WorldWideScience

Sample records for metaphor

  1. Endangered Metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Idström, Anna; Falzett, Tiber FM

    2012-01-01

    When the last speaker of a language dies, s/he takes to oblivion the memories, associations and the rich imagery this language community has once lived by. The cultural heritage encoded in conventional linguistic metaphors, handed down through generations, will be lost forever. This volume consists of fifteen articles about metaphors in endangered languages, from Peru to Alaska, from India to Ghana.The empirical data demonstrate that the assumptions of contemporary cognitive linguistic theory about "universal" metaphors and the underlying cognitive processes are still far from plausible, since

  2. Bauman's Metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Marshman, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Zygmunt Bauman is one of the most renowned and read sociologists in contemporary Continental European sociology. Throughout his lifelong work, he has provided the discipline with numerous outstanding and substantial theoretical analyses and interpretations of modernity and postmodernity......, globalisation and individualisation, the Holocaust and human suffering, etc. A relatively overlooked aspect of Bauman's sociology is his alternative methodological stance lingering somewhere between social science and literature. The most prominent feature of his methodological arsenal is the metaphor....... In this article, the authors delineate and discuss Bauman's metaphors and the contribution to sociology of these literary devices. Concomitantly, the present ‘case study' of Bauman's metaphors also raises more general discussions of the relationship between social science and literature, fact and faction, poetic...

  3. Metaphorically Speaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    up particular gendered subject positions. The Danish financial sector is one in which the traditional male occupation of top-managerial positions is being challenged by an increasing number of women. The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of how in the pursuit of a career, men...... and women in the financial sector metaphorically and discursively construct career possibilities and constraints as well as to assess the extent to which this may influence their chances of obtaining a managerial position. The data for the analysis consist of three sets of focus group data obtained...

  4. Grammatical Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe R. Ezeifeka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract writing presents problems to budding academics, especially in keeping to the generic structure and the requisite word counts by the various publishers. The article focuses on grammatical metaphor as a systemic resource for achieving proficiency in research abstract writing. Borrowing from Halliday and Matthiessen’s semantic domains beyond the clause and Halliday’s theorizing of the language of science, the article explores the various forms of transferences made possible by the grammar: from logical to experiential, from sequences to figures, elements and things, involving downgrading of linguistic units from higher semantic domains to lower ones. The resulting nominalization is seen as the single most powerful resource for effecting grammatical metaphor of the ideational type through its capacity for lexical packing. The article analyzes five randomly selected undergraduate research abstracts that exhibited an obvious lack of awareness of this systemic resource. By focusing on the sequences of figures from each abstract, comprising various numbers of clause nexuses, the article demonstrates how the judicious use of nominalization can simultaneously achieve word economy and information density, which are obvious marks of proficiency in this academic genre, and strongly recommends this grammatical strategy for students and budding academics.

  5. Metaphor, Paradigm, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    2017-01-01

    Metaphor is a critical tool for thought. Lying at the heart of every systematic body of knowledge are three root metaphors--mechanism, organism, and mind. Historically, schools of philosophy--realism, naturalism, and idealism--have grown up around these metaphors. The root metaphors and their corresponding philosophies provide the paradigms…

  6. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

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    Maki Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  7. Film, Metaphor, and Qualia Salience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the difference between vision-cued metaphors and language-cued metaphors and discusses how brain processes might provide different affordances for making verbal metaphors and making visual metaphors. Visual communication possess complex and concrete salient information whereas...... language is abstract and may need metaphors to provide qualia salience. Visual communication has difficulties in constructing salient metaphors. The point is demonstrated by analyses of a number of film metaphors....

  8. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.

  9. Metaphors, domains and embodiment

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    M.E. Botha

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of metaphorical meaning constitution and meaning (in- variance have revealed the significance of semantic and semiotic domains and the contexts within which they function as basis for the grounding of metaphorical meaning. In this article some of the current views concerning the grounding of metaphorical meaning in experience and embodiment are explored. My provisional agreement with Lakoff, Johnson and others about the “conceptual” nature of metaphor rests on an important caveat, viz. that this bodily based conceptual structure which lies at the basis of linguistic articulations of metaphor, is grounded in a deeper ontic structure of the world and of human experience. It is the “metaphorical” (actually “analogical” ontological structure of this grounding that is of interest for the line of argumentation followed in this article. Because Johnson, Lakoff and other’s proposal to ground metaphorical meaning in embodiment and neural processes is open to being construed as subjectivist and materialist, I shall attempt to articulate the contours of an alternative theory of conceptual metaphor, meaning and embodiment which counteracts these possibilities. This theory grounds metaphorical meaning and meaning change in an ontological and anthropological framework which recognises the presence and conditioning functioning of radially ordered structures for reality. These categorisations in which humankind, human knowledge and reality participate, condition and constrain (ground analogical and metaphorical meaning transfer, cross-domain mappings, and blends in cognition and in language, provide the basis for the analogical concepts found in these disciplines.

  10. Information system metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Metaphors are useful because they are efficient: they transfer a complex of meaning in a few words. Information systems are social constructs. Therefore, metaphors seem to be especially useful for explaining the space of possible meaning complexes or designs of information systems. Three information

  11. Metaphors of Open Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien van den Boom

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we turn to the field of innovation management and the use of metaphors to address the question: what kind of alternative metaphors and narratives have some open-innovation organizations introduced highlighting and fostering knowledge-intensive organizational change? First we draw a

  12. Metaphors in Abstract Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Boot (Inge)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the dissertation was to investigate the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT, Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999).The CMT proposes that abstract concepts are partly structured by concrete concepts through the mechanism of metaphorical mapping. In Chapter 2 we wanted to investigate the

  13. Metaphorical everyday expressions

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    Sandra Pereira Bernardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on conceptual metaphor theory (LAKOFF, (2002 [1980]; KÖVECSES, 2010b, metaphorical or potentially metaphorical expressions found in the Banco de Dados Interacionais (RONCARATI, 1996 a volume that contains transcripts of conversations recorded between November 1989 and January 1991 totaling about 270 minutes, are analyzed. Lasting between 5 and 30 minutes, the 13 conversations that make up this volume were segmented in 9927 intonational units (CHAFE, 1988; Du Bois et alii, 1992. Of these units, 82 metaphorical expressions were found that reveal source and target domains widely reported in the literature: PERSON, EMOTION, OBJECT, HUMAN BODY, ECONOMY and ANIMAL. This study confirms assumptions about the theory of conceptual metaphor, in their original linguistic manifestations (or not, with respect to the specifics of their conceptualization contexts in real talk.

  14. Metaphor and the Communicative Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Line

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the first cognitive-semantic theory of metaphorMetaphors We Live By (1980) – this paper presents a communication-oriented perspective on the practice of metaphor analysis. Through discussion of contemporary metaphor theories, it identifies a numb...

  15. The Metaphorical Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carger, Chris Liska

    1996-01-01

    The "patient" metaphor still thrives in teaching. Carl Rogers' concept of client, connoting a collaborative rather than directive relationship, may be more useful to conceptualize the relationship between teachers and students. (SK)

  16. Metaphor and economic thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2012-01-01

    the biological sciences of their time. If we track the evolution of “economic biology” over time, it turns out that most extensions and elaborations of the metaphor carry subtle but strong traces of their approximate historical provenance. More generally, a historical perspective enables one to see the metaphors...... underlying economic reasoning as flexible and dynamic processes, rather than as fixed and static systems....

  17. Metaphorically Feeling: Comprehending Textural Metaphors Activates Somatosensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sathian, K.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual metaphor theory suggests that knowledge is structured around metaphorical mappings derived from physical experience. Segregated processing of object properties in sensory cortex allows testing of the hypothesis that metaphor processing recruits activity in domain-specific sensory cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging…

  18. Can discourse properties of metaphor affect metaphor recognition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of metaphor recognition by means of an underlining task in a famous Bob Dylan song, "Hurricane". The paper develops a three-dimensional approach to metaphor processing, in which metaphors are assumed to have linguistic, conceptual, and communicative functions

  19. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

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    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  20. Simulated metaphors of love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

    2014-01-01

    ) but consists of abstract geometrical shapes instead. In Game Studies some authors tend to call the less detailed and more abstract aspects of simulation games “metaphorical” (e.g. Crawford 2003, 29–31; Salen and Zimmerman 2004, 423; Juul 2005, 170–175; Bogost 2011, 17). Most often they apply a distinction...... drawn from the field of rhetoric between literal and non-literal speech, of which the latter is often referred to as being metaphorical. Thus, one can say there seem to exist two different kinds of games: (a) detailed, realistic and mimetic simulations and (b) abstract and non-realistic metaphors....... This leads to the following question concerning the representation of love in The Marriage: if The Sims 3 is a more or less detailed and realistic simulation of love relationships, is The Marriage consequently a metaphor? How does The Marriage represent love? My hypothesis is that game love in the case...

  1. Metaphor, skepticism, understanding Metaphor, skepticism, understanding

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    Helena Martins

    2010-05-01

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    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts.

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts

  2. Explaining algorithms using metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Forišek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant difference between designing a new algorithm, proving its correctness, and teaching it to an audience. When teaching algorithms, the teacher's main goal should be to convey the underlying ideas and to help the students form correct mental models related to the algorithm. This process can often be facilitated by using suitable metaphors. This work provides a set of novel metaphors identified and developed as suitable tools for teaching many of the 'classic textbook' algorithms taught in undergraduate courses worldwide. Each chapter provides exercises and didactic notes fo

  3. Moral and metaphors:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe

    2005-01-01

    This summary is based on a workshop discussion at the conference "Elusive Consumtion", Gothenburg, June 2002. The workshop took it point of departure in a keynote speech held by Richard Wilk, Indiana University, USA, on 'Morals and Metaphors'. Consumption is not an exact, but a fuzzy concept. Thus...

  4. Learning from metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegård, Iann

    2015-09-01

    Today an increasing number of countries around the world have acquired almost the same metaphorical speech about teaching and learning. These theories grown in the Western world are largely produced within the framework of psychology and individualistic oriented educational philosophy and fits with the ever-expanding financial growth paradigm. This article gives a brief reference to an exchange that in the early 1900's took place between two different ways to go in American educational philosophy. Then selects John Dewey's route choice, which took a step away from attempts to create a rationalistic ultimate definition of teaching and learning. Instead, a couple of different metaphors for education are demonstrated that can be used as a basis for pragmatically organizing teaching toward specific purposes and consequences in relation to different cultural traditions.

  5. Molecularisation and metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David

    2017-09-01

    This article explores the molecularisation of medicine thesis by investigating reports on genetics and molecular medicine in the New England Journal of Medicine. While there has indeed been a large increase in the number of references to molecules in the context of genetics over the last few decades these are mostly embedded in a framework of explanatory metaphors, namely (gene) expressivity, penetrance, regulation and pathways. As most of these metaphors are drawn from the social world it would appear that the molecularisation thesis - that social life is becoming dominated by the molecular - needs to be tempered by the ways in which understanding of that molecular world is itself a reflection of social life. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  6. In Search of New Metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2015-01-01

    indicate that teaching and learning are seen as activities that take place when the teacher and the students are together. However, when the use of technology and access to a ubiquitous Internet become a part of everyday teaching and learning, new metaphors are needed if we are to speak adequately about......People use metaphors in their daily communication to explain complicated matters and express meanings and understandings. Metaphors define our everyday realities and guide our thoughts and actions. Traditionally, specific metaphors have been related to teaching and learning: a teacher is often...... spoken of as a gardener, aguide, or even as a sage on the stage. Similarly, the metaphors of learning as acquisition and the learner as an almost empty vessel are very common concepts in relation to lecturing. Learning is also often understood as participation and collaboration, and these metaphors...

  7. Metaphors for cyber security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).

  8. Envisioning trust: Metaphors and situations

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Svein Tvedt; Espedal, Bjarne; Grønhaug, Kjell; Selart, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Paper presented at the FINT workshop on trust within and between organizations, Singapore, November 2013 In this article we argue that the experience and effects of trust are influenced by how people construe trust in specific situations – people are not merely passive receptacles of information but bring their own understanding of trust to social situations (Bandura, 1989). Drawing on the literature on conceptual metaphors we describe these as three trust-metaphors. These trust-metaphors ...

  9. Metaphors we think with: the role of metaphor in reasoning.

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    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available The way we talk about complex and abstract ideas is suffused with metaphor. In five experiments, we explore how these metaphors influence the way that we reason about complex issues and forage for further information about them. We find that even the subtlest instantiation of a metaphor (via a single word can have a powerful influence over how people attempt to solve social problems like crime and how they gather information to make "well-informed" decisions. Interestingly, we find that the influence of the metaphorical framing effect is covert: people do not recognize metaphors as influential in their decisions; instead they point to more "substantive" (often numerical information as the motivation for their problem-solving decision. Metaphors in language appear to instantiate frame-consistent knowledge structures and invite structurally consistent inferences. Far from being mere rhetorical flourishes, metaphors have profound influences on how we conceptualize and act with respect to important societal issues. We find that exposure to even a single metaphor can induce substantial differences in opinion about how to solve social problems: differences that are larger, for example, than pre-existing differences in opinion between Democrats and Republicans.

  10. The metaphors of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors.......The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors....

  11. Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

  12. Metaphors As Storehouses of Expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Allan K.; Thomas, A. Ross

    1996-01-01

    Explores how metaphors are used to identify and store some expectations that structure schools' interactions and communications. Outlines a systems-theoretical view of schools derived from Niklas Luhmann's social theories. Illustrates how the metaphors identified in an earlier study provide material contexts for identifying and storing structures…

  13. CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR RELATED TO EMOTION

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    Cecep Agus

    2013-10-01

      Conseptual Metaphor related to Emotion. This study investigates whether there are conceptual metaphors occuring in English representing emotion as a whole in British National Corpus (BNC. It analyzes the signals people use to express emotion, looking at the social and cultural functions of emotional language around the world. This study, furthermore, has an arrangement to find the rule of conceptualizing emotion and abstract concept which helps people grasp some difficult aspect, give colour, and make it move.The method used in this study is descriptive qualitative following the Causation Concepts and Force Dynamics principle. The method of analysis is to locate some conceptual metaphors deriving from metaphorical linguistic expressions where they appeared as natural linguistic phenomenon in the way people view and conceptualize the emotion. The data are in the form of written discourse cited from BNC. Results show that there are some conceptual metaphors in it. The study demonstrates that speaking, feeling, reflecting, and identifying are interrelated processes and shows how emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger and love are attached to language. Formally and functionally, the conceptual metaphors come out with the human thought processes, and are largely unconscious. It is a fundamental structure of reasoning that the mind utilizes to make sense of more complicated abstract aspect. Keywords: Concept,  conceptual metaphor, emotion, metaphorical linguistic expressions

  14. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  15. Darwin as Metaphor

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    Emily Ballou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to Steven Shapin’s query in the 'London Review of Books', 'Why such homage?', 'I look at Darwin as a metaphor for creativity, and how Darwin, as evidenced in his own metaphysical notebooks, imagined and performed acts of creation in his pursuit of science. Many of Darwin’s ideas were first conceptualised imaginatively, instinctively almost. In this way, he created concepts, rather than simply discovering them. I include a brief discussion of my experience of rendering Darwin and his life into a portrait in 75 poems and also a discussion of the bio-pic Creation'. As species change over time, but are still related, so a portrait of Darwin is a descendent of the historical man and his words, but is no longer the historical man. 

  16. Machines and Metaphors

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    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  17. Automatic metaphor processing in adults with Asperger syndrome: a metaphor interference effect task.

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    Hermann, Ismene; Haser, Verena; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Ebert, Dieter; Müller-Feldmeth, Daniel; Riedel, Andreas; Konieczny, Lars

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates automatic processing of novel metaphors in adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and typically developing controls. We present an experiment combining a semantic judgment task and a recognition task. Four types of sentences were compared: Literally true high-typical sentences, literally true low-typical sentences, apt metaphors, and scrambled metaphors (literally false sentences which are not readily interpretable as metaphors). Participants were asked to make rapid decisions about the literal truth of such sentences. The results revealed that AS and control participants showed significantly slower RTs for metaphors than for scrambled metaphors and made more mistakes in apt metaphoric sentences than in scrambled metaphors. At the same time, there was higher recognition of apt metaphors compared with scrambled metaphors. The findings indicate intact automatic metaphor processing in AS and replicate previous findings on automatic metaphor processing in typically developing individuals.

  18. Theological Metaphors in Mathematics

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    Krajewski Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Examples of possible theological influences upon the development of mathematics are indicated. The best known connection can be found in the realm of infinite sets treated by us as known or graspable, which constitutes a divine-like approach. Also the move to treat infinite processes as if they were one finished object that can be identified with its limits is routine in mathematicians, but refers to seemingly super-human power. For centuries this was seen as wrong and even today some philosophers, for example Brian Rotman, talk critically about “theological mathematics”. Theological metaphors, like “God’s view”, are used even by contemporary mathematicians. While rarely appearing in official texts they are rather easily invoked in “the kitchen of mathematics”. There exist theories developing without the assumption of actual infinity the tools of classical mathematics needed for applications (For instance, Mycielski’s approach. Conclusion: mathematics could have developed in another way. Finally, several specific examples of historical situations are mentioned where, according to some authors, direct theological input into mathematics appeared: the possibility of the ritual genesis of arithmetic and geometry, the importance of the Indian religious background for the emergence of zero, the genesis of the theories of Cantor and Brouwer, the role of Name-worshipping for the research of the Moscow school of topology. Neither these examples nor the previous illustrations of theological metaphors provide a certain proof that religion or theology was directly influencing the development of mathematical ideas. They do suggest, however, common points and connections that merit further exploration.

  19. The power of strategy metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens

    2016-01-01

    and post-structuralism. The paper reports on an action research study of a strategy workshop with the strategic team of a Human Resource Management Department in a Danish Municipality. It identifies two structural dimensions and four generic spatial metaphors were identified. Thus, the paper shows......This paper explores the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making. I seek to unfold a conception of the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making that stresses their creative and critical capacity as well as their constraints on strategic thinking. In order to identify the power of spatial...... metaphors in the double meaning of enabling and constraining the commitments and decisions of strategy makers, the approach taken here does not subscribe to the common distinction between pragmatism and post-structuralism. Rather, it seeks a methodological mediation between insights developed by pragmatism...

  20. Understanding Metaphorical Use of Verbs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torreano, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    How do people understand language in which verbs are used metaphorically? For example, how do people understand utterances such as He bathed in her beauty or She punctured his ego in everyday conversation...

  1. New metaphors about leader women

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    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work pretends to show the actual situation of women in relation to the possibility to gain leadership positions, as well as to explain the metaphors used to represent this situation. The metaphors analyzed are: the concrete wall, glass ceiling and labyrinth (Eagly & Carli, 2007. Also, this work tries to show the transformations which occurs in social groups, social roles and organizations, which favors women to gain the high level positions in those organizations.

  2. Metaphors in Fashion Magazine "Vogue"

    OpenAIRE

    Kravale, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The present paper investigates the use of metaphors in media discourse, in particular their role in the fashion magazine Vogue. The purpose of the research paper is to prove that metaphors are frequent stylistic devices that are used to enrich the language of journalistic articles in the fashion magazine Vogue and are central to the way we think about the world. The theoretical research methods comprise the explanation of media discourse in the context of fashion, the theory of functional lan...

  3. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

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    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  4. IRONIC METAPHORS IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А А Горностаева

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at revealing the current trends in the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, British and American political discourse. Given the diversity of political genres, which makes it difficult to classify them, the article draws on the division into primary, secondary and folklore genres (Bazylev 2005, Sheigal 2000. The study focuses on secondary and folklore genres, as, being informal, they presuppose the use of irony. The data was taken from the speeches of Russian, American and British political leaders (V. Putin, S. Lavrov, D. Trump, B. Obama, N. Farage, B. Johnson and others. Drawing on the works on po-litical discourse (Beard 2001, Budaev 2010, Charteris-Black 2005, Chudinov 2001, Lakoff 2003, Ponton 2016, Van Dijk 2009 and developing a discursive approach to the study of irony which is often conveyed through metaphor (Shilikhina 2008, Alba-Juez 2014, Attardo 2007, Giora 2003, Hutcheon 2005, we have identified the conceptual spheres that are the most active sources of modern metaphors. We have traced the link between the new political trends and new metaphors, as well as existing metaphors which acquire a new ironic meaning. The results of the conducted analysis show the frequency of ironic metaphors, includ-ing aggressive ones, and the diversity of their functions in modern political discourse. The comparative analysis made it possible to reveal some peculiarities of the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, English and American political discourse, which are presupposed by the speakers’ individual characteristics as well as culture specific discursive features.

  5. Testing Metaphorical Educational FPS Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Rankin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that there is value in making use of modern Games Technology in Serious Games for educational purposes in the classroom and yet tools that enable teachers to construct such Educational Serious Games (ESGs with minimal programming, artistic, or GT skills are not yet widely available. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of employing the FPS game genre for teaching purposes in the classroom. This is done by starting with a typical FPS game and constructing metaphorical correspondences with the desired ESG category. This mapping highlights the mentality level of FPS games and what it would take to modify them towards the level for real knowledge acquisition as in ESGs. By changing the game world rules to correspond with a classroom study area, we create a metaphorical educational FPS game. In this paper we describe two metaphorical educational FPS games and report on preliminary testing of their use in education. If testing of these metaphorical educational FPS games indicates that they would be beneficial in school classes then we intend to pursue the design of software tools and tutorials to enable teachers to develop their own metaphorical educational FPS games in two months or less.

  6. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    . But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses...... changes too during the career of the metaphor. Whereas the standard scientific article is central in experimentally researching and explaining the metaphor, a mixture of more popular scientific genres dominate in the innovative conceptual development of the metaphor....

  7. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations.

  8. Metaphors of Sadness in Quotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csillag Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies metaphors used in common people’s passages about sadness on the internet site www.searchquotes.com/search/Sadness. The paper also investigates which sadness metaphors listed in Kövecses (2000 and Esenova (2011 are applied in sadness quotations on the site and finds only a small number of them. However, the quotations instantiate a number of other metaphors not listed by the two authors. The difference may be explained by the fact that linguistic expressions in Kövecses’s and Esenova’s corpora describe what people feel when they say they are sad, whereas sadness quotations present what people understand by the concept of sadness.

  9. Business Metaphors in a Bilingual Business Lexicon*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    conceptual or master metaphors: business as a war, as a game, as a machine, as a human being and as a plant. Each category has a graded structure, with some prototypical category members ... signs (Andersen 2000: 58). For instance, metaphors indicating trends, or up– down metaphors, are highly relevant to the field of ...

  10. Grammatical Metaphor and Its Difficulties in Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-feng

    2010-01-01

    Grammatical metaphor is the term used by Halliday to refer to meaning transference in grammar. Instead of the congruent realization of a norm, the metaphorical representation has become the norm in many instances. Metaphorical modes of expression are characteristic of all adult discourses (Halliday, 1994). The shift from congruent to metaphorical…

  11. Conceptual metaphors in computer networking terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As George Lakoff and Mark Johnson put it: 'It is as though the ability to comprehend experience through metaphor were a sense, like seeing or touching or hearing, with metaphors providing the only ways to perceive and experience much of the world. Metaphor is as much a part of our functioning as our sense of touch, and ...

  12. The Changing Life Metaphor of Gifted Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Metaphors influence one's perceptions and thinking, from fairly inconsequential concepts, to some of the most basic matters. A root metaphor is one that is foundational to other beliefs and conceptions. In this article, the author explores what she believes has become the dominant root metaphor of today's gifted youth. Here, she illustrates some…

  13. An Examination of Conceptualization of Sport Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervent, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the metaphors that were used by athletes, coaches, faculty members, and sport managers to describe the concept of "sport". Participants (N = 473) were asked to reveal the single metaphor they had in minds in the sense of the concept of sport by the prompt "Sport is like … because …" 22 valid metaphors were…

  14. Problems of Metaphor, Film, and Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Metaphor has been understood and explained within at least two different theoretical frameworks. First, metaphor has been considered a special kind of poetic or rhetorical form. In the traditional view of the eighteenth century metaphor was conceived of as mainly a decorative trope, or “a sort of...

  15. Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Boroditsky, Lera

    2013-01-01

    Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents.

  16. Recontextualizing Anthropomorphic Metaphors in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Blaschke, Steffen; Kaufmann, Ina Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss critically the use of “anthropomorphic” metaphors in organization studies (e.g., organizational knowledge, learning, and memory). They argue that, although these metaphors are potentially powerful, because of frequent usage they are at risk of becoming taken......-sensitive use of metaphors in organization studies. They illustrate this approach by developing the new metaphor of organizational insomnia, which is informed by recent neuroscientific research on human sleep and its disruptions. The insomnia metaphor provides an alternative way of explaining deficits...... in organizational knowledge, learning, and memory, which originate in a state of permanent restlessness....

  17. Commentary: Censorship in Three Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Fenice B.; Bailey, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Censorship is about restriction and control of intellectual development, and the danger when educators fail to investigate what censorship truly means--for example, by attaching it to metaphors with abundant entailments--is that people will merely "shrug off" the removal of books from libraries and classrooms and fail to see challenges…

  18. Understanding Academic Identity through Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billot, Jennie; King, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors used by higher education teachers in their narratives of academic life provide insight into aspects of academic identity. Drawing on an international study of leader/follower dynamics, the teachers' narratives reveal how academics interpret their interactions with leaders; the perceived distance between expectations and experience, and…

  19. Metaphoric Images from Abstract Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana

    1992-01-01

    Discusses children's use of metaphors to create meaning, using as an example the pragmatic and "scientific" ways in which preschool children explain thunder and lightning to themselves. Argues that children are being shortchanged by modern scientific notions of abstractness and that they should be encouraged to create their own explanations of…

  20. Metaphor identification in a terminological dictionary

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    Maity Siqueira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating that metaphor is not simply a literary device, but an integral part of everyday language. The Theory of Conceptual Metaphor suggests that our conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical. Concepts arise from our everyday interaction with the world and semantic structure reflects the conceptual structure. Metaphor, therefore, is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language but in thought and action. Based on these assumptions, we analyzed a terminological dictionary on environmental law in order to find metaphorically used lexical items. Then, for every such item we tried to determine its most literal meaning in another context. In order to do so, we applied the method for identifying metaphor developed by the Pragglejaz Group (2007. The results confirm the pervasiveness of metaphor and indicate how polysemy is motivated. Moreover, there seems to be no clear boundaries between literal and figurative language.

  1. METAPHORS IN COMPUTER VIROLOGY DISCOURSE

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    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Isaeva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is performed as part of the cognitive-discursive paradigm of modern linguistics. The object of the investigation is the concept “computer virus” and its linguistic representation in a computer virology discourse. The research is based on the texts from the Corpus of Contemporary American English.The first stage of the linguistic and conceptual investigation of “computer virus” is based on Metaphor Investigation Process (MIPVU developed by the Metaphor Lab at VU University Amsterdam. The identification procedure includes the following main steps: reading the text/discourse, acquiring a general understanding of its meaning, selecting lexical units from the text/discourse, and establishing their contextual and contemporary meanings. If the contextual meaning contrasts with the basic meaning but can be understood in comparison with it, the lexical unit is marked as metaphorical (Pragglejaz Group 2007.The second stage of the investigation is based on the method of metaphorical modeling, which implies taxonomic categorization, developed by S. Mishlanova (Mishlanova 2002. On the basis of corpus analysis a metaphorical model “computer virus” was constructed.  The model represents a taxonomic structure, which includes the basic taxons “man as a social subject,” “man as a biological creature,” and “animal.” The most representative areas of source domains included, “military operation” (represented by such linguistic metaphors as attack, strike, defeat, “diseases” (crippling, succumb, infected, and “interpersonal relations” (be angry at, enter into, want.At the current stage of computer virology development, metaphor plays a very important role as a universal tool for conceptualization and categorization of new knowledge that relies on the preceding experience of the person participating in the cognitive process. The structure of the concept "computer virus" is a hierarchical system, fixing the unscientific

  2. Metaphor Processing in Schizophrenia Patients: A Study of Comprehension and Explanation of Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawełczyk Agnieszka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the quantity and quality of errors made by schizophrenia patients in understanding and interpretation of the same metaphors, to evaluate metaphor understanding and explanation depending on the type of presentation material, and to analyze the correlation of illness symptoms with metaphor comprehension and explanation. Two groups of participants were examined: a schizophrenia sample (40 participants and a control group (39 participants. Metaphor processing was assessed by the subtests of the Polish version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB-PL. The patients were also evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Schizophrenia patients scored significantly lower in explanation of metaphors, making more incorrect literal and abstract mistakes or providing no answer more frequently. No differences were observed in understanding metaphors; no correlation between symptoms and metaphor processing was obtained. In both groups, picture metaphors were easier to comprehend and written metaphors were easier to comprehend than to explain.

  3. METAPHORS AND ARGUMENTS TO SEMANTIC POLITICAL METAPHORS IN INDONESIAN MASS MEDIA AND ITS PERSUASIVE EFFECT TOWARD READERS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuli Widiana; Roro Arielia Yustisiana

    2016-01-01

    The research is aimed to describe kinds of political metaphors and their metaphorical meanings. Furthermore, the persuasive effect of political metaphors in mass media toward the readers is also analyzed based on certain parameters. The pragmatic equivalent method and the referential equivalent method are applied to analyze the data. The kinds of political metaphors include metaphors with nature as a parable, metaphors with plants as a parable, metaphors with terms from various fields, metaph...

  4. Conceptual metaphor and comprehension in business writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit, Talita C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research studies in cognitive linguistics (Gibbs, 1999; Kővecses, 2005; Lakoff, 1987; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999 have demonstrated that metaphor is not merely a figure of speech. The findings of these studies have shown that metaphor influences a good deal of how people think as it comprises a specific mental, cross-domain mapping in the conceptual system (Balaban, 1999; Ibarretxe-Antuňanu, 1999; Lakoff, 2006; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980. This article looks at whether employing different conceptual metaphors in different versions of the same business report will have an effect on reader comprehension. A small-scale research study was conducted with a group of second-year university students, in which they were given one of two texts concerning the recovery of the economy. Both texts were adapted from a newspaper report and seeded with metaphors and metaphoric expressions. The multiple-choice questions that followed aimed to determine to what extent the readers’ comprehension and interpretation of the report were influenced by the different conceptual metaphors used. The findings indicate that language that served to introduce the sources or targets directly into the content did not necessarily have an effect on the processing of subsequent metaphors involving these concepts; however, it appeared that the surface patterns of metaphorical discourse did affect the inferences drawn about the different conceptual metaphors. It can thus be concluded that a specific metaphoric framework in written discourse does influence the interpretation of the content.

  5. THE HEALING POWER OF METAPHOR 2, METAPHOR REVISITED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patient is reduced to the organ which is diseased: the "kidney. f a i l u r e i n room 206" (Diekema 1989:20) o r the "pump or l i v e r in room 47" (Ibba 1991:607, ..... Radiotherapy uses the metaphors of aerial warfare: g are bombarded with toxic rays. Chemotherapy is chemical s^t^® g using poisons. Treatment aims to k i l l.

  6. Metaphor in the ESP engineering context

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    Ana Roldán-Riejos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The explicit use of metaphor in the EFL classroom has been documented to enhance the communicative skills of learners (Cameron & Low, 1999; Cortazzi & Jin, 1999; Low, 1999; Littlemore & Low, 2006. ESP learners with a technical background, however, are not usually trained on the presence of metaphor in their knowledge field, or on its use. The aim of this paper is to analyze the unprompted use of metaphor in the verbal responses given by a group of Spanish civil engineering undergraduates when depicting visuals related to their area of expertise. The responses of the students were obtained from a questionnaire completed in the classroom which was later crosschecked with the answers given by a group of professional civil engineers. This was done to compare the occurrence of metaphor as a descriptive verbalizer in the academic and the professional contexts. The results confirm the use of general metaphor in both groups, and the use of field-specific metaphor particularly in the professional engineers (in order to avoid confusion with the engineer students group, which appears to suggest the evolving character of metaphor in the civil engineering discourse community. We conclude by highlighting the dynamicity of metaphor in the civil engineering context. From a pedagogic viewpoint, it would be advisable to concentrate on metaphor as a learning feature by considering three main dimensions: conceptual, linguistic and visual. This could be carried out by offering students corpora-driven examples of metaphor visibility in the different civil engineering genres, addressing non-verbal elements, such as sketches, drawings, designs and pictures where metaphor may be used. The theoretical framework for this study draws from conceptual metaphor theory and conceptual integration theory combined with a multimodal approach to metaphor (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002; Deignan, 2005; Steen, 2007; Fauconnier & Turner, 2008, Forceville, 2010; Kress, 2010.

  7. Games and Metaphor - A critical analysis of the metaphor discourse in game studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

    concepts in game studies such as simulation and procedural rhetoric? How do concepts and insights of contemporary metaphor theory affect the applicability of the notion of metaphor with regard to games? Drawing on concepts from metaphor theory (in particular the cognitive linguistic view on metaphor), play...... of representation and art which all influenced game studies and argues for an equiprimordial relation between these three concepts. Secondly, this thesis deals with what is termed the metaphor-simulation dilemma which accounts for the observation that in game studies the notion of metaphor is very often used......This doctoral dissertation critically investigates how the concept of metaphor is used with regard to games in game studies. The goal is to provide the field with a self-understanding of its metaphor discourse which has not been researched so far. The thesis departs from the observation...

  8. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Begué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.

  9. A taxonomy of visual metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Metaphors are approached from the perspective of visual rhetoric. In this paper, the origin of the rhetorical figures is first briefly outlined. Then, rhetorical figures are described and illustrated in relation with web pages. The rhetorical perspective suggests manners in which to express...... the most efficient statement. A web design strategy grounded in rhetoric has been initiated which can guide further research in this domain....

  10. Metaphor identification in large texts corpora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Neuman

    Full Text Available Identifying metaphorical language-use (e.g., sweet child is one of the challenges facing natural language processing. This paper describes three novel algorithms for automatic metaphor identification. The algorithms are variations of the same core algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms on two corpora of Reuters and the New York Times articles. The paper presents the most comprehensive study of metaphor identification in terms of scope of metaphorical phrases and annotated corpora size. Algorithms' performance in identifying linguistic phrases as metaphorical or literal has been compared to human judgment. Overall, the algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm with 71% precision and 27% averaged improvement in prediction over the base-rate of metaphors in the corpus.

  11. Metaphor Analysis and the Construction of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schmitt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an increasing number of studies on the construction of gender based on metaphors (KOLLER, 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER, 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ, 2006; BOCK VON WÜLFINGEN, 2007. Many of these studies seem to have overlooked one of the most thoroughly developed theories of metaphor, LAKOFF and JOHNSON's so-called cognitive theory of metaphor or limited themselves to LAKOFF and JOHNSON's first book from 1980. In this article I explore current research on metaphor and gender and sketch the central topics of the cognitive theory of metaphor and develop a revision of this theory. It is hoped that this will enhance further research in metaphor analysis concerning the construction of gender. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902167

  12. Is Data Publication the Right Metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Parsons

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International attention to scientific data continues to grow. Opportunities emerge to re-visit long-standing approaches to managing data and to critically examine new capabilities. We describe the cognitive importance of metaphor. We describe several metaphors for managing, sharing, and stewarding data and examine their strengths and weaknesses. We particularly question the applicability of a “publication” approach to making data broadly available. Our preliminary conclusions are that no one metaphor satisfies enough key data system attributes and that multiple metaphors need to co-exist in support of a healthy data ecosystem. We close with proposed research questions and a call for continued discussion.

  13. Metaphorical scenarios in business science discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baramee Kheovichai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor has been shown to play an important role in business science discourse. Yet, previous corpus-based studies only investigated a pre-selected list of metaphoric expressions, potentially rendering the analysis incomplete. Furthermore, some studies which only focused on lexis did not analyse how the lexical items may construct business concepts in terms of scenarios. The purpose of this research is to investigate metaphor used to construct business concepts in business research articles. 42 business research articles published in 2009-2010 from five journals ranked in the top-ten according to the 2007 journal impact factors (Thompson Reuters, 2008 constitute the data of this study. Semantic annotation software USAS (Rayson, 2008 was used to assist in the retrieval of metaphoric expressions. Furthermore, manual analysis of concordances was done to find metaphorical expressions that had not been captured by the semantic tags. The analysis of these metaphoric expressions was based on Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980 and Metaphor Scenario (Musolff, 2006. Data analysis indicates that metaphor constructs business concepts as scenarios which have participants performing actions to reach their goal according to the SOURCE-PATH-GOAL schema of the source domains. At the centre of these scenarios, the BOUNDED SPACE source domain serves as a conceptual space or a setting for each scenario. Other source domains, which are WAR, SPORT, GAME, JOURNEY, MACHINE, LIVING ORGANISM, BUILDING and PHYSICAL FORCES, project the scenarios onto the space, forming interconnected and coherent scenarios of business discourse

  14. Innovative and Lexicalized Metaphors in Slovene

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    Kaja Dolar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The metaphor is a multidisciplinary problem which has been addressed in linguistics as well as in philosophy, psychology, anthropology, etc. In linguistics, the problem of metaphor was dealt with in rhetorics, it occupied a special place in structural linguistics, and it was studied in diverse pragmatic, cognitive and textual analysis. In the present paper, metaphors in Slovene are analyzed from the linguistic point of view: grammatical and syntactic structure (monolexical/polylexical, in praesentia/in absentia, etc., semantic field and semantic transfer and degree of conventionality (ranging from innovative to lexicalized metaphors. The cases are taken from the unconventional linguistic corpus, Razvezani jezik, an online dictionary based on collaborative authorship. Authors can freely add new words (formal neologisms or new meanings of existing ones (semantic neologisms which makes it especially interesting for linguistic innovation research. The results show that zoomorphic metaphors are most common and that there is a significant number of reification metaphors (replacing a living being with an object. Phytomorphic metaphors (related to plants are also present, whereas anthropomorphic ones are scarce. These types of metaphors most often refer to character, personality or human behavior, but also to parts of human body, human actions, etc. The corpus is rich in both, lexicalized, conventional as well as in innovative, so called live metaphors, and it seems that Razvezani jezik, an online database for Slovene, is particularly suitable to register these diverse possibilities and usages.

  15. METAPHORS AND ARGUMENTS TO SEMANTIC POLITICAL METAPHORS IN INDONESIAN MASS MEDIA AND ITS PERSUASIVE EFFECT TOWARD READERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Widiana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed to describe kinds of political metaphors and their metaphorical meanings. Furthermore, the persuasive effect of political metaphors in mass media toward the readers is also analyzed based on certain parameters. The pragmatic equivalent method and the referential equivalent method are applied to analyze the data. The kinds of political metaphors include metaphors with nature as a parable, metaphors with plants as a parable, metaphors with terms from various fields, metaphors with common things as a parable, metaphors with particular verbs, and metaphors with particular adjectives. The readers could comprehend political metaphors well although their interest in political news is low. Apparently, the persuasive effect of political metaphors on the public is high. It becomes a trigger for people to take action to create a better political atmosphere.

  16. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  17. The Life and Death of a Metaphor, or the Metaphysics of Metaphor

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    Josef Stern

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two issues: (1 what it is for a metaphor to be either alive or dead and (2 what a metaphor must be in order to be either alive or dead. Both issues, in turn, bear on the contemporary debate whether metaphor is a pragmatic or semantic phenomenon and on the dispute between Contextualists and Literalists. In the first part of the paper, I survey examples of what I take to be live metaphors and dead metaphors in order to establish that there is a phenomenon here to be explained. I then propose an explanation of metaphorical vitality (and by implication of metaphorical death in terms of the dependence of the interpretation of a metaphor on a family or network of expressions specific to its context of utterance. I then argue that only a Literalist account of metaphor — one that posits metaphorical expressions (a la Stern (2000—and not Contextualist and Gricean approaches can accommodate this explanation. Finally, I discuss some objections to my Literalist account and sketch an explanation of types to counter Platonistic objections to my metaphorical expression types.

  18. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    any given theory rests upon the detailed elaboration of a metaphor which provides its own special brand of insights with regard to the nature of the phenomenon being studied (Morgan, 1979, Okojie 2001). Cybernetics is a metaphorical term deriving from the Greek word meaning “Steersman”, and following Wiener (1961) ...

  19. Using Metaphorical Models for Describing Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    To date, there has only been little conceptual change research regarding conceptions about glaciers. This study used the theoretical background of embodied cognition to reconstruct different metaphorical concepts with respect to the structure of a glacier. Applying the Model of Educational Reconstruction, the conceptions of students and scientists regarding glaciers were analysed. Students' conceptions were the result of teaching experiments whereby students received instruction about glaciers and ice ages and were then interviewed about their understandings. Scientists' conceptions were based on analyses of textbooks. Accordingly, four conceptual metaphors regarding the concept of a glacier were reconstructed: a glacier is a body of ice; a glacier is a container; a glacier is a reflexive body and a glacier is a flow. Students and scientists differ with respect to in which context they apply each conceptual metaphor. It was observed, however, that students vacillate among the various conceptual metaphors as they solve tasks. While the subject context of the task activates a specific conceptual metaphor, within the discussion about the solution, the students were able to adapt their conception by changing the conceptual metaphor. Educational strategies for teaching students about glaciers require specific language to activate the appropriate conceptual metaphors and explicit reflection regarding the various conceptual metaphors.

  20. Towards psychoanalytic contribution to linguistic metaphor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Tair

    2017-07-05

    This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  1. On Metaphors, Everyday Diversity and Intercultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to clarify and discuss the reasons and limits of three rather popular metaphors that are used to speak of today's complex social and cultural fabric, through references to cultural anthropology, biology and genetics. In her analysis, the author considers not only the linguistic and semantic dimension of each metaphor, but also…

  2. Improving Skiing: A Metaphor for Improving Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Metaphors are powerful in describing organizations (Morgan, 1986; 1998) and stories reveal the meaning of experiences (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). As an avid skier and school change leader, the author has drawn on her personal experiences and the literature to develop the idea of improving skiing as a metaphor for improving leadership, particularly…

  3. Mind Machines, Myth, Metaphor, and Scientific Imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sue Curry

    This paper builds upon the poetics of scientific discourse which provide extraordinary insights into the workings of the scientific imagination and into the ways it is both colonized and liberated by the medium of social and ideological transfer--metaphor. The paper examines what constructivism is teaching us about the role metaphor plays in…

  4. Leadership Metaphors: Cycles of Carnations and Reincarnations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rita L.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and explains the metaphors of carnation and reincarnation that provide a visual portrayal of sharing, teaching, and practicing leadership for art educators. Highlights other metaphors in which women holding leadership roles are discussed. Conveys the importance of community and mentors in the creation of leaders. (CMK)

  5. Interface Metaphors for Interactive Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Robert J.; Blaha, Leslie M.

    2017-07-14

    To promote more interactive and dynamic machine learn- ing, we revisit the notion of user-interface metaphors. User-interface metaphors provide intuitive constructs for supporting user needs through interface design elements. A user-interface metaphor provides a visual or action pattern that leverages a user’s knowledge of another domain. Metaphors suggest both the visual representations that should be used in a display as well as the interactions that should be afforded to the user. We argue that user-interface metaphors can also offer a method of extracting interaction-based user feedback for use in machine learning. Metaphors offer indirect, context-based information that can be used in addition to explicit user inputs, such as user-provided labels. Implicit information from user interactions with metaphors can augment explicit user input for active learning paradigms. Or it might be leveraged in systems where explicit user inputs are more challenging to obtain. Each interaction with the metaphor provides an opportunity to gather data and learn. We argue this approach is especially important in streaming applications, where we desire machine learning systems that can adapt to dynamic, changing data.

  6. Emotional Intelligence, Identity Salience, and Metaphors. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on emotional intelligence, identity salience, and metaphors in human resource development (HRD). "Applying Client and Consultant Generated Metaphors in HRD: Lessons from Psychotherapy" (Darren Short) reviews some techniques that psychotherapists have devised for using their own…

  7. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  8. Library user metaphors and services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    How do library professionals talk about and refer to library users, and how is this significant? In recent decades, the library profession has conceived of users in at least five different ways, viewing them alternatively as citizens, clients, customers, guests, or partners. This book argues...... that these user metaphors crucially inform librarians' interactions with the public, and, by extension, determine the quality and content of the services received. The ultimate aim of the book is to provide library professionals with insights and tools for avoiding common pitfalls associated with false...... or professionally inadequate conceptions of library users....

  9. Conceptualizing the metaphors of drug abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuró Monika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to demonstrate, within the framework of cognitive linguistics (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980a, how slang words associated with substance abuse are conceptualized via metaphors. This study analyses recreational drug slang terms found in the Drug Slang Dictionary in order to reveal categories of metaphors involved in drug users’ language. The results of the data analysis effectively reveal that, within a thematic approach, classes of metaphor are coded to enable connections between metaphorical concepts and drug addicts’ physiological experiences in order to present their personal meanings and cognitive processes. The study also involves drug addicts’ narratives to identify conceptual metaphors in their experiences. Notably, it is argued within this research that figurative language use is also connected to the cultural background of users to a great extent.

  10. Metaphor-reflection in my healthcare experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA K. SCHWIND

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By exploring personal narratives through metaphoric images, students and nurses increase their understanding of who they are as persons and how that self-knowledge impacts their professional relationships with those in their care. In this article I share how I use metaphor-reflection in various aspects of my healthcare involvement. As a patient many years ago, metaphors helped me apprehend the meaning of cancer in my life. Today, as a nurse-teacher and researcher, I guide students through professional self-discovery using narrative reflective process that incorporates metaphors. In clinical practice I work with nurses as they explore how narrative reflection informs their caregiver-carereceiver interactions. With expanded self-awareness nurses have the potential to further assist their patients in exploring the meaning of their illness events through metaphors, thus enhancing the integration of that traumatic event into their respective lives. By working reflectively with metaphoric images, my hope for this writing is that my own engagement in narrative metaphor-reflection encourages the readers to story their own world in a more meaningful way.

  11. THE FORCE METAPHOR IN CONCEPTUALIZING ECONOMIC RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Cibulskienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive metaphor analysts comprehend metaphor as a convenient way of not only talking about real life events but also thinking about them: connecting ideas, explaining abstract ideas that are difficult to grasp, conveying messages and emotions, etc. Thus, metaphor in real-world discourse is increasingly becoming the focus of many cognitive studies. In political discourse, metaphor is seen as an ideological tool of deliberate attempts to influence, persuade and manipulate people. As Charteris-Black (2005: 16 put it, politicians try to establish themselves in a positive light or legitimize themselves, i.e., by presenting evidence that they are charismatic leaders who are capable of running their country efficiently. Legitimization goes hand in hand with delegitimization, i.e., negative other-presentation. Metaphor as a cognitive mechanism of ideology may serve both as positive self-representation and as a tool for fault-finding in others. Thus, the study focuses on how three Lithuanian socio-political groups (the leading party, the opposition, and the media legitimize themselves and delegitimize their opponents by using force metaphors to conceptualize the worldwide economic recession. The findings indicate that although the same conceptual metaphor is used for legitimization and delegitimization, its fulfilment scenario appears to be markedly different and it carries different rhetorical implications in the three discourses.

  12. Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [How to do Things with Metaphors: Reflections on the Role of Metaphors and Metaphor Theory for the History of Science Using the Example of Shock Metaphors in Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, metaphors have attracted a great deal of interest within the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. The article takes the growing interest in epistemic metaphors as the starting point of a discussion of two conflicting motives prevalent in theories of metaphor and metaphoricity: On the one hand, metaphors are associated with the indeterminacy of scientific discovery and the emergence of new epistemic objects; and on the other hand, metaphors are said to provide a filter of possible meanings and vantage-points. It is argued that an approach, which aims to do justice to both tendencies, cannot exclusively rely on linguistic models but must expand its scope of inquiry to include the practical trajectories of a metaphor’s usage as well as the problematizations to which they respond, since both engender metaphorical meaning, albeit at the cost of semantic precision. The exemplary case discussed in the article, the psychologization of nervous shock in nineteenth century medical discourse, demonstrates that the incremental process of shock’s shifting semantics would be inadequately characterized as a metaphorical transfer. Instead, it is shown how the actualization of earlier meanings, in particular of shock as a state of altered consciousness, in novel professional and cultural contexts acted as a catalyst for the psychologization of shock and related nascent concepts such as psychic trauma. As a possible, and methodologically fruitful way of overcoming the one-sidedness of linguistic notions of metaphor, a combination of Jìrgen Link’s concept of inter-discourse with a philosophical metaphorology (Blumenberg) is discussed in the final section of the paper.

  14. Development of Metaphorical Thought before Language: the Pragmatic Construction of Metaphors in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandroni, Nicolás

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we set out, first, a general overview of metaphor and metaphorical thought research within cognitive psychology and developmental psychology. We claim that, although research efforts broadened perspectives that considered metaphors to be ornaments of poetic language, certain predominance of a linguistic point of view within investigations led to relatively little attention paid to (i) non-verbal and non-written metaphorical instantiations, and (ii) the pre-linguistic and cultural origins of metaphorical thought. Next, we attempt to delve into, and model, the ontogenetic origins of metaphor, taking into consideration social and cultural elements. To that end, we consider the Vygotskian perspective and contemporary research from the pragmatics of the object. We propose that metaphorical thought is an emerging result of a complex web of dynamic relationships between pre-linguistic and socioculturally regulated semiotic systems. The analysis undertaken shows the need for a research programme with a developmental orientation that considers metaphor to be a product of the intertwining between the individual and social dimensions of cognitive development. We suggest this programme should find its roots in the analysis of the semiotic skills that precede the acquisition of metaphorical language.

  15. Beyond Metaphor in Product Use and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Özcan, Elif; Cila, Nazli

    2012-01-01

    in product use. First, the notion of product metaphor usually accounts for how the visual form and appearance of a product might cue people to conceive of the product in terms of another conceptual source (e.g. a coffee maker as a butler), while leaving the role of cross-modal sensory experience in product...... meaning out of consideration. Secondly, like other theoretical frameworks in design semantics, the notion of product metaphor primarily accounts for the semantic operations that are involved in the first initial phase of product categorization and interpretation, while eschewing the question as to how...... metaphor. In order to remedy these limitations inherent in the theory of product metaphor we introduce a new semantic framework based upon Fauconnier & Turner’s theory of conceptual blends....

  16. Conceptual metaphors in computer networking terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) is used as a basic framework for analysing and explaining the occurrence of metaphor in the terminology used by computer networking professionals in the information technology (IT) industry. An analysis of linguistic ...

  17. Hopeful heretic--Richard Goldschmidt's genetic metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Ehud

    2008-01-01

    Richard Goldschmidt famously rejected the notion of atomic and corpuscular genes, arranged on the chromosome like beads-on-a-string. I provide an exegesis of Goldschmidt's intuition by analyzing his repeated and extensive use of metaphorical language and analogies in his attempts to convey his notion of the nature of the genetic material and specifically the significance of chromosomal pattern. The paper concentrates on Goldschmidt's use of metaphors in publications spanning 1940-1955.

  18. The greenhouse metaphor and the footprint metaphor: Climate change risk assessment and risk management seen through the lens of two prominent metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Nerlich, B.; Hellsten, I.

    2014-01-01

    This article charts the emergence and framing of anthropogenic climate change as risk through the lens of two metaphors: greenhouse effect and carbon footprint. We argue that the greenhouse effect metaphor provided the scientific basis for framing climate change as a risk, indeed it can be seen as part of risk assessment. The carbon footprint metaphor, in turn, can be seen as belonging to the domain of risk management, as through this and other related metaphors, such as carbon offsetting, ca...

  19. Metaphors, stigma and the 'Alzheimerization' of the euthanasia debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the findings of an unobtrusive research inquiry investigating the possible use and misuse of Alzheimer's disease in public policy debate on the legalization of euthanasia. The component of the study being reported identified the problematic use of five key metaphors: the Alzheimer metaphor, which in turn was reinforced by three additional metaphors--the epidemic metaphor, the military metaphor, and the predatory thief metaphor; and the euthanasia metaphor. All metaphors were found to be morally loaded and used influentially to stigmatize Alzheimer's disease and mediate public opinion supporting the legalization of euthanasia as an end-of-life 'solution' for people with the disease. It is contended that, in the interests of promoting intellectual honesty and giving proper recognition to the extraordinary complexity of the issue, the problematic use and influence of metaphoric thinking in the public debate about Alzheimer's disease and euthanasia needs to be made transparent, questioned and challenged.

  20. Geoengineering, news media and metaphors: Framing the controversial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luokkanen, Matti; Huttunen, Suvi; Hildén, Mikael

    2014-11-01

    We analyze how metaphors are used in presenting and debating novel technologies that could influence the climate and thereby also future climate change policies. We show that metaphors strengthen a policy-related storyline, while metaphors are rarer in purely descriptive accounts. The choice of metaphor frames the technologies. War metaphors are used equally in arguments that are for, against and neutral with respect to the further development of geoengineering, but differences arise in the use of metaphors related to controllability, health and mechanisms. Controllability metaphors are often used in justifying further research and development of good governance practices, whereas health metaphors tend to be used against the very idea of geoengineering by portraying technological interventions in the climate as an emblematic case of an unacceptable development. These findings suggest that metaphors are early indications of restrictions in the interpretative flexibility that influences future governance of geoengineering and geoengineering research. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. INTERNET: a web of metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pérez Brufau

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ens proposem analitzar les principals metàfores que utilitzem els usuaris per a referir-nos a internet i a les activitats, els utensilis i les persones relacionats amb la xarxa en el marc de la teoria defensada per George Lakoff i Mark Johnson. La primera part del treball analitza la teoria de la metàfora conceptual d'aquests autors i la segona examina les diverses metàfores que utilitzem els usuaris per a referir-nos al món conceptual de la xarxa a partir del que s'ha exposat en la primera part.Aquest treball no solament hauria de servir per a adonar-nos del continu ontològico-estructural-orientacional que representa l'ús de metàfores que relacionen la xarxa, progressivament, amb un espai, amb un espai que és a dalt, amb un espai on hi ha coses, amb un espai que pren forma, normalment, de mar, de casa o de text, sinó que també hauria de servir per a adonar-nos que els motius pels quals fem servir aquestes metàfores i no unes altres són arrelats, successivament -tal com afirmen Lakoff i Johnson en els seus textos- en el nostre cos, la nostra interacció amb les coses del món i amb els altres en un context culturalment definit. Text complet (PDF We propose analysing the principal metaphors that we as users use to refer to the internet and to the activities, tools and people related to the web within the framework of the theory upheld by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. The first part of the work analyses these authors' conceptual metaphor theory, while the second examines the various metaphors that we as users use to refer to the conceptual world of the web on the basis of what has been set out in the first part.This work should not only serve for us to take note of the ontological-structural-orientational continuum represented by the use of metaphors that relate the web, progressively, with a space, with a space that is above, with a space where there are things, with a space that takes the form, normally, of the sea, home or text

  2. Metaphors in the Mirror: The Influence of Teaching Metaphors in a Medical Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canziani, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Medical students often face problems in using and understanding metaphors when communicating with a patient or reading a scientific paper. These figures of speech constitute an interpretative problem and students need key strategies to facilitate metaphor comprehension and disambiguation of meaning. This article examines how medical students'…

  3. Activating Metaphors: Exploring the Embodied Nature of Metaphorical Mapping in Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Metaphor is generally understood as the process of understanding one thing in terms of another. The activity described here is designed to make use of the principles of embodied cognition and meaning, and specifically the embodied nature of metaphor, to explore political discourse and communication. With high-school junior or senior students in…

  4. The grounding of temporal metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-03-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. A Study of Metaphor and Its Application in Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fachun; Hu, Jianpeng

    2009-01-01

    Metaphor is more a vehicle of cognizing the world than purely a rhetorical device. This paper first gives a brief review of traditional metaphor and modern metaphor in the West and then devotes a large space to elaborate on reasons for emergence of metaphor, characteristics of metaphor, working mechanism of metaphor, and then proposes suggestions…

  7. The Journey Metaphor in Mediatized Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Gyula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper will analyse manifestations of the journey metaphor from a critical discourse analytical perspective in order to observe how the journey metaphor is used as a discourse strategy in mediatized political speeches and interviews whereby political actors manipulate the second-frame interactional participants (the audience into sharing a (spurious sense of solidarity with them. There are three hypotheses that will be tested in the course of the analysis: the first is that a wide-variety of realjourney elements are exploited for the political metaphor of journey, and there is a concrete correspondence between journey vehicles and political scenarios. The second hypothesis is that journey metaphors that are used in political speeches, celebrity interviews and confrontational political interviews are of different types and complexity. The third hypothesis is that the manipulative intent behind the use of metaphors is exposed in the latter types of mediatized political discourse to varying degrees as a result of the different degrees of pragmatic accountability adhered to in the two subgenres. We argue that the first two hypotheses are confirmed on the basis of the qualitative analysis presented in the paper, whereas the third hypothesis is not borne out by the data.

  8. Thinking, drawing and writing architecture through metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Caballero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor is a critical component of being an architect: it mediates the various stages involved in architectural design, motivates a large part of the jargon used in the discipline, and is consistently used as a rhetorical strategy in many of the genres articulating architectural communication. Given its importance in architectural practice and discourse, the teaching of metaphor should be included in the syllabi of English for Specific Purposes (ESP courses taught at polytechnic schools. The purpose of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, I describe how various metaphors inform architects’ practice – from the first design phase to the post-construction assessment distributed in one of the most popular genres in the community; that is, the architectural review. Drawing insights from cognitive and genre research into the role of metaphor in the discipline, I then suggest ways in which metaphorical competence can be fostered in ESP courses aiming at facilitating the students’ gradual enculturation process into their future community of practice.

  9. Asking for a 'Water Calabash': Metaphor and Gender in 'Patlo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ga- Kgafela in particular, this paper develops this idea (from a linguistics perspective) and examines the use of metaphor in Patlo ceremonies (marriage negotiation) in traditional Tswana weddings and how such metaphors construct gendered ...

  10. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different...... answers to what knowledge is. It could be outlined as a dichotomy between tacit and explicit knowledge, as a hierarchy from data over information to knowledge or as orders of reflection upon ones own knowledge in relation to the surrounding world. In this dissertation the focus is on knowledge...... as a metaphorical concept in groups of knowledge workers from creative start-ups. The research question of the dissertation is: How is knowledge conceptualized metaphorically in groups? This question is investigated from two methodological angles: through the analysis of metaphors in dynamic conversations...

  11. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Tavakoli, Marjaneh

    2016-01-01

    The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested…

  12. T5S THE ECOLOGY OF LITERACY: A METAPHOR FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barton's (1994) words, quoted above, neatly encapsulate the argument put forward in this paper- that it is important to seek an enabling metaphor for literacy. First, the nature of metaphors will be examined. Next, four possible metaphors for literacy will be explored and their implications for literacy practices in South Africa at ...

  13. Business Metaphors in a Bilingual Business Lexicon | Lan | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    General purpose dictionaries benefit users at large in many ways, but the definitions and examples might not satisfy the diverse needs of different professional users. This is especially true of metaphors. The article ... to bridge interlanguage metaphorical gaps. Keywords: metaphor, definition, translation, cultural difference ...

  14. On the metaphorical nature of intellectual capital: A textual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2005-01-01

    Metaphors are at the basis of our understanding of reality. Using the theory of metaphor developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 1999) this paper analyses common metaphors used in the intellectual capital and knowledge management literatures. An analysis of key works by Davenport & Prusak (2000),

  15. Metaphor Production in Online Conversation: Gender and Friendship Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.

    2006-01-01

    This article details a study of metaphor production by 64 same-gender dyads engaged in 2 persuasive conversations over chat software. Dyads were comprised of friends or strangers. Overall, men produced more metaphor than women, especially slang. Metaphor production differed by gender as a function of friendship status: Men produced the same amount…

  16. Patterns of change in design metaphor: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubblefield, W.A.

    1998-04-01

    Design metaphors play an important role in the development of many software projects. However, the influence of metaphors on project functionality, design methodology and the interactions among members of the development team is not well understood. This paper seeks insights into these issues by examining the experiences of a design team in building a system under the influence of a particularly strong design metaphor.

  17. Correlation between Receptive Metaphoric Competence and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Yu, Liang; Yang, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Metaphoric competence is an essential part of language concept fluency and communicative competence. Since metaphor is pervasive in language, when Chinese second language (L2) learners are engaged in reading process, one of the barriers to influence their comprehension is metaphor. This paper aims to empirically investigate the relationship…

  18. Conceptual metaphors: a diachronic study of LOVE metaphors in Mariah Carey's song lyrics

    OpenAIRE

    Gavelin, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This essay is an account of an investigation of conceptual metaphors of LOVE in two albums by singer Mariah Carey. It also includes an investigation of if LOVE metaphors were used differently at the beginning of her career from how they are used twenty-four years later. The study is based on the singles of Carey's debut album and those of her latest album. The analysis showed that although the songs are separated by approximately twenty years the LOVE metaphors most reflected in the song lyri...

  19. CHESS-RELATED METAPHORS - GENS UNA SUMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Mišić Ilić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines chess-related metaphorical expressions in English and Serbian from the cognitive linguistic perspective. These linguistic expressions stem from conceptual mapping from the source domain (chess to the target domain (life in general, or, more precisely, complex life situations. The paper tries to establish atopology of such mappings, based on the notions of event structure and inheritance hierarchies. From the contrastive point of view, the findings show a high correlation regarding this kind of metaphoric conceptualization between the two languages, which may suggest a considerable level of universality, at least in cultures familiar with the game of chess.

  20. Metaphors in Projects - An Overlooked X-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors are pervasive in human thought and action, but have been an overlooked X-factor in projects and project management. This essay presents deliberate uses of metaphors classified into specific projects and frameworks for projects in order to stimulate explicit uses of metaphors in project...... management practice. The essay discusses practical implications where metaphors might be used to describe the project process as well the product produced at the project level - and might even be brought to the organizational level where organizations consider uses of metaphors deliberately in projects....

  1. Men are grass: Bateson, Erickson, utilization and metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Andrew E

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between metaphor and the practice of utilization in therapy and hypnosis can be seen as dependent on metaphor's role in structuring experience. The work of Gregory Bateson and others is used to illustrate how metaphor functions. Bateson's comparison of two forms of syllogistic logic provides a background for distinguishing between the experiential effects of metaphor in contrast to the categorical thinking inherent in simile and analogy. Clinical examples are given to demonstrate how utilization is structured by metaphor, particularly as Bateson has described it in his analysis of the Syllogism in Grass.

  2. Metaphors are physical and abstract: ERPs to metaphorically modified nouns resemble ERPs to abstract language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint eForgács

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metaphorical expressions very often involve words referring to physical entities and experiences. Yet, figures of speech such as metaphors are not intended to be understood literally, word-by-word. We used event-related brain potentials (ERPs to determine whether metaphorical expressions are processed more like physical or more like abstract expressions. To this end, novel adjective-noun word pairs were presented visually in three conditions: (1 Physical, easy to experience with the senses (e.g., printed schedule; (2 Abstract, difficult to experience with the senses (e.g., conditional schedule; and (3 novel Metaphorical, expressions with a physical adjective, but a figurative meaning (e.g., thin schedule. We replicated the N400 lexical concreteness effect for concrete versus abstract adjectives. In order to increase the sensitivity of the concreteness manipulation on the expressions, we divided each condition into high and low groups according to rated concreteness. Mirroring the adjective result, we observed a N400 concreteness effect at the noun for physical expressions with high concreteness ratings versus abstract expressions with low concreteness ratings, even though the nouns per se did not differ in lexical concreteness. Paradoxically, the N400 to nouns in the metaphorical expressions was indistinguishable from that to nouns in the literal abstract expressions, but only for the more concrete subgroup of metaphors; the N400 to the less concrete subgroup of metaphors patterned with that to nouns in the literal concrete expressions. In sum, we not only find evidence for conceptual concreteness separable from lexical concreteness but also that the processing of metaphorical expressions is not driven strictly by either lexical or conceptual concreteness.

  3. Motives for metaphor in scientific and technical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, Timothy D

    2017-01-01

    Examination of the work of scientific icons-Newton, Descartes, and others-reveals the metaphors and analogies that directed their research and explain their discoveries. Today, scientists tend to balk at the idea of their writing as rhetorical, much less metaphorical. How did this schism over metaphor occur in the scientific community? To establish that scientists should use metaphors to explain science to the public and need to be conscious of how metaphor can be useful to their research, this book examines the controversy over cloning and the lack of a metaphor to explain it to a public fearful of science's power.The disjunction between metaphor and science is traced to the dispensation of the Solar System Analogy in favor of a mathematical model. Arguing that mathematics is metaphorical, the author supports the idea of all language as metaphorical-unlike many rhetoricians and philosophers of science who have proclaimed all language as metaphorical but have allowed a distinction between a metaphorical use o...

  4. Resemblance operations and conceptual complexity in animal metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.

  5. Co-Operation Metaphors for Virtual Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Thimoty; Paolini, Paolo

    Cooperation Metaphors are sets of rules to support interaction and collaboration between users who want to explore complex content and information together. The rules determine how the collaborative community can be created and managed, how members of the community can operate on their own, or cooperate with other members. Different types of…

  6. Inflation Metaphor in Contemporary American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Chen, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Inflation is often regarded as a dangerous phenomenon which poses a potential threat to economies in the world. It is thus an entity that demands the constant attention of economists, policymakers and the general public. In order to make this abstract entry more concrete and vivid, a number of metaphorical expressions are used to depict inflation.…

  7. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  8. The Navigation Metaphor in Security Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieters, Wolter; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept...... of navigation makes it easier to motivate and explain security investment to a wide audience, encouraging strategic security decisions....

  9. The Navigation Metaphor in Security Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret; Heath, Claude P R; Probst, Christian W.; Verbij, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept of

  10. The navigation metaphor in security economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret; Heath, Claude P.R.; Probst, Christian W.; Verbij, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept of

  11. Understanding Creativity, One Metaphor at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Any effort to clarify the meaning of creativity, although productive, risks limiting this important concept to a singular definition at the exclusion of other valuable interpretations. This article presents generative redefinitions of creativity by surveying a range of metaphors that are used to describe creativity. To explore the polysemic…

  12. THE PRAGMATICS OF 'MOUTH' METAPHORS IN AKAN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medakubu

    closer look at their semantics, pragmatics and cognitive concepts and an overall knowledge of the language, culture, society, and environment. The semantic aspect considers their intrinsic and extended meanings. The recognition and interpretation of a metaphor requires attention to the particular pragmatic contexts under ...

  13. Death metaphors in Korean undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning of death metaphors seen by 133 undergraduate nursing students through open questionnaires and collage artworks, using qualitative content analysis in Korea. The 4 themes emerged: "rest-physical," "fear-psychological," "separating-social," and "new life-spiritual."

  14. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    . They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance...

  15. History of metaphoric signs in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Stephen R., E-mail: bakersr@umdnj.edu; Noorelahi, Yasser M., E-mail: dr.ynoorelahi@gmail.com; Ghosh, Shanchita, E-mail: Ghoshs1@umdnj.edu; Yang, Lily C., E-mail: yangclily@gmail.com; Kasper, David J., E-mail: dkasp86@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. Materials and methods: A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. Results: The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Conclusion: Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry.

  16. Jules Verne's Metaphor of the Iron Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand

  17. Metaphor, Simile, Analogy and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Fox argues that the poetic function of language fulfils the human need to symbolise. Metaphor, simile and analogy provide examples of the ways in which symbolic language can be used creatively. The neural representations of these processes therefore provide a means to determine the neurological basis of creative language. Neuro-imaging has…

  18. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cybernetics is the metaphorical term that describes and characterises the field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and machine. Broadly speaking, developments have occurred in two directions, one of which builds upon early cybernetic insights which sought to build machines upon ...

  19. Organizational Transparency as Myth and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2015-01-01

    , as specific ways of framing and seeing organizational reality, to which it gives rise. While observations and evidence can always be adduced to challenge a particular set of metaphors, the endogenous force of the myth may sustain the overall project. This process is explained with a detailed analysis...

  20. Metaphors of Happiness in English and Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csillag Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Ekman et al. (1972, happiness is one of the six universal basic human emotions. Kövecses (2000 claims that certain aspects of the conceptualization of emotions are universal or nearuniversal. The paper compares linguistic expressions to discuss the question of the universality of the emotion happiness and its metaphors in English and Russian.

  1. Multiple Metaphors for a Singular Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates the epigenetic landscape metaphor in light of behavioral development. Cites two common errors in integrated models of behavior and biology: (1) fixing behavior as structure, thereby robbing it of dynamics and plasticity; and (2) assuming that a single optimal trajectory applies to development of organisms or systems. (BC)

  2. Recovery Following Bereavement: Metaphor, Phenomenology, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of recovery following bereavement can be both useful and misleading. As a metaphor, the concept of recovery highlights some aspects of bereavement and obscures others. Bereaved people interviewed in 3 different studies typically did not bring up the term recovery so it did not seem to be a term that described their experience. Across…

  3. History of metaphoric signs in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen R; Noorelahi, Yasser M; Ghosh, Shanchita; Yang, Lily C; Kasper, David J

    2013-09-01

    To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metaphors of pain: the use of metaphors in trauma narrative with reference to Fugitive pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Anker

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a contribution to the recent interdisciplinary discourse between psychoanalysis, trauma theory and narrative by discussing the traumatic experiences of characters in the novel “Fugitive pieces” by Anne Michaels, with a specific focus on the metaphorical style of this novel. The article addresses the role of metaphor in the memory of trauma while comparing the relation between trauma, narrative and memory with reference to the work of Cathy Caruth, Van der Kolk and Margaret Wilkinson. Recent neurobiological research in the working of the brain during trauma and the insights of Borbelly in the role of metaphor during therapy are discussed. Insights of Lacan, Modell and Laplanche are integrated with those of psychologists like Knox, Borbelly and Van der Hart to counter arguments against the criticism brought against some of the metaphorical themes in “Fugitive pieces”. Metaphor is seen as one possible way of saying the inexpressible and the progression in the use of metaphor by patient and character alike is seen as one of the signs of healing from trauma.

  5. Novel metaphor comprehension: Semantic neighbourhood density interacts with concreteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azary, Hamad; Buchanan, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Previous research suggests that metaphor comprehension is affected both by the concreteness of the topic and vehicle and their semantic neighbours (Kintsch, 2000; Xu, 2010). However, studies have yet to manipulate these 2 variables simultaneously. To that end, we composed novel metaphors manipulated on topic concreteness and semantic neighbourhood density (SND) of topic and vehicle. In Experiment 1, participants rated the metaphors on the suitability (e.g. sensibility) of their topic-vehicle pairings. Topic concreteness interacted with SND such that participants rated metaphors from sparse semantic spaces to be more sensible than those from dense semantic spaces and preferred abstract topics over concrete topics only for metaphors from dense semantic spaces. In Experiments 2 and 3, we used presentation deadlines and found that topic concreteness and SND affect the online processing stages associated with metaphor comprehension. We discuss how the results are aligned with established psycholinguistic models of metaphor comprehension.

  6. Metaphor, Architectural Design, and Environmental Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Muller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Value-laden articulations of the task of the architect guide manners of working - the concerns, inspirations and procedures given priority. Architectural practices in turn determine the nature of the physical constructs that result. If architects are contributing to environmental degradation by designing buildings that are inefficient and unhealthy, and a pressing need exists to advance more life enhancing, sustaining practices, then perhaps environmentally concerned architects ought not only work towards the creation of better performing, more resourceful building assemblies, but also to engage in basic reflection as to how design problems are expressed and the environmental receptivity such expressions reveal. By tracing the lineage binding utterance to practice to making, we might come to recognize that even subtle shifts in articulation can alter outcomes dramatically. Through such newfound awareness, we are open and encouraged to reexamine the architect’s role, to new descriptions of architecture, and to the possibility of deeper attunement and constructive engagement with our world. In their recent edited anthology on sustainable architectures, Simon Guy and Steven Moore suggest “while we might support and even encourage critical engagement with abstract theory about environmentalism, we are not interested in simply playing language games.” Although word play should not be the sole focus of our efforts, in a profession so reliant on effective communication, we should not underestimate the facility of language as constitutive of meaning. This paper explores metaphors as one potentially transformative means by which designers come to understand and describe the works they undertake. It examines the role of metaphors as agents of innovation, capable of heightening awareness of attributes often overlooked or undervalued, yet perhaps of critical significance given the particularities of a design problem seeking explication. This paper

  7. Business Metaphors in a Bilingual Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: General purpose dictionaries benefit users at large in many ways, but the definitions and examples might not satisfy the diverse needs of different professional users. This is especially true of metaphors. The article discusses the treatment of business metaphors in the PolyU Business Lexicon derived from the trilingual PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. During the process the concordances are grouped by senses, and then separated according to their literal and metaphorical meanings, which in turn lead to the decisions of sense order, word meaning and translation equivalents. Since different cultures have different 'bags' of metaphors, and metaphorical meanings also vary in different registers, the focus is primarily on the differences between Chinese and English in terms of culture, psychology, language and how such differences can be translated and presented in a corpus-based business lexicon with a minimum loss of their original connotations. Cultural transformations, such as direct translation, image substitution, explanatory notes and abandonment of the figure of speech, are suggested to bridge interlanguage metaphorical gaps.

    Keywords: METAPHOR, DEFINITION, TRANSLATION, CULTURAL DIFFERENCE

    Opsomming: Sakemetafore in 'n tweetalige sakewoordeboek. Woordeboeke vir algemene doeleindes bevoordeel gewone gebruikers op baie maniere, maar die definisies en voorbeelde mag dalk nie die uiteenlopende behoeftes van verskillende professionele gebruikers bevredig nie. Dit is veral waar van metafore. Die artikel bespreek die behandeling van sakemetafore in die PolyU Business Lexicon gebaseer op die drietalige PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. Gedurende die proses word die konkordansies deur betekenisse gegroepeer, en dan geskei volgens hul letterlike en metaforiese betekenisse, wat vervolgens lei tot die besluite oor betekenisorde, woordbetekenis, en vertaalsekwivalente. Aangesien verskillende kulture verskillende "sakke" metafore het, en

  8. Embodied cognition in 'black metaphors': the BAD IS DARK metaphor in biblical texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Coelho Vereza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in metaphor studies have focussed on the cultural and ideological dimensions of the conceptualization of experience and its linguistic realization in discourse. Within this perspective, racism has been approached as the driving ideological force underlying the conceptual metaphor BAD IS DARKNESS, and more specific ones, such as DIFFICULT IS DARKNESS and IGNORANCE IS DARKNESS. These metaphors would, in turn, licence what has been referred to, in the literature, as ‘black metaphors’, i.e., metaphorical linguistic expressions which would evoke and, at the same time, perpetuate racism. The aim of this paper is to investigate an alternative hypothesis - without rejecting the ideologically-based one - to approach black metaphors, from the perspective of the sensorimotor experience with the physical phenomenon of darkness. This hypothesis is explored through an investigation of ‘black metaphors’ found in biblical texts. The choice of such corpus is justified, mostly, by the fact that racial discrimination, though clearly present in biblical times, did not seem to be so directly associated with skin colour as it has been more recently. The analysis looks firstly into the passages where the literal linguistic markers of the source domain are found, in order to investigate how the physical experiences with darkness are evaluated in the narratives. Secondly, the metaphorical uses of the same expressions are identified, and the target domains specified. The results of the analysis have confirmed the possibility of the conceptual projection from the sensorimotor experience with darkness onto negatively evaluated abstract notions. This seems to evidence the role of embodied cognition in metaphor, not just in its epistemic, but also in its evaluative function.

  9. Metaphorically speaking: cognitive abilities and the production of figurative language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E; Silvia, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    Figurative language is one of the most common expressions of creative behavior in everyday life. However, the cognitive mechanisms behind figures of speech such as metaphors remain largely unexplained. Recent evidence suggests that fluid and executive abilities are important to the generation of conventional and creative metaphors. The present study investigated whether several factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence contribute to generating these different types of metaphors. Specifically, the roles of fluid intelligence (Gf), crystallized intelligence (Gc), and broad retrieval ability (Gr) were explored. Participants completed a series of intelligence tests and were asked to produce conventional and creative metaphors. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the contribution of the different factors of intelligence to metaphor production. For creative metaphor, there were large effects of Gf (β = .45) and Gr (β = .52); for conventional metaphor, there was a moderate effect of Gc (β = .30). Creative and conventional metaphors thus appear to be anchored in different patterns of abilities: Creative metaphors rely more on executive processes, whereas conventional metaphors primarily draw from acquired vocabulary knowledge.

  10. The Role of Metaphor in the Stylistic Rendition of Gogol's Dead Souls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metaphor is probably the most useful linguistic tool in creative and imaginative literature. This is especially so with Gogol's Dead Souls. From micro images depicted in the submerged metaphor, compound metaphor, implicit metaphor and allusions, metaphorical images in the novel extend to straddle entire supra phrasal ...

  11. Technological Metaphors and Moral Education: The Hacker Ethic and the Computational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2004-01-01

    This essay is an attempt to understand how technological metaphors, particularly computer metaphors, are relevant to moral education. After discussing various types of technological metaphors, it is argued that technological metaphors enter moral thought through their "functional descriptions." The computer metaphor is then explored by turning to…

  12. Prospective teachers information and communication technology metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Akdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the perceptions of the prospective teachers for the Information and Communications Technology (ICT terms have a remarkable potential to provide input for technology integration plans and ICT trainings. Within this context, the purpose of this study is to discover the metaphors constructed by prospective teachers for the ICT terms. Data were gathered from 180 prospective teachers through survey. 977 valid metaphors constructed by the participants were grouped into conceptual categories for the six ICT terms. The most common conceptual categories are “developing and changing” for technology, “making life easy” for computers and search engines, “limitless and endless” for the Internet, “means of communication” for social networks, and “addictive items” for video games. Future research should concentrate on investigating the match and mismatches between intended use of the ICT tools and the perception of the prospective teachers.

  13. Metaphorical Language and Theophany in Psalm 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    emphasizing that what is said about Yahweh must not be understood literally. Point 3. The metonymies underline that Yahweh relates to places or phenomena in this world without being bound to them or identified with them. And lastly point 4. The use of both metonymies and metaphors makes the psalm relevant...... in a variety of situations. Where the temple is physically in Jerusalem, the metonymic reference to Yahweh’s relation to Zion will be meaningful. When the temple is destroyed, or the worshipper lives far away, the metaphorical use of the rock will loosen the close connection between Yahweh and Zion....... Then Yahweh himself is regarded both as the rock and the dwelling-place for the worshipper....

  14. War Metaphors in Business: A Metaphostructional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the notion of metaphostruction (Wiliński 2015, the conceptual theory of metaphor (Kӧvecses 2002 and the corpus-based method geared specifically for investigating the interaction between target domains and the source domain lexemes that occur in them. The method, referred to as metaphostructional analysis (Wiliński 2015, is used to determine the degree of association between the target domain of business and the source domain lexemes derived from military terminology. The results of the metaphostructional analysis reveal that there are indeed war terms that demonstrate strong or loose associations with the target domain of business, and that these instantiate different metaphorical mappings.

  15. Cohesion and Metaphor Aspects in Andabhuana Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Mahardika

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cohesion and metaphor are the unique and interesting parts of language aspects in Andhabhuan text to research. They are quite dominant aspects in the story in developing its literature aesthetic. This research is based on the arts technical and analytical method. The result of the research on those two aspects shows that traditional aesthetic style in arts, as described in Andabhuana verses emphasize on the reference, meaning, selection and variation of words. The language parts used are aimed at bringing the text ideology to humanity perspective, especially the ?iwatattwa values as parts of Hindu teaching. Hence the cohesion and metaphor in Andabhuana text  are  semiotic description to transform to Balinese Hindus as most of them follow ?iwatattwa belief.

  16. Imagining Organization through Metaphor and Metonymy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo; Cornelissen, Joep

    2016-01-01

    Within organization studies, Morgan’s seminal book Images of Organization has laid the groundwork for an entire research tradition of studying organizational phenomena through metaphorical lenses. Within Morgan’s list of images, that of ‘organization as flux and transformation’ stands out in two...... important regards. First, it has a strong metonymic dimension, as it implies that organizations consist of and are constituted by processes. Second, the image invites scholars to comprehend organizations as a paradoxical relation between organization (an entity) and process (a non-entity). In this article......, we build on Morgan’s work and argue that flux-based images of organization vary in their ability to deal with the process-entity paradox, depending on the degree to which its metaphorical and metonymic dimensions are intertwined. We also examine three offsprings of the flux image: Organization...

  17. The Metaphorical Language of Branding Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mirna Hocenski Dreiseidl; Dubravka Papa

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the language of branding philosophy used in the famous book «Lovemarks – The Future Beyond Brands» written by the international branding guru Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide of Ideas Company Saatchi & Saatchi. His new branding approach shows how by using the universal, fundamental, timeless emotion LOVE expressed in universally (anywhere) and timelessly (anytime) comprehensible metaphors a new idea of a «lovemark» embodies mystery (great stories, ...

  18. 'Climategate': Paradoxical Metaphors and Political Paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brigitte Nerlich

    2010-01-01

    Climate scepticism in the sense of climate denialism or contrarianism is not a new phenomenon, but it has recently been very much in the media spotlight. When, in November 2009, emails by climate scientists were published on the internet without their authors’ consent, a debate began in which climate sceptic bloggers used an extended network of metaphors to contest (climate) science. This article follows the so-called ‘climategate’ debate on the web and shows how a paradoxical mixture of reli...

  19. Using Metaphor in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim PİSTOF

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive therapy is a method of psychotherapy used to treat many psychological and psychiatric disorders and is based on cognitive model of emotional disorders. Throughout the therapy, it is important for the clients to be trained in their problems and to perceive the fact which is one of the fundamental actions of cognitive behavioral therapy, that the emotional state interacts not only with in the thoughts, but also physical functions and environment. . Besides employing cognitive behavioral methods and techniques to overcome clients’ problems, cognitive therapy is also an educational process that eventually aims to teach the patient to be his own therapist. If the methods and techniques of the therapy used during the process are clear and easy for the patients to understand, the therapeutic benefits will increase. For this reason, effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy depends on to a great extent both how much the client understands the therapist and how proper language and metaphors are used by the therapist while having therapeutic relations. In this sense, the metaphor is a method which makes it easy for the clients to perceive some abstract and the concepts which seem to the client complex. In this study, the situations in which metaphor is used for therapy have been dealt under nine headings. Objective: We have dealt with the concepts, in a metaphorical context, such as explanation of irrational and rational beliefs, which will be studied in the later stages of the therapy, explaining cognitive model and the characteristics of the therapy. Conclusion: This review can be considered as a start and a guide to researchers who want to do comprehensive studies about this subject.

  20. Network frontier as a metaphor and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Plotichkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers spatial metaphors of the Internet and the possibility to extrapolate the frontier thesis of F. Turner on the electronic space. The authors believe that information and communication technologies and the digital world have become new spaces for the expansion of states or individuals. That is why there are ongoing scientific debates on the limits and potential of western and electronic frontiers’ metaphors for analytical description of the digital space. The metaphor of the Internet as a western frontier is quite controversial; many authors prefer the electronic frontier analogy as more heuristic and valid for constructing metaphors of the digital reality. The network frontier is defined as a dynamic, elastic and permeable border of social and cultural practices of the network society. The authors estimate the heuristic potential of the concept ‘network frontier’ developed on the basis of integration of the frontier theory and the concept ‘network society’, taking into account the effects of globalization for the study of elastic, permeable and movable border of the network landscape. In the digital world, the spatiality transforms, the geography of the Internet network determines the metamorphosis of the frontier as a contact zone between online and offline spaces, which is dynamic, innovative, encourages mobility, and its permeability depends on the digital competence of citizens. The authors explain the mythology of western and electronic frontier; name the main network frontier myths related to the rhetoric of western frontier myth; describe the main components of the western frontier myth associated with the idea of American exceptionalism; and conclude with the identification of nowadays myths about frontier-men and the online space they master.

  1. In Search of New Metaphors: E-learning as Hypertext

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2015-01-01

    indicate that teaching and learning are seen as activities that take place when the teacher and the students are together. However, when the use of technology and access to a ubiquitous Internet become a part of everyday teaching and learning, new metaphors are needed if we are to speak adequately about......People use metaphors in their daily communication to explain complicated matters and express meanings and understandings. Metaphors define our everyday realities and guide our thoughts and actions. Traditionally, specific metaphors have been related to teaching and learning: a teacher is often...... spoken of as a gardener, a guide, or even as a sage on the stage. Similarly, the metaphors of learning as acquisition and the learner as an almost empty vessel are very common concepts in relation to lecturing. Learning is also often understood as participation and collaboration, and these metaphors...

  2. A Touchy Subject: The Tactile Metaphor Of Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirt Komel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an interpretation of metaphors and metaphoric discourse through the perspective of touch. The article first deals with metaphors of touch in the history of western philosophy (especially traditional metaphysics from Plato to Hegel in order to produce an operative category of touch that will allow, in the second step, to grasp the tactile quality of the metaphors. If metaphors are usually (rhetorics, politics, literature regarded as a specific form of language able to not only touch the subject matter in the most suitable way but also touch on the target subject (listener/reader, then it is precisely because there is a certain haptic quality involved in language itself, discernible especially in the discourse of those who know how to best exploit metaphors in their endeavours.

  3. The Subjectivity Problem: Improving Triangulation Approaches in Metaphor Analysis Studies

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    Sonya L. Armstrong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor analysis procedures for uncovering participant conceptualizations have been well-established in qualitative research settings since the early 1980s; however, one common criticism of metaphor analysis is the trustworthiness of the findings. Namely, accurate determination of the conceptual metaphors held by participants based on the investigation of linguistic metaphors has been identified as a methodological issue because of the subjectivity involved in the interpretation; that is, because they are necessarily situated in specific social and cultural milieus, meanings of particular metaphors are not universally constructed nor understood. In light of these critiques, this article provides examples of two different triangulation methods that can be employed to supplement the trustworthiness of the findings when metaphor analysis methodologies are used.

  4. Showing, Telling and Seeing. Metaphor and “Poetic” Language

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    Elisabeth Camp

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Theorists often associate certain “poetic” qualities with metaphor – most especially, producing an open-ended, holistic perspective which is evocative, imagistic and affectively-laden. I argue that, on the one hand, non-cognitivists are wrong to claim that metaphors only produce such perspectives: like ordinary literal speech, they also serve to undertake claims and other speech acts with propositional content. On the other hand, contextualists are wrong to assimilate metaphor to literal loose talk: metaphors depend on using one thing as a perspective for thinking about something else. I bring out the distinctive way that metaphor works by contrasting it with two other poetic uses of language, juxtapositions and “telling details,” that do fit the accounts of metaphor offered by non-cognitivists and contextualists, respectively.

  5. In Search of New Metaphors: E-learning as Hypertext

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2015-01-01

    spoken of as a gardener, a guide, or even as a sage on the stage. Similarly, the metaphors of learning as acquisition and the learner as an almost empty vessel are very common concepts in relation to lecturing. Learning is also often understood as participation and collaboration, and these metaphors...... indicate that teaching and learning are seen as activities that take place when the teacher and the students are together. However, when the use of technology and access to a ubiquitous Internet become a part of everyday teaching and learning, new metaphors are needed if we are to speak adequately about......People use metaphors in their daily communication to explain complicated matters and express meanings and understandings. Metaphors define our everyday realities and guide our thoughts and actions. Traditionally, specific metaphors have been related to teaching and learning: a teacher is often...

  6. The Metaphorical Language of Branding Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Hocenski Dreiseidl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the language of branding philosophy used in the famous book «Lovemarks – The Future Beyond Brands» written by the international branding guru Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide of Ideas Company Saatchi & Saatchi. His new branding approach shows how by using the universal, fundamental, timeless emotion LOVE expressed in universally (anywhere and timelessly (anytime comprehensible metaphors a new idea of a «lovemark» embodies mystery (great stories, past, present and future, taps into dreams, myths and icons, inspiration, sensuality (sound, sight, smell, touch, taste, and intimacy (commitment, empathy, passion. Lovemark that, according to Roberts, «…reaches one's heart, as well as one's mind, and creates emotional connection to the consumer…» has been created and accepted in the business culture worldwide. In view of this, the paper points out the significance of metaphorical way of expressing in the language of branding as well as the irreplaceable role of language as the main factor in branding philosophy. The language analysis focuses on the metaphors of love influencing the shift of language of branding from material (brand to intangible (lovemark. It also highlights the fact that new ideas as incentives to language enrichment generate new lexemes like trustmark and lovemark.

  7. Animal Images and Metaphors in Animal Farm

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    Ping Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In literary works animal images are frequently used as the “source domain” of a metaphor to disclose the natures of the “target domain”, human beings. This is called “cross-domain mapping” or “conceptual metaphor” in cognitive linguistics, which is based on the similar qualities between animals and human beings. Thus the apparent descriptions of the animals are really the deep revelations of the human beings. Animal Farm is one exemplary product of this special expressing way. Diversified animal images are intelligently used by George Orwell to represent the people, so all the characters are animals in appearance, but humans in nature. Starting from the animal images and then the conceptual metaphors, readers can perceive a fresh understanding of this classical book. In this novel, three conceptual metaphors are identified and the special findings can be illustrated as the following: Firstly, the whole story of the animals represents the history and politics of the Soviet Union. Secondly, the pigs symbolize the authorities of the society. Thirdly, the names of the characters in the novel reveal their identities.

  8. Robots on spaceship earth: a theoretical plea for machine metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Tanghe, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors are inevitable core elements of the conceptual schemes that shape our thinking and behavior. Traditionally, nature is interpreted in terms of agential metaphors such as ghosts, gods, witches and angels. Science, in contrast, is characterized by contra-intuitive, mechanistic thinking and machine metaphors. Modern societies nevertheless remain, to a certain extent, in the grip of powerful agential tropes. It will be argued that they are one of the obstacles that stand in the way of bo...

  9. The conceptual metaphor of Noor portent in Quran

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    Behjatosadat Hejazi

    2016-09-01

    This matter intellect more devisal especially about motashabehat signs. Quran metaphors aren’t relative to language, society and date and in addition to, are ultra-linguistic, ultra-date and ultra-humanity. Reception conceptual metaphor conceptuality “Allaho noor os-Samavate val-arz” with aid component metaphors that in Quran, cabalas and philosopher locution’s and Gnostics, account equipollent’s of noor, become more easy for audience.

  10. Collective Review: Three Approaches to Teaching and Learning Metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Schmitt

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting on the guiding force of metaphors is a long-standing tradition in the German-speaking educational sciences. However, no connection is made to the theory of metaphor, which is derived from modern cognitive linguistics. This may in part be due to a lack of qualitative studies in the educational sciences on the subject of everyday reasoning. These three doctoral studies seek to fill the void, with Peter GANSEN producing detailed descriptions of how children use metaphors, whilst also ...

  11. Ross-Cultural Aspects of Metaphorical Framing in Political Discourse

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    Tatyana V. Andryukhina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines cross-cultural aspects of metaphorical framing in political discourse. The author notes the importance of conceptual metaphor in framing the conceptual domain of politics, political discourse as a whole, its perception as well as political reality itself. The author shares an opinion that the metaphorical structure of basic concepts of a nation always correlates with its fundamental cultural values. However, the examination of political discourse from the cross-cultural perspective reveals the cases of metaphor uses that don't meet the requirements of cultural coherence and may lead to negative cognitive and communicative consequences. Along with admitting a wide discrepancy between metaphorical models in western and oriental political discourse, the author gives some examples of metaphorical coherence as well as its violation in a number of basic metaphors in American, British and Russian political discourse. To illustrate how cross-cultural factors determine the specific character of metaphorical framing, the article analyses the dynamic character of metaphorical models that can realize diverse scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse. An observation is made about the dependence of metaphoric scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse on the cultural, historical, social and political components of the national cultural cognitive map. The latter is heterogeneous as it is structured by the objectified individual, group, and national verbal and nonverbal experience. This explains, for instance, why there are examples of similarity as well as discrepancy between metaphorical framing in ideologically different party varieties of political discourse within the national political discourse as well as in the rhetoric of politicians belonging to different generations. The observations are illustrated by cross-linguistic data proving the dynamic character of metaphorical models, their

  12. Phenomenological metaphors in readers' engagement with characters : The case of Ian McEwan's Saturday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caracciolo, Marco

    Internally focalized passages in narrative often employ metaphors to capture the experiential states of the focalizing character. My investigation of these metaphors - 'phenomenological metaphors', as I call them - has two important precedents in the fields of narratology and literary stylistics:

  13. The Role of Metaphor in Discriminatory Hegemony: The Use of Metaphor in Reporting of Syrians

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    Hatice ÇOBAN KENEŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the critical approaches in the study of rhetoric as well as critical approaches exhibited in cognitive semantic studies, metaphor has come to be interpreted not only as a means of language, meaning and adornment but also as a way of understanding and describing the World, and as a way of thinking. These studies offer a perspective on how metaphors do and can assume an ideological role in construction and maintenance of hegemonic meanings in the relationship between language, discourse and meaning; and also on how the ideological structure of a discourse can be systematically deciphered using metaphors. Based on the inputs of critical studies, this study aims to problematize the metaphors used to describe asylum seekers, migrants and refugees in newspapers play a role in the construction of discriminatory discourses. Within this scope, this study is based on the analysis of selected news stories regarding the entrance of first large groups of Syrians to Turkey in April 2011; the economic costs of their prolonged stay coupled with the arrival of new refugees especially in 2015; and the death of Ayan Kurdi, a three-year-old toddler who symbolized the ‘death trip’ of refugees on September 2, 2015. Within this framework, the study focuses on the use of metaphors contributing to the production and dissemination of discrimination against refugees through the analysis of news stories in Daily newspapers of Sabah, Posta,Hürriyet, Zaman ve Cumhuriyet,which represent different ideological strains and mind-sets of reporting. In these analyses, the study benefits from the conceptual framework on metaphors developed by Lakoff and Johnson as well as critical discourse analysis method of van Dijk

  14. "The Way to a Man's Heart." Journey and War Metaphors. Metaphorical Conceptualisations of the Western Romance Model in English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Angeles Navarrete

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines two examples of the Western model of romance in English and Spanish discourse: the English metaphor, "the (best) way to a man's heart is through his stomach" (journey metaphor) and its Spanish counterpart, "Al hombre se le conquista por el estomago" (war metaphor). Both central metaphors entail a number of…

  15. Aspects of metaphor in physics examples and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pulaczewska, Hanna

    1999-01-01

    For decades there has been awareness of the fact that the natural sciences and the language they use are not metaphor-free domains. This study draws together statements on this phenomenon made in a discourse context hitherto dominated by theoreticians and philosophers of science and points up new perspectives of an interdisciplinary nature discussed here primarily from the viewpoint of cognitive semantics. How do metaphors enter into a discourse with physics? To what extent are the methods used and the issues addressed in physics influenced by metaphors? How do the ubiquitous metaphors of ever

  16. A Contrastive Analysis of Animal Metaphor in English and Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marveh Miri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning a second language for Iranian students may not be simple at all parts, and it may be difficult for them, especially in some parts that is different from their first language principles. One of these parts is Metaphor, which is different in most languages according to their culture and history. This article is a kind of comparative study which aimed to describe some differences between English and Persian interpretation of animal metaphor. We have three categorization for animal metaphor and different examples according to cultures of both languages. Keywords: Animal metaphor, Contrastive analysis, Error analysis, Figurative language

  17. Metaphor and knowledge the challenges of writing science

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing the power of metaphor in the rhetoric of science, this book examines the use of words to express complex scientific concepts. Metaphor and Knowledge offers a sweeping history of rhetoric and metaphor in science, delving into questions about how language constitutes knowledge. Weaving together insights from a group of scientists at the Santa Fe Institute as they shape the new interdisciplinary field of complexity science, Ken Baake shows the difficulty of writing science when word meanings are unsettled, and he analyzes the power of metaphor in science.

  18. To electrify bilingualism: Electrophysiological insights into bilingual metaphor comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, Katarzyna; Rataj, Karolina; Naskręcki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Though metaphoric language comprehension has previously been investigated with event-related potentials, little attention has been devoted to extending this research from the monolingual to the bilingual context. In the current study, late proficient unbalanced Polish (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals performed a semantic decision task to novel metaphoric, conventional metaphoric, literal, and anomalous word pairs presented in L1 and L2. The results showed more pronounced P200 amplitudes to L2 than L1, which can be accounted for by differences in the subjective frequency of the native and non-native lexical items. Within the early N400 time window (300-400 ms), L2 word dyads evoked delayed and attenuated amplitudes relative to L1 word pairs, possibly indicating extended lexical search during foreign language processing, and weaker semantic interconnectivity for L2 compared to L1 words within the memory system. The effect of utterance type was observed within the late N400 time window (400-500 ms), with smallest amplitudes evoked by literal, followed by conventional metaphoric, novel metaphoric, and anomalous word dyads. Such findings are interpreted as reflecting more resource intensive cognitive mechanisms governing novel compared to conventional metaphor comprehension in both the native and non-native language. Within the late positivity time window (500-800 ms), Polish novel metaphors evoked reduced amplitudes relative to literal utterances. In English, on the other hand, this effect was observed for both novel and conventional metaphoric word dyads. This finding might indicate continued effort in information retrieval or access to the non-literal route during novel metaphor comprehension in L1, and during novel and conventional metaphor comprehension in L2. Altogether, the present results point to decreased automaticity of cognitive mechanisms engaged in non-native and non-dominant language processing, and suggest a decreased sensitivity to the levels of

  19. To electrify bilingualism: Electrophysiological insights into bilingual metaphor comprehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jankowiak

    Full Text Available Though metaphoric language comprehension has previously been investigated with event-related potentials, little attention has been devoted to extending this research from the monolingual to the bilingual context. In the current study, late proficient unbalanced Polish (L1-English (L2 bilinguals performed a semantic decision task to novel metaphoric, conventional metaphoric, literal, and anomalous word pairs presented in L1 and L2. The results showed more pronounced P200 amplitudes to L2 than L1, which can be accounted for by differences in the subjective frequency of the native and non-native lexical items. Within the early N400 time window (300-400 ms, L2 word dyads evoked delayed and attenuated amplitudes relative to L1 word pairs, possibly indicating extended lexical search during foreign language processing, and weaker semantic interconnectivity for L2 compared to L1 words within the memory system. The effect of utterance type was observed within the late N400 time window (400-500 ms, with smallest amplitudes evoked by literal, followed by conventional metaphoric, novel metaphoric, and anomalous word dyads. Such findings are interpreted as reflecting more resource intensive cognitive mechanisms governing novel compared to conventional metaphor comprehension in both the native and non-native language. Within the late positivity time window (500-800 ms, Polish novel metaphors evoked reduced amplitudes relative to literal utterances. In English, on the other hand, this effect was observed for both novel and conventional metaphoric word dyads. This finding might indicate continued effort in information retrieval or access to the non-literal route during novel metaphor comprehension in L1, and during novel and conventional metaphor comprehension in L2. Altogether, the present results point to decreased automaticity of cognitive mechanisms engaged in non-native and non-dominant language processing, and suggest a decreased sensitivity to the levels

  20. RESEMBLANCE OPERATIONS AND CONCEPTUAL COMPLEXY IN ANIMAL METAPHORS

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    Aneider Iza Ervitia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    For over thirty years cognitive linguists have devoted much effort to the study of metaphors based on the correlation of events in human experience to the detriment of the more traditional notion of resemblance metaphor, which exploits perceived similarities among objects. Grady (1999 draws attention to this problem and calls for a more serious study of the latter type of metaphor. The present paper takes up this challenge on the basis of a small corpus of ‘animal’ metaphors in English, which are essentially based on resemblance. Contrary to previous analyses by cognitive linguists (e.g. Lakoff & Turner 1989, Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez, 1998, who claim that such metaphors are based on a single mapping generally involving comparable behavioral attributes, I will argue that we have a more complex situation which involves different patterns of conceptual interaction. In this respect, I have identified cases of (i animal metaphors interacting with high-level (i.e. grammatical metaphors and metonymies, of (ii (situational animal metaphors whose source domains are constructed metonymically (cf. Goossens 1990; Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Díez Velasco 2002, and of (iii animal metaphors interacting with other metaphors thereby giving rise to metaphoric amalgams (cf. Ruiz de Mendoza Ibáñez & Galera Masegosa 2011.

  1. Metaphor and meaning: Analysing metaphor use in the creative work of second language learners of English

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    Postma, Mariette

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the significance of metaphors in the creative work of second language learners of English. Metaphor, as viewed in this article, is not only a poetic device or a literary tool, but is recognised as a crucial part of our everyday thinking and meaning making. Essay writing is a genre of discourse that lends itself to sharing thoughts and reflecting on life and important issues. Teaching and assessment practices in creative writing are studied against the background of the apparent difficulty learners experience with English as their second language. The article argues that recognition should be given to the particular ways in which learners are able to express themselves and to create meaning in a second language by means of metaphor. An analysis was undertaken of the metaphors created by learners in their second language as an expression of their life worlds. The implications for teaching and assessment of learners’ creative writing work suggest a move away from reading only for errors towards recognising learners’ ability to create meaning.

  2. SYNAMET - A Microcorpus of Synesthetic Metaphors. Preliminary Premises of the Description of Metaphor in Discourse

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    Magdalena Anna Zawisławska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SYNAMET - A Microcorpus of Synesthetic Metaphors. Preliminary Premises of the Description of Metaphor in Discourse This article describes the preliminary premises of metaphor annotation in SYNAMET - the developing microcorpus of synesthetic metaphors. The analysis is based on the CLST theory (Context-Limited Simulation Theory put forward by D. Ritchie. According to this theory, the metaphor’s vehicle may activate various types of associations between words: semantic relations, perceptual sensations, or emotional simulations. The range of potential associations evoked by the vehicle is limited by the topic, i.e. the lexical context in which the metaphor appears. The relations between the vehicle and the topic may be presented in the form of a semantic frame. To reconstruct the frames within the project, linguistic works devoted to sensory perception- vision, hearing, smell and taste- will be utilized. The corpus annotation will consist of the following stages: 1 metaphor identification, 2 indication of the metaphor cluster (CM - a phrase or a passage of the text, centered around one referent, 3 isolation of the metaphorical units (MU - word forms or phrases combining lexemes primarily belonging to different perceptual frames. The outcome of the MU analysis will include: a general metaphorical scheme of the MU, lexical items activating the frame of the MU (together with their grammatical description, a detailed metaphor scheme of the MU, and the semantic and grammatical categorization of the MU.   SYNAMET – mikrokorpus metafor synestezyjnych. Wstępne założenia opisu metafory w dyskursie Artykuł opisuje wstępne założenia anotacji metafor w powstającym mikrokorpusie metafor synestezyjnych SYNAMET. Podstawą metody opisu będzie teoria CLST (Context-Limited Simulation Theory D. Ritchie’go. W myśl tej teorii nośnik metafory (vehicle może aktywować różne typy powiązania między wyrazami: semantyczne, zmysłowe lub emocjonalne

  3. Metaphor of society (a sociological essay

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    Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook

  4. Conflict at Disneyland: A Root-Metaphor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth C.; Eisenberg, Eric M.

    1987-01-01

    Uses metaphor analysis to illuminate recent conflicts at Disneyland. Discusses a 30-year change of emphasis of root-metaphors from "drama" to "family" that reflects fundamental differences between management and employees, along with the implications of this confrontation for the future of Disneyland. (NKA)

  5. Decoding the Metaphor of Internet Meme: A Study of Satirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined an emerging trend in Internet discourse as metaphorical constructs used by individuals for communication online. The Internet meme is an evolving trend used for satirical illustrations and expression of intents in multimodal ways. While previous studies have focused on verbal metaphors signaled by ...

  6. Metaphorical Salience in Artistic Text Processing: Evidence From Eye Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Eleonora G; Janyan, Armina; Tsaregorodtseva, Oksana V

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to explore processing difference between a literal phrase and a metaphoric one. Unlike artificially created stimuli in most experimental research, an artistic text with an ambiguous binary metaphoric phrase was used. Eye tracking methodology was applied. Results suggested difference between the two types of phrases in both early and late processing measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Merging the Metaphors: Surviving and Thriving as a New Academic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jean Grace

    1997-01-01

    Finds that, to examine the challenges new faculty members face, it is helpful to use three "survival metaphors": a new marriage; going to work on an assembly line; and being given "15 to 20" in the state penitentiary. Compares professional duties to each metaphor in turn. (PA)

  8. Modelling the Role of Cognitive Metaphors in Joint Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ments, L.; Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a social agent model is presented for the influence of cognitive metaphors on joint decision making processes. The social agent model is based on mechanisms known from cognitive and social neuroscience and cognitive metaphor theory. The model was illustrated in particular for two

  9. Linear and Nonlinear Career Models: Metaphors, Paradigms, and Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…

  10. Creative Organizational Vision Building through Collaborative, Visual-Metaphorical Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Don

    1998-01-01

    Describes use of collaborative metaphorical discussions, mind mapping, and imaginative visual thinking by the faculty of the Rider University School of Education to produce an idealistic vision of the college's future. This vision is expressed as a fanciful metaphorical drawing surrounded by a mind map and accompanied by a story connecting symbols…

  11. Metaphors Describing Energy Transfer through Ecosystems: Helpful or Misleading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernecke, Ulrike; Schwanewedel, Julia; Harms, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Energy transfer in ecosystems is an abstract and challenging topic for learners. Metaphors are widely used in scientific and educational discourse to communicate ideas about abstract phenomena. However, although considered valuable teaching tools, metaphors are ambiguous and can be misleading when used in educational contexts. Educational…

  12. METAPHOR: Probability density estimation for machine learning based photometric redshifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaro, V.; Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.

    2016-01-01

    We present METAPHOR (Machine-learning Estimation Tool for Accurate PHOtometric Redshifts), a method able to provide a reliable PDF for photometric galaxy redshifts estimated through empirical techniques. METAPHOR is a modular workflow, mainly based on the MLPQNA neural network as internal engine to

  13. Metaphors among titles of medical publications: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Mungra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to determine the frequency and types of metaphors in a corpus of titles from a single medical journal collected over one year. The frequency of metaphor tokens (4.6% was highest among editorials and other opinion articles and consisted predominantly of primary metaphors, which require explanation using a visual, cultural or other physical vehicle. When the metaphor was used only in the title and not in the body of the text, as was common in letters to the editor or in editorials, the metaphor may constitute a para-textual device used for engaging the reader. Other metaphors among research article titles were present not only in the title, but also used repeatedly in the body of the text. Among these research articles, metaphors were frequently used to endow the focus words of the metaphor with a precise and meaningful significance which, when used repeatedly in the text, may constitute a mechanism by which sub-technical language or internal jargon may arise. Being syntactically simple but endowed with a high communicative import, titles as a text type may help improve academic literacy, among beginners.

  14. Metaphor and Second Language Learning: The State of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a stylistic issue, metaphor is now considered a critical component of everyday and specialized language and most importantly, a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. The use of metaphor in language, thought and communication has been examined in second language (L2) learning. The body of literature that…

  15. Plying the steel: A reconsideration of surgical metaphors in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gavin

    2010-02-01

    Among the metaphors that Freud used to describe psychoanalysis, the surgical is possibly the most deplored. It is considered an anachronistic remnant of a dubious medical ideology that psychoanalysis has largely renounced. However, while analysts today avoid surgical analogies, their patients continue to produce surgical fantasies about analytic treatment. This fact alone requires a serious consideration of the meanings that surgical metaphors have for them. A second reason for reconsidering the role of the surgical metaphor, from the analyst's perspective, lies in its creative revival by W. R. Bion. Disregarding the shift away from surgical analogizing, Bion employed the metaphor to vividly portray various aspects of the analytic situation and the patient's experience of them. A brief historical overview of the surgical metaphor in psychoanalysis is provided, followed by an account of the reasons for its demise and by a review of the criticisms that continue to be leveled at it. Bion's use of surgical metaphors toward the end of his life is then explored. Finally, illustrations are given of the various ways in which patients use spontaneous surgical metaphors to depict transference and the analytic process. Though the analyst should not deliberately adopt surgical metaphors, it is important to remain open to these transference portrayals.

  16. Functional MRI of Conventional and Anomalous Metaphors in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kathleen; Liu, Ho-Ling; Lee, Chia-Ying; Gong, Shu-Ping; Fang, Shin-Yi; Hsu, Yuan-Yu

    2007-01-01

    This study looks at whether conventional and anomalous metaphors are processed in different locations in the brain while being read when compared with a literal condition in Mandarin Chinese. We find that conventional metaphors differ from the literal condition with a slight amount of increased activation in the right inferior temporal gyrus. In…

  17. Teaching Scientific Metaphors through Informational Text Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Erica M.; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2018-01-01

    Elementary students are expected to use various features of informational texts to build knowledge in the content areas. In science informational texts, scientific metaphors are commonly used to make sense of complex and invisible processes. Although elementary students may be familiar with literary metaphors as used in narratives, they may be…

  18. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mathias W.

    2016-01-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are…

  19. Metaphorical Perceptions of Teachers, Principals and Staff on School Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, Aysegül; Beytekin, Osman Ferda

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to know how the members of a school perceive their school management to investigate how they are related to their organizations. In this case, we can refer to metaphors, which are excellent tools for people to express their subconscious thoughts and perceptions about their organizations. On the other hand, metaphors help us to…

  20. The City as Metaphor for Integrated Learning in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efland, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a cognitive model that is an alternative to Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum, developed and based on the metaphor that the mind's knowledge base is a lattice. States that the lattice metaphor offers an understanding of cognition but some questions still remained unanswered. (CMK)

  1. Conceptual metaphors in South African political speeches (1994 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    fact a subjective reality is created by human perception of the world and the processing of this perception. Metaphorical expressions ... metaphors as structuring devices of human thought into its larger framework as single-scope networks, the input whose frame is ...... follows its instinct (urge). It takes up other entities within ...

  2. Prospective Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions on the Concept of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysegul, Derman; Serdar, Derman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal prospective teachers' perceptions of the concept of science by asking them to use metaphors to describe it. A metaphor elicitation method was employed in this study. The data obtained from the study were considered with both quantitative and qualitative (Content Analysis) analyses. The study determined the…

  3. On Metaphors, Everyday Diversity and Intercultural Education: Some Further Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify and discuss the reasons and limits of three rather popular metaphors that are used to speak of today's complex social and cultural fabric, through references to cultural anthropology, biology and genetics. In her analysis, the author considers not only the linguistic and semantic dimension of each metaphor, but also the…

  4. Metaphors in editorial cartoons representing the global financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bounegru, L.; Forceville, C.

    2011-01-01

    Lakoff and Johnson (1980) claim that metaphors play a crucial role in systematically structuring concepts, not just language. Probing the validity of this far-reaching claim requires investigating multimodal discourse. In this paper we analyse the 25 metaphors that structure a sample of 30 political

  5. The metonymic and metaphoric conceptualisations of the heart in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the metaphorical and metonymic structure of the heart in Akan (a Kwa language in West Africa,) and English, within the framework of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT), formulated by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). My aim is to explore the ways in which akoma, 'the heart', is used in Akan to express ...

  6. The Hamstringing of Moral Education: Athletic Metaphors and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, C. Stephen

    This discussion of "dominant metaphors" characterizing the nation's history focuses specifically on the period of metaphor change surrounding the ascent of the National Football League. The terms AGON and PAIDIA, used by the ancient Greeks to describe two dimensions of sports activities, provide the framework for a discussion of the athletic…

  7. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  8. Visual and multimodal metaphor in film: Charting the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Fahlenbrach, K.

    2016-01-01

    Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) pioneering work claimed that human beings think metaphorically, thereby initiating a remarkable revival of the scholarly interest in this queen of tropes. This interest reigned at first primarily among linguists. Since then, however, metaphor research has considerably

  9. Fragments of the organic metaphor in modern political thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. García López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the survival of the organic metaphor in the beginning of Modernity, against the Bobbio’thesis: the organicism disappears with Modernity. From the thought of Hobbes, Rousseau, Beccaria and Sieyès, we show the connection between the old metaphor and the modern immune paradigm.

  10. Sacrifice in Early Christianity : The Social Dimension of a Metaphor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwhorst, Gerard; Duyndam, Joachim; Korte, Anne-Marie; Poorthuis, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In Early Christianity the term 'sacrifice' was understood in a metaphorical way. The key to this metaphorical was to be found in the life and the death of Jesus Christ which which was interpreted as a self-offering and, for its part, constituted the model of the Christian way of life. Although this

  11. The Persuasiveness of Metaphor: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, Susan A.

    A study was conducted to replicate and extend an earlier investigation of the persuasive effects of extended, intense concluding sex and death metaphors by using a more controlled design and by mixing metaphors. Fifty-eight high school students completed pretests assessing their attitudes toward a speech topic (legalization of marijuana). Two…

  12. THE ROLE OF METAPHOR IN THE STYLISTIC RENDITION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the road. Gogol himself describes it as a no3Ma (poem) because of its complex and elevated thoughts encapsulated mostly in the use of the metaphor. 1. Introduction. Gogol's epic novel Dead Souls has ..... of similarity. The road for example serves as a physical web as well as a metaphorical artery linking the various towns.

  13. A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER frame in Swami Vivekananda's Complete Works : A corpus-driven study in light of conceptual metaphor theory. ... Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the Complete Works. The data were then tagged ...

  14. The aptness of knowledge related metaphors: a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2010-01-01

    Metaphors are common phenomena intellectual capital and knowledge management theories and practice. An important question to ask is: what are the ‗best‘ metaphors we can use in our theorizing on intellectual capital and knowledge management? This paper addresses the question of the aptness of

  15. A protoscientific master metaphor for framing violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Herbert H

    2006-11-01

    Every new field of investigation requires a guiding scheme or frame. Its purpose is to provide a heuristic for discovery and a structure for organizing information. Neither the World Health Organization's public health nor a biosocial model of violence are adequate for providing a protoscientific frame for conceptualizing violent acts. This essay suggests a master metaphor--Burke's Dramatism--through which to deepen and expand our knowledge of violence and what must be done to reduce its toll. An illustrative example is presented.

  16. A better Metaphor for Understanding Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uban Kordes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt at – yet once again – finding a source of more fitting metaphor for the study of consciousness inside the framework of quantum mechanics. It starts by doubting into the possibility of the naturalization of research of experience. Proceeding from that it searches for a more adequate way to implement Varela’s idea about a balanced bridging the explanatory gap. By comparing certain positions of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena with the properties of introspection, it tries to point out that there might exist better epistemic positions for understanding consciousness than the ones most frequently used today.

  17. Metaphoric competence in cognitive and language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, M; Nall, L

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of the age-related changes in children's language and cognitive development suggests qualitative changes in their creative language use. Many, if not most, researchers in the area have argued that some metaphoric competence emerges far earlier than would be expected on the basis of explanation or interpretation tasks alone. These same researchers, however, appear largely to have neglected consideration of the cognitive prerequisites for such abilities and differences between what is nonliteral for the adult and nonliteral for the child. If figurative language is defined as involving intentional violation of conceptual boundaries in order to highlight some correspondence, one must be sure that children credited with that competence have (1) the metacognitive and metalinguistic abilities to understand at least some of the implications of such language (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Nelson, 1974; Nelson & Nelson, 1978), (2) a conceptual organization that entails the purportedly violated conceptual boundaries (Lange, 1978), and (3) some notion of metaphoric tension as well as ground. Having stacked the definitional cards, we doubt that many investigators would assert that 2-year-old children at nonverbal symbolic play are doing anything that is literally metaphorical in our terms. But neither will we deny that one can observe creative components in the verbal and nonverbal play of the young child that are precursors of later nonliteral language skills (see McCune-Nicolich, 1981, for discussion). We simply do not see these creative abilities as specific to language in any way that justifies calling them metaphoric competence. Rather, the child's abilities to deal flexibly with the world, to "play" with possible alternative organizations of it, and to see similarity in diversity represent the bases of subsequent cognitive as well as language development. Far from being an exceptional aspect of development, apparently nonliteral language should be considered a

  18. Explaining superfoods: exploring metaphor scenarios in media science reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Breeze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metaphorical language plays an important role in spreading and popularising scientific information. However, little is known about the process through which sober scientific research is transformed into colourful or even sensational news. This paper examines the main metaphor scenarios used to explain nutritional discoveries, generally related to the overarching metaphors of “combat” and “maintenance”, and explores how they are developed and distributed across institutional press releases, online news reports, and magazines/blogs. Most of the metaphor scenarios seem to arise first in the press release, but these are considerably extended and embellished by the other media. Only occasionally are new metaphor scenarios engaged, which reflect societal discourses concerning science and nutrition.

  19. From language to nature: The semiotic metaphor in biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus; Hoffmeyer, Jesper Normann

    1991-01-01

    of a program, written in a formal language in the computer. Other versions of the semiotic or "nature-as-language" metaphor uses other formal or informal aspects of language to comprehend the specific structural relations in nature as explored by molecular and evolutionary biology. This intuitively appealing......The development of form in living organisms continues to challenge biological research. The concept of biological information encoded in the genetic program that controls development forms a major part of the semiotic metaphor in biology. Development is here seen in analogy to an execution...... complex of related ideas, which has a long history in the philosophy of nature and biology, is critically reviewed. The general nature of metaphor in science is considered, and different levels of metaphorical transfer of signification is distinguished. It is argued, that the metaphors may...

  20. Public health metaphors in Australian policy on asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Glenda

    2009-02-01

    To analyse the way in which a public health metaphor has been incorporated into Australian political practice to justify the exclusion or mistreatment of unwelcome non-citizens, giving particular attention to recent asylum seekers. Starting with a personal experience of working in an immigration detention centre and then drawing on media reports and published scholarship, I critique political rhetoric and policy on asylum seekers, arguing that the significance of a public health metaphor lies in its effectiveness in persuading the public that refugees and asylum seekers are a moral contaminant that threatens the nation and has to be contained. Acceptance of the metaphor sanctions humanly degrading inferences, policies and actions. Public health professionals therefore have a responsibility to challenge the political use of public health and associated metaphors. Substituting the existing metaphor for one that is more morally acceptable could help to redefine refugees and asylum seekers more positively and promote compassion in political leaders and the community.

  1. Reflection in psychoanalysis: on symbols and metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enckell, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  2. Of Nasa and Neanderthals, Elephants and Machines: Metaphors and the Conceptualization of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Genus Metaphor .........................................................................84 a. Challenges for the Genus Metaphor...Subordination of individual interest to general interest—through firmness, example, fair agreements, and constant supervision. Equity —based on kindness and...advanced. B. ALTERNATIVE APPLICATIONS 1. The Genus Metaphor The living organism metaphor presented in Chapter IV offers an alternative to the

  3. From Monomodal to Multimodal Metaphors in the Portuguese sports newspaper A Bola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clotilde Almeida

    Full Text Available Following our comprehensive study of conceptual metaphor occurrences in the Portuguese sports newspaper A Bola (ALMEIDA, 2013 and the research on multimodal metaphor (Forceville, 2008, 2009, 2012, the present paper aims to analyse multimodal metaphors, depicting Cristiano Ronaldo on the covers of this very same newspaper. We wish to uncover conceptual affinities or differences between monomodal and multimodal metaphors as far as their source domains are concerned, namely those of WAR and RELIGION (ALMEIDA, 2013. Upon confronting monomodal and multimodal metaphors, we have unveiled that source domains of multimodal metaphors appear to be more restrictive in comparison to the vast panoply of source domains in monomodal metaphors (ALMEIDA, 2013.

  4. Metaphors are Embodied, and so are Their Literal Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Eduardo; de Vega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether understanding up/down metaphors as well as semantically homologous literal sentences activates embodied representations online. Participants read orientational literal sentences (e.g., she climbed up the hill), metaphors (e.g., she climbed up in the company), and abstract sentences with similar meaning to the metaphors (e.g., she succeeded in the company). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to perform a speeded upward or downward hand motion while they were reading the sentence verb. The hand motion either matched or mismatched the direction connoted by the sentence. The results showed a meaning-action effect for metaphors and literals, that is, faster hand motion responses in the matching conditions. Notably, the matching advantage was also found for homologous abstract sentences, indicating that some abstract ideas are conceptually organized in the vertical dimension, even when they are expressed by means of literal sentences. In Experiment 3, participants responded to an upward or downward visual motion associated with the sentence verb by pressing a single key. In this case, the facilitation effect for matching visual motion-sentence meaning faded, indicating that the visual motion component is less important than the action component in conceptual metaphors. Most up and down metaphors convey emotionally positive and negative information, respectively. We suggest that metaphorical meaning elicits upward/downward movements because they are grounded on the bodily expression of the corresponding emotions.

  5. Creating metaphors: the neural basis of figurative language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Beaty, Roger; Jauk, Emanuel; Koschutnig, Karl; Fink, Andreas; Silvia, Paul J; Dunst, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2014-04-15

    Neuroscience research has thoroughly studied how nonliteral language is processed during metaphor comprehension. However, it is not clear how the brain actually creates nonliteral language. Therefore, the present study for the first time investigates the neural correlates of metaphor production. Participants completed sentences by generating novel metaphors or literal synonyms during functional imaging. Responses were spoken aloud in the scanner, recorded, and subsequently rated for their creative quality. We found that metaphor production was associated with focal activity in predominantly left-hemispheric brain regions, specifically the left angular gyrus, the left middle and superior frontal gyri-corresponding to the left dorsomedial prefrontal (DMPFC) cortex-and the posterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, brain activation in the left anterior DMPFC and the right middle temporal gyrus was found to linearly increase with the creative quality of metaphor responses. These findings are related to neuroscientific evidence on metaphor comprehension, creative idea generation and episodic future thought, suggesting that creating metaphors involves the flexible adaptation of semantic memory to imagine and construct novel figures of speech. Furthermore, the left DMPFC may exert executive control to maintain strategic search and selection, thus facilitating creativity of thought. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. It Is Time to Cancel Medicine's Social Contract Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John M

    2017-09-01

    There is agreement that the complex relationship between medicine and society is best described as a metaphorical social contract and that professionalism is the medical profession's contribution to this contract. Metaphors can help clarify abstract concepts, but they can also be abused if the counterfactual attributes of a metaphor become attributed to its subject. This seems to be happening with medical professionalism, which has sometimes been reduced to a contracted deliverable and a bargaining chip. The undesirable attributes of the social contract metaphor may be hindering efforts to understand and teach medical professionalism.Despite its theoretical weaknesses, the social contract metaphor has historical credibility because of its alleged association with the 1847 Code of Medical Ethics and the subsequent ascension of regular (allopathic) medicine in the early 20th century. However, the record does not support an argument that the intended purpose of the 1847 Code was to create a social contract or that one ever arose. The alternative account that a contract did arise, but physicians were poor partners, is neither satisfying nor explanatory.As now used, medicine's social contract metaphor has serious theoretical and historic weaknesses. Medical educators should remove this narrow and overworked metaphor from their discussions of professionalism. By doing this, educators and the profession in general would only lose the ability to threaten themselves with the cancellation of their social contract. In return they would open the door to a more complex and fruitful consideration of medical professionalism and medicine's relationship with society.

  7. [The genome and its metaphors. Detectives, heroes or prophets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davo, M C; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    2003-01-01

    The new genetics, or the impetus given to this discipline by the Genome Project, aims to a change of paradigm of the Health Sciences. This change is postulated from a phenotypic approach to a genotypic one, thereby excluding the influence of the environment, which could seriously undermine the grounds for the development and exercise of Public Health. Since the beginning of the genome project, information on genetic discoveries has frequently been reported in the mass media. Metaphors are often used by geneticists and journalists to convey the complex concepts of genetic research for which there are no equivalents in the lay language. The media do not merely shape the social agenda but also provide the space in which health culture is constructed. We present the results of a preliminary study exploring the metaphors used in the three most widely-read national daily newspapers in Spain, namely ABC, El Pais and El Mundo, when reporting news of the new genetics. The possible consequences of the natural history of these metaphors, or the process through which figurative terms acquire a literal meaning, are discussed. A preliminary taxonomy for the metaphors identified was developed. Fifty-one out of 342 identified headings (14.8%) contained metaphors. Strategic metaphors such as program, control, code, map, and puzzle, were the most commonly used, followed by teleological ones such as mystery or God language and finally war-like metaphors such as attack, defeat, and capture. The three groups of metaphors are characterized by an attempt to giving intentionality to genes. Strategic metaphors predominated over teleological and war-like ones and thus a technocratic perspective could form the basis of the future construction of health culture.

  8. Monomodal and multimodal instantiations of conceptual metaphors of Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozova Olena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a linguistic analysis of the conceptual metaphors of Brexit, in which the source and the target belong to the same semiotic mode or to different ones. It is shown that the variation of high-level cognitive models underpinning metaphoric images of Brexit reflects the author’s stance towards the event. Phases of Brexit are associated with different image-schematic cognitive models, and this impinges on the range of those metaphors of Brexit that involve low-level concepts.

  9. The Network Metaphor & the New Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foresta, Don

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about art and science and a certain parallelism between them in the evolution of Western culture, particularly over the last 150 years. I will try to describe what changes have taken place in our society’s operational schema and our shared paradigm. My construct will be one of art, though a strong influence from science will be evident. I propose that we have been living through a second renaissance provoked by a profound change in the definition and representation of reality by both art and science. Throughout the 20th century, the ideas put forth by both have been extremely unconventional and the two have interacted in ways not always obvious, providing new metaphors, new patterns for defining the future shape of our culture.

  10. Serious Illness Conversations: Paving the Road with Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David; Zhukovsky, Donna S; Bruera, Eduardo

    2018-01-25

    Serious illness conversations can influence the direction of care by supporting decision-making compatible with the patient's goals. Effective use of core communication techniques, such as active listening and empathic statements, allows for a deeper understanding of the patients' goals, concerns, communication preferences, and questions. Metaphors can be used to augment end-of-life care planning. Used inappropriately, metaphors can cause misunderstandings and confusion. Applied skillfully, metaphors can personalize challenging discussions, improving patient comprehension and helping patients and their families to plan ahead. The art of communication is to use the right tool for the right person at the right time. Discussions with patients about serious illness concerns are especially challenging for the oncologist. This article provides guidance for preparing for such conversations, including examples of the use of metaphors to personalize and improve communication. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  11. The Student - as - Customer Metaphor: A Deconstruction Using Foucauldian Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Linda Laing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the social impact of the 'student-as-customer' metaphor on the role of academic leadership and objectivity of the assessment process in the higher education sector. A hybrid approach is used in which Deconstruction seeks to render visible the Foucauldian constructs of power and privilege. The paper draws on the existing literature to explore the problematic relationship between the student as customer metaphor, academic leadership, and student assessment. The paper raises awareness of the inherent tensions with the present reliance on the student as customer metaphor and the resulting negative impact on both students and academic staff. This addresses a gap in the literature in regards to the effect that the use of the student-as- customer metaphor has on academic leadership and assessment in higher education.

  12. MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN DISPOSISI MATEMATIS SISWA SMP MELALUI PENDEKATAN METAPHORICAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbaiti Widyasari

    2016-12-01

    metaphorical thinking dan kelas yang mendapatkan pembelajaran dengan cara konvensional tidak terdapat perbedaan, serta tidak terdapat pengaruh interaksi antara pendekatan pembelajaran dengan kemampuan awal matematis terhadap kemampuan disposisi matematis siswa.

  13. New and Old User Interface Metaphors in Music Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical framework for interaction with sound in music mixing. Using cognitive linguistic theory and studies exploring the spatiality of recorded music, it is argued that the logic of music mixing builds on three master metaphors—the signal flow metaphor, the sound stage...... metaphor and the container metaphor. I show how the metaphorical basis for interacting with sound in music mixing has changed with the development of recording technology, new aesthetic ideals and changing terminology. These changes are studied as expressions of underlying thought patterns that govern how...... music producers and engineers make sense of their actions. In conclusion, this leads to suggestions for a theoretical framework through which more intuitive music mixing interfaces may be developed in the future....

  14. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mathias W

    2016-05-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are foundational obstacles to defining a coherent and cognitively valid concept of "metaphor" and "concrete meaning," and some general problems with singling out certain domains of experience as more immediate than others. I conclude from these considerations that whatever the facts are about the comprehension of individual metaphors, the available evidence is incompatible with the notion of an underlying conceptual structure organized according to the immediacy of experience. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. METAPHORICAL EVALUATION IN SPONTANEOUS DIALOGUE (СOGNITIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOYKO ANNA KONSTANTINOVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to explore the relationship between metaphor and comic effect in order to achieve the understanding of those cognitive processes that are updated during the implementation of evaluative meanings in dialogical discourse. Analysis of dialogical speech produced in the framework of this publication, indicated that the estimated metaphor acquires comic effect, causes laughter of the participants of communication, when their attention is focused on two concepts directly involved in the modeling metaphor. Speaking subject - intentionally or unintentionally - separates the domains that are relevant for the initiation of this metaphor, specially emphasizing the differences of these domains. This creates a voltage between the two input spaces are denoted by their borders, which, in turn, leads to comic effect.

  16. OPPOSITIVE METAPHORICAL MODELS IN THE GERMAN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tameryan, T.Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s metaphoric image in the German press. As a result of analysis 8 binary metaphorical constructions, verbalized by two components, one of which is positively marked (PM, the other one have been negatively (NM identified. Statistical analysis of the linguistic material allowed to conclude that the assessment of Merkel is ambivalently with a slight predominance of positive estimation.

  17. Transforming impostors into heroes. Metaphors for innovative nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, K T

    1997-01-01

    Nurses negotiating professional transitions, whether they are entering an academic program or assuming a new role in the workplace, often feel like impostors. The metaphor of the hero can serve as an "antidote" to the impostor syndrome. The author describes an educational experience shaped around the impostor and hero metaphors that integrates feminist process with expressive methods to transform nurses' perceptions of themselves from impostors into heroes.

  18. THE WORLD-MODELLING POTENCY OF THE INDIVIDUAL METAPHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova, M.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes individual metaphors as a fundamental component of the artistic worldview. The research discusses the correlation between the individual metaphor and interdiscourse markedness that allows identifying some peculiarities of cultural identity of the English-language literary text. The central place belongs to the propositions connected with the ways of reality conceptualization in the minds of the English-speaking mentality, which are necessary for correct interpretation of the cultural-specific information.

  19. Collective Review: Three Approaches to Teaching and Learning Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schmitt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the guiding force of metaphors is a long-standing tradition in the German-speaking educational sciences. However, no connection is made to the theory of metaphor, which is derived from modern cognitive linguistics. This may in part be due to a lack of qualitative studies in the educational sciences on the subject of everyday reasoning. These three doctoral studies seek to fill the void, with Peter GANSEN producing detailed descriptions of how children use metaphors, whilst also developing a theory for an "educational metaphorology." Sabine MARSCH, on the other hand, shows how metaphors shape subjective theories of teaching and can open or close active learning. Kai NIEBERT's work focuses on an analysis and comparison of metaphors used by both climate change theorists and everyday observers, whilst also building didactical bridges. Although the three studies differ in terms of methodology and thematic focus, they open up the field of metaphor analysis in the educational sciences, hopefully providing stimulus for further work in this area. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103195

  20. Communicative competence in Alzheimer's disease: metaphor and sarcasm comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Yohko; Yamaguchi, Tomoharu; Koeda, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the deficits of metaphor and sarcasm comprehension in Alzheimer's disease (AD), as pragmatic interpretation such as metaphor and sarcasm comprehension is required in social communication. A total of 31 young normal controls, 104 aged normal controls (ANC), 42 patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 30 patients with mild AD were evaluated by Metaphoric and Sarcastic Scenario Test, which consists of 5 metaphoric and 5 sarcastic questions with 5 answer choices. Scores were analyzed using the repeated measures analysis of variance (metaphor/sarcasm vs 4 participant groups). Sarcasm comprehension, which requires second-order Theory of Mind (ToM), started to deteriorate in ANC, and metaphor comprehension, which requires first-order ToM, started to deteriorate in aMCI, and both deteriorated as disease progressed. Literal interpretation of pragmatic language is characteristic in patients with mild AD. Such misinterpretation would result in social miscommunication, even if they still retained semantic-lexical competence.

  1. Exploring EFL Teachers’ Cognitive Models Through Metaphor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how a group of Chinese university teachers developed their cognitive models by using “English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers” metaphors. The research method includes an open-ended questionnaire, a checklist questionnaire, and verbal reports. The goal for this research is twofold. First, we will present those metaphors we believe to be the most frequently used or most central in shaping the thoughts or ideas they have had for EFL teaching and learning. Second, we will provide a description of their internal process of developing cognitive models, as well as factors that could account for such models. The findings showed that (a most of us had three ways of understanding EFL teachers in terms of the educational journey metaphor, the educational building metaphor, and the educational conduit metaphor; (b we used such a cluster of converging cognitive models as the instructor model, the transmitter model, and the builder model to construct definitions for EFL teachers, with the instructor model as a central model; and (c metaphor can actually serve as a useful, effective, and analytic tool for making us aware of the cognitive model underlying our conceptual framework.

  2. Metaphor of ‘Adaptation’: A Metaphoric Rhetorical criticism on Aminuddin Baki’s Torch Movement Speech 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halem Shah Dil Froz Jan Sayed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the Aminuddin Baki’s Torch Movement Speech 3 (Ceramah Gerakan Obor 3. It’s is to identify the type of metaphors used and how the metaphors are conveyed in the Torch Movement Speech 3 on ‘Adaptation’ of the Malays. The study hopes to identify the direction of the ‘Adaptation’ metaphor which is liken banana tree and its offsprings. Many studies have been carried out on the biographical portion of Aminuddin Baki but none on all his Torch Movement Speeches that he had made on the progression and development of the Malays. A qualitative method was used through a rhetorical analysis. A Neo-Aristotelian Criticism is used in the analysis of speech of which this study demonstrates the relevance in the application of ancient Malay metaphors in the modern day communication interaction among the Malays.

  3. A Theoretical Account on the Study of Metaphor in Didactic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El-Sharif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a literary review to the linguistic research in the use of metaphor in didactic discourse; especially the religious one. Acknowledging Conceptual Metaphor Theory as the primary theory in the field, the researcher embarks upon how metaphor is perceived and analysed in discourse in order to pertain its persuasive function. The article presents different approaches to metaphor analysis and their interconnection. The implications of these approaches are later deduced and interpreted within the scope of Islamic religious discourse as an example of didactic discourses. Keywords: Metaphors, Metaphor Analysis, Didactic Discourse, Persuasion

  4. Metaphors of construction in ancient poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analogy between the activity of poet and that of a blacksmith or builder characterizes the origin of aesthetics in western culture and influences the idea of kósmos, as structure ordered solely with the purpose of the effect of beauty. Although the metaphor of poet-blacksmith occurs only after the 5th century BC, the image of poet-architect or builder dates back to the Indo-European period. Archaic poets (Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, etc. already described their method of procedure through the comparison with techniques of naval carpentry and building construction: this association is applied both to production and reception of the text, as it is useful to illustrate structural order together with emotional and illusionistic effects of a work. In the classical age, the analogy can be found, in a more pervasive and explicit form, in the treatises of rhetoric which deal with stylistic composition, formulating doctrines which were to influence Vitruvian precepts. The centuries-old validity of comparison between poetry and architecture is also shown by the role which the notion of composition has in Medieval (for example in Dante poetics and Renaissance poetics, and also in the reflections of contemporary poets (such as Pound, Valéry.

  5. Comprehension and Generation of Metaphoric Language in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirer, Anat; Mashal, Nira

    2017-05-01

    Difficulties with figurative language comprehension were documented in adult dyslexia (DYS). In the present research, we investigated the comprehension and generation of metaphors in 37 children, 35 adolescents, and 34 adults with and without DYS. We also tested the contribution of executive function to metaphor processing. A multiple-choice questionnaire with conventional and novel metaphors was used to assess comprehension; a concept-explanation task was used to test conventional and novel metaphor generation (verbal creativity). The findings indicated differences between the dyslexic children and the control group in conventional metaphor comprehension. However, both groups performed similarly in the novel metaphor comprehension test. Furthermore, although children and adolescents with DYS showed similar performance in metaphor generation as their typically developing peers, adults with DYS generated more metaphors than controls. While scores on tests of verbal knowledge and mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of conventional metaphor comprehension, scores on non-verbal tests and mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of novel metaphor generation. Our findings suggest that individuals with DYS are not impaired in novel metaphor comprehension and metaphor generation and that metaphor comprehension and generation utilize different cognitive resources. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Processing Conventional Conceptual Metaphors in Persian: A Corpus-Based Psycholinguistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshaie, Ramin; Golfam, Arsalan

    2015-10-01

    Research on the psycholinguistic processing of conceptual metaphors has produced contrasting results in recent years. There have also been criticisms that in experimental studies of metaphor processing, linguistic stimuli are mostly intuition-based and not designed objectively based on the original language use data. To address these issues, we studied the processing of conventional metaphoric expressions in Persian language using corpus data. A reading time experiment was designed to test whether conventional metaphoric expressions activated conceptual metaphors. A corpus of 50 million word tokens was used to study the conventional patterns of metaphoric expressions usages and construct experimental items. Fifty five Persian speakers read a set of scenarios containing non-conventional metaphor, conventional metaphor and non-metaphor expressions on computer and the reading times of the following novel target sentence in each condition were recorded by DMDX stimulus presenter program. Comparing mean reading times using one-way ANOVA revealed that reading target sentence after conventional metaphor scenarios had been significantly faster than non-metaphor scenarios, but slower than non-conventional scenarios. The results show that conventionality has a weakening effect on the strength of metaphoric expressions to activate conceptual metaphors.

  7. American Offensive Funny Riddles: A Critical Metaphor Analysis

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    Ahmed Sahib Jabir Mubarak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradox in the offensive humor lies in the assumption that what evokes laughter can be harmful for someone. Linguistically, the offense can be expressed directly and indirectly, additionally, humor, including riddles is one of the most effective ways to show offense or aggression toward someone. Humor, on the other hand, is mostly expressed indirectly. Metaphoric forms are said to be one of the most appealing strategies of humor language. The present study aims at applying a critical metaphor analysis of some randomly selected American offensive humorous riddles related to various aspects of offense like race and nation. In this approach to critical discourse analysis, the cognitive aspect is added for the sake of analyzing figurative forms like metaphor which is considered as an important part of ideology. Thus, critical metaphor analysis covers both social and cognitive aspects. It is concluded that offensive jokes (namely funny riddles can be used as a tool to measure the aggressiveness towards certain social aspects like race; on the other hand, metaphors afford indications of facets of power, inequality and people ideologies in American society.

  8. Metaphor in Ebola’s popularized scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Balteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies, describes and analyzes specific instances of metaphors used to represent and explain ten “frame elements” in popularized scientific articles devoted to the Ebola disease or virus, within the overall “health frame”. The descriptive and explanatory metaphors studied derive from culturally salient objects or experiences which allow scientists, medical professionals and journalists to effectively communicate scientific information and knowledge about Ebola to non-experts in less complex, understandable and down-to-earth terms. Apart from the identification and characterization of specific instances of Ebola metaphors (corresponding to general framings such as EBOLA IS WAR or RECOVERY IS A ROAD, this work also focuses on the purposes, functions and effects that these metaphors, usually considered as reformulation techniques (Jacobi, 1994, have in the popularization of such an important health threat which has quite recently caused general hysteria and almost a global crisis. By “popularization” we mean the communicative function that metaphor plays in approaching a scientific issue to the world population or to society in general, or the process of bringing science to everyday life (Väliverronen, 1993. For such purposes, a sample of articles from Scientific American has been considered.

  9. Of Fallacies, Ferris Wheels, and Figurative Language: Metaphor in Science and Technical Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Glenn R.

    1987-01-01

    Assesses the unaccepted use of figurative language in science and technical writing, especially, objections to metaphor's imputed ambiguity. Proposes that metaphor play a stronger role in conceptualization of scientific and technical ideas. (MS)

  10. On understanding creative language : The late positive complex and novel metaphor comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rataj, Karolina; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; van der Lubbe, Rob H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Novel metaphoric sentences have repeatedly evoked larger N400 amplitudes than literal sentences, while investigations of the late positive complex (LPC) have brought inconsistent results, with reports of both increased and reduced amplitudes. In two experiments, we examined novel metaphor

  11. Development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension: receptive vocabulary and conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundblad, Gabriella; Annaz, Dagmara

    2010-09-01

    Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy are common in our daily communication. This is one of the first studies to investigate metaphor and metonymy comprehension using a developmental approach. Forty-five typically developing individuals participated in a metaphor-metonymy verbal comprehension task incorporating 20 short picture-stories. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses linking task performance to either chronological age or receptive vocabulary (mental age, MA) were used to compare the development of metaphor and metonymy. Results showed that development of metaphor and metonymy comprehension is strongly linked with chronological and MA, but metaphor comprehension develops at a slower rate compared to metonymy. It was also found that participants, across all ages, consistently showed around 21% better performance on metonymy. The relationship between metaphor and metonymy comprehension is discussed in terms of linguistic and cognitive models of figurative language comprehension arguing that metonymy is cognitively more basic than metaphor.

  12. Charles S. Peirce on creative metaphor: A case study of the conveyor belt methaphor in Oceanography.

    OpenAIRE

    Brüning, R.; Lohmann, Gerrit

    1999-01-01

    With Charles Sanders Peirce's semiotical theory two different kinds of creative metaphorical reasoning in science can be identified. The building of remainder metaphors is especially important for creating new scientific models. We show that the conveyor belt metaphor provides an excellent example for Peirce's theory. The conveyor belt metaphor has recently been invented in order to describe the oceanic transport system. The paradigm of the oceanic conveyor belt strongly influenced the geosci...

  13. Visual and Multimodal Metaphor in Advertising: Cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Forceville

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that a picture tells us more than a thousand words, but studying pictorial metaphors reveals how much background knowledge is needed to understand and evaluate visuals. Commercial print advertising and billboards make for good case studies, because their goal is unambiguous: to sell consumer products and services. In this chapter some of the pitfalls in analysing visual and multimodal metaphors are discussed, Consideration of a number of examples suggests how metaphors involving visuals may misfire when they are interpreted by members from another culture than the one for which they were designed. In the conclusion some ideas are put forward to make these insights productive in educational contexts.

  14. Understanding Productive Learning Through the Metaphorical Lens of Patchworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The metaphor of patchworking is used throughout this case study to highlight how learning processes, and processes of knowledge creation, consist of the stitching and weaving together of various patches into something new. The patches can be old, new, borrowed and of a widely different fabric; yet......, which formed the basis of the author’s PhD thesis (Ryberg, 2007), the concept of understanding learning as a process of patchworking has emerged. The metaphor of patchworking is a perspective that emphasises the constructive, creative and productive aspects of learning. In this chapter the main aspects...... of this metaphorical perspective will be presented and discussed in relation to networked learning, indirect design and the notion of ‘productive learning’....

  15. The cognitive science of metaphor from philosophy to neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Rohrer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I review some of the theoretical issues surrounding metaphor, and trace them through the context of the cognitive neuroscience debate. Metaphor, like all figurative language, has been usually explained as a secondary linguistic process which takes place as a function taking place on literal language. However this explanation does not fit well with some of the recent work on right hemisphere processing of language or recent cognitive studies, both of which suggest that the figurative and literal language are processed simultaneously and share much structure. In seeking ways to operationalize the Lakoff and Johnson view of metaphor as a constitutive cognitive phenomenon, I begin to spell out what kinds of theoretical predictions the Lakoff-Johnson model would make on the neurophysiological levels cognitive investigation. I conclude by offering some rudimentary thoughts on possible proposals for further investigation using these methods.

  16. Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia; Rappaz, Marc-André; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Music is often described in terms of emotion. This notion is supported by empirical evidence showing that engaging with music is associated with subjective feelings, and with objectively measurable responses at the behavioural, physiological, and neural level. Some accounts, however, reject the idea that music may directly induce emotions. For example, the 'paradox of negative emotion', whereby music described in negative terms is experienced as enjoyable, suggests that music might move the listener through indirect mechanisms in which the emotional experience elicited by music does not always coincide with the emotional label attributed to it. Here we discuss the role of metaphor as a potential mediator in these mechanisms. Drawing on musicological, philosophical, and neuroscientific literature, we suggest that metaphor acts at key stages along and between physical, biological, cognitive, and contextual processes, and propose a model of music experience in which metaphor mediates between language, emotion, and aesthetic response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of metaphors in organizational theory; the case of social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2006-01-01

    Metaphor is one of the important discursive themes in organizational literature (Grant et al.,2001). Metaphors play an important role in the discourse within organizations as well as in theorizing about organizations. This empirical paper focuses on the latter by analysing the role of metaphor in

  18. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Medical Students: Uncovering Core Values and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina; Compton, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to examine the core values of Colombian medical students. The entire 9th semester medical class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  19. Reliable metaphor analysis in organizational research: towards a dual dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, J.W.G.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is on metaphor in organizational research. First, we present a framework, proposed by Cornelissen et al. (2008), for organizing literature on metaphor and organization research. We argue that metaphors play a crucial role in conceptualizing and abstract concepts like ‘knowledge’ and

  20. Metaphorical constructions of hypertension among three ethnic groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, John; Beune, Erik; Stronks, Karien

    2011-01-01

    Background. This article examines the various metaphors used by hypertensive patients from different ethnic groups in multi-ethnic and multicultural Netherlands. The choice for the study of metaphors is based on the need of people to use metaphors, analogies and symbols to make sense of and express

  1. Common Metaphors and Their Impact on Distance Education: What They Tell Us and What They Hide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores some of the common metaphors used to illuminate the Web and its application to distance education. Using the work of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) as a foundation for understanding and categorizing metaphors, the advantages and disadvantages for our future of such metaphors as the "Web", "Information Highway", "virtual",…

  2. Teaching English Metaphors Using Cross-Linguistic Awareness-Raising Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deignan, A.; Gabrys, D.; Solska, A.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a translation exercise undertaken by Polish learners of English which revealed how metaphorical expressions vary between the two languages and how this variation confuses learners. Suggests that group discussion and comparison of metaphors in both languages will increase students' comprehension and use of metaphors. (nine references)…

  3. Children and Discipline: Investigating Secondary School Students' Perception of Discipline through Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive study investigating the perception of children about discipline through metaphors developed by them. A total of 445 students participated in the research and the data was collected with the "Discipline Metaphors Survey (DMS)" developed by the researchers. At the end of the study, 143 metaphors, 94 positive and 49…

  4. Metaphor and Metonymy in ASD Children: A Critical Review from a Developmental Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melogno, Sergio; Pinto, Maria Antonietta; Levi, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to critically review the experimental research in the domain of metaphor and metonymy competencies in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) children. After providing some basic definitions of metaphor and metonymy, we consider some major points emerging from studies on metaphorical and metonymical competencies in…

  5. The metaphor of the dog in Arabic Literature | Mohamed | Tydskrif vir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay deals with the metaphor of the dog in Arabic philosophical literature. The metaphor is viewed in relation to the imagery of the rider and the horse, which vividly demonstrates the dynamic relation of the three faculties of the soul. Our focus is on the irascible faculty, the emotion of anger. The dog metaphor brings ...

  6. A Theoretical Account on the Study of Metaphor in Didactic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharif, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This article makes a literary review to the linguistic research in the use of metaphor in didactic discourse; especially the religious one. Acknowledging Conceptual Metaphor Theory as the primary theory in the field, the researcher embarks upon how metaphor is perceived and analysed in discourse in order to pertain its persuasive function. The…

  7. The Teacher Is a Facilitator: Reflecting on ESL Teacher Beliefs through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors offer a lens through which language teachers express their understanding of their work. Metaphor analysis can be a powerful reflective tool for expressing meanings that underpin ways of thinking about teaching and learning English as a second/foreign language. Through reflecting on their personal teaching metaphors, teachers become more…

  8. The "Metaphorical Collage" as a Research Tool in the Field of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a research tool in the field of education--the "metaphorical collage." This tool facilitates the understanding of concepts and processes in education through the analysis of metaphors in collage works that include pictorial images and verbal images. We believe the "metaphorical collage" to be…

  9. Johannine metaphors/symbols linked to the paraclete-spirit and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Johannine author uses metaphors and symbols to enable the primary and secondary readers to come to a better understanding of the Paraclete-Spirit. The study of particular Johannine metaphors is valuable in understanding the message and theology of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the ...

  10. L'uso della metafora nell'educazione linguistica (Use of the Metaphor in Language Instruction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mininni, Giuseppe

    1986-01-01

    Urges educators to utilize metaphors in language instruction. Two experiments support this position. The results of the first experiment reveal that students learn lexical items more efficiently if presented in metaphors. The results of the second experiment indicate the usefulness of metaphors in developing students' critical thinking. (CFM)

  11. A Comparative Study on Basic Emotion Conceptual Metaphors in English and Persian Literary Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashak, Shahrzad Pirzad; Pazhakh, Abdolreza; Hayati, Abdolmajid

    2012-01-01

    Metaphor becomes the subject of interest for many researchers in recent decades. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the universality of emotion metaphorical conceptualization and the dominant pattern in English and Persian based on Kovecses's (2003) model for Linguistic expression of Metaphor. The emotions under study were…

  12. Metaphors in Congressional Discourse: Cognitive Frames of the Political Status of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Edelmira L.

    2013-01-01

    Linguistics research has demonstrated the commonness and functions of metaphors to carry cognitive frames, which influence the way people understand and act on information. This work conveys the results of three analyses employed to describe cognitive frames: forms of linguistic metaphors used, functions of systematic metaphors that emerged, and…

  13. Adolescents' Views on Families as Metaphors in Hong Kong: Implications for Pre-Counselling Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This interpretative study aims to offer metaphors that describe family meanings from the adolescent's perspective by encouraging them to give a metaphor with their own explanation on a self-administering essay form. This study has three objectives: to explore the family meanings as a metaphor from the Hong Kong adolescent's perspective; to reveal…

  14. Metaphor Identification as a Research Method for the Study of Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Allison; McIlveen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (MIPVU) for the reliable detection of metaphoric language that may be interpreted using extant vocational psychology theory. Metaphors are ubiquitous in communication and carry influential meaning for people. To illustrate MIPVU, we use transcripts of interviews…

  15. The Metaphoric Cluster in the Rhetoric of Pope Paul VI and Edmund G. Brown, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Kathleen Hall

    1980-01-01

    Examines the metaphoric networks created by a presidential hopeful and a pope. Argues that what is significant about the rhetoric of each is not the recurrence of a single metaphor but rather the appearance of clusters of related metaphors which reveal the rhetor's projected relationship with his audience. (JMF)

  16. From Ends to Causes (and Back Again) by Metaphor: The Paradox of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Schellens, Tammy; Soetaert, Ronald; Van Keer, Hilde; Braeckman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is one of the most famous metaphors in the history of science. Charles Darwin used the metaphor and the underlying analogy to frame his ideas about evolution and its main driving mechanism into a full-fledged theory. Because the metaphor turned out to be such a powerful epistemic tool, Darwin naturally assumed that he could also…

  17. Scientific Communication and Metaphors: An Analysis of Einstein's 1905 Special Relativity Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the history of science from the perspective of metaphor. Suggests that there are few differences between the literal and the metaphorical in scientific discourse. States that the central role of metaphors in science seems to ensure that science is open-ended, suggesting that conceptions of reality will be open to change and…

  18. Roosters, Robins, and Alarm Clocks: Aptness and Conventionality in Metaphor Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lara L.; Estes, Zachary

    2006-01-01

    Bowdle and Gentner (2005) proposed a reconciliation of the comparison and categorization models of metaphor comprehension. Their career of metaphor model posits that, as a metaphorical term becomes more conventional, its mode of processing shifts from comparison to categorization. However, other recent studies (Chiappe, Kennedy, & Chiappe, 2003;…

  19. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Leadership Students: Core Values and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to explore the core values of Colombian college students in a leadership program. The entire class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  20. Stuff or Love? How Metaphors Direct our Efforts to Manage Knowledge in Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2008-01-01

    This position paper addresses the way knowledge is conceptualized in knowledge management literature and practice. Using the work of Lakoff and Johnson on metaphors it will show how people use metaphors to think and talk about knowledge. In KM literature at least 22 different metaphors for knowledge

  1. Do metaphors evolve? The case of the social organism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2013-01-01

    complex manifestations in the modern social sciences, I hope to show that there are good reasons to reconsider both Lakoff’s decree that metaphors “should not be thought of as processes”, and his declaration that they should instead be seen as consisting of “a fixed pattern of ontological correspondences...... across domains” (Lakoff, 1993:210, emphasis added). Building on ideas about metaphor that emerged during the nineteenth century, I argue that what may initially appear to be a fixed pattern of projections is often better understood as a temporary station in a fluid process....

  2. The Metaphor of Memory in Wordsworth's Spots of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lis

    2014-01-01

    on the turf. The insertion of the motif of the inscription turns the scene of execution into a literal site of memory, but it also functions as a metaphorical representation of the phenomenon of memory. The paper explores the implication of the inscription as metaphor of memory in a reading of the two spots.......On expanding the two-part Prelude of 1799 to The Prelude of 1805, Wordsworth made several important alterations to the two 'spots of time' childhood memories as he transferred them from Part One of the 1799 version to Book Eleventh of the 1805 version. One of these revisions concerns the poet...

  3. Metaphors in terminological collocations in English language and their equivalents in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orčić Lidija S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The framework of this paper is the theory of conceptual metaphor where metaphor is the transfer of a more concrete source domain into a more abstract target domain. Metaphor is a fundamental human ability to speak about abstract concepts using specific terms where the meaning of a term is transferred to another, thus achieving semantic extensions. Although it was thought that in terminology polysemantic expressions are not desirable, in recent decades this traditional view has been abandoned. Metaphor is used not only as a linguistic decoration in language, but as a means of argumentation. It may be noted that the metaphor, as a universal phenomenon, is also common in business English discourse. The subject of our interest is to investigate collocations made up of those nouns and adjectives, which, according to the Oxford Business English Dictionary for Learners of English, are most frequently used in this field. The main objective of this work is to identify and analyze the source and target domains in metaphors in English collocations that contain these nouns and adjectives, and detect mechanisms applied in translating into Serbian. We categorised metaphors in collocations into four groups. The first group consists of metaphors in which the source domain is expressed with the living beings: inanimate entities are described as if they were alive. In these examples, the personification is used to explain abstract concepts, forces and processes in order to present them in a more understandable way. The second group consists of metaphors in which animals are the source domain and their behavior and characteristics serve as a starting point. In business discourse people and institutions are described with such metaphors. In the third group we included the metaphors based on objects that users are familiar with in everyday life. The fourth group consists of metaphors in which the source domain are natural phenomena. When translating a metaphor we

  4. Leading by Metaphors –A Case Study of a Mega IT Project in a Danish Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Fladkjær Nielsen, Anne-Dorte

    2014-01-01

    in the megaproject and discuss how leading by metaphors are enacted. Our findings are that (1) storytelling with metaphors can act as backbone for communication, (2) metaphors can set direction for technical capabilities, and finally (3) metaphors can be used to emphasize emotional intelligence....

  5. Using Visual Metaphors in Health Messages: A Strategy to Increase Effectiveness for Mental Illness Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Bamgbade, Benita A; Sontag, Jennah M; Brown, Carolyn

    2016-12-01

    Depression is highly prevalent among college students. Although treatment is often available on university campuses, many stigma-based barriers prevent students from seeking help. Communication strategies, such as the use of metaphors, are needed to reduce barriers. Specially, the use of visual metaphors, as a strategic message design tactic, may be an effective communication strategy to increase message appeal and engagement. Using a 2-phase approach, this study first identified common metaphors students use to conceptualize mental illness. Messages incorporating conceptual and visual metaphors were then designed and tested to determine their potential in reducing stigma. Participants (n = 256) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions in a between-subjects experiment: messages with visual and textual metaphors, messages with straightforward visuals and textual metaphors, text-based metaphor messages, or a control group. Overall, metaphorical messages are appealing, the use of visual metaphors leads to greater message engagement, and messages based on conceptual metaphors have the potential to reduce stigma. The use of conceptual and visual metaphors in campaign design is an effective strategy to communicate about a complex health topic, such as mental illness, and should be considered for use in campaigns to reduce barriers for help-seeking behavior.

  6. Internalization and Participation as Metaphors of Strategic Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of comprehension strategies instruction rely on an internalization metaphor of strategy learning. In this view, strategies eventually enter students' heads after repeated interactions with teachers who introduce strategies and control how they are used. In this article, the author discusses the limitations of the internalization view…

  7. A cognitive analysis of metaphor in Shona terminological dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well-known among linguists and lexicographers that metaphor plays a pivotal role in the creation of new terminology and its importance in the expansion of the Shona lexicon in response to scientific, technical and educational demands cannot be overemphasised. Like most languages, Shona is growing through the use ...

  8. Alban Berg's Wozzeck : Revisiting a Historically Sedimented Metaphor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alban Berg's Wozzeck: Revisiting a Historically Sedimented Metaphor. Bertha Spies. Abstract. The binary opposition between music text and reader can be transformed into a dialogue when the text is allowed to "speak back". A dialogue approach helps to provide an answer to the question of two different interpretations of ...

  9. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were sought in…

  10. Technical metaphor of railroad switch and communicative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Caballero Bono

    2016-02-01

    statements on the status of the human embryo. Taken seriously, the «railroad switch» metaphor allows us to talk about an emergent communicative action in terms of the call experienced by a rational agent as a base for his or her calling an unborn human being.

  11. Dead Metaphor in Selected Advertisements in Nigerian Dailies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead metaphors and images are often enlivened and empowered by advertisers to help their commUlzication and to achieve bewitching effects. It is interesting to see words and phrases that may be presumed to have been drained of their linguistic strength being brought back to currency and made to act fast in aiding ...

  12. Using metaphoric body-mapping to encourage reflection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the contribution that a teaching strategy, such as metaphoric body-mapping, can make towards the discourse on the development of professional teacher identity. Second-year students in a Life Orientation methodology module in a B.Ed programme were offered the opportunity to validate their local ...

  13. Transcoding the digital : how metaphors matter in new media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, M.V.T.

    2014-01-01

    This study traces the role of metaphors in digital praxis. Digital praxis refers to a more or less coherent set of everyday practices – acts, habits, routines – that involve the manipulation, modification, and construction of digital-symbolical objects. Examples of these digital-symbolical objects

  14. Metaphorical profile of distress in English media discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbytska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research is directed towards the transition of distress studies in the English speaking culture from the prototype towards the conceptual metaphor approach. It enables the enlightenment of mental images, which underlie distress language usage in modern mass communication. The analysis involves identification of conceptual distress metaphors and metonymies within the image-schematic structure. The study includes a cognitive semantic analysis of linguistic units of the distress lexicon retrieved from the GloWbE, BNC, COCA, English newspapers and media platforms. Figurative language reveals conventional beliefs about distress represented in English media discourse, such as strong associations of emotion with darkness and coldness. Metaphorical mappings contain views about the reasons for distress experience which lie in the loss of balance or inner equilibrium, loss of control, and convictions about the reaction characterizing a person as being weak and brittle. The findings of data analysis are summed up in a metaphorical profile of distress (MPD which discloses the behavioural patterns (communicative behaviour, adequacy/inadequacy of behaviour, ability to socialize and physical effects including health issues.

  15. Winnicott's Transformational Metaphors: A Cognitive-Linguistic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined D.W. Winnicott's construct object usage and related transformational metaphors from a cognitive-linguistic perspective. The paper "The Use of an Object" was positioned historically among extant theoretical models and employed to investigate the semantic evolution of key Winnicottian concepts. Biographical accounts revealed…

  16. Stage Metaphor Mixing on a Multi-touch Tablet Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a tablet based interface (the Music Mixing Surface) for supporting a more natural user experience while mixing music. It focusses on the so-called stage metaphor control scheme where audio channels are represented by virtual widgets on a virtual stage. Through previous researc...

  17. Metaphors of Turkish Preservice Teachers about the Concept of "Literature"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    This research has been done for the purpose of searching out the perceptions of the Turkish preservice teachers related to the term of "Literature" by the help of the concept of metaphors. 230 students have been participated to the study who have studied at Mehmet Akif Ersoy University(Turkey),Faculty of Education, Department of Turkish…

  18. Using an Architectural Metaphor for Information Design in Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboard, Donn R.; Lee, Doris

    2001-01-01

    Uses Frank Lloyd Wright's (1867-1959) organic architecture as a metaphor to define the relationship between a part and a whole, whether the focus is on a building and its surroundings or information delivered via hypertext. Reviews effective strategies for designing text information via hypertext and incorporates three levels of information…

  19. Students and Teachers' Metaphors about Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Nihal Yildiz

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the metaphors that primary, secondary and high school students and classroom teacher candidates and the classroom teachers have regarding their primary school classroom teachers. The phenomenology pattern as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the research. The study group was determined by…

  20. Transformation of Consciousness: Decoding Conceptual Metaphors in Mira Bai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrita; Anisha

    2016-01-01

    Mira Bai, a saint-poet of North India is an important figure in medieval Hindi literature. Her "bhajan"-s (songs) profoundly represent the transforming of consciousness working through conceptual metaphors which fall in the realm of religious poetry wherein target domains are generally abstract. Since, the working of the mind is more…

  1. Enthalpy: A Metaphor for a Design Guide for Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Provides insights into the design of effective educational planning conversations derived from the metaphor of enthalpy (the amount of heat energy released when chemical reactions occur). Interprets enthalpy changes in the context of energy and the dynamics necessary to sustain an effective systems design conversation. (AEF)

  2. Understanding Organizational Culture and Communication through a Gyroscope Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisel, Ryan S.; Messersmith, Amber S.; Keyton, Joann

    2010-01-01

    To fill a critical void in organizational culture pedagogy, the authors present an instructional system that employs the metaphor of a gyroscope to help students understand implicit assumptions in culture research. Working from Martin's nexus approach to organizational culture and Fairhurst and Putnam's tripartite theory of organizational…

  3. Mixed Metaphors: The Word "Esperanto" in Journalistic Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The study reported here focused on the uses of the word Esperanto in selected English, French, and German newspapers over an 18-month period. Most uses were metaphorical: generally positive in articles on arts or technology, generally negative in political contexts. (Author/VWL)

  4. Similarity is closeness: metaphorical mapping in a conceptual task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual metaphor theory states that abstract concepts are represented by image schemas from concrete domains. In the present study we investigated the mapping for SIMILARITY IS CLOSENESS using tasks with nonlinguistic materials. In Experiments 1 and 2 participants decided whether two squares

  5. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Haidet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30 completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  6. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L; Stuckey, Heather

    2017-08-04

    Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by "mapping" them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students ( N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students' adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students' course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  7. Figurative framing : Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  8. Biblical Metaphor: The Cosmic Garden Heritage | Green | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inquiry into the nature of metaphor, as it has evolved since Aristotle and particularly in the late twentieth century, allows fresh consideration of biblical texts. Using as a sample trope the ancient Near Eastern and biblical figure of the cosmic garden where humans live with the gods until they are exiled, the article works out ...

  9. Figurative framing: Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  10. FUZZY CLUSTERING: APPLICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL METAPHORS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Cobo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different theories of organization and management are based on implicit images or metaphors. Nevertheless, a quantitative approach is needed to minimize human subjectivity or bias on metaphors studies. Hence, this paper analyzed the presence of metaphors and clustered them using fuzzy data mining techniques in a sample of 61 Brazilian companies that operate in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For this purpose the results of a questionnaire answered by 198 employees of companies in the sample were analyzed by R free software. The results show that it is difficult to find a clear image in most organizations. In most cases characteristics of different images or metaphors are observed, so soft computing techniques are particularly appropriate for this type of analysis. However, according to these results, it is noted that the most present image in the organizations studied is that of “organisms” and the least present image is that of a “political system” and of an “instrument of domination”

  11. Metaphors in Shona: A Cognitive Approach | Mberi | Zambezia: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscription or Fee Access. Metaphors in Shona: A Cognitive Approach. NE Mberi. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 72-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zjh.v30i1.6736 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  12. Metaphors as Second Labels: Difficult for Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Grassmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of two cognitive abilities that are involved in metaphor comprehension: implicit analogical reasoning and assigning an unconventional label to a familiar entity (as in Romeo's "Juliet is the sun"). We presented 3- and 4-year-old children with literal object-requests in a pretense setting (e.g.,…

  13. The FORCE and BALANCE schemas in journey metaphor animations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Fernandes, C.

    2016-01-01

    A central claim of Lakoff and Johnson’s Conceptual Metaphor Theory is that human beings systematically understand abstract and complex phenomena in terms of concrete phenomena, the latter being phenomena that pertain to sensory perception and bodily behaviour. For this reason CMT is also known as

  14. Comprehension of Metaphor and Metonymy in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Van Herwegen, Jo; Thomas, Michael; Fishman, Roza; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Background: Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy, is very common in daily language use. Its underlying cognitive processes are sometimes viewed as lying at the interface of language and thought. Williams syndrome, which is a rare genetic developmental disorder, provides an opportunity to study this interface because individuals with…

  15. Training to Generate Creative Metaphors by Reviving Dormant Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trench, Máximo; Minervino, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Most creativity techniques encourage breaking away from stored knowledge and known solutions. Counter to this approach, this study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention based on introducing minimal variations to well-established knowledge structures. Two groups were tasked with generating creative metaphorical titles for short essays.…

  16. Video game for learning and metaphorization of recursive algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Inacio Alvares Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The learning of recursive algorithms in computer programming is problematic, because its execution and resolution is not natural to the thinking way people are trained and used to since young. As with other topics in algorithms, we use metaphors to make parallels between the abstract and the concrete to help in understanding the operation of recursive algorithms. However, the classic metaphors employed in this area, such as calculating factorial recursively and Towers of Hanoi game, may just confuse more or be insufficient. In this work, we produced a computer game to assist students in computer courses in learning recursive algorithms. It was designed to have regular video game characteristics, with narrative and classical gameplay elements, commonly found in this kind of product. Aiding to education occurs through metaphorization, or in other words, through experiences provided by game situations that refer to recursive algorithms. To this end, we designed and imbued in the game four valid metaphors related to the theory, and other minor references to the subject.

  17. A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This article investigates the use of metaphorical language in The Complete Works of Swami. Vivekananda1. Vivekananda is one of the most important modern-day Hindu scholars, and his interpretation of the ancient Hindu scriptural lore has been very influential. Vivekananda's influence was part of the motivation ...

  18. Teaching in the Institutional Cage: Metaphor and Collateral Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël Smith, Becky L.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a philosophical exploration of Marilyn Frye's metaphor of the cage and Patricia Hill Collins' theory of intersecting oppressions. It argues that social structures and forms of oppressive knowledge make up the individual wires on each person's cage and that these work to confine individuals, particularly those in the…

  19. Secondary School Students' Metaphors about the "Geography" Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    This research has been conducted to reveal the secondary school students' perceptions in relation with metaphors about the "geography" concept. A total of 110 students attending to secondary schools in Karabuk city center joined the research within the 2009-2010 academic year. Following questions were searched to answer: 1-Which…

  20. Translating Metaphors Functioning as Characterisation Techniques in Narrative Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Alet

    A discussion of the translation of fiction focuses on metaphors in the speech of characters. Illustrations are drawn from an Afrikaans novel, "Fiela se kind" ("Fiela's Child"), translated into English by its author, Dalene Matthee. It is argued that if the interdependence of the intratextual components of narrative texts is not…

  1. EFL Learners' Metaphors and Images about Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjami, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will argue that awareness of images and metaphors held by foreign language learners about the nature of the target language and its learning can be of substantial value and provide teaching practitioners with useful insights about how to deal with various language learning problems. To elicit images which learners hold about…

  2. Economic crisis related metaphors: ECONOMIC CRISIS IS NATURAL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Luiz Nadin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Inpe – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, disasters are calamitous events that cause great negative impact on society and are essentially distinguished by their origins, that is, by the nature of the phenomenon which triggers them. Earthquakes, deluges, storms, tsunamis, floods, among others, are examples of common natural phenomena that can cause natural disasters. The aim of this paper is to present the analyses of some metaphor occurrence in the economic-financial discourse related to the global economic crisis which originated from these natural disaster denominations. This crisis, which had its major disclosure in 2007, has caused the (reappearance of many new metaphorical Lexical Items to denominate the actions, institutions, processes, etc., which affected the financial system of several countries, causing negative effects on the economy of these nations. Lexical Items such as storm, deluge, flood and tsunami, for example, have assumed terminological characteristics and started to denominate in a more concrete way the concepts related to the crisis. Under the light of Conceptual Metaphor and Frame Semantics theories we analyze in this paper some metaphorical Lexical Items used in the press discourse to refer to the crisis, published in Folha de S. Paulo newspaper from August 2007 to December 2013.

  3. Expanding Possibilities through Metaphor: Breaking Biases to Improve Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirka, Carol C.; Corrigall, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that an exercise using metaphors to overcome cognitive biases helped students to proactively imagine and prepare for an expanded set of potential crises. The exercise complements traditional textbook approaches to crisis management and incorporates creativity skill building in a realistic context. Learning outcomes…

  4. Grammatical Metaphor in SFL: A Rhetorical Resource for Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on grammatical metaphor as a rhetorical systemic resource for achieving lexical economy and information density in academic writing. It explores the various forms of transferences which are made possible by the grammar: from logical to experiential, from sequences to figures, elements, things ...

  5. Toward a Phenomenology of Dream Imagery and Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Elmer S., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The author partially describes a few of the immanent qualities of dreaming imagery and metaphor. The concept of the ineluctable modality is introduced to illustrate the spontaneous synthesizing of cognitive and noncognitive elements. A short dream excerpt is shared to clarify the pervasive contrapuntallike depth of dreaming imagery. (Author/SJL)

  6. The Freshman Odyssey: Classical Metaphors for Counseling College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Jeff

    This paper highlights the use of analogies and metaphors in counseling sessions with a focus on the college freshman experience as a living, contemporary example of how clients may experience mythic themes in their lives. Drawing from the ideas of Joseph Campbell, characters found in classical Greek mythology, as well as contemporary myths as…

  7. An Investigation of the Pragmatic Deviance of Metaphor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The theory of implicature propounded by Grice brings to linguistic enquiry the concept that speakers often say more than is semantically coded. This phenomenon, being pervasively employed in metaphoric language, engenders a semantic cum pragmatic symbiotic approach to the interpretation of tropes – a model that ...

  8. Metaphorical Perceptions of the Concepts "Teaching Profession" and "Raising Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Aykutlu, Isil; Secken, Nilgun; Bayrak, Celai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: This study aims to reveal, via metaphors, pre-service biology teachers' perceptions of "teaching profession" and "raising students." Research Methods: In accordance with the aim of the study, phenomenology, one of the qualitative paradigm patterns, is used. The study group consists of 80 pre-service biology…

  9. Metaphors Developed by Secondary School Students towards "Earthquake" Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted to reveal the metaphors of Secondary school students about "earthquake" concept. About 105 students in two schools in Karabuk city centre participated in the research within 2009-2010 academic year. The research Data were obtained by students' completing the statement "Earthquake is like...,…

  10. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in

  11. Metaphors in Managerial and Employee Sensemaking in an Information Systems Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hekkala, Riitta; Stein, Mari-Klara; Rossi, Matti

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study looks at the metaphors used in a public sector information systems development project from the perspective of cognitive metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson,). We examine the use of metaphors by project team members, including representatives of the users, software developers...... and the managers guiding the project work. The findings indicate that project team members and managers use a rich set of metaphors to make sense of the project and the records management system they are working on. Notably, distinct sets of metaphors are used in different project phases and among the project...... personnel and management. As the differences in the metaphors also coincide with key events in the trajectory of the project, we contend that metaphors have significant power in sensemaking, influencing action and project outcomes. In particular, we find that in highly ambiguous, knowledge...

  12. Healing Without Waging War: Beyond Military Metaphors in Medicine and HIV Cure Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao; Gilbertson, Adam; de Roubaix, Malcolm; Staunton, Ciara; van Niekerk, Anton; Tucker, Joseph D; Rennie, Stuart

    2016-10-01

    Military metaphors are pervasive in biomedicine, including HIV research. Rooted in the mind set that regards pathogens as enemies to be defeated, terms such as "shock and kill" have become widely accepted idioms within HIV cure research. Such language and symbolism must be critically examined as they may be especially problematic when used to express scientific ideas within emerging health-related fields. In this article, philosophical analysis and an interdisciplinary literature review utilizing key texts from sociology, anthropology, history, and Chinese and African studies were conducted to investigate the current proliferation of military metaphors. We found the use of these metaphors to be ironic, unfortunate, and unnecessary. To overcome military metaphors we propose to (1) give them less aggressive meanings, and/or (2) replace them with more peaceful metaphors. Building on previous authors' work, we argue for the increased use of "journey" (and related) metaphors as meaningful, cross-culturally appropriate alternatives to military metaphors.

  13. The study of metaphor application in Vassaf’s History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali reza mahmoodi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tajziyat ol-Amsar and Tazjiyat ol-Asar which is called  Vassaf’s History  had been written by Adib Shahab od-Din Fazl ol-Lah Shirazi (born in 663 H. who was titled “Vassaf al-Hazra” and is known as “Vssaf”. The subject of this book is related to the history of “Ilkhanian”, the kings in Iran from 656 to 72 H., the author considers it as a complement for Jahangosha Jovaini’s Histiory. Vassaf’s History is a notable historical-artistic (technical literary work. Euphuism prose or artistic prose is an ornated prose which is a genethliacum according to the different figures of speech, spiritual ornament and speech amplification by various descriptions, illustration, poetry, Persian and Arabic evidences and the usage of different science expressions inter-textually. The artistic prose has a close relationship with poeticalness. Some literary researches equal it to poetry based on emotional and poetical aspects of artistic prose.    Vassaf al-Hazra tried to compose Vassaf’s History in order to develop a historical book into a famous and valuable literary-historical text through a poetical language. He has tried to create an ornament, beautiful, poetical and historical- precise text by using figures of speech and literary devices.    The goal of this paper is to show the literary beauties of this book. The author tried to show the usage of various metaphors and ambiguity through descriptive and analytic method and conventional eloquence. The result of this research shows the specific attention of Vassaf to the use of poetic image. This application includes extended metaphor, metaphoric prediction and explicit metaphor. The application of metaphor in addition to poetic images create an individual style, this style is not very obvious in other historical-artistic texts because of the position of poetic images, with figurative and unfamiliar words and a lot of evidences. The existence of precise specially in explicit

  14. The Comprehension of Familiar and Novel Metaphoric Meanings in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Rapp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Miscomprehension of nonliteral (“figurative” language like metaphors, proverbs, idioms, and ironic expressions by patients with schizophrenia is a phenomenon mentioned already in historical psychiatric descriptions. However, it was only recently that studies did differentiate between novel and conventional metaphors, a factor that is known to influence the difficulty of comprehension in healthy subjects. Further, familiarity with stimuli is an important factor for comprehension, which was not recommended in utmost previous studies. In this study, 23 patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects performed a newly-developed German metaphor comprehension test with three types of stimuli: novel metaphors, conventional German metaphors, and meaningless statements. During the test procedure, participants indicated familiarity with the stimulus and then matched the meaning with one out of four given alternatives. Familiarity rankings did not significantly differ between patients and control subjects. However, on descriptive level, there was a tendency for healthy controls to be more familiar with conventional metaphors than schizophrenic patients. Further, comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors differed significantly between the groups, with higher performance in healthy controls. Considering only those metaphors that had been ranked as familiar, patients only revealed significant lower performance opposed to controls regarding novel metaphors, while they did not differ in conventional metaphors. Taken together, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia might show an altered way of comprehension in novel metaphors, leading to more misunderstandings. However, their previously reported impairments in conventional metaphors might rather be due to a lack of familiarity with the stimuli—making conventional metaphors to novel metaphors in the individual case.

  15. A translation approach to metaphor teaching in the LSP classroom: sample exercises from a Business English syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Velasco Sacristán

    2009-01-01

    Translation can provide a valuable contribution to the teaching of metaphor in the LSP classroom. Although all languages make use of metaphor, neither conceptual metaphors nor their linguistic renderings will necessarily always be the same across languages (Deignan et al., 1997). Thus the extent to which metaphor presents a hurdle for second language learners of professional discourse depends on the extent to which there is overlap between the metaphorical systems of the L1 and the L2. Hence ...

  16. Food as a Source and Target of Metaphors: Inclusion and Exclusion of Foodstuffs and Persons through Metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Food is an engine and source of metaphorical meanings that permeates our life. Apples can incorporate references of sin or toxin or simple land life, and tomatoes, blood and love. Fast food symbolically represents for many items of the American Dream. Olives are seen as signs of peace. However,

  17. Metaphors in the Wisdom Literature of the Hebrew Bible and Contemporary Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Károly Zabán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biblical wisdom literature is a treasure-trove of powerful metaphors. This article presents a sample of these metaphors and their significant impact on contemporary artwork. The impact is characterized by both appropriation and adaptation, similitude and analogy, respectively. The highlighted metaphors are not merely catalogued but, more or less, analyzed with regard to relevant contemporary artwork. This augments the importance of contemporary biblical literacy analysis and uses it as one of the tools by which it is possible to gauge the impact and interaction, in this case, of the metaphor-world of the wisdom tradition on contemporary art. More importantly, however, this study underscores the relevance of these metaphors for biblical exegesis, hermeneutics, and theology. The analysis of the reception of these metaphors in contemporary artworks undergirds and informs the process of interpretation. The reception of these metaphors in their contemporary art contexts is best understood within the framework of imagery and imagistic language. Metaphor, as a subset of imagery and imagistic language, is foundational for the examined wisdom books, Proverbs, Job, and Qoheleth, and for the relevant contemporary artwork, alike. Moreover, metaphor also constitutes a bridge between the ancient and contemporary context. With this backdrop in mind, this article argues for the necessity of exploring the connections between these wisdom books, metaphor studies, and contemporary artwork.

  18. Sport, scales, or war? Metaphors speech-language pathologists use to describe caseload management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Professionals' experiences, perceptions, and attitudes may be reflected in the metaphors they use to describe and discuss important professional issues. This qualitative study explored speech-language pathologists' experiences of caseload management through metaphorical analysis. Metaphors provided a lens for reflecting participants' lived experiences and professional knowledge construction. Data was obtained from 16 practising speech-language pathologists during individual work place interviews. Participants included new graduate and experienced speech-language pathologists who were employed in hospital and community settings. Metaphors for caseload management were identified from participants' transcribed narratives, then coded and organized into themes. Participants produced a total of 297 metaphors during professional practice narratives. Thematic analysis indicated that participants used three salient metaphors of sport, measuring scales, and war when they addressed caseload issues. Metaphors of sport, scales, and war reflected speech-language pathologists' concerns about managing clients efficiently, perceived caseload burdens, and the conflict they experienced when resources were inadequate. These metaphors may also represent a continuum in speech-language pathologists' personal and professional responses to caseload demands. Shared metaphors may contribute to the professional socialization of individuals entering a profession and to changing or maintaining workplace culture. Hence, speech-language pathologists need to consider the impact of using metaphors of sport, measuring scales, and war during interactions with clients and colleagues.

  19. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  20. The Analysis of Metaphor: To What Extent Can the Theory of Lexical Priming Help Our Understanding of Metaphor Usage and Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Katie J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues with current systems of categorisation and measurement of linguistic metaphoricity, which have coloured most research into the area to-date. The paper discusses the role of metaphor as a form of creative language and a deviation from more linguistic norms and conventionalities. Two current theories are discussed as…

  1. METAPHOR: Probability density estimation for machine learning based photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, V.; Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.

    2017-06-01

    We present METAPHOR (Machine-learning Estimation Tool for Accurate PHOtometric Redshifts), a method able to provide a reliable PDF for photometric galaxy redshifts estimated through empirical techniques. METAPHOR is a modular workflow, mainly based on the MLPQNA neural network as internal engine to derive photometric galaxy redshifts, but giving the possibility to easily replace MLPQNA with any other method to predict photo-z's and their PDF. We present here the results about a validation test of the workflow on the galaxies from SDSS-DR9, showing also the universality of the method by replacing MLPQNA with KNN and Random Forest models. The validation test include also a comparison with the PDF's derived from a traditional SED template fitting method (Le Phare).

  2. Mr. Blademan. Macrolithic technology – Eneolithic vocabulary and metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Dzbyński

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eneolithic period witnessed a technological breakthrough of a significance comparable to that of the technological revolution in historical times, accompanied by a matching revolution in social and economic relationships. This transition no doubt led also to the creation of new and momentous metaphors, which in their turn triggered new senses and planes of communication. It goes without saying that the Eneolithic technology that had the greatest potential for metaphors promoting new ways of looking at the world was metallurgy. Nevertheless, before Eneolithic communities came to fully appreciate the properties of metal, many of their number resorted to an idiosyncratic flint technology to produce macrolithic implements. It seems that the production and exchange of macrolithic artefacts led to the development of a new vocabulary and grammar that served, among other things, to describe the social inequalities discernible in Eneolithic communities.

  3. Metaphor and Surrealist Collage in Text and Image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2006-01-01

      The strong correlation between surrealist poetic images and collages-visual as well as textual-is the point of departure for this paper, which has a threefold aim. Firstly, it explores the relationship between poetic images and strategies on the one hand and the surrealist collages on the other....... By analysing Max Ernst's collage techniques-and Louis Aragon's comments on them-the paper shows how the heterogeneous elements of Ernst's visual collages are unified to meaningful metaphors. Secondly, the paper substantiates this view by investigating the actual influence of Comte de Lautréamont's metaphorical...... for the aesthetic strategy of surrealist collages, visual and textual alike. The paper demonstrates how, by means of "predicative assimilation", the collages create new meaning and insight, thus satisfying the surrealists' aim of seeing the world in a new and open way....

  4. Transcoding the digital : how metaphors matter in new media

    OpenAIRE

    van den Boomen, M.V.T.

    2014-01-01

    This study traces the role of metaphors in digital praxis. Digital praxis refers to a more or less coherent set of everyday practices – acts, habits, routines – that involve the manipulation, modification, and construction of digital-symbolical objects. Examples of these digital-symbolical objects are mundane things as mailbox, menu, and file, but also more complicated assemblages such as Windows, Facebook profiles, search engines, and online communities. Digital-symbolical objects form an on...

  5. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

    OpenAIRE

    Paravano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13). Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social ...

  6. Hollow Force, Hollow Metaphor: Assessing the Current Defense Drawdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    testimony to Congress, the Army’s Chief of Staff, General Edward Meyer, used the phrase “hollow Army” to articulate his perception of an undermanned...drawdown. Background: General Meyer and the Birth of a Powerful Metaphor In 1980, the Army Chief of Staff, General Edward Meyer, used the “hollow Army...5 Meyer stated during a House Arms Senate sub-committee meeting, “Right now, as I have said before, we have a hollow

  7. Beyond Charity: Partial Narratives as a Metaphor for Basic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    In "A New World: Redefining the Legacy of Min-Zhan Lu"(JBW 27.2, Fall 2008), Brian Ray revisits the controversy that emerged in the early 1990s in response to critiques of the iconic Mina Shaughnessy made by Min-Zhan Lu. He offers a reading of the debate that focuses on common ground between the two sides through a metaphor of linguistic charity…

  8. THE TRANSLATION OF METAPHORS IN HARRY POTTER AND THE CHAMBER OF SECRETS FROM ENGLISH TO INDONESIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Translation is undoubtedly an important but at the same time difficult work. Metaphors are among the potential areas of translation problem. This study aimed at describing how metaphors in the novel Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets are translated from English to Indonesian, and evaluating the appropriateness of the translation results. Findings showed certain strategies were applicable and determinant to the appropriateness of the English metaphor translation to Indonesian: adoption or reproduction, adaptation or replacement with Indonesian metaphors, conversion to simile, adoption plus sense, conversion to sense, and deletion. Metaphor translation appropriateness shall be arrived if it qualifies referential and contextual accuracy. Missing one or either two of the accuracy kinds may result in less and inappropriate metaphor translation respectively.

  9. Beyond Language: Metaphor as an Expressive Resource in the Song of Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio R. Ruiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is the old debate on which kind of interpretation is more appropriate for the Song of Songs, namely, literal or allegorical, and to what extent. Treating the poem as a literary work and letting it speak for itself, metaphor emerges as the main expressive resource referring to a multi-dimensional reality. The analysis of metaphor in the Song of Songs, based on selected samples, reveals highly developed metaphoric speech in the poem, with images accumulating and interacting in multiple, concurrent and mutually enriching levels of meaning. Behind this complex intertwining of metaphors there emerges the main referent for the book as a whole. Metaphor, then, appears as a particularly adequate means of articulating both anthropological and theological discourse.Key words: Song of Songs, Metaphor, Love.

  10. Walking the walk while thinking about the talk: embodied interpretation of metaphorical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Raymond W

    2013-08-01

    Two sets of experiments examined people's embodied understanding of metaphorical narratives. Participants heard one of two stories about a romantic relationship; either one that was successful or one that was not, that initially described it in metaphorical terms as "Your relationship was moving along in a good direction" or nonmetaphorical terms as "Your relationship was very important to you." Participants were then blindfolded and attempted to accurately walk, or imagine walking, to a marker 40 feet away while they thought about the story they just heard. People who heard about the successful metaphorical story walked longer and further than those presented with the unsuccessful relationship story. But these walking and imagining differences disappeared when the critical metaphorical statement "moving along in a good direction" was replaced by a nonmetaphorical expression. These findings, and those from another set of experiments, suggest that people's understanding of metaphorical narratives is partly based on their embodied simulations of the metaphorical actions referred to in these stories.

  11. Character Metaphors in George Orwell’s Animal Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Fajrina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Animal Farm was written by George Orwell in 1944 to criticize the Soviet Union leaders and their administration represented by animal characters. The objective of this study was to find out the resemblances between the character of Soviet Union leaders at the time the novel was written and those depicted in the novel. In analysing the objective of this study, content analysis was used. The data are the dialogues and other information in the novel concerning the metaphors of characters between the Soviet Union leaders of the 20th century and those in Animal Farm. The writer finds out that Jones metaphors Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russian Monarchy, Old Major with his speech metaphors Karl Marx with his Communist Manifesto, Napoleon as Stalin, Snowball as Trotsky, Squealer as Pravda, the Russian Newspaper at that time, Frederick as German and Boxer as the type of gullibility proletariat. Indeed, George Orwell’s timeless work reminds us that totalitarianism could be harmful to one society.

  12. Externalizing metaphors: anxiety and high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinty, Everett; Armstrong, David; Nelson, John; Sheeler, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    The intent of this article is to explore the efficacy of both the literal and concrete externalization aspects within narrative therapy, and the implementation of interactive metaphors as a combined psychotherapeutic approach for decreasing anxiety with people who present with high-functioning autism. The purpose of this exploratory article is to propose the use of externalizing metaphors as a treatment modality as a potentially useful way to engage clients. Specifically, a three-step process of change is described, which allows for concretizing affective states and experiences, and makes use of visual strengths of people presenting with an autism spectrum disorder. A selective review was conducted of significant works regarding the process of change in narrative therapy, with particular emphasis on metaphors. Works were selected based on their relevance to the current paper and included both published works (searched via Psyc-INFO) and materials from narrative training sessions. Further research is needed to address the testable hypotheses resulting from the current model. This line of research would not only establish best practices in a population for which there is no broadly accepted treatment paradigm, but would also contribute to the larger fields of abnormal psychology, emotion regulation, and cognitive psychology by further elucidating the complex ways these systems interact. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Alters in dissociative identity disorder. Metaphors or genuine entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckelbach, Harald; Devilly, Grant J; Rassin, Eric

    2002-05-01

    How should the different identities (i.e., alters) that are thought to be typical for dissociative identity disorder (DID) be interpreted? Are they just metaphors for different emotional states or are they truly autonomous entities that are capable of willful action? This issue is important because it has implications for the way in which courts may handle cases that involve DID patients. Referring to studies demonstrating that alters of DID patients differ in their memory performance or physiological profile, some authors have concluded that alters are more than just metaphors. We argue that such line of reasoning is highly problematic. There is little consensus among authors about the degree to which various types of memory information (implicit, explicit, procedural) may leak from one to the other alter. Without such theoretical accord, any given outcome of memory studies on DID may be taken as support for the assumption that alters are in some sense "real." As physiological studies on alter activity often lack proper control conditions, most of them are inconclusive as to the status of alters. To date, neither memory studies nor psychobiological studies have delivered compelling evidence that alters of DID patients exist in a factual sense. As a matter of fact, results of these studies are open to multiple interpretations and in no way refute an interpretation of alters in terms of metaphors for different emotional states.

  14. Metaphors of Entrepreneurship among Polish Students: Preliminary Research Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Chmielecki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Poland entrepreneurship is often viewed as an extremely risky process and entrepreneurs are often portrayed in a negative light. The research goals  of our exploratory study is to identify  the entreprenurship metaphors among Polish management students.   Research Design & Methods: Authors decided to run both qualitative and quantitative research.  In the first part we addressed 124 management students on three levels BA, MA and MBA.  The respondents were asked to give their metaphorical expressions on paper. The next step was to prepare a questionnaire based on 7 point Likert scale. This questionnaire was run among  BA management student group composed of 82 students Findings: Our results suggest that there are several major entrepreneurial narratives evident among all three groups including creativity and innovation, competition, war, journey, risk, adventure and exploitation.  Implications & Recommendations: The empirical findings serve as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area. It is recommended that in order to gain a complete picture of the issues underlying the results, both qualitative and quantitative research on a bigger sample should be undertaken. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of entrepreneurship metaphors among non-entrepreneurs in Poland.  With regards to the research limitation, it must be highlighted that it was a pilot study and the results cannot be generalized.

  15. Metaphoric Car Drawings By a 12-Year-Old Congenitally Blind Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsin-Yi; Kennedy, John M

    2015-12-01

    A 12-year-old congenitally-blind girl drew a car moving, stationary, and braking. For stationary, she put the wheels inside the car and, for braking, drew the wheels as rough rectangles. At the age verbal metaphor is understood (Winner, 1988), the girl invented metaphoric drawings. In these, what is shown is not what is meant. In late childhood, metaphor may be understood similarly in pictures and words and by the sighted and blind. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Literally experts: expertise and the processing of analogical metaphors in pharmaceutical advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Marjorie; Smith, Malcolm C

    2014-01-01

    This research examined differences between novices and experts in processing analogical metaphors appearing in prescription drug advertisements. In contrast to previous studies on knowledge transfer, no evidence of the superiority of experts in processing metaphors was found. The results from an experiment suggest that expert consumers were more likely to process a metaphor in an ad literally than novices. Our findings point to a condition in which the expertise effect with processing analogies is not the linear relationship assumed in previous studies.

  17. Factors influencing metaphor translation in online cosmetic advertising in the context of the PRC

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Luanjuan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines metaphor translation from English to Mandarin in online cosmetic advertisements in the recent socio-cultural and historical context of the People's Republic of China. This examination of metaphor translation occurs at the level of discourse. In this thesis, discourse is understood as the linguistic representation of metaphor for persuasive and localised communicative purposes. In my study, I argue that in the translation of these online cosmetic advertisements, the trans-...

  18. Metaphorization as a Way of Forming Terms of Subject Area "Cosmetology"

    OpenAIRE

    Diana B. Temirova

    2017-01-01

    The article justifies the role of metaphorization as one of the most important sources of replenishment of scientific terminology with new terms. Metaphor is considered as a cognitive mechanism allowing to comprehend abstract concepts in more concrete terms. The purpose of the article is to describe the general patterns of the formation and functioning of metaphorical terms in the subject field of cosmetology. Practical material is cosmetic terms obtained by the method of continuous sampling ...

  19. Seizure metaphors differ in patients' accounts of epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plug, Leendert; Sharrack, Basil; Reuber, Markus

    2009-05-01

    To increase understanding of the subjective symptomatology of seizure experiences and improve differential diagnosis by studying the seizure metaphors used by patients with (psychogenic) nonepileptic seizures (NES) and epilepsy. Twenty-one unselected patients taking part in this study were admitted for 48 h of video-EEG (electroenceophalography) observation because of uncertainty about the diagnosis. Eight were proven to have epilepsy, 13 to have psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). During their admission, patients were interviewed by a neurologist. A linguist blinded to the medical diagnosis identified and categorized all seizure metaphors in verbatim transcripts. Between-group comparisons and logistic regression analysis were carried out. Of 382 metaphors identified, 80.8% conceptualized seizures as an agent/force, event/situation, or space/place. Most patients used metaphors from all categories, but patients with epilepsy and PNES showed preferences for different metaphoric concepts (differences p = 0.009 to p = 0.039). Patients with epilepsy preferred metaphors depicting the seizure as an agent/force or event/situation. PNES patients more often used metaphors of space/place. Logistic regression analyses predicted the diagnosis of PNES or epilepsy correctly in 85.7% of cases (based on different metaphor types in the each category) or 81.0% (based on all metaphor tokens). Patients with epilepsy and PNES have different preferences in the metaphoric conceptualization of their seizures. Epileptic seizures are described as a more external, self-directed entity than PNES, which are depicted as a state or place patients go through. The differentiating value of metaphoric conceptualizations suggests that metaphor preference could form the basis of future diagnostic questionnaires or other diagnostic tools.

  20. Commedia dell'Arte as a Metaphor for the Art of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2015-10-01

    With my background in acting, stagecraft, and some knowledge of theatre history from high school and college, it was natural for me as a novice teacher to think about theatre as a metaphor for teaching. In this article I will discuss how over my career I conceived of teaching in terms of theatrical metaphors, and make a comparison with a common metaphor of teaching as coaching.

  1. Children and Discipline: Investigating Secondary School Students’ Perception of Discipline through Metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Sadik, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive study investigating the perception of children about discipline through metaphors developed by them. A total of 445 students participated in the research and the data was collected with the “Discipline Metaphors Survey (DMS)” developed by the researchers. At the end of the study, 143 metaphors, 94 positive and 49 negative, about discipline were gathered. The participating children mostly perceived discipline as a phenomenon guiding their behavior, maintaining the order, ...

  2. Translating metaphor in political news: a bidirectional analysis (English and Spanish)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    This descriptive translation study examines metaphor translation within the journalistic realm by using political news articles and their translations to determine if the methods EN>ES translators tend to use when translating metaphors in this context differ from the methods ES>EN translators tend to use, and to what degree. The framework for classifying the metaphor translation methods was based on methods identified by previous authors in addition to a new method discovered over the course ...

  3. A Cognitive Metaphorical Analysis of Selected Verses in the Glorius Qu’ran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf Eldin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor has been generally contemplated and broke down inside the schema of verbal and written discourse, scholarly works and artistic studies. It has been identified with metaphorical language and has been viewed as quite recently a sort of aesthetic frivolity (Murray & Moon, 2006. In addition, conventional instructing of metaphors presents language as an abnormal or different method for using it (Goatly, 1997. Likewise, as Goatly has put it, scholars have needed figures of speech strictly limited to writing, talk and craftsmanship. Moreover, metaphor is viewed as something that fits in with abstract structures which is more concerned with novel or intriguing uses of words. Lakoff & Johnson (1980 presented an alternate idea and perspective of metaphor which is known as reasonable metaphorical dissection. The theory underlying this new approach is that the reasonable metaphors enter our understanding of our general surroundings and they shape our demeanor. Appropriately, as pointed out by Lakoff & Johnson (1980, metaphor is available in ordinary discourse, in every language, and is to a certain degree, has gotten to be culturally specific. Besides both contend that metaphors affect our way of viewing the meanings and are discovered widely in a significant number of our languages, contemplations and activities.

  4. Images and Metaphors, Mirrors of Social Concern in the Saga af Viktor ok Blavus

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Annegret

    2002-01-01

    Images and Metaphors, Mirrors of Social Concern in the Saga af Viktor ok Blavus I wish to examine how the images and metaphors in the Saga af Viktor ok Blavus reflect the concerns of Icelandic society. Included among the metaphors are the personae which populate the saga. As in the Saints’ legends they are not characters but types and are therefore themselves metaphors. The opening stanzas of the Saga af Viktor ok Blavus comprise a reference to the translated riddarasögur which the ano...

  5. The Development of Metaphor Comprehension and Its Relationship with Relational Verbal Reasoning and Executive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Carriedo

    Full Text Available Our main objective was to analyse the different contributions of relational verbal reasoning (analogical and class inclusion and executive functioning to metaphor comprehension across development. We postulated that both relational reasoning and executive functioning should predict individual and developmental differences. However, executive functioning would become increasingly involved when metaphor comprehension is highly demanding, either because of the metaphors' high difficulty (relatively novel metaphors in the absence of a context or because of the individual's special processing difficulties, such as low levels of reading experience or low semantic knowledge. Three groups of participants, 11-year-olds, 15-year-olds and young adults, were assessed in different relational verbal reasoning tasks-analogical and class-inclusion-and in executive functioning tasks-updating information in working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The results revealed clear progress in metaphor comprehension between ages 11 and 15 and between ages 15 and 21. However, the importance of executive function in metaphor comprehension was evident by age 15 and was restricted to updating information in working memory and cognitive inhibition. Participants seemed to use two different strategies to interpret metaphors: relational verbal reasoning and executive functioning. This was clearly shown when comparing the performance of the "more efficient" participants in metaphor interpretation with that of the "less efficient" ones. Whereas in the first case none of the executive variables or those associated with relational verbal reasoning were significantly related to metaphor comprehension, in the latter case, both groups of variables had a clear predictor effect.

  6. The Development of Metaphor Comprehension and Its Relationship with Relational Verbal Reasoning and Executive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R; Herrero, Laura; Ballestrino, Patricia; Sebastián, Iraia

    2016-01-01

    Our main objective was to analyse the different contributions of relational verbal reasoning (analogical and class inclusion) and executive functioning to metaphor comprehension across development. We postulated that both relational reasoning and executive functioning should predict individual and developmental differences. However, executive functioning would become increasingly involved when metaphor comprehension is highly demanding, either because of the metaphors' high difficulty (relatively novel metaphors in the absence of a context) or because of the individual's special processing difficulties, such as low levels of reading experience or low semantic knowledge. Three groups of participants, 11-year-olds, 15-year-olds and young adults, were assessed in different relational verbal reasoning tasks-analogical and class-inclusion-and in executive functioning tasks-updating information in working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The results revealed clear progress in metaphor comprehension between ages 11 and 15 and between ages 15 and 21. However, the importance of executive function in metaphor comprehension was evident by age 15 and was restricted to updating information in working memory and cognitive inhibition. Participants seemed to use two different strategies to interpret metaphors: relational verbal reasoning and executive functioning. This was clearly shown when comparing the performance of the "more efficient" participants in metaphor interpretation with that of the "less efficient" ones. Whereas in the first case none of the executive variables or those associated with relational verbal reasoning were significantly related to metaphor comprehension, in the latter case, both groups of variables had a clear predictor effect.

  7. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-Based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learning emerges in association to game-embedded metaphors. As shown in this chapter, metaphors seem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participants with a suitcase containing...

  8. Use Of Imagery And Metaphor In Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama Kasbekar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the use of imagery and metaphors in Arvind Adiga’s The White Tiger (2008. The writer deliberately and skillfully uses animal imagery and other kinds of metaphors to highlight the intrinsic values of his characters and present themes and characters vividly. This paper highlights how this imagery and metaphor has been used by the writer to bring out the thematic rich and poor divide or the servitude of the poor and overbearing opulence of the rich. The metaphors give added value to the themes and the characters and provide an immediate verbal picture.

  9. A clinical treatment intervention for dysphoria: externalizing metaphors therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinty, Everett; Armstrong, David; Carrière, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a novel, short-term treatment intervention for internalizing behaviours. This intervention is primarily based upon an externalizing process, transforming of metaphoric imagery, and shifting of underlying maladaptive emotional schemas. This article addresses the clinical population of children and youth, specifically through outlining the protocol, externalizing metaphors therapy. A selective review of significant works regarding the efficacy of short-term therapy was conducted, including the process of change within narrative therapy. It is proposed that two specific processes account for the mental health change experienced by clients who receive this new treatment intervention: (1) externalization of problems and (2) purposeful client-generated metaphor manipulation, impacting upon underlying schemas. From these theoretical constructs, the present article outlines a three-session treatment protocol that manualizes these key clinical processes. A case study is presented to illustrate this intervention for anxiety and depression. Further clinical research is underway to address the testable hypotheses resulting from the current theoretical model. Clinical trials in brief psychotherapy are suggested to empirically evaluate the efficacy of this new treatment intervention for dysphoria. This article outlines a short-term treatment intervention for anxiety and depression (dysphoira) through a novel 3-session model, where the clinician-practitioner can obtain competency through a one-day workshop.Its relevance for the clinical researcher and the mental health community is in its versatility in addressing internalizing behavior for four clinical populations: (1) children and adolescents; (2) children and adolescents on the autism spectrum; (3) adults in general; and, (4) adults with a dual-diagnosis. The treatment protocol described within is based upon the externalizing and deconstructive properties of Narrative Therapy, and the

  10. An Investigation into Metaphor Use at Different Levels of Second Language Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littlemore, J.; Krennmayr, T.; Turner, J.; Turner, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in linguistics have shown that metaphor is ubiquitous. This has important consequences for language learners who need to use it appropriately in their speech and writing. This study aims to provide a preliminary measure of the amount and distribution of metaphor used by language

  11. Dancing on the Heads of Snakes: An Intertextual Analysis of Political Metaphor in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zuraiki, Mokhtar

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use and linguistic behavior of the "al-raqs ala ru'oos al-tha'abeen" "dancing on the heads of snakes" metaphor and metaphors about unity in pro-government and anti-government discourse in Yemen. It adopts an intertextual, discourse-based approach that, following Oakley and Coulson (2008),…

  12. Ancient art, rhetoric and the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-03

    Jul 3, 2015 ... Biblical scholars have given diverse explanations for the Lamb of God metaphor in John. 1:29 and 1:36. Most scholars are of the opinion that 'amnos' refers to the Passover lamb. This explanation is not obvious from the context of the Fourth Gospel. To understand the metaphor 'lamb' or 'amnos' of God, one ...

  13. Difficulties in Metaphor Comprehension Faced by International Students Whose First Language Is Not English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Chen, Phyllis Trautman; Koester, Almut; Barnden, John

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study on metaphor comprehension by the international students whose first language is not English, while attending undergraduate lectures at a British university. Study participants identified words or multiword items that they found difficult in extracts from four academic lectures, and they interpreted metaphors from those…

  14. Investigating Primary School Teachers' Perception about Democracy through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirci, Hasan; Sadik, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine democracy perception of classroom teachers via metaphor analysis. Study group for research is formed of 253 classroom teachers. "Democracy Metaphors Questionnaire" (DMQ) has been used in collecting data. Content analysis has been used on analysis of qualitative data of research and descriptive…

  15. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  16. Metaphorical and literal readings of aphorisms in the Book of Proverbs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a corollary, illustrations of the many instances where literal readings are necessary, so that such an overriding hermeneutical perspective cannot be convincing. Interpreting a metaphor is one thing, reading metaphorically is another, notably a creative act independent of whether its “correctness” can be demonstrated by ...

  17. Metaphorical Mirror: Reflecting on Our Personal Pursuits to Discover and Challenge Our Teaching Practice Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenheim, Gary; Clark, Robert; Crispo, Alexander W.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine how our personal pursuits--hobbies, activities, interests, and sports--can serve as a metaphor to reflect who we are in our teaching practice. This paper explores the notion that our favorite personal pursuits serve as metaphorical mirrors to reveal deeper assumptions we hold about the skills, values, and…

  18. The Dangers of Pipeline Thinking: How the School-to-Prison Pipeline Metaphor Squeezes out Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Ken McGrew critically examines the "school-to-prison pipeline" metaphor and associated literature. The origins and influence of the metaphor are compared with the origins and influence of the competing "prison industrial complex" concept. Specific weaknesses in the "pipeline literature" are examined.…

  19. Friendly Fire: War-Normalizing Metaphors in the Israeli Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriely-Nuri, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    Combining principles of peace education and political discourse analysis, this study dwells on one powerful metaphorical mechanism engaged in by Israeli political leaders: war-normalizing metaphors, a mechanism for framing war as part of human nature and normal life. Six core semantic fields were identified as particularly useful "raw…

  20. In the Same Boat? On Metaphor Variation as Mediating the Individual Voice in Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, Einav

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the notion of metaphor variation, and argues that it may play a significant role as a linguistic tool for positioning the subjects in a given organizational change. More specifically, it is argued that metaphor variation enables the subject to corroborate the organization's centripetal forces on the one hand, and to express…

  1. Ancient art, rhetoric and the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biblical scholars have given diverse explanations for the Lamb of God metaphor in John 1:29 and 1:36. Most scholars are of the opinion that 'amnos' refers to the Passover lamb. This explanation is not obvious from the context of the Fourth Gospel. To understand the metaphor 'lamb' or 'amnos' of God, one should ...

  2. The Use of Metaphoric Language in Introducing Video and Computer Technology in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the use of metaphoric language is common in non-literary fields of learning. Considering its potential for application as evidenced by reference in books, journal papers, e-zine discussions and blogs, and the historical time over which metaphors have been engaged in rhetoric, it is surprising that there is little allusion to…

  3. Hugo Chávez and the building of his self-image through metaphor

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    Isabel Negro Alousque

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades metaphor has been much researched from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. One of the metaphor research lines has been the study of metaphor in specialized genres, including politics (Musolff, 2004. Political metaphor has been considerably researched within the cognitive framework and a few investigations have been concerned with the use of metaphor by political leaders (e.g. Semino & Masci, 1996; Charteris-Black, 2004, 2009. The present paper focuses on the use of metaphor in the public discourse of Hugo Chávez, the former Venezuelan president. Chávez was a captivating, if polarizing, leader whose hallmark was his oratory. We analyse a sample of Chávez’s speeches for evidence of its metaphorical content. We identify and explain the linguistic and conceptual metaphors that occur in his speeches with a view to demonstrating that they play a central role in the construction of Chávez’s self-image as both a political and religious leader for persuasive purposes.

  4. Enhancing the comprehension of visual metaphors in individuals with intellectual disability with or without down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnitzer-Meirovich, Shlomit; Lifshitz, Hefziba; Mashal, Nira

    2018-03-01

    This study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of deep and shallow intervention programs in the acquisition of visual metaphor comprehension in individuals with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; aged 15-59, N = 53) or Down syndrome (DS; aged 15-52, N = 50). The deep intervention program was based on dynamic assessment model for enhancing analogical thinking. The shallow intervention program involves memorizing a metaphorical relationship between pairs of pictures. Visual metaphor comprehension was measured by the construction of a metaphorical connection between pairs of pictures. The results indicated that both etiology groups exhibited poor understanding of visual metaphors before the intervention. A significant improvement was observed in both interventions and both etiology groups, with greater improvement among individuals who underwent the deep processing. Moreover, the latter procedure led to greater generalization ability. The results also indicated that vocabulary contributed significantly to understanding unstudied metaphors and that participants with poorer linguistic abilities exhibited greater improvement in their metaphorical thinking. Thus, individuals with ID with or without DS are able to recruit the higher-order cognitive abilities required for visual metaphor comprehension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scientific Knowledge, Popularisation, and the Use of Metaphors: Modern Genetics in Popular Science Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling, Niklas; Saljo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The article reports an empirical study of how authors in popular science magazines attempt to render scientific knowledge intelligible to wide audiences. In bridging the two domains of "popular" and "scientific" knowledge, respectively, metaphor becomes central. We ask the empirical question of what metaphors are used when communicating about…

  6. The teacher is a facilitator: Reflecting on ESL teacher beliefs through metaphor analysis

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    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors offer a lens through which language teachers express their understanding of their work. Metaphor analysis can be a powerful reflective tool for expressing meanings that underpin ways of thinking about teaching and learning English as a second/foreign language. Through reflecting on their personal teaching metaphors, teachers become more aware of the beliefs that underpin their work. This paper reports the reflections on the prior beliefs of three experienced ESL teachers in Canada through the use of metaphor analysis. The paper attempts to explore the prior beliefs of the three experienced ESL teachers in Canada through metaphor analysis by using the Oxford et al. (1998 framework as a theoretical lens in which to gain understanding of the use and meaning of these metaphors. Results indicated that all three teachers used a total of 94 metaphors throughout the period of the group discussions and interviews, and that the metaphors used most were those related to learner-centered growth, followed by social order, then social reform.

  7. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

  8. The Epistemic Role of Novel Metaphors in Teachers' Knowledge Constructions of School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a parallel is drawn between Steven Hawking's use of common and novel metaphors in his evolving explanation of the theory of the universe and the similar use of common and novel metaphors by educators in four school contexts attempting to illuminate their experiences of school reform storied and restoried over time. The epistemic…

  9. Metaphor in Mandela's Long Walk To Freedom : A cross-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using examples from Long walk to freedom and its translations in isiXhosa and isiZulu, the study identifies similarities and differences in the way the translators dealt with the translation of metaphorical expressions. It further considers whether their translations were able to retain the power of the original metaphor. From the ...

  10. The Role of Metaphor in Darwin and the Implications for Teaching Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the role of metaphor in scientific knowledge formation and reasoning. These issues are studied by means of an example of the theory of evolution through natural selection. The premise is that the theory of evolution contains a set of problems regarding metaphor. A second premise is that these problems have to be handled in…

  11. Metaphor in Mandela's Long Walk To Freedom : A cross-cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The translatability of metaphors has been widely discussed within the discipline of translation studies. Van den Broeck (1981) suggests three strategies for translating metaphor. These were tested within the theoretical framework of descriptive translation studies (DTS) and the results reported in this article. Using examples ...

  12. Resilient cities: meaning, models, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic, and planning realms

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T.A. Pickett; M.L. Cadenasso; J.M. Grove

    2004-01-01

    Urban designers, ecologists, and social scientists have called for closer links among their disciplines. We examine a promising new tool for promoting this linkage—the metaphor of "cities of resilience." To put this tool to best use, we indicate how metaphor fits with other conceptual tools in science. We then present the two opposing definitions of...

  13. "Commedia Dell'Arte" as a Metaphor for the Art of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    With my background in acting, stagecraft, and some knowledge of theatre history from high school and college, it was natural for me as a novice teacher to think about theatre as a metaphor for teaching. In this article I will discuss how over my career I conceived of teaching in terms of theatrical metaphors, and make a comparison with a common…

  14. METAPHORICAL EXPRESSIONS IN THE BOOK NGAWUR KARENA BENAR BY SUJIWO TEJO: A PRAGMATIC APPROACH

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    M. Arif Rahman Hakim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns on metaphorical expressions in the book Ngawur Karena Benar written by Sujiwo Tejo and their nonliteral meaning. In finding the metaphorical expressions, researchers used the theory of metaphor. Otherwise, in analyzing the nonliteral meaning, it was used relevance approach. According to relevance theory, the process of interpreting a metaphorical expression comprises the following steps: decoding the linguistic input by arraying possible meanings of an utterance and drawing inferences by taking into account both the results of linguistic decoding. The problems are to answer: 1 what metaphorical expressions can be found in the book Ngawur Karena Benar by Sujiwo Tejo, 2 what are the meanings of the metaphorical expressions used in the book. This study applied qualitative research method by employing document analysis approach to get detailed data description from the object analysis. Results of this study revealed that the metaphorical expressions are used to deliver a complicated circumstance in revealing the real condition. In line with the finding, the nonliteral meaning of the metaphorical expression needs an intralinguistic that is the information we can receive by decoding the linguistic input while the extralinguistic factor is the assumptions taken from context by drawing inferences.

  15. Metaphors of Nature and Development: Reflection on Critical Course of Sustainable Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of metaphors of nature, sustainable development, and neoliberalism in business education. The research underpinning this article focused on a shift in the language business students used in response to a critical course on the neoliberal economic model. Results of the examination of metaphors before and after this…

  16. Product Packaging Metaphors: Effects of Ambiguity and Explanatory Information on Consumer Appreciation and Brand Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Veltkamp, M.

    2014-01-01

    Product packaging is an important means for communicating product and brand benefits. Research suggests that visual metaphors may be particularly suited in this context, however, the conditions under which metaphors are effective are not yet well understood. In the research reported herein, effects

  17. Diving the Reef: Water Metaphors in the Work of Ivan Vladislavić ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article exposes the groundswell of water metaphor prevalent in Ivan Vladislavić's Johannesburg texts, particularly the creative nonfictional Portrait with Keys. It attempts to construct a hermeneutic, or perhaps a “hermenautic,” for the incongruity of this metaphor in works representing the landlocked city. While examining ...

  18. The Role of Metaphorical Thinking in the Creativity of Scientific Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Santos, Manuela Romo; Jiménez, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    This article critically reviews the extant literature on scientific creativity and metaphorical thinking. Metaphorical thinking is based on a conceptual transfer of relationships or mapping, from a well-known source domain to a poorly known target domain, which could result in creative outcomes in sciences. Creativity leads to products that are…

  19. A Corpus-Based Evaluation of Metaphors in a Business English Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorczynska Sznajder, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the selection of metaphors in a published business English textbook using findings from a specialised corpus of written business English. While most scholars agree that metaphors should be included in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) syllabuses as a potentially problematic area in successful language learning, it is…

  20. Its Not a Big Truck: Examining Cyber Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    mortality in June of 2006 when he said the Internet is “not a big truck. It’s a series of tubes.” Along with inadvertently creating a new Internet meme [a...and people who publically misunderstand the Internet run the very real risk of inad- vertently creating their very own meme . That’s not nearly as fun...catch- phrase or idea that spreads online], the senator’s unfortunate attempt to explain the Internet highlights both the central role of metaphor in

  1. DEVELOPING A SEVEN METAPHORS MODEL OF MARKETING FOR UNIVERSITIES

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    COITA Dorin-Cristian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of marketing applied in education offers a lot of possibilities of social innovation. It is a tool helping educational organization to acquire resources and to provide value. In this article presented a model of seven metaphors to be used by a universities in order to acquire resources and to provide value to its stakeholders and applied it in the case of a Romanian university called The University. The aim of the paper is to identify sources of social innovations by using this model in the field of educational marketing.

  2. Sound metaphor in the artistic practice of symbolism

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    Patrakeev M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available the purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of sound metaphor manifested in the best way in poetic texts and the most consciously used within symbolism as an art movement; and to identify the semiotic structure of the poem «Langueur» by P. Verlaine as well. In order to achieve this purpose, a linguo-semiotic analysis is undertaken which solves the following tasks: identification of the semiotic techniques used by the poet, and the subsequent interpretation of the poem.

  3. Biology and Economics: Metaphors that Economists usually take from Biology

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    Danny García Callejas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Stanley Jevons, Karl Marx, Francois Quesnay and Joseph Schumpeter all have at least one thing in common: they used biological metaphors when speaking about economics. Nonetheless, today, this relation subsists and biology and economics are viewed as complementary sciences that have a lot to gain from joint research in fields like: evolutionary economics, economic growth, cognitive economics and environmental and ecological economics, among others. This paper, divided in four sections, will show this conclusion and explain that biology and economics are more sisters than strangers

  4. Using metaphor and narrative ideas in trauma and family therapy

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    Mike N. Witney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Everyday people living in South Africa experience trauma, either first hand through accidents, crime, violence and abuse or through being witnesses to the traumatic event. This results in people in South Africa suffering from anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other severe mental health issues. One only has to read a newspaper, watch or listen to the news to get a glimpse of the landscape of trauma in our country. In this article I looked at using narrative ideas and metaphor in therapy with trauma and family therapy.

  5. From Infantile Citizens to Infantile Institutions: The Metaphoric Transformation of Political Economy in the 2008 Housing Market Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The logic of political economy depends on a domestic metaphor, using the "oikos" or household as a model for the "polis." Historically, this metaphor has imagined citizens as the children of a paternal state. However during the 2008 housing crisis, this metaphor was turned upside down, depicting citizens as the parents of infantile state…

  6. Laterality in Metaphor Processing: Lack of Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Right Hemisphere Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M.; Leube, Dirk T.; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Kircher, Tilo T. J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated processing of metaphoric sentences using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen healthy subjects (6 female, 11 male) read 60 novel short German sentence pairs with either metaphoric or literal meaning and performed two different tasks: judging the metaphoric content and judging whether the sentence…

  7. An Empirical Assessment of Metaphor Use in the Design Studio: Analysis, Reflection and Restructuring of Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was concerned with the use of metaphors in architectural design education. Reasoning by means of metaphors helps to understand a design situation in terms of a remote concept normally not associated with it. By juxtaposing the known with the unknown in an unusual way, metaphors can enhance design problem solving. The goal of…

  8. Knowledge Acquisition or Participation in Communities of Practice? Academics' Metaphors of Teaching and Learning at the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Elisabeth; Nückles, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Learning has been described by two conceptual metaphors: as individual acquisition of knowledge ("acquisition metaphor"), and as an enculturation into a subject community ("participation metaphor"). On the other hand, academics' conceptions of teaching are usually reported to vary between teacher and student orientation. In…

  9. Translating the Metaphor in Poetry: A Cognitive Approach to "Le Bateau Ivre" and Its Translation in Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Ruhan

    2017-01-01

    Lakoff and Johnson (1980) gave a cognitive point of view to metaphor study explaining that metaphor is not a mere literary stylistic device, rather a tool for conceptualization. According to this view, metaphors are conceptualized in man's mind with regard to source domain and target domain in different types of context. This study is an attempt…

  10. Using semantic feature norms to investigate how the visual and verbal modes afford metaphor construction and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolognesi, M.

    In this study, two modalities of expression (verbal and visual) are compared and contrasted, in relation to their ability and their limitations to construct and express metaphors. A representative set of visual metaphors and a representative set of linguistic metaphors are here compared, and the

  11. The baby and the bath water: improving metaphors and analogies in high school biology texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Luke

    This dissertation is concerned with understanding how metaphors and analogies function in biology education and whether some of the philosophical critiques of the language used in the field of biology -- and in particular its accompanying metaphors and analogies, have a basis in the educational materials used to teach the subject. This inquiry was carried out through examining the pedagogical features and content of metaphors and analogies from three high school biology textbooks. After identifying over two hundred and twenty-five verbal and pictorial metaphors and analogies, these figures of speech were coded based on prior research that establishes effective characteristics for their use. In tandem with this quantitative analysis, a philosophical analysis considers how well the content of these metaphors and analogies aligns with current scientific understanding and what misunderstandings may be engendered through the use of these metaphors and analogies. The major findings of the analysis include: 1) Textbook authors are much more likely to utilize metaphors and analogies as well as signal their presence to students compared with past analyses; 2) A number of metaphors and analogies either contain errors in analogical mapping or use source analogues that are too antiquated to support today's students; 3) The content of many metaphors and analogies is frequently outdated in reference to current scientific understanding; and 4) Many metaphors and analogies tend to reinforce tacit elements of past scientific paradigms - these are termed 'reinforcing metaphors' in the dissertation and include nature as machine, nature as blueprint or information, nature as business and nature as war. The present work submits several implications for students learning biology as well as the manner in which students come to understand the natural world. The work suggests ways to reduce ineffective metaphors and analogies as well as reliance on reinforcing metaphors. It offers new

  12. An Investigation into EFL Learners’ Translations of Metaphors from Cognitive and Cultural Perspectives

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    Yi-chen Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates how EFL learner-translators deal with metaphors and how cognitive factors and cultural background influence their choices. An English-to-Chinese translation task consisting of 20 English sentences was given to 70 Taiwanese university students; each sentence contains a figurative expression that falls into the categories in the cognitive cultural models (Kövecses, 2005. The students’ performances on the task were rated; quantitative analyses show that the students performed significantly better on translating metaphors whose conceptual metaphors exist in both languages than on metaphors whose conceptual metaphors are exclusive to English. Additionally, twenty students were selected for post-task interviews; qualitative analyses indicate that sentence context, concerns over style and register, and translators’ personal preferences affected their choices while translating. Communicative strategies, like providing neutral meanings to avoid uncertain translation, were adopted. The results contribute to the literature on and pedagogical applications for EFL learner translators from both cognitive and cultural aspects.

  13. Pre-service teachers' metaphorical perceptions of "physics" as a concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykutlu, Isil; Bayrak, Celal; Bezen, Sevim

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the aim is to reveal pre-service biology, chemistry and mathematics teachers' metaphorical perceptions for physics. This study was patterned by employing phenomenology, which is one of the qualitative research methods. Sampling of the study consists of 90 pre-service teachers enrolled at the departments of biology, chemistry, and mathematics education at the faculty of education of a state university in Ankara. A metaphor form was prepared to determine pre-service teachers' mental metaphors for the physics concept. Then, it was determined that a total of 80 pre-service teachers generated 34 different metaphors for physics concept. As a result of the study, 34 metaphors generated by pre-service teachers for "physics" concept were gathered under seven different categories. Also, it was determined that pre-service teachers express most frequently "life" (26,25%) and "a difficult to solve problem"(21,25%) which take place in conceptual categories.

  14. Gesture and metaphor comprehension: electrophysiological evidence of cross-modal coordination by audiovisual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Carlos; Simonetti, Franco; Ibáñez, Agustín; Aldunate, Nerea; Ceric, Francisco; López, Vladimir; Núñez, Rafael E

    2009-06-01

    In recent years, studies have suggested that gestures influence comprehension of linguistic expressions, for example, eliciting an N400 component in response to a speech/gesture mismatch. In this paper, we investigate the role of gestural information in the understanding of metaphors. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants viewed video clips of an actor uttering metaphorical expressions and producing bodily gestures that were congruent or incongruent with the metaphorical meaning of such expressions. This modality of stimuli presentation allows a more ecological approach to meaning integration. When ERPs were calculated using gesture stroke as time-lock event, gesture incongruity with metaphorical expression modulated the amplitude of the N400 and of the late positive complex (LPC). This suggests that gestural and speech information are combined online to make sense of the interlocutor's linguistic production in an early stage of metaphor comprehension. Our data favor the idea that meaning construction is globally integrative and highly context-sensitive.

  15. Verbal and perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Sullivan, M P

    1987-09-01

    In contrast to the common assumption that young children have little or no ability to reason by analogy or to comprehend proportional metaphors, the present study demonstrated that children as young as age 5 years have an emerging ability to solve both verbal and perceptual proportional analogy problems and to detect the meanings of proportional metaphoric sentences. These results were largely because the experimental tasks were designed to minimize the number of factors that would restrict the performance of young children. The results indicated that the years between 5 and 7 mark a steady improvement in analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension, but that children ages 5, 6, and 7 display a wide-ranging ability in these areas. It was also found that perceptual analogical reasoning was statistically related to verbal analogical reasoning and to proportional metaphor comprehension, and that perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension were both statistically related to receptive vocabulary development.

  16. Dancing around infertility: the use of metaphors in a complex medical situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Krieger, Janice L

    2015-01-01

    People use metaphors to cognitively frame their experiences as well as to explain those experiences to others, especially in complex medical situations. However, previous research has not fully explored the extent to which metaphors may be helpful or harmful to achieving well-being. This investigation fills this gap by identifying and explaining metaphor use in the context of infertility. Guided by self-determination theory, in-depth interviews were conducted with 22 women and men who had experienced an inability to conceive a child. Analysis of participant narratives yielded 10 prominent metaphors that reflect how participants' need for competence, autonomy, and relatedness were (and were not) met during their infertility experience. Results indicate that cognitively framing the infertility experience using certain metaphors is more likely to enhance personal and relational well-being, while others may be more harmful. Suggestions for communication with doctors, partners, families, and friends are discussed.

  17. EXPLORING THE CULTURAL COGNITION AND THE CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR OF MARRIAGE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Kusmanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores what cultural cognition of ‘marriage’ is metaphorically conceptualized in Indonesian expressions. This paper has two questions. Firstly, what cultural cognitions of ‘marriage’ are encoded in the use of metaphorical expressions in Indonesian? Secondly, how such cultural cognition of ‘marriage’ is metaphorically conceptualized in Indonesian expressions? The analysis and discussion of this exploration basically follow (i the principles of embodiment in Cognitive Linguistics and (ii the logic of cultural conceptualization in Cultural Linguistics. Both serve as the primary bases to analyze the problem of the study. The paper is expected to contribute to the present linguistic study in two-fold benefits. Firstly, it presents the discussion of the cultural cognitions of marriage represented in Indonesian metaphorical expressions. Secondly, it discusses the methodological issues of (i how to understand the relation between culture and language and (ii how to uncover any cultural representations in linguistic metaphors.

  18. Metaphorical constructions of hypertension among three ethnic groups in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, John; Beune, Erik; Stronks, Karien

    2011-12-01

    This article examines the various metaphors used by hypertensive patients from different ethnic groups in multi-ethnic and multicultural Netherlands. The choice for the study of metaphors is based on the need of people to use metaphors, analogies and symbols to make sense of and express their illness experiences. Given the high prevalence of hypertension in Western countries, such as the Netherlands, and the fact that hypertension is also a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease among immigrants makes it necessary to study the various metaphors these groups use when speaking about the causes and consequences of their hypertension. This can contribute to a shared understanding and communication about this illness. Discursive analysis of the metaphorical constructions of the causes and consequences of hypertension 55 participants of Creole, (White) Dutch and Hindustani descent employed in-depth interviews. The findings illustrate that the participants use several metaphors to 'live' their hypertension. The metaphors some of the participants employed to explain the origins of their hypertension construct the human body and its organs as machines or parts of machines. When speaking about the possible consequences the participants used metaphors that represented of hypertension as an unknown enemy, they feared because of its silent, invisible and uncontrollable character and the way it abruptly makes itself known. Metaphors people employ to speak about their hypertension open up a space for patients to explain how they understand their hypertension and how they want to live with it even if it means resisting recommendations put forward by their doctors. It is therefore necessary to find metaphors that can work for health care providers and patients that work the best for communication about hypertension and its medical treatment.

  19. A dataset of metaphors from the italian literature: exploring psycholinguistic variables and the role of context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bambini

    Full Text Available Defining the specific role of the factors that affect metaphor processing is a fundamental step for fully understanding figurative language comprehension, either in discourse and conversation or in reading poems and novels. This study extends the currently available materials on everyday metaphorical expressions by providing the first dataset of metaphors extracted from literary texts and scored for the major psycholinguistic variables, considering also the effect of context. A set of 115 Italian literary metaphors presented in isolation (Experiment 1 and a subset of 65 literary metaphors embedded in their original texts (Experiment 2 were rated on several dimensions (word and phrase frequency, readability, cloze probability, familiarity, concreteness, difficulty and meaningfulness. Overall, literary metaphors scored around medium-low values on all dimensions in both experiments. Collected data were subjected to correlation analysis, which showed the presence of a strong cluster of variables-mainly familiarity, difficulty, and meaningfulness-when literary metaphor were presented in isolation. A weaker cluster was observed when literary metaphors were presented in the original contexts, with familiarity no longer correlating with meaningfulness. Context manipulation influenced familiarity, concreteness and difficulty ratings, which were lower in context than out of context, while meaningfulness increased. Throughout the different dimensions, the literary context seems to promote a global interpretative activity that enhances the open-endedness of the metaphor as a semantic structure constantly open to all possible interpretations intended by the author and driven by the text. This dataset will be useful for the design of future experimental studies both on literary metaphor and on the role of context in figurative meaning, combining ecological validity and aesthetic aspects of language.

  20. A Dataset of Metaphors from the Italian Literature: Exploring Psycholinguistic Variables and the Role of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Valentina; Resta, Donatella; Grimaldi, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Defining the specific role of the factors that affect metaphor processing is a fundamental step for fully understanding figurative language comprehension, either in discourse and conversation or in reading poems and novels. This study extends the currently available materials on everyday metaphorical expressions by providing the first dataset of metaphors extracted from literary texts and scored for the major psycholinguistic variables, considering also the effect of context. A set of 115 Italian literary metaphors presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and a subset of 65 literary metaphors embedded in their original texts (Experiment 2) were rated on several dimensions (word and phrase frequency, readability, cloze probability, familiarity, concreteness, difficulty and meaningfulness). Overall, literary metaphors scored around medium-low values on all dimensions in both experiments. Collected data were subjected to correlation analysis, which showed the presence of a strong cluster of variables—mainly familiarity, difficulty, and meaningfulness—when literary metaphor were presented in isolation. A weaker cluster was observed when literary metaphors were presented in the original contexts, with familiarity no longer correlating with meaningfulness. Context manipulation influenced familiarity, concreteness and difficulty ratings, which were lower in context than out of context, while meaningfulness increased. Throughout the different dimensions, the literary context seems to promote a global interpretative activity that enhances the open-endedness of the metaphor as a semantic structure constantly open to all possible interpretations intended by the author and driven by the text. This dataset will be useful for the design of future experimental studies both on literary metaphor and on the role of context in figurative meaning, combining ecological validity and aesthetic aspects of language. PMID:25244522

  1. Topological Landscapes: A Terrain Metaphor for ScientificData

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio

    2007-08-01

    Scientific visualization and illustration tools are designed to help people understand the structure and complexity of scientific data with images that are as informative and intuitive as possible. In this context, the use of metaphors plays an important role, since they make complex information easily accessible by using commonly known concepts. In this paper we propose a new metaphor, called 'Topological Landscapes', which facilitates understanding the topological structure of scalar functions. The basic idea is to construct a terrain with the same topology as a given dataset and to display the terrain as an easily understood representation of the actual input data. In this projection from an n-dimensional scalar function to a two-dimensional (2D) model we preserve function values of critical points, the persistence (function span) of topological features, and one possible additional metric property (in our examples volume). By displaying this topologically equivalent landscape together with the original data we harness the natural human proficiency in understanding terrain topography and make complex topological information easily accessible.

  2. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

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    Cristina Paravano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13. Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social characteristics. The life of each faction seems to be based on a form of metaphorical hunger: those who pursue selflessness and altruism belong to Abnegation, peace and harmony to Amity, honesty and truth to Candor, danger and adventure to Dauntless, and knowledge and power to Erudite. Those people who are excluded become factionless: they are outcasts who live their life in extreme poverty and experience real physical hunger. On the other hand, I will show how the numerous references to food and eating pervading the novels help to map the characters’ personalities and identities as single individuals and as groups.

  3. Student teachers’ mathematical questioning and courage in metaphorical thinking learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriana, H.; Hidayat, W.; Ristiana, M. G.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed in the form of experiments with control group design and post-test only which aimed to examine the role of metaphorical thinking learning in the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers based on the level of mathematical courage. The population of this study was student teachers of mathematics education study program in West Java Province, while the sample of this study was 152 student teachers which were set purposively and then randomly to be included in the experimental class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it was concluded that: (a) the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers who received Metaphorical Thinking learning was better than those who received conventional learning seen from mathematical courage level; (b) learning and mathematical courage level factors affected the achievement of student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability. In addition, there was no interaction effect between learning and mathematical courage level (high, medium, and low) simultaneously in developing student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability; (c) achievement of mastering mathematical questioning ability of student teacher was still not well achieved on indicator of problem posing in the form of non-routine question and open question.

  4. THE PERVASIVENESS OF METAPHOR IN THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS

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    Gabriela Telibașa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, metaphors can be seen in a totally new light, exceeding their primary function of being used only as ornamental tropes and becoming powerful instruments of expressiveness. They are active in the development of a conceptual framework for representing new ideas, as well as in providing new meaning. With their help, readers gain a more precise understanding of the terminology and scientific concepts and therefore, contribute to a greater accuracy in the use of language. Given their pervasiveness, language becomes less abstract and more manageable in concretising, objectivising or even humanising concepts. Economy related topics are part of our everyday’s language. Having a close relationship with human beings and human society, the field of Economics becomes a rich linguistic domain which, if explored, proves to be very productive in offering semantic extension. Applying conceptual terminology to corpus material we shall try to identify, classify and gather information with specific interest in metaphors that belong to the field of Economics.

  5. Electrodynamic metaphors: communicating particle physics with Feynman diagrams

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    Pietroni Massimo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to communicate the basic laws of particle physics with Feynman diagrams - visual tools which represent elementary particle processes. They were originally developed as a code to be used by physicists and are still used today for calculations and elaborations of theoretical nature. The technical and mathematical rules of Feynman diagrams are obviously the exclusive concern of physicists, but on a pictorial level they can help to popularize many concepts, ranging from matter and the antimatter; the creation, destruction and transformation of particles; the role of ‘virtual’ particles in interactions; the conservation laws, symmetries, etc. Unlike the metaphors often used to describe the microcosm, these graphic representations provide an unequivocal translation of the physical content of the underlying quantum theory. As such they are perfect metaphors, not misleading constructions. A brief introduction on Feynman diagrams will be followed by the practical realization of this project, which will be carried out with the help of an experiment based on three-dimensional manipulable objects. The Feynman rules are expressed in terms of mechanical constraints on the possible conjuctions among the various elements of the experiment. The final part of the project will present the results of this experiment, which has been conducted among high-school students.

  6. SYMMETRY AS CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR IN WALKER'S THE COLOR PURPLE

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    Elena Tapia

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes three types of the conceptual metaphor of embodied symmetry in Alice Walker's novel, The color purple (1982. These metaphorical projections, perceived as equilibrium and its breakage in abstract phenomena, enable readers to reexamine issues of race, non-traditional families, and gender roles. The dis/equilibrium emerges in the novel's epistolary structure. Biological equilibrium breaks in incidents of rape and incest. Walker creates characters in the novel through default-concept opposites of black/white, submissive/dominant, male/female and others. These contraries foreground issues of race and gender. The novel's asymmetries engage readers, leading them to rethink individual character histories and motives. The removal of objects (e.g., rape, mothers deprived of children suggests conceptual asymmetry and alerts readers to parallel themes of sexual and racial oppression. Subjugation sometimes subtle, sometimes blatant- manifests in simple oppositions. In epistemological terms, readers seek causal explanations for the asymmetries of the narrative, interpreting each to recover its history.

  7. Investigation of Women Academicians' Perceptions Regarding “Being A Woman Academician” Through Metaphors

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    Fatma BAŞARIR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the perceptions of women academicians regarding “being a woman academician” through metaphors. The participants of the research are 67 women faculty members working in a newly established university in Central Anatolia Region in the 2013-2014 academic year. “Women Academicians Metaphors Survey” developed by the researchers was used as the data collection tool. Phenomenological design was used in the research and data was analyzed by using content analysis technique. As a result of data analysis, it was determined that women academicians developed a total of 65 metaphors. The metaphors developed by the participants were collected under nine conceptual categories. There are 18 metaphors such as ‘octopus', ‘foodprocessor', ‘cloned person', ‘chameleon', ‘shaman', ‘Swiss army knife' in the first category namely “woman academician as someone with multiple duties and responsibilities”. While the category of “woman academician as someone nourishing her vicinity with her productions” has nine metaphors such as ‘soil', ‘scientist', ‘cloud', ‘water'; the category of “woman academician as someone diligent” consists of metaphors of ‘bee', ‘ant' and ‘high-speed train'. There are seven metaphors such as ‘tumbler', ‘warrior', ‘duck' in the category of “woman academician as someone standing strong under difficulties”; six metaphors such as ‘non-fuel powered car', ‘candle', ‘devoted mother' in the category of “woman academician as someone devoted”; five metaphors such as ‘miracle', ‘superhero' in the category of “woman academician as a miraculous presence”; four metaphors such as ‘salaried housewife' and ‘employed housewife' in the category of “woman academician primarily as a housewife”; three metaphors as ‘scales', ‘tightrope walker' and ‘pendulum' in the category of “woman academician as someone having to maintain a balance

  8. Towards Improving Overview and Metering through Visualisation and Dynamic Query Filters for User Interfaces Implementing the Stage Metaphor for Music Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Uhrenholt, Anders Kirk

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with challenges involved with implementing the stage metaphor control scheme for mixing music. Recent studies suggest that the stage metaphor outperforms the traditional channel-strip metaphor in several different ways. However, the implementation of the stage metaphor poses issues...

  9. Language, Metaphor, Truth: The Role of Metaphor in the Development of Post-structuralism, based on Derrida's Ideas

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    Fardin Hosseinpanahi

    2017-08-01

    Interpreting all ideas "in language" and "through language", ignores many deep and deciding bases. The recognition of reality in human perception system is based on a metaphorical process that is formed by distancing from the reality, and through the transfer from one signification to another signification. On the other hand, the mechanism of human mind is based on separating the things and putting them (or their components "in relation to one another". In such a case, the integral concepts like truth, center, origin, and existence, would never find linguistic and mental manifestations. Accordingly, Derrida does not believe in the existence of truth, center or origin that are beyond différance as the prior aspect to language. Although metaphysics is itself a system of signification, its deep structure, as well as its relation to intuitive perceptions (not concepts makes metaphorical and referral mechanisms underlying language to ultimately operate on a metaphysical ground. As his methodological approach shows, Derrida finally, and in spite of his claim, has operated on a metaphysical ground. The deep structures of Derrida’s ideas are more specifically in common with the ideas of Maimonides, and this shows that Derrida was influenced by his ideas.

  10. When do natural language metaphors influence reasoning? A follow-up study to Thibodeau and Boroditsky (2013.

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    Gerard J Steen

    Full Text Available In this article, we offer a critical view of Thibodeau and Boroditsky who report an effect of metaphorical framing on readers' preference for political measures after exposure to a short text on the increase of crime in a fictitious town: when crime was metaphorically presented as a beast, readers became more enforcement-oriented than when crime was metaphorically framed as a virus. We argue that the design of the study has left room for alternative explanations. We report four experiments comprising a follow-up study, remedying several shortcomings in the original design while collecting more encompassing sets of data. Our experiments include three additions to the original studies: (1 a non-metaphorical control condition, which is contrasted to the two metaphorical framing conditions used by Thibodeau and Boroditsky, (2 text versions that do not have the other, potentially supporting metaphors of the original stimulus texts, (3 a pre-exposure measure of political preference (Experiments 1-2. We do not find a metaphorical framing effect but instead show that there is another process at play across the board which presumably has to do with simple exposure to textual information. Reading about crime increases people's preference for enforcement irrespective of metaphorical frame or metaphorical support of the frame. These findings suggest the existence of boundary conditions under which metaphors can have differential effects on reasoning. Thus, our four experiments provide converging evidence raising questions about when metaphors do and do not influence reasoning.

  11. Metaphor as a Means of Implementation of Humor in the Nonstandard Military Vocabulary (on the Material of the French Language

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    Evgeniya A. Solovyova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of metaphors as an effective tool for embodying the humor in the modern French substandard military vocabulary. The analysis of the metaphors encoding the military realities allows considering the humor as the most common way to achieve the comic representation of professional sphere. The sources of metaphorical transfer are frequently based on the ordinary realities specific to the civil life. This kind of metaphorical thinking reflects the «naive» picture of professional world conveyed by the humorous metaphors. Furthermore, the metaphor may contribute to the psychological adaptation to the military-related stress. The analysis of the humorous metaphors may also permit to understand some mental particularities specific to the native speakers issued from a given social community.

  12. ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHER CANDIDATES’ PERCEPTIONS OF LANGUAGE TEACHERS: A METAPHOR STUDY

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    Zeynep ÇETİN KÖROĞLU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor studies are accepted as research tools by general education and language pedagogy scholars in related fields. It is considered that metaphors are useful tools to investigate and construct teacher’s professional life. Metaphor studies generally focus on teacher-produced or student-produced metaphor images and qualitative data are used to analyze these images. The current research utilized pre-service English language teacher’s metaphor perceptions about English language teachers. Therefore, the participants of the study will be English language teachers in the future, their perceptions about English language teachers are quite important to investigate their identity building process. The participants of the present research are 128 English language teacher candidates who are first graders of English language teaching department at Gazi University. The data were collected in 2014- 2015 academic years. The data were collected through a scale which had been developed by researchers of the study. The scale consists of two part that are investigate participants’ perceptions through their drawings and metaphors. The data were analyzed through content analysis. The results show that English language teacher candidates’ perceptions vary and mostly positive metaphors were used to describe English language teachers. The current research is significant in terms of understanding English language teacher candidates’ perceptions about their future career.

  13. The postgraduate students’ (masters, PhD metaphors about education of statistic

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    Colak Serap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is an important part of our life when it comes to economy, education, sport, politics and research. Research is a primary job for the ones pursuing academic career and statistics is one of the basic components of a research. Metaphor is used as an equivalent to figurative expression (‘mecaz’ in Turkish language. Study group is composed of 19 females (age 27.7 and 40 males (age 30.85 - 59 students in total. Demographic information of participants was collected. Participants were provided with questionnaire in order to assess their metaphorical creation whereby they were asked to fill in the sentence - “statistics is like/ similar to …, because…” - with metaphor. The study has collected total of 59 metaphors in 6 categories. The most created metaphor is in ‘discovering/ revealing’ category. 42.5% of Master’s students and 25% of PhD students are in this category. Metaphors created by graduate students are representing their views about statistics course and hence their view about importance of research. The category ‘discovering/ revealing’, the one with the most created metaphor of this study, is the main concept of science. Consequently, good knowledge of statistics is needed for graduate students to conduct research.

  14. Analysis of Motions in Comic Book Cover Art: Using Pictorial Metaphors

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    Igor Juricevic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Motion can be depicted using literal pictorial devices (representing features present in the real world and metaphorical pictorial devices (representing features that do not occur in the real world. How are literal and metaphorical pictorial devices used in comic book cover art? We analyzed the pictorial devices used to depict the motion 'running' in 400 Silver Age (1956–1971 and Bronze Age (c. 1970–1985 superhero comic book covers (Frankenhoff & Thompson, 2012. Literal devices (such as arm and leg positions were used additively; that is, artists preferred to use many literal devices. On the other hand, metaphorical devices (such as action lines were not used additively; artists preferred to use only one metaphorical device. We propose the Literal Additive Metaphorical One-And-Done (LA-MOAD theory to account for the use of literal and metaphorical devices in comic book cover art. The differential use of literal and metaphorical devices by comic book artists may be unique to comic book cover art, or it may reflect a basic function of our visual system. 

  15. Planes, straws and oysters: the use of metaphors in healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross; Dickinson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine the metaphors used by senior managers and clinicians in the delivery of healthcare reform. A study of healthcare reform in England carried out a series of semi structured interviews with senior managers and clinicians leading primary and secondary care organisations. Qualitative data analysis examines instances where metaphorical language is used to communicate how particular policy reforms are experienced and the implications these reforms have for organisational contexts. The findings show how metaphorical language is used to explain the interactions between policy reform and organisational contexts. Metaphors are used to illustrate both the challenges and opportunities associated with the reform proposals for organisational change. The authors provide the first systematic study of patterns and meanings of metaphors within English healthcare contexts and beyond. The authors argue that these metaphors provide important examples of "generative" dialogue in their illustration of the opportunities associated with reform. Conversely, these metaphors also provide examples of "degenerative" dialogue in their illustration of a demarcation between the reform policy proposals and existing organisational contexts.

  16. The H-Metaphor as a Guideline for Vehicle Automation and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemisch, Frank O.; Adams, Catherine A.; Conway, Sheila R.; Goodrich, Ken H.; Palmer, Michael T.; Schutte, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    Good design is not free of form. It does not necessarily happen through a mere sampling of technologies packaged together, through pure analysis, or just by following procedures. Good design begins with inspiration and a vision, a mental image of the end product, which can sometimes be described with a design metaphor. A successful example from the 20th century is the desktop metaphor, which took a real desktop as an orientation for the manipulation of electronic documents on a computer. Initially defined by Xerox, then refined by Apple and others, it could be found on almost every computer by the turn of the 20th century. This paper sketches a specific metaphor for the emerging field of highly automated vehicles, their interactions with human users and with other vehicles. In the introduction, general questions on vehicle automation are raised and related to the physical control of conventional vehicles and to the automation of some late 20th century vehicles. After some words on design metaphors, the H-Metaphor is introduced. More details of the metaphor's source are described and their application to human-machine interaction, automation and management of intelligent vehicles sketched. Finally, risks and opportunities to apply the metaphor to technical applications are discussed.

  17. Metaphor and Metonymy in Ancient Dream Interpretation: The Case of Islamic-Iranian Culture

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    Rahman Veisi Hasar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the relevance of metaphor and metonymy to ancient dream interpretation in Islamic-Iranian culture. To this end, a most-referenced book of dream interpretation is analysed according to the conceptual metaphor theory. The results show that metaphor and metonymy play an important role in this ancient discourse. The metaphorical dream is based either on a resemblance between the dream as the source domain and its interpretation as the target domain, or on some symbolic metaphors arising from cultural conventions. The metonymic dream is formed by a contiguous relationship between the dream as the vehicle entity and its interpretation as the target entity. Concerning metaphorical dream interpretation, it can be argued that the overt content of the dream is mapped onto the latent content by resemblance or cultural convention. As regards metonymic dream interpretation, it can be said that the overt content of the dream is mapped onto the latent content by a conceptual metonymy based on socio-physical context. In addition, there are two other procedures of dream interpretation based on realistic representation and the technique of reversion. These cases do not apply figurative devices like metaphor and metonymy. Also, the dreamer’s personal knowledge of his or her life does not play a significant role in the discourse of dream interpretation in Islamic-Iranian culture.

  18. Metaphorical conceptualization of success in American success books, aphorisms and quotes

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    Łącka-Badura Jolanta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to investigate how SUCCESS is conceptualized metaphorically in popular American success books, aphorisms and quotes. The study is based on an analysis of a corpus comprising over 600 utterances in which the lexical entry SUCCESS is regarded as constituting part of a metaphorical expression. The utterances have been extracted from the initial corpus of 10 success guide books, as well as 150 success aphorisms and quotes by famous Americans. The study investigates two aspects of this conceptualization. In the first instance, it examines which metaphorical source domains, as understood within the framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, prove to be most productive in the corpus. Secondly, in line with the frequently expressed views that the significance of conceptual metaphor as an explanatory construct is sometimes overstated in cognitive linguistic research, the paper attempts to analyze examples of linguistic metaphors which appear to be motivated in ways that are, at least in part, independent of well-established conceptual mappings, with particular emphasis on the resemblance-based and image metaphors associated with the predicate nominative forms ‘X is a Y’.

  19. Bidirectionality, mediation, and moderation of metaphorical effects: the embodiment of social suspicion and fishy smells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Spike W S; Schwarz, Norbert

    2012-11-01

    Metaphorical effects are commonly assumed to be unidirectional, running from concrete to abstract domains but not vice versa. Noting that metaphorical effects are often found to be bidirectional, we explore how they may be mediated and moderated according to the principles of knowledge accessibility and applicability. Using the example of "something smells fishy" (a metaphorical expression of social suspicion), 7 experiments tested for the behavioral effects of fishy smells on social suspicion among English speakers, the reversed effects of suspicion on smell labeling and detection, and the underlying mechanism. Incidental exposure to fishy smells induced suspicion and undermined cooperation in trust-based economic exchanges in a trust game (Study 1) and a public goods game (Study 2). Socially induced suspicion enhanced the correct labeling of fishy smells, but not other smells (Studies 3a-3c), an effect that could be mediated by the accessibility and moderated by the applicability of metaphorically associated concepts (Studies 4-6). Suspicion also heightened detection sensitivity to low concentrations of fishy smells (Study 7). Bidirectionality, mediation, and moderation of metaphorical effects have important theoretical implications for integrating known wisdom from social cognition with new insights into the embodied and metaphorical nature of human thinking. These findings also highlight the need for exploring the cultural variability and origin of metaphorical knowledge. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Mixing Metaphors in Pharmacy Education is a Bad Solution for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Scholarly discussion has recently been directed toward the negative effects of consumerism in pharmacy education. Frequently in these discussions, the metaphor of student-as-customer is cited as an indicator of such consumer mentality. However, the customer metaphor is more deeply entangled in the thinking on this matter than has been acknowledged, even for those who roundly criticize its use. A richer understanding of the power of metaphor and of the fiducial obligations that underlie professionalism can help to create educational paradigms more likely to meet the best interests of students, faculty members, and the general public. PMID:25657362

  1. Lexically-Based Language Teaching: Metaphor In English For Specific Purposes

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    Siusana Kweldju

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor can be a semi-technical vocabulary in ESP. In fact, it is abundant in all branches of science. Being a significant part of human conceptual system, it plays a basic role in the imaginative cognitive mechanism, which is common not only in daily activities but also in scientific inquiry. Although most ESP materials have been developed based on careful research and needs analysis on lexicon, metaphor has been ignored in the teaching of ESP. Lexically-based language teaching, however, underlines the importance of metaphor in ESP.

  2. Mixing metaphors in pharmacy education is a bad solution for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatic, Thomas D

    2014-12-15

    Scholarly discussion has recently been directed toward the negative effects of consumerism in pharmacy education. Frequently in these discussions, the metaphor of student-as-customer is cited as an indicator of such consumer mentality. However, the customer metaphor is more deeply entangled in the thinking on this matter than has been acknowledged, even for those who roundly criticize its use. A richer understanding of the power of metaphor and of the fiducial obligations that underlie professionalism can help to create educational paradigms more likely to meet the best interests of students, faculty members, and the general public.

  3. Using root metaphors to analyze communication between nurses and patients: a qualitative study

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    Isabel Álvarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metaphors in communication can serve to convey individuals’ backgrounds, contexts, experiences, and worldviews. Metaphors used in a health care setting can help achieve consensual communication in professional–patient relationships. Patients use metaphors to describe symptoms, or how disease affects them. Health professionals draw on shared understanding of such metaphors to better comprehend and meet patient needs, and to communicate information that patients can more easily integrate into their lives. This study incorporated a theoretical framework based on four worldviews, each with an underlying foundational metaphor (root metaphor. The use of these root metaphors (formism, mechanism, contextualism, and organicism can have an explanatory function and serve to impart new meanings, as each type of metaphor can lead to a particular interpretation. The study aimed to extract and discuss the root metaphors, with a view to analyzing the communication between health professionals and patients. Methods In a case study in Spain over a six-month period, we analyzed the content of recorded, transcribed interviews conducted by one nurse with 32 patients who had chronic illnesses. We inductively extracted five categories that emerged from the interviews: blood sugar, cholesterol, exercise, blood pressure, and diet. We then examined these categories from the standpoint of each of the four root metaphors using two approaches: A series (deductive and an emergent (inductive approach. Results The results show that the nurse tended to primarily use two worldviews: mechanism and formism. In contrast, patients tended to favor mechanism when discussing cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, whereas contextualism was predominant when the category was diet or exercise. Conclusions This study adds to the existing literature on health professionals and patients’ communication. It shows how the use of Pepper’s root metaphors

  4. Ontological metaphors for negative energy in an interdisciplinary context

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    Benjamin W. Dreyfus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about energy in interdisciplinary settings that emphasize coherence among physics, chemistry, and biology leads to a more central role for chemical bond energy. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to chemical energy leads to modeling chemical bonds in terms of negative energy. While recent work on ontological metaphors for energy has emphasized the affordances of the substance ontology, this ontology is problematic in the context of negative energy. Instead, we apply a dynamic ontologies perspective to argue that blending the substance and location ontologies for energy can be effective in reasoning about negative energy in the context of reasoning about chemical bonds. We present data from an introductory physics for the life sciences course in which both experts and students successfully use this blended ontology. Blending these ontologies is most successful when the substance and location ontologies are combined such that each is strategically utilized in reasoning about particular aspects of energetic processes.

  5. Darkness as a metaphor in the historiography of the Enlightenment

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    Janne Tunturi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on darkness as a metaphor in eighteenth century historical writing. In contrast to the celebration of light as a symbol of knowledge and progress, the interpretations of the meaning of darkness varied. For many historians, it symbolised backwardness, or decline, which culminated in medieval society. Yet, the relationship between eighteenth century historiography and the Middle Ages was not as explicit as the usual suspects such as Voltaire and Edward Gibbon suggest. First of all, the understanding of the culture or texts of the Dark Ages signalled the skilfulness of the interpreter. Secondly, some supposed features of the medieval culture, such the free use of the imagination, gradually became more appreciated.

  6. Social Capital in Organizations - Beyond Structure and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldstrøm, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The importance and usefulness of social capital as a concept in the study of organizations have been established by a large body of research. The aim of this paper is to review the concept of social capital in an organizational context, and it identifies five main issues that need to be addressed...... in future research before social capital can move definitively beyond being merely a metaphor for advantage. First, the unresolved issue of causality is a barrier in the study of social structure and social capital alike, and hampers both measuring scales and implications drawn from empirical research...... a consistent, bridging theory. Finally, there is a lack of understanding on how social capital develops over time and the potential benefits of taking a life-cycle view of social capital. In conclusion, the field of social capital in organizations still needs a consistent and coordinated research effort...

  7. A Metro Map Metaphor for Guided Tours on the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvad, Elmer Sørensen; Grønbæk, Kaj; Sloth, Lennert

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a guided tour system for the WWW. It is a module for the Webvise open hypermedia system that implements the ideas of trails and guided tours, originating from the hypertext field. Webvise appears as an open hypermedia helper application to the user and stores the guided tours...... in an XML format called OHIF separated from the WWW documents included in the tour. The main advantages of the system are: (1) a browser independent format in terms of HTML and PNG-based image maps for reading the guided tours; (2) support for a familiar metaphor, namely, a metro route map; (3) overview...... maps and route maps with indication of which stations of a tour have been visited; and finally (4) support for arbitrary web pages as stations on the tour. The paper discusses the Webvise Guided Tour System and illustrates its use in a digital library portal. The system is compared to other recent Web...

  8. Love Is Empire: A Cognitive Analysis of Metaphors of Empire in John Donne’s Love Poetry

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    Zohreh Sohrabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The poetry of John Donne is replete with elaborate metaphors. As the products of an age of nascent imperialism and colonization, the metaphors he uses to describe the concept of love demonstrate his deep preoccupation with the question of imperial domain. These metaphors have mostly been studied in the light of his political and religious tendencies. However, according to cognitive poetics as a recent literary discipline, these metaphors are windows across the way the poet understands different concepts. Lakoff and Johnson argue that the metaphor is not merely a linguistic matter, but our very conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical, and we understand the world metaphorically. A cognitive poetic approach will help us reveal how the poet constructs his metaphors cognitively, what are the internal structures of his metaphors, and what are the interrelations between these metaphors and the ideologies of the time. By combining insights from cognitive poetics and Edward Said’s views about culture and imperialism, we can better understand the world of love Donne creates in his poetry and its relations with the world outside.

  9. Metaphor and its Existential Origins in ‘The Stray Dog’

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    Roohollah Roozbeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many writers have found animals as a suitable and complete mirror of human subject and have expressed human subject in the form of animals. This theme has been a dominant one in the world literature and finding and considering the human subject in an animal and giving human characteristics to it brings to mind the literary device of metaphor. Hedayat in Stray Dog considers a dog as a suitable and complete mirror of the human subject and makes use of metaphor for philosophical and existentialist purposes. Metaphor gives Hedayat the chance to express pain and loneliness of human subject so as to place a great deal of emphasis on the loneliness of human subject. This is done through defamiliarization and a sense of wonder which is the function of literature itself. The methodology of this paper is based on Jacobson’s theory of metaphor which acts on basis of similarity, substitution, equivalence or contrast.

  10. Betting is Loving and Bettors are Predators: A Conceptual Metaphor Approach to Online Sports Betting Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Hibai; Guerrero-Solé, Frederic; Estévez, Ana; Griffiths, Mark

    2017-10-30

    The legalisation of online gambling in multiple territories has caused a growth in the exposure of consumers to online sports betting (OSB) advertising. While some efforts have been made to understand the visible structure of betting promotional messages, little is known about the latent components of OSB advertisements. The present study sought to address this issue by examining the metaphorical conceptualisation of OSB advertising. A sample of Spanish and British television OSB advertisements from 2014 to 2016 was analysed (N = 133). Following Lakoff and Johnson's conceptual metaphor theory, four main structural metaphors that shaped how OSB advertising can be understood were identified: betting as (1) an act of love, (2) a market, (3) a sport, and (4) a natural environment. In general, these metaphors, which were found widely across 29 different betting brands, facilitated the perception of bettors as active players, with an executive role in the sport events bet upon, and greater control over bet outcomes.

  11. Poetic Logic: The Metaphoric Form as a Foundation for a Theory of Tropological Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, John E.; Leeper, Karla K.

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on the function of metaphor in argument. Compares the positions of Kenneth Burke and Paul Ricoeur on the function and evaluation of argument, concluding that Ricoeur's position supplements Burke's view of tropological argument. (NH)

  12. Metaphor in scientific business journals and business periodicals: an example of the scientific dicourse popularisation

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    Hanna Skorcynska

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metaphor have largely focused on its formal features and meaning in different types of spoken and written texts. This is to the exclusion of a contrastive analysis of metaphor variation in two types of discourse and its implications for the process of the scientfic discourse popularisation. An attempt is made in this study to describe metaphor variation at three discourse levels: conceptual, linguistic and communicative in two corpora: one based on scientific business journals and the other, on business periodicals. Results obtained indicate that metaphor variation is a part of the popularisation process and ocrresponds to its three characteristics: simplifivation, the use of informal tone and reformulation, besides its employment as a narrative device.

  13. The authoritative metaphor and social change: Surgeon General C. Everett Koop's Direct Mailer, "Understanding AIDS".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robin E; King, Abigail Selzer

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop published "Understanding AIDS," the nation's first and only direct mailing sent to every private home in the country. His appeals therein were driven by what we label authoritative metaphors. Communicated by and/or attributed to persons of authority, authoritative metaphors capitalize on the symbolic force of sanctioned power by appealing to the ethos of office. In "Understanding AIDS," we find that Koop drew from his positions as a surgeon and a general, respectively, to equate AIDS with an unprecedented plague and an unprecedented war. He created new authoritative metaphors out of the vestiges of familiar metaphors related to disease and public health and thereby portrayed AIDS as a recognizable but decisively unique dilemma requiring distinct preventative behaviors.

  14. Evolution of the personal teaching models of prospective secondary school science teachers as expressed through metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Lucía; de la Montaña, Juan L.; Luengo, María Rosa; Bermejo, María Luisa

    2018-02-01

    This study analyses the evolution of the personal metaphors of 31 science graduates enrolled in a Master's degree course in Secondary Education Teaching during the 2012-13 academic year. The instrument used was an open questionnaire that included asking the participants to make drawings representing the roles of the teacher. Four categories of metaphor were considered: behaviourist/transmissive, cognitivist/constructivist, situative/socio-historical, and self-referential. It was found that most of the prospective teachers were indeed able to conceptualize their roles in the form of metaphors. Comparison of the results before and after the teaching practicum revealed no changes in most of the participants' metaphors and associated models. Instead, these appeared to be firmly set already at the beginning of the Master's course, and remained uninfluenced by either the course or the practicum. Only a minority of the participants showed changes in their metaphors—5 with progressive changes, and 5 with regressive changes.

  15. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learningemerges in association to game-embedded metaphors.As shown in this chapter, metaphorsseem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participantswith a suitcase containing...... a framework to be unpacked in a subsequent practice, as well as a tool for disciplined imaginationand bringing participant experience into the learning situation. By serving both as a vessel for ideas and as a tool for provoking thoughts, metaphors are likely to be key to understanding what participants bring...

  16. Metaphor as aesthetic principle in the pre-hispanic art of the argentine northwest

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    María Alba Bovisio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a series of hypothesis about metaphor as an aesthetic principle that underlies the symbolic functioning of a specific kind of objects during the Middle Period of the Argentine Northwest (400-900 B.C.. It is considered that metaphors exist not only in the iconic configuration but in the way that the objects are perceived in certain contexts. In this sense, the metaphor is constructed throughout the ritual while the object is being experienced. Metaphoric processes that involve the relation between man and feline are analyzed in very few objects that have not been deeply studied yet: stone vases and a wood ax handle. These objects might have been used in rituals in which men became sacred depending on the politic and religious authority.

  17. The ABC of Reading Metaphor in John Ashbery’s Poetry After Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    The aim of this paper is to offer a reading of John Ashbery’s poem “A Wave,” demonstrating that its (ab)use of metaphor will benefit from being analysed in the light of deconstructive literary theory. Roughly, there seems to be a divide between classical and early 20th century literary theory...... to a large extent benefits from being read in a deconstructive light, this paper will offer a discussion of the reconfiguring that metaphor has undergone in deconstructive theory. Important to this discussion will be the implications that deconstruction has had for the status of metaphor in poetic discourse......, which – as already mentioned – involve its displacement, trivialization, and weakening. In classical theories of metaphor its status depended to a large degree on its subordination to the existence of a literal term into which it was translatable. Especially Paul de Man and Jacques Derrida have...

  18. Evolution of word meanings through metaphorical mapping: Systematicity over the past millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Malt, Barbara C; Srinivasan, Mahesh

    2017-08-01

    One way that languages are able to communicate a potentially infinite set of ideas through a finite lexicon is by compressing emerging meanings into words, such that over time, individual words come to express multiple, related senses of meaning. We propose that overarching communicative and cognitive pressures have created systematic directionality in how new metaphorical senses have developed from existing word senses over the history of English. Given a large set of pairs of semantic domains, we used computational models to test which domains have been more commonly the starting points (source domains) and which the ending points (target domains) of metaphorical mappings over the past millennium. We found that a compact set of variables, including externality, embodiment, and valence, explain directionality in the majority of about 5000 metaphorical mappings recorded over the past 1100years. These results provide the first large-scale historical evidence that metaphorical mapping is systematic, and driven by measurable communicative and cognitive principles. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Conceptual Metaphor in Discourses of Women and Marriage in Seventeenth-Century Comedy

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    Csenge Aradi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual metaphors reflect general conceptions of women and marriage in seventeenth-century comedy. Through the comparison of Molière’s The School for Husbands (1661 and The School for Wives (1662 with Wycherley’s The Country Wife (1675, the author of the present paper analyzes metaphors depicting women’s position and marriage in contemporary English and French society. The cognitive linguistic analysis (based on Johnson & Lakoff, 1980; Kövecses, 2005; 2010 was complemented with elements of Sociocriticism (Duchet, 1979, an approach that defines text as a social act. Sociocriticism claims that literary texts mirror the reality of their age, and they therefore need to be interpreted according to their own socio-cultural context. Women of the 1600s had an inferior status within the dominant male discourse, and this fact is unambiguously manifested in the metaphors extracted from the comedies. However, there are some considerable differences in the realization of these metaphors in the analyzed plays. First, metaphors in The Country Wife are visually more ingenuous than those applied in The School for Husbands and The School for Wives. Second, metaphors in Wycherley’s play are closely connected to the everyday life of the characters (i.e., members of the English gentry and aristocracy, as opposed to Molière’s comedies, in which metaphors are conventional both on the general and specific level, and thus provide little culture-specific information on the issue. A third difference is that metaphorical correspondences in The Country Wife are made explicit, and they run through the whole of the play, establishing coherence to the discourse. In contrast, the two French plays do not unbind any of the relevant metaphors. As a conclusion, it can be stated that whereas in The Country Wife the representation of women and marriage is based on extended conceptual metaphors reflecting contemporary socio-cultural context, in The School for Husbands

  20. Investigating student conceptions of energy through the lens of metaphor theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael Anderman

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies greatly from discipline to discipline. In this thesis, I examine the discourse used to discuss energy in science courses from the perspective of metaphor theory, and explore how these metaphors both highlight and obscure various aspects of energy. A set of five characteristics of energy are presented that correspond to metaphors commonly found in science classroom discourse. Five substance metaphors for energy were identified: energy as a substance that can be accounted for, energy as a substance that can change forms, energy as a substance that can flow, energy as a substance that can be carried, energy as a substance that can be lost, and energy as a substance that can be added, produced or stored. Additionally, one final metaphor depicts energy as a process or interaction. Working under this framework, undergraduate students in introductory college biology, chemistry, and physics courses were asked to write analogies that reflect their understanding of the role of energy in the context of ecosystems, chemical reactions, mechanical systems, and electrical circuits. These student-generated analogies were analyzed qualitatively to gain insight into how students conceptualize energy. The results of this empirical study confirm that students use the metaphors identified above to explain the role of energy in these various scientific contexts. A second empirical study is also presented in which students taking an interdisciplinary, issues-based general science course at the undergraduate level were asked to explain the role of energy in five contexts that frequently appear the media: radioactivity, transportation, generating electricity, natural disasters, and the big bang theory for the origin of the universe. Their explanations were analyzed through the lens of metaphor theory, and showed evidence of the same metaphors seen in traditional disciplinary topics

  1. The college journey and academic engagement: how metaphor use enhances identity-based motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Mark J; Oyserman, Daphna; Keefer, Lucas A; Smith, George C

    2014-05-01

    People commonly talk about goals metaphorically as destinations on physical paths extending into the future or as contained in future periods. Does metaphor use have consequences for people's motivation to engage in goal-directed action? Three experiments examine the effect of metaphor use on students' engagement with their academic possible identity: their image of themselves as academically successful graduates. Students primed to frame their academic possible identity using the goal-as-journey metaphor reported stronger academic intention, and displayed increased effort on academic tasks, compared to students primed with a nonacademic possible identity, a different metaphoric framing (goal-as-contained-entity), and past academic achievements (Studies 1-2). This motivating effect persisted up to a week later as reflected in final exam performance (Study 3). Four experiments examine the cognitive processes underlying this effect. Conceptual metaphor theory posits that an accessible metaphor transfers knowledge between dissimilar concepts. As predicted in this paradigm, a journey-metaphoric framing of a possible academic identity transferred confidence in the procedure, or action sequence, required to attain that possible identity, which in turn led participants to perceive that possible identity as more connected to their current identity (Study 4). Drawing on identity-based motivation theory, we hypothesized that strengthened current/possible identity connection would mediate the journey framing's motivating effect. This mediational process predicted students' academic engagement (Study 5) and an online sample's engagement with possible identities in other domains (Study 6). Also as predicted, journey framing increased academic engagement particularly among students reporting a weak connection to their academic possible identity (Study 7).

  2. Going political – multimodal metaphor framings on a cover of the sports newspaper A Bola

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    Maria Clotilde Almeida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a political-oriented multimodal metaphor on a cover of the sports newspaper A Bola, sequencing another study on multimodal metaphors deployed on the covers of the very same sports newspaper pertaining to the 2014 Football World Cup in Brazil (Almeida/Sousa, 2015 in the light of Forceville (2009, 2012. The fact that European politics is mapped onto football in multimodal metaphors on this sports newspaper cover draws on the interplay of conceptual metaphors, respectively in the visual mode and in the written mode. Furthermore, there is a relevant time-bound leitmotif which motivates the mapping of politics onto football in the sports newspaper A Bola, namely the upcoming football match between Portugal and Germany. In the multimodal framing of the story line under analysis. The visual mode apparently assumes preponderance, since a picture of Angela Merkel, a prominent leader of EU, is clearly overshadowed by a large picture of Cristiano Ronaldo, the captain of the Portuguese National Football team. However, the visual modality of Cristiano Ronaldo’s dominance over Angela Merkel is intertwined with the powerful metaphorical headline “Vamos expulsar a Alemanha do Euro” (“Let’s kick Germany out of the European Championship”, intended to boost the courage of the Portuguese national football team: “Go Portugal – you can win this time!”. Thus, differently from multimodal metaphors on other covers of the same newspaper, the visual modality in this case cannot be considered the dominant factor in multimodal meaning creation in this politically-oriented layout.Keywords: Multimodal Metaphors. Sports and Politics. Metaphors in Sports Newspapers.

  3. The neuromechanism underlying verbal analogical reasoning of metaphorical relations: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Meng, Huishan; Xu, Zhiyuan; Du, Fenglei; Liu, Tao; Li, Yongxin; Chen, Feiyan

    2011-11-24

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), this study investigated the neuromechanism underlying verbal analogical reasoning of two different metaphorical relations: attributive metaphor and relational metaphor. The analogical reasoning of attributive metaphor (AM-AR) involves a superficial similarity between analogues, while the analogical reasoning of relational metaphor (RM-AR) requires a structural similarity. Subjects were asked to judge whether one word pair was semantically analogous to another word pair. Results showed that the schema induction stage elicited a greater N400 component at the right anterior scalp for the AM-AR and RM-AR tasks, possibly attributable to semantic processing of metaphorical word pairs. The N400 was then followed by a widely distributed P300 and a late negative component (LNC1) at the left anterior scalp. The P300 was possibly related to the formation of a relational category, while the LNC1 was possibly related to the maintenance of a reasoning cue in working memory. The analogy mapping stage elicited broadly distributed N400 and LNC2, which might indicate the presence of semantic retrieval and analogical transfer. In the answer production stage, all conditions elicited the P2 component due to early stimulus encoding. The largest P2 amplitude was in the RM-AR task. The RM-AR elicited a larger LPC than did the AM-AR, even though the baseline correction was taken as a control for the differential P2 effect. The LPC effect might suggest that relational metaphors involved more integration processing than attributive metaphors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metaphor “life-formation” and its connection with other basic metaphors in the narrative by A.P. “My life”

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    Scharenskaya Natalya Markovna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the implementation of the conceptual metaphor of life - in the structure of the novel by A.P. Chekhov “My Life”. It is analyzed the relationship with a number of other complexes of metaphorical story (life - road for the flight, sleep, traced their deployment in object-verbal part of the story and semantic plexus in complex linguistic fabric of the text. This method of the study facilitates the comprehension of the aesthetic values of linguistic units text and its deeper meaning. The analysis proves that the building metaphor in the novel “My Life” gives rise to one of the most important ways of life of public order. It shows the deployment of man’s place in public buildings, describing his lifestyle and determining the spiritual condition as a deathly, devoid of life. In a sign of the horizontal and static position in space it is connected with the metaphor of life - sleep, oblivion. With the introduction of life in the form of road construction metaphor enters into a relationship of opposition: they are differently based on whether the movement and its absence, as well as natural and artificial, life in its ontology and its phenomenology, as the embodiment of the object of human activity. Metaphors flow and flight - to a certain extent overlapping images of a person’s life non-self-managed - together with the idea of life as building a complete picture of real-life human life. It does not change in its essence with all the fullness of its social movements of different kinds of thoughts and ideas that come to replace one another.

  5. The metaphors of collaboration, or the social construction of collaborative interactions between health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomelleri, Stefano; Lusardi, Roberto; Artioli, Giovanna

    2015-03-13

    This article illustrates the ways in which symbolic representations of reality, embodied in metaphors and language, can affect collaborative interactions in the current situation of social and economic change. We assume that corporate transformation and organizational configurations influence health professionals' representations in largely unconscious ways and, with these, their everyday practice. On the basis of empirical data collected through 13 focus groups in an Italian hospital, our intention is to show the extent to which joint working can be linked to three main metaphors each matching specific forms of social and professional interaction. The three metaphors of collaboration constitute different attempts to interpret social and organizational changes in proactive - encouraging social innovation - or defensive terms - as actions of cultural resistance. The three metaphors are: apparatus, family and team. In different ways, the first two represent forms of resistance to change and are widely present within organizations. The latter, on the other hand, consists of a proactive way to deal with ongoing social and organizational change. This metaphor testifies to the existence of a different approach to collaborative interactions, a perspective related to specific combinations of organizational and professional characteristics. This study indicates that organizational change and collaboration can be strengthened by metaphors that illustrate open, plural and highly heterogeneous professional settings.

  6. Analysis of 8th Grade Students' Viewpoints to the Concept of Democratic Citizen through Metaphors

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    Gizem Karabulut

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the view of the 8th grade students on the concept of democratic citizens through the metaphors. In the research towards the general objective, one of the qualitative research designs phenomenology was used. The participants of the survey are 160, 8th grade students in the Körfez district of Kocaeli province in the academic year of 2016-2017. Of the 8th grade students who participated in the survey, 85 are boys and 75 are girls. Data have been reached with semi-structured forms. The metaphors and explanations written by the students were used as the basic data source in this research. Data were analyzed through content analysis. The findings from the research show that 8th grade students perceive democratic citizenship in eight categories: freedom, justice, unity and solidarity, participation, equality, patriotism, diligence and responsibility. When the opinions of the students are analyzed, it is seen that the metaphors they produce concentrate on the categories of freedom and justice. In this context, with 13 students the most widely used metaphor is “fair citizen”. Besides the students produced metaphors mostly in the category of freedom. With “tree“ and “free bird” metaphors they emphasized dimension of freedom of democratic citizenship. Students have also mentioned the distinctive characteristics of democracy, such as decision-making, election, voting, and having a saying in the country's administration when they are explaining what they do with democratic citizen.

  7. The political use of the cancer metaphor: negative consequences for the public and the cancer community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Barry R; Meisenberg, Samuel W

    2015-06-01

    There has been an increase in the use of cancer as a political metaphor, most recently to describe the threat of international terrorism. The powerful cancer metaphor implies a particular political problem is serious, progressive and deadly. As such to use a cancer metaphor prepares the public for a set of serious, intense and prolonged actions. While politically useful for a governmental to communicate policy, there are negative consequences to the use of the cancer metaphor. It perpetuates among the public and patients old stereotypes of cancer prognosis and therapies that oncologists have tried to combat through education. These education efforts are designed to help patients avoid overly aggressive treatments, surveillance, monitoring and surgeries. It is hard to successfully educate the general public and patients when they continuously receive alternative messages from political leaders who use the cancer metaphor for a different purpose. Professional cancer educators and clinicians should be aware of this trend and redouble efforts to educate that the political metaphor is for politics only and misleading in the public health and clinical arenas.

  8. From Ends to Causes (and Back Again) by Metaphor: The Paradox of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Schellens, Tammy; Soetaert, Ronald; Van Keer, Hilde; Braeckman, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Natural selection is one of the most famous metaphors in the history of science. Charles Darwin used the metaphor and the underlying analogy to frame his ideas about evolution and its main driving mechanism into a full-fledged theory. Because the metaphor turned out to be such a powerful epistemic tool, Darwin naturally assumed that he could also employ it as an educational tool to inform his contemporaries about his findings. Moreover, by using the metaphor Darwin was able to bring his theory in accordance with both the dominant philosophy of science in his time and the respected tradition of natural theology. However, as he introduced his theory of evolution by natural selection in On the origin of species in 1859, the metaphor also turned out to have a serious downside. Because of its intentional overtones, his contemporaries systematically misunderstood his metaphor not as a natural mechanism causing evolution to occur but as an agent who works towards particular ends. The difference in success between natural selection as an epistemic tool and its failure as an educational tool is labelled as a paradox. We explain the paradox from a cognitive perspective and discuss the implications for teaching evolution.

  9. Differentiating among pragmatic uses of words through timed sensicality judgments: Metaphor, metonymy and approximation

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    Valentina eBambini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatic and cognitive accounts of figurative language posit a difference between metaphor and metonymy in terms of underlying conceptual operations. Recently, other pragmatic uses of words have been accounted for in the Relevance Theory framework, such as approximation, described in terms of conceptual adjustment that varies in degree and direction with respect to the case of metaphor. Despite the theoretical distinctions, there is very poor experimental evidence addressing the metaphor/metonymy distinction, and none concerning approximation. Here we used meticulously built materials to investigate the interpretation mechanisms of these three phenomena through timed sensicality judgments. Results revealed that interpreting metaphors and approximations differs from literal interpretation both in accuracy and reaction times, with higher difficulty and costs for metaphors than for approximations. This suggests similar albeit gradual interpretative costs, in line with the latest account of Relevance Theory. Metonymy, on the contrary, almost equates literal comprehension and calls for a theoretical distinction from metaphor. Overall, this work represents a first attempt to provide an empirical basis for a theory-sound and psychologically-grounded taxonomy of figurative and loose uses of language.

  10. St. Benedict Sees the Light: Asam's Solar Eclipses as Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Roberta J. M.; Pasachoff, Jay M.

    During the Baroque period, artists worked in a style - encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church and the Council of Trent - that revealed the divine in natural forms and made religious experiences more accessible. Cosmas Damian Asam, painter and architect, and his brother Egid (Aegid) Quirin Asam, sculptor and stuccatore, were the principal exponents of eighteenth-century, southern-German religious decoration and architecture in the grand manner, the Gesamtkunstwerk. Cosmas Damian's visionary and ecstatic art utilized light, both physical and illusionistic, together with images of meteorological and astronomical phenomena, such as solar and lunar eclipses. This paper focuses on his representations of eclipses and demonstrates how Asam was galvanized by their visual, as well as metaphorical power and that he studied a number of them. He subsequently applied his observations in a series of paintings for the Benedictine order that become increasingly astronomically accurate and spiritually profound. From the evidence presented, especially in three depictions of St. Benedict's vision, the artist harnessed his observations to visualize the literary description of the miraculous event in the Dialogues of St. Gregory the Great, traditionally a difficult scene to illustrate, even for Albrecht Dürer. Asam painted the trio at Einsiedeln, Switzerland (1724-27); Kladruby, the Czech Republic (1725-27), where he captured the solar corona and the "diamond-ring effect"; and Weltenburg, Germany (1735), where he also depicted the diamond-ring effect at a total solar eclipse. We conclude that his visualizations were informed by his personal observations of the solar eclipses on 12 May 1706, 22 May 1724, and 13 May 1733. Asam may have also known the eclipse maps of Edmond Halley and William Whiston that were issued in advance. Astronomers did not start studying eclipses scientifically until the nineteenth century, making Asam's depictions all the more fascinating. So powerful was the

  11. Metaphorical Models of Corruption in Russian and Bulgarian Media Discourse (Based on Media Publications in 2008-2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Barabash, Olga; Pencheva, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    The article reveals and systematizes ways of metaphorical comprehension of the phenomenon of corruption outside the legal discourse based on the publications of Russian and Bulgarian media in the period from 2008 to 2017. The method of comparative analysis determines the field of coincidence of metaphorical models of political interdiscourse, which demonstrate the similarity of conceptualization of political and social reality. The article defines metaphorical models that are dominant for eac...

  12. US Army is Family metaphorical model within the context of the military-political discourse (as exemplified in English

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    Romanov A.S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available this study is intended to unveil a correlation between metaphorical images of the US Armed Forces and ethnic stereotypes of the army subculture within the Anglophone military-political discourse. The US Army is Family metaphorical model serves as a foundation for analyzing ethnic stereotypes of mass perception of the socio-professional environment of service members. According to the authors, metaphorical modeling is perceived as a linguistic means of explication of ethnic stereotypes attributed to the US Army subculture.

  13. PENINGKATAN PEMAHAMAN KONSEP DAN KOMPETENSI STRATEGIS MATEMATIS SISWA SMP DENGAN PENDEKATAN METAPHORICAL THINKING

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    M. Afrilianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan dan menelaah peningkatan  pemahaman konsep dan kompetensi strategis matematis antara siswa yang memperoleh pembelajaran dengan pendekatan metaphorical thinking, dengan siswa yang memperoleh pembelajaran biasa. Jenis penelitian ini merupakan kuasi eksperimen. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 12 Bandung. Sampel dalam penelitian ini dipilih sebanyak 2 kelas dari kelas VIII. Kelas eksperimen memperoleh pembelajaran dengan pendekatan metaphorical thinking, dan kelas kontrol memperoleh pembelajaran biasa. Instrumen penelitian meliputi tes pemahaman konsep dan kompetensi strategis matematis, angket, pedoman observasi dan pedoman wawancara. Pengolahan data peningkatan pemahaman konsep dan kompetensi strategis matematis menggunakan uji-t dan uji Mann-Whitney. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 Terdapat perbedaan peningkatan pemahaman konsep dan kompetensi strategis matematis antara siswa yang memperoleh pembelajaran dengan pendekatan metaphorical thinking, dengan siswa yang memperoleh pembelajaran biasa; (2 Siswa menunjukkan sikap yang positif terhadap pembelajaran dengan pendekatan metaphorical thinking.   Kata Kunci: pendekatan metaphorical thinking, pemahaman konsep matematis, kompetensi strategis matematis.   This research aim to describe and to analyze the enhancement of mathematical conceptual understanding and strategic competence between students in metaphorical thinking approach and conventional learning. This kind of research is a quasi experiment. The populations of this research are all of the students of VIII grade in SMP Negeri 12 Bandung. The samples of this research are by choosing 2 classes of VIII grade. The experiment class obtains the metaphorical thinking approach, and the control class obtains the conventional learning. The research of data is obtained by giving a mathematical conceptual understanding and strategic competence test, questionnaire

  14. The Analysis Of Metaphor Used In Mitch Albom’s In Novel The Five People You Meet In Heaven

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Eva Purnama

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes about the analysis of metaphor used in Mitch Albom in the five people you meet in heaven’s novel. The problem that is found in the discussion of this topic is what kind of metaphor used in the novel. Metaphor is coming from Greece language methaperein, (meta : moving/berpindah or relating with changing, pherein : containing/mengandung atau loading/ memuat). Metaphor is a figure of speech comparing the position of two things being the same or coparable because both of the...

  15. Developmental Steps in Metaphorical Language Abilities: The Influence of Age, Gender, Cognitive Flexibility, Information Processing Speed, and Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Deckert, Matthias; Schmöger, Michaela; Schaunig-Busch, Ines; Formann, Anton K; Auff, Eduard

    2017-12-01

    Metaphor is a specific type of figurative language that is used in various important fields such as in the work with children in clinical or teaching contexts. The aim of the study was to investigate the developmental course, developmental steps, and possible cognitive predictors regarding metaphor processing in childhood and early adolescence. One hundred sixty-four typically developing children (7-year-olds, 9-year-olds) and early adolescents (11-year-olds) were tested for metaphor identification, comprehension, comprehension quality, and preference by the Metaphoric Triads Task as well as for analogical reasoning, information processing speed, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure. Metaphor identification and comprehension consecutively increased with age. Eleven-year-olds showed significantly higher metaphor comprehension quality and preference scores than seven- and nine-year-olds, whilst these younger age groups did not differ. Age, cognitive flexibility under time pressure, information processing speed, analogical reasoning, and cognitive flexibility without time pressure significantly predicted metaphor comprehension. Metaphorical language ability shows an ongoing development and seemingly changes qualitatively at the beginning of early adolescence. These results can possibly be explained by a greater synaptic reorganization in early adolescents. Furthermore, cognitive flexibility under time pressure and information processing speed possibly facilitate the ability to adapt metaphor processing strategies in a flexible, quick, and appropriate way.

  16. A translation approach to metaphor teaching in the LSP classroom: sample exercises from a Business English syllabus

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    Marisol Velasco Sacristán

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation can provide a valuable contribution to the teaching of metaphor in the LSP classroom. Although all languages make use of metaphor, neither conceptual metaphors nor their linguistic renderings will necessarily always be the same across languages (Deignan et al., 1997. Thus the extent to which metaphor presents a hurdle for second language learners of professional discourse depends on the extent to which there is overlap between the metaphorical systems of the L1 and the L2. Hence it follows that a better understanding of the similarities and differences in metaphor use between language pairs can help L2 learners of different professional discourses overcome problems of transferring metaphors from one language and culture to another. In this paper I propose a translation approach to metaphor teaching in the LSP classroom, illustrating its use in a Business English syllabus in which some learner-centred cognitive translation activities have been used. The results of using this approach in that application, although still in need of further empirical research, seem to suggest that translation can constitute a valuable pedagogical and communicative means to teach metaphorical concepts and expressions to L2 learners of professional discourses.

  17. INFECTIOUS DISEASES ARE SLEEPING MONSTERS: Conventional and culturally adapted new metaphors in a corpus of abstracts on immunology

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    Laura Hidalgo Downing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the role played by metaphor in a corpus of sixty abstracts on immunology from Scientific American. We focus on the distinction between conventional metaphors and culturally adapted new metaphors and discuss the role played by metaphor choice in the communicative purposes of the abstracts and their register features. We argue that one of the main strategies used to attract the reader‘s attention is the combination of highly conventionalized metaphors, which occur more frequently in the corpus, together with what we call “culturally adapted new metaphors”, which display different degrees of creativity and are less frequent in the corpus. Conventional metaphors typically reinforce the world view shared by the scientific community and introduce basic ideas on the subject of immunology. Culturally adapted new metaphors include a cline from slightly new perspectives of conventional models, to highly creative uses of metaphor. Culturally adapted new metaphors appeal primarily to a general readership and not to the scientific community, as they tap human emotions and mythic constructions. These play a crucial role in the abstracts, as they contribute to persuasive and didactic communicative functions in the text.

  18. Sensory and Physico-Psychological Metaphor Comprehension in Children with ASD: A Preliminary Study on the Outcomes of a Treatment

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    Sergio Melogno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research into difficulties in figurative language in children with ASD highlighted that it is possible to devise training interventions to overcome these difficulties by teaching specific strategies. This study describes how children with ASD can improve their capability to explain metaphors with a treatment. Two types of metaphors, in the “X is Y” form, were addressed: sensory and physico-psychological. To face the difficulties posed by these metaphors, the adult taught two strategies: inserting the connective “is like” between “X” and “Y”, which transforms the metaphor into a simile; comparing “X” and “Y” by means of thinking maps. Two tests of metaphor comprehension were used, one based on sensory and the other on physico-psychological metaphors. Sixteen 10 year-old children participated into the study, including an experimental group formed by 8 children with ASD (n = 4 which had received the treatment, and a control group (n = 4 which had not, and 8 typically-developing (TD children. At the post-test, the experimental group significantly outperformed the controls in explaining both types of metaphors, but only in the sensory metaphors did their performances reach TD children’s levels. These results illuminate how clinical treatment can positively influence the developmental trajectories of metaphor comprehension.

  19. World Wide Web Metaphors for Search Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    A software program that searches and browses mission data emulates a Web browser, containing standard meta - phors for Web browsing. By taking advantage of back-end URLs, users may save and share search states. Also, since a Web interface is familiar to users, training time is reduced. Familiar back and forward buttons move through a local search history. A refresh/reload button regenerates a query, and loads in any new data. URLs can be constructed to save search results. Adding context to the current search is also handled through a familiar Web metaphor. The query is constructed by clicking on hyperlinks that represent new components to the search query. The selection of a link appears to the user as a page change; the choice of links changes to represent the updated search and the results are filtered by the new criteria. Selecting a navigation link changes the current query and also the URL that is associated with it. The back button can be used to return to the previous search state. This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  20. Color sensitivity and mood disorders: biology or metaphor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Christina B; Taylor, Dianne; Correa, Elsa I

    2002-02-01

    A familiar but overlooked symptom in affective disorders is patient self-report of alterations in color sensitivity. Anecdotal and empirical evidence have suggested an association between mood and color sensitivity. The purpose of this pilot study was to test three hypotheses concerning the relationship between mood disorders and color sensitivity. Using a cross-sectional survey design consisting of a sample of 120 inpatients and outpatients, color sensitivity was assessed by the patient's response to a self-report depression scale item, "I notice that everything seems gray/cloudy/drab/lacking color". Color sensitivity significantly correlated with depression in the total sample (P=0.001). The other two hypotheses approached significance but were not supported. These findings suggest there is evidence that color sensitivity is impaired during depression. Further research using a larger, more homogeneous sample and longitudinal design whereby measures of mood and color sensitivity are correlated before, during, and after treatment in depressed and manic patients would be justified. A study using ophthalmological instrumentation to measure color sensitivity would provide objective, 'hard' evidence of the association between color sensitivity and depression. Whether color perception is metaphorically reported by patients to describe their mood or a biological phenomenon remains to be validated. Findings seem to lend support to the conclusion that abnormalities in brain function alter retinal function.

  1. Translation and the Metaphor of Relation: Confluences of Answerability

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    Mahmoud M. Gewaily

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the blurred lines of thoughts on the spirit of translation as a synthetic sign of interaction between the abundant science of cognition and the philosophy of the unfinalized dialogism of the Russian cultural theorist and social philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin (1895-1975. First, it shows the ineluctable view of cultural differences as a house to translation. Second, because humans are different, the article proceeds to reflect the interplay of some views on culture, language and thought, seeking to envisage the confluent relation of the dialogic trans-formation of the act/tact in translation at play. Third, the metaphor of relation is illustrated through the one postcolonial example in the particular setting of the Israel-Palestine political conflict in language. Together with such lines of confluence came a belief about the holistic architectonics of translation in the development of an attitude towards the ‘dialogic turn’ of ‘answerability’ in translation in the future.

  2. Visual Metaphors in Communication: Intertextual Semiosis and Déjà Vu in Print Advertising

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    Evripides Zantides

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor, as a concept in which a signified is applied to a signifier that is not literally applicable, does not only refer to speech or verbal language, but also to a wide use of practical applications in visual communication, particularly in advertising design and communication. The metaphorical rhetoric in advertisements is a common practice often used to attract the viewers’ attention, as well as enhance the persuasiveness of messages. From a cognitive perspective, semiosis in the process of visual metaphors in communication, is a complex subject with often a variety of subjective interpretations on behalf of the viewers. Intertextuality, as another form of metaphoric communication that depends on pre-existing texts (verbal or non-verbal, produces meanings that often deal with parody, sarcasm or irony. Additionally, they are also frequently characterised as anarchistic and provocative, because of the anti-advertising or anti-consumerism/social statements they make. The current study aims to present a literature review on how visual metaphors are defined in printa dvertising, and build on this to examine the notion of intertextuality as a form of déjà vu-metaphor that is popular in advertising and graphic communication. Semiotic analysis as a methodology is used on a purposive sample of print advertisements—including examples of logotypes as well—in order to categorize thematically the major typological references, in respect of intertextual advertising, as well as extract ideological conclusions. The results show that intertextuality in advertising draws its sources of meaning mainly from the Film industry, Art, Monuments and places, Literary texts and Graphic and Advertising itself, whilst, as far as logos is concerned, the source of meaning is purely linguistic. The study also shows that Intertextual visual metaphor semiosis has a variety of popular verbal or non-verbal references and depends on the socio-political context of the

  3. Tugboats and tennis games: Preservice conceptions of teaching and learning revealed through metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Bruce F.

    Black (1979) writes about the inextricable interrelationships among language, perception, knowledge, experience and metaphor. An extension of this, grounded in Wittgenstein's (1953) notion of the symbolic, experiential basis of first language, is the view that metaphors are windows into this primitive, personal framework. The purpose of this paper is to take an exploratory look at preservice teachers' metaphors of teaching and learning and to examine some components of student teachers' own intuitions in this area. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to one hundred and fifty-one science education students at the beginning of their preservice training on which they were challenged to generate a personal metaphor for teaching and learning. Descriptive elements within the responses were differentiated and applied to the development of a classification scheme. Both the technique and the categorization are seen as useful devices for the identification of common conceptions about the teaching and learning process. The metaphors have been seen to communicate a richness of meaning which convey elements of mood, control, roles, attitudes and beliefs as they apply to teaching and learning and which, it is argued here, are grounded on more deeply rooted symbols than literal language. In the light of constructivist pedagogy, the elicitation of students' preconceptions is seen to be germane to the organization of learning experiences.Received: 27 June 1993; Revised: 2 August 1994;

  4. CHEMICAL REACTIONS ASPETITE RENDEZVOUS: THE USE OF METAPHOR IN MATERIALS SCIENCE EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskoković, Vuk

    2014-04-01

    Every time we communicate our science, we are involuntarily involved in an educational activity, affecting the listeners' methodology and motivation. In a beautiful metaphor, late Nobel Laureate, Richard E. Smalley compared interacting atoms and molecules to boys and girls falling in love. Elaborated and exemplified with a couple of entertaining analogies in this discourse is the effectiveness of the use of metaphors in illustrating scientific concepts to both scientific novices and peers. Human brain has been considered to be a complex neural circuitry for the computation of metaphors, which explains the naturalness of their usage, especially when solid arguments could be given in support of the thesis that scientific imagery in general presents a collection of mathematically operable metaphors. On top of this, knowledge could be enriched through logic alone, but new concepts could be learned only through analogies. The greater pervasion of metaphors in scientific presentations could boost their inspirational potential, make the audience more attentive and receptive to their contents, and, finally, expand their educational prospect and enable their outreach to a far broader audience than it has been generally accomplished.

  5. Using metaphors to investigate cognition-behavior link in problematic Internet use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    This study employed metaphor analysis as a novel approach to explore college students' metaphorical representations of the Internet and their associations with problematic Internet use (PIU). It aimed to find out whether normal and problematic Internet users conceive the Internet through the same cognitive framework. The sample included 370 college students in Turkey. A questionnaire was conducted to gather metaphorical conceptions of the Internet, patterns of Internet usage, and PIU status. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Of the sample, 8.6% were diagnosed with PIU. Home access and entertainment gratification were strong correlates of PIU. Gender and major had no effects on PIU. Participants produced 66 metaphors that were grouped into eight conceptual categories: information source, immensity, basic need, addictive substance, double-edged sword, transporter, mood regulator, and supporter. PIU was the highest in the addictive substance category, followed by basic need and mood regulator categories, with cigarette, water, and friend being the dominant metaphors in these categories, respectively. Problematic users are less likely to conceptualize the Internet as a supportive entity. Normal users are able to verbalize the good and bad aspects of the Internet, but those negatively affected appear to have lost sight of the most useful function of the Internet. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers

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    Roberto Ramírez Heredia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., creampuff. We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003 and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015.

  7. Evangelicals’ Sanctification of Marriage through the Metaphor of Jesus as a Husband

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    Julie A. Zaloudek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have examined how perceiving marriage as “sacred” or believing God is manifest in marriage is associated with marital functioning and satisfaction, but little is known about how biblical family metaphors (e.g., God is father inform Christians’ interpretations of family relationships. Few studies explore the perspective of individuals who believe in, interpret and apply these metaphors to their relationships. This study uses Hermeneutic Theory to examine how Evangelicals apply the metaphor of Jesus as husband and the church as bride to their intimate relationships and spirituality. Qualitative interviews with 15 Evangelicals explored the meaning, interpretations, and processes of marital relationships in light of the Christ-groom God image. Participants indicated many ways the metaphor was useful: value partners more; invest more in the relationship; strive to demonstrate love, patience, etc. toward partners; and guidance in relationship structuring. They discussed how their couple relationships opened positive and negative possibilities for relating to God. Gender hierarchy and implication that husbands are the “head” or “Christ” figure in marriage caused incongruence for some participants as did the difficulty of comparing a person or human relationship to a spiritual metaphor. Application, implications, and ideas for future research are discussed.

  8. The Use of Conceptual Metaphor in Gola Gong’s Novel Bila Waktu Bicara

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    Faizal Risdianto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing conceptual metaphor in Gola Gong’s novel “Bila Waktu Bicara” in the perspective of George Lakoff’s theories of metaphor. This research is a (qualitative bibliographical research. The object of the study is the use of metaphor in Gola Gong’s novel “Bila Waktu Bicara” and there are 59 metaphorical expressions. Having analyzed the data, the researcher concludes that there are seven most outstanding conceptual mapping on that novel: time is an individual, the world is the hell or paradise, people is a stream of water, seeing is touching, eye ball is a container, body part is a landscape, ambulance is an individual. Among this seven conceptual mappings, the conceptual pattern of time is an individual is the most frequent use and  it shows that there has been an increase of creativity in the creation of socio-religious metaphor of Indonesian young novelist such as Gola Gong.

  9. Beat and metaphoric gestures are differentially associated with regional cerebellar and cortical volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; B Millman, Zachary; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-10-01

    Gestures represent an integral aspect of interpersonal communication, and they are closely linked with language and thought. Brain regions for language processing overlap with those for gesture processing. Two types of gesticulation, beat gestures and metaphoric gestures are particularly important for understanding the taxonomy of co-speech gestures. Here, we investigated gesture production during taped interviews with respect to regional brain volume. First, we were interested in whether beat gesture production is associated with similar regions as metaphoric gesture. Second, we investigated whether cortical regions associated with metaphoric gesture processing are linked to gesture production based on correlations with brain volumes. We found that beat gestures are uniquely related to regional volume in cerebellar regions previously implicated in discrete motor timing. We suggest that these gestures may be an artifact of the timing processes of the cerebellum that are important for the timing of vocalizations. Second, our findings indicate that brain volumes in regions of the left hemisphere previously implicated in metaphoric gesture processing are positively correlated with metaphoric gesture production. Together, this novel work extends our understanding of left hemisphere regions associated with gesture to indicate their importance in gesture production, and also suggests that beat gestures may be especially unique. This provides important insight into the taxonomy of co-speech gestures, and also further insight into the general role of the cerebellum in language. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Men Who Compliment a Woman's Appearance Using Metaphorical Language: Associations with Creativity, Masculinity, Intelligence and Attractiveness

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    Zhao Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Language may have evolved as a signal of mental fitness. However, it remains unclear what language form and topic men use to covertly signal mate quality. In this study 69 men created compliments to impress unfamiliar women they chose to either date or work with and provided hand scans to compute 2D4D ratio as a proxy for prenatal testosterone exposure and masculinity indicator. Compliments were coded in terms of form (literal vs. metaphorical and topic (women's appearance vs. non-appearance, with metaphorical ones being subsequently rated by 114 women for psycholinguistic features, indices of intelligence and willingness to have a romantic relationship with the author. Results showed that in a dating context, men produced more metaphorical form compliments targeting appearance compared to the working context and they were associated with men's art creativity and negatively with 2D4D ratio (i.e., positively with masculinity. Women preferred establishing a romantic relationship with a higher proportion of the men producing metaphorical compliments in a dating than a working context. Furthermore, in the dating but not the working context, women perceived men producing such compliments as being more intelligent, and importantly this correlated with the men's actual verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest that men may use metaphorical language compliments targeting women's appearance in a dating context to signal covertly their mate quality.

  11. Men Who Compliment a Woman's Appearance Using Metaphorical Language: Associations with Creativity, Masculinity, Intelligence and Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhao; Yang, Qi; Ma, Xiaole; Becker, Benjamin; Li, Keshuang; Zhou, Feng; Kendrick, Keith M

    2017-01-01

    Language may have evolved as a signal of mental fitness. However, it remains unclear what language form and topic men use to covertly signal mate quality. In this study 69 men created compliments to impress unfamiliar women they chose to either date or work with and provided hand scans to compute 2D4D ratio as a proxy for prenatal testosterone exposure and masculinity indicator. Compliments were coded in terms of form (literal vs. metaphorical) and topic (women's appearance vs. non-appearance), with metaphorical ones being subsequently rated by 114 women for psycholinguistic features, indices of intelligence and willingness to have a romantic relationship with the author. Results showed that in a dating context, men produced more metaphorical form compliments targeting appearance compared to the working context and they were associated with men's art creativity and negatively with 2D4D ratio (i.e., positively with masculinity). Women preferred establishing a romantic relationship with a higher proportion of the men producing metaphorical compliments in a dating than a working context. Furthermore, in the dating but not the working context, women perceived men producing such compliments as being more intelligent, and importantly this correlated with the men's actual verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest that men may use metaphorical language compliments targeting women's appearance in a dating context to signal covertly their mate quality.

  12. METAPHORS IN THE EX-GAM’S POLITICAL DISCOURSES DURING PRE-PUBLIC ELECTIONS IN ACEH

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    Jarjani Usman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Free Aceh Movement, locally called Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM, developed several unique political discourses after having signed a peace accord with the Government of Indonesia (GoI in Helsinki in 2005. The discourses created are metaphorical in Acehnese language, aimed to structure people’s mind and to be accepted and transformed into their actions that supported GAM during pre-public election post conflicts. However, research on analyzing the metaphors is scant. This research used Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980a, 1980b conceptual metaphor and Fairclough’s framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA to critically analyze the political discourses in order to unveil the meaning and their ideology position. The research shows the most commonly used metaphor was ELECTION IS A BATTLE. However, the currently used political metaphors are more persuasive, urging people to voluntarily come back to their political party, than previously used ones that seemed to strongly force people to be on their side.

  13. Musical Metaphors in the Poetry of Wallace Stevens

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    Victor Kennedy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wallace Stevens’s “The Man with the Blue Guitar” (1937 is widely recognized as one of the most important and influential poems of the 20th century. Inspired by Picasso’s painting The Old Guitarist, the poem in turn inspired Michael Tippett’s sonata for solo guitar, “The Blue Guitar” (Tippett 1983 and David Hockney’s The Blue Guitar: Etchings by David Hockney who was inspired by Wallace Stevens who was inspired by Pablo Picasso (Hockney and Stevens 1977. Central to “The Man with the Blue Guitar,” the metaphor of the musical instrument as a transformational symbol of the imagination is common in Stevens’s poems. The structure of “The Man with the Blue Guitar,” according to J. Hillis Miller, is the structure of stream-of-consciousness. Stevens’s poem creates what has been called “the deconstructed moment in modern poetry,” “an attempt to project a spatialized time that can be viewed from the privileged position of a timeless, static moment capable of encompassing a life at a glance” (Jackson 1982. This consciousness, which Derrida refers to as the “trace,” Stevens calls “the evasive movement of language.” The trace is the perception of the absence of meaning after the word or perception has passed, the glimpse of a hidden meaning that immediately vanishes. Stevens’s poem influenced not only other poets, artists and composers; references to and echoes of his ideas and techniques can be seen in popular music and culture well into the 21st century.

  14. Salt, time, and metaphor: examining norms in scientific culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Anna G.

    2017-06-01

    As has been widely discussed, the National Research Council's (NRC) current policy in United States education advocates supporting students toward acquiring skills to engage in scientific practices. NRC policy also suggests that supporting students in the practices of science may require different approaches than what is required for supporting student engagement with scientific content. Further, acquiring skills in scientific practices is not limited to gaining proficiency in utilizing tools that support scientific inquiry: students must also understand how to interpret information generated from such tools. These tools of scientific practices are embedded within scientific culture, which from Sewell's perspective, is comprised of both practice and semiotic code (symbols and meanings). To become scientifically literate students must learn to utilize this code in practice. Author Germà Garcia-Belmonte identified one example of learning to utilize the semiotic code in scientific practice and considers challenges faced by undergraduate physics and engineering students within that context. Garcia-Belmonte observes students struggle to interpret symbols and meaning (the visual display generated) while engaging in practice (utilizing an oscilloscope) and posits that two, culturally bound, competing, linguistic metaphors of time may be the cause. Ultimately, however, the author does not explore beyond hypotheses. Although his theory may be correct, the paper serves as a reminder of the responsibility we have to students. As educators, it is useful and beneficial to make observations and develop theories surrounding why our students struggle. However, in addition to theorizing on why, for example, a particular scientific norm might present challenges for our students, we must remain mindful that challenges may not be uniform and may vary considerably according to students' culture(s). Engaging with students and soliciting specific information regarding the challenges

  15. The semiology of metaphor and imagery in Ahmad Reza Ahmadi's Neshani

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    Fateme Casi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmadreza Ahmadi is an Iranian poet and writer of the 1340’s (Solar Calendar, the 1960’s. He started his activities in children’s literature along with poetry. He wrote his first children’s book in 1348 and he has been writing ever since. His works in children’s literature depict a different atmosphere. Reading Ahmadreza Ahmadi’s works foregrounds some signs in readers’ eyes. This article analyses the semiotics of the story “Address”. Semiotics is the study of anything that refers to something else; these signs can take the form of words, pictures, sounds, situations, and objects. In reading Ahmadi’s stories, specially this one, the markedness of imagination is very conspicuous. The studies done on Ahmadi’s work showed that the imagination in his works is a modern and fantastic one, and also because of the simultaneity of imagination, metaphor, and ambiguity, the reader, in the paradigmatic axis, is faced with metaphor in its modern sense, ambiguity, and openness of the text. This article studies the imagination and metaphor that Romantics and Symbolists refer to, and thereupon tries to decipher these signs based on Lakoff’s theories. To this point, first, a summary of the story “Address” is provided, and then I state the theoretical basis of the article. After a definition of semiotics and its features, I talked about the markedness of imagination in Ahmadi’s works, and after stating the difference between thought and imagination (imagination refers to complicated and difficult relationships like a living body, not to the mechanical and one-to-one relationships of things. In thought, a simple thing as likeness is created, and there is no trace of metaphor and sign as in Romanticism or Symbolism we concluded that imagination in his works is marked. In the discussion about the markedness of imagination in Ahmadi’s works, we considered imagination is his works to be fantastic. Fantastic imagination is the type of

  16. Making ads less complex, yet more creative and persuasive: The effects of conventional metaphors and irony in print advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.; Iepsma, M.A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Rhetorical tropes like metaphors and irony are widely used in print advertising. Current advertising literature assumes that these different tropes (metaphor, irony) are persuasive when they are sufficiently novel and complex to increase advertising elaboration. However, we propose that, in some

  17. Making ads less complex, yet more creative and persuasive: The effect of conventional metaphors and irony in print advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.; Iepsma, M.A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Rhetorical tropes like metaphors and irony are widely used in print advertising. Current advertising literature assumes that these different tropes (metaphor, irony) are persuasive when they are sufficiently novel and complex to increase advertising elaboration. However, we propose that, in some

  18. Translation Analysis of Body-Related Metaphors in the Holy Koran by: Yusuf Ali, Marmaduke Pickthal and Thomas Irving

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    seyyed ali keshvari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a Corpus-based research which analyzes the translation of Body-Related Metaphors in the Holy Koran by Yusuf Ali, Marmaduke Pickthal and Thomas Irving, within the framework of Peter Newmark’s procedures of metaphor translation. The data analyzed consists of a sample of 107 words and phrases which are categorized as: metaphors of ear, eye, face, and hand. Out of the seven procedures proposed by Newmark for translating metaphors, the translators applied five procedures. None of the translators applied Newmark’s fourth or sixth procedure and no new procedure was observed. The results reveal that among 107 metaphors examined, there is a general tendency (57.94% towards reproducing the same image in the TL, and the three translators translated 68 metaphors (63.55% using similar procedures. This study concludes that the likely and the most frequent metaphor translation procedures in the Holy Koran are: (1, to reproduce the same image in the TL, Newmark’s first procedure; and (2, to convert metaphor to sense (literal meaning, Newmark’s fifth procedure.

  19. An Analysis of Metaphors Used by High School Students to Describe Physics, Physics Lesson and Physics Teacher

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    Çetin, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe high school students' "physics", physics lesson" and "physics teacher" conceptions by using metaphors. 313 students participated in the study from different high school types in Siirt, Turkey. A metaphorical perception form constructed by researcher was individually conducted,…

  20. One Step Forward, Two Steps Back: An Examination of Certificated Teachers' Metaphorical Images of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Yilmaz; Radmard, Somayyeh

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the metaphors of schooling generated by prospective teachers (N = 157) in Turkey who were attending a teacher training program to be certificated for the teaching profession. The schooling (teacher, learner, school) metaphors of certificated teachers were collected by using concept prompts such as "A teacher is like ……