515 nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Hartford Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 21 April 2007. Compared to the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the CIA had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 89.5%. The RSV DFA with Bartels reagents showed a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 96.8%. For hMPV, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 99.8%, respectively, for the DHI DFA and 63.2% and 100%, respectively, for the Imagen DFA. The hands-on and test turnaround times for CIA were 10 and 30 to 60 min, respectively, and the hands-on and test turnaround times for the RSV and hMPV DFAs were 30 and 105 min, respectively. We conclude that while the RSV CIA is user-friendly, it lacks sensitivity and specificity, especially during off-peak months. In contrast, the RSV DFA is more sensitive and specific, but interpretation of its results is subjective and it demands technical time and expertise. Similarly, both hMPV DFAs are highly specific in comparison to the results of RT-PCR, but their sensitivities await further improvements.
Jardine, C M; Parmley, E J; Buchanan, T; Nituch, L; Ojkic, D
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an emerging poultry pathogen that has a significant economic impact on poultry production worldwide. The geographic range of the virus continues to expand, and wild birds have been implicated as reservoirs of aMPV that have the potential to spread the virus over long distances. Our objective was to determine the apparent prevalence of aMPV subtype C in wild waterfowl in Ontario, Canada. Wild waterfowl were captured in August and September, 2016 as part of routine migratory waterfowl population monitoring by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and placed together for aMPV testing using real-time RT-PCR. A total of 374 live wild birds from 23 lakes were sampled and tested for aMPV. Among all ducks tested, 84 (22%) were positive for aMPV. The proportion of samples that tested positive ranged from 0% in ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis) to 44% (8 of 18) in American black ducks (A. rubripes). Waterfowl positive for aMPV were found at 14 of 23 lakes in the study area and the percent positive at these 14 lakes ranged between 5% and 84%. Although subtype C aMPV has been detected in a variety of wild birds in North America, this is the first report of aMPV in wild ducks in Ontario, Canada. The high apparent prevalence, particularly in mallards and American black ducks (37 and 44%, respectively), suggests that these species may be important reservoirs of aMPV. Given the potential impact of aMPV on domestic poultry and the potential role of wild birds as reservoirs of the virus, further investigation of the geographic distribution, risk factors associated with aMPV carriage in wild waterfowl and potential role of other birds in the epidemiology of aMPV in Canada is warranted. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Munoz Pogoreltseva, Olga Svetlana; Listorti, Valeria; Mondin, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena
In recent years, special attention has been paid to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) diagnosis, due to its numerous advantages over classical PCR. A new multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) with molecular beacon probe assay, designed to target the SH gene, was developed. The test was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, and compared with conventional RT nested-PCR based on the G gene. All of the AMPV subtype A and B strains tested were amplified and specifically detected while no amplification occurred with other non-target bird respiratory pathogens. The detection limit of the assay was 10(-0.41) median infectious dose/ml and 10(1.15) median infectious dose/ml when the AMPV-B strain IT/Ty/B/Vr240/87 and the AMPV-A strain IT/Ty/A/259-01/03 were used, respectively, as templates. In all cases, the amplification efficiency was approximately 2 and the error values were 0.9375) between crossing point values and virus quantities, making the assay herein designed reliable for quantification. When the newly developed qRT-PCR was compared with a conventional RT nested-PCR, it showed greater sensitivity with RNA extracted from both positive controls and from experimentally infected birds. This assay can be effectively used for the detection, identification, differentiation and quantitation of AMPV subtype A or subtype B to assist in disease diagnosis and to carry out rapid surveillance with high levels of sensitivity and specificity.
Rivera-Benitez, José Francisco; Martínez-Bautista, Rebeca; Ríos-Cambre, Francisco; Ramírez-Mendoza, Humberto
We conducted a longitudinal study to detect and isolate avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) in two highly productive poultry areas in Mexico. A total of 968 breeder hens and pullets from 2 to 73 weeks of age were analysed. Serology was performed to detect aMPV antibodies and 105 samples of tracheal tissue were collected, pooled by age, and used for attempted virus isolation and aMPV nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). The serological analysis indicated that 100% of the sampled chickens showed aMPV antibodies by 12 weeks of age. Five pools of pullet samples collected at 3 to 8 weeks of age were positive by nRT-PCR and the sequences obtained indicated 98 to 99% similarity with the reported sequences for aMPV subtype A. Virus isolation of nRT-PCR-positive samples was successfully attempted using chicken embryo lung and trachea mixed cultures with subsequent adaptation to Vero cells. This is the first report of detection and isolation of aMPV in Mexico.
Lupini, C; Cecchinato, M; Scagliarini, A; Graziani, R; Catelli, E
Field evidences have suggested that a natural extract, containing tannins, could be effective against poultry enteric viral infections. Moreover previous studies have shown that vegetable tannins can have antiviral activity against human viruses. Based on this knowledge three different Chestnut (Castanea spp.) wood extracts and one Quebracho (Schinopsis spp.) wood extract, all containing tannins and currently used in the animal feed industry, were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against avian reovirus (ARV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the 50% cytotoxic compounds concentration (CC(50)) on Vero cells. The antiviral properties were tested before and after the adsorption of the viruses to Vero cells. Antiviral activities were expressed as IC(50) (concentration required to inhibit 50% of viral cytopathic effect). CC(50)s of tested compounds were > 200 microg/ml. All compounds had an extracellular antiviral effect against both ARV and AMPV with IC(50) values ranging from 25 to 66 microg/ml. Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity (IC(50) 24 microg/ml). These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings.
Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, B or C, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses were slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintaine...
M.J.T. Wierik (M J Te); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); M.F.C. Beersma (Thijs); S.F. Thijsen (Steven); K.A. Heemstra
textabstractRecognition of infections with human metapneumovirus (HMPV) among institutionalised elderly is rising. When HMPV was found to be the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a residential care facility for elderly in the Netherlands, an elaborate outbreak investigation was set up,
Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Cecchinato, Mattia; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Brown, Paul; Naylor, Clive J
Live avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccines have largely brought turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) under control in Europe but unexplained outbreaks still occur. Italian AMPV longitudinal farm studies showed that subtype B AMPVs were frequently detected in turkeys some considerable period after subtype B vaccination. Sequencing showed these to be unrelated to the previously applied vaccine. Sequencing of the entire genome of a typical later isolate showed numerous SH and G protein gene differences when compared to both a 1987 Italian field isolate and the vaccine in common use. Experimental challenge of vaccinated birds with recent virus showed that protection was inferior to that seen after challenge with the earlier 1987 isolate. Field virus had changed in key antigenic regions allowing replication and leading to disease in well vaccinated birds.
Kong, Byung-Whi; Foster, Linda K; Foster, Douglas N
The avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) genome encodes the fusion (F), small hydrophobic (SH), and attachment glycoprotein (G) as envelope glycoproteins. The F and G proteins mainly function to allow viral entry into host cells during the early steps of the virus life cycle. The highly variable AMPV G protein is a major determinant for distinguishing virus subtypes. Sequence analysis was used to determine if any differences between avian or mammalian cell propagated subtype C AMPV could be detected for the 1.8kb G gene. As a result, the complete 1.8kb G gene was found to be present when AMPV was propagated in our immortal turkey turbinate (TT-1) cell line regardless of passage number. Surprisingly, AMPV propagated for 15 or more passages in mammalian Vero cells revealed an essentially deleted G gene in the viral genome, resulting in no G gene mRNA expression. Although the Vero cell propagated AMPV genome contained a small 122 nucleotide fragment of the G gene, no other mRNA variants were detected from either mammalian or avian propagated AMPV. The G gene truncation might be caused by cellular molecular mechanisms that are species-specific. The lack of viral gene deletions suggests that avian cell propagated AMPV will provide a better alternative host for live recombinant vaccine development based on a reverse genetics system.
Falchieri, Marco; Brown, Paul A; Catelli, Elena; Naylor, Clive J
Using reverse genetics, an avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) was modified for use as a positive control for validating all stages of a popular established RT-nested PCR, used in the detection of the two major AMPV subtypes (A and B). Resultant amplicons were of increased size and clearly distinguishable from those arising from unmodified virus, thus allowing false positive bands, due to control virus contamination of test samples, to be identified readily. Absorption of the control virus onto filter paper and subsequent microwave irradiation removed all infectivity while its function as an efficient RT-nested-PCR template was unaffected. Identical amplicons were produced after storage for one year. The modified virus is likely to have application as an internal standard as well as in real time methods. Additions to AMPV of RNA from other RNA viruses, including hazardous examples such HIV and influenza, are likely to yield similar safe RT-PCR controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Rautenschlein, Silke
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an important respiratory pathogen of turkeys with considerable economic impact on poultry production. Although vaccination is widely used for the control of the disease, questions regarding vaccine safety and efficacy remain to be elucidated. This report describes the problems associated with reproducibility of the aMPV-vaccine response, comparing T-lymphocyte-compromised and T-cell-intact turkeys. In three consecutive experiments, turkeys partially depleted of T-lymphocytes by treatment with cyclosporin A as well as untreated turkeys were vaccinated with a commercial live aMPV subtype A (aMPV-A) vaccine at 2 weeks of age. Two weeks later they were challenged with a virulent aMPV-A strain. Despite similar genetic background of the turkeys, comparable housing conditions under isolation and the application of the same aMPV-A vaccine, considerable variation was observed among the experiments regarding replication of the vaccine virus, vaccine-induced clinical signs and protection against challenge infection. The results indicate that differences in the outcome of aMPV-A vaccination may be associated with T-lymphocyte suppression and additionally with an interfering aMPV-B vaccine exposure at the hatchery in two of the experiments. Our study provides possible explanations for the variable protection provided by aMPV vaccines under field conditions.
Deng, Qiji; Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Demers, Andrew; Song, Minxun; Wang, Dan; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng
The small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type II integral membrane protein that is packaged into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses including metapneumovirus. In addition to a highly divergent primary sequence, SH proteins vary significantly in size amongst the different viruses. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) encodes the smallest SH protein consisting of only 64 amino acids, while metapneumoviruses have the longest SH protein ranging from 174 to 179 amino acids in length. Little is currently known about the cellular localization and topology of the metapneumovirus SH protein. Here we characterize for the first time metapneumovirus SH protein with respect to topology, subcellular localization, and transport using avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (AMPV-C) as a model system. We show that AMPV-C SH is an integral membrane protein with N(in)C(out) orientation located in both the plasma membrane as well as within intracellular compartments, which is similar to what has been described previously for SH proteins of other paramyxoviruses. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AMPV-C SH protein localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and cell surface, and is transported through ER-Golgi secretory pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rizotto, Laís S; Scagion, Guilherme P; Cardoso, Tereza C; Simão, Raphael M; Caserta, Leonardo C; Benassi, Julia C; Keid, Lara B; Oliveira, Trícia M F de S; Soares, Rodrigo M; Arns, Clarice W; Van Borm, Steven; Ferreira, Helena L
We report here the complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) isolated from a tracheal tissue sample of a commercial layer flock. The complete genome sequence of aMPV-A/chicken/Brazil-SP/669/2003 was obtained using MiSeq (Illumina, Inc.) sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome classified the isolate as avian metapneumovirus subtype A. Copyright © 2017 Rizotto et al.
Sugiyama, Miki; Ito, Hiroshi; Hata, Yusuke; Ono, Eriko; Ito, Toshihiro
Complete nucleotide sequences were determined for subtype B avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), the attenuated vaccine strain VCO3/50 and its parental pathogenic strain VCO3/60616. The genomes of both strains comprised 13,508 nucleotides (nt), with a 42-nt leader at the 3'-end and a 46-nt trailer at the 5'-end. The genome contains eight genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-F-M2-SH-G-L-5', which is the same order shown in the other metapneumoviruses. The genes are flanked on either side by conserved transcriptional start and stop signals and have intergenic sequences varying in length from 1 to 88 nt. Comparison of nt and predicted amino acid (aa) sequences of VCO3/60616 with those of other metapneumoviruses revealed higher homology with aMPV subtype A virus than with other metapneumoviruses. A total of 18 nt and 10 deduced aa differences were seen between the strains, and one or a combination of several differences could be associated with attenuation of VCO3/50.
Lupini, Caterina; Cecchinato, Mattia; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Naylor, Clive J; Catelli, Elena
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype A was isolated from 7-week-old turkeys showing respiratory disease typical of turkey rhinotracheitis. Comparison of the virus sequence with previously determined vaccine marker sequences showed that the virulent virus had originated from a licensed live subtype A aMPV vaccine. The vaccine had neither been in use on the farm within a period of at least 6 months nor had it been used on farms within a distance of approximately 5 km. Isolation of the virus and exposure to naive turkeys caused disease typical of a virulent aMPV field strain. The study shows that disease was caused by exposure to aMPV vaccine-derived virus that was present in the environment, and indicates that such virus is able to circulate for longer than was previously envisaged.
Hu, Haixia; Roth, Jason P; Estevez, Carlos N; Zsak, Laszlo; Liu, Bo; Yu, Qingzhong
Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) can cause serious respiratory diseases in poultry. Vaccination combined with strict biosecurity practices has been the recommendation for controlling both NDV and aMPV diseases in the field. In the present study, an NDV based, LaSota strain recombinant vaccine virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) of aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) was generated as a bivalent vaccine using a reverse genetics approach. The recombinant virus, rLS/aMPV-C G was slightly attenuated in vivo, yet maintained similar growth dynamics, cytopathic effects, and virus titers in vitro when compared to the parental LaSota virus. Expression of the aMPV G protein in rLS/aMPV-C G-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of turkeys with one dose of rLS/aMPV-C G induced moderate aMPV-C-specific immune responses and comparable NDV-specific serum antibody responses to a LaSota vaccination control. Partial protection against pathogenic aMPV-C challenge and complete protection against velogenic NDV challenge was conferred. These results suggest that the LaSota recombinant virus is a safe and effective vaccine vector and that expression of the aMPV-C G protein alone is not sufficient to provide full protection against an aMPV-C infection. Expression of other immunogenic protein(s) of the aMPV-C virus alone or in conjunction with the G protein may be needed to induce a stronger protective immunity against the aMPV-C disease. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hamelin, Marie-Eve; Couture, Christian; Sackett, Melanie K; Boivin, Guy
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a paramyxovirus that causes acute respiratory-tract infections in humans. The histopathological and immunological responses to hMPV infection in BALB/c mice immunized with inactivated hMPV were characterized. Animals were immunized intraperitoneally with PBS, supernatant from non-infected LLC-MK2 cells and from heat-inactivated influenza A- or hMPV-infected cells, all in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, or with heat-inactivated hMPV without adjuvant, and then infected intranasally with 10(8) TCID50 virus. Following infection, lung samples and bronchoalveolar lavages were collected for determination of viral titre and cytokine levels and for histopathological studies. On day 1, 26 % of mice immunized with inactivated hMPV and adjuvant died, compared with none in the other groups. There was more significant lung inflammation associated with eosinophilic infiltration, as well as increased levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5, in the bronchoalveolar lavages of mice immunized with hMPV alone or with the adjuvant. Mice from the last two groups had a 4-5 log10 decrease in their pulmonary viral titres compared with controls. Our data demonstrate the risks associated with immunization using inactivated hMPV in this animal model and that this aberrant response should be considered in the development of hMPV vaccines.
Paudel, Sarita; Easwaran, Maheswaran; Jang, Hyun; Jung, Ho-Kyoung; Kim, Joo-Hun; Shin, Hyun-Jin
In this study, we evaluated the immune responses of avian metapneumovirus harboring chicken Fc molecule. Stable Vero cells expressing chicken Fc chimera on its surface (Vero-cFc) were established, and we confirmed that aMPV grown in Vero-cFc incorporated host derived chimera Fc into the aMPV virions. Immunization of chicken with aMPV-cFc induced higher level of antibodies and inflammatory cytokines; (Interferon (IFN)-γ and Interleukin (IL)-1β) compared to those of aMPV. The increased levels of antibodies and inflammatory cytokines in chicken immunized with aMPV-cFc were statistically significantly (p<0.05) to that of aMPV and control. The aMPV-cFc group also generated the highest neutralizing antibody response. After challenges, chickens immunized with aMPV-cFc showed much less pathological signs in nasal turbinates and trachea so that we could confirm aMPV-cFc induced higher protection than that of aMPV. The greater ability of aMPV harboring chicken Fc to that of aMPV presented it as a possible vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Jianrong
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. aMPV belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae which includes many important human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3). The family also includes highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus, as well as agriculturally important viruses such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). For many of these viruses, there is no effective vaccine. Here, we describe a reverse genetics approach to develop live attenuated aMPV vaccines by inhibiting the viral mRNA cap methyltransferase. The viral mRNA cap methyltransferase is an excellent target for the attenuation of paramyxoviruses because it plays essential roles in mRNA stability, efficient viral protein translation and innate immunity. We have described in detail the materials and methods used to generate recombinant aMPVs that lack viral mRNA cap methyltransferase activity. We have also provided methods to evaluate the genetic stability, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity of live aMPV vaccine candidates in turkeys.
Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Junan; Li, Jianrong
The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae and family Paramyxoviridae includes only two viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), which cause respiratory disease in humans and birds, respectively. These two viruses grow poorly in cell culture and other quantitation methods, such as indirect immuno-staining and immuno-fluorescent assays, are expensive, time consuming, and do not allow for plaque purification of the virus. In order to enhance research efforts for studying these two viruses, a direct plaque assay for both hMPV and aMPV has been developed. By optimizing the chemical components of the agarose overlay, it was found that both hMPV with a trypsin-independent F cleavage site and aMPV formed clear and countable plaques in a number of mammalian cell lines (such as Vero-E6 and LLC-MK2 cells) after 5 days of incubation. The plaque forming assay has similar sensitivity and reliability as the currently used immunological methods for viral quantitation. The plaque assay is also a more simple, rapid, and economical method compared to immunological assays, and in addition allows for plaque purification of the viruses. The direct plaque assay will be a valuable method for the quantitation and evaluation of the biological properties of some metapneumoviruses. PMID:22684013
Kohn, L K; Queiroga, C L; Martini, M C; Barata, L E; Porto, P S S; Souza, L; Arns, C W
Medicinal plants are well known for their use in traditional folk medicine as treatments for many diseases including infectious diseases. Six Brazilian medicinal plant species were subjected to an antiviral screening bioassay to investigate and evaluate their biological activities against five viruses: bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), murine hepatitis virus type 3, porcine parvovirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. The antiviral activity was determined by a titration technique that depends on the ability of plant extract dilutions (25 or 2.5 µg/mL) to inhibit the viral induced cytopathic effect and the extracts' inhibition percentage (IP). Two medicinal plant species showed potential antiviral activity. The Aniba rosaeodora Ducke (Lauraceae) extract had the best results, with 90% inhibition of viral growth at 2.5 µg/mL when the extract was added during the replication period of the aMPV infection cycle. The Maytenus ilicifolia (Schrad.) Planch. (Celastraceae) extracts at a concentration of 2.5 µg/mL exhibited antiviral activity during the attachment phase of BHV-5 (IP = 100%). The biomonitored fractionation of the active extracts from M. ilicifolia and A. rosaeodora could be a potential tool for identifying their active compounds and determining the exact mechanism of action.
Brazilian avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B: experimental infection of broilers and evaluation of vaccine efficacy Metapneumovirus aviário subtipos A e B brasileiros: infecção experimental em frangos de corte e eficácia vacinal
Márcia B. dos Santos
Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV is a respiratory pathogen associated with the swollen head syndrome (SHS in chickens. In Brazil, live aMPV vaccines are currently used, but subtypes A and, mainly subtype B (aMPV/A and aMPV/B are still circulating. This study was conducted to characterize two Brazilian aMPV isolates (A and B subtypes of chicken origin. A challenge trial to explore the replication ability of the Brazilian subtypes A and B in chickens was performed. Subsequently, virological protection provided from an aMPV/B vaccine against the same isolates was analyzed. Upon challenge experiment, it was shown by virus isolation and real time PCR that aMPV/B could be detected longer and in higher amounts than aMPV/A. For the protection study, 18 one-day-old chicks were vaccinated and challenged at 21 days of age. Using virus isolation and real time PCR, no aMPV/A was detected in the vaccinated chickens, whereas one vaccinated chicken challenged with the aMPV/B isolate was positive. The results showed that aMPV/B vaccine provided a complete heterologous virological protection, although homologous protection was not complete in one chicken. Although only one aMPV/B positive chicken was detected after homologous vaccination, replication in vaccinated animals might allow the emergence of escape mutants.O Metapneumovírus aviário (aMPV é um patógeno respiratório associado à síndrome da cabeça inchada (SHS em galinhas. Apesar de vacinas vivas contra o aMPV serem utilizadas no Brasil, os subtipos A e B (aMPV/A e aMPV/B são ainda encontrados no país, com predominância do subtipo B. Este estudo foi conduzido com o intuito de estudar dois isolados brasileiros de aMPV (subtipos A e B isolados de frango. Para isto, um desafio experimental em frangos foi conduzido com o intuito de explorar a capacidade de replicação dos subtipos A e B Brasileiros. Posteriormente, a protecção virológica conferida por uma vacina do subtipo B em pintos foi realizada
Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan
Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.
Liman, Martin; Peiser, Lieselotte; Zimmer, Gert; Pröpsting, Marcus; Naim, Hassan Y; Rautenschlein, Silke
In this study we demonstrated the use of an oculonasally delivered poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticle (PLGA-MP)-based and genetically engineered vaccination strategy in the avian system. An avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) fusion (F) protein-encoding plasmid vaccine and the corresponding recombinant protein vaccine were produced and bound to or encapsulated by PLGA-MP, respectively. The PLGA-MP as the controlled release system was shown in vitro to not induce any cytopathic effects and to efficiently deliver the F protein-based aMPV-vaccines to avian cells for further processing. Vaccination of turkeys was carried out by priming with an MP-bound F protein-encoding plasmid vaccine and a booster-vaccination with an MP-encapsulated recombinant F protein. Besides the prime-boost F-specific vaccinated birds, negative control birds inoculated with a mock-MP prime-boost regimen as well as non-vaccinated birds and live vaccinated positive control birds were included in the study. The MP-based immunization of turkeys via the oculonasal route induced systemic humoral immune reactions as well as local and systemic cellular immune reactions, and had no adverse effects on the upper respiratory tract. The F protein-specific prime-boost strategy induced partial protection. After challenge the F protein-specific MP-vaccinated birds showed less clinical signs and histopathological lesions than control birds of mock MP-vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups did. The vaccination improved viral clearance and induced accumulation of local and systemic CD4+ T cells when compared to the mock MP-vaccination. It also induced systemic aMPV-neutralizing antibodies. The comparison of mock- and F protein-specific MP-vaccinated birds to non-vaccinated control birds suggests that aMPV-specific effects as well as adjuvant effects mediated by MP may have contributed to the overall protective effect.
Using reverse genetics technology, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain-based recombinant viruses were engineered to express the glycoprotein (G) of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), subtype A, or B, as bivalent vaccines. These recombinant viruses, rLS/aMPV-A G and rLS/aMPV-B G, were slightly att...
Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Harmon, Aaron; Xiang, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Qiji; Song, Minxun; Wang, Dan; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a paramyxovirus that principally causes respiratory disease and egg production drops in turkeys and chickens. Together with its closely related human metapneumovirus (HMPV), they comprise the genus Metapneumovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Little is currently known about the mechanisms involved in the budding of metapneumovirus. By using AMPV as a model system, we showed that the matrix (M) protein by itself was insufficient to form virus-like-particles (VLPs). The incorporation of M into VLPs was shown to occur only when both the viral nucleoprotein (N) and the fusion (F) proteins were co-expressed. Furthermore, we provided evidence indicating that two YSKL and YAGL segments encoded within the M protein were not a functional late domain, and the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery was not involved in metapneumovirus budding, consistent with a recent observation that human respiratory syncytial virus, closely related to HMPV, uses an ESCRT-independent budding mechanism. Taken together, these results suggest that metapneumovirus budding is independent of the ESCRT pathway and the minimal budding machinery described here will aid our future understanding of metapneumovirus assembly and egress.
Yun, Bingling; Gao, Yanni; Liu, Yongzhen; Guan, Xiaolu; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Liu, Changjun; Cui, Hongyu; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei
The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells requires the fusion of viral and cell membranes. These membrane fusion reactions are mediated by virus-encoded glycoproteins. In the case of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), the fusion (F) protein alone can mediate virus entry and induce syncytium formation in vitro. To investigate the fusogenic activity of the aMPV F protein, we compared the fusogenic activities of three subtypes of aMPV F proteins using a TCSD50 assay developed in this study. Interestingly, we found that the F protein of aMPV subtype B (aMPV/B) strain VCO3/60616 (aMPV/vB) was hyperfusogenic when compared with F proteins of aMPV/B strain aMPV/f (aMPV/fB), aMPV subtype A (aMPV/A), and aMPV subtype C (aMPV/C). We then further demonstrated that the amino acid (aa) residue 149F contributed to the hyperfusogenic activity of the aMPV/vB F protein. Moreover, we revealed that residue 149F had no effect on the fusogenic activities of aMPV/A, aMPV/C, and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) F proteins. Collectively, we provide the first evidence that the amino acid at position 149 affects the fusogenic activity of the aMPV/B F protein, and our findings will provide new insights into the fusogenic mechanism of this protein.
Full Text Available The disease burden and risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and human metapneumovirus (MPV infections among children living in remote, rural areas remain unclear.We conducted a prospective, household-based cohort study of children aged <3 years living in remote rural highland communities in San Marcos, Cajamarca, Peru. Acute respiratory illnesses (ARI, including lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI, were monitored through weekly household visits from March 2009 through September 2011. Nasal swabs collected during ARI/LRTI were tested for RSV, MPV, and other respiratory viruses using real-time RT-PCR. Incidence rates and rate ratios were calculated using mixed effects Poisson regression.Among 892 enrolled children, incidence rates of RSV and MPV ARI were 30 and 17 episodes per 100 child-years, respectively. The proportions of RSV and MPV ARI that presented as LRTI were 12.5% and 8.9%, respectively. Clinic visits for ARI and hospitalizations were significantly more frequent (all p values <0.05 among children with RSV (clinic 41% and hospital 5.3% and MPV ARI (38% and 3.5% when compared with other viral infections (23% and 0.7% and infections without virus detected (24% and 0.6%. In multivariable analysis, risk factors for RSV detection included younger age (RR 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.03, the presence of a smoker in the house (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.38, residing at higher altitudes (RR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.25-3.00 for 2nd compared to 1st quartile residents; RR 1.98, 95% CI: 1.26-3.13 for 3rd compared to 1st quartile residents. Having an unemployed household head was significantly associated with MPV risk (RR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.12-4.01.In rural high altitude communities in Peru, childhood ARI due to RSV or MPV were common and associated with higher morbidity than ARI due to other viruses or with no viral detections. The risk factors identified in this study may be considered for interventional studies to control infections by these viruses
Hou, Lei; Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Quan, Rong; Li, Zixuan; Liu, Jue
An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that macroautophagy/autophagy plays an important role in the infectious processes of diverse pathogens. However, it remains unknown whether autophagy is induced in avian metapneumovirus (aMPV)-infected host cells, and, if so, how this occurs. Here, we report that aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) induces autophagy in cultured cells. We demonstrated this relationship by detecting classical autophagic features, including the formation of autophagsomes, the presence of GFP-LC3 puncta and the conversation of LC3-I into LC3-II. Also, we used pharmacological regulators and siRNAs targeting ATG7 or LC3 to examine the role of autophagy in aMPV/C replication. The results showed that autophagy is required for efficient replication of aMPV/C. Moreover, infection with aMPV/C promotes autophagosome maturation and induces a complete autophagic process. Finally, the ATF6 pathway, of which one component is the unfolded protein response (UPR), becomes activated in aMPV/C-infected cells. Knockdown of ATF6 inhibited aMPV/C-induced autophagy and viral replication. Collectively, these results not only show that autophagy promotes aMPV/C replication in the cultured cells, but also reveal that the molecular mechanisms underlying aMPV/C-induced autophagy depends on regulation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway.
Sun, Jing; Wei, Yongwei; Rauf, Abdul; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shilo, Konstantin; Yu, Qingzhong; Saif, Y M; Lu, Xingmeng; Yu, Lian; Li, Jianrong
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), also known as avian pneumovirus or turkey rhinotracheitis virus, is the causative agent of turkey rhinotracheitis and is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens. Since its discovery in the 1970s, aMPV has been recognized as an economically important pathogen in the poultry industry worldwide. The conserved region VI (CR VI) of the large (L) polymerase proteins of paramyxoviruses catalyzes methyltransferase (MTase) activities that typically methylate viral mRNAs at guanine N-7 (G-N-7) and ribose 2'-O positions. In this study, we generated a panel of recombinant aMPV (raMPV) Colorado strains carrying mutations in the S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) binding site in the CR VI of L protein. These recombinant viruses were specifically defective in ribose 2'-O, but not G-N-7 methylation and were genetically stable and highly attenuated in cell culture and viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) young turkeys. Importantly, turkeys vaccinated with these MTase-defective raMPVs triggered a high level of neutralizing antibody and were completely protected from challenge with homologous aMPV Colorado strain and heterologous aMPV Minnesota strain. Collectively, our results indicate (i) that aMPV lacking 2'-O methylation is highly attenuated in vitro and in vivo and (ii) that inhibition of mRNA cap MTase can serve as a novel target to rationally design live attenuated vaccines for aMPV and perhaps other paramyxoviruses. Paramyxoviruses include many economically and agriculturally important viruses such as avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), human pathogens such as human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human parainfluenza virus type 3, and measles virus, and highly lethal emerging pathogens such as Nipah virus and Hendra virus. For many of them, there is no effective vaccine or antiviral drug. These viruses share common strategies for viral gene
Chimeric Recombinant Human Metapneumoviruses with the Nucleoprotein or Phosphoprotein Open Reading Frame Replaced by That of Avian Metapneumovirus Exhibit Improved Growth In Vitro and Attenuation In Vivo
Pham, Quynh N.; Biacchesi, Stéphane; Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.; Buchholz, Ursula J.
Chimeric versions of recombinant human metapneumovirus (HMPV) were generated by replacing the nucleoprotein (N) or phosphoprotein (P) open reading frame with its counterpart from the closely related avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. In Vero cells, AMPV replicated to an approximately 100-fold-higher titer than HMPV. Surprisingly, the N and P chimeric viruses replicated to a peak titer that was 11- and 25-fold higher, respectively, than that of parental HMPV. The basis for this effect is not known but was not due to obvious changes in the efficiency of gene expression. AMPV and the N and P chimeras were evaluated for replication, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in hamsters. AMPV was attenuated compared to HMPV in this mammalian host on day 5 postinfection, but not on day 3, and only in the nasal turbinates. In contrast, the N and P chimeras were reduced approximately 100-fold in both the upper and lower respiratory tract on day 3 postinfection, although there was little difference by day 5. The N and P chimeras induced a high level of neutralizing serum antibodies and protective efficacy against HMPV; AMPV was only weakly immunogenic and protective against HMPV challenge, reflecting antigenic differences. In African green monkeys immunized intranasally and intratracheally, the mean peak titer of the P chimera was reduced 100- and 1,000-fold in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, whereas the N chimera was reduced only 10-fold in the lower respiratory tract. Both chimeras were comparable to wild-type HMPV in immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Thus, the P chimera is a promising live HMPV vaccine candidate that paradoxically combines improved growth in vitro with attenuation in vivo. PMID:16306583
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects on specific pathogen-free (SPF chicks when avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV La Sota strain vaccines are co-administered. Day-old SPF chicks were divided into five groups. The first group was inoculated with sterile water (SW and the rest of the groups were inoculated with live NDV vaccine VG/GA by the oculo-oral route. At 21 days-old, the unvaccinated chicks were again inoculated with SW. The four VG/GA-vaccinated groups were further inoculated with (i SW, (ii live aMPV vaccine, (iii live NDV La Sota, or (iv combined live NDV La Sota and live aMPV, respectively. Chicks were monitored for post-vaccination reactions and oropharyngeal swabs were collected for vaccines detection. Blood samples were collected to detect aMPV ELISA and NDV haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies. Twenty-one days following the second vaccination, six chicks from each group were challenged with virulent NDV or aMPV respectively. Chicks were monitored for clinical signs and mortality and oropharyngeal swabs collected for aMPV detection. Results showed that, when challenged with a virulent aMPV, both chicks previously vaccinated with VG/GA and subsequently given aMPV vaccine singly or in combination with La Sota were equally protected against clinical signs. Chicks that were vaccinated against NDV either once with VG/GA or followed by La Sota (singly or in combination with aMPV were fully protected when challenged with velogenic NDV. We concluded that simultaneous administration of live aMPV and NDV La Sota vaccines have no adverse effects on protection conferred by either live vaccine.
Awad, Faez; Forrester, Anne; Baylis, Matthew; Lemiere, Stephane; Jones, Richard; Ganapathy, Kannan
Interactions between live Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines following simultaneous vaccination of day old specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks were evaluated. The chicks were divided into eight groups: seven vaccinated against NDV, aMPV and IBV (single, dual or triple) and one unvaccinated as control. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) NDV antibody titres were similar across all groups but were above protective titres. aMPV vaccine when given with other live vaccines suppressed levels of aMPV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies. Cellular and local immunity induced by administration of NDV, aMPV or IBV vaccines (individually or together) showed significant increase in CD4+, CD8+ and IgA bearing B-cells in the trachea compared to the unvaccinated group. Differences between the vaccinated groups were insignificant. Simultaneous vaccination with live NDV, aMPV and IBV did not affect the protection conferred against aMPV or IBV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gillespie, Leah; Gerstenberg, Kathleen; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Parsons, Matthew S.; Farrukee, Rubaiyea; Krabbe, Mark; Spann, Kirsten; Brooks, Andrew G.; Londrigan, Sarah L.
ABSTRACT It is well established that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) function as attachment factors for human metapneumovirus (HMPV), concentrating virions at the cell surface to promote interaction with other receptors for virus entry and infection. There is increasing evidence to suggest that multiple receptors may exhibit the capacity to promote infectious entry of HMPV into host cells; however, definitive identification of specific transmembrane receptors for HMPV attachment and entry is complicated by the widespread expression of cell surface GAGs. pgsA745 Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are deficient in the expression of cell surface GAGs and resistant to HMPV infection. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of the Ca2+-dependent C-type lectin receptor (CLR) DC-SIGN (CD209L) or L-SIGN (CD209L) rendered pgsA745 cells permissive to HMPV infection. Unlike infection of parental CHO cells, HMPV infection of pgsA745 cells expressing DC-SIGN or L-SIGN was dynamin dependent and inhibited by mannan but not by pretreatment with bacterial heparinase. Parental CHO cells expressing DC-SIGN/L-SIGN also showed enhanced susceptibility to dynamin-dependent HMPV infection, confirming that CLRs can promote HMPV infection in the presence or absence of GAGs. Comparison of pgsA745 cells expressing wild-type and endocytosis-defective mutants of DC-SIGN/L-SIGN indicated that the endocytic function of CLRs was not essential but could contribute to HMPV infection of GAG-deficient cells. Together, these studies confirm a role for CLRs as attachment factors and entry receptors for HMPV infection. Moreover, they define an experimental system that can be exploited to identify transmembrane receptors and entry pathways where permissivity to HMPV infection can be rescued following the expression of a single cell surface receptor. IMPORTANCE On the surface of CHO cells, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) function as the major attachment factor for human metapneumoviruses (HMPV), promoting dynamin
Kapczynski, Darrell R; Perkins, Laura L; Sellers, Holly S
Studies were performed to determine if mucosal vaccination with inactivated avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C protected turkey poults from clinical disease and virus replication following mucosal challenge. Decreases in clinical disease were not observed in vaccinated groups, and the vaccine failed to inhibit virus replication in the tracheas of 96% of vaccinated birds. Histopathologically, enhancement of pulmonary lesions following virus challenge was associated with birds receiving the inactivated aMPV vaccine compared to unvaccinated birds. As determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), all virus-challenged groups increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA antibody production against the virus following challenge; however, the unvaccinated aMPV-challenged group displayed the highest increases in virus-neutralizing antibody. On the basis of these results it is concluded that intranasal vaccination with inactivated aMPV does not induce protective immunity, reduce virus shedding, or result in decreased histopathologic lesions.
Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Enache, Mirel; Bejan, Violeta; Ramon, Gema; Koutoulis, Konstantinos C; Cecchinato, Mattia
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) represents one of the most prevalent diseases of turkey, especially in combination with other pathogens, and its frequency is also increasing among chickens. Despite this evidence, epidemiologic data are poor and scattered, severely preventing control of the disease even in highly developed areas such as Europe. In the present study, the detection and characterization of an aMPV subtype B strain circulating in a vaccinated but symptomatic Romanian broiler flock is reported for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis based on the partial G gene sequence demonstrates the close relationship of the Romanian virus with a group of recently emerged Italian field strains for which vaccine-induced protection was experimentally proven to be partial. These preliminary results allow us to hypothesize the spreading of vaccine-escaping aMPV subtype B strains through Europe and, consequently, dictate the carrying out of a more systematic survey to confirm this theory and enforce adequate countermeasures.
Nucleotide and Predicted Amino Acid Sequence-Based Analysis of the Avian Metapneumovirus Type C Cell Attachment Glycoprotein Gene: Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Epidemiology of U.S. Pneumoviruses
Alvarez, Rene; Lwamba, Humphrey M.; Kapczynski, Darrell R.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Seal, Bruce S.
A serologically distinct avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) was isolated in the United States after an outbreak of turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) in February 1997. The newly recognized U.S. virus was subsequently demonstrated to be genetically distinct from European subtypes and was designated aMPV serotype C (aMPV/C). We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the cell attachment glycoprotein (G) of aMPV/C (Colorado strain and three Minnesota isolates) and predicted amino acid sequence by sequencing cloned cDNAs synthesized from intracellular RNA of aMPV/C-infected cells. The nucleotide sequence comprised 1,321 nucleotides with only one predicted open reading frame encoding a protein of 435 amino acids, with a predicted Mr of 48,840. The structural characteristics of the predicted G protein of aMPV/C were similar to those of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) attachment G protein, including two mucin-like regions (heparin-binding domains) flanking both sides of a CX3C chemokine motif present in a conserved hydrophobic pocket. Comparison of the deduced G-protein amino acid sequence of aMPV/C with those of aMPV serotypes A, B, and D, as well as hRSV revealed overall predicted amino acid sequence identities ranging from 4 to 16.5%, suggesting a distant relationship. However, G-protein sequence identities ranged from 72 to 97% when aMPV/C was compared to other members within the aMPV/C subtype or 21% for the recently identified human MPV (hMPV) G protein. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes were greater than one in the G gene when comparing the more recent Minnesota isolates to the original Colorado isolate. Epidemiologically, this indicates positive selection among U.S. isolates since the first outbreak of TRT in the United States. PMID:12682171
Velayudhan, Binu T; Noll, Sally L; Thachil, Anil J; Shaw, Daniel P; Goyal, Sagar M; Halvorson, David A; Nagaraja, Kakambi V
The objective of this study was to evaluate different preparations of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C as vaccine challenge in turkeys. Two aMPV isolates and their respective nasal turbinate homogenates after propagation in turkeys were used in the study. Significantly higher clinical sign scores were recorded in birds inoculated with 20 or 2% turbinate homogenate of recent isolate. Birds in the above groups showed more pronounced histopathological lesions, and a higher percentage of birds showed viral RNA and antigen in tissues. The data demonstrated that nasal turbinate homogenate of recent isolate produced severe clinical signs and lesions in turkeys and could be an ideal candidate for vaccine-challenge studies.
Felippe, Paulo Anselmo; Silva, Luciana Helena Antoniassi da; Santos, Márcia Bianchi Dos; Sakata, Sonia Tatsumi; Arns, Clarice Weis
The aim of the present study was to determine whether avian metapneumovirus (aMPV)-related viruses were present in wild and synanthropic birds in Brazil. Therefore, we analysed samples from wild birds, feral pigeons and domestic chickens in order to perform a phylogenetic comparison. To detect the presence of aMPV, a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed with the aim of amplifying a fragment of 270 bases for subtype A and 330 bases for subtype B, comprising the gene coding the G glycoprotein. Positive samples for aMPV subtypes A and B were found in seven (13.2%) different asymptomatic wild birds and pigeons (50%) that had been received at the Bosque dos Jequitibás Zoo Triage Center, Brazil. Also analysed were positive samples from 15 (12.9%) domestic chickens with swollen head syndrome from several regions of Brazil. The positive samples from wild birds, pigeons and domestic chickens clustered in two major phylogenetic groups: some with aMPV subtype A and others with subtype B. The similarity of the G fragment nucleotide sequence of aMPV isolated from chickens and synanthropic and wild avian species ranged from 100 to 97.5% (from 100 to 92.5% for the amino acids). Some positive aMPV samples, which were obtained from wild birds classified in the Orders Psittaciformes, Anseriformes and Craciformes, clustered with subtype A, and others from the Anas and Dendrocygma genera (Anseriformes Order) with subtype B. The understanding of the epizootiology of aMPV is very important, especially if this involves the participation of non-domestic bird species, which would add complexity to their control on farms and to implementation of vaccination programmes for aMPV.
Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Mijia; Liang, Xueya; Jennings, Ryan; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major causative agent of upper- and lower-respiratory-tract infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals worldwide. Like all pneumoviruses, hMPV encodes the zinc binding protein M2-1, which plays important regulatory roles in RNA synthesis. The M2-1 protein is phosphorylated, but the specific role(s) of the phosphorylation in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that hMPV M2-1 is phosphorylated at amino acid residues S57 and S60. Subsequent mutagenesis found that phosphorylation is not essential for zinc binding activity and oligomerization, whereas inhibition of zinc binding activity abolished the phosphorylation and oligomerization of the M2-1 protein. Using a reverse genetics system, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) lacking either one or both phosphorylation sites in the M2-1 protein were recovered. These recombinant viruses had a significant decrease in both genomic RNA replication and mRNA transcription. In addition, these recombinant viruses were highly attenuated in cell culture and cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs lacking phosphorylation in the M2-1 protein triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with wild-type hMPV. Collectively, these data demonstrated that phosphorylation of the M2-1 protein upregulates hMPV RNA synthesis, replication, and pathogenesis in vivo The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in infants and children. Currently, there is no antiviral or vaccine to combat these diseases. All known pneumoviruses encode a zinc binding protein, M2-1, which is a transcriptional antitermination factor. In this work, we found that phosphorylation of M2-1 is essential for virus
von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Høgh, Mette; Nordbø, Svein
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are important respiratory pathogens with similar symptomatology. The aim of this prospective birth cohort study was to identify risk factors for an hMPV or RSV infection during the first year of life in unselected healthy children....... We followed 217 children from birth to 1 year of age. Nasal swabs and symptom diaries were collected monthly. Anti-hMPV and anti-RSV IgG antibodies by age 1 year were detected by ELISA, and nasal swabs were analysed for hMPV and RSV by RT-PCR. Logistic regression was used for risk factor analysis....... Anti-hMPV IgG was found in 38 children (17.5%), and anti-RSV IgG in 172 children (79%). Risk factors for being anti-hMPV IgG-positive were: (1) being born in the spring (OR = 2.36; 95% CI:1.06-5.27), and (2) having older siblings (OR = 3.82; 95% CI:1.75-8.34). Risk factors for being anti-RSV Ig...
Chacón, Jorge Luis; Brandão, Paulo E; Buim, Marcos; Villarreal, Laura; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino
Subtype B avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) was isolated and detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in Brazilian commercial laying chicken flocks with no history of vaccination against aMPV and presenting respiratory signs and decreased egg production. RT-PCR results from samples from three affected flocks revealed that the three isolates were subtype B. Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the samples belonged to subtype B and were not of the vaccine type. Comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the G gene of the three Brazilian aMPV samples with subtype B isolates from other countries revealed 95.1% to 96.1% identity. Nucleotide sequences showed 100% identity among the Brazilian subtype B samples and 95.6% identity with the subtype B vaccine strain used in Brazil. This work describes the circulation of subtype B aMPV in Brazil and discusses its importance in terms of disease epidemiology.
Owoade, A A; Ducatez, M F; Hübschen, J M; Sausy, A; Chen, H; Guan, Y; Muller, C P
In order to detect and characterize avian metapneumovirus, organs or swabs were collected from 697 chicken and 110 turkeys from commercial farms in Southwestern Nigeria and from 107 chickens from live bird markets in Southeastern China. In Nigeria, 15% and 6% of the chicken and turkey samples, respectively, and 39% of the chicken samples from China, were positive for aMPV genome by PCR. The sequence of a 400 nt fragment of the attachment protein gene (G gene) revealed the presence of aMPV subtype A in both Nigeria and Southeastern China. Essentially identical subtype A viruses were found in both countries and were also previously reported from Brazil and the United Kingdom, suggesting a link between these countries or a common source of this subtype. In Nigeria, subtype B was also found, which may be a reflection of chicken importations from most major poultry-producing countries in Europe and Asia. In order to justify countermeasures, further studies are warranted to better understand the metapneumoviruses and their impact on poultry production.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years. Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years. Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently.
Yang, Chin-Fen; Wang, Chiaoyin K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Piyaratna, Rohith; Lintao, Linda D; Chu, Marla; Liem, Alexis; Mark, Mary; Spaete, Richard R; Crowe, James E; Williams, John V
Background Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion) gene sequences collected over a 20-year period. Results The F gene sequences fell into two major groups, each with two subgroups, which exhibited a mean of 96% identity by predicted amino acid sequences. Amino acid identity within and between subgroups was higher than nucleotide identity, suggesting structural or functional constraints on F protein diversity. There was minimal progressive drift over time, and the genetic lineages were stable over the 20-year period. Several canonical amino acid differences discriminated between major subgroups, and polymorphic variations tended to cluster in discrete regions. The estimated rate of mutation was 7.12 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year and the estimated time to most recent common HMPV ancestor was 97 years (95% likelihood range 66-194 years). Analysis suggested that HMPV diverged from avian metapneumovirus type C (AMPV-C) 269 years ago (95% likelihood range 106-382 years). Conclusion HMPV F protein remains conserved over decades. HMPV appears to have diverged from AMPV-C fairly recently. PMID:19740442
Al-Sonboli, Najla; Hart, Charles A.; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Al-Ansi, Ahmed; Ashoor, Omar
Factors increasing the severity of respiratory infections in developing countries are poorly described. We report factors associated with severe acute respiratory illness in Yemeni children (266 infected with respiratory syncytial virus and 66 with human metapneumovirus). Age, indoor air pollution, and incomplete vaccinations were risk factors and differed from those in industrialized countries. PMID:17073098
Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Mudzamiri, R; Heincz, U
Vaccinated and non-vaccinated specified pathogen-free White Leghorn laying chickens were challenged at peak of lay by the intravenous or oculonasal route with a virulent avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype B chicken strain. Severe clinical signs and a drop in egg production were induced in the non-vaccinated intravenously challenged birds whereas the vaccinates were not affected. Live virus excretion was demonstrated in the faeces and respiratory tract of non-vaccinated hens for up to 7 days post intravenous challenge. After oculonasal challenge, virus excretion could only be demonstrated in the respiratory tract for up to 5 days. No live virus excretion was found in either the faeces or the respiratory tract of vaccinated birds. Concurrent with live virus isolation, the presence of viral RNA was demonstrated by single reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Nested RT-PCR was more sensitive and viral RNA could be detected in non-vaccinated birds up to 28 days post either intravenous or oculonasal challenge, at which time the experiment was terminated. Viral RNA was detected for up to 12 days in vaccinated birds. This is the first study investigating excretion of aMPV and viral RNA in vaccinated and non-vaccinated laying hens challenged under experimental conditions. The results are of importance with regard to the persistence of aMPV and the appropriate diagnostic detection method in laying birds.
Lemaitre, E; Allée, C; Vabret, A; Eterradossi, N; Brown, P A
Current molecular methods for the detection of avian and human metapneumovirus (AMPV, HMPV) are specifically targeted towards each virus species or individual subgroups of these. Here a broad range SYBR Green I real time RT-PCR was developed which amplified a highly conserved fragment of sequence in the N open reading frame. This method was sufficiently efficient and specific in detecting all MPVs. Its validation according to the NF U47-600 norm for the four AMPV subgroups estimated low limits of detection between 1000 and 10copies/μL, similar with detection levels described previously for real time RT-PCRs targeting specific subgroups. RNA viruses present a challenge for the design of durable molecular diagnostic test due to the rate of change in their genome sequences which can vary substantially in different areas and over time. The fact that the regions of sequence for primer hybridization in the described method have remained sufficiently conserved since the AMPV and HMPV diverged, should give the best chance of continued detection of current subgroups and of potential unknown or future emerging MPV strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jayaweera, J A A S; Noordeen, F; Kothalaweala, S; Pitchai, F N N; Rayes, M L M
The prevalence of hMPV infections in Sri Lanka has not been reported and here we report a case series of hMPV infection in children less than 5 years. Patients with ARTI were included from Teaching Hospital, Anuradhapura from March 2013 to August 2014. Indirect fluorescence assay was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates for the identification of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B and hMPV]. Moreover, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was done to further confirm the hMPV infection. In this case series, hMPV infection showed a range of respiratory symptoms from common cold to life threatening lower respiratory tract infections with varying severity. In some cases, the clinical presentation of hMPV infection was similar to the ARTI caused by RSV. hMPV co-infections with of RSV have also been seen in some cases of ARTI. A child delivered through cesarean section and birth order > 3 has an Odds ratio of 3.5 and 4.3 (95% CI) for developing co-infection with RSV compared to hMPV mono-infections. Lack of diagnostic facilities to identify the viral aetiology has contributed to the use of antibiotics indicating the need for establishing viral diagnostic facilities in the country.
1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012...for the ABCT AMPV is 2,907 vehicles—a 10 vehicle increase over 2013 quantities. Discussions with the AMPV Program Manager revealed the 10 extra...Selected Weapon Programs, GAO-14-340SP, March 2014, p. 129. 14 CRS Meeting with AMPV Program Manager May 20, 2014. 15 Ibid. The Army’s Armored Multi
Cecchinato, M; Catelli, E; Lupini, C; Ricchizzi, E; Prosperi, S; Naylor, C J
Empirically derived live avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccines developed during the late 80s and early 90s have generally performed well in controlling turkey rhinotracheitis. Nonetheless, unstable attenuation was previously demonstrated in an AMPV subtype A vaccine. Until now this had not been investigated in subtype B vaccines due to lack of any similar availability of a vaccine progenitor or its sequence. The publication of the full genome sequence for the VCO3 vaccine progenitor facilitated a conclusive investigation of two AMPVs isolated from poults on a farm which had been vaccinated with VCO3 derived vaccine. Full genome sequencing of the isolates and their comparison to sequences of the vaccine and its progenitor, confirmed their vaccine origin. After determining the absence of extraneous infectious agents, one of these virus isolates was inoculated into 1-day-old turkeys in disease secure isolators and shown to cause disease with a severity similar to that caused by virulent field virus. This suggests that instability in live AMPV vaccines may be generalized and highlights the need for availability of vaccine progenitor sequences for the field assessment of all live viral vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a recently identified RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, which includes several major human and animal pathogens. Epidemiological studies indicate that hMPV is a significant human respiratory pathogen with worldwide distribution. It is associated with respiratory illnesses in children, adults, and immunocompromised patients, ranging from upper respiratory tract infections to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Interferon (IFN represents a major line of defense against virus infection, and in response, viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN production as well as IFN signaling. Although the strategies of IFN evasion are similar, the specific mechanisms by which paramyxoviruses inhibit IFN responses are quite diverse. In this review, we will present an overview of the strategies that hMPV uses to subvert cellular signaling in airway epithelial cells, the major target of infection, as well as in primary immune cells.
Kolli, Deepthi; Bao, Xiaoyong; Casola, Antonella
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently identified RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, which includes several major human and animal pathogens. Epidemiological studies indicate that hMPV is a significant human respiratory pathogen with worldwide distribution. It is associated with respiratory illnesses in children, adults, and immunocompromised patients, ranging from upper respiratory tract infections to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Interferon (IFN) represents a major line of defense against virus infection, and in response, viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN production as well as IFN signaling. Although the strategies of IFN evasion are similar, the specific mechanisms by which paramyxoviruses inhibit IFN responses are quite diverse. In this review, we will present an overview of the strategies that hMPV uses to subvert cellular signaling in airway epithelial cells, the major target of infection, as well as in primary immune cells.
Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M
Turkeys exposed to avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C showed extensive lymphoid cell infiltrations in the nasal turbinates of the upper respiratory tract. The cellular infiltration occurred after the first virus exposure but not after re-exposure. Quantitation of the relative proportions of mucosal immunoglobulin (Ig)A+, IgG+, and IgM+ cells in controls and virus-exposed turkeys revealed that at 7 days after the first virus exposure, when mucosal infiltration was well pronounced, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the numbers of infiltrating IgA+ but not of IgG+ and IgM+ cells. After the second virus exposure, although the overall numbers of mucosal lymphoid cells were similar in the virus-exposed and control turkeys, the relative proportions of IgA+ and IgG+ cells were significantly higher in the virus-exposed turkeys (P < 0.05) than in controls. Furthermore, elevated levels of aMPV-specific IgA were detected in the nasal secretions and the bile of virus-exposed birds after the second but not after the first virus exposure. These results suggest, for the first time, the possible involvement of local mucosal immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of aMPV in turkeys.
Chary, Parag; Njenga, M Kariuki; Sharma, Jagdev M
Protection by recombinant avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) N or M proteins against a respiratory challenge with virulent aMPV was examined. N, M or N+M proteins were administered intramuscularly (IM) with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) or by the oculonasal (ON) route with cholera toxin-B (CTB). Each turkey received 40 or 80 microg of each recombinant protein. Birds were considered protected against challenge if the challenge virus was not detectable in the choanal swabs by RT-PCR. At a dose of 40 microg/bird, N protein given with IFA by the IM route protected eight out of nine birds. M protein at the same dose protected three out of seven birds, while a combination of N+M proteins (40 microg each) protected three out of four birds. At a dose of 80 microg of each of N and M proteins per bird given with IFA by the IM route, 100% protection was achieved. ON immunization with a mixture of N and M proteins induced partial protection when the proteins were given with CTB; no detectable protection was noted without CTB. N and M proteins induced anti-aMPV antibodies, although protection against virulent virus challenge did not appear to be associated with the level or presence of antibodies.
Comparative evaluation of conventional RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR for detection of avian metapneumovirus subtype A Comparação entre as técnicas de RT-PCR convencional e RT-PCR em tempo real para a detecção do metapneumovírus aviários subtipo A
Helena Lage Ferreira
Full Text Available Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV belongs to Metapneumovirus genus of Paramyxoviridae family. Virus isolation, serology, and detection of genomic RNA are used as diagnostic methods for AMPV. The aim of the present study was to compare the detection of six subgroup A AMPV isolates (AMPV/A viral RNA by using different conventional and real time RT-PCR methods. Two new RT-PCR tests and two real time RT-PCR tests, both detecting fusion (F gene and nucleocapsid (N gene were compared with an established test for the attachment (G gene. All the RT-PCR tested assays were able to detect the AMPV/A. The lower detection limits were observed using the N-, F- based RRT-PCR and F-based conventional RT-PCR (10(0.3 to 10¹ TCID50 mL-1. The present study suggests that the conventional F-based RT-PCR presented similar detection limit when compared to N- and F-based RRT-PCR and they can be successfully used for AMPV/A detection.O metapneumovírus aviário (AMPV pertence ao gênero Metapneumovirus, família Paramyxoviridae. Isolamento viral, sorologia e detecção do RNA genômico são atualmente as técnicas utilizadas para o diagnóstico desse agente. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a detecção de RNA viral de seis isolados de AMPV, subtipo A (AMPV/A, utilizando diferentes métodos de RT-PCR convencional e real time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR. Duas novas técnicas de RT-PCR convencional e duas técnicas de RRT-PCR, ambas para a detecção dos genes da nucleoproteína (N e da proteína de fusão (F, foram comparadas com um RT-PCR previamente estabelecido para a detecção do AMPV (gene da glicoproteína -G. Todos esses métodos foram capazes de detectar os isolados AMPV/A. As técnicas RRT-PCR (genes F e N mostraram os menores limites de detecção (10(0.3 to 10¹ TCID50 mL-1. Os resultados sugerem que as técnicas RT-PCR convencional (gene F e as técnicas de RRT-PCR (gene F e N desenvolvidas no presente estudo podem ser utilizadas com sucesso para a detecção do
Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Sun, Jing; Liang, Xueya; Li, Jianrong
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a member of the Pneumovirinae subfamily in the Paramyxoviridae family that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. Unlike members of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily, the polymerase complex of pneumoviruses requires an additional cofactor, the M2-1 protein, which functions as a transcriptional antitermination factor. The M2-1 protein was found to incorporate zinc ions, although the specific role(s) of the zinc binding activity in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that the third cysteine (C21) and the last histidine (H25) in the zinc binding motif (CCCH) of hMPV M2-1 were essential for zinc binding activity, whereas the first two cysteines (C7 and C15) play only minor or redundant roles in zinc binding. In addition, the zinc binding motif is essential for the oligomerization of M2-1. Subsequently, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) carrying mutations in the zinc binding motif were recovered. Interestingly, rhMPV-C21S and -H25L mutants, which lacked zinc binding activity, had delayed replication in cell culture and were highly attenuated in cotton rats. In contrast, rhMPV-C7S and -C15S strains, which retained 60% of the zinc binding activity, replicated as efficiently as rhMPV in cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs that lacked zinc binding activity triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with rhMPV. Taken together, these results demonstrate that zinc binding activity is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. These results also suggest that inhibition of zinc binding activity may serve as a novel approach to rationally attenuate hMPV and perhaps other pneumoviruses for vaccine purposes. The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the leading causes of acute
Infección por metapneumovirus humano en niños hospitalizados por una enfermedad respiratoria aguda grave: Descripción clínico- epidemiológica A human metapneumovirus infection in hospitalized infant patients with severe acute respiratory tract infection: A clinical and epidemiological view
JAIME LOZANO C; LETICIA YÁÑEZ P; MICHELANGELO LAPADULA A; MÓNICA LAFOURCADE R; FELIPE BURGOS F; LUIS HERRADA H; ISOLDA BUDNIK O
El metapneumovirus humano (hMPV) es un virus de reciente diagnóstico. Se asocia con infecciones respiratorias agudas altas y bajas (IRAb). Se efectuó un estudio prospectivo durante dos años con el objetivo de evaluar la tasa de circulación y los hallazgos clínicos asociados a la infección por hMPV en niños hospitalizados por una IRAb grave. Resultados: hMPV fue demostrado en 24 (10,5%) de los 229 niños enrolados. 42% de los pacientes con hMPV eran menores de 12 meses de edad y el 58% tenía al...
Luo, Lizhong; Nishi, Krista; MacLeod, Erin; Sabara, Marta I; Li, Yan
Recently, we reported the expression and glycosylation of avian metapneumovirus attachment glycoprotein (AMPV/C G protein) in eukaryotic cell lines by a transient-expression method. In the present study, we investigated the biosynthesis and O-linked glycosylation of the AMPV/C G protein in a baculovirus expression system. The results showed that the insect cell-produced G protein migrated more rapidly in SDS-PAGE as compared to LLC-MK2 cell-derived G proteins owing to glycosylation differences. The fully processed, mature form of G protein migrated between 78 and 86 kDa, which is smaller than the 110 kDa mature form of G expressed in LLC-MK2 cells. In addition, several immature G gene products migrating at 40-48 and 60-70 kDa were also detected by SDS-PAGE and represented glycosylated intermediates. The addition of the antibiotic tunicamycin, which blocks early steps of glycosylation, to insect cell culture resulted in the disappearance of two glycosylated forms of the G protein and identified a 38 kDa unglycosylated precursor. The maturation of the G protein was completely blocked by monensin, suggesting that the O-linked glycosylation of G initiated in the trans-Golgi compartment. The presence of O-linked sugars on the mature protein was further confirmed by lectin Arachis hypogaea binding assay. Furthermore, antigenic features of the G protein expressed in insect cells were evaluated by ELISA. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chockalingam, Ashok K; Chander, Yogesh; Halvorson, David A; Goyal, Sagar M
The glycoprotein (G) gene sequences of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtypes A, B, C, and D are variable in size and number of nucleotides. The G gene of early U.S. turkey isolates of aMPV-C have been reported to be 1798 nucleotides (nt) (585 aa) in length, whereas the G genes of more recent turkey isolates have been reported to be 783 nucleotides. In some studies, the G gene of aMPV-C turkey isolates was found to be truncated to a smaller G gene of 783 nt (261 aa) upon serial passages in Vero cells. This is believed to be due to the deletion of 1015 nt near the end of the open reading frame. The purpose of this study was to determine variation, if any, in the G gene of an aMPV-C isolated from a wild bird (Canada goose [Branta canadensis]) following serial passages in Vero cells. No size variation was observed for up to 50 passages, except for a few amino acid changes in the extracellular domain at the 50th passage level. The G gene of this wild bird isolate appears to be unique from subtype C metapneumoviruses of turkeys.
I. A. Malova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the clinical data, laboratory and instrumental examination methods in patients with bokavirus (HBoV and metapnevmovirus (HMPV infections, hospitalized in the infectious disease Department of MSU № 59 Zarechnyj sity Penza region. From 713 patients with verified diagnosis with 42 (5.89% PCR revealed metapnevmovirus infection, at 18 (2.52% bokavirus, at 34 (4.77% mixed infection, most often by HBoV on and HMPV were children up to 7 years, were accompanied by lesions of the upper and lower respiratory tract infections, fever, intoxication, adenopathy.
1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012, 32nd Edition...Accountability Office (GAO), in March 2012, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD, AT&L) approved a materiel...initial production (LRIP) starting in 2020. Projected ABCT AMPV Production Quantities12 Under 2013 plans and projected force structure, the Army planned
1 Information in this section is taken from Christopher F. Foss, Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012, 32nd Edition...Accountability Office (GAO), in March 2012, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics (USD, AT&L) approved a materiel...initial production (LRIP) starting in 2020. Projected ABCT AMPV Production Quantities12 Under 2013 plans and projected force structure, the Army planned
Lack of correlation between virus barosensitivity and the presence of a viral envelope during inactivation of human rotavirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and avian metapneumovirus by high-pressure processing.
Lou, Fangfei; Neetoo, Hudaa; Li, Junan; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong
High-pressure processing (HPP) is a nonthermal technology that has been shown to effectively inactivate a wide range of microorganisms. However, the effectiveness of HPP on inactivation of viruses is relatively less well understood. We systematically investigated the effects of intrinsic (pH) and processing (pressure, time, and temperature) parameters on the pressure inactivation of a nonenveloped virus (human rotavirus [HRV]) and two enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] and avian metapneumovirus [aMPV]). We demonstrated that HPP can efficiently inactivate all tested viruses under optimal conditions, although the pressure susceptibilities and the roles of temperature and pH substantially varied among these viruses regardless of the presence of a viral envelope. We found that VSV was much more stable than most food-borne viruses, whereas aMPV was highly susceptible to HPP. When viruses were held for 2 min under 350 MPa at 4°C, 1.1-log, 3.9-log, and 5.0-log virus reductions were achieved for VSV, HRV, and aMPV, respectively. Both VSV and aMPV were more susceptible to HPP at higher temperature and lower pH. In contrast, HRV was more easily inactivated at higher pH, although temperature did not have a significant impact on inactivation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the damage of virion structure by disruption of the viral envelope and/or capsid is the primary mechanism underlying HPP-induced viral inactivation. In addition, VSV glycoprotein remained antigenic although VSV was completely inactivated. Taken together, our findings suggest that HPP is a promising technology to eliminate viral contaminants in high-risk foods, water, and other fomites.
S. Herfst (Sander); L. Sprong; P.A. Cane; E. Forleo-Neto; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); R.L. de Swart (Rik); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)
textabstractHuman metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a member of the subfamily Pneumovirinae within the family Paramyxo- viridae. Other members of this subfamily, respiratory syncytial virus and avian pneumovirus, can be divided into subgroups on the basis of genetic or antigenic differences or both. For
Full Text Available Background: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV was first recognized in the Netherlands in 2001. Since then, it has been documented all over the world as a cause of human respiratory infections in all age groups. The objective of this study was to introduce and optimize an assay for detecting hMPV in clinical material of our patients. To date, there has not been a report that describes the detection of this virus in Slovenia.Methods: A total of 58 specimens, randomly collected during 2003/2004 from the patients ≤ 19 years old with respiratory disease and 20 specimens collected in 1997 were tested for hMPV. Extraction of RNA from frozen specimens and subsequent single-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were performed. Human metapneumovirus amplicons were determined by electrophoresis in a 2 % (w/v agarose gel.Results: Human metapneumovirus was detected in 13/58 (22 % specimens; 10/40 (25 % specimens were from the upper and 3/18 (17 % from the lower respiratory tract. The mean age of infected patients was 3.2 ± 2.2 years. Out of 13 of the hMPV-positive specimens, 9 were positive also for another respiratory virus. Two of 20 (10 % archival specimens were hMPV-positive.Conclusions: This study is the first report about hMPV in Slovenia. Human metapneumovirus was detected as the second most frequent virus after RSV in children < 3 years of age. The virus was not found in the specimens from the children younger than 2 months. Based on the hMPV-positive results in archival clinical material, it is suggested that hMPV had circulated in Slovenia before the time it was discovered.
Naylor, Clive J; Ling, Roger; Edworthy, Nicole; Savage, Carol E; Easton, Andrew J
A prototype avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccine (P20) was previously shown to give variable outcomes in experimental trials. Following plaque purification, three of 12 viruses obtained from P20 failed to induce protection against virulent challenge, whilst the remainder retained their protective capacity. The genome sequences of two protective viruses were identical to the P20 consensus, whereas two non-protective viruses differed only in the SH gene transcription termination signal. Northern blotting showed that the alterations in the SH gene-end region of the non-protective viruses led to enhanced levels of dicistronic mRNA produced by transcriptional readthrough. A synthetic minigenome was used to demonstrate that the altered SH gene-end region reduced the level of protein expression from a downstream gene. The genomes of the remaining eight plaque-purified viruses were sequenced in the region where the P20 consensus sequence differed from the virulent progenitor. The seven protective clones were identical, whereas the non-protective virus retained the virulent progenitor sequence at two positions and contained extensive alterations in its attachment (G) protein sequence associated with a reduced or altered expression pattern of G protein on Western blots. The data indicate that the efficacy of a putative protective vaccine strain is affected by mutations altering the balance of G protein expression.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a significant viral respiratory pathogen of infants and children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Disease associated with hMPV infection resembles that of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and includes bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The glycosylated G attachment protein of hMPV is required for viral entry in vivo and has also been identified as an inhibitor of innate immune responses. Findings We designed and validated two siRNA molecules against the G gene using A549 cells and demonstrated consistent 88-92% knock-down for one siRNA molecule, which was used in subsequent experiments. Significant reduction of G mRNA in A549 cells infected with hMPV did not result in a reduction in viral growth, nor did it significantly increase the production of type I interferon (α/β in response to infection. However, there was a moderate increase in IFN-β mRNA expression in response to infection in siG-transfected cells compared to untransfected and si-mismatch-transfected cells. Expression of G by recombinant adenovirus did not affect type I IFN expression. Conclusion G has been previously described as a type I interferon antagonist, although our findings suggest it may not be a significant antagonist.
Full Text Available Purpose: There are a few seroepidemiological studies reported on human metapneumovirus (hMPV as hMPV was only discovered in the year 2001. This respiratory virus has been reported to be ubiquitous and associated with respiratory tract infections in all age groups. The present study aimed at determining the prevalence of antibodies to hMPV in children and adults of 1 month to 55 years of age. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from 100 study subjects were tested for hMPV antibody by an in-house ELISA system that used hMPV-infected cell lysate antigen. Result: The prevalence of antibody to hMPV was lowest in children less than 5 years of age (60% and increased throughout age to > 80%. Similarly, geometric mean titres were 1:180 in children less than 5 years of age and reached a peak of 1:419 in adults over 35 years of age. Conclusion: The results show that hMPV infection is acquired early in life and re-infection in later life may maintain the seroprevalence and antibody levels in adult population.
Jin Il Kim
Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV has been described as an important etiologic agent of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in young children and the elderly. Most of school-aged children might be introduced to HMPVs, and exacerbation with other viral or bacterial super-infection is common. However, our understanding of the molecular evolution of HMPVs remains limited. To address the comprehensive evolutionary dynamics of HMPVs, we report a genome-wide analysis of the eight genes (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G, and L using 103 complete genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that the eight genes from one HMPV strain grouped into the same genetic group among the five distinct lineages (A1, A2a, A2b, B1, and B2. A few exceptions of phylogenetic incongruence might suggest past recombination events, and we detected possible recombination breakpoints in the F, SH, and G coding regions. The five genetic lineages of HMPVs shared quite remote common ancestors ranging more than 220 to 470 years of age with the most recent origins for the A2b sublineage. Purifying selection was common, but most protein genes except the F and M2-2 coding regions also appeared to experience episodic diversifying selection. Taken together, these suggest that the five lineages of HMPVs maintain their individual evolutionary dynamics and that recombination and selection forces might work on shaping the genetic diversity of HMPVs.
Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection, particularly in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. HMPV, which is closely related to avian metapneumovirus subtype C, has circulated for at least 65 years, and nearly every child will be infected with HMPV by the age of 5. However, immunity is incomplete, and re-infections occur throughout adult life. Symptoms are similar to those of other respiratory viral infections, ranging from mild (cough, rhinorrhea, and fever to more severe (bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The preferred method for diagnosis is reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as HMPV is difficult to culture. Although there have been many advances made in the past 16 years since its discovery, there are still no US Food and Drug Administration-approved antivirals or vaccines available to treat HMPV. Both small animal and non-human primate models have been established for the study of HMPV. This review will focus on the epidemiology, transmission, and clinical manifestations in humans as well as the animal models of HMPV pathogenesis and host immune response.
Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary
We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 x 10(-3) to 7 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes examined show a concordant demographic pattern which is characterized by a rapid increase in population size followed by stable population grown until the present.
Winther, T.N.; Madsen, C.D.; Pedersen, Anders Gorm
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is associated with respiratory tract illness especially in young children. Two hMPV genetic lineages, A and B, and four sublineages A1, A2 and B1, B2 have been defined. Infection with hMPV occurs through membrane fusion mediated by the hMPV fusion (F) protein...... been infected with at least two viruses. Several independent viruses contained premature stop codons in exactly identical positions resulting in truncated fusion proteins. Possibly this is a mechanism for immune system evasion. The F protein is a major antigenic determinant, and the limited sequence...
Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary
We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 × 10−3 to 7 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes exam...
Padhi, Abinash; Poss, Mary
We report the existence of two distinct sublineages of avian metapneumovirus (MPV) subtype C, a virus which has caused serious economic loss in commercial turkey farms in the United States. This subtype is closely related to human MPV, infects multiple avian species, and is globally distributed. The evolutionary rates of this virus are estimated to be 1.3 × 10−3 to 7 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year, and coalescent estimates place its emergence between 1991 and 1996. The four genes examined show a concordant demographic pattern which is characterized by a rapid increase in population size followed by stable population grown until the present. PMID:19052092
Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015
Bao, X.; Sinha, M.; Liu, T.; Hong, C.; Luxon, B.A.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. Little is known about the response to hMPV infection of airway epithelial cells, which play a pivotal role in initiating and shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of airway epithelial cells infected with hMPV using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Of the 47,400 transcripts and variants represented on the Affimetrix GeneChip Human Genome HG-U133 plus 2 array, 1601 genes were significantly altered following hMPV infection. Altered genes were then assigned to functional categories and mapped to signaling pathways. Many up-regulated genes are involved in the initiation of pro-inflammatory and antiviral immune responses, including chemokines, cytokines, type I interferon and interferon-inducible proteins. Other important functional classes up-regulated by hMPV infection include cellular signaling, gene transcription and apoptosis. Notably, genes associated with antioxidant and membrane transport activity, several metabolic pathways and cell proliferation were down-regulated in response to hMPV infection. Real-time PCR and Western blot assays were used to confirm the expression of genes related to several of these functional groups. The overall result of this study provides novel information on host gene expression upon infection with hMPV and also serves as a foundation for future investigations of genes and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of this important viral infection. Furthermore, it can facilitate a comparative analysis of other paramyxoviral infections to determine the transcriptional changes that are conserved versus the one that are specific to individual pathogens
Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Branttie, Jean; Slaughter, Kerri Beth; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) causes significant upper and lower respiratory disease in all age groups worldwide. The virus possesses a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 13.3 kb encapsidated by multiple copies of the nucleoprotein (N), giving rise to helical nucleocapsids. In addition, copies of the phosphoprotein (P) and the large RNA polymerase (L) decorate the viral nucleocapsids. After viral attachment, endocytosis, and fusion mediated by the viral glycoproteins, HMPV nucleocapsids are released into the cell cytoplasm. To visualize the subsequent steps of genome transcription and replication, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was established to detect different viral RNA subpopulations in infected cells. The FISH probes were specific for detection of HMPV positive-sense RNA (+RNA) and viral genomic RNA (vRNA). Time course analysis of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells infected with HMPV revealed the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs) from early times postinfection. HMPV IBs were shown to be cytoplasmic sites of active transcription and replication, with the translation of viral proteins being closely associated. Inclusion body formation was consistent with an actin-dependent coalescence of multiple early replicative sites. Time course quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis suggested that the coalescence of inclusion bodies is a strategy to efficiently replicate and transcribe the viral genome. These results provide a better understanding of the steps following HMPV entry and have important clinical implications. IMPORTANCE Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered pathogen that affects human populations of all ages worldwide. Reinfections are common throughout life, but no vaccines or antiviral treatments are currently available. In this work, a spatiotemporal analysis of HMPV replication and transcription in bronchial epithelial cell-derived immortal cells was performed. HMPV was shown to
Chen, Yu; Deng, Xiaoling; Deng, Junfang; Zhou, Jiehua; Ren, Yuping; Liu, Shengxuan; Prusak, Deborah J; Wood, Thomas G; Bao, Xiaoyong
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory infection in young children. Repeated infections occur throughout life, but its immune evasion mechanisms are largely unknown. We recently found that hMPV M2-2 protein elicits immune evasion by targeting mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an antiviral signaling molecule. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such inhibition are not known. Our mutagenesis studies revealed that PDZ-binding motifs, 29-DEMI-32 and 39-KEALSDGI-46, located in an immune inhibitory region of M2-2, are responsible for M2-2-mediated immune evasion. We also found both motifs prevent TRAF5 and TRAF6, the MAVS downstream adaptors, to be recruited to MAVS, while the motif 39-KEALSDGI-46 also blocks TRAF3 migrating to MAVS. In parallel, these TRAFs are important in activating transcription factors NF-kB and/or IRF-3 by hMPV. Our findings collectively demonstrate that M2-2 uses its PDZ motifs to launch the hMPV immune evasion through blocking the interaction of MAVS and its downstream TRAFs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaunt, Eleanor R.; Jansen, Rogier R.; Poovorawan, Yong; Templeton, Kate E.; Toms, Geoffrey L.; Simmonds, Peter
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F) protein, and the extremely diverse
Gaunt, E.R.; Jansen, R.R.; Poovorawan, Y.; Templeton, K.E.; Toms, G.L.; Simmonds, P.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F) protein, and the extremely diverse
Jochmans, D; van Nieuwkoop, S; Smits, S L; Neyts, J; Fouchier, R A M; van den Hoogen, B G
The clinical impact of infections with respiratory viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae argues for the development of antiviral therapies with broad-spectrum activity. Favipiravir (T-705) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against multiple RNA virus families and is presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. Here we demonstrate in vitro activity of T-705 against the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, measles virus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian metapneumovirus. In addition, we demonstrate activity against HMPV in hamsters. T-705 treatment inhibited replication of all paramyxoviruses tested in vitro, with 90% effective concentration (EC90) values of 8 to 40 μM. Treatment of HMPV-challenged hamsters with T-705 at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in 100% protection from infection of the lungs. In all treated and challenged animals, viral RNA remained detectable in the respiratory tract. The observation that T-705 treatment had a significant effect on infectious viral titers, with a limited effect on viral genome titers, is in agreement with its proposed mode of action of viral mutagenesis. However, next-generation sequencing of viral genomes isolated from treated and challenged hamsters did not reveal (hyper)mutation. Polymerase activity assays revealed a specific effect of T-705 on the activity of the HMPV polymerase. With the reported antiviral activity of T-705 against a broad range of RNA virus families, this small molecule is a promising broad-range antiviral drug candidate for limiting the viral burden of paramyxoviruses and for evaluation for treatment of infections with (re)emerging viruses, such as the henipaviruses. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns
The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...
Full Text Available Each year, during winter months, human Metapneumovirus (hMPV is associated with epidemics of bronchiolitis resulting in the hospitalization of many infants. Bronchiolitis is an acute illness of the lower respiratory tract with a consequent inflammation of the bronchioles. The rapid onset of inflammation suggests the innate immune response may have a role to play in the pathogenesis of this hMPV infection. Since, the matrix protein is one of the most abundant proteins in the Paramyxoviridae family virion, we hypothesized that the inflammatory modulation observed in hMPV infected patients may be partly associated with the matrix protein (M-hMPV response. By western blot analysis, we detected a soluble form of M-hMPV released from hMPV infected cell as well as from M-hMPV transfected HEK 293T cells suggesting that M-hMPV may be directly in contact with antigen presenting cells (APCs during the course of infection. Moreover, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy allowed determining that M-hMPV was taken up by dendritic cells (moDCs and macrophages inducing their activation. Furthermore, these moDCs enter into a maturation process inducing the secretion of a broad range of inflammatory cytokines when exposed to M-hMPV. Additionally, M-hMPV activated DCs were shown to stimulate IL-2 and IFN-γ production by allogeneic T lymphocytes. This M-hMPV-mediated activation and antigen presentation of APCs may in part explain the marked inflammatory immune response observed in pathology induced by hMPV in patients.
Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Sharma, Jagdev M
Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes a severe upper respiratory tract (URT) infection in turkeys. Turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with inactivated aMPV/C adjuvanted with synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly IC). Immunized turkeys had elevated numbers of mucosal IgA+ cells in the URT and increased levels of virus-specific IgG and IgA in the lachrymal fluid and IgG in the serum. After 7 or 21 days post immunization, turkeys were challenged oculonasally with pathogenic aMPV/C. Immunized groups were protected against respiratory lesions induced by the challenge virus. Further, the viral copy number of the challenge virus in the URT were significantly lower in the immunized turkeys than in the unimmunized turkeys (P<0.05). These results showed that inactivated aMPV/C administered by the respiratory route induced protective immunity against pathogenic virus challenge. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Genetic variation in length of the G gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication, pathogenicity and immunity is unknown. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for avian metapneumovirus C a...
Reiche, Janine; Jacobsen, Sonja; Neubauer, Katrin; Hafemann, Susi; Nitsche, Andreas; Milde, Jeanette; Wolff, Thorsten; Schweiger, Brunhilde
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a cause of respiratory tract illness at all ages. In this study the epidemiological and molecular diversity among patients of different ages was investigated. Between 2000–2001 and 2009–2010, HMPV was detected in 3% (138/4,549) of samples from outpatients with influenza-like illness with a new, sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay. Several hundred (797) clinical specimens from hospitalized children below the age of 4 years with acute respiratory illness were investigated and HMPV was detected in 11.9% of them. Investigation of outpatients revealed that HMPV infections occurred in individuals of all ages but were most prevalent in children (0–4 years) and the elderly (>60 years). The most present clinical features of HMPV infections were cough, bronchitis, fever/shivers and pneumonia. About two thirds of HMPV-positive samples were detected in February and March throughout the study period. Molecular characterization of HMPV revealed a complex cyclic pattern of group dominance where HMPV subgroup A and B viruses predominated in general for three consecutive seasons. German HMPV represented all genetic lineages including A1, A2, B1, B2, sub-clusters A2a and A2b. For Germany, not only time-dependent circulation of lineages and sub-clusters was observed but also co-circulation of two or three predominant lineages. Two newly emerging amino acid substitutions (positions 223 and 280) of lineage B2 were detected in seven German HMPV sequences. Our study gives new insights into the molecular epidemiology of HMPV in in- and outpatients over a time period of 10 years for the first time. It is one of only few long-term surveillance studies in Europe, and allows comparative molecular analyses of HMPV circulating worldwide. PMID:24505479
Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Zheng, Xiaotian; Li, Haijing; Tetreault, Janice; Ratkiewicz, Irene; Meng, Shufang; Hamilton, Pamela; Tang, Yi-Wei
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are two important viral pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The rapid detection of these agents allows the prompt isolation and treatment of infected patients. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the performances of four rapid antigen detection assays, including a rapid chromatographic immunoassay (CIA) for RSV (Directigen EZ RSV; Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD), a direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) for RSV (Bartels; Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA), and two DFAs for hMPV manufactured by Diagnostic Hybrids Inc. (DHI; Athens, OH) and Imagen (Oxoid Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom). The clinical specimens tested comprised 515 nasopharyngeal aspirates submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at Hartford Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 21 April 2007. Compared to the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), the CIA had a sensitivity of 79.8% and a specificity of 89.5%. The RSV DFA with Bartels reagents showed a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 96.8%. For hMPV, the sensitivity and specificity were 62.5% and 99.8%, respectively, for the DHI DFA and 63.2% and 100%, respectively, for the Imagen DFA. The hands-on and test turnaround times for CIA were 10 and 30 to 60 min, respectively, and the hands-on and test turnaround times for the RSV and hMPV DFAs were 30 and 105 min, respectively. We conclude that while the RSV CIA is user-friendly, it lacks sensitivity and specificity, especially during off-peak months. In contrast, the RSV DFA is more sensitive and specific, but interpretation of its results is subjective and it demands technical time and expertise. Similarly, both hMPV DFAs are highly specific in comparison to the results of RT-PCR, but their sensitivities await further improvements. PMID:18337386
Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in pediatric populations globally. This study examined proteomic profile changes in A549 cells infected with hMPV and two attenuated mutants with deleted PDZ domain-binding motif(s in the M2-2 protein. These motifs are involved in the interruption of antiviral signaling, namely the interaction between the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS proteins. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the overall and novel impact of M2-2 motifs on cellular responses via an unbiased comparison. Tandem mass tagging, stable isotope labeling, and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used for quantitative proteomic analysis. Using quantitative proteomics and Venn analysis, 1248 common proteins were detected in all infected samples of both technical sets. Hierarchical clustering of the differentiated proteome displayed distinct proteomic signatures that were controlled by the motif(s. Bioinformatics and experimental analysis confirmed the differentiated proteomes, revealed novel cellular biological events, and implicated key pathways controlled by hMPV M2-2 PDZ domain-binding motif(s. This provides further insight for evaluating M2-2 mutants as potent vaccine candidates.
The small hydrophobic protein (SH) is a type II integral membrane protein that is packaged into virions and is only present in certain paramyxoviruses including metapneumovirus. In addition to a highly divergent primary sequence, SH proteins vary significantly in size among the different viruses. Hu...
B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)
textabstractWe recently described the isolation of a novel paramyxovirus from children with respiratory tract disease in The Netherlands. Based on biological properties and limited sequence information the virus was provisionally classified as the first nonavian member of the Metapneumovirus genus
Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Froyman, R; Ludwig, C; Nauwynck, H; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F
A dose titration and reduced duration medication study were performed to evaluate the current enrofloxacin treatment schedule in growing turkeys experimentally infected with avian metapneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale. Experimental groups of 17 four-week-old turkeys were first infected with avian metapneumovirus and 3 d later with O. rhinotracheale. Enrofloxacin treatment in the drinking water was started 24 h after O. rhinotracheale inoculation. In the dose titration study, enrofloxacin doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of BW were administered for 5 successive days. In the reduced duration medication study, the following enrofloxacin regimens were compared: 25 mg/kg of BW per day on d 0 and 2; 15 mg/kg of BW per day on d 0, 2, and 4; and 10 mg/kg of BW for 5 successive days. In both studies, all enrofloxacin treatments were equally efficacious (i.e., equally capable of shortening the course of clinical disease), eliminating O. rhinotracheale from the respiratory tract and reducing gross lesions. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale bacteria were not recovered from any of the birds on enrofloxacin-supplemented media, indicating that none of the used treatment regimens promoted the selection of bacterial clones with reduced susceptibility or resistance to this antimicrobial agent. In conclusion, none of the alternative enrofloxacin treatment regimens yielded better results than the current prescribed treatment (i.e., 10 mg/kg of BW for 5 successive days) of O. rhinotracheale infections in turkeys. However, the reduced duration of application would offer a less time-consuming and equally effective alternative.
Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is a leading cause of lower respiratory infection in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Repeated hMPV infections occur throughout life. However, immune evasion mechanisms of hMPV infection are largely unknown. Recently, our group has demonstrated that hMPV M2-2 protein, an important virulence factor, contributes to immune evasion in airway epithelial cells by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS. Whether M2-2 regulates the innate immunity in human dendritic cells (DC, an important family of immune cells controlling antigen presenting, is currently unknown. We found that human DC infected with a virus lacking M2-2 protein expression (rhMPV-ΔM2-2 produced higher levels of cytokines, chemokines and IFNs, compared to cells infected with wild-type virus (rhMPV-WT, suggesting that M2-2 protein inhibits innate immunity in human DC. In parallel, we found that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, an essential adaptor for Toll-like receptors (TLRs, plays a critical role in inducing immune response of human DC, as downregulation of MyD88 by siRNA blocked the induction of immune regulatory molecules by hMPV. Since M2-2 is a cytoplasmic protein, we investigated whether M2-2 interferes with MyD88-mediated antiviral signaling. We found that indeed M2-2 protein associated with MyD88 and inhibited MyD88-dependent gene transcription. In this study, we also identified the domains of M2-2 responsible for its immune inhibitory function in human DC. In summary, our results demonstrate that M2-2 contributes to hMPV immune evasion by inhibiting MyD88-dependent cellular responses in human DC.
Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos N; Roth, Jason P; Hu, Haixia; Zsak, Laszlo
The second matrix (M2) gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), encoding two putative proteins, M2-1 and M2-2. Both proteins are believed to be involved in viral RNA transcription or replication. To further characterize the function of the M2-2 protein in virus replication, the non-overlapping region of the M2-2 ORF was deleted from an infectious cDNA clone of the aMPV-C strain, and a viable virus was rescued by using reverse genetics technology. The recombinant virus, raMPV-C ΔM2-2, was characterized in vitro and in vivo. In Vero cells, raMPV-C ΔM2-2 replicated slightly less efficiently than the parental virus, 10-fold reduction at 48-h post-infection. The raMPV-C ΔM2-2 virus induced typical cytopathic effects (CPE) that were indistinguishable from those seen with the parental virus infection. In specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys, raMPV-C ΔM2-2 was attenuated and caused no clinical signs of disease. Less than 20% of the inoculated birds shed detectable virus in tracheal tissue during the first 5 days post-infection, and no virus shedding was detected afterward. Forty percent of infected birds produced a weak antibody response at 14 days post-infection. Upon challenge with a virulent aMPV-C strain, more than 80% of the raMPV-C ΔM2-2-inoculated birds showed typical disease signs and virus shedding in tracheal tissue. These results suggest that the M2-2 protein of aMPV-C virus is not essential for virus replication in vitro, but is required for sufficient virus replication to maintain pathogenicity and immunogenicity in the natural host.
Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Biacchesi, Stephane; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Surman, Sonja R.; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.
We evaluated the individual contributions of the three surface glycoproteins of human metapneumovirus (HMPV), namely the fusion F, attachment G, and small hydrophobic SH proteins, to the induction of serum HMPV-binding antibodies, serum HMPV-neutralizing antibodies, and protective immunity. Using reverse genetics, each HMPV protein was expressed individually from an added gene in recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) and used to infect hamsters once or twice by the intranasal route. The F protein was highly immunogenic and protective, whereas G and SH were only weakly or negligibly immunogenic and protective, respectively. Thus, in contrast to other paramyxoviruses, the HMPV attachment G protein is not a major neutralization or protective antigen. Also, although the SH protein of HMPV is a virion protein that is much larger than its counterparts in previously studied paramyxoviruses, it does not appear to be a significant neutralization or protective antigen
Brown, Paul A; Lupini, Caterina; Catelli, Elena; Clubbe, Jayne; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Naylor, Clive J
Previously, a virulent avian metapneumovirus, farm isolate Italy 309/04, was shown to have been derived from a live vaccine. Virulence due to the five nucleotide mutations associated with the reversion to virulence was investigated by their addition to the genome of the vaccine strain using reverse genetics. Virulence of these recombinant viruses was determined by infection of 1-day-old turkeys. Disease levels resulting from the combined two matrix mutations was indistinguishable from that produced by the recombinant vaccine, whereas the combined three L gene mutations increased disease to a level (P<0.0001) that was indistinguishable from that caused by the revertant Italy 309/04 virus. Testing of the L mutations individually showed that two mutations did not increase virulence, while the third mutation, corresponding to an asparagine to aspartic acid substitution, produced virulence indistinguishable from that caused by Italy 309/04. In contrast to the vaccine, the virulent mutant also showed increased viability at temperatures typical of turkey core tissues. The notion that increased viral virulence resulted from enhanced ability to replicate in tissues away from the cool respiratory tract, cannot be discounted.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human metapneumovirus (hMPV is associated with the acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI in all the age groups. However, there is limited information on prevalence and genetic diversity of human metapneumovirus (hMPV strains circulating in India. Objective To study prevalence and genomic diversity of hMPV strains among ARTI patients reporting in outpatient departments of hospitals in Kolkata, Eastern India. Methods Nasal and/or throat swabs from 2309 patients during January 2006 to December 2009, were screened for the presence of hMPV by RT-PCR of nucleocapsid (N gene. The G and F genes of representative hMPV positive samples were sequenced. Results 118 of 2309 (5.11% clinical samples were positive for hMPV. The majority (≈80% of the positive cases were detected during July−November all through the study period. Genetic analysis revealed that 77% strains belong to A2 subgroup whereas rest clustered in B1 subgroup. G sequences showed higher diversity at the nucleotide and amino acid level. In contrast, less than 10% variation was observed in F gene of representative strains of all four years. Sequence analysis also revealed changes in the position of stop codon in G protein, which resulted in variable length (217-231 aa polypeptides. Conclusion The study suggests that approximately 5% of ARTI in the region were caused by hMPV. This is the first report on the genetic variability of G and F gene of hMPV strains from India which clearly shows that the G protein of hMPV is continuously evolving. Though the study partially fulfills lacunae of information, further studies from other regions are necessary for better understanding of prevalence, epidemiology and virus evolution in Indian subcontinent.
Wolf, Jonas Michel; Gregianini, Tatiana Schäffer; Seadi, Claudete Maria Farina; Tumioto, Gabriela Luchiari; Dambrós, Bibiana Paula; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling Moreira; Carli, Silvia De; Ikuta, Nilo; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an emergent human respiratory pathogen. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) to detect hMPV in a clinical laboratory setting. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples (448) of children and adults with respiratory illness were used to detect hMPV by using DIF and real time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. In all, 36 (8%) samples were positive by DIF and 94 (21%) were positive by qRT-PCR. Direct immunofluorescence specificity was 99% and sensitivity was 38%. DIF is not very sensitive under clinical laboratory settings.
Tan, Y L; Wee, T C
We report a rare case of adult human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in a healthy 32-year-old man. There was dramatic deterioration in his condition developing pneumonia with Type-I respiratory failure and encephalitis. He needed mechanical ventilation in the intensive care setting and was treated with intravenous ribavirin. Post-extubation he remained severely physically and cognitively impaired despite rehabilitation. Treatment of HMPV pneumonia is at present, still without specific antiviral therapy. Managing HMPV-encephalitis remained supportive and challenging. More definite treatment strategies are needed.
Loo, Liat Hui; Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Fu, Yi; Ayi, Teck Choon; Wong, Pui San; Tee, Nancy W S; Tan, Boon Huan; Sugrue, Richard J
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is now a major cause of lower respiratory infection in children. Although primary isolation of HMPV has been achieved in several different cell lines, the low level of virus replication and the subsequent recovery of low levels of infectious HMPV have hampered biochemical studies on the virus. These experimental methodologies usually require higher levels of biological material that can be achieved following HMPV infection. In this study we demonstrate that expression of the HMPV F, G and M proteins in mammalian cells leads to HMPV virus-like particles (VLP) formation. This experimental strategy will serve as a model system to allow the process of HMPV virus assembly to be examined. The HMPV F, G and M proteins were expressed in mammalian cell lines. Protein cross-linking studies, sucrose gradient centrifugation and in situ imaging was used to examine interactions between the virus proteins. VLP formation was examined using sucrose density gradient centrifugation and electron microscopy analysis. Analysis of cells co-expressing the F, G and M proteins demonstrated that these proteins interacted. Furthermore, in cells co-expression the three HMPV proteins the formation VLPs was observed. Image analysis revealed the VLPs had a similar morphology to the filamentous virus morphology that we observed on HMPV-infected cells. The capacity of each protein to initiate VLP formation was examined using a VLP formation assay. Individual expression of each virus protein showed that the G protein was able to form VLPs in the absence of the other virus proteins. Furthermore, co-expression of the G protein with either the M or F proteins facilitated their incorporation into the VLP fraction. Co-expression of the F, G and M proteins leads to the formation of VLPs, and that incorporation of the F and M proteins into VLPs is facilitated by their interaction with the G protein. Our data suggests that the G protein plays a central role in VLP formation, and
Lia Treptow Coswig
Resumo: o Metapneumovírus Aviário (AMPV), também denominado vírus da rinotraqueíte dos perus (TRT), é um vírus que acomete e causa infecção no trato aéreo superior das galinhas e perus. Além da infecção respiratória, em poedeiras e matrizes está associado com uma queda significativa na produção de ovos. Em galinhas o vírus está relacionado com a Síndrome da Cabeça Inchada (SCI), uma enfermidade multifatorial, e por este motivo é importante o diagnóstico diferencial. Testes realizados com anti...
This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study. Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 5/2/2011.
Chow, Wei Zhen; Chan, Yoke Fun; Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Liang Jie; Nor'E, Siti Sarah; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Pang, Yong Kek; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November-April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P A2 was identified in 18.6% (16/86) of the population. Using a custom script for network construction based on the TN93 pairwise genetic distance, we identified up to nine HMPV transmission clusters circulating as multiple sub-epidemics. Although no apparent major outbreak was observed, the increased frequency of transmission clusters (dyads) during seasonal peaks suggests the potential roles of transmission clusters in driving the spread of HMPV. Our findings provide essential information for therapeutic research, prevention strategies, and disease outbreak monitoring of HMPV.
Chow, Wei Zhen; Chan, Yoke Fun; Oong, Xiang Yong; Ng, Liang Jie; Nor’E, Siti Sarah; Ng, Kim Tien; Chan, Kok Gan; Hanafi, Nik Sherina; Pang, Yong Kek; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important viral respiratory pathogen worldwide. Current knowledge regarding the genetic diversity, seasonality and transmission dynamics of HMPV among adults and children living in tropical climate remains limited. HMPV prevailed at 2.2% (n = 86/3,935) among individuals presented with acute respiratory tract infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2014. Seasonal peaks were observed during the northeast monsoon season (November–April) and correlated with higher relative humidity and number of rainy days (P population. Using a custom script for network construction based on the TN93 pairwise genetic distance, we identified up to nine HMPV transmission clusters circulating as multiple sub-epidemics. Although no apparent major outbreak was observed, the increased frequency of transmission clusters (dyads) during seasonal peaks suggests the potential roles of transmission clusters in driving the spread of HMPV. Our findings provide essential information for therapeutic research, prevention strategies, and disease outbreak monitoring of HMPV. PMID:27279080
Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Heincz, U
The present investigation describes for the first time the effect of an avian metapneumovirus vaccine administered in ovo to 18-day-old chicken embryos. The application of the vaccine had no adverse effect on the hatchability or the health of the chicks post hatch. The antibody titres achieved were higher than those determined for birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Not only were the mean titres in the in ovo vaccinated groups higher, but many more birds developed a measurable antibody response than birds vaccinated at 1 day old. Variation of the vaccine dose used in ovo had little effect on the serological responses that peaked 21 to 28 days post hatch. Re-isolation of the vaccine virus was much more successful from birds vaccinated in ovo than from birds vaccinated at 1 day old, and detection of the nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction correlated with the results of live virus isolation.
Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos; Song, Minxun; Kapczynski, Darrell; Zsak, Laszlo
Genetic variation in length of the G gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication, pathogenicity and immunity is unknown. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for aMPV-C and generated two Colorado (CO) strain-based recombinant viruses containing either the full-length G gene derived from a Canadian goose isolate or a C-terminally truncated G gene of the CO strain. The truncated short G (sG) gene encoded 252 amino acids (aa), which is 333 aa shorter than the full-length G (585 aa). The biological properties of these two recombinant G variants were assessed in Vero cells and in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys. In Vero cells, the short G variant displayed a similar level of growth dynamics and virus titers as the parental aMPV-CO strain, whereas the full-length G variant replicated less efficiently than the sG variant during the first 72 h post-infection. Both of the G variants induced typical cytopathic effects (CPE) that were indistinguishable from those seen with the parental aMPV-CO infection. In SPF turkeys, both of the G variants were attenuated and caused little or no disease signs, but the full-length G variant appeared to grow more readily in tracheal tissue than the sG variant during the first 5 days post-infection. Both G variants were immunogenic and induced a slightly different level of antibody response. These results demonstrated that the large portion (333 aa) of the extracellular domain of the viral attachment protein is not essential for virus viability in vitro and in vivo, but may play a role in enhancing virus attachment specificity and immunity in a natural host. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Type b) How to Take Your Child's Temperature Impetigo Infant Botulism Infections That Pets Carry Influenza (Flu) ... Herpes Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Hives (Urticaria) Impetigo Infections That Pets Carry Lyme Disease Measles Molluscum ...
Cha Ra Mi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC and Canada geese (CG were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI, severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.
Cha, Ra Mi; Yu, Qingzhong; Zsak, Laszlo
Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.
Cha, Ra Mi; Khatri, Mahesh; Mutnal, Manohar; Sharma, Jagdev M
Commercial turkey eggs, free of antibodies to avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C), were inoculated with aMPV/C at embryonation day (ED) 24. There was no detectable effect of virus inoculation on the hatchability of eggs. At 4 days post inoculation (DPI) (the day of hatch (ED 28)) and 9 DPI (5 days after hatch), virus replication was detected by quantitative RT-PCR in the turbinate, trachea and lung but not in the thymus or spleen. Mild histological lesions characterized by lymphoid cell infiltration were evident in the turbinate mucosa. Virus exposure inhibited the mitogenic response of splenocytes and thymocytes and upregulated gene expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 in the turbinate tissue. Turkeys hatching from virus-exposed eggs had aMPV/C-specific IgG in the serum and the lachrymal fluid. At 3 week of age, in ovo immunized turkeys were protected against a challenge with pathogenic aMPV/C. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Genetic variation in length of the glycoprotein (G) gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication and pathogenicity is unknown. In this study, we generated two Colorado (CO) strain-based recombinan...
The second matrix (M2) gene of avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus contains two overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), encoding two putative proteins, M2-1 and M2-2. Both proteins are believed to be involved in either viral RNA transcription or replication. To further characterize the f...
Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV of the family Paramyxoviridae is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Phosphoproteins (P from Paramyxoviridae are essential co-factors of the viral RNA polymerase that form tetramers and possess long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs. We located the central region of HMPV P (P(ced which is involved in tetramerization using disorder analysis and modeled its 3D structure ab initio using Rosetta fold-and-dock. We characterized the solution-structure of P(ced using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and carried out direct fitting to the scattering data to filter out incorrect models. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS and ensemble optimization were employed to select correct models and capture the dynamic character of P(ced. Our analysis revealed that oligomerization involves a compact central core located between residues 169-194 (P(core, that is surrounded by flexible regions with α-helical propensity. We crystallized this fragment and solved its structure at 3.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement, using the folded core from our SAXS-validated ab initio model. The RMSD between modeled and experimental tetramers is as low as 0.9 Å, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach. A comparison of the structure of HMPV P to existing mononegavirales P(ced structures suggests that P(ced evolved under weak selective pressure. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using SAXS in combination with ab initio modeling and MDS to solve the structure of small, homo-oligomeric protein complexes.
Velayudhan, Binu T; Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos N; Nagaraja, Kakambi V; Halvorson, David A
The length of the published glycoprotein (G) gene sequences of avian metapneumovirus subtype-C (aMPV-C) isolated from domestic turkeys and wild birds in the United States (1996-2003) remains controversial. To explore the G gene size variation in aMPV-C by the year of isolation and cell culture passage levels, we examined 21 turkey isolates of aMPV-C at different cell culture passages. The early domestic turkey isolates of aMPV-C (aMPV/CO/1996, aMPV/MN/1a-b, and 2a-b/97) had a G gene of 1,798 nucleotides (nt) that coded for a predicted protein of 585 amino acids (aa) and showed >97% nt similarity with that of aMPV-C isolated from Canada geese. This large G gene got truncated upon serial passages in Vero cell cultures by deletion of 1,015 nt near the end of the open reading frame. The recent domestic turkey isolates of aMPV-C lacked the large G gene but instead had a small G gene of 783 nt, irrespective of cell culture passage levels. In some cultures, both large and small genes were detected, indicating the existence of a mixed population of the virus. Apparently, serial passage of aMPV-C in cell cultures and natural passage in turkeys in the field led to truncation of the G gene, which may be a mechanism of virus evolution for survival in a new host or environment.
Eleanor R Gaunt
Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV and human metapneumovirus (HMPV are ubiquitous respiratory pathogens of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the Paramyxoviridae. Two major surface antigens are expressed by both viruses; the highly conserved fusion (F protein, and the extremely diverse attachment (G glycoprotein. Both viruses comprise two genetic groups, A and B. Circulation frequencies of the two genetic groups fluctuate for both viruses, giving rise to frequently observed switching of the predominantly circulating group. Nucleotide sequence data for the F and G gene regions of HRSV and HMPV variants from the UK, The Netherlands, Bangkok and data available from Genbank were used to identify clades of both viruses. Several contemporary circulating clades of HRSV and HMPV were identified by phylogenetic reconstructions. The molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of clades were modelled in parallel. Times of origin were determined and positively selected sites were identified. Sustained circulation of contemporary clades of both viruses for decades and their global dissemination demonstrated that switching of the predominant genetic group did not arise through the emergence of novel lineages each respiratory season, but through the fluctuating circulation frequencies of pre-existing lineages which undergo proliferative and eclipse phases. An abundance of sites were identified as positively selected within the G protein but not the F protein of both viruses. For HRSV, these were discordant with previously identified residues under selection, suggesting the virus can evade immune responses by generating diversity at multiple sites within linear epitopes. For both viruses, different sites were identified as positively selected between genetic groups.
Klebsiella pneumoniae ). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm...the immune system and may be involved in both the response to sepsis and malignancy. For example, in neonatal mice, BMP signaling is a normal part of
Al-Sonboli, N.; Al-Aghbari, N.; Al-Aryani, A.; Atef, Z.; Brabin, B.; Shenkin, A.; Roberts, E.; Harper, G.; Hart, C. A.; Cuevas, L. E.
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) cause significant childhood mortality. Nutritional homeostasis, particularly micronutrient levels, is important in modulating response to infection. More information is required regarding micronutrient levels in ARI viral infections, especially newly
Hutton, S; Bettridge, J; Christley, R; Habte, T; Ganapathy, K
A survey was conducted into respiratory infectious diseases of poultry on a chicken breeder farm run by the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), located in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 117 randomly selected birds, and blood was taken from a subset of 73 of these birds. A combination of serological and molecular methods was used for detection of pathogens. For the first time in Ethiopia, we report the detection of variant infectious bronchitis virus (793B genotype), avian metapneumovirus subtype B and Mycoplasma synoviae in poultry. Mycoplasma gallisepticum was also found to be present; however, infectious laryngotracheitis virus was not detected by PCR. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was not detected by PCR, but variable levels of anti-NDV HI antibody titres shows possible exposure to virulent strains or poor vaccine take, or both. For the burgeoning-intensive industry in Ethiopia, this study highlights several circulating infectious respiratory pathogens that can impact on poultry welfare and productivity.
Ampofo, Krow; Bender, Jeffrey; Sheng, Xiaoming; Korgenski, Kent; Daly, Judy; Pavia, Andrew T; Byington, Carrie L
Our objective was to demonstrate correlations between invasive pneumococcal disease in children and circulating respiratory viruses. This retrospective study included 6 winter respiratory viral seasons (2001-2007) in Intermountain Healthcare, an integrated health system in the Intermountain West, including Primary Children's Medical Center in Salt Lake City, Utah. Children <18 years of age who were hospitalized with either invasive pneumococcal disease in any Intermountain Healthcare facility or culture-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease at Primary Children's Medical Center were included. We analyzed the correlation between invasive pneumococcal disease and circulating respiratory viruses. A total of 435 children with invasive pneumococcal disease and 203 with culture-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease were hospitalized in an Intermountain Healthcare facility or Primary Children's Medical Center during the study period. During the same period, 6963 children with respiratory syncytial virus, 1860 with influenza virus, 1459 with parainfluenza virus, and 818 with adenoviruses were evaluated at Primary Children's Medical Center. A total of 253 children with human metapneumovirus were identified during the last 5 months of the study. There were correlations between invasive pneumococcal disease and seasonal respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and human metapneumovirus activity. The correlation with invasive pneumococcal disease was strong up to 4 weeks after respiratory syncytial virus activity. For influenza virus and human metapneumovirus, the correlations were strong at 2 weeks after activity of these viruses. Pneumonia was the most common clinical disease associated with culture-confirmed invasive pneumococcal disease, mostly attributable to serotypes 1, 19A, 3, and 7F. In the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era, seasonal increases in respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and human metapneumovirus infections in children were
Tatiane Santana Sales
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the frequency of antibodies against avian metapneumovirus (AMPV in unvaccinated broilers and backyard chicken reared in the Poultry Production pole of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 622 and 268 serum samples of broilers and backyard chickens were collected, respectively. Serology was carried out using indirect ELISA and statistical analysis was performed using Student T, with confidence interval of 95%. Seropositive poultry were detected in 144 broilers (23.15% and in 187 backyard chicken (69.78%. The frequency of antibodies against AMPV was 77.14% in flocks of broilers and 94.12% in backyard chicken. In broilers group, antibodies were observed in 66.67% and 33.33% of poultry with or without respiratory signs, respectively. In backyard chicken, high frequency of the antibody was found in both poultry with symptoms (60.43% and in the asymptomatic ones (39.57%. Results showed that broilers and backyard chicken had been infected by the virus, suggesting the presence of AMPV on the Poultry Production Pole of Bahia.
Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa
Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Luo, L; Sabara, M I; Li, Y
Avian pneumovirus subgroup C (APV/C) has recently been reported to be more closely related to human metapneumovirus (hMPV) as determined by sequence analysis. To examine the antigenic relationship between APV/C and hMPV, the APV/C fusion (F) gene was cloned and expressed as an uncleaved glycoprotein in a baculovirus system. The reactivity of the APV/C F protein with antibodies against APV subgroups A, B, C, and hMPV was examined by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the expressed APV/C F protein was not only recognized by APV/C-specific antibodies but also by antibodies raised against hMPV. Previously expressed recombinant hMPV F protein also reacted with APV/C-specific antibodies, suggesting that there was significant antigenic cross-reactivity and a potential evolutionary relationship between hMPV and APV/C. Interestingly, the recombinant F proteins from APV/C and hMPV were not recognized by polyclonal antibodies specific to APV subgroups A and B.
Erez, Daniella Levy; Yarden-Bilavsky, Havatzelet; Mendelson, Ella; Yuhas, Yael; Ashkenazi, Shai; Nahum, Elhanan; Berent, Eva; Hindiyeh, Musa; Bilavsky, Efraim
We aimed to study whether direct central nervous system invasion is responsible for the neurologic manifestations seen in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Cerebrospinal fluid from infants with RSV infection was tested for the detection of the following respiratory RNA viruses: RSV, influenza A and B, pandemic influenza H1N1, Parainfluenza-3, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parechovirus and enterovirus. All children tested negative for the presence of viral material in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the notion that the mechanism of RSV-induced neurologic manifestations, including apnea, is not direct central nervous system invasion.
Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva
Resumo: Os membros da família Paramyxoviridae são vírus que causam infecções em humanos e animais de importância econômica global. Entre os membros desta família incluem patógenos de importância mundial para os humanos, como o vírus respiratório sincicial humano (hRSV), o metapneumovírus humano (hMPV) e vírus de importância em Medicina Veterinária, como o vírus respiratório sincicial bovino (bRSV) e o metapnemovírus aviário (aMPV). Os membros da família Paramyxoviridae, subfamília Pneumovirin...
Ilvan, Ahmet; Aslan, Gönül; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Calıkoğlu, Mukadder; Yılmaz, Fatma Mehtap; Tezcan, Seda; Taş, Dilaver; Ayrık, Cüneyt; Uygungül, Evren; Sezer, Ogün; Emekdaş, Gürol
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), an enveloped RNA virus classified in Paramyxoviridae family, was first characterized in 2001 from children with acute respiratory tract infection. Recent studies have suggested hMPV to play a role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma attacks. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of hMPV in patients with COPD and asthma, its effects on the severity of the attacks and the relationship between demographical and clinical factors. A total of 123 patients, including 66 with COPD (45 were in attack and 21 were stable) and 57 with asthma (33 were in attack and 24 were under control) diagnosed according to the criteria of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, respectively, were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples collected from all of the patients have been evaluated for the presence of hMPV-RNA by using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting F gene region of the virus. hMPV-RNA positivity rates in patients with COPD and asthma were observed as 30.3% (20/66) and 31.6% (18/57), respectively, and the difference between the groups were not statistically significant (p= 1.00). When patients were compared according to their disease status, hMPV was detected in 31.1% (14/45) of patients with COPD attack and 28.6% of stable patients (p> 0.05). These rates were found as 36.4% (12/33) and 25% (6/24) in patients with asthma attack and controlled asthma, respectively (p> 0.05). Although the virus detection rates in patients with COPD and asthma attacks (26/78; 33.3%) were higher than the patients with stable/controlled disease (12/45; 26.7%), the difference was not found as statistically significant (p= 0.57). The detection rate of hMPV-RNA was 26.1% in patients who can be treated at home and hospital without any need of intensive care and mechanical ventilation, while this rate was 36
Effects of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus antigen insertion in two 3' proximal genome positions of bovine/human parainfluenza virus type 3 on virus replication and immunogenicity
R.S. Tang (Roderick); J.H. Schickli (Jeanne); M. MacPhail (Mia); F. Fernandes (Fiona); L. Bicha (Leenas); J. Spaete (Joshua); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R. Spaete (Richard); A.A. Haller (Aurelia)
textabstractA live attenuated bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), harboring the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes of human PIV3, was used as a virus vector to express surface glycoproteins derived from two human pathogens, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory
Yunus, Abdul S; Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Huang, Zhuhui; Samal, Siba K
We report here the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene of the avian pneumovirus strain Colorado (APV/CO). The SH gene of APV/CO is 628 nucleotides in length from gene-start to gene-end. The longest ORF of the SH gene encoded a protein of 177 aas in length. Comparison of the deduced aa sequence of the SH protein of APV/CO with the corresponding published sequences of other members of genera metapneumovirus showed 28% identity with the newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV), but no discernable identity with the APV subgroup A or B. Collectively, this data supports the hypothesis that: (i) APV/CO is distinct from European APV subgroups and belongs to the novel subgroup APV/C (APV/US); (ii) APV/CO is more closely related to hMPV, a mammalian metapneumovirus, than to either APV subgroup A or B. The SH gene of APV/CO was cloned using a genomic walk strategy which initiated cDNA synthesis from genomic RNA that traversed the genes in the order 3'-M-F-M2-SH-G-5', thus confirming that gene-order of APV/CO conforms in the genus Metapneumovirus. We also provide the sequences of transcription-signals and the M-F, F-M2, M2-SH and SH-G intergenic regions of APV/CO.
Passos, Saulo Duarte; Gazeta, Rosa Estela; Felgueiras, Ana Paula; Beneli, Patrícia Costa; Coelho, Micheline de S Z S
To review if pollution and climate changes can influence respiratory tract infections in children. Articles published on the subject in PubMed, SciELO, Bireme, EBSCO and UpTodate were reviewed. The following inclusion criteria were considered: scientific papers between 2002 and 2012, study design, the pediatric population, reference documents such as the CETESB and World Health Organization Summary of the data: We analyzed research that correlated respiratory viruses and climate and/or pollution changes. Respiratory syncytial virus has been the virus related most to changes in climate and humidity. Other "old and new" respiratory viruses such as Human Bocavirus, Metapneumovirus, Parechovirus and Parainfuenza would need to be investigated owing to their clinical importance. Although much has been studied with regard to the relationship between climate change and public health, specific studies about its influence on children's health remain scarce.
Saulo Duarte Passos
Full Text Available To review if pollution and climate changes can influence respiratory tract infections in children. Data source: articles published on the subject in PubMed, SciELO, Bireme, EBSCO and UpTodate were reviewed. The following inclusion criteria were considered: scientific papers between 2002 and 2012, study design, the pediatric population, reference documents such as the CETESB and World Health Organization Summary of the data: We analyzed research that correlated respiratory viruses and climate and/or pollution changes. Respiratory syncytial virus has been the virus related most to changes in climate and humidity. Other "old and new" respiratory viruses such as Human Bocavirus, Metapneumovirus, Parechovirus and Parainfuenza would need to be investigated owing to their clinical importance. Although much has been studied with regard to the relationship between climate change and public health, specific studies about its influence on children's health remain scarce.
Shahani, Lokesh; Ariza-Heredia, Ella J; Chemaly, Roy F
Respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, and rhinovirus) represent the most common causes of respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients. Also, these infections may be more severe in immunocompromised patients than in the general population. Early diagnosis and treatment of viral infections continue to be of paramount importance in immunocompromised patients; because once viral replication and invasive infections are evident, prognosis can be grave. Areas covered: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the main antiviral agents used for the treatment of respiratory viral infections in immunocompromised patients and review of the new agents in the pipeline. Expert commentary: Over the past decade, important diagnostic advances, specifically, the use of rapid molecular testing has helped close the gap between clinical scenarios and pathogen identification and enhanced early diagnosis of viral infections and understanding of the role of prolonged shedding and viral loads. Advancements in novel antiviral therapeutics with high resistance thresholds and effective immunization for preventable infections in immunocompromised patients are needed.
Avian influenza (AI) virus, avian paramyxovirus Type 1 (APMV-1 or Newcastle disease virus [NDV]), reovirus, rotavirus, turkey astrovirus (TAstV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Marek’s disease virus (MDV-1), avian parvovirus (ChPV) and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis are significant biosafety...
Olsen, R H; Stockholm, N M; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Christensen, H; Bisgaard, M
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains originating from 10 free-range layer flocks were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing and plasmid profile analysis to investigate their phylogenetic relationship and diversity, respectively. In addition to colibacillosis, all flocks tested positive for antibodies against avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) during production, and six of the flocks were concurrently affected by histomonosis. Accumulated average mortality for flocks concurrently affected by colibacillosis and histomonosis made up 17.4%, while the average mortality for E. coli-infected flocks was 16.5%. A total of eight different sequence types (STs) and 47 different plasmid profiles were demonstrated among the E. coli isolates. Within each flock between one and four different STs and between three and 13 different plasmid profiles were demonstrated. A statistical significant difference in STs and plasmid profile diversity of the population of E. coli was not demonstrated between flocks affected by histomonosis compared with histomonosis-free flocks. Only minor clonal diversity was demonstrated for each flock, and in all but one flock colibacillosis started before antibodies against aMPV were detected. All isolates, except two, carried plasmids greater than 100 kb, but only a single plasmid replicon type, IncFIB, was demonstrated, suggesting plasmids representing this type might represent a common pathogenicity factor for the different STs of E. coli. Within each flock a clonal tendency was observed, indicating that only certain clones of E. coli possess a significant pathogenic potential. These clones act as primary rather than secondary pathogens, resulting in colibacillosis without predisposing factors, including histomonosis and aMPV.
Winther, T.N.; Madsen, C.D.; Pedersen, Anders Gorm
been infected with at least two viruses. Several independent viruses contained premature stop codons in exactly identical positions resulting in truncated fusion proteins. Possibly this is a mechanism for immune system evasion. The F protein is a major antigenic determinant, and the limited sequence....... In this study, the inter- and intra-patient genetic diversity of the lineage A hMPV F gene was investigated. Ten isolates were collected from 10 hMPV infected children. Viral RNA was isolated and amplified, and approximately 10 clones from each isolate were sequenced. Altogether 108 clones were successfully...
Guerrero-Plata, Antonieta; Kolli, Deepthi; Hong, Chao; Casola, Antonella; Garofalo, Roberto P
Lower respiratory tract infections caused by the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are characterized by short-lasting virus-specific immunity and often long-term airway morbidity, both of which may be the result of alterations in the Ag-presenting function of the lung which follow these infections. In this study, we investigated whether hMPV and RSV experimental infections alter the phenotype and function of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that are recruited to the lung. Characterization of lung DC trafficking demonstrated a differential recruitment of plasmacytoid DC (pDC), conventional DC (cDC), and IFN-producing killer DC to the lung and draining lymph nodes after hMPV and RSV infection. In vitro infection of lung DC indicated that in pDC, production of IFN-alpha, TNF-alpha, and CCL5 was induced only by hMPV, whereas CCL3 and CCL4 were induced by both viruses. In cDC, a similar repertoire of cytokines was induced by hMPV and RSV, except for IFN-beta, which was not induced by RSV. The function of lung pDC was altered following hMPV or RSV infection in vivo, as we demonstrated a reduced capacity of lung pDC to produce IFN-alpha as well as other cytokines including IL-6, TNF-alpha, CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 in response to TLR9 stimulation. Moreover, we observed an impaired capacity of cDC from infected mice to present Ag to CD4(+) T cells, an effect that lasted beyond the acute phase of infection. Our findings suggest that acute paramyxovirus infections can alter the long-term immune function of pulmonary DC.
infections (30). Rhinorrhea, fever and cough are the most frequently reported clinical findings (75). Otitis media , conjunctivitis and pharyngitis are...primates immunized with hMPV develop antibodies reactive to both the monomeric and trimeric sF glycoproteins, and animals immunized with the same genotype...ELISA).............................................34 Animal immunization
Full Text Available Abstract Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs, adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV, have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV, coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63 and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1, human Bocavirus (HBoV, new enterovirus (HEV, parechovirus (HpeV and rhinovirus (HRV strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV and KI (KIPyV and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.
L. R. Selimzyanova
Full Text Available Acute infection of upper respiratory tract is one of the most topical medical and social problems: it is respiratory diseases that cause the majority of children’s and adults’ non-attendance of school lessons and working days. Childhood respiratory infections are characterized by prolonged clinical course. The most common causes of upper respiratory tract infections are viruses, such as rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza and parainfluenza viruses, adeno-, corona- and metapneumoviruses as well as Coxsackie virus and ECHO virus. Antiviral agents are efficient only when administered during first 24–48 hours from the onset of disease, and a number of such drugs have only specific activity, therefore the limitation of possibilities of etiotropic therapy of acute respiratory infections can be established. This often leads to excessive inappropriate usage of antibacterial drugs. Such symptoms as nasal stuffiness and cough which accompany acute respiratory tract infections, can significantly affect patients’ and his family’s quality of life. Symptomatic therapy is traditionally used in order to relieve these symptoms. The article contains data on potentials of one of such symptomatic drugs in treatment of upper respiratory tract infections.
Staph is short for Staphylococcus, a type of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including Skin infections Pneumonia ...
Eliana C.A. Benites
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.
Zar Heather J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.
Liu, Pengcheng; Xu, Menghua; He, Leiyan; Su, Liyun; Wang, Aimin; Fu, Pan; Lu, Lijuan; Wang, Chuanqing; Xu, Jin
This study aimed to explore the epidemiology of pathogens in children who were hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) at the Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Children aged less than 18 years who were hospitalized with LRTIs were enrolled from January 2013 to December 2015. Respiratory specimens were collected for the detection of common respiratory viruses, atypical bacteria, and other bacteria using current laboratory diagnostic tests. The epidemiological characteristics of the respiratory pathogens were analyzed. Of the 10,123 specimens obtained from the patients, 5,966 (58.7%) were positive for at least 1 pathogen. Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M.pneumoniae) was the most commonly detected pathogen (15.7%), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (13.9%). Co-infections were found in 11.4% of patients. Of these co-infections, viral-bacterial co-infections were the most common. The detection rates for the respiratory pathogens varied considerably by age. RSV was the most common pathogen in children aged less than 24 months. Clear seasonal peaks were observed for RSV, M. pneumoniae, parainfluenza virus, human metapneumovirus, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenza infections. Our findings demonstrate specific epidemiological patterns in children with LRTIs in Shanghai, China.
Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Petersen, Line Kirkeby; Kragstrup, Jakob
% of all women had experienced one or more self-reported episode of infection. Breast infections (12%) were most frequent, followed by wound (3%), airway (3%), vaginal (3%) and urinary tract infections (3%), endometritis (2%) and "other infections" (2%). Of the women with an infection, 66% (265 of 395...
Tatiane Santana Sales; Elen Fabiane Guimarães Herval; Priscila Sousa da Silva; Jamille Machado de Lima; Izabella Ramos; Lia Muniz Barretto Fernandes
This study aimed to determine the frequency of antibodies against avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) in unvaccinated broilers and backyard chicken reared in the Poultry Production pole of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 622 and 268 serum samples of broilers and backyard chickens were collected, respectively. Serology was carried out using indirect ELISA and statistical analysis was performed using Student T, with confidence interval of 95%. Seropositive poultry were detected in 144 broilers (23.15%) and ...
María Luz García-García
Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV, rhinovirus (HRV, adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population.A prospective study performed on all children less than 14 years of age with a respiratory tract disease admitted to a secondary hospital between September 2005- June 2014. Clinical characteristics of patients were analyzed. Nasopharyngeal aspirate was taken at admission for viral study with polymerase chain reaction for 16 respiratory viruses. A total of 3,906 children were included. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 75.2% of them. The most common identified virus was HRSV, followed by HRV. HMPV was detected in 214 cases (5.5%; 133 (62% were single infections and the remaining were detected in coinfection with other viruses. 90.7% cases were detected between February and May. Children's mean age was 13.83 ± 18 months. Fever was frequent (69%, and bronchiolitis (27%, and recurrent wheezing (63% were the main clinical diagnosis. Hypoxia was present in 65% of the patients and 47% of them had an infiltrate in X-ray. Only 6 (2.8% children were admitted to the intensive care unit. Only the duration of the hospitalization was different, being longer in the coinfections group (p <0.05. There were many differences in seasonality and clinical characteristics between HMPV and other respiratory viruses being more similar to HRSV.HMPV infections accounted for 5.5% of total viral infections in hospitalized children. The clinical characteristics were similar to HRSV infections, but seasonality and clinical data were different from other viral
Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...
Ogle, Orrett E
The pathogenesis of odontogenic infection is polymicrobial, consisting of various facultative and strict anaerobes. The dominant isolates are strictly anaerobic gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci. The periapical infection is the most common form of odontogenic infection. Although odontogenic infections are usually confined to the alveolar ridge vicinity, they can spread into deep fascial spaces. Cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, airway obstruction, and mediastinitis are possible complications of dental infections. The most important element in treating odontogenic infections is elimination of the primary source of the infection with antibiotics as adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a viral aetiological agent is estimated to be involved in up to 80% of cases, the majority of these agents have never been specifically identified. Since 2009, diagnostic and surveillance efforts for influenza virus have been applied worldwide. However, insufficient epidemiological information is available for the many other respiratory viruses that can cause Acute respiratory infections.This study evaluated the presence of 14 non-influenza respiratory viruses in 872 pharyngeal exudate samples using RT-qPCR. All samples met the operational definition of a probable case of an influenza-like illness or severe acute respiratory infection and had a previous negative result for influenza by RT-qPCR.The presence of at least one non-influenza virus was observed in 312 samples (35.8%. The most frequent viruses were rhinovirus (RV; 33.0%, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV; 30.8% and human metapneumovirus (HMPV; 10.6%. A total of 56 cases of co-infection (17.9% caused by 2, 3, or 4 viruses were identified. Approximately 62.5% of all positive cases were in children under 9 years of age.In this study, we identified 13 non-influenza respiratory viruses that could occur in any season of the year. This study provides evidence for the prevalence and seasonality of a wide range of respiratory viruses that circulate in Mexico and constitute a risk for the population. Additionally, our data suggest that including these tests more widely in the diagnostic algorithm for influenza may reduce the use of unnecessary antibiotics, reduce the hospitalisation time, and enrich national epidemiological data with respect to the infections caused by these viruses.
Fernandes-Matano, Larissa; Monroy-Muñoz, Irma Eloísa; Angeles-Martínez, Javier; Sarquiz-Martinez, Brenda; Palomec-Nava, Iliana Donají; Pardavé-Alejandre, Hector Daniel; Santos Coy-Arechavaleta, Andrea; Santacruz-Tinoco, Clara Esperanza; González-Ibarra, Joaquín; González-Bonilla, Cesar Raúl; Muñoz-Medina, José Esteban
Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although a viral aetiological agent is estimated to be involved in up to 80% of cases, the majority of these agents have never been specifically identified. Since 2009, diagnostic and surveillance efforts for influenza virus have been applied worldwide. However, insufficient epidemiological information is available for the many other respiratory viruses that can cause Acute respiratory infections. This study evaluated the presence of 14 non-influenza respiratory viruses in 872 pharyngeal exudate samples using RT-qPCR. All samples met the operational definition of a probable case of an influenza-like illness or severe acute respiratory infection and had a previous negative result for influenza by RT-qPCR. The presence of at least one non-influenza virus was observed in 312 samples (35.8%). The most frequent viruses were rhinovirus (RV; 33.0%), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV; 30.8%) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV; 10.6%). A total of 56 cases of co-infection (17.9%) caused by 2, 3, or 4 viruses were identified. Approximately 62.5% of all positive cases were in children under 9 years of age. In this study, we identified 13 non-influenza respiratory viruses that could occur in any season of the year. This study provides evidence for the prevalence and seasonality of a wide range of respiratory viruses that circulate in Mexico and constitute a risk for the population. Additionally, our data suggest that including these tests more widely in the diagnostic algorithm for influenza may reduce the use of unnecessary antibiotics, reduce the hospitalisation time, and enrich national epidemiological data with respect to the infections caused by these viruses.
Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...
... arthritis), and a number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related ... cases clear up in 7 to 10 days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in ...
Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...
... around your vagina , or a problem with your vaginal discharge (fluid). If you've had sexual contact with ... discharge Types of vaginal infections Ways to avoid vaginal infections Abnormal discharge top You may wonder if the fluid, or ...
... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fungal Infections KidsHealth / For Kids / Fungal Infections What's in this ...
as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...
Neu, Natalie; Duchon, Jennifer; Zachariah, Philip
TORCH infections classically comprise toxoplasmosis, Treponema pallidum, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and other infections, such as varicella, parvovirus B19, and enteroviruses. The epidemiology of these infections varies; in low-income and middle-income countries, TORCH infections are major contributors to prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Evidence of infection may be seen at birth, in infancy, or years later. For many of these pathogens, treatment or prevention strategies are available. Early recognition, including prenatal screening, is key. This article covers toxoplasmosis, parvovirus B19, syphilis, rubella, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lien Anh Ha Do
Full Text Available Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI, focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load and its association with disease severity.A prospective study among children under two years of age, hospitalized with LRTI was conducted in two referral pediatric hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from May 2009 to December 2010. Socio-demographic, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected on enrolment and discharge. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR (13 viruses and quantitative RSV RT-PCR were used to identify viral pathogens, RSV load and subgroups.Among 632 cases, 48% were RSV positive. RSV infections occurred at younger age than three other leading viral infections i.e rhinovirus (RV, metapneumovirus (MPV, parainfluenza virus (PIV-3 and were significantly more frequent in the first 6 months of life. Clinical severity score of RSV infection was significantly higher than PIV-3 but not for RV or MPV. In multivariate analysis, RV infection was significantly associated with severity while RSV infection was not. Among RSV infections, neither viral load nor viral co-infections were significantly associated with severity. Young age and having fever at admission were significantly associated with both RSV and LRTI severity. A shift in RSV subgroup predominance was observed during two consecutive rainy seasons but was not associated with severity.We report etiologies, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of LRTI among hospitalized children under two years of age and risk factors of RSV and LRTI severity.
Bryant, Juliet E.; Tran, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Bach Hue; Tran, Thi Thu Loan; Tran, Quynh Huong; Vo, Quoc Bao; Tran Dac, Nguyen Anh; Trinh, Hong Nhien; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hai; Le Binh, Bao Tinh; Le, Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Tien; Thai, Quang Tung; Vo, Thanh Vu; Ngo, Ngoc Quang Minh; Dang, Thi Kim Huyen; Cao, Ngoc Huong; Tran, Thu Van; Ho, Lu Viet; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno; van Doorn, H. Rogier
Background Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity. Methods A prospective study among children under two years of age, hospitalized with LRTI was conducted in two referral pediatric hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from May 2009 to December 2010. Socio-demographic, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected on enrolment and discharge. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR (13 viruses) and quantitative RSV RT-PCR were used to identify viral pathogens, RSV load and subgroups. Results Among 632 cases, 48% were RSV positive. RSV infections occurred at younger age than three other leading viral infections i.e rhinovirus (RV), metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza virus (PIV-3) and were significantly more frequent in the first 6 months of life. Clinical severity score of RSV infection was significantly higher than PIV-3 but not for RV or MPV. In multivariate analysis, RV infection was significantly associated with severity while RSV infection was not. Among RSV infections, neither viral load nor viral co-infections were significantly associated with severity. Young age and having fever at admission were significantly associated with both RSV and LRTI severity. A shift in RSV subgroup predominance was observed during two consecutive rainy seasons but was not associated with severity. Conclusion We report etiologies, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of LRTI among hospitalized children under two years of age and risk factors of RSV and LRTI severity. PMID:27500954
Do, Lien Anh Ha; Bryant, Juliet E; Tran, Anh Tuan; Nguyen, Bach Hue; Tran, Thi Thu Loan; Tran, Quynh Huong; Vo, Quoc Bao; Tran Dac, Nguyen Anh; Trinh, Hong Nhien; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hai; Le Binh, Bao Tinh; Le, Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Tien; Thai, Quang Tung; Vo, Thanh Vu; Ngo, Ngoc Quang Minh; Dang, Thi Kim Huyen; Cao, Ngoc Huong; Tran, Thu Van; Ho, Lu Viet; Farrar, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno; van Doorn, H Rogier
Despite a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections among children, data on demographic and clinical characteristics of RSV are scarce in low and middle income countries. This study aims to describe the viral etiologies, the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of children under two years of age who were hospitalized with a lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), focusing on RSV (prevalence, seasonality, subgroups, viral load) and its association with disease severity. A prospective study among children under two years of age, hospitalized with LRTI was conducted in two referral pediatric hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from May 2009 to December 2010. Socio-demographic, clinical data and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected on enrolment and discharge. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR (13 viruses) and quantitative RSV RT-PCR were used to identify viral pathogens, RSV load and subgroups. Among 632 cases, 48% were RSV positive. RSV infections occurred at younger age than three other leading viral infections i.e rhinovirus (RV), metapneumovirus (MPV), parainfluenza virus (PIV-3) and were significantly more frequent in the first 6 months of life. Clinical severity score of RSV infection was significantly higher than PIV-3 but not for RV or MPV. In multivariate analysis, RV infection was significantly associated with severity while RSV infection was not. Among RSV infections, neither viral load nor viral co-infections were significantly associated with severity. Young age and having fever at admission were significantly associated with both RSV and LRTI severity. A shift in RSV subgroup predominance was observed during two consecutive rainy seasons but was not associated with severity. We report etiologies, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of LRTI among hospitalized children under two years of age and risk factors of RSV and LRTI severity.
... symptoms. If you're being treated for a urinary tract infection but your signs and symptoms aren't improving, make an appointment. Severe kidney ... Seek immediate medical attention if you have kidney infection symptoms combined with ... that enter your urinary tract through the tube that carries urine from ...
... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... Body Campylobacter are a type of bacteria that produce infections in the GI tract. They are a major bacterial cause of diarrheal sickness among children in the United States. You may hear ...
Giardia, or giardiasis, is an infection of the small intestine. A tiny parasite called Giardia lamblia causes it. ... from some of the medicines used to treat giardia are: Metallic ... used to treat the infection can be harmful to the unborn baby.
A broad variety of microorganisms are capable of causing fetal infections. Among viral agents prominent are the human cytomegaly virus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immundeficiency virus (HIV), varicella, herpes zooster, rubella, parvovirus B19, measles and the hepatitis B and C viruses. Protozoa such as toxoplasma and spirocheta pallida, causing congenital syphilis are equally important. Bacterial infections are responsible for in uterus aquired listeriosis, tuberculosis, and group B streptococcus infections. Fungi including candida albicans complete the circle of infections pathogens. Infectious microrganisms may reach the fetus through the placenta are may ascend through the birth canal. The quoted pathological agents threaten the health and life of the fetus directly by the biological derangements they cause and also by inducing abortion or premature birth. The clinical manifestations include retarded growth, central nervous system damage and skin lesions. The invariable therapeutic measures vary but in general, are limited value in cases of in utero acquired infections.
Spires, Steven Schaeffer; Talbot, H Keipp; Pope, Carolyn A; Talbot, Thomas R
OBJECTIVE We report an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections in a dementia care ward containing 2 separately locked units (A and B) to heighten awareness of these pathogens in the older adult population and highlight some of the infection prevention challenges faced during a noninfluenza respiratory viral outbreak in a congregate setting. METHODS Cases were defined by the presence of new signs or symptoms that included (1) a single oral temperature ≥ 37.8°C (100.0°F) and (2) the presence of at least 2 of the following symptoms: cough, dyspnea, rhinorrhea, hoarseness, congestion, fatigue, and malaise. Attempted infection-control measures included cohorting patients and staff, empiric isolation precautions, and cessation of group activities. Available nasopharyngeal swab specimens were sent to the Tennessee Department of Health for identification by rT-PCR testing. RESULTS We identified 30 of the 41 (73%) residents as cases over this 16-day outbreak. Due to high numbers of sick personnel, we were unable to cohort staff to 1 unit. Unit B developed its first case 8 days after infection control measures were implemented. Of the 14 cases with available specimens, 6 patients tested positive for RSV-B, 7 for HMPV and 1 patient test positive for influenza A. Overall, 15 cases (50%) required transfer to acute care facilities; 10 of these patients (34%) had chest x-ray confirmed pulmonary infiltrates; and 5 residents (17%) died. CONCLUSIONS This case report highlights the importance of RSV and HMPV in causing substantial disease in the older adult population and highlights the challenges in preventing transmission of these viruses. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:399-404.
Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Lee, Anna; Lee, Nam-Joo; Chu, Hyuk; Kim, Sung Soon; Choi, Jang-Hoon
The prevalence of eight respiratory viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Korea was investigated through analysis of data recorded by the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Surveillance System (KINRESS) from 2013 to 2015. Nasal aspirate and throat swabs specimens were collected from 36,915 patients with ARIs, and viral nucleic acids were detected by real-time (reverse-transcription) polymerase chain reaction for eight respiratory viruses, including human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSVs), influenza viruses (IFVs), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), human coronaviruses (HCoVs), human rhinovirus (HRV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human bocavirus (HBoV), and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The overall positive rate of patient specimens was 49.4% (18,236/36,915), 5% of which carried two or more viruses simultaneously. HRV (15.6%) was the most predominantly detected virus, followed by IFVs (14.6%), HAdV (7.5%), HPIVs (5.8%), HCoVs (4.2%), HRSVs (3.6%), HBoV (1.9%), and HMPV (1.6%). Most of the ARIs were significantly correlated with clinical symptoms of fever, cough, and runny nose. Although HRV and HAdV were frequently detected throughout the year in patients, other respiratory viruses showed apparent seasonality. HRSVs and IFVs were the major causative agents of acute respiratory diseases in infants and young children. Overall, this study demonstrates a meaningful relationship between viral infection and typical manifestations of known clinical features as well as seasonality, age distribution, and co-infection among respiratory viruses. Therefore, these data could provide useful information for public health management and to enhance patient care for primary clinicians. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.
Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972
Jules, K T; Bonar, P L
Nail infections are and will continue to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to all foot physicians. Attention to basic concepts of accurate detailed history and physical examination will aid in the determination of the etiology of these infections. Following basic guidelines of incision and drainage, gram stain, soaks, and antibiotics will be the cornerstone of initial treatment of pyogenic infections. Upon resolution of the acute infection a permanent treatment plan can be constituted based on the etiology. Nail infections of mycotic nature require an understanding by both patient and doctor as to the difficulty and resistance to treatment of this problem. It is the authors' opinion that aggressive persistent treatment will provide the best long-term result when dealing with mycotic infections. This may require nail removal, local and systemic treatment as well as change in shoe environment. As we have seen and is stated throughout this text, the nail and its pathologic processes can be a mirror of systemic disease. Many times a dystrophic infected nail may be the initial clinical presentation of a much more involved disease process. It is the responsibility and duty of all foot physicians to have a total understanding of knowledge of normal and pathologic process that affect the nail plates, nail bed, and surrounding nail proper. I hope this article will stimulate the foot physician to approach the disease of the nail with a high index of suspicion and respect.
... if you experience severe vomiting, bloody stools, abdominal pain or dehydration. Causes Noroviruses are highly contagious and are shed in the feces of infected humans and animals. Methods of transmission include: Eating contaminated food Drinking ...
... Runny nose MRSA infection Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...
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... your bloodstream. (You may have heard the term bacterial endocarditis , subacute bacterial endocarditis , or SBE. These terms are used for endocarditis ... to repair or replace the damaged valve. Tags: bacterial endocarditis , endocardium , infection of the heart , subacute bacterial endocarditis ( ...
... Impetigo (pronounced: im-puh-TIE-go) is a superficial skin infection that mostly happens in young children, ... and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours ...
... tur) bacteria live in the intestines of many wild and domestic animals. They can pass to humans ... matter (poop) from an infected person (especially a child in diapers). Household pets can carry and spread ...
... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...
... Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis ... by bacteria or fungal organisms. Spinal infections may occur following surgery or spontaneously in patients with certain risk factors. ...
... tapeworm (Taenia solium) is greater in areas of Latin America, China, sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia where ... as well as seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus or dementia. Death can occur in severe cases of infection. Organ ...
... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...
Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap
Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)
definitive hosts. Felines are required to maintain the life cycle in nature, since incidental hosts do not excrete the parasite in their faeces . Humans ...PROTOZOA WITH NON-SPECIFIC DEFENCES IV. IMMUNOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACHES V. CONCLUSION REFERENCES I. INTRODUCTION Numerous genera of protozoa infect humans ...aetiologic agents of human disease in tropical and subtropical regions. Small animals serve as reservoirs of infection; the organism is transmitted between
Huang, H-S; Tsai, C-L; Chang, J; Hsu, T-C; Lin, S; Lee, C-C
To provide a summary of evidence for the diagnostic accuracies of three multiplex PCR systems (mPCRs)-BioFire FilmArray RP (FilmArray), Nanosphere Verigene RV+ test (Verigene RV+) and Hologic Gen-Probe Prodesse assays-on the detection of viral respiratory infections. A comprehensive search up to 1 July 2017 was conducted on Medline and Embase for studies that utilized FilmArray, Verigene RV+ and Prodesse for diagnosis of viral respiratory infections. A summary of diagnostic accuracies for the following five viruses were calculated: influenza A virus (FluA), influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and adenovirus. Hierarchical summary receiver operating curves were used for estimating the viral detection performance per assay. Twenty studies of 5510 patient samples were eligible for analysis. Multiplex PCRs demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) equal to or more than 0.98 for all the above viruses except for adenovirus (AUROC 0.89). FilmArray, Verigene RV+ and ProFlu+ (the only Prodesse assay with enough data) demonstrated a summary sensitivity for FluA of 0.911 (95% confidence interval, 0.848-0.949), 0.949 (95% confidence interval, 0.882-0.979) and 0.954 (95% confidence interval, 0.871-0.985), respectively. The three mPCRs were comparable in terms of detection of FluA. Point estimates calculated from eligible studies showed that the three mPCRs (FilmArray, Verigene RV+ and ProFlu+) are highly accurate and may provide important diagnostic information for early identification of respiratory virus infections. In patients with low pretest probability for FluA, these three mPCRs can predict a low possibility of infection and may justify withholding empirical antiviral treatments. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmed Jamal A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Refugees are at risk for poor outcomes from acute respiratory infections (ARI because of overcrowding, suboptimal living conditions, and malnutrition. We implemented surveillance for respiratory viruses in Dadaab and Kakuma refugee camps in Kenya to characterize their role in the epidemiology of ARI among refugees. Methods From 1 September 2007 through 31 August 2010, we obtained nasopharyngeal (NP and oropharyngeal (OP specimens from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI or severe acute respiratory infections (SARI and tested them by RT-PCR for adenovirus (AdV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV, parainfluenza viruses (PIV, and influenza A and B viruses. Definitions for ILI and SARI were adapted from those of the World Health Organization. Proportions of cases associated with viral aetiology were calculated by camp and by clinical case definition. In addition, for children Results We tested specimens from 1815 ILI and 4449 SARI patients (median age = 1 year. Proportion positive for virus were AdV, 21.7%; RSV, 12.5%; hMPV, 5.7%; PIV, 9.4%; influenza A, 9.7%; and influenza B, 2.6%; 49.8% were positive for at least one virus. The annual rate of SARI hospitalisation for 2007-2010 was 57 per 1000 children per year. Virus-positive hospitalisation rates were 14 for AdV; 9 for RSV; 6 for PIV; 4 for hMPV; 5 for influenza A; and 1 for influenza B. The rate of SARI hospitalisation was highest in children Conclusions Respiratory viral infections, particularly RSV and AdV, were associated with high rates of illness and make up a substantial portion of respiratory infection in these two refugee settings.
Blackburn, R M; Zhao, H; Pebody, R; Hayward, A C; Warren-Gash, C
Acute respiratory infections are associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, however, the role of different organisms is poorly characterised. We undertook a time-series analysis of English hospital admissions for MI and stroke (age-stratified: 45-64, 65-74, 75+ years), laboratory-confirmed viral respiratory infections and environmental data for 2004-2015. Weekly counts of admissions were modelled using multivariable Poisson regression with weekly counts of respiratory viruses (influenza, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus or human meta-pneumovirus (HMPV)) investigated as predictors. We controlled for seasonality, long-term trends and environmental factors. Weekly hospital admissions in adults aged 45+ years averaged 1347 (IQR 1217-1541) for MI and 1175 (IQR 1023-1395) for stroke. Median numbers of respiratory infections ranged from 11 cases per week (IQR 5-53) for influenza to 55 (IQR 7-127) for rhinovirus. In the adjusted models, all viruses except parainfluenza were significantly associated with MI and ischaemic stroke admissions in those aged 75+. Among 65-74 year olds, adenovirus, rhinovirus and RSV were associated with MI but not ischaemic stroke admissions. Respiratory infections were not associated with MI or ischaemic stroke in people aged 45-64, nor with haemorrhagic stroke in any age group. An estimated 0.4-5.7% of MI and ischaemic stroke admissions may be attributable to respiratory infection, with greater excess burden during weeks with high circulating virus levels. We identified small but strongly significant associations in the timing of respiratory infection (with HMPV, RSV, influenza, rhinovirus and adenovirus) and MI or ischaemic stroke hospitalisations in the elderly. NCT02984280.
Chen, Y S; Lin, X H; Li, H R; Hua, Z D; Lin, M Q; Huang, W S; Yu, T; Lyu, H Y; Mao, W P; Liang, Y Q; Peng, X R; Chen, S J; Zheng, H; Lian, S Q; Hu, X L; Yao, X Q
Objective: To analyze the pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection(LRTI) including bacterial, viral and mixed infection, and to establish a discriminant model based on clinical features in order to predict the pathogens. Methods: A total of 243 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections were enrolled in Fujian Provincial Hospital from April 2012 to September 2015. The clinical data and airway (sputum and/or bronchoalveolar lavage) samples were collected. Microbes were identified by traditional culture (for bacteria), loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) and gene sequencing (for bacteria and atypical pathogen), or Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)for viruses. Finally, a discriminant model was established by using the discriminant analysis methods to help to predict bacterial, viral and mixed infections. Results: Pathogens were detected in 53.9% (131/243) of the 243 cases.Bacteria accounted for 23.5%(57/243, of which 17 cases with the virus, 1 case with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and virus), mainly Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Klebsiella Pneumonia. Atypical pathogens for 4.9% (12/243, of which 3 cases with the virus, 1 case of bacteria and viruses), all were mycoplasma pneumonia. Viruses for 34.6% (84/243, of which 17 cases of bacteria, 3 cases with Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 1 case with Mycoplasma pneumoniae and bacteria) of the cases, mainly Influenza A virus and Human Cytomegalovirus, and other virus like adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, human boca virus were also detected fewly. Seven parameters including mental status, using antibiotics prior to admission, complications, abnormal breath sounds, neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) score, pneumonia severity index (PSI) score and CRUB-65 score were enrolled after univariate analysis, and discriminant analysis was used to establish the discriminant model by applying the identified pathogens as the
Karampekios, Spyros [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Hesselink, John [UCSD, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)
Despite the development of many effective antibiotic therapies and the general improvement in hygiene and health care systems all over the world, the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) infection has increased significantly in the past 15 years. This can be attributed primarily to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic and its devastating effect on the immune system and secondarily to various immunosuppressive agents that are being used in aggressive cancer treatment and in organ transplantations. The brain particularly is protected from infection by the calvarium, meninges and blood brain barrier. However, different types of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, can reach the brain hematogenously or, less likely, by direct extension from an adjacent infected focus. The early detection and specific diagnosis of infection are of great importance, since brain infections are potentially treatable diseases. Imaging studies play a crucial role in the diagnostic process, along with the history (exposure to infectious agents), host factors (open head trauma, CSF leak, sinusitis, otitis, immune status), physical examination and laboratory analysis of CSF. (orig.)
Eduardo A. Ferone
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory aspects ofinfants with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI associated with the detection of adenovirus(ADV or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. METHODS: A preliminary respiratory infection surveillance study collected samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA for viral research, linked to the completion of a standard protocol, from children younger than two years admitted to a university hospital with ALRI, between March of 2008 and August of 2011. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used for eight viruses: ADV, RSV, metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3, and Influenza A and B. Cases with NPA collectedduring the first 24 hours of admission, negative results of blood culture, and exclusive detection of ADV (Gadv group or RSV (Grsv group were selected for comparisons. RESULTS: The preliminary study included collection of 1,121 samples of NPA, 813 collected in thefirst 24 hours of admission, of which 50.3% were positive for at least one virus; RSV was identifiedin 27.3% of cases surveyed, and ADV was identified in 15.8%. Among the aspects analyzed inthe Gadv (n = 58 and Grsv (n = 134 groups, the following are noteworthy: the higher meanage, more frequent prescription of antibiotics, and the highest median of total white blood cellcount and C-reactive protein values in Gadv. CONCLUSIONS: PCR can detect persistent/latent forms of ADV, an aspect to be considered wheninterpreting results. Additional studies with quantitative diagnostic techniques could elucidatethe importance of the high frequency observed.
... Home A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections > A-Z Health Topics Urinary tract infections (PDF, ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most often caused ...
Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: email@example.com
Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.
This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages. Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria. Date Released: 8/28/2012.
... treated early enough, soaks and oral antibiotics may cure the infection. If pus has formed under the skin, surgery to drain the pus is needed. Chronic paronychia is caused by fungus; this usually occurs in people whose hands are frequently wet (such as dishwashers). The cuticle ...
Anh Ha Lien Do
Full Text Available The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention.We conducted a three-year prospective descriptive study of severe respiratory illness among children from 2 months to 13 years of age within the largest referral hospital for infectious diseases in southern Vietnam.Molecular detection for 15 viral species and subtypes was performed on three types of respiratory specimens (nose, throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates using a multiplex RT-PCR kit (Seeplex™ RV detection, Seegene and additional monoplex real-time RT-PCRs.A total of 309 children were enrolled from November 2004 to January 2008. Viruses were identified in 72% (222/309 of cases, including respiratory syncytial virus (24%, influenza virus A and B (17%, human bocavirus (16%, enterovirus (9%, human coronavirus (8%, human metapneumovirus (7%, parainfluenza virus 1-3 (6%, adenovirus (5%, and human rhinovirus A (4%. Co-infections with multiple viruses were detected in 20% (62/309 of patients. When combined, diagnostic yields in nose and throat swabs were similar to nasopharyngeal aspirates.Similar to other parts in the world, RSV and influenza were the predominant viral pathogens detected in Vietnamese hospitalized children. Combined nasal and throat swabs are the specimens of choice for sensitive molecular detection of a broad panel of viral agents. Further research is required to better understand the clinical significance of single versus multiple viral coinfections and to address the role of bacterial (co-infections involved in severe respiratory illness.
Ana Maria Acevedo; Laura Yaneth B. Villarreal; Leonardo José Richtzenhain; Julia Noda; Paulo Eduardo Brandão
Descreve-se um ensaio de duplex RT-PCR assay para a detecção simultânea do vírus da bronquite infecciosa das galinhas (IBV) e do metapneumovirus aviário (aMPV), agentes etiológicos de doenças de elevada importância em avicultura. A duplex RT-PCR otimizada mostrou um limiar de detecção de 10-3 (101 EID50/50m L para IBV e 100.5 EID50/50m L para aMPV, respectivamente, quando da combinação dos dois vírus e 10-1 para cada um dos vírus em separado(103 EID50/50m L para IBV e 102.5 EID50/50m L para a...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs are an important cause of acute illnesses and mortality worldwide and in China. However, a large-scale study on the prevalence of viral infections across multiple provinces and seasons has not been previously reported from China. Here, we aimed to identify the viral etiologies associated with ALRIs from 22 Chinese provinces. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Active surveillance for hospitalized ALRI patients in 108 sentinel hospitals in 24 provinces of China was conducted from January 2009-September 2013. We enrolled hospitalized all-age patients with ALRI, and collected respiratory specimens, blood or serum collected for diagnostic testing for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human influenza virus, adenoviruses (ADV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV, human metapneumovirus (hMPV, human coronavirus (hCoV and human bocavirus (hBoV. We included 28,369 ALRI patients from 81 (of the 108 sentinel hospitals in 22 (of the 24 provinces, and 10,387 (36.6% were positive for at least one etiology. The most frequently detected virus was RSV (9.9%, followed by influenza (6.6%, PIV (4.8%, ADV (3.4%, hBoV (1.9, hMPV (1.5% and hCoV (1.4%. Co-detections were found in 7.2% of patients. RSV was the most common etiology (17.0% in young children aged <2 years. Influenza viruses were the main cause of the ALRIs in adults and elderly. PIV, hBoV, hMPV and ADV infections were more frequent in children, while hCoV infection was distributed evenly in all-age. There were clear seasonal peaks for RSV, influenza, PIV, hBoV and hMPV infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings could serve as robust evidence for public health authorities in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ALRIs associated with viral pathogens. RSV is common in young children and prevention measures could have large public health impact. Influenza was most common in adults and influenza vaccination should be implemented on a wider scale in China.
Middle ear infection - chronic; Otitis media - chronic; Chronic otitis media; Chronic ear infection ... blocked, fluid can build up. When this happens, infection can occur. A chronic ear infection develops when ...
Giardia infection (giardiasis) Overview Giardia infection is an intestinal infection marked by abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea and bouts of watery diarrhea. Giardia infection is caused by a microscopic parasite ...
Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...
Full Text Available Interactions between membrane proteins and the soluble fraction are essential for signal transduction and for regulating nutrient transport. To gain insights into the membrane-based interactome, 3,852 open reading frames (ORFs out of a target list of 8,383 representing membrane and signaling proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana were cloned into a Gateway compatible vector. The mating-based split-ubiquitin system was used to screen for potential protein-protein interactions (pPPIs among 490 Arabidopsis ORFs. A binary robotic screen between 142 receptor-like kinases, 72 transporters, 57 soluble protein kinases and phosphatases, 40 glycosyltransferases, 95 proteins of various functions and 89 proteins with unknown function detected 387 out of 90,370 possible PPIs. A secondary screen confirmed 343 (of 387 pPPIs between 179 proteins, yielding a scale-free network (r2=0.863. Eighty of 142 transmembrane receptor-like kinases (RLK tested positive, identifying three homomers, 63 heteromers and 80 pPPIs with other proteins. Thirty-one out of 142 RLK interactors (including RLKs had previously been found to be phosphorylated; thus interactors may be substrates for respective RLKs. None of the pPPIs described here had been reported in the major interactome databases, including potential interactors of G protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C, and AMT ammonium transporters. Two RLKs found as putative interactors of AMT1;1 were independently confirmed using a split luciferase assay in Arabidopsis protoplasts. These RLKs may be involved in ammonium-dependent phosphorylation of the C-terminus and regulation of ammonium uptake activity. The robotic screening method established here will enable a systematic analysis of membrane protein interactions in fungi, plants and metazoa.
... children-s-health-issues/viral-infections-in-infants-and-children/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infection-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection National Cancer Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human ...
countries, the mortality is higher in developing countries. (Shapiro 1998). The risk of pneumonia is 3-6 times higher in children from developing countries (10-20%) as compared to developed countries (3–4%) (Victora et al 1999). Approximately 0.5 million children die due to ALRI in. India each year, accounting for one ...
polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for N and L gene is the method of choice for diagnosis. The virus has been seen in all countries with seasonal distribution in winter months for temperate and spring/summer for tropical ...
the SH and G proteins (59 and 37% identity, respectively),. (van den Hoogen et al 2002; Biacchesi et al 2003; Herfst et al 2004) and is more than RSV subgroup A and B. hMPV. F protein, which is predicted to be the principal target of protective antibodies, is more conserved in hMPV strains than RSV. The overall level of ...
Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.
Wu, Hong; Deng, Jie; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Lin-qing; Wang, Fang; Shan, Min-na; Deji, Mei-duo
To investigate the viral etiology and clinical features of hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infections in Tibet. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from children with acute respiratory tract infection hospitalized at the department of Pediatrics, Tibet Autonomous Region People's Hospital from April to July, 2011. The specimens of nasopharyngeal aspirate were screened for antigens of 7 common respiratory viruses by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza viruses type I-III, influenza virus A and B] and human metapneumovirus. Clinical data of the children were analyzed by statistical software SPSS16. A total of 167 children with acute respiratory tract infections hospitalized from April to July 2011 were enrolled in this investigation. Sixty-five out of 167 specimens were positive for viral antigens. The virus positive rate for specimens was 38.9% (65/167). Two of 65 positive specimens were positive for 2 virus antigens (RSV + influenza B) and (hMPV + parainfluenza virus type III), respectively. RSV was detected in 45 cases (67.2%, 45/67) which was the most predominant, followed by parainfluenza virus type III detected in 7 cases (10.4%, 7/67), ADV in 6 cases (9.0%, 6/67), parainfluenza virus type I in 4 cases (6.0%, 4/67), influenza virus type B in 3 cases (4.5%, 3/67), and hMPV in 2 cases (3.0%, 2/67). In addition to clinical manifestations of pneumonia, such as cough and shortness of breath, only 3 virus positive cases (6.67%) presented with wheezing, but the signs of severe cyanosis, fine rales in lung were common. Most of the children in this study recovered soon, only a few younger children with underlying diseases or complications had severe illness. Virus is an important pathogen for acute respiratory infections for hospitalized children in Tibet. RSV was the most predominant etiological agent, especially for those younger than 3 years old.
Sénior, Juan Manuel
Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is a disease caused by colonization and proliferation of infectious agents on the endothelial surface of the heart. Its clinical presentation is variable, depending upon conditions of the patient, such as immunosuppression, presence of prosthetic material, intravenous drug use, and the etiologic agent. Diagnosis is usually established through the addition of elements such as medical history, physical examination, results of blood cultures, echocardiography and other aids. We present the case of an adult male who came to the hospital with fever and symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. The presence of a systolic murmur was documented in the aortic area, and the echocardiogram revealed severe valve regurgitation and a vegetating lesion on the bicuspid aortic valve. He required valve replacement and completed antibiotic treatment based on the sensitivity of the Streptococcus mitis strain that was demonstrated in the blood cultures.
Salim Mattar V
Full Text Available The infectious syndromes associated with arenaviruses in South America are four: febrile syndrome of viral origin; Haemorrhagic fevers with or without neurological involvement; Aseptic meningitis and meningo-encephalitis. Among the Arenavirus of the new world is the Tacaribe complex where the viruses are found: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Machupo (Bolivia and Sabiá (Brazil, which are characterized by hemorrhagic fevers. In Colombia the arenavirus Pichindé was isolated in 1965, from the rodent Oryzomys albigularis, in the valley of Pichindé (Valle del Cauca. This arenavirus produces a persistent infection in its host and is not pathogenic for the man. There is evidence of the circulation of the Guanarito virus in rodents from Córdoba, but there are no cases diagnosed in humans; In Colombia, the genome of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was detected in the brains of rodents Mus musculus. The diagnosis is based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and the suspicion of a patient with fever in endemic areas, where infections such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis, sepsis of bacterial origin and rickectomy have been excluded. Virus isolation in the feverish period is the gold standart, but it implies contact with the virus that is highly infectious, which represents a public health problem. Serology has been used for diagnosis, but there is no commercial evidence and only research groups and large public health laboratories have these tests. Most of the patients present a moderate severity, which needs adequate hydration, antipyretics and anti-inflammatories. All patients with severe signs should be aggressively treated. The use of drugs has not demonstrated a decrease in mortality but a significant reduction in viremia.
Gao, Xiao-Qian; Jin, Yu; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Xie, Le-Yun; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Zhao-Jun
To investigate the epidemiological features and types of human adenoviruses (ADV) in children with acute respiratory tract infection in Nanjing area, China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 644 outpatients or hospitalized pediatric patients with ARTI at the Children Hospital of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China, between August 2010 and July 2011. Adenoviruses were identified and typed from the collected clinical specimens by nested-PCR based on the partial region of the hexon gene. Other 12 respiratory viruses including human bocavirus (HBoV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), parainfluenza viruses 1-4 (PIV1-4), influenza virus A/B (IFVA/B), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus NL63 and HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63) were also identified by PCR method. All PCR positive products were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. It was showed that adenoviruses were detected in 171 patients out of 644 (26. 55%) children, 120 (70.18%, 120/171) for ADV3, 16 (9.36%,16/171) for ADV7, 12 (7.02%, 12/171) for ADV1, 10 (5.85%, 10/171) for ADV2, 6 (3.51%, 6/171) for ADV5, 3 (1.75%, 3/171) for ADV6, 3 (1.75%, 3/171) for ADV57, and 1 (0.58%,1/171) for ADV41. ADV infection could occur in any season. There was a higher possibility of ADV infection from April to July in 2011. Most cases (96.49%) were younger than 7 years old. A total of 99 of the 171 ADV-positive children (57.89%) were co-infected with other respiratory viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) were the most common additional respiratory viruses, Lower respiratory tract infections were the most frequent diagnoses made in the hospital, in which there were 52 pneumonia (30.4%) cases. ADV is one of the most important pathogens of acute respiratory tract infection in children in Nanjing area, and adenovirus type 3 was the most prevalent serotype. It is important to develop long-term surveillance.
Camilo Guzmán T
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.
Rotaviruses are genetically highly variable, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded, segmented ribonucleic acid genome. They are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In children aged less than 5 years, they are the most frequent agent of severe acute diarrheal illnesses. In less developed countries, rotavirus diseases are one of the most frequent causes of death in infants and little children. Typically, symptomatic rotavirus diseases in infants (70 years) arise with sudden onset of watery diarrhoea with high risk of dehydration, accompanied by vomiting and, in several cases, unspecific respiratory symptoms such as cold and sore throat. In adults aged less than 70 years, illnesses due to rotavirus appear generally mild or as travel diarrhoea. Although rotavirus infections are considered to by systemic, extraintestinal manifestations such as rotavirus central nervous system diseases are relatively rare. Rotaviruses are transmitted primarily from person-to-person by the faecal-oral route. Treatment of rotavirus diarrhoea is usually symptomatic and comprises a sufficient fluid and electrolyte substitution. Although nitazoxanide and some other drugs show high efficacy against rotavirus in vitro and in vivo, there is currently no recommended specific antiviral therapy. For prophylaxis, special attention should be paid to adequate hygienic rules. Because of the high stability of rotaviruses to changing environmental conditions, disinfection should be performed applying disinfectants with proven activity against rotaviruses. In Germany, two efficient and secure live vaccines against rotaviruses have been approved. Their application, however, is not generally recommended.
Lawal, Ismaheel; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas; Ankrah, Alfred; Vorster, Mariza; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Govender, Thavendran; Sathekge, Mike
Metabolic imaging has come to occupy a prominent place in the diagnosis and management of microbial infection. Molecular probes available for infection imaging have undergone a rapid evolution starting with nonspecific agents that accumulate similarly in infection, sterile inflammation, and
During pregnancy, some common infections like the common cold or a skin infection do not usually cause serious problems. ... of the infections that can be dangerous during pregnancy include Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Group B strep (GBS) ...
... Family history of ear infections Not being breastfed Pacifier use Recent ear infection Recent illness of any ... lead to fewer ear infections. DO NOT use pacifiers. Breastfeed -- this makes a child much less prone ...
Listeria infection Overview Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly ...
... Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity ... ) haemolyticum is an organism that most often causes infections and illnesses in teenagers and young adults. The infection is spread from person to person, ...
Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C
Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain
... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence Share | Doctors have excellent treatments for skin fungus infections that occur on the feet, nails, groin, ...
Kaviarasan P K
Full Text Available An increased colonization of Malassezia furfur organism has been reported in patients with HIV infection. Pityriasis versicolour and pityrosporum folliculitis arise from overgrowth of M. furfur. It is also thought to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of seborrhoeic dermatitis and is one of the earliest clinical markers of HIV infection. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The occurrence of pityrosporum infection was 13.5% (25 cases amongst 185 HIV serpositive patients in HIV infected cases in our study. Mean age of the affected patients was 31.7 years and male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The main mode of acquisition of HIV infection was heterosexual (19 cases. Tinea versicolour was seen in 10 (40% cases, seborrhoeic was found to be more explosive in onset and involving extensive areas with severe inflammation. Extensive tinea versicolour and seborrhoeic dermatitis were seen in three cases with pityrosporum infections. Nine of the pityrosporum infections were observed in HIV group IV, which is equivalent of AIDS. To conclude, seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS may have some unique features and may be used as a clinical marker of AIDS.
... infections will return. Complications are not common. Possible Complications Complications may include: Abscess of salivary gland Infection returns ... cases, salivary gland infections cannot be prevented. Good oral hygiene may prevent some cases of bacterial infection. ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...
Deng, Jie; Zhu, Ru-Nan; Qian, Yuan; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Lin-Qing; Wang, Fang; Wu, Hong; Shan, Min-Na; Deji, Mei-Duo
To understand the role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Tibet Autonomous Region and the contribution of two major groups of RSV, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) were collected from hospitalized children with ARI in Department of Pediatrics, Tibet People's Hospital in Lasa, Tibet from April to July in 2011 and tested for seven common respiratory viruses and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA). Total RNAs were extracted from RSV positive samples by DFA and reverse transcripted to cDNA. Nested-PCR was employed to determine the genogroups of RSV, which were confirmed by real time-PCR and sequence analysis for G protein encoding gene. The Characteristics and variations of G genes from RSV in this project were identified by sequence comparison with those G genes in GenBank. Out of 167 samples, 65 were positive for respiratory viruses with a total positive rate of 38.9%, including 45 (69.2%, 45/65)positive samples for RSV. Among 42 samples that were positive for RSV and genotyped, 40 were identified as group A and 2 as group B. Sequence analysis of full-length G genes for 7 RSV of group A indicated that all of these belonged to subgroup GA2. The nucleotide identities between RSVs from Tibet and prototype A2 strain were 90.7%-91.8%, with 86.5%-87.2% identities of amino acid. The mutations of amino acids were mainly located in both ends of a highly conserved region in the ectodomain of the G proteins. The data indicated that RSV was the most important viral etiologic agent of ARI in spring of 2011 in Tibet and group A of RSV was predominant during the study period. High divergence existed in the ectodomain of G proteins of RSVs from Tibet.
Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...
Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 5% of people.Infection can cause discomfor...
Chau, C.L.F.; Griffith, J.F.
Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented
Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)
Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.
Marien, Maja; Decostere, Annemie; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen; Froyman, Robrecht; Nauwynck, Hans
Experimental groups of 15 susceptible 3-week-old turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with avian metapneumovirus (APV) subtype A and susceptible Escherichia coli O2:K1 and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) bacteria, with a 3 days interval between viral and bacterial inoculation and approximately 8h between the two bacterial inoculations. The aims of the present study were to assess the efficacy of drinking-water administration of enrofloxacin for 3 and 5 days, amoxicillin for 5 days and florfenicol for 5 days for the treatment of the resulting respiratory disease, based on clinical and bacteriological examinations. Antimicrobial treatment started 1 day after dual bacterial inoculation. After infection, the birds were examined and scored for clinical signs daily, weighed at different times, and their tracheae swabbed daily. Five birds were euthanised and examined for macroscopic lesions at necropsy at 5 days post-bacterial inoculation (dpbi) and the remainder at 15dpbi. Samples of the turbinates, trachea, lungs, sinuses, air sacs, heart, pericardium and liver were collected for bacteriological examination. Recovery from respiratory disease caused by an APV/E. coli/ORT triple infection in 3-week-old turkey poults was overall most successful after enrofloxacin treatment, irrespective of treatment duration, followed by florfenicol treatment. Compared with the untreated group, clinical signs as well as ORT and E. coli multiplication in the respiratory tract were significantly reduced by both enrofloxacin treatments and the florfenicol treatment, with the enrofloxacin treatments showing significantly better reductions than the florfenicol treatment. Five-day treatment with amoxicillin, compared with the untreated group, did not cause a significant reduction in any of the aforementioned parameters.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs represent a serious global health burden. To date, few reports have addressed the prevalence of respiratory viruses (RVs in adults with ARTIs attending an emergency department (ED. Therefore, the potential impact of respiratory virus infections on such patients remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the epidemiological and clinical profiles of common and recently discovered respiratory viruses in adults with ARTIs attending an ED in Beijing, a 1-year consecutive study was conducted from May, 2010, to April, 2011. Nose and throat swab samples from 416 ARTI patients were checked for 13 respiratory viruses using multiple reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR assays for common respiratory viruses, including influenza viruses (Flu A, B, and adenoviruses (ADVs, picornaviruses (PICs, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs 1-3, combined with real-time RT-PCR for human metapneumovirus (HMPV and human coronaviruses (HCoVs, -OC43, -229E, -NL63, and -HKU1. Viral pathogens were detected in 52.88% (220/416 of patient samples, and 7.21% (30/416 of patients tested positive for more than one virus. PICs (17.79% were the dominant agents detected, followed by FluA (16.11%, HCoVs (11.78%, and ADV (11.30%. HMPV, PIVs, and FluB were also detected (<3%, but not RSV. The total prevalence and the dominant virus infections detected differed significantly between ours and a previous report. Co-infection rates were high for HCoV-229E (12/39, 30.76%, PIC (22/74, 29.73%, ADV (12/47, 25.53% and FluA (15/67, 22.39%. Different patterns of clinical symptoms were associated with different respiratory viruses. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of RV involvement in adults with ARTIs attending an ED in China differs from that previously reported. The high prevalence of viruses (PIC, FluA, HCoVs and ADV reported here strongly highlight the need for the development of safe and
Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Piya, Bhinnata; Shehabi, Asem; Faouri, Samir; Williams, John V; Vermund, Sten; Halasa, Natasha B
Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) is anyone with an acute respiratory infection with symptoms within 10 days of presentation, cough, fever, and hospitalization. This is used to standardize global influenza surveillance with the caveat not all cases will be captured. We sought to determine the proportion of hospitalized Jordanian children admitted with acute respiratory illnesses meeting the SARI definition. Methods We conducted 3-year viral surveillance study in children <2 years admitted with acute respiratory symptoms and/or fever into a large government hospital in Amman. Demographic and clinical data were collected. We tested nasal/throat swabs for 11 viruses using q-RT-PCR. We compared children who met SARI definition to non-SARI. Results We enrolled 3168 children. Table 1 compares those children who met SARI definition vs. those who did not. Figure 1 compares % of children who were virus-positive and met SARI definition. Table 1. N (%) SARI (n = 1198) Non-SARI (n = 1970) p-values Male 729 (60.9) 1183 (60.1) 0.655 Median Age 6.7 months 2.3 months 0.000 Underlying medical condition 160 (13.4) 215 (10.9) 0.039 Pneumonia 192 (16.0) 202 (10.3) 0.000 Sepsis 150 (12.5) 750 (38.1) 0.000 Bronchiolitis 169 (14.1) 378 (19.2) 0.000 Bronchopneumonia 656 (54.8) 364 (18.5) 0.000 ≤10-day duration 1198 (100) 1848 (93.8) 0.000 Cough 1198 (100) 1172 (59.5) 0.000 Fever 1198 (100) 649 (32.9) 0.000 Fever and Cough 1198 (100) 48 (2.4) 0.000 Virus positive 1076 (89.8) 1505 (76.4) 0.000 Rhinovirus 438 (36.6) 800 (40.6) 0.024 Adenovirus 201 (16.8) 274 (13.9) 0.028 Parainfluenza 1–3 75 (6.3) 100 (5.1) 0.157 Respiratory Syncytial Virus 635 (53.0) 762 (38.7) 0.000 Influenza A-C 61 (5.1) 58 (2.9) 0.002 Human Metapneumovirus 153 (12.8) 120 (6.1) 0.000 Conclusion Children who met the definition of SARI were more likely to be older, have an underlying medical condition, have the diagnoses of pneumonia and
... hours There are different levels of wound infections: Superficial -- the infection is in the skin area only ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Learn About Cronobacter Infection Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... but infections in young infants can be deadly. Learn what steps you can take to protect your ...
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
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... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Salmonella Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Salmonella Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...
... birth. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly (a birth defect where a baby’s head and ... CMV) can cause problems for some babies, including microcephaly and hearing loss. A woman who is infected ...
David L. Hemsell
Full Text Available Antibiotic prophylaxis and advances in technology have reduced operative site infections after hysterectomy to a minimum. Pelvic infections are the most common infection type and respond promptly to a variety of parenteral single-agent and combination antibiotic regimens. Oral antibiotic regimens following parenteral therapy are unnecessary. Abdominal incision infections are less common than pelvic infections, less common than seromas or hematomas, and usually do not require antimicrobial therapy. Abscesses or infected hematomas require parenteral antimicrobial therapy, and drainage of those located above the cuff will predictably shorten therapy time. With early discharge from the hospital, many infections will not become evident until after the patient is home. For that reason, it is important that the patient's discharge instructions outline symptoms and signs associated with these infections so she can present for care at the earliest possible time.
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...
... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections Share | Tinea is the name given to ... Most people will develop some resistance to skin fungus after being infected. Others appear to have a ...
Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske
Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity...
Kwon, Yong Soo
Increasing incidence of pleural infection has been reported worldwide in recent decades. The pathogens responsible for pleural infection are changing and differ from those in community acquired pneumonia. The main treatments for pleural infection are antibiotics and drainage of infected pleural fluid. The efficacy of intrapleural fibrinolytics remains unclear, although a recent randomized control study showed that the novel combination of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease had...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.
Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F
Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.
Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning
Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients...... with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....
Wilson, Eugene K; Deweber, Kevin; Berry, James W; Wilckens, John H
Cutaneous infections are common in wrestlers. Although many are simply a nuisance in the everyday population, they can be problematic to wrestlers because such infections may result in disqualification from practice or competition. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are therefore important. Medline and PubMed databases, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and UpToDate were searched through 2012 with the following keywords in various combinations: skin infections, cutaneous infections, wrestlers, athletes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, skin and soft tissue infections, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster, molluscum contagiosum, verruca vulgaris, warts, scabies, and pediculosis. Relevant articles found in the primary search, and selected references from those articles were reviewed for pertinent clinical information. The most commonly reported cutaneous infections in wrestlers are herpes simplex virus infections (herpes gladiatorum), bacterial skin and soft tissue infections, and dermatophyte infections (tinea gladiatorum). The clinical appearance of these infections can be different in wrestlers than in the community at large. For most cutaneous infections, diagnosis and management options in wrestlers are similar to those in the community at large. With atypical presentations, testing methods are recommended to confirm the diagnosis of herpes gladiatorum and tinea gladiatorum. There is evidence to support the use of prophylactic medications to prevent recurrence of herpes simplex virus and reduce the incidence of dermatophyte infections in wrestlers.
Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3-5% of people.Infection can cause discomfort in...
Kagan, Karl Oliver; Hamprecht, Klaus
Due to the severe risk of long-term sequelae, prenatal cytomegalovirus infection is of particular importance amongst intrauterine viral infections. This review summarizes the current knowledge about CMV infection in pregnancy. A search of the Medline and Embase database was done for articles about CMV infection in pregnany. We performed a detailed review of the literature in view of diagnosis, epidemiology and management of CMV infection in pregnancy. The maternal course of the infection is predominantly asymptomatic; the infection often remains unrecognized until the actual fetal manifestation. Typical ultrasound signs that should arouse suspicion of intrauterine CMV infection can be distinguished into CNS signs such as ventriculomegaly or microcephaly and extracerebral infection signs such as hepatosplenomegaly or hyperechogenic bowel. Current treatment strategies focus on hygienic measures to prevent a maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, on maternal application of hyperimmunoglobulines to avoid materno-fetal transmission in case of a maternal seroconversion, and on an antiviral therapy in case the materno-fetal transmission have occurred. CMV infection in pregnancy may result in a severe developmental disorder of the newborn. This should be taken into account in the treatment of affected and non-affected pregnant women.
Débora N. Marcone
Full Text Available Los métodos moleculares para diagnosticar rinovirus humanos (RVH han aumentado la sensibilidad de detección. Esto ha permitido documentar la asociación entre los RVH y las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA altas y bajas. La infección por RVH durante la infancia se asoció con posterior desarrollo de asma. Se estudió la frecuencia de RVH en 186 niños menores de 6 años ambulatorios con IRA (alta o baja, durante 2 años consecutivos (1/6/2008 - 31/5/2010. Se correlacionó la presencia de RVH con los antecedentes y características clínico-epidemiológicas. La detección de RVH se realizó con una RT-PCR en tiempo real que amplifica parte de la región 5' no codificante del genoma. Los virus respiratorios clásicos se estudiaron por inmunofluorescencia. En el 61% de los niños se detectó etiología viral. Las frecuencias fueron: RVH 27%, virus sincicial respiratorio (VSR 16%, influenza A y B 9%, parainfluenza 8%, metapneumovirus 7% y adenovirus 0.5%. Se observaron coinfecciones duales en 8 casos, siendo RVH el más frecuente (en 4 de ellos. Los RVH circularon durante todo el período estudiado, con picos en invierno y primavera. No se observaron diferencias clínico-epidemiológicas significativas entre pacientes con o sin RVH, excepto un mayor porcentaje de niños afebriles con RVH. Los RVH fueron los virus más detectados en niños ambulatorios, principalmente en menores de 2 años, los segundos virus asociados a bronquiolitis, luego del VSR, y detectados tres veces más en los niños expuestos a tabaquismo pasivo (OR: 2,91; p = 0.012 que en el resto. Fueron identificados como único agente en el 28% de las bronquiolitis.Molecular methods for human rhinoviruses (HRV have increased the sensitivity in their diagnosis. HRV may cause acute respiratory infections (ARI of the upper and lower respiratory tract. HRV infection during childhood is a predictor of asthma development. In this study, the HRV frequency in outpatient children with
Ana Lucia L. Lima
Full Text Available Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.
Huttunen, R; Karppelin, M; Syrjänen, J
The prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) is a major goal in modern healthcare. Intrinsic, patient-related factors may contribute to the risk of HCAIs. To review the association between obesity and the risk and outcome of HCAIs. A PubMed search of relevant studies on obesity and nosocomial infections and obesity and dosing of antimicrobials. Search terms were: 'obesity', 'infection', 'nosocomial infection', 'surgical site infection', 'critical care unit', 'bacteremia', 'urinary tract infection', 'health care associated infection'. Obesity has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of HCAIs in several studies. The association is most clear in cardiac, vascular, orthopaedic and gastrointestinal surgery. Body mass index (BMI) data are frequently recorded in patients undergoing surgical and invasive procedures. The recording of BMI data is not systematic in the literature and in many studies median BMI of the control group or reference group (normal weight) also indicates overweight or obesity. Thus, clear BMI cut-offs for increased infection risk cannot be determined. Obesity is frequently associated with underdosing of antimicrobials in both prophylaxis and treatment of HCAIs. Studies indicate that obesity affects the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial drugs. However, there are no dosing recommendations for antimicrobial use in obesity. Obesity increases the risk of nosocomial infections and is frequently associated with underdosing of antimicrobials in both prophylaxis and treatment of HCAIs. A challenge in future hospital hygiene prevention lies in our capacity to combat obesity epidemics. © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L; Jiang, Shibo; Hui, David S; Beigel, John H; Govorkova, Elena A; Lee, Nelson
The International Society for Influenza and other Respiratory Virus Diseases held its 5th Antiviral Group (isirv-AVG) Conference in Shanghai, China, in conjunction with the Shanghai Public Health Center and Fudan University from 14-16 June 2017. The three-day programme encompassed presentations on some of the clinical features, management, immune responses and virology of respiratory infections, including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H7N9) viruses, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, adenovirus Type 80, enterovirus D68, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Updates were presented on several therapeutics currently in clinical trials, including influenza polymerase inhibitors pimodivir/JNJ6362387, S033188, favipiravir, monoclonal antibodies MHAA45449A and VIS410, and host directed strategies for influenza including nitazoxanide, and polymerase ALS-008112 and fusion inhibitors AK0529, GS-5806 for RSV. Updates were also given on the use of the currently licensed neuraminidase inhibitors. Given the location in China, there were also presentations on the use of Traditional Chinese Medicines. Following on from the previous conference, there were ongoing discussions on appropriate endpoints for severe influenza in clinical trials from regulators and clinicians, an issue which remains unresolved. The aim of this conference summary is to provide information for not only conference participants, but a detailed referenced review of the current status of clinical trials, and pre-clinical development of therapeutics and vaccines for influenza and other respiratory diseases for a broader audience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented
Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)
Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.
Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.
Mete Sucu; Cihan Cetin; Mehmet Ozsurmeli; Ghanim Khatib; Ceren Cetin; Cuneyt Evruke
The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinician...
... present in some children, including an infection of the joints ( arthritis ), bones (osteomyelitis), and tendons (tenosynovitis). Less frequently, youngsters may have pneumonia , urinary tract ...
Lawal, Ismaheel; Zeevaart, JanRijn; Ebenhan, Thomas; Ankrah, Alfred; Vorster, Mariza; Kruger, Hendrik G; Govender, Thavendran; Sathekge, Mike
Metabolic imaging has come to occupy a prominent place in the diagnosis and management of microbial infection. Molecular probes available for infection imaging have undergone a rapid evolution starting with nonspecific agents that accumulate similarly in infection, sterile inflammation, and neoplastic tissue and then extending to more targeted probes that seek to identify specific microbial species. This focus review describes the metabolic and molecular imaging techniques currently available for clinical use in infection imaging and those that have demonstrated promising results in preclinical studies with the potential for clinical applications. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.
Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota
Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140
Dennis J. Baumgardner
Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.
This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.
Ross, S.A.; Novak, Z.; Pati, S.; Boppana, S.B.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is recognized as the most common congenital viral infection in humans and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. This recognition of the clinical importance of invasive CMV disease in the setting of immunodeficiency and in children with congenital CMV infection has led to the development of new diagnostic procedures for the rapid identification of immunocompromised individuals with CMV disease, as well as fetuses and infants with congenital infection. Diagnosis of acute maternal CMV infection by the presence of IgM and low IgG avidity requires confirmation of fetal infection which is typically performed by CMV PCR of the amniotic fluid. Viral culture of the urine and saliva obtained within the first two weeks of life continue to be the gold standard for diagnosis of congenitally infected infants. PCR assays of dried blood spots from infants have not been shown to have sufficient sensitivity for the identification of most infants with congenital CMV infection. However, saliva PCR assays are currently being assessed as a useful screening method for congenital CMV infection. In the immunocompromised host, newer rapid diagnostic assays such as pp65 antigenemia and real-time CMV PCR of blood or plasma have allowed for preemptive treatment reducing morbidity and mortality. However, lack of standardized real-time PCR protocols hinders the comparison of the data across different centers and the development of uniform guidelines for the management of invasive CMV infections in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:21827433
Bacterial keratitis; Fungal keratitis; Acanthamoeba keratitis; Herpes simplex keratitis ... infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or a parasite. Acanthamoeba keratitis occurs in contact lens users. It is ...
The role of influenza, RSV and other common respiratory viruses in severe acute respiratory infections and influenza-like illness in a population with a high HIV sero-prevalence, South Africa 2012-2015.
Pretorius, Marthi A; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; Moyes, Jocelyn; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Seleka, Mpho; Hellferscee, Orienka; Treurnicht, Florette; Cohen, Cheryl; Venter, Marietjie
Viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections may be the cause of illness or asymptomatic shedding. To estimate the attributable fraction (AF) and the detection rate attributable to illness for each of the different respiratory viruses We compared the prevalence of 10 common respiratory viruses (influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza virus 1-3; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); adenovirus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and enterovirus) in both HIV positive and negative patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and control subjects who did not report any febrile, respiratory or gastrointestinal illness during 2012-2015 in South Africa. We enrolled 1959 SARI, 3784 ILI and 1793 controls with a HIV sero-prevalence of 26%, 30% and 43%, respectively. Influenza virus (AF: 86.3%; 95%CI: 77.7-91.6%), hMPV (AF: 85.6%; 95%CI: 72.0-92.6%), and RSV (AF: 83.7%; 95%CI: 77.5-88.2%) infections were associated with severe disease., while rhinovirus (AF: 46.9%; 95%CI: 37.6-56.5%) and adenovirus (AF: 36.4%; 95%CI: 20.6-49.0%) were only moderately associated. Influenza, RSV and hMPV can be considered pathogens if detected in ILI and SARI while rhinovirus and adenovirus were commonly identified in controls suggesting that they may cause only a proportion of clinical disease observed in positive patients. Nonetheless, they may be important contributors to disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to SARS associated coronaviruses, 4 non-SARS related human coronaviruses (HCoVs are recognized as common respiratory pathogens. The etiology and clinical impact of HCoVs in Chinese adults with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI needs to be characterized systematically by molecular detection with excellent sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we detected 4 non-SARS related HCoV species by real-time RT-PCR in 981 nasopharyngeal swabs collected from March 2009 to February 2011. All specimens were also tested for the presence of other common respiratory viruses and newly identified viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV and human bocavirus (HBoV. 157 of the 981 (16.0% nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for HCoVs. The species detected were 229E (96 cases, 9.8%, OC43 (42 cases, 4.3%, HKU1 (16 cases, 1.6% and NL63 (11 cases, 1.1%. HCoV-229E was circulated in 21 of the 24 months of surveillance. The detection rates for both OC43 and NL63 were showed significantly year-to-year variation between 2009/10 and 2010/11, respectively (P<0.001 and P = 0.003, and there was a higher detection frequency of HKU1 in patients aged over 60 years (P = 0.03. 48 of 157(30.57% HCoV positive patients were co-infected. Undifferentiated human rhinoviruses and influenza (Flu A were the most common viruses detected (more than 35% in HCoV co-infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human parainfluenza virus (PIV and HBoV were detected in very low rate (less than 1% among adult patients with URTI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All 4 non-SARS-associated HCoVs were more frequently detected by real-time RT-PCR assay in adults with URTI in Beijing and HCoV-229E led to the most prevalent infection. Our study also suggested that all non-SARS-associated HCoVs contribute significantly to URTI in adult patients in China.
... mucous membranes or nonintact skin (see Chapter 8, Health Care Workers ). EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV infection occurs worldwide. As of the end of 2014, an estimated 37 million people were living with HIV infection. Although sub-Saharan Africa has experienced a substantial decline in the number ...
SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...
... worldwide and affects persons of all ages and socioeconomic levels. It is the most common worm infection ... spread? Pinworm infection is spread by the fecal-oral route, that is by the ... medications. A health care provider should be consulted before treating a ...
Piano, Salvatore; Brocca, Alessandra; Mareso, Sara; Angeli, Paolo
Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of bacterial infections. Bacterial infections induce systemic inflammation that may lead to organ failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) resulting in a high risk of short term mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections is essential to improve the patient's prognosis. However, in recent years, the spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has reduced the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins. In patients at high risk of MDR bacteria, such as those with nosocomial infections, the early administration of broad spectrum antibiotics has been shown to improve the prognosis. However, early de-escalation of antibiotics is recommended to reduce a further increase in antibiotic resistance. Strategies to prevent acute kidney injury and other organ failures should be implemented. Although prophylaxis of bacterial infections with antibiotics improves the prognosis in selected patients, their use should be limited to patients at high risk of developing infections. In this article, we review the pathogenesis and management of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
the development of SSI. Complications associated with surgical site infections7. • Longer hospital stay with risk of acquiring other hospital acquired infections like pneumonia. • Require more surgical procedures. • Risk for development of resistance to antibiotics. • Risk for development of necrotizing fasciitis with skin loss.
... back of the nose believed to play a role in immune system activity. This function may make them particularly vulnerable to infection, inflammation and swelling. Because adenoids are near the ... likely to play a role in ear infections in children because children have ...
Conclusion: Limited diagnostic and therapeutic capacities compounded by nonavailability of essential antimicrobials in most high-TB-burden countries pose great challenges to physicians involved in the management of these infections. These infections affect the overall outcome and lead to high cost for public health systems.
The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic
... The Urinary Tract & How It Works Bladder Infection (Urinary Tract Infection—UTI) in Adults View or Print All Sections ... Bladder infections are the most common type of urinary tract infection (UTI), but any part of your urinary tract ...
Joel M. Palefsky
Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.
Catherine M. O’Connell
Full Text Available Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years, likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity. Pathology/Symptomatology: C. trachomatis infects susceptible squamocolumnar or transitional epithelial cells, leading to cervicitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms are often mild or absent but ascending infection in some women may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID, resulting in reproductive sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Complications of infection in men include epididymitis and reactive arthritis. Molecular mechanisms of infection: Chlamydiae manipulate an array of host processes to support their obligate intracellular developmental cycle. This leads to activation of signaling pathways resulting in disproportionate influx of innate cells and the release of tissue damaging proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment and curability: Uncomplicated urogenital infection is treated with azithromycin (1 g, single dose or doxycycline (100 mg twice daily x 7 days. However, antimicrobial treatment does not ameliorate established disease. Drug resistance is rare but treatment failures have been described. Development of an effective vaccine that protects against upper tract disease or that limits transmission remains an important goal.
Aksoy, D Y; Kerimoglu, U; Oto, A; Erguven, S; Arslan, S; Unal, S; Batman, F; Bayraktar, Y
Fascioliasis, caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, is an infection that occurs worldwide, although humans are accidental hosts. F. hepatica infection comprises two stages, hepatic and biliary, with different signs and symptoms. Stool examination and ELISA can be used for the initial diagnosis. Radiographic techniques, such as computerised tomography and ultrasonography, as well as magnetic resonance imaging, are used widely for confirmation and follow-up of the disease. Invasive techniques, such as percutaneous cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and liver biopsy, may aid in the diagnosis but are not essential. Triclabendazole is recommended as the first-line agent for the treatment of F. hepatica infection, with bithionol as an alternative.
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466
Tande, Aaron J.
SUMMARY Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a tremendous burden for individual patients as well as the global health care industry. While a small minority of joint arthroplasties will become infected, appropriate recognition and management are critical to preserve or restore adequate function and prevent excess morbidity. In this review, we describe the reported risk factors for and clinical manifestations of PJI. We discuss the pathogenesis of PJI and the numerous microorganisms that can cause this devastating infection. The recently proposed consensus definitions of PJI and approaches to accurate diagnosis are reviewed in detail. An overview of the treatment and prevention of this challenging condition is provided. PMID:24696437
Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Da Mosto, Maria Cristina
The aims of this study were to review the clinical characteristics and management of submandibular space infections and to identify the predisposing factors of life-threatening complications. This was a retrospective study at a tertiary academic center. We retrieved and evaluated the records of all patients admitted to the University of Padua Otolaryngology Clinic at Treviso Regional Hospital with the diagnosis of submandibular space infection for the period 1998-2006. The following variables were reviewed: demographic data, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, associated systemic diseases, bacteriology, imaging studies, medical and surgical treatment, and complications. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken using a forward stepwise technique. Multivariate analysis identified four risk factors for complications. Anterior visceral space involvement (odds ratio (OR) 54.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.80-511.22) and diabetes mellitus (OR 17.46; 95% CI 2.10-145.29) were the most important predictive factors in the model. Logistic regression analysis also confirmed other comorbidities (OR 11.66; 95% CI 1.35-100.10) and bilateral submandibular swelling (OR 10.67; 95% CI 2.73-41.75) as independent predictors for life-threatening complications. Airway obstruction and spread of the infection to the mediastinum are the most troublesome complications of submandibular space infections. Therefore, the maintenance of a secure airway is paramount. Patients with cellulitis and small abscesses can respond to antibiotics alone. Surgical drainage should be performed in patients with larger abscesses, Ludwig's angina, anterior visceral space involvement, and in those who do not respond to antibiotic treatment. Moreover, the clinical assessment in patients with comorbidities, especially diabetes mellitus, requires a high level of suspicion for potential life-threatening complications. Early surgical drainage should always be considered in these patients, even in
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Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.
Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic"
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TheÂ Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI)Â measures - state data. These measures are developed byÂ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Â and collected...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
... other immune disorders, or hepatitis People who are undergoing chemotherapy or treatment with other drugs that suppress the immune system Skin that is inflamed or damaged by sunburn, scratching, or other trauma is more likely to become infected. In fact, ...
... discomfort Frequent, painful urination Blood in urine Urethra (urethritis) Burning with urination Discharge When to see a ... opening to the bladder. Infection of the urethra (urethritis). This type of UTI can occur when GI ...
... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary ... Pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body When you hear the word chlamydia, you might think of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) by that ...
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T. L. Vinogradova
Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristic features of the modern course of infective endocarditis. Unresolved questions of classification of diseaseand drug therapy are discussed. Clearly defined indications for surgical treatment of endocarditis.
Marschang, Rachel E
A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.
Lamb, Tracey J
... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...
Mirza, Ayesha; Rathore, Mobeen H
As this article was written, celebrating another World AIDS Day, which falls on December 1 each year, was just days away. Not only is this a time to reflect on all the success with the treatment and management of HIV infection, in particular MTCT but also a time to reflect on the challenges ahead. As champions of children, pediatricians need to be more vocal in educating patients, families, and their communities about the risks of sexually transmitted infections and HIV infection and the need for testing as part of routine primary care. This needs to be the norm rather than the exception. All persons should be aware of their HIV status; until and unless this approach is taken, new infections will continue to be seen in young people, and even those who are aware of their status will continue to be wary of seeking care.
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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TheÂ Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI)Â measures - provider data. These measures are developed byÂ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Â and...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...
Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P
Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.
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Renault, Tristan; Novoa, Beatriz
Bivalve molluscs are filter feeders and as a consequence they may bioaccumulate in their tissues viruses that infect humans and higher vertebrates. However, there have also been described mortalities of bivalve molluscs associated with viruses belonging to different families. Mass mortalities of adult Portuguese oysters, Crassostrea angulata, among French livestocks (between 1967 and 1973) were associated with irido-like virus infections. Herpesviruses were reported in the eastern oyster, Pac...
Lindsay M Lawson
Full Text Available The authors describe a 43-year-old patient who had a mediastinal mass that became infected after a transbronchial needle aspirate biopsy. A paraspinal, extrapleural window with a saline-lidocaine mixture was created that allowed the placement of a percutaneous drainage catheter into the infected lesion. This procedure resulted in an excellent clinical outcome, and obviated the need for a thoracotomy and more invasive surgical management.
Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes (Mucor, Rhizopus ).6 reduce...below the infected burn wound . If the infection was controlled by these measures and the patient’s condition permit- ted, the involved area was...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and
Britton, Robert A.; Versalovic, James
Gastrointestinal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The use of probiotics to prevent and treat a variety of diarrheal diseases has gained favor in recent years. Examples where probiotics have positively impacted gastroenteritis will be highlighted. However, the overall efficacy of these treatments and the mechanisms by which probiotics ameliorate gastrointestinal infections are mostly unknown. We will discuss possible m...
Stewart, Philip S.
This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofi...
Rodrigues, Sofia; Gonçalves, Daniela; Taipa, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Maria do Céu
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital viral infection, causing hearing, visual and psychomotor impairment. Preexisting maternal CMV immunity substantially reduces, but not eliminates, the risk of fetal infection and affectation. This article is about a case of nonprimary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy, with vertical transmission, resulting in severe fetal affectation. Preconceptional analysis indicated maternal CMV past infection. Pregnancy progressed uneventfully until the 20th week ultrasound (US), which revealed cerebral abnormalities: thin and hyperechogenic cerebral cortex with prominent lateral ventricles, bilateral periventricular hyperechogenicities, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and absent corpus callosum. The MRI suggested these findings were compatible with congenital infection rather than primary brain malformation.The fetal karyotype was normal. The title of CMV's IgG antibodies almost tripled. Since the first semester, analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV DNA in the amniotic fluid was negative. The pregnancy was terminated at 23 weeks. Neuropathological findings at autopsy showed severe brain lesions associated with CMV infection. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs other than HIV have reappeared as an important public health problem in developed countries (1. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, research and treatment of the 'classic' STIs - gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia - were a major focus of infectious diseases practice and research. There were large outbreaks of syphilis in parts of Canada (2, penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae was a concern (3, and high rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with complications of pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy were being reported (4,5. Then, HIV infection emerged, with its spectre of a wasting, early death. There was no effective treatment, and safe sexual practices were embraced and adhered to by high-risk populations as the only effective way to avoid infection. These practices effectively prevented other STIs; rates of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia infection plummeted in developed countries (5. For at least a decade, it appeared that HIV might be an end to all STIs, at least for some parts of the world. STIs continued unabated in developing countries, as many epidemiological and therapeutic studies explored the association of STIs with HIV infection.
Full Text Available Sternal mycobacterial infections are rare. Due to the rarity, its clinical characteristics, diagnoses, and regular management strategies are still scanty. A total of 76 articles on this topic were obtained by a comprehensive literature collection. The clinical features, diagnosis, management strategies and prognosis were carefully analyzed. There were totally 159 patients including 152 (95% cases of tuberculosis (TB and seven (5% cases of non-TB sternal infections. Sternal mycobacterial infections can be categorized into three types: Primary, secondary, and postoperative, according to the pathogenesis; and categorized into isolated, peristernal, and multifocal, according to the extent of the lesions. Microbiological investigation is more sensitive than medical imaging and Mantoux tuberculin skin test in the diagnosis of sternal infections. Most patients show good responses to the standard four-drug regimen and a surgical intervention was necessary in 28.3% patients. The prognoses of the patients are good with a very low mortality. A delayed diagnosis of sternal mycobacterial infections may bring about recurrent sternal infections and sustained incurability. An early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic regimens may significantly improve the patients' outcomes.
On Annie, Lai Hiu; Ray, Manotosh
To analyze the demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics of cases of bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis. In this retrospective case series, patients with clinical evidence of bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis were identified from January 1, 2011 to August 31, 2016. Demographics, risk factors, clinical and microbiological characteristics, and treatment outcomes were analyzed. Five patients (ten eyes) with bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis were identified. The mean age was 32.8 years (SD,±8.8; range, 24-44). All the patients were disposable soft contact lens wearers before presentation. The average size of the infiltrate was 4.76mm 2 (SD±9.0; range, 0.2-31.34). A total of 4 types of bacteria were isolated, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequently isolated bacteria involving 5 eyes of four patients. Infection resolved with medical treatment in 9 eyes, 1 patient required therapeutic corneal transplantation for impending corneal perforation. The average time taken for infection to resolve was 6.7days (SD±4.5; range, 2-16). In this case series, the most common risk factor of bilateral simultaneous microbial keratitis was use of soft disposable contact lens and the most commonly isolated bacteria was Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bilateral simultaneous infective keratitis is uncommon and is a serious complication of contact lens use in immunocompetent adult patients. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J
In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.
Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Paolo Domenico Parchi
Full Text Available Postoperative spinal wound infection is a potentially devastating complication after operative spinal procedures. Despite the utilization of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in recent years and improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care, wound infection continues to compromise patients’ outcome after spinal surgery. In the modern era of pending health care reform with increasing financial constraints, the financial burden of post-operative spinal infections also deserves consideration. The aim of our work is to give to the reader an updated review of the latest achievements in prevention, risk factors, diagnosis, microbiology and treatment of post-operative spinal wound infections. A review of the scientific literature was carried out using electronic medical databases Pubmed, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Scopus for the years 1973-2012 to obtain access to all publications involving the incidence, risk factors, prevention, diagnosis, treatment of postoperative spinal wound infections. We initially identified 119 studies; of these 60 were selected. Despite all the measures intended to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections in spine surgery, these remain a common and potentially dangerous complication.
Madsen, M.B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.; Arnell, P.; Rosén, A.; Nekludov, M.; Karlsson, Y.; Bergey, F.; Saccenti, E.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Perner, A.; Norrby-Teglund, A.; Hyldegaard, O.
Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating
Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten
-up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...
Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.
The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,
... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's in ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the ...
Milind Madhav Chaudhary
Full Text Available Infected nonunions of tibia pose many challenges to the treating surgeon and the patient. Challenges include recalcitrant infection, complex deformities, sclerotic bone ends, large bone gaps, shortening, and joint stiffness. They are easy to diagnose and difficult to treat. The ASAMI classification helps decide treatment. The nonunion severity score proposed by Calori measures many parameters to give a prognosis. The infection severity score uses simple clinical signs to grade severity of infection. This determines number of surgeries and allows choice of hardware, either external or internal for definitive treatment. Co-morbid factors such as smoking, diabetes, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, and hypovitaminosis D influence the choice and duration of treatment. Thorough debridement is the mainstay of treatment. Removal of all necrotic bone and soft tissue is needed. Care is exercised in shaping bone ends. Internal fixation can help achieve union if infection was mild. Severe infections need external fixation use in a second stage. Compression at nonunion site achieves union. It can be combined with a corticotomy lengthening at a distant site for equalization. Soft tissue deficit has to be covered by flaps, either local or microvascular. Bone gaps are best filled with the reliable technique of bone transport. Regenerate bone may be formed proximally, distally, or at both sites. Acute compression can fill bone gaps and may need a fibular resection. Gradual reduction of bone gap happens with bone transport, without need for fibulectomy. When bone ends dock, union may be achieved by vertical or horizontal compression. Biological stimulus from iliac crest bone grafts, bone marrow aspirate injections, and platelet concentrates hasten union. Bone graft substitutes add volume to graft and help fill defects. Addition of rh-BMP-7 may help in healing albeit at a much higher cost. Regeneration may need stimulation and augmentation. Induced
Atherosclerosis is guided by chronicle inflammation process. In the last decades of the 20th century, studies considering infection another possible risk factor of atherosclerosis development were written. Helicobacter pylori, Porphyromas gingivalis, some viruses but most frequently Chlamydia pneumonie are infection agens mentioned in these studies. Some of them emphasize also combined infections caused by more pathogenic factors having influence on vascular inflammation. Serological, epidemiological, histological and imunological studies show the pathogenic influence of acute or chronic infections. Many studies selected makrolid antibiotics as treatment in patients with ischaemic heart disease. However, existing experience with antibiotics did not bring clear results. These studies have mentioned the fact antibiotics have not been indicated as treatment in patients with acute or chronic vascular system infliction by atherosclerosis. Since the experimental and clinical research of influence of inflammations on the development of atherosclerosis moved forward a lot, no exact evidence of this complicated pathogenic mechanism was given. It will obviously take some time to confirm whether the relation between infections and artherosclerosis is causal, i.e. initiating the pathogenic process, accelerating it or keeping it alive.
Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.
Maria Agnese Latino
Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t. infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more common among young women <25 years old, with multiple sexual partners within six months and non protected intercourses. Because re-infection rates are high, complications may be reduced if partners are treated and women re-tested. This paper emphasizes the importance of counselling and prevention programs and underlines that selective screening of high-risk population remains an essential component of C.t. control. In the last years, the detection of C.t. infection has been improved in sensitivity and specificity.We describe the main diagnostic techniques, from culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA to the new DNA-based test systems. Actually, NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests are regarded as the gold standard diagnostic techniques for chlamydial infections.
Dautzenberg, B; Mercat, A
Infrequent and forgotten before the advent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections are now often encountered, predominately in patients positive for the human immune deficiency virus (HIV). In non-AIDS patients, Mycobacterium kansasii, M. avium and M. xenopi are the most common causal agents of pulmonary mycobacterial infections. Nodes and skin diseases are less frequent. M. kansasii infections are treated for 12 months with a standard combination of rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol. The treatment for M. xenopi and M. avium infections have not yet been standardized. The AIDS epidemia has modified the epidemiology of these disease and there has been a 10-fold increase in incidence. Disseminated M. avium infections occur in 15% of patients at end-stage AIDS. This new epidemia has triggered research leading to the discovery of new diagnostic procedure including blood culture media for mycobacteria, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and new active drugs. New active macrolides such as clarithromycine and azithromycine are active against M. avium and new rifampicin-related drugs such as rifabutine and new quinolones are under investigation.
Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru
Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.
Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535
Reinout A. Bem
Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.
Kelly, Brendan P
Tinea capitis, tinea corporis, and pityriasis versicolor are common superficial fungal infections in the pediatric population. • Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection worldwide. In North America, the cause is almost exclusively T tonsurans. Diagnosis of tinea capitis usually can be made by clinical features alone, especially when occipital or postauricular lymphadenopathy is present. Skin scrapings prepared with potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination, or a cotton swab for fungal culture, usually are diagnostic. • Treatment of tinea capitis requires systemic antifungal therapy. Terbinafine and griseofulvin are both effective against T tonsurans and are FDA-approved for this indication in children. • Adjunctive topical therapy for the patient and household contacts decreases transmission of this infection. • Topical antifungal therapy usually is effective for tinea corporis and pityriasis versicolor. However, recurrences of pityriasis versicolor are common.
de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S
Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives.
Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.
Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious extra...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma.......Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...
Cabello, Raúl Romero; Ruiz, Aurora Candil; Feregrino, Raul Romero; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Feregrino, Rodrigo Romero; Zavala, Jorge Tay
Dipylidium caninum is a cestode that requires from the participation of an arthropod in its life cycle. This parasitosis occurs in dogs and cats, and occasionally in human beings. Human cases of D caninum infection have been reported in Europe, Philippines, China, Japan, Latin America and the United States; mostly children, one third of them being infants under 6 months old. The diagnosis of this disease is done by the parasitological study of the feces, observing the characteristics of the gravid proglottids. The treatment is performed by administering broad-spectrum anthelmintics. The authors report a case of a rare infection in a Mexican child.
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis. Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 1/9/2012.
Mardini, Shaza; Gohel, Anita
Odontogenic infections represent a common clinical problem in patients of all ages. The presence of teeth enables the direct spread of inflammatory products from dental caries, trauma, and/or periodontal disease into the maxilla and mandible. The radiographic changes seen depend on the type and duration of the inflammatory process and host body response. Imaging plays a central role in identifying the source of infection and the extent of the disease spread and in detecting any complications. Many different imaging modalities can be used. The radiographic features associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND As on 2015 Human immunodeficiency virus estimations in India, people living with HIV are 21.17 lakhs, women with HIV constituting 2/5th of the total. The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and malignancy are more in HIV infected people. Cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers among Indian women. HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections, Human Papilloma Virus infection in particular act synergistic in predisposing to cervical neoplasia. Undetected cervical cancer may increase the mortality of HIV infected women. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a case control study done at STI clinic of tertiary hospital of South India involving 100 HIV infected women and 50 HIV uninfected women as control. STI screening and cervical cytology was done for both the group. RESULTS Sociodemographic profile was similar for both the groups pertaining to Age, Occupation, Literacy. 80% of women in study group and control group were married and monogamous. 34% of HIV infected women had early sexual debut because of early marriage (P value .006. 86% of HIV infected and 40% of HIV uninfected women had sexually transmitted infections. (P value .000.Abnormal cervical cytology was found more in HIV infected women. Inflammatory smear was found in 65% of HIV infected women and in 42% of HIV uninfected women. Epithelial cell abnormalities were found in 25% of HIV infected women and in 2% of control group. High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was found in 4% of study group and none in control group. CONCLUSION Prevalence of STI and abnormal cervical cytology are more common in HIV infected women. Sexually transmitted infections, HIV and HPV in particular, are the proven risk factors of cervical malignancy .So prevention of cervical cancer lies in controlling STI and preventing HPV infection by early vaccination. Screening for STI and periodic Pap smear screening should be ideally done for all HIV infected women as per NACO guidelines.
van der Werf, TS; van der Graaf, WTA; Tappero, JW; Asiedu, K
After tuberculosis and leprosy, Buruli-ulcer disease (caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans) is the third most common mycobacterial disease in immunocompetent people. Countries in which the disease is endemic have been identified, predominantly in areas of tropical rain forest; the
Sep 6, 2010 ... Citrus grown in Malaysia have been infected since 1990 and large areas of citrus orchards had to be eradicated. The pathogen belongs to the genus Candi- datus Liberibacter. It is a phloem limited and fastidious bacteria. HLB pathogen is transmitted by citrus psyllid. Diaphorina citri in Asia and America, ...
Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R
Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.
This 30 second public service announcement is about how to avoid a wound infection after a disaster. Created: 10/25/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/25/2017.
Dr. Lisa Manhart, a professor of Epidemiology and Global Health with the Center for AIDS and STD at the University of Washington, discusses Mycoplasma genitalium Infections. Created: 2/8/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/8/2018.
... of peptic ulcers, and it can also cause gastritis and stomach cancer. About 30 to 40 percent of people in the United States get an H. pylori infection. Most people get it as a child. ... This can lead to gastritis or a peptic ulcer. Researchers aren't sure ...
Keller, Tymen T.; Mairuhu, Albert T. A.; de Kruif, Martijn D.; Klein, Saskia K.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; ten Cate, Hugo; Brandjes, Dees P. M.; Levi, Marcel; van Gorp, Eric C. M.
Systemic infection by various pathogens interacts with the endothelium and may result in altered coagulation, vasculitis and atherosclerosis. Endothelium plays a role in the initiation and regulation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis. Exposure of endothelial cells may lead to rapid activation of
In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose-response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6-8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3-4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.
Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections. Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/21/2011.
AJRH Managing Editor
Sexually transmitted infections: Prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices among female sex workers in a cosmopolitan city in Nigeria. Adekemi O Sekoni*, Oluwakemi O Odukoya, Adebayo T Onajole, Kofoworola A Odeyemi. Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of ...
Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.
This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…
Full Text Available In the early literature, vitamin C deficiency was associated with pneumonia. After its identification, a number of studies investigated the effects of vitamin C on diverse infections. A total of 148 animal studies indicated that vitamin C may alleviate or prevent infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The most extensively studied human infection is the common cold. Vitamin C administration does not decrease the average incidence of colds in the general population, yet it halved the number of colds in physically active people. Regularly administered vitamin C has shortened the duration of colds, indicating a biological effect. However, the role of vitamin C in common cold treatment is unclear. Two controlled trials found a statistically significant dose–response, for the duration of common cold symptoms, with up to 6–8 g/day of vitamin C. Thus, the negative findings of some therapeutic common cold studies might be explained by the low doses of 3–4 g/day of vitamin C. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C prevented pneumonia. Two controlled trials found a treatment benefit of vitamin C for pneumonia patients. One controlled trial reported treatment benefits for tetanus patients. The effects of vitamin C against infections should be investigated further.
Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.
The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential
P., Jr.- ystemic and regional arterioveno shunting in 9:181, 1977. endotoxic m septic shock in dogs . Surg Forum :55, 1976. Weisel, R. D., Vito, L...proteins, accelera- L., and Nichols. B. L. (eds.): Symposium on Impact of Infection on tion of hepatic gluconeogenesis , ureagenesis and Nutritional Status of
the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma. Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 1/28/2016.
... to develop a serious illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? The mainstay of pain management for AOM is medications such as acetominophen ... before the child's bedtime. Fortunately, by 24 hours about 60 percent ...
Bertossi, Dario; Barone, Antonio; Iurlaro, Antonio; Marconcini, Simone; De Santis, Daniele; Finotti, Marco; Procacci, Pasquale
Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation. The main signs and symptoms of the acute dental abscess (often referred to as a periapical abscess or infection) are pain, swelling, erythema, and suppuration usually localized to the affected tooth, even if the abscess can eventually spread causing a severe odontogenic infection which is characterized by local and systemic involvement culminating in sepsis syndrome. The vast majority of dental abscesses respond to antibiotic treatment, however, in some patients surgical management of the infection may be indicated. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of the patients with dental orofacial infections referred to the Unit of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Verona from 1991 to 2011 has been performed.
rapid and easy-to-use test for bacterial infections. Clearly, this is a very ... detect antigens or specific antibodies, e.g. group A streptococcal antigen testing can be employed to reduce antibiotic use. Culture-based tests are often ... White blood cell count 12 000 cells/mm³; or the presence of >10% ...
Sheik, A.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Lavik, G.; Foster, R.A.; Musat, N.; Adam, B.; Kuypers, M.M.M.
Phaeocystis globosa is an ecologically important bloom-forming phytoplankton, which sequesters substantial amounts of inorganic carbon and can form carbon-enriched chitinous star-like structures. Viruses infecting P.globosa (PgVs) play a significant regulatory role in population dynamics of the host
Gershon, Anne A.; Breuer, Judith; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gershon, Michael D.; Gilden, Don; Grose, Charles; Hambleton, Sophie; Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Oxman, Michael N.; Seward, Jane F.; Yamanishi, Koichi
Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella (chickenpox), which can be severe in immunocompromised individuals, infants and adults. Primary infection is followed by latency in ganglionic neurons. During this period, no virus particles are produced and no obvious neuronal damage occurs. Reactivation of the virus leads to virus replication, which causes zoster (shingles) in tissues innervated by the involved neurons, inflammation and cell death — a process that can lead to persistent radicular pain (postherpetic neuralgia). The pathogenesis of postherpetic neuralgia is unknown and it is difficult to treat. Furthermore, other zoster complications can develop, including myelitis, cranial nerve palsies, meningitis, stroke (vasculopathy), retinitis, and gastroenterological infections such as ulcers, pancreatitis and hepatitis. VZV is the only human herpesvirus for which highly effective vaccines are available. After varicella or vaccination, both wild-type and vaccine-type VZV establish latency, and long-term immunity to varicella develops. However, immunity does not protect against reactivation. Thus, two vaccines are used: one to prevent varicella and one to prevent zoster. In this Primer we discuss the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VZV infections, with an emphasis on the molecular events that regulate these diseases. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/14×VI1 PMID:27188665
Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F
Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The
Full Text Available The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”. Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis. The etiopathogenetic role of EBV is demonstrated only in a well-examined subgroup of patients, while in most of the remaining cases this role should be played by other infectious agents - able to remain in a latent or persistent way in the host – or even by not infectious agents (toxic, neuroendocrine, methabolic, etc.. However, the pathogenetic substrate of the different etiologic forms seems to be the same, much probably represented by the oxidative damage due to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines as a response to the triggering event (infectious or not infectious. Anyway, recently the scientists turned their’s attention to the genetic predisposition of the subjects affected by the syndrome, so that in the last years the genetic studies, together with those of molecular biology, received a great impulse
Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...
Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...
Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M
To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....
... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated September 2017 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...
Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.
Full Text Available ... infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's important to talk ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor Do? First, your ...
Full Text Available ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...
Full Text Available ... a urinary tract infection before anyone else can see there's anything wrong with you. That's why it's ... signs of a kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. What Will the Doctor ...
Tapeworm infection is caused by eating the raw or undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T solium) . In the human intestine, the young form of ...
Full Text Available ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) What's in this article? What Exactly Is ...
Full Text Available ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...
Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals ... Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ...
Full Text Available ... if I Have a UTI? You may notice signs of a urinary tract infection before anyone else ... it smell bad when you pee? These are signs that you might have a bladder infection, so ...
Full Text Available ... infection, which is a type of UTI. You may also hear a bladder infection called cystitis (say: ... harmful bacteria keep spreading. From the bladder, they may head into one of the ureters and climb ...
Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth / For Kids / ...
Full Text Available ... Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...
Full Text Available ... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports ...
Ahrenholz, D H
A variety of infections are encountered by the practicing surgeon. Uncommonly, a patient presents with minimal external manifestations of a deep surgical soft-tissue infection. Early aggressive intervention is required to minimize the morbidity in these often debilitated patients.
Sahil Aggarwal, BS
Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent
Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common bacterial infections in women, with half of all women experiencing at least one in their lifetime.1 Of the women affected, 25-30% develop recurrent infections unrelated to any functional or anatomical abnormality of the urinary tract.2 Most UTIs in women are episodes of acute.
Elbur, Abubaker Ibrahim; M.A., Yousif; El-Sayed, Ahmed S.A.; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E.
Introduction: Surgical site infections account for 14%-25% of all nosocomial infections. The main aims of this study were to audit the use of prophylactic antibiotic, to quantify the rate of post-operative wound infection, and to identify risk factors for its occurrence in general surgery.
Introduction. Regardless of advances in medicine, infection continues to play a major role in patients' morbidity and mortality. Nuclear medicine techniques have an important role in the evaluation of patients suspected of harbouring infection. Many different agents may be used in an attempt to image infection. ere are ...
Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen
Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.
Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger
filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria......-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial...
This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections. Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 3/6/2012.
Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle
A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.
Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues
ABSTRACT Several initiatives took place in recent years in relation to nosocomial infection control in order to increase patient safety. Some of these initiatives will be commented in this brief review. RESUMO Várias iniciativas aconteceram nos últimos anos em relação ao controle das infecções no ambiente hospitalar para aumentar a segurança do paciente. Algumas dessas iniciativas são comentadas nesta breve revisão.
This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers. Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC). Date Released: 10/24/2011.
generalized. Clinically, the like- controlled Pseudomonas burn wound infection in most lihood of septicemia appears to increase as the area of patients (2,4...31 patients, dida, Coccidiodes, Phycomyces, and Rhizopus . In 69 of pneumonia was the primary septic process in 27 (20 of these 75 patients (92%), the...carried out as described above and appropriate systemic anti- to which the invading organisms were sensitive and fungal agents are employed to control
Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...
Full Text Available The frequency of atypical mycobacterial or nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM infections has increased during the last three decades with the emergence of HIV/AIDS and more use of immunosuppressive treatments. We present a case of pulmonary mycobacterial infection secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and malnutrition. M. kansasii is a ubiquitous organism, most commonly found in the southern and central regions of the US. It can occur as a colonizer, but when it produces disease it usually involves the lung. The American Thoracic Society (ATS and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA have issued criteria to differentiate casual NTM isolation from true pulmonary NTM disease. Among the NTM infections, M. Kansasii is the pathogen which causes a clinical picture which most resembles pulmonary tuberculosis. It can produce a bronchiectasis, nodular lesions, and/or fibrocavitary infiltrates on x-rays. Treatment requires a rifampin based regimen, usually combined with isoniazid and ethambutol. If rifampin resistance is present, macrolides, quinolones, or sulfas are usually recommended.
Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.
Thomas, Konstantinos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios
To review recent evidence for infection rates in patients with systemic vasculitides, the role of specific infectious agents in the pathogenesis of vasculitis and recent breakthroughs in the treatment of virus-associated vasculitides. In well designed recent studies, infections were found to be common during the first 6-12 months in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to contribute significantly to increased mortality during this period. New therapeutic schemes with lower cyclophosphamide doses and shorter corticosteroid courses were associated with decreased infectious rates in elderly patients with AAV whereas a prednisone dose greater than 10 mg/day at the end of the first year were associated with increased infectious-related mortality in patients with GCA. Recently, a potential role for varicella zoster virus in GCA pathogenesis has been proposed but more data are needed in order to establish a causal relationship. Finally, preliminary data show excellent short-term efficacy and safety of the new, interferon-free, oral antiviral agents in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Infections continue to be one of the main causes of mortality in patients with systemic vasculitides, emphasizing the need for safer immunosuppressive therapies and appropriate prophylaxis.
Sahng G. Kim
Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.
Avian influenza (AI) and Avian Paramyxovirus Type-1 (AMPV-1) viruses can survive on the carcasses, in organ tissue of infected birds, on fomites, and have the potential for egg transmission and egg product contamination. With the increase in global trade, there are concerns that egg products could ...
... Vaccine Safety Frequently Asked Questions about Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is ... an incision above the pubis. What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a protozoan diseases caused in Europe by Leishmania (L. infantum. Asymptomatic Leishmania infection is more frequent than clinically apparent disease. Among HIV infected patients the risk of clinical VL is increased due to immunosuppression, which can reactivate a latent infection. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic L. infantum infection in HIV infected patients and to study a possible correlation between Leishmania parasitemia and HIV infection markers. Methods One hundred and forty-five HIV infected patients were screened for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies and L. infantum DNA in peripheral blood. Statistical analysis was carried out by using a univariate regression analysis. Results Antibodies to L. infantum were detected in 1.4% of patients. L. infantum DNA was detected in 16.5% of patients. Significant association for PCR-Leishmania levels with plasma viral load was documented (p = 0.0001. Conclusion In our area a considerable proportion of HIV infected patients are asymptomatic carriers of L. infantum infection. A relationship between high HIV viral load and high parasitemic burden, possibly related to a higher risk of developing symptomatic disease, is suggested. PCR could be used for periodic screening of HIV patients to individuate those with higher risk of reactivation of L. infantum infection.
Charles Anthony Hart
Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are the leading cause of mortality in children under five years of age worldwide and most of these deaths are due to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Recent evidence from studies using genome detection systems such as polymerase chain reaction or micro-array technology show that, in most cases, these deaths are caused or precipitated by viruses. In this paper, the definitions of upper and lower respiratory tract infections are reviewed. The principal signs of disease severity and the burden of viruses as causes of ARI are described. The prominent role of Respiratory Syncytial Virus is stressed, with data from epidemiological and clinical studies. Other important viral pathogens, such as Human Metapneumovirus, Human coronaviruses and Influenza are examined. The role of newly described viruses, such as bocavirus, is also discussed. The impact of HIV/AIDS in ARI burden and presentation assessed and the weight of Pneumocystis jiroveci and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections is recognized. It is concluded that there is an urgent need to improve diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines, as well as macro and micronutrient intake of children of the world, particularly in developing countries.As infecções respiratórias agudas (IRA são as principais causas da40 mortalidade mundial em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade e a maioria dessas mortes são próprias da bronquiolite e pneumonia. Recentes evidências de estudos usando sistemas de detecção no genoma tais como reação em cadeia da polimerase ou tecnologia de microarrays mostram que, na maioria dos casos, essas mortes são causadas ou precipitadas por vírus. Neste artigo, as definições das infecções dos tratos respiratórios superior e inferior são revisadas. Os principais sinais da gravidade da doença e a carga viral como causas da IRA estão descritas. O papel proeminente do vírus sincicial respiratório é enfatizado, com dados de estudos cl
Kim, Seog Joon; Im, Jung Gi; Seong, Chang Kyu; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Song, Jae Woo
To analyze the clinical and radiological manifestations of pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS. We reviewed the medical records and analyzed retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=3D24) and CT scans(n=3D11) of 26 patients with AIDS who had been followed up at our institute from 1987 to June 1998. Pulmonary infections were confirmed by sputum smear and culture(n=3D18), pleural examination(n=3D3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D3), autopsy(n=3D4), transbronchial lung biopsy(n=3D1) or clinical history(n=3D9). The study group included 23 men and three women aged 25-54(average 35.2) years. We correlated the radiologic findings with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Pulmonary infections included tuberculosis(n=3D22), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(n=3D9), cytomegalovirus(n=3D3), and unidentified bacterial pneumonia(n=3D2). Radiologically pulmonary tuberculosis was classified as primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:41.3 cells/mm 3 ) and post-primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:251.3cells/mm 3 ). CT findings of tuberculosis included lymphadenitis(n=3D6), bronchogenic spread(n=3D5), large consolidation(n=3D4), esophago-mediastinal fistula(n=3D2), and cavity(n=3D1). Tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-TB medication with complete or marked resolution of lesions within three months. Radiologic findings of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included diffuse ground glass opacities, cysts, and reticular opacities. Tuberculosis was the most common infection in patients with AIDS in Korea, and this is attributed to the high prevalence of tuberculosis. Radiological findings varied with CD4+cell count, showing those of primary tuberculosis as a patient's CD4+ cell count decreased. Pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-Tb medication. =20
Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically
Schaffner, Carl P.; Mosbach, Klaus; Bibit, Venuso C.; Watson, Colin H.
Raw, unprocessed coconut supports the growth of salmonellae as well as that of other enteric bacteria, salmonellae being particularly resistant to subsequent desiccation. Original contamination is not due to carriers or to polluted water supplies, but to contact with bacteria-containing soils followed by dispersion via infected coconut milk and shells. Pasteurization of raw coconut meat in a water bath at 80 C for 8 to 10 min effectively killed such bacteria, did not injure the product, and provided a prophylactic method now widely used by the coconut industry. PMID:5340650
Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith
Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...
Madsen, M. B.; Skrede, S.; Bruun, T.
Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score and 90-day mortality; 90-day mortality in patients with and without acute kidney injury (AKI) and LRINEC score of six and above or below six; and association between affected body part at arrival and microbiological findings. Exploratory outcomes include......Background: The INFECT project aims to advance our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs). The INFECT observational study is part of the INFECT project with the aim of studying the clinical profile of patients with NSTIs and correlating...... univariate analyses of baseline characteristics associations with 90-day mortality. The statistical analyses will be conducted in accordance with the predefined statistical analysis plan. Conclusion: Necrotizing soft tissue infections result in severe morbidity and mortality. The INFECT study...
Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.
Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619
Chun Soo Kim
Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.