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Sample records for metaphor expression aids

  1. Poetic Metaphors Expressing Emotions in A Dream of Red Mansions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiang-hua

    2017-01-01

    Poetic metaphor is the main means, which is used by the poet to express emotions. In daily life, people will be affected by various factors, and will generatea variety of emotions. Because of the highly abstract nature of human emotions, people tend to use metaphor to vividly express these abstract emotions.In A Dream of Red Mansions, the author used a lot of familiar things and allusionsto construct poetic metaphors so as to achieve the purpose of expressing emotions,thus enhancing the expression of the novel.

  2. The authoritative metaphor and social change: Surgeon General C. Everett Koop's Direct Mailer, "Understanding AIDS".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robin E; King, Abigail Selzer

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop published "Understanding AIDS," the nation's first and only direct mailing sent to every private home in the country. His appeals therein were driven by what we label authoritative metaphors. Communicated by and/or attributed to persons of authority, authoritative metaphors capitalize on the symbolic force of sanctioned power by appealing to the ethos of office. In "Understanding AIDS," we find that Koop drew from his positions as a surgeon and a general, respectively, to equate AIDS with an unprecedented plague and an unprecedented war. He created new authoritative metaphors out of the vestiges of familiar metaphors related to disease and public health and thereby portrayed AIDS as a recognizable but decisively unique dilemma requiring distinct preventative behaviors.

  3. Metaphors Expressing Emotions in Lisa Kleypas’s Rainshadow Road Novel

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    Novi Liana Ko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors have been always interesting to explore since they are able to represent many things, one of which is feelings. Article examined the metaphorical sentences which expressed emotions found in Lisa Kleypas’s the Rainshadow Road. Library research was conducted to find the kinds of emotions which were expressed by the metaphorical sentences. It was also done to figure out what the metaphors refered to. Another objective was to reveal the most dominant emotion which appeared through the metaphors expressed in the novel. The analysis used metaphor theory to compare the dictionary meaning and the metaphorical one. The result shows that there are various emotions which are expressed through the metaphorical sentences. Happiness is found as the most dominant emotion which appears in the novel.

  4. A fire station in your body: Metaphors in educational texts on HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on metaphors used in South African HIV/AIDS education to explain the struggle of the immune system when it becomes infected with HIV. Three versions of an educational text on HIV/AIDS were presented to a total of 543 learners from secondary schools in the Western Cape. Each learner was given ...

  5. Beyond Language: Metaphor as an Expressive Resource in the Song of Songs

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    Eleuterio R. Ruiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is the old debate on which kind of interpretation is more appropriate for the Song of Songs, namely, literal or allegorical, and to what extent. Treating the poem as a literary work and letting it speak for itself, metaphor emerges as the main expressive resource referring to a multi-dimensional reality. The analysis of metaphor in the Song of Songs, based on selected samples, reveals highly developed metaphoric speech in the poem, with images accumulating and interacting in multiple, concurrent and mutually enriching levels of meaning. Behind this complex intertwining of metaphors there emerges the main referent for the book as a whole. Metaphor, then, appears as a particularly adequate means of articulating both anthropological and theological discourse.Key words: Song of Songs, Metaphor, Love.

  6. Using semantic feature norms to investigate how the visual and verbal modes afford metaphor construction and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolognesi, M.

    In this study, two modalities of expression (verbal and visual) are compared and contrasted, in relation to their ability and their limitations to construct and express metaphors. A representative set of visual metaphors and a representative set of linguistic metaphors are here compared, and the

  7. Metaphor and Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单玲玲

    2005-01-01

    Metaphor is an important teaching tool in our teaching history. In this essay, I try to explain how to play a lesson around metaphor, and how to use metaphor for students' memory aids or vocabulary learning.

  8. Internet metaphors

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    Francesc Núñez Mosteo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role of metaphors in an electronic communication arena based on the data collected in wide-ranging research, carried out by the GIRCOM research group, into sociability in a Universitat Oberta de Catalunya virtual forum.Initially, the analysis observed how metaphors for the "new" media were used as a resource by participants in the forum to structure an emergent experience and field of meaning. Indeed, the use of these metaphors in certain messages on the forum, and their use by participants interviewed, allowed for the confirmation of an old hypothesis: metaphors served (the students to be able to understand one thing in terms of another.Subsequently, the analysis, (taking into account that in the same way that a metaphor was able to aid understanding of a new concept in terms of another, it was also able to hide or ignore other possible conceptions, led us to suspect that the different metaphors chosen by the participants responded to the various interests in the social space generated in the virtual forum.The hypothesis proposed would require further research for its verification, but we believe the "elective affinity" between social position and the field of semantics configured by the metaphors that the social agents that occupy these positions use to talk about the emergent social space to be significant.

  9. Moving Is Like Making Out: Developing Female University Dancers' Ballet Technique and Expression through the Use of Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Cydney; Prettyman, Sandra Spickard

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the use of metaphor within a somatic context as a means to bridge the divide between technique and expression in two undergraduate advanced intermediate ballet classes. Data included surveys, classroom observations, student journal responses and student work, as well as surveys and journal responses, one year after…

  10. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.

  11. Evolution of the personal teaching models of prospective secondary school science teachers as expressed through metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Lucía; de la Montaña, Juan L.; Luengo, María Rosa; Bermejo, María Luisa

    2018-02-01

    This study analyses the evolution of the personal metaphors of 31 science graduates enrolled in a Master's degree course in Secondary Education Teaching during the 2012-13 academic year. The instrument used was an open questionnaire that included asking the participants to make drawings representing the roles of the teacher. Four categories of metaphor were considered: behaviourist/transmissive, cognitivist/constructivist, situative/socio-historical, and self-referential. It was found that most of the prospective teachers were indeed able to conceptualize their roles in the form of metaphors. Comparison of the results before and after the teaching practicum revealed no changes in most of the participants' metaphors and associated models. Instead, these appeared to be firmly set already at the beginning of the Master's course, and remained uninfluenced by either the course or the practicum. Only a minority of the participants showed changes in their metaphors—5 with progressive changes, and 5 with regressive changes.

  12. Poetic Expressions: Students of Color Express Resiliency through Metaphors and Similes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Horace R.

    2007-01-01

    The after-school City School Outreach youth program captured the attention of high school male students by offering them a physically and psychologically safe environment to talk about issues they faced. The students of color who attended the program used various forms of creative written expression (i.e., poetry, spoken word, and hip hop) to…

  13. Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

  14. The impact of conventional and novel metaphor in news on issue viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeynaems, A.; Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Metaphors are often used to frame news. Different types of metaphor (conventional, novel) can affect issue viewpoint via different underlying mechanisms (cognitive and affective text perception). We conducted a single-factor (type of expression: conventional metaphor, novel metaphor, nonmetaphorical

  15. The impact of conventional and novel metaphors in news on issue viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeynaems, A.; Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Metaphors are often used to frame news. Different types of metaphor (conventional, novel) can affect issue viewpoint via different underlying mechanisms (cognitive and affective text perception). We conducted a single-factor (type of expression: conventional metaphor, novel metaphor, nonmetaphorical

  16. 'You're my heart and liver'. A comparative analysis of the metaphorical expression of love in Catalan and Chinese in terms of cognitive semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica-Marta Moyano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to respond to a twofold question: how do the Chinese express their love? And the Catalans? Are there many differences in their views on this same feeling? To find out the author carries out comparative analysis of metaphoric expression in terms of cognitive theory of language.

  17. [The use of metaphors to express toothache: a study in the field of the anthropology of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Simone Dutra; Mattos, Flávio de Freitas; Melo, João Augusto do Carmo; Vasconcelos, Mara; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes de; Ferreira, Natália Enes

    2014-06-01

    This research was conducted with patients who sought emergency care at a Comprehensive Primary Care Clinic (CIAP IV) at the Dental School of Minas Gerais Federal University and at the Dental Center of a medium-sized city in the state of Minas Gerais. The scope of this article is to identify how the social representations of this issue are generated through the metaphors used by patients to express toothache. A total of 35 individuals of both genders who sought emergency care for toothache participated in the study. Content theme analysis was used. Social representations of toothache are generated as people resort to their life experiences to find words to express the problem. Prior sensations and feelings, and even imaginary situations, generate metaphors to attempt to explain the suffering. Toothache is often compared with the worst feelings ever experienced by individuals. Toothache represents great suffering for people seeking emergency dental care. This fact may help to develop further public oral health policies, bearing in mind that a socially deprived population is more often afflicted by toothache.

  18. Endangered Metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Idström, Anna; Falzett, Tiber FM

    2012-01-01

    When the last speaker of a language dies, s/he takes to oblivion the memories, associations and the rich imagery this language community has once lived by. The cultural heritage encoded in conventional linguistic metaphors, handed down through generations, will be lost forever. This volume consists of fifteen articles about metaphors in endangered languages, from Peru to Alaska, from India to Ghana.The empirical data demonstrate that the assumptions of contemporary cognitive linguistic theory about "universal" metaphors and the underlying cognitive processes are still far from plausible, since

  19. Myth as metaphor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-08

    Kundera ... Metaphor preserves the unity of meaning through ... elements constituting the metaphorical process and unlocking ... strong analogy, used for teaching] .... system. The system of conventional conceptual metaphor is.

  20. Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metaphorical expressions used in Swedish news media narratives to portray the shortage of nurses and their working conditions.

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    Blomberg, Helena; Stier, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to uncover and reveal how nurses as a profession and their working conditions are dramatized and portrayed in Swedish media narratives about the shortage of nurses. The media is an arena where stakeholders can air their views of the healthcare sector in general and the situation for nurses in particular. The focus in this study is the debate in Sweden on the shortage of nurses. Qualitative discursive study. A discourse analysis of media narratives about nurses and their working conditions published in several Swedish newspapers from 2009-2014. 1779 articles were included in the study. A selection (113 articles) of these articles was further analysed using a qualitative discursive psychological approach. Nurses are portrayed as being good, concerned about and critical of healthcare managers and politicians for not taking action. The accused actors justify their actions by partially accepting or displacing responsibility. The shortage of nurses is framed as a social problem - a threat to patients' safety. Seven different types of metaphorical expression frame the problem as inevitable, beyond control, abstract, an individual and collegial problem and nurses as replaceable. In addition, nurses and patients are dehumanized and no-one is held responsible. This study analyses the role of the media in emphasizing the seriousness or obscurity of the problem and possible solutions to it. Alternative narratives are needed to re-frame the nursing shortage and to find sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Metaphorically Speaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, it has been recognised that to a large extent male and female language is determined by discursive and contextual factors. This entails that men and women would adopt both similar and different discursive features, including metaphor, in various communities of practice, thus taking...

  3. The Life and Death of a Metaphor, or the Metaphysics of Metaphor

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    Josef Stern

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two issues: (1 what it is for a metaphor to be either alive or dead and (2 what a metaphor must be in order to be either alive or dead. Both issues, in turn, bear on the contemporary debate whether metaphor is a pragmatic or semantic phenomenon and on the dispute between Contextualists and Literalists. In the first part of the paper, I survey examples of what I take to be live metaphors and dead metaphors in order to establish that there is a phenomenon here to be explained. I then propose an explanation of metaphorical vitality (and by implication of metaphorical death in terms of the dependence of the interpretation of a metaphor on a family or network of expressions specific to its context of utterance. I then argue that only a Literalist account of metaphor — one that posits metaphorical expressions (a la Stern (2000—and not Contextualist and Gricean approaches can accommodate this explanation. Finally, I discuss some objections to my Literalist account and sketch an explanation of types to counter Platonistic objections to my metaphorical expression types.

  4. Metaphor in pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference.

  5. METAPHOR IN COGNITIVE APPROACH

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    Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues relevant to the cognitive theory of metaphor developed by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson. The researchers suggest that metaphors are common. They are rooted in the experience, important in the perception of the world, thinking, acting, as revealed in the language. The metaphor of language is a reflection of a conceptual metaphor. Lakoff and Johnson point out that the metaphor of language occurs in the texts of various types, from the colloquial language to the specialist language. A metaphor carries out two important functions: explaining and facilitating understanding. It enables a partial understanding of some kind of experience in terms of another type of beings and experiences. Some issues such as the concept of love, metaphysical issues, become possible to understand only through metaphor. Thus, the thesis, which treats about necessity of metaphor, is significant. In the process of metaphorical cognition, there is a projection, which takes the source domain to the target domain. A thesis about invariant is important here. Metaphorical mapping is partial. At the root metaphor is structural similarity between domains or their correlations in our experience. Conceptual metaphors can create complex structural relationships. In the case of metaphor the thesis of one-way metaphorical mappings is as important as the thesis about her creative potential. Prominent semantics of conceptual metaphor cannot give full meaning in the literal paraphrase. Among the conceptual metaphors structural metaphors, orientation and ontological metaphors are characterized.

  6. Conceptual metaphor and comprehension in business writing

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    Smit, Talita C.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research studies in cognitive linguistics (Gibbs, 1999; Kővecses, 2005; Lakoff, 1987; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980; Lakoff & Johnson, 1999 have demonstrated that metaphor is not merely a figure of speech. The findings of these studies have shown that metaphor influences a good deal of how people think as it comprises a specific mental, cross-domain mapping in the conceptual system (Balaban, 1999; Ibarretxe-Antuňanu, 1999; Lakoff, 2006; Lakoff & Johnson, 1980. This article looks at whether employing different conceptual metaphors in different versions of the same business report will have an effect on reader comprehension. A small-scale research study was conducted with a group of second-year university students, in which they were given one of two texts concerning the recovery of the economy. Both texts were adapted from a newspaper report and seeded with metaphors and metaphoric expressions. The multiple-choice questions that followed aimed to determine to what extent the readers’ comprehension and interpretation of the report were influenced by the different conceptual metaphors used. The findings indicate that language that served to introduce the sources or targets directly into the content did not necessarily have an effect on the processing of subsequent metaphors involving these concepts; however, it appeared that the surface patterns of metaphorical discourse did affect the inferences drawn about the different conceptual metaphors. It can thus be concluded that a specific metaphoric framework in written discourse does influence the interpretation of the content.

  7. Molecularisation and metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David

    2017-09-01

    This article explores the molecularisation of medicine thesis by investigating reports on genetics and molecular medicine in the New England Journal of Medicine. While there has indeed been a large increase in the number of references to molecules in the context of genetics over the last few decades these are mostly embedded in a framework of explanatory metaphors, namely (gene) expressivity, penetrance, regulation and pathways. As most of these metaphors are drawn from the social world it would appear that the molecularisation thesis - that social life is becoming dominated by the molecular - needs to be tempered by the ways in which understanding of that molecular world is itself a reflection of social life. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  8. HIV/AIDS and professional freedom of expression in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Masami

    2002-07-01

    A senior physician with a government role in Japan made a widely reported and misleading statement about Thailand's policy on HIV/AIDS patients. He claimed that in Thailand the policy is to spend public money on the prevention of HIV infection while allowing AIDS patients to die untreated. The author, a community nursing specialist in Japan with first-hand knowledge of HIV/AIDS policy in Thailand, thought that this statement would influence attitudes negatively in Japan. However, speaking out about this misrepresentation of the facts carried certain risks. Although freedom of expression is valued in Japan, in practice it is not easy to contradict senior medical professionals. The author uses his experience of this difficult professional situation to teach nurses how to approach speaking out in the public interest.

  9. METAPHOR OF COLORS IN INDONESIAN

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    I Dewa Putu Wijana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This brief article deals with the use of Indonesian words referring to colors for creating metaphorical expressions. All data presented are collected from various sources, such as Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian Standard Dictionary, and added with data obtained from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary, Indonesian proverb book, encyclopedia, terminology collection book, poetry anthology, song lyrics, and data of the author’s own creation as an Indonesian native speaker. Set aside from their literal meanings, the metaphorically used color words are collected and classified into two categories, i.e. achromatic and chromatic colors. Then, their universalities are determined by comparing them with English color metaphors. Finally the existence of specific Indonesian color metaphors are identified by correlating them with extra linguistic factors, such as environment, history, religion, politic and other socio cultural activities. A careful analysis on the data shows that there is nearly no significant difference in metaphorical uses of achromatic colors in English and Indonesian. However, despite universal nuances of chromatic color metaphors, some specific ones emerge due to various external factors, such as environment, education, history, politic, law, religion, literature, and other socio cultural facts that are specifically found and practiced in Indonesia.

  10. Metaphor, Paradigm, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    2017-01-01

    Metaphor is a critical tool for thought. Lying at the heart of every systematic body of knowledge are three root metaphors--mechanism, organism, and mind. Historically, schools of philosophy--realism, naturalism, and idealism--have grown up around these metaphors. The root metaphors and their corresponding philosophies provide the paradigms…

  11. Perspectives of Metaphor Research in Business Speech Communication

    OpenAIRE

    清水,利宏

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores metaphor research, especially that of business speeches. By reviewing the research background of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Blending Theory, the characteristics of business speeches--as the metaphor research target--are explained. The 'mental distance' concept between a source domain and a target domain is examined, and, with some illustrations, this paper explains that metaphorical expressions in business speeches should be analyzed not as a single and individual disc...

  12. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

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    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  13. The conceptual metaphor of Noor portent in Quran

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    Behjatosadat Hejazi

    2016-09-01

    This matter intellect more devisal especially about motashabehat signs. Quran metaphors aren’t relative to language, society and date and in addition to, are ultra-linguistic, ultra-date and ultra-humanity. Reception conceptual metaphor conceptuality “Allaho noor os-Samavate val-arz” with aid component metaphors that in Quran, cabalas and philosopher locution’s and Gnostics, account equipollent’s of noor, become more easy for audience.

  14. Manipulation Impact through Metaphors in Political Discourse

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    Руслан Ирикович Зарипов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the metaphorical modeling in a political discourse as one of linguistic manipulation impact means. Political speech exercising a motivation function use symbols in order to link concepts which are not often even adjoined. And it’s a metaphor that plays one of leading roles in this process. Communication needs stable metaphors. It’s very important to use this linguistic means in a political discourse as it’s able to form a positive stock phrase and a negative figure. The summation of metaphors in a definitive conceptual domaine of a political discourse form part of a metaphorical model that is an universal epistemological category expressing a general discourse semantics and organizing special mentality stereotypes for a message recipient. The article is designed for students and post-graduate students specialized in philology, lecturers and professors of linguistics and foreign languages, scientists and amateurs.

  15. Briefly Talk about Metaphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷亚星

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors associate two conceptual domains:the source domain and the target domain.This paper aims to explain concrete metaphorical sentences with the notion of source domain and target domain,to explain a few definitions of emotion terms by using metaphors and analyse whether they are helpful as descriptions of these emotions.

  16. A visual metaphor describing neural dynamics in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); L. de Haan (Lieuwe)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In many scientific disciplines the use of a metaphor as an heuristic aid is not uncommon. A well known example in somatic medicine is the 'defense army metaphor' used to characterize the immune system. In fact, probably a large part of the everyday work of doctors consists of

  17. Metaphoric Confinement of Information

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    Hetmański Marek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to determine how metaphors tackle the probable nature of information and uncertainty in the structure of the communication process. Since the cognitive theory of conceptual metaphors holds that metaphoric thinking and doing are unavoidable, they are employed often in explaining the communicating domains. The metaphorical conceptualizing is recognized in Shannon and Weaver’s Mathematical Theory of Communication where such abstract concepts as freedom of choice, choosing probabilities (possibilities, and uncertainty ware conceived in that way. It is described in accord with Reddy’s conduit metaphor and Ritchie’s toolmakers paradigm. In the paper the issue of both the advantages and disadvantages of metaphors is considered: mainly, how they can explain and predict ways in which people communicate their expectations or uncertainties as well as, more practically, how the probable/informational metaphors enable the management of knowledge in libraries or databases.

  18. Building metaphors and extending models of grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeCreek, L

    1985-01-01

    Persons in grief turn to metaphors as they seek to understand and express their experience. Metaphors illustrated in this article include "grief is a whirlwind," "grief is the Great Depression all over again" and "grief is gray, cloudy and rainy weather." Hospice personnel can enhance their bereavement efforts by identifying and cultivating the expression of personal metaphors from patients and families. Two metaphors have gained wide cultural acceptance and lie behind contemporary scientific explorations of grief. These are "grief is recovery from illness" (Bowlby and Parkes) and "death is the last stage of growth and grief is the adjustment reaction to this growth" (Kubler-Ross). These models have developed linear perspectives of grief but have neglected to study the fluctuating intensity of symptoms. Adopting Worden's four-part typology of grief, the author illustrates how the pie graph can be used to display this important aspect of the grief experience, thus enhancing these models.

  19. Nitric oxide synthase expression and apoptotic cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, V. A.; de Groot, C. J.; Lucassen, P. J.; Portegies, P.; Troost, D.; Tilders, F. J.; van Dam, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the occurrence and cellular localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), NOS activity and its association with cell death in brains of AIDS and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) patients. Post-mortem cerebral cortex tissue of eight AIDS patients, eight ADC patients and eight

  20. A taxonomy of visual metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dormann, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Metaphors are approached from the perspective of visual rhetoric. In this paper, the origin of the rhetorical figures is first briefly outlined. Then, rhetorical figures are described and illustrated in relation with web pages. The rhetorical perspective suggests manners in which to express...... the most efficient statement. A web design strategy grounded in rhetoric has been initiated which can guide further research in this domain....

  1. The Teacher Is a Facilitator: Reflecting on ESL Teacher Beliefs through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2016-01-01

    Metaphors offer a lens through which language teachers express their understanding of their work. Metaphor analysis can be a powerful reflective tool for expressing meanings that underpin ways of thinking about teaching and learning English as a second/foreign language. Through reflecting on their personal teaching metaphors, teachers become more…

  2. What about Metaphors in "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" Written by Ernest Hemingway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'imah

    2015-01-01

    It is discovered plenty of various interesting metaphors in the book of "The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Other Stories" which were written by Ernest Hemingway. By the metaphorical expressions, one can describe everything much more expressively, imaginatively, effectively, and poetically. Each of the metaphors has always a specific style and…

  3. Metaphor in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis Lapsekili

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A metaphor is a figüre of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or an action that it does not literally denote in order to imply a resemblence. Metaphor has been an essential feature of human communication from time immemorial: fairy tales, parables, provers are all examples of metaphor. Human beings regularly use metaphors to communicate with each other, so it is reasonable to expect this figüre of speech to have a place in the process of communication we call psychotherapy. As well as carefully planned and developed majör metaphoric stories to achieve specific therapeutic goals, anectodes, similes, analogies, parables and other brief metaphorical statements, relationship metaphors, tasks with metaphorical meanings, objects can be used with their metaphorican meaning in psychotherapy. Stories when properly constucted and told, are usually more interesting than straight expositions of the points one wishws to make. Of course it is possible to construct boring stories or to tell good stories in a boring way. But well thought out and well narrated stories, told in the right context ca inspire people to undertake tasks and think about things they would not have considered before. Stories, because they deal indirectly with issues and have meanings that are in varying degrees veiled, tend to be less threatening and confronting than direct statements. Listeners are free to take stories at their face value, if their implicit meaning is unacceptable to them at the time. And this result will not damage the existing therapist-client rapport. Suggesting solutions to problems, helping people to recognize themselves, increasing motivation, reframing and redefining problems, reminding subjects of their own resources are all the benefits of clinical uses of metaphors in psychotherapy. In this text, the description of metaphor and usage of metaphor in psychotherapy will be reviewed with samples. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 116-125

  4. Comprehension of metaphors in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossaheb, Nilufar; Aschauer, Harald N; Stoettner, Susanne; Schmoeger, Michaela; Pils, Nicole; Raab, Monika; Willinger, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    Metaphors, mainly proverbs and idiomatic expressions of ordinary life are commonly used as a model for concretism. Previous studies have shown impaired metaphor comprehension in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders compared to either psychiatric or non-psychiatric control subject. The aim of this study was to detect possible quantitative differences in figurative processing between patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and healthy controls. In order to analyse possible dissociations of different aspects of figurative speech, a range of metaphor tasks was used to distinguish between recognition of familiar metaphors, paraphrasing the meaning of the latter and generating novel metaphors: we used a standard proverb test for conventional metaphors consisting of a multiple-choice and a paraphrasing task, and the Metaphoric Triads Test for the assessment of novel metaphors. We included 40 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 43 healthy control subjects. Our results showed that patients had impaired figurative speech processing regarding novel and conventional metaphors. Associations with cognitive functions were detected. Performance on the paraphrasing task was associated with the severity of negative symptoms. We conclude that patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders do exhibit impairments in the recognition and paraphrasing of conventional and the generation of novel metaphors and that some cognitive domains as well the extent of negative symptoms might be associated with these deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metaphors of Open Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marien van den Boom

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we turn to the field of innovation management and the use of metaphors to address the question: what kind of alternative metaphors and narratives have some open-innovation organizations introduced highlighting and fostering knowledge-intensive organizational change? First we draw a

  6. Information system metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Metaphors are useful because they are efficient: they transfer a complex of meaning in a few words. Information systems are social constructs. Therefore, metaphors seem to be especially useful for explaining the space of possible meaning complexes or designs of information systems. Three information

  7. A mere metaphor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    , and whether the different framings were related to the specific discipline or genre or even stage of scientific development. Though the concept of metaphor is generally valued as a scientific heuristic resource, two distinct positions on the specific values of metaphor in science are represented...... in the material. The dominant position criticizes metaphor for its open-endedness and aims at either empirically sanitizing or discarding the metaphor. A less dominant and more social-constructive position embraces the open-endedness as a valuable and dynamic scientific driving force suitable for scientific...... communication as well as heuristics. In either case, the explicit reference to metaphor functions as a rhetorical strategy for promoting and positioning the author’s own research....

  8. Metaphor and knowledge the challenges of writing science

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing the power of metaphor in the rhetoric of science, this book examines the use of words to express complex scientific concepts. Metaphor and Knowledge offers a sweeping history of rhetoric and metaphor in science, delving into questions about how language constitutes knowledge. Weaving together insights from a group of scientists at the Santa Fe Institute as they shape the new interdisciplinary field of complexity science, Ken Baake shows the difficulty of writing science when word meanings are unsettled, and he analyzes the power of metaphor in science.

  9. Kill the song—steal the show: what does distinguish predicative metaphors from decomposable idioms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillies, Stéphanie; Declercq, Christelle

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the semantic processing difference between decomposable idioms and novel predicative metaphors. It was hypothesized that idiom comprehension results from the retrieval of a figurative meaning stored in memory, that metaphor comprehension requires a sense creation process and that this process difference affects the processing time of idiomatic and metaphoric expressions. In the first experiment, participants read sentences containing decomposable idioms, predicative metaphors or control expressions and performed a lexical decision task on figurative targets presented 0, 350, and 500 ms, or 750 after reading. Results demonstrated that idiomatic expressions were processed sooner than metaphoric ones. In the second experiment, participants were asked to assess the meaningfulness of idiomatic, metaphoric and literal expressions after reading a verb prime that belongs to the target phrase (identity priming). The results showed that verb identity priming was stronger for idiomatic expressions than for metaphor ones, indicating different mental representations.

  10. Film, Metaphor, and Qualia Salience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the difference between vision-cued metaphors and language-cued metaphors and discusses how brain processes might provide different affordances for making verbal metaphors and making visual metaphors. Visual communication possess complex and concrete salient information wherea...

  11. The value of deliberate metaphor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, W.G.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, metaphor has predominantly been studied as a matter of language and thought within the framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory. Recently, however, metaphor scholars have observed that this two-dimensional cognitive-linguistic view of metaphor does not (sufficiently)

  12. Creative Organizational Vision Building through Collaborative, Visual-Metaphorical Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Don

    1998-01-01

    Describes use of collaborative metaphorical discussions, mind mapping, and imaginative visual thinking by the faculty of the Rider University School of Education to produce an idealistic vision of the college's future. This vision is expressed as a fanciful metaphorical drawing surrounded by a mind map and accompanied by a story connecting symbols…

  13. Decoding the Metaphor of Internet Meme: A Study of Satirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined an emerging trend in Internet discourse as metaphorical constructs used by individuals for communication online. The Internet meme is an evolving trend used for satirical illustrations and expression of intents in multimodal ways. While previous studies have focused on verbal metaphors signaled by ...

  14. Metaphorical Perceptions of Teachers, Principals and Staff on School Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, Aysegül; Beytekin, Osman Ferda

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to know how the members of a school perceive their school management to investigate how they are related to their organizations. In this case, we can refer to metaphors, which are excellent tools for people to express their subconscious thoughts and perceptions about their organizations. On the other hand, metaphors help us to…

  15. The Role of L1 Conceptual and Linguistic Knowledge and Frequency in the Acquisition of L2 Metaphorical Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how figurative language is processed by learners of a second language (L2). With an experiment testing L2 comprehension of figurative expressions in three categories, each combining shared and unshared first language (L1) and L2 lexical representations and conceptual representations in a different way, the study…

  16. A Contrastive Analysis of Emotional Metaphors about Happiness be?tween English and Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-liang

    2017-01-01

    As one important aspect of human experience, human emotions are expressed metaphorically in language mainly based on human embodiment. In order to further understand the essence of emotional metaphors, this paper presents a contras-tive study of HAPPINESS emotion metaphors between English and Chinese, and try to find the similarities and differences be-tween them.

  17. The Metaphorical Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carger, Chris Liska

    1996-01-01

    The "patient" metaphor still thrives in teaching. Carl Rogers' concept of client, connoting a collaborative rather than directive relationship, may be more useful to conceptualize the relationship between teachers and students. (SK)

  18. Metaphor and economic thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2012-01-01

    the biological sciences of their time. If we track the evolution of “economic biology” over time, it turns out that most extensions and elaborations of the metaphor carry subtle but strong traces of their approximate historical provenance. More generally, a historical perspective enables one to see the metaphors...... underlying economic reasoning as flexible and dynamic processes, rather than as fixed and static systems....

  19. AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  20. Book as a Metaphoric Perception in Last Class of the Primary and Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bektaş

    2014-06-01

    electronic and extracting of documents,classification of metaphors and their reasons, the development of conceptual categories,reliability and validity studies and quantitative data analysis. Students developed 185 metaphors.Although there was not much difference between the number of participating studentsin the study, 4th grade students developed more metaphors than 8th grade students. When it was analysed the metaphors developed in regard to the book concepts, it was showed that 21 of 185 metaphors had the same expression. Similar metaphors were the most repeated metaphors. 185 metaphors were created from the eight conceptual categories; the book as a source of information (45, the book as an object (43, the book as description (26,the book as nature (20,the book as a person (18, the book as a place (14, the book as an action (13 and the book as acartoon hero (6.

  1. Inflation Metaphor in Contemporary American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Chen, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Inflation is often regarded as a dangerous phenomenon which poses a potential threat to economies in the world. It is thus an entity that demands the constant attention of economists, policymakers and the general public. In order to make this abstract entry more concrete and vivid, a number of metaphorical expressions are used to depict inflation.…

  2. In Search of New Metaphors: E-learning as Hypertext

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2015-01-01

    indicate that teaching and learning are seen as activities that take place when the teacher and the students are together. However, when the use of technology and access to a ubiquitous Internet become a part of everyday teaching and learning, new metaphors are needed if we are to speak adequately about...... with the teachers, and participation in e-learning design workshops. The findings showed that teaching in relation to e-learning was oftentimes understood through the metaphor of hypertext with hyperlinks leading to podcasts, videos, and other resources on the Internet, which the students accessed from home......People use metaphors in their daily communication to explain complicated matters and express meanings and understandings. Metaphors define our everyday realities and guide our thoughts and actions. Traditionally, specific metaphors have been related to teaching and learning: a teacher is often...

  3. Metaphor and Metalanguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Leezenberg

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of two sections: first, I return to the question of precisely which contextual factors are at work in metaphorical interpretation, and of the relation between asserted, presupposed and implied information; the upshot of this will be a renewed emphasis on metaphor as a discourse phenomenon. Second, I sketch a preliminary argument as to what a social practice account of metaphor might look like. Recent explorations of the contextual factors involved in the interpretation ofmetaphor make crucial use of David Kaplan’s Logic of Demonstratives, with its sophisticated treatment of context-dependence, and of the work on assertion developed by Stalnaker and others. All these approaches take contextual factors or parameters like that of speaker, time and place of utterance, etc., as given or primitive. Recent anthropological research, however, suggests that our practices constitute not only the contents of our utterances but also their contexts. Another recent development in linguistic anthropology is an increased attention to so-called language ideologies or metalinguistic beliefs, i.e., folk theories about the character and functioning of language. These insights suggest that metaphor is so thoroughly dependent on variable contextual and metalinguistic factors that it may well dissolve as a natural kind. At the very least, they suggest a shift away from the view of metaphor as a decontextualized sentence- or utterance-level phenomenon occurring in literate practices, which is still tacitly assumed in much literature on the topic.

  4. DNA AND ITS METAPHORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Domaradzki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to describe the main metaphors presented in genetic discourse: DNA as text, information, language, book, code, project/blueprint, map, computer, music, and cooking. It also analyses the social implication of these metaphors. The author of this article argues that metaphors are double-edged swords: while they brighten difficult and abstract genetic concepts, they also lead to the misunderstanding and misinterpretation of the reality. The reason for this is that most of these metaphors are of deterministic, reductionist, and fatalistic character. Consequently, they shift the attention from complexity of genetic processes. Moreover, as they appeal to emotions, ascetics, and morality they may involve exaggeration: while they bring hope, they also create an atmosphere of fear over the misuse of genetic knowledge. The author of this article states that the genetic metaphors do not simply reflect the social ideas on DNA, but also shape our understanding of genetics and imagination on the social application of genetic knowledge. Due to this reason, DNA should be understood not only as a biological code, but as a cultural as well.

  5. COGNITIVE METAPHOR IN MODERN LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina KARTASHOVA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the basic notions connected with cognitive metaphor which has lately undergone a thorough examination. The contribution made by linguists resulted in the rise of cognitive linguistics. This science regards metaphor not as a linguistic phenomenon but as a mental one that establishes connection between language and mind in the form of understanding new notions in terms of notions and categories known due to the previously gained experience. The interaction of new and previous experience can generate three main types of metaphors: structural metaphors which imply the structuring of target domain in terms of source domain, ontological metaphors which view abstract notions as concrete objects with clear outlines and orientational metaphors which represent the ways to fix the experience of spatial orientation. The classification of metaphors complemented with examples is presented below along with some controversial cases of determining the type of metaphor.

  6. Metaphor and the Communicative Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Line

    2014-01-01

    On the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of the first cognitive-semantic theory of metaphorMetaphors We Live By (1980) – this paper presents a communication-oriented perspective on the practice of metaphor analysis. Through discussion of contemporary metaphor theories, it identifies a number...... of unresolved issues. Among these are the notions of domains, mental spaces and binding, the unidirectionality hypothesis, the emergence problem, the significance of pragmatic context, and the philosophical status of representations. The theories discussed are conceptual metaphor theory, conceptual integration...... theory, the neural theory of language, the attribution model of metaphor, semiotic integration theory, and relevancetheoretic approaches to metaphor including the hybrid theory of metaphor. Comparing analyses and explanatory frameworks, the paper offers a theoretical and methodological critique...

  7. Talking violent. A phenomenological study of metaphors battering men use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisikovits, Z; Buchbinder, E

    1997-10-01

    This analysis examined the language and metaphors used by men who perpetrated domestic violence in an attempt to shed light on the impulsive and reflective aspects of violent acts as they appear in the context of batterers' experiences. The study is introduced with a brief review of the literature on "intimate violence" to show that it is recognized that batterers rarely define their behavior as violent and aberrant and that they suffer cognitive distortions and an inability to identify emotions accurately. Data were gathered through in-depth, semistructured interviews with 35 couples in Israel who reported at least one incidence of violence in the prior year. Content analysis of the interviews revealed that the men used 1) war metaphors to construct and express conflict and violence, 2) metaphors that presented the self as a dangerous space characterized by inner struggles, and 3) metaphors of de-escalation and balancing. The discussion notes that the metaphors of war were interconnected (war with the self and with the world) and allowed men to threaten violence as a means of self defense and, paradoxically, to attempt to gain self-control by losing control. For these men, the world was dichotomous and life was a constant struggle against real and imagined enemies. Survival depended upon suppression of feelings of weakness (symbolized by the feminine). Interventions should examine metaphors used by batterers and help men develop an alternative metaphoric structure that renders violence foreign and meaningless. This requires that clinicians first assess their own use of metaphors.

  8. Digital Literacy and Metaphorical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Girón García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is an acknowledged fact that the appearance of new genres in cyberspace has shifted the main focus of instruction strategies nowadays. Learners of any field are challenged by the acquisition of a new type of literacy, digital literacy –how to read and write, or how to interact, in and through the Internet. In this line, websites often show expressions like "home", "visit", "down-load", "link", etc. which are used in a new sense that did not exist before the digital era. Such expressions constitute the manifestation of mental models that have been transferred from traditional conceptual domains onto the new knowledge domain of the Internet. These conceptual metaphors are some of the cognitive models that help in the conceptualization of new cybergenres. This paper points at describing how these cognitive models build our notion of diverse cybergenres in English – e.g. the weblog, the social network, the cybertask. Our aim here consists in detecting these metaphorical models as well as describing and classifying their conceptual mappings between domains. With that purpose, some digital materials are analyzed, so as to test the hypothesis that such mappings and models guide the user's representation of the genre, as a coherent structure.

  9. Metaphorical descriptions of wrongdoers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryll Ewa Marta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available What is a metaphoric picture of an evil person made of? In a study devoted to the development of the ability to use metaphorical descriptions of humans, the semantic fields of four target metaphors - Human-Swamp, Human-Snake, Human-Knife, and Human-Nettle - were established and compared. Subjects (365 young adults were asked to decipher the metaphors’ meanings. The results were obtained mainly by qualitative analysis, with frequency analysis of clusters containing synonymous meanings. The results indicate that when creating imaginary characteristics of evil people, young adults seem to be more concerned about the possibility of suffering verbal harassment (most commonly: vulgarity, mockery, gossip, jeering than the threat of actual physical assault. The results may prove useful for developmental comparisons.

  10. The metaphor in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR to express inceptive aspect with extension of the action in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Franco de Paula

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present how a metaphor acts in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR, from Brazilian Portuguese, ranging from the full lexical verb to the grammatical, auxiliary verb in constructions like: "The kid danou(-se to cry", hereby referred to as V1DANAR + (pron + (prep + V2infinitive. We support that this new usage of DANAR, perceived as a marker of an inceptive aspect with an extension of action, is a consequence of a metaphorical cognitive process that involves imagetic schemes of motion and force, which already existed within the concrete form of DANAR, which justifies that this verb, although not the archetypal aspect marker, may have updated this grammatical category.

  11. Explaining algorithms using metaphors

    CERN Document Server

    Forišek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant difference between designing a new algorithm, proving its correctness, and teaching it to an audience. When teaching algorithms, the teacher's main goal should be to convey the underlying ideas and to help the students form correct mental models related to the algorithm. This process can often be facilitated by using suitable metaphors. This work provides a set of novel metaphors identified and developed as suitable tools for teaching many of the 'classic textbook' algorithms taught in undergraduate courses worldwide. Each chapter provides exercises and didactic notes fo

  12. Teaching about the U.S. Constitution through Metaphor: Government as a Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Randy K.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly reviews theories of brain hemisphere functions and draws implications for social studies instruction. Maintains that the metaphor aids the development of understanding because it connects right and left brain functions. Provides a learning activity based on the metaphor of the U.S. government functioning as a machine. (BSR)

  13. Metaphors are Embodied, and so are Their Literal Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Eduardo; de Vega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether understanding up/down metaphors as well as semantically homologous literal sentences activates embodied representations online. Participants read orientational literal sentences (e.g., she climbed up the hill), metaphors (e.g., she climbed up in the company), and abstract sentences with similar meaning to the metaphors (e.g., she succeeded in the company). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to perform a speeded upward or downward hand motion while they were reading the sentence verb. The hand motion either matched or mismatched the direction connoted by the sentence. The results showed a meaning-action effect for metaphors and literals, that is, faster hand motion responses in the matching conditions. Notably, the matching advantage was also found for homologous abstract sentences, indicating that some abstract ideas are conceptually organized in the vertical dimension, even when they are expressed by means of literal sentences. In Experiment 3, participants responded to an upward or downward visual motion associated with the sentence verb by pressing a single key. In this case, the facilitation effect for matching visual motion-sentence meaning faded, indicating that the visual motion component is less important than the action component in conceptual metaphors. Most up and down metaphors convey emotionally positive and negative information, respectively. We suggest that metaphorical meaning elicits upward/downward movements because they are grounded on the bodily expression of the corresponding emotions.

  14. Metaphors are embodied, and so are their literal counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eSantana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether understanding up/down metaphors as well as semantically homologous literal sentences activates embodied representations online. Participants read orientational literal sentences (e.g. she climbed up the hill, metaphors (e.g. she climbed up in the company, and abstract sentences with similar meaning to the metaphors (e.g. she succeeded in the company. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to perform a speeded upward or downward hand motion while they were reading the sentence verb. The hand motion either matched or mismatched the direction connoted by the sentence. The results showed a meaning-action effect for metaphors and literals, that is faster hand motion responses in the matching conditions. Notably, the matching advantage was also found for homologous abstract sentences, indicating that some abstract ideas are conceptually organized in the vertical dimension, even when they are expressed by means of literal sentences. In Experiment 3, participants responded to an upward or downward visual motion associated with the sentence verb by pressing a single key. In this case, the facilitation effect for matching visual motion-sentence meaning faded, indicating that the visual motion component is less important than the action component in conceptual metaphors. Most up and down metaphors convey emotionally positive and negative information, respectively. We suggest that metaphorical meaning elicits upward/downward movements because they are grounded on the bodily expression of the corresponding emotions.

  15. Metaphors in terminological collocations in English language and their equivalents in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orčić Lidija S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The framework of this paper is the theory of conceptual metaphor where metaphor is the transfer of a more concrete source domain into a more abstract target domain. Metaphor is a fundamental human ability to speak about abstract concepts using specific terms where the meaning of a term is transferred to another, thus achieving semantic extensions. Although it was thought that in terminology polysemantic expressions are not desirable, in recent decades this traditional view has been abandoned. Metaphor is used not only as a linguistic decoration in language, but as a means of argumentation. It may be noted that the metaphor, as a universal phenomenon, is also common in business English discourse. The subject of our interest is to investigate collocations made up of those nouns and adjectives, which, according to the Oxford Business English Dictionary for Learners of English, are most frequently used in this field. The main objective of this work is to identify and analyze the source and target domains in metaphors in English collocations that contain these nouns and adjectives, and detect mechanisms applied in translating into Serbian. We categorised metaphors in collocations into four groups. The first group consists of metaphors in which the source domain is expressed with the living beings: inanimate entities are described as if they were alive. In these examples, the personification is used to explain abstract concepts, forces and processes in order to present them in a more understandable way. The second group consists of metaphors in which animals are the source domain and their behavior and characteristics serve as a starting point. In business discourse people and institutions are described with such metaphors. In the third group we included the metaphors based on objects that users are familiar with in everyday life. The fourth group consists of metaphors in which the source domain are natural phenomena. When translating a metaphor we

  16. Through the prism of the metaphor: A reflection of the actuality of Kant's philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičovački Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the significance of Kant's transcendental philosophy by focusing on the central metaphors used in his works. The four metaphors singled out here are those of (a the Copernican turn, (b the land of truth and the ocean of illusion, (c the starry heavens and the moral law, and (d of perpetual peace. The author emphasizes the strong and the weak points of Kant's philosophy that these metaphors reveals, and argues that these central metaphors work together and point toward the two essential concerns of Kant's entire philosophical opus: (1 an active role of the creative subject in all forms of human experience, and (2 the boundaries of the subject's creativity. Further reflection should not only reveal some other metaphors and their role in Kant's philosophy, but also clarify how he himself understand the nature of metaphors: Are metaphors the expression of our creativity, or of the limitations of our creativity?.

  17. Gene expression profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelissen, Marion; Kuyl, Antoinette C van der; Burg, Remco van den; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Noesel, Carel JM van; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) is a proliferation of aberrant vascular structures lined by spindle cells, and is caused by a gammaherpes virus (HHV8/KSHV). Its course is aggravated by co-infection with HIV-1, where the timing of infection with HIV-1 and HHV8 is important for the clinical outcome. In order to better understand the pathogenesis of KS, we have analysed tissue from two AIDS-KS lesions, and from normal skin by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was then used to validate the results. The expression profile of AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS) reflects an active process in the skin. Transcripts of HHV8 were found to be very low, and HIV-1 mRNA was not detected by SAGE, although it could be found using RT-PCR. Comparing the expression profile of AIDS-KS tissue with publicly available SAGE libraries suggested that AIDS-KS mRNA levels are most similar to those in an artificially mixed library of endothelial cells and leukocytes, in line with the description of KS lesions as containing spindle cells with endothelial characteristics, and an inflammatory infiltrate. At least 64 transcripts were found to be significantly elevated, and 28 were statistically downregulated in AIDS-KS compared to normal skin. Five of the upregulated mRNAs, including Tie 1 and sialoadhesin/CD169, were confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR to be elevated in additional AIDS-KS biopsies. Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169, a known marker of activated macrophages, were shown to specifically label tumour macrophages. The expression profile of AIDS-KS showed 64 genes to be significantly upregulated, and 28 genes downregulated, compared with normal skin. One of the genes with increased expression was sialoadhesin (CD169). Antibodies to sialoadhesin/CD169 specifically labelled tumour-associated macrophages, suggesting that macrophages present in AIDS-KS lesions belong to a subset of human CD169+ macrophages

  18. Affect and Metaphor Sensing in Virtual Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our developments on metaphor and affect sensing for several metaphorical language phenomena including affects as external entities metaphor, food metaphor, animal metaphor, size metaphor, and anger metaphor. The metaphor and affect sensing component has been embedded in a conversational intelligent agent interacting with human users under loose scenarios. Evaluation for the detection of several metaphorical language phenomena and affect is provided. Our paper contributes to the journal themes on believable virtual characters in real-time narrative environment, narrative in digital games and storytelling and educational gaming with social software.

  19. Analysing English metaphors of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo-Enrico Cardini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The present article reports the findings of an investigation into the metaphorical expressions adopted by English-language magazines to describe the latest economic/financial crisis. The corpus used for the investigation was about 100,000 words large, with texts taken from The Economist and from The International Economy. All the articles selected from these two magazines were published between Fall 2008 and Winter 2012. The main aim of the inquiry was to offer a more detailed and comprehensive classification of economic-crisis-metaphors than those proposed in previous research. In this respect, a total number of forty different types of such metaphors was identified. Alongside the theoretical classification, a quantitative analysis of the data was also carried out in order to find out which kinds of metaphorical expression are used most frequently. Results suggest that the economic/financial crisis is predominantly conceptualized in terms of something negative about a human being, about an object, and about a motion. In particular, viewing a state of economic/financial crisis as a damaged or destroyed object appears to be the most widely adopted metaphor. Results also suggest that different economics magazines can vary significantly in the amount of metaphorical language used.Keywords: metaphor, economic crisis, semantics, pragmatics, journalistic styles.  Sommario – Questo articolo riporta i risultati di una ricerca sulle metafore adottate da riviste in lingua inglese per descrivere la recente crisi economica e finanziaria. Il corpus utilizzato per l’indagine è stato di circa 100.000 parole, con testi reperiti dal The Economist e dal The International Economy. Tutti gli articoli selezionati da queste due riviste sono stati pubblicati tra l’autunno 2008 e l’inverno 2012. Lo scopo principale dell’indagine è stato quello di fornire una classificazione delle metafore della crisi economica più dettagliata ed esauriente di

  20. Metaphor, Architectural Design, and Environmental Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Muller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Value-laden articulations of the task of the architect guide manners of working - the concerns, inspirations and procedures given priority. Architectural practices in turn determine the nature of the physical constructs that result. If architects are contributing to environmental degradation by designing buildings that are inefficient and unhealthy, and a pressing need exists to advance more life enhancing, sustaining practices, then perhaps environmentally concerned architects ought not only work towards the creation of better performing, more resourceful building assemblies, but also to engage in basic reflection as to how design problems are expressed and the environmental receptivity such expressions reveal. By tracing the lineage binding utterance to practice to making, we might come to recognize that even subtle shifts in articulation can alter outcomes dramatically. Through such newfound awareness, we are open and encouraged to reexamine the architect’s role, to new descriptions of architecture, and to the possibility of deeper attunement and constructive engagement with our world. In their recent edited anthology on sustainable architectures, Simon Guy and Steven Moore suggest “while we might support and even encourage critical engagement with abstract theory about environmentalism, we are not interested in simply playing language games.” Although word play should not be the sole focus of our efforts, in a profession so reliant on effective communication, we should not underestimate the facility of language as constitutive of meaning. This paper explores metaphors as one potentially transformative means by which designers come to understand and describe the works they undertake. It examines the role of metaphors as agents of innovation, capable of heightening awareness of attributes often overlooked or undervalued, yet perhaps of critical significance given the particularities of a design problem seeking explication. This paper

  1. Transforming impostors into heroes. Metaphors for innovative nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, K T

    1997-01-01

    Nurses negotiating professional transitions, whether they are entering an academic program or assuming a new role in the workplace, often feel like impostors. The metaphor of the hero can serve as an "antidote" to the impostor syndrome. The author describes an educational experience shaped around the impostor and hero metaphors that integrates feminist process with expressive methods to transform nurses' perceptions of themselves from impostors into heroes.

  2. Learning from metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegård, Iann

    2015-09-01

    Today an increasing number of countries around the world have acquired almost the same metaphorical speech about teaching and learning. These theories grown in the Western world are largely produced within the framework of psychology and individualistic oriented educational philosophy and fits with the ever-expanding financial growth paradigm. This article gives a brief reference to an exchange that in the early 1900's took place between two different ways to go in American educational philosophy. Then selects John Dewey's route choice, which took a step away from attempts to create a rationalistic ultimate definition of teaching and learning. Instead, a couple of different metaphors for education are demonstrated that can be used as a basis for pragmatically organizing teaching toward specific purposes and consequences in relation to different cultural traditions.

  3. Dead Metaphor in Selected Advertisements in Nigerian Dailies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead metaphors and images are often enlivened and empowered by advertisers to help their commUlzication and to achieve bewitching effects. It is interesting to see words and phrases that may be presumed to have been drained of their linguistic strength being brought back to currency and made to act fast in aiding ...

  4. Metaphors for cyber security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).

  5. The Comprehension of Familiar and Novel Metaphoric Meanings in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M.; Felsenheimer, Anne K.; Langohr, Karin; Klupp, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Miscomprehension of nonliteral (“figurative”) language like metaphors, proverbs, idioms, and ironic expressions by patients with schizophrenia is a phenomenon mentioned already in historical psychiatric descriptions. However, it was only recently that studies did differentiate between novel and conventional metaphors, a factor that is known to influence the difficulty of comprehension in healthy subjects. Further, familiarity with stimuli is an important factor for comprehension, which was not recommended in utmost previous studies. In this study, 23 patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects performed a newly-developed German metaphor comprehension test with three types of stimuli: novel metaphors, conventional German metaphors, and meaningless statements. During the test procedure, participants indicated familiarity with the stimulus and then matched the meaning with one out of four given alternatives. Familiarity rankings did not significantly differ between patients and control subjects. However, on descriptive level, there was a tendency for healthy controls to be more familiar with conventional metaphors than schizophrenic patients. Further, comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors differed significantly between the groups, with higher performance in healthy controls. Considering only those metaphors that had been ranked as familiar, patients only revealed significant lower performance opposed to controls regarding novel metaphors, while they did not differ in conventional metaphors. Taken together, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia might show an altered way of comprehension in novel metaphors, leading to more misunderstandings. However, their previously reported impairments in conventional metaphors might rather be due to a lack of familiarity with the stimuli—making conventional metaphors to novel metaphors in the individual case. PMID:29354082

  6. The Comprehension of Familiar and Novel Metaphoric Meanings in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Rapp

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Miscomprehension of nonliteral (“figurative” language like metaphors, proverbs, idioms, and ironic expressions by patients with schizophrenia is a phenomenon mentioned already in historical psychiatric descriptions. However, it was only recently that studies did differentiate between novel and conventional metaphors, a factor that is known to influence the difficulty of comprehension in healthy subjects. Further, familiarity with stimuli is an important factor for comprehension, which was not recommended in utmost previous studies. In this study, 23 patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects performed a newly-developed German metaphor comprehension test with three types of stimuli: novel metaphors, conventional German metaphors, and meaningless statements. During the test procedure, participants indicated familiarity with the stimulus and then matched the meaning with one out of four given alternatives. Familiarity rankings did not significantly differ between patients and control subjects. However, on descriptive level, there was a tendency for healthy controls to be more familiar with conventional metaphors than schizophrenic patients. Further, comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors differed significantly between the groups, with higher performance in healthy controls. Considering only those metaphors that had been ranked as familiar, patients only revealed significant lower performance opposed to controls regarding novel metaphors, while they did not differ in conventional metaphors. Taken together, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia might show an altered way of comprehension in novel metaphors, leading to more misunderstandings. However, their previously reported impairments in conventional metaphors might rather be due to a lack of familiarity with the stimuli—making conventional metaphors to novel metaphors in the individual case.

  7. MUSIC THE LOADED WEAPON: WAR METAPHORS & ETHNICITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paula fiona mwikali

    the fight against ethnic animosity can only be won if the 'mouth pieces' used to ... Key words: Conceptual metaphor theory, metaphor, popular song ..... In the study of Social Construction of Terrorism: Media, Metaphor and Policy Implication.

  8. New and Old User Interface Metaphors in Music Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical framework for interaction with sound in music mixing. Using cognitive linguistic theory and studies exploring the spatiality of recorded music, it is argued that the logic of music mixing builds on three master metaphors—the signal flow metaphor, the sound stage...... metaphor and the container metaphor. I show how the metaphorical basis for interacting with sound in music mixing has changed with the development of recording technology, new aesthetic ideals and changing terminology. These changes are studied as expressions of underlying thought patterns that govern how...... music producers and engineers make sense of their actions. In conclusion, this leads to suggestions for a theoretical framework through which more intuitive music mixing interfaces may be developed in the future....

  9. Computer Understanding of Conventional Metaphoric Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, James H

    1990-01-01

    .... This approach asserts that the interpretation of conventional metaphoric language should proceed through the direct application of specific knowledge about the metaphors in the language. MIDAS...

  10. THE HEALING POWER OF METAPHOR 2, METAPHOR REVISITED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spatial orientation. For example, when we feel healthy, we are. 1(a) in tip top condition, ... demolishing cancer cells. This metaphor is also extended to the treatment^. q j disease ... We talk about medicine in this way, because we conceive of medicine in ... inconsistent with that metaphor (Lakoff and Johnson 1980:10/156).

  11. Metaphors we think with: the role of metaphor in reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available The way we talk about complex and abstract ideas is suffused with metaphor. In five experiments, we explore how these metaphors influence the way that we reason about complex issues and forage for further information about them. We find that even the subtlest instantiation of a metaphor (via a single word can have a powerful influence over how people attempt to solve social problems like crime and how they gather information to make "well-informed" decisions. Interestingly, we find that the influence of the metaphorical framing effect is covert: people do not recognize metaphors as influential in their decisions; instead they point to more "substantive" (often numerical information as the motivation for their problem-solving decision. Metaphors in language appear to instantiate frame-consistent knowledge structures and invite structurally consistent inferences. Far from being mere rhetorical flourishes, metaphors have profound influences on how we conceptualize and act with respect to important societal issues. We find that exposure to even a single metaphor can induce substantial differences in opinion about how to solve social problems: differences that are larger, for example, than pre-existing differences in opinion between Democrats and Republicans.

  12. The metaphors of virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors.......The analysis of recollections of experiencing two types of virtual worlds where the recollections were in the form of metaphors....

  13. The Metaphorical Language of Branding Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Hocenski Dreiseidl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the language of branding philosophy used in the famous book «Lovemarks – The Future Beyond Brands» written by the international branding guru Kevin Roberts, CEO Worldwide of Ideas Company Saatchi & Saatchi. His new branding approach shows how by using the universal, fundamental, timeless emotion LOVE expressed in universally (anywhere and timelessly (anytime comprehensible metaphors a new idea of a «lovemark» embodies mystery (great stories, past, present and future, taps into dreams, myths and icons, inspiration, sensuality (sound, sight, smell, touch, taste, and intimacy (commitment, empathy, passion. Lovemark that, according to Roberts, «…reaches one's heart, as well as one's mind, and creates emotional connection to the consumer…» has been created and accepted in the business culture worldwide. In view of this, the paper points out the significance of metaphorical way of expressing in the language of branding as well as the irreplaceable role of language as the main factor in branding philosophy. The language analysis focuses on the metaphors of love influencing the shift of language of branding from material (brand to intangible (lovemark. It also highlights the fact that new ideas as incentives to language enrichment generate new lexemes like trustmark and lovemark.

  14. The Nursing students’ metaphors about education of anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çolak Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Metaphor” word is described as a figurative expression in Turkish. A person transmits more explicitly his/her thoughts that are about an event or a concept he/she experienced. The aim of this study was to reveal emotions and thoughts of 1st class students in nursing about Anatomy lesson. 62 people who are students at 1st class in Vocational School of Health Services in 2014-2015 academic year have attended to our study. In questionnaire anthropometric and demographic traits of them were asked. They were wanted to create a metaphor about anatomy by filling in the blanks in “Anatomy resembles …../ Anatomy is like …. ; because …..” At the end of the assesment it has been detected that 44 metaphors have been produced. In these metaphors the most produced are ocean, puzzle, etc. When we divide these metaphors into categories and investigate them, there is an accumulation in discovering/revealing category with 24 metaphors. We believe that the metaphors which the students will generate, determining how to be lectured theoretical and practical anatomy lessons in a way that students are able to comprehend, will guide them.

  15. Getting the Hang of American Slang: Studies on Understanding and Remembering Slang Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Nagaoka, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Reports the results of three experiments investigating comprehension and memory for slang metaphors. The experiments examine the thesis that the special pragmatic properties of slang should make these metaphorical expressions easy to understand and remember, especially since speakers frequently share information about the conventional meaning of…

  16. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  17. CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN BASKETBALL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Toleikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents part of the research performed within the scope of the national project “Conceptual Metaphors in Public Discourse,”1 financed by the Research Council of Lithuania. The aim of the present paper is to analyze conceptual metaphors in the discourse of the European Basketball Championship which took place in Kaunas, Lithuania in 2011, as well as to determine the source concepts. The analysis allows certain features of the images which are used while conceptualizing the entities related to basketball to be described. The metaphorical collocations drawn from the Lithuanian language corpora and web portals (www.delfi.lt and www.lrytas.lt were selected and analyzed from 31 August 2011 to 18 September 2011. A conceptual metaphor is defined as an interaction of two conceptual fields (source and target concepts. On the basis of the analyzed conceptual sayings, the reconstructed conceptual metaphors proved that the most prolific metaphors are of war, ontology, and scale. In basketball discourse, the war metaphor is characterized by the fact that the image of sport is war is supplemented by other source concepts (e.g.,a person, a building, a thing, a material, a scale. The features of two or sometimes even three source concepts are ascribed to the target concept.

  18. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    . But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses...... the introduction of the metaphor to it was established as an entire network of interrelated conventional metaphors. Not only do the strategies in communicating the metaphor change as the metaphor becomes more established within the discourse, but the genres in which the metaphor is developed and interpreted...

  19. The power of strategy metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang; Holmgren, Jens

    2016-01-01

    and post-structuralism. The paper reports on an action research study of a strategy workshop with the strategic team of a Human Resource Management Department in a Danish Municipality. It identifies two structural dimensions and four generic spatial metaphors were identified. Thus, the paper shows......This paper explores the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making. I seek to unfold a conception of the power of spatial metaphors in strategy making that stresses their creative and critical capacity as well as their constraints on strategic thinking. In order to identify the power of spatial...

  20. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  1. Simulated metaphors of love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

    2014-01-01

    of The Marriage is a simulation of our largely metaphorically (and metonymically) structured concept of love on the levels of abstract semiotics and equally abstract mechanics and dynamics. Before I can discuss this thesis I will present some ways in which The Marriage has been discussed in Game Studies......Recently several games about love relationships have been published, such as The Marriage (Humble 2006, see figure 1), Love (Contrebasse 2010, see figure 2) and My Divorce (Douville 2010). At first play they do not really reveal what they are about, as they are semiotically abstract, i...... and the behaviors it implements” (Bogost 2011, 14). The focus of this chapter is the representation of love in the graphically abstract game The Marriage. As an abstract game about love it does not, for instance, depict any anthropomorphic avatars like the ones found in The Sims 3 (The Sims Studio 2009...

  2. Darwin as Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ballou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to Steven Shapin’s query in the 'London Review of Books', 'Why such homage?', 'I look at Darwin as a metaphor for creativity, and how Darwin, as evidenced in his own metaphysical notebooks, imagined and performed acts of creation in his pursuit of science. Many of Darwin’s ideas were first conceptualised imaginatively, instinctively almost. In this way, he created concepts, rather than simply discovering them. I include a brief discussion of my experience of rendering Darwin and his life into a portrait in 75 poems and also a discussion of the bio-pic Creation'. As species change over time, but are still related, so a portrait of Darwin is a descendent of the historical man and his words, but is no longer the historical man. 

  3. Theological Metaphors in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Examples of possible theological influences upon the development of mathematics are indicated. The best known connection can be found in the realm of infinite sets treated by us as known or graspable, which constitutes a divine-like approach. Also the move to treat infinite processes as if they were one finished object that can be identified with its limits is routine in mathematicians, but refers to seemingly super-human power. For centuries this was seen as wrong and even today some philosophers, for example Brian Rotman, talk critically about “theological mathematics”. Theological metaphors, like “God’s view”, are used even by contemporary mathematicians. While rarely appearing in official texts they are rather easily invoked in “the kitchen of mathematics”. There exist theories developing without the assumption of actual infinity the tools of classical mathematics needed for applications (For instance, Mycielski’s approach. Conclusion: mathematics could have developed in another way. Finally, several specific examples of historical situations are mentioned where, according to some authors, direct theological input into mathematics appeared: the possibility of the ritual genesis of arithmetic and geometry, the importance of the Indian religious background for the emergence of zero, the genesis of the theories of Cantor and Brouwer, the role of Name-worshipping for the research of the Moscow school of topology. Neither these examples nor the previous illustrations of theological metaphors provide a certain proof that religion or theology was directly influencing the development of mathematical ideas. They do suggest, however, common points and connections that merit further exploration.

  4. American Offensive Funny Riddles: A Critical Metaphor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sahib Jabir Mubarak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradox in the offensive humor lies in the assumption that what evokes laughter can be harmful for someone. Linguistically, the offense can be expressed directly and indirectly, additionally, humor, including riddles is one of the most effective ways to show offense or aggression toward someone. Humor, on the other hand, is mostly expressed indirectly. Metaphoric forms are said to be one of the most appealing strategies of humor language. The present study aims at applying a critical metaphor analysis of some randomly selected American offensive humorous riddles related to various aspects of offense like race and nation. In this approach to critical discourse analysis, the cognitive aspect is added for the sake of analyzing figurative forms like metaphor which is considered as an important part of ideology. Thus, critical metaphor analysis covers both social and cognitive aspects. It is concluded that offensive jokes (namely funny riddles can be used as a tool to measure the aggressiveness towards certain social aspects like race; on the other hand, metaphors afford indications of facets of power, inequality and people ideologies in American society.

  5. How Linguistic Metaphor Scaffolds Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Paul H; Hendricks, Rose K; Boroditsky, Lera

    2017-11-01

    Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior. Then we explore the conditions under which metaphors are most influential. Throughout, we highlight theoretical and practical implications, as well as key challenges and opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New metaphors about leader women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work pretends to show the actual situation of women in relation to the possibility to gain leadership positions, as well as to explain the metaphors used to represent this situation. The metaphors analyzed are: the concrete wall, glass ceiling and labyrinth (Eagly & Carli, 2007. Also, this work tries to show the transformations which occurs in social groups, social roles and organizations, which favors women to gain the high level positions in those organizations.

  7. The teacher is a facilitator: Reflecting on ESL teacher beliefs through metaphor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors offer a lens through which language teachers express their understanding of their work. Metaphor analysis can be a powerful reflective tool for expressing meanings that underpin ways of thinking about teaching and learning English as a second/foreign language. Through reflecting on their personal teaching metaphors, teachers become more aware of the beliefs that underpin their work. This paper reports the reflections on the prior beliefs of three experienced ESL teachers in Canada through the use of metaphor analysis. The paper attempts to explore the prior beliefs of the three experienced ESL teachers in Canada through metaphor analysis by using the Oxford et al. (1998 framework as a theoretical lens in which to gain understanding of the use and meaning of these metaphors. Results indicated that all three teachers used a total of 94 metaphors throughout the period of the group discussions and interviews, and that the metaphors used most were those related to learner-centered growth, followed by social order, then social reform.

  8. The use of tenses and moods, translation of fixed expressions, idioms, metaphorical phrasal constructs and changes in the Polish version of 'I dodici abati di Challant'. How to overcome the limitations of a linguistic system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Salmeri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of a novel written in Italian by Laura Mancinelli, 'The Twelve Abbots of Challant', and its translation into Polish prepared by Maciej Brzozowski. Focusing on a few examples, such as the use of grammatical tenses and moods, differences in the syntax, and the problems of translating idiomatic and metaphoric expressions, the paper aims to compare the author’s style with that of the translator. The task undertaken by the translator seems very hard indeed from the very beginning due to considerable differences between the Italian and Polish languages in the use of tenses and moods. While the Italian grammar uses four moods, eight simple and seven compound tenses, the frugal Polish grammar makes with just three modes, one compound and three simple tenses. The discussion will clearly illustrate that thanks to some modifications it was possible to translate and preserve the meaning and the spirit of the Italian grammar and style.

  9. Local Imagery, Proverbs and Metaphors in Chinua Achebe's Anthills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many African cultures, a feeling for language, for imagery and for the expression of abstract ideas through compressed and allusive phraseology, comes out particularly clearly in proverbs. The figurative quality of proverbs, local imagery, simile and metaphors are striking. This paper examines some snatches of Chinua ...

  10. IRONIC METAPHORS IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А А Горностаева

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at revealing the current trends in the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, British and American political discourse. Given the diversity of political genres, which makes it difficult to classify them, the article draws on the division into primary, secondary and folklore genres (Bazylev 2005, Sheigal 2000. The study focuses on secondary and folklore genres, as, being informal, they presuppose the use of irony. The data was taken from the speeches of Russian, American and British political leaders (V. Putin, S. Lavrov, D. Trump, B. Obama, N. Farage, B. Johnson and others. Drawing on the works on po-litical discourse (Beard 2001, Budaev 2010, Charteris-Black 2005, Chudinov 2001, Lakoff 2003, Ponton 2016, Van Dijk 2009 and developing a discursive approach to the study of irony which is often conveyed through metaphor (Shilikhina 2008, Alba-Juez 2014, Attardo 2007, Giora 2003, Hutcheon 2005, we have identified the conceptual spheres that are the most active sources of modern metaphors. We have traced the link between the new political trends and new metaphors, as well as existing metaphors which acquire a new ironic meaning. The results of the conducted analysis show the frequency of ironic metaphors, includ-ing aggressive ones, and the diversity of their functions in modern political discourse. The comparative analysis made it possible to reveal some peculiarities of the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, English and American political discourse, which are presupposed by the speakers’ individual characteristics as well as culture specific discursive features.

  11. Expression and Function of the Chemokine, CXCL13, and Its Receptor, CXCR5, in Aids-Associated Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Widney

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The homeostatic chemokine, CXCL13 (BLC, BCA-1, helps direct the recirculation of mature, resting B cells, which express its receptor, CXCR5. CXCL13/CXCR5 are expressed, and may play a role, in some non-AIDS-associated B cell tumors. Objective. To determine if CXCL13/CXCR5 are associated with AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL. Methods. Serum CXCL13 levels were measured by ELISA in 46 subjects who developed AIDS-NHL in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and in controls. The expression or function of CXCL13 and CXCR5 was examined on primary AIDS-NHL specimens or AIDS-NHL cell lines. Results. Serum CXCL13 levels were significantly elevated in the AIDS-NHL group compared to controls. All primary AIDS-NHL specimens showed CXCR5 expression and most also showed CXCL13 expression. AIDS-NHL cell lines expressed CXCR5 and showed chemotaxis towards CXCL13. Conclusions. CXCL13/CXCR5 are expressed in AIDS-NHL and could potentially be involved in its biology. CXCL13 may have potential as a biomarker for AIDS-NHL.

  12. Pre-service teachers' metaphorical perceptions of "physics" as a concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykutlu, Isil; Bayrak, Celal; Bezen, Sevim

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the aim is to reveal pre-service biology, chemistry and mathematics teachers' metaphorical perceptions for physics. This study was patterned by employing phenomenology, which is one of the qualitative research methods. Sampling of the study consists of 90 pre-service teachers enrolled at the departments of biology, chemistry, and mathematics education at the faculty of education of a state university in Ankara. A metaphor form was prepared to determine pre-service teachers' mental metaphors for the physics concept. Then, it was determined that a total of 80 pre-service teachers generated 34 different metaphors for physics concept. As a result of the study, 34 metaphors generated by pre-service teachers for "physics" concept were gathered under seven different categories. Also, it was determined that pre-service teachers express most frequently "life" (26,25%) and "a difficult to solve problem"(21,25%) which take place in conceptual categories.

  13. An Investigation into EFL Learners’ Translations of Metaphors from Cognitive and Cultural Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-chen Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates how EFL learner-translators deal with metaphors and how cognitive factors and cultural background influence their choices. An English-to-Chinese translation task consisting of 20 English sentences was given to 70 Taiwanese university students; each sentence contains a figurative expression that falls into the categories in the cognitive cultural models (Kövecses, 2005. The students’ performances on the task were rated; quantitative analyses show that the students performed significantly better on translating metaphors whose conceptual metaphors exist in both languages than on metaphors whose conceptual metaphors are exclusive to English. Additionally, twenty students were selected for post-task interviews; qualitative analyses indicate that sentence context, concerns over style and register, and translators’ personal preferences affected their choices while translating. Communicative strategies, like providing neutral meanings to avoid uncertain translation, were adopted. The results contribute to the literature on and pedagogical applications for EFL learner translators from both cognitive and cultural aspects.

  14. Video game for learning and metaphorization of recursive algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Inacio Alvares Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The learning of recursive algorithms in computer programming is problematic, because its execution and resolution is not natural to the thinking way people are trained and used to since young. As with other topics in algorithms, we use metaphors to make parallels between the abstract and the concrete to help in understanding the operation of recursive algorithms. However, the classic metaphors employed in this area, such as calculating factorial recursively and Towers of Hanoi game, may just confuse more or be insufficient. In this work, we produced a computer game to assist students in computer courses in learning recursive algorithms. It was designed to have regular video game characteristics, with narrative and classical gameplay elements, commonly found in this kind of product. Aiding to education occurs through metaphorization, or in other words, through experiences provided by game situations that refer to recursive algorithms. To this end, we designed and imbued in the game four valid metaphors related to the theory, and other minor references to the subject.

  15. Metaphor: Bridging embodiment to abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Anja; McQuire, Marguerite; Cardillo, Eileen R; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2016-08-01

    Embodied cognition accounts posit that concepts are grounded in our sensory and motor systems. An important challenge for these accounts is explaining how abstract concepts, which do not directly call upon sensory or motor information, can be informed by experience. We propose that metaphor is one important vehicle guiding the development and use of abstract concepts. Metaphors allow us to draw on concrete, familiar domains to acquire and reason about abstract concepts. Additionally, repeated metaphoric use drawing on particular aspects of concrete experience can result in the development of new abstract representations. These abstractions, which are derived from embodied experience but lack much of the sensorimotor information associated with it, can then be flexibly applied to understand new situations.

  16. Metaphor Comprehension by Deaf Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rinat; Segal, Osnat

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the processing of both conventional and novel metaphors by deaf versus hearing young adults. Eighteen deaf participants with severe-to-profound hearing loss and 18 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were presented with word pairs of 4 types (literal, conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, and…

  17. Towards a procedure for metaphor identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the possibility of a stepwise procedure for metaphor identification. It is situated against the background of a more encompassing and complete five-step procedure for deriving conceptual metaphorical mappings from linguistic metaphors. The mainly cognitive linguistic

  18. Pictorial and multimodal metaphor in commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; McQuarrie, E.F.; Phillips, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Deploying metaphor is an attractive and efficient way for advertisers to make positive claims for their products, brands, or services. For a long time, metaphor studies focused almost exclusively on language, but over the past fifteen years, the concept of pictorial (or visual) metaphor has been

  19. Natural language metaphors covertly influence reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Metaphors pervade discussions of social issues like climate change, the economy, and crime. We ask how natural language metaphors shape the way people reason about such social issues. In previous work, we showed that describing crime metaphorically as a beast or a virus, led people to generate different solutions to a city's crime problem. In the current series of studies, instead of asking people to generate a solution on their own, we provided them with a selection of possible solutions and asked them to choose the best ones. We found that metaphors influenced people's reasoning even when they had a set of options available to compare and select among. These findings suggest that metaphors can influence not just what solution comes to mind first, but also which solution people think is best, even when given the opportunity to explicitly compare alternatives. Further, we tested whether participants were aware of the metaphor. We found that very few participants thought the metaphor played an important part in their decision. Further, participants who had no explicit memory of the metaphor were just as much affected by the metaphor as participants who were able to remember the metaphorical frame. These findings suggest that metaphors can act covertly in reasoning. Finally, we examined the role of political affiliation on reasoning about crime. The results confirm our previous findings that Republicans are more likely to generate enforcement and punishment solutions for dealing with crime, and are less swayed by metaphor than are Democrats or Independents.

  20. An Examination of Conceptualization of Sport Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervent, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the metaphors that were used by athletes, coaches, faculty members, and sport managers to describe the concept of "sport". Participants (N = 473) were asked to reveal the single metaphor they had in minds in the sense of the concept of sport by the prompt "Sport is like … because …" 22 valid metaphors were…

  1. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage meta...... is surprisingly similar and thus we are not able to detect any significant difference in performance between the two interfaces. Qualitative data however, suggests that the stage metaphor is largely favoured for its intuitive interaction - confirming earlier studies....

  2. Recontextualizing Anthropomorphic Metaphors in Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Blaschke, Steffen; Kaufmann, Ina Maria

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss critically the use of “anthropomorphic” metaphors in organization studies (e.g., organizational knowledge, learning, and memory). They argue that, although these metaphors are potentially powerful, because of frequent usage they are at risk of becoming taken...... in organizational knowledge, learning, and memory, which originate in a state of permanent restlessness.......-sensitive use of metaphors in organization studies. They illustrate this approach by developing the new metaphor of organizational insomnia, which is informed by recent neuroscientific research on human sleep and its disruptions. The insomnia metaphor provides an alternative way of explaining deficits...

  3. Conceptual Metaphors as Interpretive Tools in Qualitative Research: A Re-Examination of College Students' Diversity Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochis, Bruce; Gillespie, Diane

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor as a fruitful heuristic for qualitative analysis, the authors re-analyzed transcripts of college student discussions of problematic situations involving cultural diversity and interpersonal conflict. The authors show how they identified metaphorical linguistic expressions and…

  4. A dataset of metaphors from the italian literature: exploring psycholinguistic variables and the role of context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bambini

    Full Text Available Defining the specific role of the factors that affect metaphor processing is a fundamental step for fully understanding figurative language comprehension, either in discourse and conversation or in reading poems and novels. This study extends the currently available materials on everyday metaphorical expressions by providing the first dataset of metaphors extracted from literary texts and scored for the major psycholinguistic variables, considering also the effect of context. A set of 115 Italian literary metaphors presented in isolation (Experiment 1 and a subset of 65 literary metaphors embedded in their original texts (Experiment 2 were rated on several dimensions (word and phrase frequency, readability, cloze probability, familiarity, concreteness, difficulty and meaningfulness. Overall, literary metaphors scored around medium-low values on all dimensions in both experiments. Collected data were subjected to correlation analysis, which showed the presence of a strong cluster of variables-mainly familiarity, difficulty, and meaningfulness-when literary metaphor were presented in isolation. A weaker cluster was observed when literary metaphors were presented in the original contexts, with familiarity no longer correlating with meaningfulness. Context manipulation influenced familiarity, concreteness and difficulty ratings, which were lower in context than out of context, while meaningfulness increased. Throughout the different dimensions, the literary context seems to promote a global interpretative activity that enhances the open-endedness of the metaphor as a semantic structure constantly open to all possible interpretations intended by the author and driven by the text. This dataset will be useful for the design of future experimental studies both on literary metaphor and on the role of context in figurative meaning, combining ecological validity and aesthetic aspects of language.

  5. AID protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis and complex genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Mona; Frigerio, Simona; Wild, Peter J; Noetzli, Franziska; Korol, Dimitri; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Gengler, Carole; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Moch, Holger; Tinguely, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    The biological behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma is unpredictable. Nonetheless, non-mutated IgV(H) gene rearrangement, ATM (11q22-23) and p53 (17p13) deletion are recognized as unfavorable prognosticators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme indispensable for somatic hypermutation processes, was claimed to be predictive of non-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in blood. Here, we evaluated AID protein expression compared with known molecular and immunohistochemical prognostic indicators in 71 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients using a tissue microarray approach. We found AID heterogeneously expressed in tumor cells as shown by colocalization analysis for CD5 and CD23. Ki-67 positive paraimmunoblasts of the proliferation centers displayed the highest expression. This observation is reflected by a significant association of AID positivity with a high proliferation rate (P=0.012). ATM deletion was detected in 10% (6/63) of patients and p53 deletion in 19% (13/67) of patients. Moreover, both ATM (P=0.002) and p53 deletion (P=0.004) were significantly associated with AID. IgV(H) gene mutation was seen in 45% (27/60) of patients. Twenty-five percent (17/69) of patients with AID-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma displayed a shorter survival than AID-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients (61 vs 130 months, P=0.001). Although there was a trend, we could not show an association with the IgV(H) gene mutation status. Taken together, our study shows that AID expression is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients, although it is not a surrogate marker for the IgV(H) status. Furthermore, the microenvironment of proliferation centers seems to influence AID regulation and might be an initiating factor

  6. A Computational Theory of Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    welcome and necessary distraction over the last year while I wrote this beast. I’d also like to thank Andrew Romanowski and Cecelia Buchanan for their...phors. In ? articular , consider the situation where the Transfer-As-Act-Upon metaphor is applied d_ ~ctly in an attempt to understand (20). The

  7. In Search of New Metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nortvig, Anne-Mette

    2015-01-01

    indicate that teaching and learning are seen as activities that take place when the teacher and the students are together. However, when the use of technology and access to a ubiquitous Internet become a part of everyday teaching and learning, new metaphors are needed if we are to speak adequately about...

  8. Library user metaphors and services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    that these user metaphors crucially inform librarians' interactions with the public, and, by extension, determine the quality and content of the services received. The ultimate aim of the book is to provide library professionals with insights and tools for avoiding common pitfalls associated with false...

  9. Commentary: Censorship in Three Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Fenice B.; Bailey, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Censorship is about restriction and control of intellectual development, and the danger when educators fail to investigate what censorship truly means--for example, by attaching it to metaphors with abundant entailments--is that people will merely "shrug off" the removal of books from libraries and classrooms and fail to see challenges…

  10. The Relationship between Religiosity and Attitudes of Nurses Aides toward Sexual Expression by Older Adults in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Robert T.; Courtenay, Bradley C.

    Systematic research on attitudes of nursing home staff toward the sexual expression of older residents is sparse and of recent origin. In order to determine the relationship between the degree of religiosity (religious commitment) of nursing home aides and their degree of tolerance concerning sexuality and aging, female nursing assistants (N=101)…

  11. The scope and consequences of metaphoric thinking: Using individual differences in metaphor usage to understand how metaphor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Bair, Jessica L; Werth, Marc; Landkammer, Florian; Robinson, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    People often think, feel, and behave metaphorically according to conceptual metaphor theory. There are normative sources of support for this theory, but individual differences have received scant attention. This is surprising because people are likely to differ in the frequency with which they use metaphors and, therefore, the frequency with which they experience the costs and benefits of metaphoric thinking. To investigate these ideas, a 5-study program of research (total N = 532) was conducted. Study 1 developed and validated a Metaphor Usage Measure (MUM), finding that people were fairly consistent in their tendencies toward literal thought and language on the one hand versus metaphoric thought and language on the other. These differences were, in turn, consequential. Although metaphor usage predicted susceptibility to metaphor transfer effects (Studies 2 and 3), it was also linked to higher levels of emotional understanding (Studies 4 and 5). The findings provide support for several key premises of conceptual metaphor theory in the context of a new measure that can be used to track the consequences of metaphoric thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The patient's use of metaphor within a palliative care setting: theory, function and efficacy. A narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southall, David

    2013-04-01

    The modes of communication which patients use are seen as important within the sphere of palliative care and have been the focus of much research. This literature review aims to identify and analyse one particular mode of patient expression, namely that of the figure of speech (trope) 'metaphor', and ask questions regarding metaphor's therapeutic usefulness when engaging with the life-limited patient. The investigation revolves around a literature review of academic papers which focus on the metaphorical ways in which patients speak of their condition. This paper provides the theoretical foundations for the patient's metaphoric utterances. It also delineates the variety and diversity of metaphors used by patients and categorises them into broad groupings which encompass metaphors of war, journeying, personhood, the natural world and existential concepts. The papers reviewed suggest that metaphoric communication allows sensitive subjects to be dealt with and provides benefits for patients. The results suggest that engaging with patients at the metaphoric level enables them to create new ways of viewing their situation and opens up the possibilities of new coping strategies. Finally, some developmental trajectories emanating from the reviewed papers are suggested, which will allow the efficacy of metaphor to be explored further within a palliative care setting.

  13. Metaphor in the ESP engineering context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Roldán-Riejos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The explicit use of metaphor in the EFL classroom has been documented to enhance the communicative skills of learners (Cameron & Low, 1999; Cortazzi & Jin, 1999; Low, 1999; Littlemore & Low, 2006. ESP learners with a technical background, however, are not usually trained on the presence of metaphor in their knowledge field, or on its use. The aim of this paper is to analyze the unprompted use of metaphor in the verbal responses given by a group of Spanish civil engineering undergraduates when depicting visuals related to their area of expertise. The responses of the students were obtained from a questionnaire completed in the classroom which was later crosschecked with the answers given by a group of professional civil engineers. This was done to compare the occurrence of metaphor as a descriptive verbalizer in the academic and the professional contexts. The results confirm the use of general metaphor in both groups, and the use of field-specific metaphor particularly in the professional engineers (in order to avoid confusion with the engineer students group, which appears to suggest the evolving character of metaphor in the civil engineering discourse community. We conclude by highlighting the dynamicity of metaphor in the civil engineering context. From a pedagogic viewpoint, it would be advisable to concentrate on metaphor as a learning feature by considering three main dimensions: conceptual, linguistic and visual. This could be carried out by offering students corpora-driven examples of metaphor visibility in the different civil engineering genres, addressing non-verbal elements, such as sketches, drawings, designs and pictures where metaphor may be used. The theoretical framework for this study draws from conceptual metaphor theory and conceptual integration theory combined with a multimodal approach to metaphor (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002; Deignan, 2005; Steen, 2007; Fauconnier & Turner, 2008, Forceville, 2010; Kress, 2010.

  14. The postgraduate students’ (masters, PhD metaphors about education of statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colak Serap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is an important part of our life when it comes to economy, education, sport, politics and research. Research is a primary job for the ones pursuing academic career and statistics is one of the basic components of a research. Metaphor is used as an equivalent to figurative expression (‘mecaz’ in Turkish language. Study group is composed of 19 females (age 27.7 and 40 males (age 30.85 - 59 students in total. Demographic information of participants was collected. Participants were provided with questionnaire in order to assess their metaphorical creation whereby they were asked to fill in the sentence - “statistics is like/ similar to …, because…” - with metaphor. The study has collected total of 59 metaphors in 6 categories. The most created metaphor is in ‘discovering/ revealing’ category. 42.5% of Master’s students and 25% of PhD students are in this category. Metaphors created by graduate students are representing their views about statistics course and hence their view about importance of research. The category ‘discovering/ revealing’, the one with the most created metaphor of this study, is the main concept of science. Consequently, good knowledge of statistics is needed for graduate students to conduct research.

  15. Defining genes using "blueprint" versus "instruction" metaphors: effects for genetic determinism, response efficacy, and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Roxanne; Smith, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supports mixed attributions aligned with personal and/or clinical control and gene expression for health in this era of genomic science and health care. We consider variance in these attributions and possible relationships to individual mind sets associated with essentialist beliefs that genes determine health versus threat beliefs that genes increase susceptibility for disease and severity linked to gene-environment interactions. Further, we contribute to theory and empirical research to evaluate the use of metaphors to define genes. Participants (N = 324) read a message that varied the introduction by providing a definition of genes that used either an "instruction" metaphor or a "blueprint" metaphor. The "instruction" metaphor compared to the "blueprint" metaphor promoted stronger threat perceptions, which aligned with both belief in the response efficacy of genetic research for health and perceived behavioral control linked to genes and health. The "blueprint" metaphor compared to the "instruction" metaphor promoted stronger essentialist beliefs, which aligned with more intense positive regard for the efficacy of genetic research and human health. Implications for health communicators include societal effects aligned with stigma and discrimination that such findings portend.

  16. Meaning profiles of dwellings, pathways, and metaphors in design: implications for education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2017-11-01

    The study deals with the roles and interrelations of the meaning-based assessments of dwellings, pathways and metaphors in design performance. It is grounded in the Meaning Theory [Kreitler, S., and H. Kreitler. 1990. The Cognitive Foundations of Personality Traits. New York: Plenum], which enables identifying the cognitive contents and processes underlying cognitive performance in different domains, thus rendering them more accessible to educational training. The objectives were to identify the components of the meaning profiles of dwellings, pathways, and metaphors as perceived by design students; to analyse their interrelations; and to examine which of the identified components of these constructs serve as best predictors of design performance aided by the use of metaphors. Participants were administered a design task and questionnaires about the Dimensional Profiles of Dwellings, Pathways, and Metaphors, based on the meaning system. Factors based on the factor analyses of the responses to the three questionnaires were used in regression analyses as predictors of the performance score in a design task. The following three factors of the dimensional meaning profiles of metaphors were significant predictors of design performance: sensory, functional, and structural evaluations. Implications for design education are discussed, primarily concerning the important role of metaphor in design problem-solving.

  17. Gene Expression Profiles of HIV/AIDS Patients with Qi-Yin Deficiency and Dampness-Heat Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sa; Chen, Yulong; Xie, Shiping; Xu, Qianlei; Chen, Jianshe; Wang, Changhai; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Suna; Wu, Xingwei; Zhang, Ning

    2016-11-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applied in the clinic as a complementary and alternative therapy has helped improve immunity and reduce side effects and symptomatic treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the mechanisms of TCM syndromes are not clear. Transcriptomics enables the study of such TCM syndromes. This study compared the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of healthy persons and patients with HIV/AIDS who had two common TCM syndromes, qi-yin deficiency and dampness-heat retention, to find the difference in HIV/AIDS with TCM syndromes. Comparison with healthy persons identified 113 mRNAs-41 enhanced and 72 decreased-in the qi-yin deficiency group. Additionally, 76 mRNAs were found in the dampness-heat retention group: 14 increased and 62 decreased. Functional genetic analysis of the mRNAs indicated that two TCM syndromes were correlated with cell apoptosis, immunoinflammatory responses, and lymphocyte activation. Differentially expressed mRNAs in the qi-yin deficiency group were obviously associated with cellular activity, communication, protein localization, cellular ion homeostasis, and regulation of cell motion, whereas mRNAs in the dampness-heat retention group were associated with sequence-specific DNA binding, cellular response to stress, and hemopoietic or lymphoid organ development. These results suggest that the formation of different TCM syndromes in patients with HIV/AIDS were founded on biological transcriptomics, which reveal mechanisms of the formation of these syndromes in HIV/AIDS. Differentially expressed mRNAs in two TCM syndrome groups tended to normalize after TCM intervention, which indicates that TCM might remit symptoms by changing genetic expression.

  18. Metaphor and framing in political speeches : Effects of conceptual metaphor on recognition and recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwerf, L.; Yu, L.; Baicchi, Annalisa; Pinelli, Erica

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive linguists suggest that metaphorical framing has strong cognitive effects. However, experimental research only showed small or contradictory effects. In this chapter, an experiment is reported in which metaphor and framing were manipulated independently. Audible political speeches were

  19. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Begué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.

  20. Metaphor Analysis and the Construction of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schmitt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an increasing number of studies on the construction of gender based on metaphors (KOLLER, 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER, 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ, 2006; BOCK VON WÜLFINGEN, 2007. Many of these studies seem to have overlooked one of the most thoroughly developed theories of metaphor, LAKOFF and JOHNSON's so-called cognitive theory of metaphor or limited themselves to LAKOFF and JOHNSON's first book from 1980. In this article I explore current research on metaphor and gender and sketch the central topics of the cognitive theory of metaphor and develop a revision of this theory. It is hoped that this will enhance further research in metaphor analysis concerning the construction of gender. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902167

  1. What Can Metaphors Tell Us about Personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Robinson, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Theorists propose that metaphors are not mere figures of speech, but can actively shape one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Social psychologists have supported this claim over the past 10 years. Personality psychologists, though, have only recently begun investigating how metaphors can inform our understanding of what makes us different from each other. This review focuses on projects demonstrating links between metaphor and personality. As an example, people have been asked whether they locate the self in the head or the heart. Head people are (more) rational and cold, whereas heart people are emotional and warm. In addition, an individual differences approach can reveal what it is that metaphoric thinking does to and for people. Overall, individual difference approaches to common metaphors are shown to be informative not only in understanding how people differ from each other but also in extending the metaphor literature.

  2. Using the Jazz Metaphor to Enhance Student Learning and Skill Development in the Marketing Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Michael Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The marketing research course is often a very challenging one both for students and instructors. This article discusses how the jazz metaphor can aid the instructor in both facilitating students' learning of the more basic as well as the more specific skills that make up the course, in addition to contributing more to student enjoyment of the…

  3. Metaphor Analysis and the Construction of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Schmitt

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing number of studies on the construction of gender based on metaphors (KOLLER, 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER, 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ, 2006; BOCK VON WÜLFINGEN, 2007). Many of these studies seem to have overlooked one of the most thoroughly developed theories of metaphor, LAKOFF and JOHNSON's so-called cognitive theory of metaphor or limited themselves to LAKOFF and JOHNSON's first book from 1980. In this article I explore current researc...

  4. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

    OpenAIRE

    Paravano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13). Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social ...

  5. Business Metaphors in a Bilingual Business Lexicon | Lan | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since different cultures have different 'bags' of metaphors, and metaphorical meanings ... terms of culture, psychology, language and how such differences can be translated and ... Keywords: metaphor, definition, translation, cultural difference ...

  6. Idioms and mental imagery: the metaphorical motivation for idiomatic meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R W; O'Brien, J E

    1990-07-01

    We conducted three experiments to investigate the mental images associated with idiomatic phrases in English. Our hypothesis was that people should have strong conventional images for many idioms and that the regularity in people's knowledge of their images for idioms is due to the conceptual metaphors motivating the figurative meanings of idioms. In the first study, subjects were asked to form and describe their mental images for different idiomatic expressions. Subjects were then asked a series of detailed questions about their images regarding the causes and effects of different events within their images. We found high consistency in subjects' images of idioms with similar figurative meanings despite differences in their surface forms (e.g., spill the beans and let the cat out of the bag). Subjects' responses to detailed questions about their images also showed a high degree of similarity in their answers. Further examination of subjects' imagery protocols supports the idea that the conventional images and knowledge associated with idioms are constrained by the conceptual metaphors (e.g., the MIND IS A CONTAINER and IDEAS ARE ENTITIES) which motivate the figurative meanings of idioms. The results of two control studies showed that the conventional images associated with idioms are not solely based on their figurative meanings (Experiment 2) and that the images associated with literal phrases (e.g., spill the peas) were quite varied and unlikely to be constrained by conceptual metaphor (Experiment 3). These findings support the view that idioms are not "dead" metaphors with their meanings being arbitrarily determined. Rather, the meanings of many idioms are motivated by speakers' tacit knowledge of the conceptual metaphors underlying the meanings of these figurative phrases.

  7. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry:Is Abstract Thought Metaphorical Thought?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eLakoff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  8. Is Data Publication the Right Metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Parsons

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International attention to scientific data continues to grow. Opportunities emerge to re-visit long-standing approaches to managing data and to critically examine new capabilities. We describe the cognitive importance of metaphor. We describe several metaphors for managing, sharing, and stewarding data and examine their strengths and weaknesses. We particularly question the applicability of a “publication” approach to making data broadly available. Our preliminary conclusions are that no one metaphor satisfies enough key data system attributes and that multiple metaphors need to co-exist in support of a healthy data ecosystem. We close with proposed research questions and a call for continued discussion.

  9. Innovative and Lexicalized Metaphors in Slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Dolar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The metaphor is a multidisciplinary problem which has been addressed in linguistics as well as in philosophy, psychology, anthropology, etc. In linguistics, the problem of metaphor was dealt with in rhetorics, it occupied a special place in structural linguistics, and it was studied in diverse pragmatic, cognitive and textual analysis. In the present paper, metaphors in Slovene are analyzed from the linguistic point of view: grammatical and syntactic structure (monolexical/polylexical, in praesentia/in absentia, etc., semantic field and semantic transfer and degree of conventionality (ranging from innovative to lexicalized metaphors. The cases are taken from the unconventional linguistic corpus, Razvezani jezik, an online dictionary based on collaborative authorship. Authors can freely add new words (formal neologisms or new meanings of existing ones (semantic neologisms which makes it especially interesting for linguistic innovation research. The results show that zoomorphic metaphors are most common and that there is a significant number of reification metaphors (replacing a living being with an object. Phytomorphic metaphors (related to plants are also present, whereas anthropomorphic ones are scarce. These types of metaphors most often refer to character, personality or human behavior, but also to parts of human body, human actions, etc. The corpus is rich in both, lexicalized, conventional as well as in innovative, so called live metaphors, and it seems that Razvezani jezik, an online database for Slovene, is particularly suitable to register these diverse possibilities and usages.

  10. Identification of Genes Whose Expression Profile Is Associated with Non-Progression towards AIDS Using eQTLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clerc, Sigrid; van Manen, Daniëlle; Coulonges, Cédric; Ulveling, Damien; Laville, Vincent; Labib, Taoufik; Taing, Lieng; Delaneau, Olivier; Montes, Matthieu; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Zagury, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Background Many genome-wide association studies have been performed on progression towards the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and they mainly identified associations within the HLA loci. In this study, we demonstrate that the integration of biological information, namely gene expression data, can enhance the sensitivity of genetic studies to unravel new genetic associations relevant to AIDS. Methods We collated the biological information compiled from three databases of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) involved in cells of the immune system. We derived a list of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are functional in that they correlate with differential expression of genes in at least two of the databases. We tested the association of those SNPs with AIDS progression in two cohorts, GRIV and ACS. Tests on permuted phenotypes of the GRIV and ACS cohorts or on randomised sets of equivalent SNPs allowed us to assess the statistical robustness of this method and to estimate the true positive rate. Results Eight genes were identified with high confidence (p = 0.001, rate of true positives 75%). Some of those genes had previously been linked with HIV infection. Notably, ENTPD4 belongs to the same family as CD39, whose expression has already been associated with AIDS progression; while DNAJB12 is part of the HSP90 pathway, which is involved in the control of HIV latency. Our study also drew our attention to lesser-known functions such as mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and a zinc finger protein, ZFP57, which could be central to the effectiveness of HIV infection. Interestingly, for six out of those eight genes, down-regulation is associated with non-progression, which makes them appealing targets to develop drugs against HIV. PMID:26367535

  11. Identification of Genes Whose Expression Profile Is Associated with Non-Progression towards AIDS Using eQTLs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Spadoni

    Full Text Available Many genome-wide association studies have been performed on progression towards the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and they mainly identified associations within the HLA loci. In this study, we demonstrate that the integration of biological information, namely gene expression data, can enhance the sensitivity of genetic studies to unravel new genetic associations relevant to AIDS.We collated the biological information compiled from three databases of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs involved in cells of the immune system. We derived a list of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are functional in that they correlate with differential expression of genes in at least two of the databases. We tested the association of those SNPs with AIDS progression in two cohorts, GRIV and ACS. Tests on permuted phenotypes of the GRIV and ACS cohorts or on randomised sets of equivalent SNPs allowed us to assess the statistical robustness of this method and to estimate the true positive rate.Eight genes were identified with high confidence (p = 0.001, rate of true positives 75%. Some of those genes had previously been linked with HIV infection. Notably, ENTPD4 belongs to the same family as CD39, whose expression has already been associated with AIDS progression; while DNAJB12 is part of the HSP90 pathway, which is involved in the control of HIV latency. Our study also drew our attention to lesser-known functions such as mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and a zinc finger protein, ZFP57, which could be central to the effectiveness of HIV infection. Interestingly, for six out of those eight genes, down-regulation is associated with non-progression, which makes them appealing targets to develop drugs against HIV.

  12. Cognitive Metaphors Used in Colombian Sign Language in Five Autobiographical Stories and the Image Schemata They Are Related to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Rodríguez Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an exploratory study whose purpose was to identify and characterize the metaphors in a sample of five videos in Colombian sign language (in Spanish, lsc.The data were analyzed using theoretical contributions from Lakoff and Johnson’s theories (1980 about cognitive metaphors and image schemata, and from Wilcox (2000 and Taub (2001 on double mapping in sign language. The results show a frequency analysis of image schemata and the metaphors present into metaphorical expressions in five autobiographical narratives by five congenital deaf adults. The study concludes that sign language has cognitive metaphors that let deaf people map from a concrete domain to an abstract one in order to build concepts.

  13. Applying Visual Metaphors to Career Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Robert William

    2011-01-01

    This article makes use of a case study involving two career professionals to show how visual metaphors can be used as an important part of a constructivist approach to career counseling. It discusses how visual metaphors can serve as an effective methodology for encouraging adults to engage in the self-review of career transitions, discusses…

  14. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  15. Reframing Metaphors in Business and Education Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Patricia Ann

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct an action-research study of metaphors and metaphoric fragments composed by graduate students in 17 teams in two business (MBA) and three educational administration courses taught by the same instructor and action-researcher. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology of the paper was…

  16. JOHANNINE METAPHORS/ SYMBOLS LINKED TO THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    logy of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the Johannine Gospel ... In modern Greek the word metaphor means “transport” or “transfer”. ..... most, almost half of these 21 occurrences (9 times), are to be found in chapter 4.

  17. Processing of metaphors in transcortical motor aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mancopes

    Full Text Available Abstract Great emphasis has been placed on the right hemisphere, due to its possible selective contribution, in the processing of metaphorical statements. Objectives: To describe the processing of metaphors in the case of a patient with transcortical motor aphasia, using specific tests for patients with encephalic injuries of the right hemisphere, and to contribute to the discussion on the inter-hemispheric relationships associated with this function. Methods: A 54 year-old man with transcortical motor aphasia was evaluated three years after a left hemisphere stroke. The tasks of comprehension of metaphors were based on the subtest Metaphor Comprehension Task of the Montreal Evaluation of Communications Scale (MEC. Two metaphor comprehension tests were applied, in 45-minute sessions with a 48 hour interval between each. Test 1 involved comprehension of the metaphors according to the options offered, and Test 2 the comprehension of metaphors measured by response time and visual field. Results: Although the right hemisphere was not affected by the stroke in this case, difficulties were observed in the processing of metaphors. Conclusions: This study suggests that the left hemisphere participates in the processing of figurative meanings. The adaptability of the brain can also re-accommodate the uninjured areas of the brain, causing the dynamic of the brain to be modified. As a result, deducing cerebral functions based on clinical data can be problematic. The value of this study is that it can contribute to clinical aspects of language rehabilitation.

  18. Metaphor identification and analysis, classification and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, G.J.; Crisp, P.; Heywood, J.

    2002-01-01

    Identifying metaphorically used words in the way we have proposed in the other articles in this special issue inevitably leads to the detection of recurring structural patterns of metaphor usage. It is the aim of the present article to explore these patterns in a systematic fashion and develop a

  19. Towards psychoanalytic contribution to linguistic metaphor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Tair

    2017-07-05

    This paper lays out a formulation of the psychoanalytical contribution to linguistic metaphor theory. The author's main argument is that psychoanalysis can help enrich and shed light on linguistic metaphor theories, since these have focused on the cognitive aspect, to the exclusion of the role played by affect. Based on the tight link between metaphor and symbol - both configurations of figurative language - the author shall apply ideas sourced from some of the key psychoanalytic symbolization theories, focusing in particular on Klein, Winnicott, and Ogden. The course of exploration will serve to trace the unconscious emotional aspects that participate in the metaphor's mechanism, just as they participate in the symbol's workings. The study leads to the main conclusion that the intersubjective transitional space is of substantial importance to metaphor's constitution, particularly in regard to novel metaphors. Expanding the understanding of metaphor's modus operandi has important implications in conceptual clarification and for an in-depth analytical work, and is of immense significance when it comes to analytical work with patients who suffer impairment of their metaphoric ability. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  20. Leadership Metaphors: Cycles of Carnations and Reincarnations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rita L.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and explains the metaphors of carnation and reincarnation that provide a visual portrayal of sharing, teaching, and practicing leadership for art educators. Highlights other metaphors in which women holding leadership roles are discussed. Conveys the importance of community and mentors in the creation of leaders. (CMK)

  1. The Light and the Grace: Christian Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacob COMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our present study continues to provide guidance and meaning for those who are open and have the courage to ask the kind of questions superior to reason. The acceptance of unreasonable realities expresses sometimes the portrait of a non-modern and superstitious man, a portrait dismantled by the contemporary science in order to get the assurance of control over the material and spiritual reality around us. However, the acceptance of unreasonable realities, born by the reason’s questions, expresses in other circumstances the access to super-reason and super-faith. The Light and the Grace from super-existence toward the human nature, and the implications these have, as a divine communication method and metaphors, and as a call to dialogic sharing with the Divine, are the objects of our present study. Super-reason and super-faith can and must characterize also the modern man. The Light and the Grace express both the cause and the means; God who is Light and Grace does communicate Himself in a salvific manner through Light and Grace, and we, as destinations of Light and of Grace can communicate ourselves as Light and Grace to our neighbors.

  2. Conceptualizing the metaphors of drug abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyuró Monika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this article is to demonstrate, within the framework of cognitive linguistics (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980a, how slang words associated with substance abuse are conceptualized via metaphors. This study analyses recreational drug slang terms found in the Drug Slang Dictionary in order to reveal categories of metaphors involved in drug users’ language. The results of the data analysis effectively reveal that, within a thematic approach, classes of metaphor are coded to enable connections between metaphorical concepts and drug addicts’ physiological experiences in order to present their personal meanings and cognitive processes. The study also involves drug addicts’ narratives to identify conceptual metaphors in their experiences. Notably, it is argued within this research that figurative language use is also connected to the cultural background of users to a great extent.

  3. High expression of AID and active class switch recombination might account for a more aggressive disease in unmutated CLL patients: link with an activated microenvironment in CLL disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Florencia; Moreno, Pilar; Morande, Pablo; Abreu, Cecilia; Correa, Agustín; Porro, Valentina; Landoni, Ana Ines; Gabus, Raul; Giordano, Mirta; Dighiero, Guillermo; Pritsch, Otto; Oppezzo, Pablo

    2010-06-03

    Interaction of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells with tissue microenvironment has been suggested to favor disease progression by promoting malignant B-cell growth. Previous work has shown expression in peripheral blood (PB) of CLL B cells of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) among CLL patients with an unmutated (UM) profile of immunoglobulin genes and with ongoing class switch recombination (CSR) process. Because AID expression results from interaction with activated tissue microenvironment, we speculated whether the small subset with ongoing CSR is responsible for high levels of AID expression and could be derived from this particular microenvironment. In this work, we quantified AID expression and ongoing CSR in PB of 50 CLL patients and characterized the expression of different molecules related to microenvironment interaction. Our results show that among UM patients (1) high AID expression is restricted to the subpopulation of tumoral cells ongoing CSR; (2) this small subset expresses high levels of proliferation, antiapoptotic and progression markers (Ki-67, c-myc, Bcl-2, CD49d, and CCL3/4 chemokines). Overall, this work outlines the importance of a cellular subset in PB of UM CLL patients with a poor clinical outcome, high AID levels, and ongoing CSR, whose presence might be a hallmark of a recent contact with the microenvironment.

  4. Figurative Language and Multicultural Education: Metaphors of Language Acquisition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Linguistics has long recognised that figurative language in the form of metaphorical expressions structures and communicates attitudes towards the ideas and concepts being expressed and that multilingual students also employ linguistic figures frequently in their writing. In this study, multilingual students use figurative language to both…

  5. Metaphors as Nudges toward Understanding in Mental Health Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Dennis H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses use of metaphors in mental health counseling. Presents examples of metaphors that are concrete and that use objects and situations familiar to clients so that the properties of the metaphorical items are known. Elaborations of metaphors are provided for readers. (NB)

  6. The Continuity of Metaphor: Evidence from Temporal Gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Esther; Cooperrider, Kensy

    2016-01-01

    Reasoning about bedrock abstract concepts such as time, number, and valence relies on spatial metaphor and often on multiple spatial metaphors for a single concept. Previous research has documented, for instance, both future-in-front and future-to-right metaphors for time in English speakers. It is often assumed that these metaphors, which appear…

  7. Sickness as cultural performance: drama, trajectory, and pilgrimage root metaphors and the making social of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, R

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the use of root metaphors in the description of social activity and especially the performance of sickness. It starts with a critical account of Susan Sontag's examination of the use of illness as metaphor in literature. There then follows a brief analysis of another account of society based on the discussion of creative literature-Kenneth Burke's "Dramatism," itself acknowledged as a source by Erving Goffman. Goffman's own expressed reservations about his supposed use of a dramatic metaphor are then extended to suggest that Goffman was more concerned with "performance" in a broader sense. The discussion of performative metaphors is then shifted by a critical consideration of Anselm Strauss and colleagues' view of sickness as manifold performances of work rather than drama, expressed in their metaphor of "trajectory." Sickness as a process compounded of many performances is further explored using ideas developed by the anthropologist Victor Turner toward the end of his life, in collaboration with his wife, Edith Turner. It is finally suggested that sickness as cultural performance enables us to understand the dialectical relationships between expressive and instrumental activities surrounding sickness. This in turn leaves room for the nonreductionist understanding, within a sociological framework, of individual idiosyncrasy, biological accident, and the discourse of healing.

  8. Usage of Metaphors in Turkish Language Textbooks Used at 6th, 7th and 8th Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Karakas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The word “Metaphor”, which is equivalent to the terms “istiare” in Arabic or “eğretileme, transfer of idioms” in Turkish, consists of two parts. “Meta” means “later” or “with” whereas “phora” means transfer or conveyance of word. In the recent years metaphor has been the subject and focuses of several studies, and is used to express a concept or situation with another concept or situation. Starting from 1980s, researchers have studied metaphor and concurrently they examined usage of language. It is now been believed that using metaphors is appropriate in order to be able to understand any phenomenon. Metaphor can be used in encouraging learning and improving creative thinking; it can also provide hints for in-the-class methods, techniques and situations. In this context, metaphors are also essential components for Turkish language textbooks. The purpose of this study is to detect the uses of metaphor in Turkish language textbooks of 6th, 7th and 8th grade students. For this purpose the Turkish language textbooks of 6th, 7th and 8th grade students prepared by the Ministry of National Education (MEB were examined with “content analysis method. Considering that metaphors are effective in learning and improving creative thinking, the importance of using metaphors in textbooks is beyond discussion. The data collected throughout this study show that the metaphors detected in 7th and 8th grade Turkish language textbooks are less in number compared to those found in 6th grade Turkish language textbooks. Another important conclusion is that distribution of metaphors among units is not even. The conclusion of the study is that Turkish language textbooks are not prepared in a sensitive and choosy manner with this respect.

  9. THE FORCE METAPHOR IN CONCEPTUALIZING ECONOMIC RECESSION

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    Jurga Cibulskienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive metaphor analysts comprehend metaphor as a convenient way of not only talking about real life events but also thinking about them: connecting ideas, explaining abstract ideas that are difficult to grasp, conveying messages and emotions, etc. Thus, metaphor in real-world discourse is increasingly becoming the focus of many cognitive studies. In political discourse, metaphor is seen as an ideological tool of deliberate attempts to influence, persuade and manipulate people. As Charteris-Black (2005: 16 put it, politicians try to establish themselves in a positive light or legitimize themselves, i.e., by presenting evidence that they are charismatic leaders who are capable of running their country efficiently. Legitimization goes hand in hand with delegitimization, i.e., negative other-presentation. Metaphor as a cognitive mechanism of ideology may serve both as positive self-representation and as a tool for fault-finding in others. Thus, the study focuses on how three Lithuanian socio-political groups (the leading party, the opposition, and the media legitimize themselves and delegitimize their opponents by using force metaphors to conceptualize the worldwide economic recession. The findings indicate that although the same conceptual metaphor is used for legitimization and delegitimization, its fulfilment scenario appears to be markedly different and it carries different rhetorical implications in the three discourses.

  10. [How to do Things with Metaphors: Reflections on the Role of Metaphors and Metaphor Theory for the History of Science Using the Example of Shock Metaphors in Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades, metaphors have attracted a great deal of interest within the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. The article takes the growing interest in epistemic metaphors as the starting point of a discussion of two conflicting motives prevalent in theories of metaphor and metaphoricity: On the one hand, metaphors are associated with the indeterminacy of scientific discovery and the emergence of new epistemic objects; and on the other hand, metaphors are said to provide a filter of possible meanings and vantage-points. It is argued that an approach, which aims to do justice to both tendencies, cannot exclusively rely on linguistic models but must expand its scope of inquiry to include the practical trajectories of a metaphor’s usage as well as the problematizations to which they respond, since both engender metaphorical meaning, albeit at the cost of semantic precision. The exemplary case discussed in the article, the psychologization of nervous shock in nineteenth century medical discourse, demonstrates that the incremental process of shock’s shifting semantics would be inadequately characterized as a metaphorical transfer. Instead, it is shown how the actualization of earlier meanings, in particular of shock as a state of altered consciousness, in novel professional and cultural contexts acted as a catalyst for the psychologization of shock and related nascent concepts such as psychic trauma. As a possible, and methodologically fruitful way of overcoming the one-sidedness of linguistic notions of metaphor, a combination of Jìrgen Link’s concept of inter-discourse with a philosophical metaphorology (Blumenberg) is discussed in the final section of the paper.

  11. Geographic expression of AIDS epidemic in Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between 1980 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Celso; Henn, Carlos Alberto; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2010-10-01

    To analyze the spatial distribution of reported AIDS cases in adults and its association with living conditions in the city of Campinas, Southeastern Brazil. Data on AIDS cases in men (n=2,945) and women (n=1,230) aged more than 13 years and living in Campinas, recorded in the SINAN (Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases), were used to map the spatial distribution of this disease and the male:female ratio. Maps were constructed for the following periods: from 1980 to 1995, from 1996 to 2000, and from 2001 to 2005. The variables included in the analysis were address, sex and age. A weighted composite index was used to study living and health conditions in the area. Patients' home addresses were geocoded on a cartographic base, after correction and standardization according to a reference database of streets. A generalized additive model was adjusted to analyze the spatial distribution of the ratio of male:female cases in space, in the three study periods. The ratio of male:female cases was higher in areas with better living conditions (central) and around the prison (northwestern), where families of prisoners and former prisoners live temporarily, while this ratio was lower in the city suburbs (southwestern). The trends towards the AIDS epidemic affecting more women and poorer individuals were confirmed by the decrease in the ratio of male:female cases in the period, particularly in vulnerable and impoverished populations. Geographic information systems and spatial data analysis can be useful for AIDS control and surveillance actions.

  12. Environmental Metaphors in Contemporary Indonesian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Ahmadi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is for exploring the environmental metaphor in Indonesian novel. The environmental metaphor is focused on animal and plant metaphors. This study uses qualitative approach and data sources from the novels of Burung-Burung Manyar (2014, Burung-burung Rantau (2014 by YB Mangunwijaya, Mantra Pejinak Ular (2014 by Kuntowijoyo. The data analysis technique that is used refers to the Miles & Huberman flow model (1994 related to (1 data collection, (2 data reduction, (3 display data, (4 conclusion drawing and revision. The results show that the environmental metaphor has a function to understand the philosophy of human life from the environment and the author’s criticism about people who destroy the environment or commit corruptions/evil things.

  13. Conceptual metaphors in computer networking terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) is used as a basic framework for analysing and explaining the occurrence of metaphor in the terminology used by computer networking professionals in the information technology (IT) industry. An analysis of linguistic ...

  14. Contribution to computer aided design of digital circuits - Minimization of alphanumeric expressions - Program CHOPIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanca, Ernest

    1974-10-01

    Alpha-numeric boolean expressions, written in the form of sums of products and/or products of sums with many brackets, may be minimized in two steps: syntaxic recognition analysis using precedence operator grammar, syntaxic reduction analysis. These two phases of execution and the different programs of the corresponding machine algorithm are described. Examples of minimization of alpha-numeric boolean expressions written with the help of brackets, utilisation note of the program CHOPIN and theoretical considerations related to language, grammar, precedence operator grammar, sequential systems, boolean sets, boolean representations and treatments of boolean expressions, boolean matrices and their use in grammar theory, are discussed and described. (author) [fr

  15. Talk radio as the soundtrack of our lives: Participatory HIV/AIDS communication, public self-expression and Positive Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Mariekie

    2015-01-01

    article explores a wider range of participatory principles and the potential workings of these in an internally initiated communication initiative aimed at addressing the epidemic. More specifically, this article investigates ways in which radio listeners experience the reality broadcast genre--the talk radio show, Positive Talk--as participatory communication. Positive Talk is not an externally initiated project, as it is not part of a pre-planned, goal-oriented project that is owned and controlled outside the target community. In contrast, it has been initiated by Criselda Kananda, an individual not linked to any of the existing initiatives outside the community. She started the show to earn a living. She became a well-known person, is fairly knowledgeable in the field and was granted this opportunity as she is HIV-positive. In order to investigate how radio listeners use the show to engage in HIV/AIDS communication, 20 in-depth interviews were held with avid listeners of the show. The respondents indicated that they appreciate ordinary people phoning in. When expressing their opinions about the show, they found Kananda's life story credible, believed her public and private life to be congruent, valued Kananda's personality and respectful manner and could identify with the views expressed. In the article, it is argued that these ideas are largely in line with the principles of participatory communication tied to democracy, the participatory turn, the ordinary, validation of identity and respectful dialogue. Although the findings of this qualitative study cannot be generalised to the whole listening population of the show, they indicate that it is worth investigating the value of communication initiatives that emerge spontaneously from communities (instead of those strategically engineered from outside the general population) as a future direction of HIV/AIDS communication in the country.

  16. Metaphors, stigma and the 'Alzheimerization' of the euthanasia debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the findings of an unobtrusive research inquiry investigating the possible use and misuse of Alzheimer's disease in public policy debate on the legalization of euthanasia. The component of the study being reported identified the problematic use of five key metaphors: the Alzheimer metaphor, which in turn was reinforced by three additional metaphors--the epidemic metaphor, the military metaphor, and the predatory thief metaphor; and the euthanasia metaphor. All metaphors were found to be morally loaded and used influentially to stigmatize Alzheimer's disease and mediate public opinion supporting the legalization of euthanasia as an end-of-life 'solution' for people with the disease. It is contended that, in the interests of promoting intellectual honesty and giving proper recognition to the extraordinary complexity of the issue, the problematic use and influence of metaphoric thinking in the public debate about Alzheimer's disease and euthanasia needs to be made transparent, questioned and challenged.

  17. INTERNET: a web of metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pérez Brufau

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ens proposem analitzar les principals metàfores que utilitzem els usuaris per a referir-nos a internet i a les activitats, els utensilis i les persones relacionats amb la xarxa en el marc de la teoria defensada per George Lakoff i Mark Johnson. La primera part del treball analitza la teoria de la metàfora conceptual d'aquests autors i la segona examina les diverses metàfores que utilitzem els usuaris per a referir-nos al món conceptual de la xarxa a partir del que s'ha exposat en la primera part.Aquest treball no solament hauria de servir per a adonar-nos del continu ontològico-estructural-orientacional que representa l'ús de metàfores que relacionen la xarxa, progressivament, amb un espai, amb un espai que és a dalt, amb un espai on hi ha coses, amb un espai que pren forma, normalment, de mar, de casa o de text, sinó que també hauria de servir per a adonar-nos que els motius pels quals fem servir aquestes metàfores i no unes altres són arrelats, successivament -tal com afirmen Lakoff i Johnson en els seus textos- en el nostre cos, la nostra interacció amb les coses del món i amb els altres en un context culturalment definit. Text complet (PDF We propose analysing the principal metaphors that we as users use to refer to the internet and to the activities, tools and people related to the web within the framework of the theory upheld by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. The first part of the work analyses these authors' conceptual metaphor theory, while the second examines the various metaphors that we as users use to refer to the conceptual world of the web on the basis of what has been set out in the first part.This work should not only serve for us to take note of the ontological-structural-orientational continuum represented by the use of metaphors that relate the web, progressively, with a space, with a space that is above, with a space where there are things, with a space that takes the form, normally, of the sea, home or text

  18. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning Activities Embodying the Substance Metaphor for Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of…

  19. The Emergence of a Root Metaphor in Modern Physics: Max Planck's "Quantum" Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    Uses metaphorical analysis to determine whether or not Max Planck invented the quantum postulate. Demonstrates how metaphorical analysis can be used to analyze the rhetoric of revolutionary texts in science. Concludes that, in his original 1900 quantum paper, Planck considered the quantum postulate to be important, but not revolutionary. (PA)

  20. Activating Metaphors: Exploring the Embodied Nature of Metaphorical Mapping in Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Metaphor is generally understood as the process of understanding one thing in terms of another. The activity described here is designed to make use of the principles of embodied cognition and meaning, and specifically the embodied nature of metaphor, to explore political discourse and communication. With high-school junior or senior students in…

  1. An Analysis of Commercial Advertisement--From Conceptual Metaphor Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段慧敏

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor as a rhetorical device is widely used in advertisements,many scholars has studied metaphors in advertisements from rhetoric and semantic perspectives.However with the development of cognitive linguistics,it provides a new aspect for metaphor study.Metaphor is not only a rhetorical device but also a method of thinking.More efficient and positive information in advertisements can be conveyed to consumers by using cognitive metaphor.This paper explores the effect and influence of conceptual metaphor in commercial advertisement.

  2. Games and Metaphor - A critical analysis of the metaphor discourse in game studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

    This doctoral dissertation critically investigates how the concept of metaphor is used with regard to games in game studies. The goal is to provide the field with a self-understanding of its metaphor discourse which has not been researched so far. The thesis departs from the observation...... and game theory, cultural theory, semiotics, linguistics, philosophy, and game studies it investigates the metaphor discourse of game studies in the fashion of a meta-study. The main part of this thesis is devoted to three particular problems which have been derived from observations in the overview...... of the current use of the notion of metaphor in game studies. Firstly, this thesis investigates is the conceptual relationship between the notions of metaphor, representation, and play. It therefore accounts for observations such that all three notions are present in non-computer game and play theory, theory...

  3. Comprehension of metaphors and idioms in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, C

    2001-07-01

    Language in patients with Alzheimer's disease has been extensively studied, with the exception of non-literal language comprehension. However, in our speech, we often make use of expressions, which are not necessarily interpreted on a literal ground. Comprehension of metaphors and idioms was examined in 39 patients with probable early Alzheimer's disease. The results showed that the decline of figurative language is not an early symptom of dementia and can occur independently from the impairment of propositional language. It was also found that metaphors and idioms differ as far as the predominant kind of error is concerned.

  4. Facial Expression Recognition: Can Preschoolers with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids Catch It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifang; Su, Yanjie; Fang, Ping; Zhou, Qingxia

    2011-01-01

    Tager-Flusberg and Sullivan (2000) presented a cognitive model of theory of mind (ToM), in which they thought ToM included two components--a social-perceptual component and a social-cognitive component. Facial expression recognition (FER) is an ability tapping the social-perceptual component. Previous findings suggested that normal hearing…

  5. Metaphors of Primary School Students Relating to the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Mustafa; Sarac, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphors of primary school students (n = 362) relating to the concept of global warming. Data collected by completing the expression of "global warming is like..., because..." of the students were analysed by use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. According to findings of…

  6. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Novel Metaphoric Relations: Application of the Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion ([beta]) were calculated for responses to different types…

  7. The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Lewis

    2015-02-01

    The translational metaphor in psychoanalysis refers to the traditional method of interpreting or restating the meaning of verbal and behavioral acts of a patient in other, presumably more accurate terms that specify the forces and conflicts underlying symptoms. The analyst translates the clinical phenomenology to explain its true meaning and origin. This model of analytic process has been challenged from different vantage points by authors presenting alternative conceptions of therapeutic action. Although the temptation to find and make interpretations of clinical material is difficult to resist, behaving in this way places the analyst in the position of a teacher or diagnostician, seeking a specific etiology, which has not proven fruitful. Despite its historical appeal, I argue that the translational model is a misleading and anachronistic version of what actually occurs in psychoanalysis. I emphasize instead the capacity of analysis to promote the emergence of new forms of representation, or figuration, from the unconscious, using the work of Lacan, Laplanche, and Modell to exemplify this reformulation, and provide clinical illustrations of how it looks in practice. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. The Metonymic and Metaphoric Conceptualisations of the Heart in Akan and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther S. Afreh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the metaphorical and metonymic structure of the heart in Akan (a Kwa language in West Africa, and English, within the framework of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT, formulated by Lakoff and Johnson (1980. My aim is to explore the ways in which akoma, ‘the heart’, is used in Akan to express human experiences and also to compare the conceptualisations of the heart in Akan to those in English in order to establish whether the two languages manifest any cross-conceptual, cross-linguistic or cross-cultural differences. The data reveal that there are no striking differences between English and Akan with respect to the metaphoric and metonymic conceptualisations of the heart. The differences in the language-specific conceptualisations are attributed to the cultural models embedded in the two languages.

  9. Can Facebook Aid Sustainability? An Investigation of Empathy Expression within the Humans of New York Blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Wheeler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study offers a novel exploration of the links between social media, virtual intergroup contact, and empathy by examining how empathy is expressed through interactions on a popular social media blog. Global leaders are encouraging individuals to engage in behaviors and support policies that provide basic social foundations. It is difficult to motivate people to undertake such actions. However, research shows that empathy intensifies motivation to help others. It can cause individuals to see the world from the perspective of stigmatized group members and increase positive feelings. Social media offers a new pathway for virtual intergroup contact, providing opportunities to increase conversation about disadvantaged others and empathy. We examined expressions of empathy within a popular blog, Humans of New York (HONY, and engaged in purposeful case selection by focusing on (1 events where specific prosocial action was taken corresponding to interactions on the HONY blog and (2 presentation of people in countries other than the United States. Nine overarching themes; (1 perspective taking, (2 fantasy, (3 empathic concern, (4 personal distress, (5 relatability, (6 prosocial action, (7 community appreciation, (8 anti-empathy, and (9 rejection of anti-empathy, exemplify how the HONY community expresses and shares empathic thoughts and feelings.

  10. OpWise: Operons aid the identification of differentially expressed genes in bacterial microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkin Adam P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentially expressed genes are typically identified by analyzing the variation between replicate measurements. These procedures implicitly assume that there are no systematic errors in the data even though several sources of systematic error are known. Results OpWise estimates the amount of systematic error in bacterial microarray data by assuming that genes in the same operon have matching expression patterns. OpWise then performs a Bayesian analysis of a linear model to estimate significance. In simulations, OpWise corrects for systematic error and is robust to deviations from its assumptions. In several bacterial data sets, significant amounts of systematic error are present, and replicate-based approaches overstate the confidence of the changers dramatically, while OpWise does not. Finally, OpWise can identify additional changers by assigning genes higher confidence if they are consistent with other genes in the same operon. Conclusion Although microarray data can contain large amounts of systematic error, operons provide an external standard and allow for reasonable estimates of significance. OpWise is available at http://microbesonline.org/OpWise.

  11. On the metaphorical nature of intellectual capital: A textual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2005-01-01

    Metaphors are at the basis of our understanding of reality. Using the theory of metaphor developed by Lakoff and Johnson (1980, 1999) this paper analyses common metaphors used in the intellectual capital and knowledge management literatures. An analysis of key works by Davenport & Prusak (2000),

  12. Metaphorical Competence: A Neglected Component of Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Tavakoli, Marjaneh

    2016-01-01

    The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested…

  13. Relation of Metaphoric Processing to Comprehension and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Ralph E.; Schwartz, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    Context-dependent metaphoric sentences of literally equivalent paraphrases were used as concluding statements for short didactic passages to investigate whether metaphors help or hinder prose comprehension. Adult participants' recall protocols indicated increased memorability for passages with metaphoric conclusions. (Author/LC)

  14. Patterns of change in design metaphor: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubblefield, W.A.

    1998-04-01

    Design metaphors play an important role in the development of many software projects. However, the influence of metaphors on project functionality, design methodology and the interactions among members of the development team is not well understood. This paper seeks insights into these issues by examining the experiences of a design team in building a system under the influence of a particularly strong design metaphor.

  15. Cooking verbs and metaphor Contrastive study of Greek and French

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaknaki, Olympia

    2016-01-01

    The present cross-linguistic study deals with cooking verbs in Greek and French in the light of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory. It intends to explore uniformity and diversity in metaphorical conceptualizations and the lexical choices they underlie. It also discusses the significance of metaphor awareness in foreign language teaching.

  16. Metaphor Analysis in the Educational Discourse: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong-bo; Song, Wen-juan

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor analysis is based on the belief that metaphor is a powerful linguistic device, because it extends and encapsulates knowledge about the familiarity and unfamiliarity. Metaphor analysis has been adopted in the educational discourse. The paper categorizes the previous relevant research into 3: interactions between learners and institutions,…

  17. Metaphors in Projects - An Overlooked X-factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2015-01-01

    Metaphors are pervasive in human thought and action, but have been an overlooked X-factor in projects and project management. This essay presents deliberate uses of metaphors classified into specific projects and frameworks for projects in order to stimulate explicit uses of metaphors in project...

  18. Visual Metaphors in the Representation of Communication Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Stuart Jay

    1990-01-01

    Examines the role of metaphors (particularly visual metaphors) in communicating social values associated with new communication technology by analyzing magazine advertisements for computing and advanced telecommunications products and services. Finds that the "lever" and the "synthesis of old and new values" metaphors are dominant in both general…

  19. The Locus of Metaphorical Persuasion: An Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchon, Jacqueline C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates whether the locus of persuasion of the metaphor "A is B" lies in the valence of B, as widely assumed, or in the valence of the metaphor ground, what A and B share. Indicates that global affect toward B does not transfer onto A and that metaphorical persuasion is a distinct process meriting further investigation. (SR)

  20. A Different Vision in eLearning: Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Nazime; Stanescu, Ioana Andreea; Tuncay, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Metaphors are figures of speech in which a word or phrase that denotes a certain object or idea is applied to another word or phrase to imply some similarity between them. Due to their ability to make speaking and writing more lively and interesting, metaphors have always been popular among students. While metaphors provide significant enhancement…

  1. Metonymic-Based Metaphor--A Case Study on the Cognitive Interpretation of "Heart" in English and Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Li

    2016-01-01

    English is particularly rich in both metonymic and metaphorical expressions making use of the concept "heart" to speak of emotional issues (Niemeier, 2000). It is not difficult to find a large number of Chinese linguistic expressions in terms of "[Chinese characters omitted]" ("xin") ("heart")" to refer…

  2. Motives for metaphor in scientific and technical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, Timothy D

    2017-01-01

    Examination of the work of scientific icons-Newton, Descartes, and others-reveals the metaphors and analogies that directed their research and explain their discoveries. Today, scientists tend to balk at the idea of their writing as rhetorical, much less metaphorical. How did this schism over metaphor occur in the scientific community? To establish that scientists should use metaphors to explain science to the public and need to be conscious of how metaphor can be useful to their research, this book examines the controversy over cloning and the lack of a metaphor to explain it to a public fearful of science's power.The disjunction between metaphor and science is traced to the dispensation of the Solar System Analogy in favor of a mathematical model. Arguing that mathematics is metaphorical, the author supports the idea of all language as metaphorical-unlike many rhetoricians and philosophers of science who have proclaimed all language as metaphorical but have allowed a distinction between a metaphorical use o...

  3. BIBLICAL METAPHOR: THE COSMIC GARDEN HERITAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenge here is to discuss the historical development of metaphor theory, to exemplify ... garden estate, found throughout biblical texts – and trust learning can ... language about God and Israel as sharing a divine garden or heritage space .... humans in general and their royal leader in particular are shown radically.

  4. Using Metaphorical Models for Describing Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    To date, there has only been little conceptual change research regarding conceptions about glaciers. This study used the theoretical background of embodied cognition to reconstruct different metaphorical concepts with respect to the structure of a glacier. Applying the Model of Educational Reconstruction, the conceptions of students and scientists…

  5. History of metaphoric signs in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Stephen R., E-mail: bakersr@umdnj.edu; Noorelahi, Yasser M., E-mail: dr.ynoorelahi@gmail.com; Ghosh, Shanchita, E-mail: Ghoshs1@umdnj.edu; Yang, Lily C., E-mail: yangclily@gmail.com; Kasper, David J., E-mail: dkasp86@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. Materials and methods: A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. Results: The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Conclusion: Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry.

  6. Revisiting Metaphors for Education: A Student's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Larisa; Furuoka, Fumitaka

    2011-01-01

    This study examines metaphors about learning produced by a group of eighteen students at a big public university in Malaysia. The learner perspective is placed within a wider discourse on education in order to explore whether the images employed by the learners to describe their learning reflect the dominant conception of education as…

  7. Metaphorical Language and Theophany in Psalm 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    emphasizing that what is said about Yahweh must not be understood literally. Point 3. The metonymies underline that Yahweh relates to places or phenomena in this world without being bound to them or identified with them. And lastly point 4. The use of both metonymies and metaphors makes the psalm relevant...

  8. Recovery Following Bereavement: Metaphor, Phenomenology, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of recovery following bereavement can be both useful and misleading. As a metaphor, the concept of recovery highlights some aspects of bereavement and obscures others. Bereaved people interviewed in 3 different studies typically did not bring up the term recovery so it did not seem to be a term that described their experience. Across…

  9. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  10. Jules Verne's Metaphor of the Iron Cage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2010-01-01

    Max Weber's concept of the iron cage has become a byword in the scholarly world since the publication in 1930 of Talcott Parsons’ translation of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. What is less well-known is that Jules Verne had earlier used the iron cage metaphor in Twenty Thousand

  11. Death metaphors in Korean undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning of death metaphors seen by 133 undergraduate nursing students through open questionnaires and collage artworks, using qualitative content analysis in Korea. The 4 themes emerged: "rest-physical," "fear-psychological," "separating-social," and "new life-spiritual."

  12. Understanding Creativity, One Metaphor at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerracher, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Any effort to clarify the meaning of creativity, although productive, risks limiting this important concept to a singular definition at the exclusion of other valuable interpretations. This article presents generative redefinitions of creativity by surveying a range of metaphors that are used to describe creativity. To explore the polysemic…

  13. Movies as Metaphors: A Counseling Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heston, Melissa L.; Kottman, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Presents the rationale for using cinematic films as therapeutic metaphors. Provides two case studies to illustrate how movies can help clients gain insight into problems. Claims that clients' interpretations of second and third levels of meaning in cinematic films can help them deal with long-buried emotions. (RJM)

  14. Problems of Metaphor, Film, and Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2015-01-01

    of happy extra trick with words” (Richards 1972 [1936], 90); in the modern view it is creative, interactive, and also part of everyday language (Richards 1972 [1936]; Black 1962). Despite these differences, both decorative and creative views conceive metaphors as specific and manifest stylistic features...

  15. The Navigation Metaphor in Security Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, W.; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret; Heath, Claude P R; Probst, Christian W.; Verbij, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept of

  16. The navigation metaphor in security economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret; Heath, Claude P.R.; Probst, Christian W.; Verbij, Ruud

    2016-01-01

    The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept of

  17. The Navigation Metaphor in Security Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieters, Wolter; Barendse, Jeroen; Ford, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The navigation metaphor for cybersecurity merges security architecture models and security economics. By identifying the most efficient routes for gaining access to assets from an attacker's viewpoint, an organization can optimize its defenses along these routes. The well-understood concept of na...... of navigation makes it easier to motivate and explain security investment to a wide audience, encouraging strategic security decisions....

  18. Patchworking as a Metaphor for Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In the thesis I propose and argue for the metaphor of ‘patchworking’ as a way of understanding, analysing and methodologically approaching technology mediated learning processes. The notion of patchworking has emerged through closely following and analysing the work of the Nordic team of power...

  19. Children's Comprehension of Metaphor: A Piagetian Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. W. A.

    1976-01-01

    When the descriptive interpretations that sixth and eighth graders provided for metaphors selected from fifth-grade readers were examined in a Piagetian framework, the poorest interpretations showed characteristics of concrete and pre-operational thought, while the best interpretations showed characteristics of formal operational thought. (RL)

  20. History of metaphoric signs in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Stephen R.; Noorelahi, Yasser M.; Ghosh, Shanchita; Yang, Lily C.; Kasper, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. Materials and methods: A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. Results: The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Conclusion: Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry

  1. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Paravano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13. Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social characteristics. The life of each faction seems to be based on a form of metaphorical hunger: those who pursue selflessness and altruism belong to Abnegation, peace and harmony to Amity, honesty and truth to Candor, danger and adventure to Dauntless, and knowledge and power to Erudite. Those people who are excluded become factionless: they are outcasts who live their life in extreme poverty and experience real physical hunger. On the other hand, I will show how the numerous references to food and eating pervading the novels help to map the characters’ personalities and identities as single individuals and as groups.

  2. THE PERVASIVENESS OF METAPHOR IN THE LANGUAGE OF ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Telibașa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, metaphors can be seen in a totally new light, exceeding their primary function of being used only as ornamental tropes and becoming powerful instruments of expressiveness. They are active in the development of a conceptual framework for representing new ideas, as well as in providing new meaning. With their help, readers gain a more precise understanding of the terminology and scientific concepts and therefore, contribute to a greater accuracy in the use of language. Given their pervasiveness, language becomes less abstract and more manageable in concretising, objectivising or even humanising concepts. Economy related topics are part of our everyday’s language. Having a close relationship with human beings and human society, the field of Economics becomes a rich linguistic domain which, if explored, proves to be very productive in offering semantic extension. Applying conceptual terminology to corpus material we shall try to identify, classify and gather information with specific interest in metaphors that belong to the field of Economics.

  3. Electrodynamic metaphors: communicating particle physics with Feynman diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietroni Massimo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to communicate the basic laws of particle physics with Feynman diagrams - visual tools which represent elementary particle processes. They were originally developed as a code to be used by physicists and are still used today for calculations and elaborations of theoretical nature. The technical and mathematical rules of Feynman diagrams are obviously the exclusive concern of physicists, but on a pictorial level they can help to popularize many concepts, ranging from matter and the antimatter; the creation, destruction and transformation of particles; the role of ‘virtual’ particles in interactions; the conservation laws, symmetries, etc. Unlike the metaphors often used to describe the microcosm, these graphic representations provide an unequivocal translation of the physical content of the underlying quantum theory. As such they are perfect metaphors, not misleading constructions. A brief introduction on Feynman diagrams will be followed by the practical realization of this project, which will be carried out with the help of an experiment based on three-dimensional manipulable objects. The Feynman rules are expressed in terms of mechanical constraints on the possible conjuctions among the various elements of the experiment. The final part of the project will present the results of this experiment, which has been conducted among high-school students.

  4. Business Metaphors in a Bilingual Business Lexicon*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: General purpose dictionaries benefit users at large in many ways, but the definitions and examples might not satisfy the diverse needs of different professional users. This is especially true of metaphors. The article discusses the treatment of business metaphors in the PolyU Business Lexicon derived from the trilingual PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. During the process the concordances are grouped by senses, and then separated according to their literal and metaphorical meanings, which in turn lead to the decisions of sense order, word meaning and translation equivalents. Since different cultures have different 'bags' of metaphors, and metaphorical meanings also vary in different registers, the focus is primarily on the differences between Chinese and English in terms of culture, psychology, language and how such differences can be translated and presented in a corpus-based business lexicon with a minimum loss of their original connotations. Cultural transformations, such as direct translation, image substitution, explanatory notes and abandonment of the figure of speech, are suggested to bridge interlanguage metaphorical gaps.

    Keywords: METAPHOR, DEFINITION, TRANSLATION, CULTURAL DIFFERENCE

    Opsomming: Sakemetafore in 'n tweetalige sakewoordeboek. Woordeboeke vir algemene doeleindes bevoordeel gewone gebruikers op baie maniere, maar die definisies en voorbeelde mag dalk nie die uiteenlopende behoeftes van verskillende professionele gebruikers bevredig nie. Dit is veral waar van metafore. Die artikel bespreek die behandeling van sakemetafore in die PolyU Business Lexicon gebaseer op die drietalige PolyU Business Corpus (PUBC. Gedurende die proses word die konkordansies deur betekenisse gegroepeer, en dan geskei volgens hul letterlike en metaforiese betekenisse, wat vervolgens lei tot die besluite oor betekenisorde, woordbetekenis, en vertaalsekwivalente. Aangesien verskillende kulture verskillende "sakke" metafore het, en

  5. Languages of the heart: the biomedical and the metaphorical in American fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Benjamin J; Jones, David S

    2014-01-01

    The role of heart disease in American fiction has received less attention from scholars of literature, history, and medicine than have portrayals of tuberculosis, cancer, or HIV/AIDS, despite the fact that heart disease topped mortality charts for most of the 20th century. This article surveys manifestations of coronary artery disease in popular works of 20th-century American fiction to trace how authors and their protagonists grappled with the disease while knowledge of pathophysiology and therapeutics evolved. Countering Susan Sontag's mechanistic vision of patient encounters-where disease is absent of metaphor-we pair popular fiction with concurrent historical analysis to show that the proliferation of technological narratives of cardiac therapeutics could not displace the deeply symbolic nature of characters' encounters with heart disease. Because of the limited ability of the biomedical narrative to convey the meanings of disease and treatments, doctors and patients need to communicate through the rich possibilities of metaphor.

  6. Relationship between expressed HIV/AIDS-related stigma and HIV-beliefs/knowledge and behaviour in families of HIV infected children in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Mary; Ross, Michael W; Orrs, Mark; D'Agostino, Angelo

    2006-04-01

    To quantify expressed stigma in clients of the Kangemi program for HIV+ children, and to characterize the association between stigma and other population characteristics. By means of a household survey we created a stigma index and indices for other social and knowledge domains that influence HIV-related healthcare. We used chi2, anova, and correlation to identify associations between domains. The mean (+/-SD) expressed stigma on a six points scale (6 = least stigma) was 3.65 +/- 1.64. Composite scores on knowledge about AIDS were skewed toward more knowledge; and analysis of individual knowledge items indicates that most respondents reject erroneous traditional beliefs and myths about the causes and transmission routes of AIDS. Respondents who were younger, had never married, and had less education expressed greater stigma. Differences in stigma were associated with poor knowledge about AIDS and negative attitudes toward testing, but not with gender or tribal affiliation. Condom use at last intercourse, unrelated to stigma, was only 40% (n = 218). While this population has good knowledge about AIDS and appraises risks realistically, it fails to reduce these risks. Associations between stigma and other domains can inform interventions that improve HIV care and mitigate spread of HIV.

  7. Technological Metaphors and Moral Education: The Hacker Ethic and the Computational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2004-01-01

    This essay is an attempt to understand how technological metaphors, particularly computer metaphors, are relevant to moral education. After discussing various types of technological metaphors, it is argued that technological metaphors enter moral thought through their "functional descriptions." The computer metaphor is then explored by turning to…

  8. The clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of AID, miR-181b, and miR-155 expression in adult patients with de novo B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangquan; Cao, Yang; Dong, Weimin; Lin, Yan; Wang, Qi; Wu, Wei; Hua, Xiaoying; Ling, Yun; Xie, Xiaobao; Hu, Shaoyan; Cen, Jiannong; Gu, Weiying

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene, miR-181b and miR-155 expression in de novo adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. Results showed that AID and miR-155 expression were higher in B-ALL patients than healthy controls, while miR-181b expression was lower in B-ALL patients. In addition, Ph + B-ALLs had higher AID expression than Ph - B-ALLs, and its high expression was associated with BCR-ABL. Moreover, B-ALL patients with AID high or miR-181b low expression had a shorter overall survival (OS). AID high with miR-181b low , AID high with miR-155 low , miR-181b low , miR-155 low , AID high with miR-181b low and miR-155 low expression were associated with shorter OS. Combination of the three molecules are more accurate predictors for unfavorable OS compared with univariate group. Therefore, AID, miR-181b and miR-155 provide clinical prognosis of adult de novo B-ALL patients and may refine their molecular risk classification.

  9. War Metaphors in Business: A Metaphostructional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the notion of metaphostruction (Wiliński 2015, the conceptual theory of metaphor (Kӧvecses 2002 and the corpus-based method geared specifically for investigating the interaction between target domains and the source domain lexemes that occur in them. The method, referred to as metaphostructional analysis (Wiliński 2015, is used to determine the degree of association between the target domain of business and the source domain lexemes derived from military terminology. The results of the metaphostructional analysis reveal that there are indeed war terms that demonstrate strong or loose associations with the target domain of business, and that these instantiate different metaphorical mappings.

  10. Prospective teachers information and communication technology metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Akdemir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the perceptions of the prospective teachers for the Information and Communications Technology (ICT terms have a remarkable potential to provide input for technology integration plans and ICT trainings. Within this context, the purpose of this study is to discover the metaphors constructed by prospective teachers for the ICT terms. Data were gathered from 180 prospective teachers through survey. 977 valid metaphors constructed by the participants were grouped into conceptual categories for the six ICT terms. The most common conceptual categories are “developing and changing” for technology, “making life easy” for computers and search engines, “limitless and endless” for the Internet, “means of communication” for social networks, and “addictive items” for video games. Future research should concentrate on investigating the match and mismatches between intended use of the ICT tools and the perception of the prospective teachers.

  11. Frame and Metaphor in Political Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bogost, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers an approach to analyzing political rhetoric in videogames, and on designing videogames intended to carry ideological bias, based cognitive linguist George Lakoff’s notion of metaphor and frame in political discourse. I argue for two important ways games function in relation to ideological frames, reinforcement and exposition, through examples of art games, political games, and commercial games. Finally, I argue that an explicit design of ideological frames in games is crucia...

  12. Network frontier as a metaphor and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Plotichkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers spatial metaphors of the Internet and the possibility to extrapolate the frontier thesis of F. Turner on the electronic space. The authors believe that information and communication technologies and the digital world have become new spaces for the expansion of states or individuals. That is why there are ongoing scientific debates on the limits and potential of western and electronic frontiers’ metaphors for analytical description of the digital space. The metaphor of the Internet as a western frontier is quite controversial; many authors prefer the electronic frontier analogy as more heuristic and valid for constructing metaphors of the digital reality. The network frontier is defined as a dynamic, elastic and permeable border of social and cultural practices of the network society. The authors estimate the heuristic potential of the concept ‘network frontier’ developed on the basis of integration of the frontier theory and the concept ‘network society’, taking into account the effects of globalization for the study of elastic, permeable and movable border of the network landscape. In the digital world, the spatiality transforms, the geography of the Internet network determines the metamorphosis of the frontier as a contact zone between online and offline spaces, which is dynamic, innovative, encourages mobility, and its permeability depends on the digital competence of citizens. The authors explain the mythology of western and electronic frontier; name the main network frontier myths related to the rhetoric of western frontier myth; describe the main components of the western frontier myth associated with the idea of American exceptionalism; and conclude with the identification of nowadays myths about frontier-men and the online space they master.

  13. Communicating Metaphors in Shakespeare, Dickinson and Heaney

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, Josephine Sheila

    2017-01-01

    ‘Relevance theory’ is a linguistic theory offering an alternative to the conventional ‘code model’ of communication, by suggesting that inference, rather than coding and decoding, is the primary driving force motivating interpretation. In this thesis, I consider the implications for literary criticism of the relevance theory account of communication, particularly in relation to metaphor, as an enduring concern of both linguistics and literary studies. The thesis focuses on three temporall...

  14. Processing Metaphors in the Elderly: Does Valence Matter?

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    Bartczak Marlena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence from theory and research points towards difficulties in processing metaphors by elderly people. These difficulties are usually associated with working memory and inhibitory control deficits observed in this age group, as these very functions play a crucial part in efficient metaphor processing. However, results of research on understanding metaphorical content by elderly people are inconclusive. The following article reviews studies showing that metaphor processing relies on a set of complex variables, which might explain the inconclusiveness of previous results. Though we acknowledge the role of interindividual factors (differences in cognitive functioning among the elderly, we focus on the properties of the metaphor stimuli themselves, especially those of conventionalization and valence, as they might influence the processing of verbal metaphors by people in older age groups.

  15. Ross-Cultural Aspects of Metaphorical Framing in Political Discourse

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    Tatyana V. Andryukhina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines cross-cultural aspects of metaphorical framing in political discourse. The author notes the importance of conceptual metaphor in framing the conceptual domain of politics, political discourse as a whole, its perception as well as political reality itself. The author shares an opinion that the metaphorical structure of basic concepts of a nation always correlates with its fundamental cultural values. However, the examination of political discourse from the cross-cultural perspective reveals the cases of metaphor uses that don't meet the requirements of cultural coherence and may lead to negative cognitive and communicative consequences. Along with admitting a wide discrepancy between metaphorical models in western and oriental political discourse, the author gives some examples of metaphorical coherence as well as its violation in a number of basic metaphors in American, British and Russian political discourse. To illustrate how cross-cultural factors determine the specific character of metaphorical framing, the article analyses the dynamic character of metaphorical models that can realize diverse scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse. An observation is made about the dependence of metaphoric scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse on the cultural, historical, social and political components of the national cultural cognitive map. The latter is heterogeneous as it is structured by the objectified individual, group, and national verbal and nonverbal experience. This explains, for instance, why there are examples of similarity as well as discrepancy between metaphorical framing in ideologically different party varieties of political discourse within the national political discourse as well as in the rhetoric of politicians belonging to different generations. The observations are illustrated by cross-linguistic data proving the dynamic character of metaphorical models, their

  16. On Dimension of Cultural Connotation in Cognitive-Metaphor Studies

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    孙敏

    2016-01-01

    Started from Aristotle, metaphor has been studied independently and relatively ranged from rhetoric, philosophy, prag-matic, anthropology, psychology, cognitive science and other disciplines. This article views the close relation between metaphor and culture on the perspective of cognitive metaphor, focusing on the double functions in the perception of world and creation of culture and further dugs the profound theories of different dimensions in the contrast between English and Chinese language.

  17. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the p...

  18. Inquiring Sport and Physical Activity students’ perceptions using metaphors as research tools

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ruiz, María Ángeles; Ávalos Ramos, María Alejandra; Merma Molina, Gladys

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the metaphorical expressions designed by Science of Sport and Physical Activity university students, as a tool of inquiring two research questions: their perceptions of their physical education teachers, and the meaning physical activity has in students’ personal life. 51 students from the University of Alicante have participated in the study. Qualitative data analysis software AQUAD 6 was used for data processing. The results obtained from the analysis of ...

  19. The study of metaphor application in Vassaf’s History

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    Ali reza mahmoodi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tajziyat ol-Amsar and Tazjiyat ol-Asar which is called  Vassaf’s History  had been written by Adib Shahab od-Din Fazl ol-Lah Shirazi (born in 663 H. who was titled “Vassaf al-Hazra” and is known as “Vssaf”. The subject of this book is related to the history of “Ilkhanian”, the kings in Iran from 656 to 72 H., the author considers it as a complement for Jahangosha Jovaini’s Histiory. Vassaf’s History is a notable historical-artistic (technical literary work. Euphuism prose or artistic prose is an ornated prose which is a genethliacum according to the different figures of speech, spiritual ornament and speech amplification by various descriptions, illustration, poetry, Persian and Arabic evidences and the usage of different science expressions inter-textually. The artistic prose has a close relationship with poeticalness. Some literary researches equal it to poetry based on emotional and poetical aspects of artistic prose.    Vassaf al-Hazra tried to compose Vassaf’s History in order to develop a historical book into a famous and valuable literary-historical text through a poetical language. He has tried to create an ornament, beautiful, poetical and historical- precise text by using figures of speech and literary devices.    The goal of this paper is to show the literary beauties of this book. The author tried to show the usage of various metaphors and ambiguity through descriptive and analytic method and conventional eloquence. The result of this research shows the specific attention of Vassaf to the use of poetic image. This application includes extended metaphor, metaphoric prediction and explicit metaphor. The application of metaphor in addition to poetic images create an individual style, this style is not very obvious in other historical-artistic texts because of the position of poetic images, with figurative and unfamiliar words and a lot of evidences. The

  20. The Role of Metaphor in Discriminatory Hegemony: The Use of Metaphor in Reporting of Syrians

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    Hatice ÇOBAN KENEŞ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the critical approaches in the study of rhetoric as well as critical approaches exhibited in cognitive semantic studies, metaphor has come to be interpreted not only as a means of language, meaning and adornment but also as a way of understanding and describing the World, and as a way of thinking. These studies offer a perspective on how metaphors do and can assume an ideological role in construction and maintenance of hegemonic meanings in the relationship between language, discourse and meaning; and also on how the ideological structure of a discourse can be systematically deciphered using metaphors. Based on the inputs of critical studies, this study aims to problematize the metaphors used to describe asylum seekers, migrants and refugees in newspapers play a role in the construction of discriminatory discourses. Within this scope, this study is based on the analysis of selected news stories regarding the entrance of first large groups of Syrians to Turkey in April 2011; the economic costs of their prolonged stay coupled with the arrival of new refugees especially in 2015; and the death of Ayan Kurdi, a three-year-old toddler who symbolized the ‘death trip’ of refugees on September 2, 2015. Within this framework, the study focuses on the use of metaphors contributing to the production and dissemination of discrimination against refugees through the analysis of news stories in Daily newspapers of Sabah, Posta,Hürriyet, Zaman ve Cumhuriyet,which represent different ideological strains and mind-sets of reporting. In these analyses, the study benefits from the conceptual framework on metaphors developed by Lakoff and Johnson as well as critical discourse analysis method of van Dijk

  1. The affective discourse dynamics of metaphor clustering The affective discourse dynamics of metaphor clustering

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    Lynne Cameron

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Metaphor is examined in the very different iscourse contexts of the classroom and of reconciliation talk to highlight the neglected affective dimension. The distribution of metaphors across discourse shows clustering at certain points, often where speakers are engaged in critical interpersonal discourse activity. Clusters in classroom talk co-occur with sequences of agenda management where teachers prepare students for upcoming lessons and with giving feedback to students, both of which require careful management of interpersonal and affective issues. Clusters in reconciliation talk co-occur with discourse management and with two situations with significant affective dynamics: appropriation of metaphor and exploration of alternative scenarios.

    Metaphor is examined in the very different iscourse contexts of the classroom and of reconciliation talk to highlight the neglected affective dimension. The distribution of metaphors across discourse shows clustering at certain points, often where speakers are engaged in critical interpersonal discourse activity. Clusters in classroom talk co-occur with sequences of agenda management where teachers prepare students for upcoming lessons and with giving feedback to students, both of which require careful management of interpersonal and affective issues. Clusters in reconciliation talk co-occur with discourse management and with two situations with significant affective dynamics: appropriation of metaphor and exploration of alternative scenarios.

  2. Aspects of metaphor in physics examples and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pulaczewska, Hanna

    1999-01-01

    For decades there has been awareness of the fact that the natural sciences and the language they use are not metaphor-free domains. This study draws together statements on this phenomenon made in a discourse context hitherto dominated by theoreticians and philosophers of science and points up new perspectives of an interdisciplinary nature discussed here primarily from the viewpoint of cognitive semantics. How do metaphors enter into a discourse with physics? To what extent are the methods used and the issues addressed in physics influenced by metaphors? How do the ubiquitous metaphors of ever

  3. Two analogy strategies: the cases of mind metaphors and introspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eugen

    2018-04-01

    Analogical reasoning is often employed in problem-solving and metaphor interpretation. This paper submits that, as a default, analogical reasoning addressing these different tasks employs different mapping strategies. In problem-solving, it employs analogy-maximising strategies (like structure mapping, Gentner, D., & Markman, A. B. (1997). Structure mapping in analogy and similarity. American Psychologist, 52, 45-56); in metaphor interpretation, analogy-minimising strategies (like ATT-Meta, Barnden, J. A. (2015). Open-ended elaborations in creative metaphor. In T. R. Besold, M. Schorlemmer, & A. Smaill (Eds.), Computational creativity research: Towards creative machines (pp. 217-242). Berlin: Springer). The two strategies interact in analogical reasoning with conceptual metaphors. This interaction leads to predictable fallacies. The paper supports these hypotheses through case-studies on "mind" metaphors from ordinary discourse, and abstract problem-solving in the philosophy of mind, respectively. It shows that (1) default metaphorical interpretations for vision- and space-cognition metaphors can be derived with a variant of the analogy-minimising ATT-Meta approach, (2) philosophically influential introspective conceptions of the mind can be derived with conceptual metaphors only through an analogy-maximising strategy, and (3) the interaction of these strategies leads to hitherto unrecognised fallacies in analogical reasoning with metaphors. This yields a debunking explanation of introspective conceptions.

  4. Metaphors about violence by preservice teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özabaci, Nilüfer; Erkan, Zülal

    2015-03-01

    Violence consists of a pattern of coercive behaviors used by a competent adult or adolescent to establish and maintain power and control over another competent adult or adolescent. These behaviors, which can occur alone or in combination, sporadically or continually, include physical violence, psychological abuse, talking, and nonconsensual sexual behavior. Research indicates that different types of violence are used as a means of enforcing discipline in the family and the school context. Children and adolescents who grow up in an environment where violence has a natural place tend to resort to violence at every stage of their lives without question. The aim of this research was therefore to preservice teachers' perception of the concept of violence through the use of metaphors. Accordingly, answers to the following questions were sought: What metaphors do the youth use to describe the concept of violence? Under which conceptual categories can these metaphors be grouped in terms of their common features? How do the conceptual categories vary in relation to the students' gender and the subjects they study at university? The study was conducted in 2009 with the help of 303 students at Mersin University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University (Faculty of Education). Incomplete statements such as "Violence is like..., because..." were used in an attempt to understand the students' perception of violence. The students were given questionnaire to complete the statements. Demographic questions were also asked on the students'age, gender and departments. The data were analyzed through qualitative analysis, and processes such as frequency distribution and quantitative correlation data were evaluated through SPSS data analysis. It emerged that the students used 74 metaphors of violence that could be divided into seven categories: (1) Violence as a way of controlling others; 2) Violence as part of social and affective life; (3) Violence as devastation; (4) Violence as learned

  5. Teaching English Idioms as Metaphors through Cognitive-Oriented Methods: A Case in an EFL Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-chen; Lai, Huei-ling

    2013-01-01

    Idioms have long been regarded as problematic for L2 learners due to the arbitrariness of their meanings and forms. Traditional methods of teaching idioms focus on rote learning and memorization. Recent developments in cognitive linguistics research have considered idioms as analyzable expressions which are motivated by conceptual metaphors and…

  6. When experts educate, what do their metaphors say? Complex metaphor structure in the professional conflict resolution literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Smith

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This metaphoric analysis of a quarter-million word corpus of an expert literature (conflict resolution and professional mediation suggests certain implicit assumptions of the experts and gives us an alternate view of the structure of their thinking. Seven highly conventional metaphors are repeatedly used to frame descriptions and explanations, making a complex subject matter more accessible to learners. They have been reported widely in other literatures and genres and are not particular to the field of expertise covered. These metaphors were found in some instances to oversimplify and mislead, mitigated to a degree when combinations of metaphors reconstituted some of the necessary complexity. The seven principal metaphor source domains found are containers, objects, terrain, seeing/viewing, moving, journeying, and structuring. Evidence of frequent and diverse mappings argues that these are conceptual metaphors, revealing possible thinking patterns. The combining and alternating of metaphors in mutually complementary ways shows an interdependence among the seven metaphors. These naturally occurring conceptual groupings clarify and elaborate meaning in the texts in a way comparable to inheritance hierarchies. The discussion of the results focuses on ways these metaphors both help and hinder understanding of the field in question.

  7. Barriers to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy as expressed by people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, V E; Tesfa, A; Tompkins, D C

    1999-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to gain a clearer understanding of the barriers to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) faced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHIV/AIDS) on Long Island, New York. Focus group, a qualitative research method, was used to study these barriers. The study was conducted in 1998 on Long Island, NY, at five institutions that provide services to 1700 PLWHIV/AIDS. Five focus groups were conducted with 6 to 13 PLWHIV/AIDS in each group, a total of 39 subjects. PLWHIV/AIDS identified eight common barriers to adherence to HAART. In descending order, the barriers include: (1) frequency and severity of side effects, (2) conflicts with daily routines, (3) dietary requirements, (4) frequency of taking medications, (5) number and dosage of medications, (6) psychosocial factors (i.e., stress, feeling good, and bad news), (7) pharmacy refills, and (8) physiological needs (i.e., sleep, hunger, or thirst). Many factors play a role in the success or failure of HAART, including preexisting drug resistance, drug-drug interactions, and the ability of PLWHIV/AIDS to adhere to a rigid and frequently changing medication regimen. The information gleaned from focus groups is limited in that it may not be generalized to a larger population with any known reliability. However, clinicians sensitive to barriers to adherence to HAART, including those identified by PLWHIV/AIDS in this study, may play a more proactive role in supporting adherence to the medication regimen, increasing the durability of effective viral suppression, decreasing morbidity and mortality, and decreasing the selection and transmission of resistant strains of HIV.

  8. To electrify bilingualism: Electrophysiological insights into bilingual metaphor comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, Katarzyna; Rataj, Karolina; Naskręcki, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Though metaphoric language comprehension has previously been investigated with event-related potentials, little attention has been devoted to extending this research from the monolingual to the bilingual context. In the current study, late proficient unbalanced Polish (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals performed a semantic decision task to novel metaphoric, conventional metaphoric, literal, and anomalous word pairs presented in L1 and L2. The results showed more pronounced P200 amplitudes to L2 than L1, which can be accounted for by differences in the subjective frequency of the native and non-native lexical items. Within the early N400 time window (300-400 ms), L2 word dyads evoked delayed and attenuated amplitudes relative to L1 word pairs, possibly indicating extended lexical search during foreign language processing, and weaker semantic interconnectivity for L2 compared to L1 words within the memory system. The effect of utterance type was observed within the late N400 time window (400-500 ms), with smallest amplitudes evoked by literal, followed by conventional metaphoric, novel metaphoric, and anomalous word dyads. Such findings are interpreted as reflecting more resource intensive cognitive mechanisms governing novel compared to conventional metaphor comprehension in both the native and non-native language. Within the late positivity time window (500-800 ms), Polish novel metaphors evoked reduced amplitudes relative to literal utterances. In English, on the other hand, this effect was observed for both novel and conventional metaphoric word dyads. This finding might indicate continued effort in information retrieval or access to the non-literal route during novel metaphor comprehension in L1, and during novel and conventional metaphor comprehension in L2. Altogether, the present results point to decreased automaticity of cognitive mechanisms engaged in non-native and non-dominant language processing, and suggest a decreased sensitivity to the levels of

  9. Metaphor Clusters: Characterizing Instructor Metaphorical Reasoning on Limit Concepts in College Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita Manubhai; McCombs, Paul; Zollman, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Novice students have difficulty with the topic of limits in calculus. We believe this is in part because of the multiple perspectives and shifting metaphors available to solve items correctly. We investigated college calculus instructors' personal concepts of limits. Based upon previous research investigating introductory calculus student…

  10. From perceptual rags to metaphoric riches: Bodily, social, and cultural constraints on socio-cognitive metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, H.; Koole, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    What leads people to describe some of their interpersonal relationships as " close" and " warm" and others as " distant" and " cold" ? Landau, Meier, and Keefer (2010) proposed that conceptual metaphors facilitate social cognition by allowing people to use knowledge from a relatively concrete

  11. SYNAMET - A Microcorpus of Synesthetic Metaphors. Preliminary Premises of the Description of Metaphor in Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Anna Zawisławska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SYNAMET - A Microcorpus of Synesthetic Metaphors. Preliminary Premises of the Description of Metaphor in Discourse This article describes the preliminary premises of metaphor annotation in SYNAMET - the developing microcorpus of synesthetic metaphors. The analysis is based on the CLST theory (Context-Limited Simulation Theory put forward by D. Ritchie. According to this theory, the metaphor’s vehicle may activate various types of associations between words: semantic relations, perceptual sensations, or emotional simulations. The range of potential associations evoked by the vehicle is limited by the topic, i.e. the lexical context in which the metaphor appears. The relations between the vehicle and the topic may be presented in the form of a semantic frame. To reconstruct the frames within the project, linguistic works devoted to sensory perception- vision, hearing, smell and taste- will be utilized. The corpus annotation will consist of the following stages: 1 metaphor identification, 2 indication of the metaphor cluster (CM - a phrase or a passage of the text, centered around one referent, 3 isolation of the metaphorical units (MU - word forms or phrases combining lexemes primarily belonging to different perceptual frames. The outcome of the MU analysis will include: a general metaphorical scheme of the MU, lexical items activating the frame of the MU (together with their grammatical description, a detailed metaphor scheme of the MU, and the semantic and grammatical categorization of the MU.   SYNAMET – mikrokorpus metafor synestezyjnych. Wstępne założenia opisu metafory w dyskursie Artykuł opisuje wstępne założenia anotacji metafor w powstającym mikrokorpusie metafor synestezyjnych SYNAMET. Podstawą metody opisu będzie teoria CLST (Context-Limited Simulation Theory D. Ritchie’go. W myśl tej teorii nośnik metafory (vehicle może aktywować różne typy powiązania między wyrazami: semantyczne, zmysłowe lub emocjonalne

  12. Ectopic expression of AID in a non-B cell line triggers A:T and G:C point mutations in non-replicating episomal vectors.

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    Tihana Jovanic

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is currently viewed as a two step process initiated by the deamination of deoxycytidine (C to deoxyuridine (U, catalysed by the activation induced deaminase (AID. Phase 1 mutations arise from DNA replication across the uracil residue or the abasic site, generated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase, yielding transitions or transversions at G:C pairs. Phase 2 mutations result from the recognition of the U:G mismatch by the Msh2/Msh6 complex (MutS Homologue, followed by the excision of the mismatched nucleotide and the repair, by the low fidelity DNA polymerase eta, of the gap generated by the exonuclease I. These mutations are mainly focused at A:T pairs. Whereas in activated B cells both G:C and A:T pairs are equally targeted, ectopic expression of AID was shown to trigger only G:C mutations on a stably integrated reporter gene. Here we show that when using non-replicative episomal vectors containing a GFP gene, inactivated by the introduction of stop codons at various positions, a high level of EGFP positive cells was obtained after transient expression in Jurkat cells constitutively expressing AID. We show that mutations at G:C and A:T pairs are produced. EGFP positive cells are obtained in the absence of vector replication demonstrating that the mutations are dependent only on the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. This implies that the generation of phase 1 mutations is not a prerequisite for the expression of phase 2 mutations.

  13. Metaphor of society (a sociological essay

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    Gennadii Vasil’evich Osipov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay by Academician G.V. Osipov, who is the patriarch of Russian sociology, is dedicated to one of the most cognitive topics of modern sociology – identification of sociological metaphor as such and its application in research projects. This topic is avant-garde for the world sociological thought, and in Russia such kind of research is making its first steps. However, its future importance is difficult to overestimate. Sociological metaphor, if a methodology for its application is developed, can provide scientists with qualitatively new synthetic research tools. It can also bring together scientific structures and artifacts on the space of interdisciplinary and inter-subject borderland and give them qualitatively new intellectual and sensuous (system and mental technological capabilities for learning the surrounding world. The advantage of the following essay can be found in the fact that it is based on the objective analysis of the real embodiment of social metaphor in the work of art – a pictorial triptych “The Mystery of the 21st Century”. This is the first such experience in domestic sociological and artistic-painting practice. The authors of the final product are a scientist of great scientific and life experience and a young artist, who received in-depth sociological training and defended his Ph.D. in Sociology dissertation. But the main result of their collaboration is a product that combines scientific (sociological knowledge and insight and intuitive-creative artistic perception in a qualitatively new perception of the world and world outlook

  14. Metaphor and Second Language Learning: The State of the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Once considered a stylistic issue, metaphor is now considered a critical component of everyday and specialized language and most importantly, a fundamental mechanism of human conceptualizations of the world. The use of metaphor in language, thought and communication has been examined in second language (L2) learning. The body of literature that…

  15. The strategic use of the visual mode in advertising metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Djonov, E.; Zhao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors present one kind of thing (a "target") in terms of another (a "source"), and are therefore ideal instruments for advertisers to make claims about products (the metaphors’ targets) efficiently and creatively. Since the intended interpretation of metaphors is often not spelled out,

  16. The aptness of knowledge related metaphors: a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2010-01-01

    Metaphors are common phenomena intellectual capital and knowledge management theories and practice. An important question to ask is: what are the ‗best‘ metaphors we can use in our theorizing on intellectual capital and knowledge management? This paper addresses the question of the aptness of

  17. The metonymic and metaphoric conceptualisations of the heart in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data reveal that there are no striking differences between English and Akan with respect to the metaphoric and metonymic conceptualisations of the heart. The differences in the language-specific conceptualisations are attributed to the cultural models embedded in the two languages. Keywords: heart, metaphor ...

  18. The Metaphor of Memory in Wordsworth's Spots of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lis

    2014-01-01

    on the turf. The insertion of the motif of the inscription turns the scene of execution into a literal site of memory, but it also functions as a metaphorical representation of the phenomenon of memory. The paper explores the implication of the inscription as metaphor of memory in a reading of the two spots....

  19. Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Football Coach through Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervent, Fatih; Inan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the metaphors which were used to describe the concept "football coach" by some stakeholders in football, such as players, club officials and referees. Each individual (N = 389) within the study group was asked to reveal the single metaphor s/he has in mind in respect of the concept of football…

  20. An Exploratory Use of Musical Metaphors to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrauch, J. Donald

    2005-01-01

    This article provides the role, scope, instructional experiences, and prospects of employing musical metaphors as a possible teaching tool. Interactive student learning is encouraged by actually playing songs in marketing strategy courses. First, an overview on the explanation and popularity of metaphors in both nonbusiness and business fields…

  1. The Persuasiveness of Metaphor: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, Susan A.

    1981-01-01

    Tested the persuasiveness of three extended concluding metaphors: sex, death, and sex-death. (Speech topic for high school students was the anti-legalization of marihuana.) Results indicated that attitudes changed more toward the position advocated in the speech when it contained a concluding sex metaphor than when it did not. (PD)

  2. Linear and Nonlinear Career Models: Metaphors, Paradigms, and Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…

  3. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  4. Metaphors Describing Energy Transfer through Ecosystems: Helpful or Misleading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernecke, Ulrike; Schwanewedel, Julia; Harms, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Energy transfer in ecosystems is an abstract and challenging topic for learners. Metaphors are widely used in scientific and educational discourse to communicate ideas about abstract phenomena. However, although considered valuable teaching tools, metaphors are ambiguous and can be misleading when used in educational contexts. Educational…

  5. Metaphors for Happiness in English and Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of conceptualization reflected in figurative language are motivated by embodied experience, and comparisons of emotion metaphors in English, Mandarin Chinese and other languages have shown widespread similarity in such metaphors cross-culturally (Lakoff & Johnson 1980, 1999; King 1989; Yu 1996; Kovecses 2005). Nonetheless, we can also…

  6. Metaphors in editorial cartoons representing the global financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bounegru, L.; Forceville, C.

    2011-01-01

    Lakoff and Johnson (1980) claim that metaphors play a crucial role in systematically structuring concepts, not just language. Probing the validity of this far-reaching claim requires investigating multimodal discourse. In this paper we analyse the 25 metaphors that structure a sample of 30 political

  7. Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Ronald Reagan's use of inventional metaphors of entrapment and escape, language meshing with the American public's perception of the economy in the early 1980s. Notes that Reagan's reliance on inventional metaphors produced a rigidity in his approach to new situations, ultimately damaging his ability to lead the nation. (MM)

  8. The Hamstringing of Moral Education: Athletic Metaphors and Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, C. Stephen

    This discussion of "dominant metaphors" characterizing the nation's history focuses specifically on the period of metaphor change surrounding the ascent of the National Football League. The terms AGON and PAIDIA, used by the ancient Greeks to describe two dimensions of sports activities, provide the framework for a discussion of the athletic…

  9. Hyperboles not turning to metaphors : How to explain audience cooperativeness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    We observe that an audience attempts to interpret the relation between a source domain and a target domain as a hyperbole before interpreting it as a metaphor. It could also first try a metaphorical reading or attempt several possible readings and successively select the relevant outcome. But it

  10. Conflict at Disneyland: A Root-Metaphor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ruth C.; Eisenberg, Eric M.

    1987-01-01

    Uses metaphor analysis to illuminate recent conflicts at Disneyland. Discusses a 30-year change of emphasis of root-metaphors from "drama" to "family" that reflects fundamental differences between management and employees, along with the implications of this confrontation for the future of Disneyland. (NKA)

  11. Visual and multimodal metaphor in film: Charting the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Fahlenbrach, K.

    2016-01-01

    Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) pioneering work claimed that human beings think metaphorically, thereby initiating a remarkable revival of the scholarly interest in this queen of tropes. This interest reigned at first primarily among linguists. Since then, however, metaphor research has considerably

  12. The Importance of Harmony: An Ecological Metaphor for Writing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.; Spinuzzi, Clay; Rickly, Rebecca J.; Papper, Carole Clark

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues for the value of an ecological metaphor in conceptualizing, designing, and enacting research in writing studies. Such a metaphor conceives of activities, actors, situations, and phenomena as interdependent, diverse, and fused through feedback. This ecological orientation invites composition scholars to research rhetorically: to…

  13. Interdiscursive Character of Semantic Development of Coreferential Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мансур Фарвазович Гайнаншин

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to establishing the character of semantic development involving coreferential metaphors in interdiscursive space. The solution of this problem is aimed at determining semantic relations between different links in chains made up by a number of coreferential metaphors that share the property of variant imagery nomination. The task is implemented within the boundaries of an interdiscourse viewed as a minimum cultural associative context. Empirical data have been drawn from financial and economic texts in electronic and online versions of leading English mass media resources. The meanings of key language units that underlie metaphoric designations of economic notions are clarified with the help of general English language dictionaries and culturological reference books. The analysis of selected examples is carried out based on componential, contextual, discursive, pragmatic analyses and procedures of semantic interpretation supplemented by linguaculturological methods. The investigation allows us to draw the following conclusions: semantic development of coreferential metaphors occurs on two levels: between variant imagery nominations within metaphorical chains M1 + M2 + M3 + ... Мn and between the head metaphor and submetaphors M1 ® ma + mb + mc +... mn; it has proved the role of interdiscursive contextual relations between metaphors having the same type of reference; it has shown the participation of imagery nominations within coreferential chains in the process of sense profiling; it has demonstrated intensification of semantic tension resulting from metaphoric density in coreferential blocks signaling greater synergetic effect produced on the reader.

  14. The Serious Use of Play and Metaphor: Legos and Labyrinths

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alison; Brookfield, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors wish to examine kinesthetic forms of learning involving the body and the physical realm. The authors look at two particular techniques; using Legos to build metaphorical models and living the physical experience of metaphors in the shape of labyrinth-walking and its attendant activities. The authors begin by discussing…

  15. Functional MRI of Conventional and Anomalous Metaphors in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kathleen; Liu, Ho-Ling; Lee, Chia-Ying; Gong, Shu-Ping; Fang, Shin-Yi; Hsu, Yuan-Yu

    2007-01-01

    This study looks at whether conventional and anomalous metaphors are processed in different locations in the brain while being read when compared with a literal condition in Mandarin Chinese. We find that conventional metaphors differ from the literal condition with a slight amount of increased activation in the right inferior temporal gyrus. In…

  16. Cognitive Metaphor Theory and the Metaphysics of Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mathias W.

    2016-01-01

    One of the core tenets of cognitive metaphor theory is the claim that metaphors ground abstract knowledge in concrete, first-hand experience. In this paper, I argue that this grounding hypothesis contains some problematic conceptual ambiguities and, under many reasonable interpretations, empirical difficulties. I present evidence that there are…

  17. Sacrifice in Early Christianity : The Social Dimension of a Metaphor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwhorst, Gerard; Duyndam, Joachim; Korte, Anne-Marie; Poorthuis, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In Early Christianity the term 'sacrifice' was understood in a metaphorical way. The key to this metaphorical was to be found in the life and the death of Jesus Christ which which was interpreted as a self-offering and, for its part, constituted the model of the Christian way of life. Although this

  18. A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER frame in Swami Vivekananda's Complete Works : A corpus-driven study in light of conceptual metaphor theory. ... Which terms to search for specifically was determined after a manual reading of a sample from the Complete Works. The data were then tagged ...

  19. Teaching Scientific Metaphors through Informational Text Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Erica M.; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2018-01-01

    Elementary students are expected to use various features of informational texts to build knowledge in the content areas. In science informational texts, scientific metaphors are commonly used to make sense of complex and invisible processes. Although elementary students may be familiar with literary metaphors as used in narratives, they may be…

  20. The City as Metaphor for Integrated Learning in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efland, Arthur

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a cognitive model that is an alternative to Jerome Bruner's spiral curriculum, developed and based on the metaphor that the mind's knowledge base is a lattice. States that the lattice metaphor offers an understanding of cognition but some questions still remained unanswered. (CMK)

  1. Modelling the Role of Cognitive Metaphors in Joint Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ments, L.; Thilakarathne, D.J.; Treur, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a social agent model is presented for the influence of cognitive metaphors on joint decision making processes. The social agent model is based on mechanisms known from cognitive and social neuroscience and cognitive metaphor theory. The model was illustrated in particular for two

  2. The Role of Metaphor in the Interpretation of Basketball Jargons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟

    2012-01-01

      Based upon Lakoff and Johnson’s theory of conventional metaphor, this paper takes some basketball jargons as a case for analysis from the cognitive perspective. The analysis verifies the indispensable role that metaphor as an important cogni⁃tive instrument plays in people’s interpreting and understanding the target domain by carrying over concepts from the source domain.

  3. The Persuasiveness of Metaphor: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, Susan A.

    A study was conducted to replicate and extend an earlier investigation of the persuasive effects of extended, intense concluding sex and death metaphors by using a more controlled design and by mixing metaphors. Fifty-eight high school students completed pretests assessing their attitudes toward a speech topic (legalization of marijuana). Two…

  4. Exploration of Metaphorical and Contextual Affect Sensing in a Virtual Improvisational Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    Real-time affect detection from open-ended text-based dialogue is challenging but essential for the building of effective intelligent user interfaces. In this paper, we report updated developments of an affect detection model from text, including affect detection from one particular type of metaphorical affective expression (cooking metaphor) and affect detection based on context. The overall affect detection model has been embedded in an intelligent conversational AI agent interacting with human users under loose scenarios. Evaluation for the updated affect detection component is also provided. Our work contributes to the conference themes on engagement and emotion, interactions in games, storytelling and narrative in education, and virtual characters/agents development.

  5. Ortega’s Metaphor versus Zambrano’s Symbol. A Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez Díaz del Real

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are great similarities and stylistic analogies between the essays and philosophical writings of José Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955 and María Zambrano (1904-1991, derived from the university relationship they had during the late 1920’s, which can be seen in María Zambrano’s respect and admiration towards Ortega y Gasset as her teacher. Taking the use of metaphor in María Zambrano’s works as the starting point of this analysis, the present article explores the evolution of Zambrano’s style, from a remarkable initial Ortegan influence in her very early writings to how she defines her own path, where the metaphor slowly disappears and the symbol becomes an increasingly central element of her literary expression.

  6. Bread and Water as Metaphors for the Word of God in the Four Gospels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Ledwoń

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bread and water are among the best-known Biblical metaphors for the Word of God. This article presents a study of their occurrence in the four Gospels against the backdrop of the Old Testament. However, an analysis of the explicit references to bread and water is not exhaustive with regards to the topic under discussion. Therefore, other terms that relate to them, such as food, spring, hunger, thirst, feeding, and drinking, are also of great interest. Studying the metaphors for the Word of God reveals both a continuation of the Biblical ideas within the four Gospels, as well as a total novelty in the expression of the Word that became flesh (Jn 1:14.

  7. Beyond Metaphor in Product Use and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Özcan, Elif; Cila, Nazli

    2012-01-01

    in product use. First, the notion of product metaphor usually accounts for how the visual form and appearance of a product might cue people to conceive of the product in terms of another conceptual source (e.g. a coffee maker as a butler), while leaving the role of cross-modal sensory experience in product...... product interpretation might evolve over time as people interact with and use the product. Finally, in product use there often emerge more complex and even ambiguous forms of meaning, which falls outside the explanatory scope of the source-target construal principle – the key semantic principle of product...

  8. Public health metaphors in Australian policy on asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Glenda

    2009-02-01

    To analyse the way in which a public health metaphor has been incorporated into Australian political practice to justify the exclusion or mistreatment of unwelcome non-citizens, giving particular attention to recent asylum seekers. Starting with a personal experience of working in an immigration detention centre and then drawing on media reports and published scholarship, I critique political rhetoric and policy on asylum seekers, arguing that the significance of a public health metaphor lies in its effectiveness in persuading the public that refugees and asylum seekers are a moral contaminant that threatens the nation and has to be contained. Acceptance of the metaphor sanctions humanly degrading inferences, policies and actions. Public health professionals therefore have a responsibility to challenge the political use of public health and associated metaphors. Substituting the existing metaphor for one that is more morally acceptable could help to redefine refugees and asylum seekers more positively and promote compassion in political leaders and the community.

  9. How vertical hand movements impact brain activity elicited by literally and metaphorically related words: an ERP study of embodied metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardolph, Megan; Coulson, Seana

    2014-01-01

    Embodied metaphor theory suggests abstract concepts are metaphorically linked to more experientially basic ones and recruit sensorimotor cortex for their comprehension. To test whether words associated with spatial attributes reactivate traces in sensorimotor cortex, we recorded EEG from the scalp of healthy adults as they read words while performing a concurrent task involving either upward- or downward- directed arm movements. ERPs were time-locked to words associated with vertical space—either literally (ascend, descend) or metaphorically (inspire, defeat)—as participants made vertical movements that were either congruent or incongruent with the words. Congruency effects emerged 200–300 ms after word onset for literal words, but not until after 500 ms post-onset for metaphorically related words. Results argue against a strong version of embodied metaphor theory, but support a role for sensorimotor simulation in concrete language. PMID:25566041

  10. Perceptual Influence of Ugandan Biology Students' Understanding of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutonyi, Harriet; Nashon, Samson; Nielsen, Wendy S.

    2010-01-01

    In Uganda, curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS has largely depended on public and private media messages about the disease. Media campaigns based on Uganda's cultural norms of communication are metaphorical, analogical and simile-like. The topic of HIV/AIDS has been introduced into the Senior Three (Grade 11) biology curriculum in Uganda. To what…

  11. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the paper attempts to determine both the kind of source domains from which common metaphors are drawn and to what degree structural metaphors are used. The data suggests that many structural metaphors can be found in the language of politics. They are drawn from a wide variety of sports source domains, although the domains of boxing, racing, sailing, and soccer are of particular prominence. It seems that the primary function of structural metaphors in written commentaries is to facilitate the interpretation of facts in a way that is enormously appealing to the reader.

  12. It Is Time to Cancel Medicine's Social Contract Metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John M

    2017-09-01

    There is agreement that the complex relationship between medicine and society is best described as a metaphorical social contract and that professionalism is the medical profession's contribution to this contract. Metaphors can help clarify abstract concepts, but they can also be abused if the counterfactual attributes of a metaphor become attributed to its subject. This seems to be happening with medical professionalism, which has sometimes been reduced to a contracted deliverable and a bargaining chip. The undesirable attributes of the social contract metaphor may be hindering efforts to understand and teach medical professionalism.Despite its theoretical weaknesses, the social contract metaphor has historical credibility because of its alleged association with the 1847 Code of Medical Ethics and the subsequent ascension of regular (allopathic) medicine in the early 20th century. However, the record does not support an argument that the intended purpose of the 1847 Code was to create a social contract or that one ever arose. The alternative account that a contract did arise, but physicians were poor partners, is neither satisfying nor explanatory.As now used, medicine's social contract metaphor has serious theoretical and historic weaknesses. Medical educators should remove this narrow and overworked metaphor from their discussions of professionalism. By doing this, educators and the profession in general would only lose the ability to threaten themselves with the cancellation of their social contract. In return they would open the door to a more complex and fruitful consideration of medical professionalism and medicine's relationship with society.

  13. Metaphor, symbolic play, and logical thought in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J A

    1997-11-01

    Development of the ability to understand diverse types of metaphor was examined in terms of play context (symbolic vs. constructive-object play), Piagetian operational level (preoperational vs. concrete-operational), and medium of presentation (pictures vs. words). Forty 4-year-olds and 80 6-year-olds (40 preoperational, 40 concrete-operational) were presented with six different types of metaphorical relationships (color, shape, physiognomic, cross-modal, psychological-physical, and taxonomic matches) in both pictures and words in a match-to-sample design. Results indicated that (a) constructive-object play, rather than symbolic play, facilitated the understanding of perceptual and taxonomic metaphor, suggesting differences in early styles of metaphoric usage; (b) despite previous findings, the study failed to replicate a relationship between operativity and metaphoric understanding; and (c) younger children did significantly better in the pictorial medium, suggesting a picture-superiority effect for more perceptible metaphorical relations (perceptual and physiognomic), whereas older children showed a word-superiority effect for more conceptual metaphors (psychological-physical and taxonomic).

  14. A Route to the Teaching of Polysemous Lexicon: Benefits from Cognitive Linguistics and Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Veliz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some implications and applications of the field of Cognitive linguistics (CL to the teaching of English as a second, foreign or additional language (ESL, EFL or EAL. Some of the areas to which CL has immensely contributed are the teaching and learning of grammar, including modality and prepositions (e.g. Langacker, 1991; Langacker, 2008, the teaching and learning of lexis, especially metaphorically-used words and expressions (e.g. Boers, 2004; Deignan, Gabrys, & Solska, 1997; Kalyuga & Kalyuga, 2008; Kövecses, 1996, and the teaching and development of literacy skills, in particular the skills to better understand texts with metaphors embedded (e.g. Boers, 2000. A discussion of all these areas is certainly beyond the scope of this paper. The area to which some attention is drawn in this article is that of teaching metaphorical lexis, with a particular focus on the teaching of polysemous words. General suggestions and teaching recommendations are made in an attempt to bring this field closer to language practitioners.

  15. Reverie and metaphor. Some thoughts on how I work as a psychoanalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, T

    1997-08-01

    In this paper, the author presents parts of an ongoing internal dialogue concerning how he works as an analyst. He describes the way in which he attempts to sense what is most alive and most real in each analytic encounter, as well as his use of his own reveries in his effort to locate himself in what is going on at an unconscious level in the analytic relationship. The author views each analytic situation as reflecting, to a large degree, a specific type of unconscious intersubjective construction. Since unconscious experience is by definition outside of conscious awareness, the analyst must make use of indirect (associational) methods such as the scrutiny of his own reverie experience in his efforts to 'catch the drift' (Freud, 1923, p. 239) of the unconscious intersubjective constructions being generated. Reveries (and all other derivatives of the unconscious) are viewed not as glimpses into the unconscious, but as metaphorical expressions of what the unconscious experience is like. In the author's experience, when an analysis is 'a going concern', the analytic dialogue often takes the form of a verbal 'squiggle game' (Winnicott, 1971a, p. 3) in which the analytic pair elaborates and modifies the metaphors that the other has unself-consciously introduced. The analytic use of reverie and of the role of metaphor in the analytic experience is clinically illustrated.

  16. [The genome and its metaphors. Detectives, heroes or prophets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davo, M C; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    2003-01-01

    The new genetics, or the impetus given to this discipline by the Genome Project, aims to a change of paradigm of the Health Sciences. This change is postulated from a phenotypic approach to a genotypic one, thereby excluding the influence of the environment, which could seriously undermine the grounds for the development and exercise of Public Health. Since the beginning of the genome project, information on genetic discoveries has frequently been reported in the mass media. Metaphors are often used by geneticists and journalists to convey the complex concepts of genetic research for which there are no equivalents in the lay language. The media do not merely shape the social agenda but also provide the space in which health culture is constructed. We present the results of a preliminary study exploring the metaphors used in the three most widely-read national daily newspapers in Spain, namely ABC, El Pais and El Mundo, when reporting news of the new genetics. The possible consequences of the natural history of these metaphors, or the process through which figurative terms acquire a literal meaning, are discussed. A preliminary taxonomy for the metaphors identified was developed. Fifty-one out of 342 identified headings (14.8%) contained metaphors. Strategic metaphors such as program, control, code, map, and puzzle, were the most commonly used, followed by teleological ones such as mystery or God language and finally war-like metaphors such as attack, defeat, and capture. The three groups of metaphors are characterized by an attempt to giving intentionality to genes. Strategic metaphors predominated over teleological and war-like ones and thus a technocratic perspective could form the basis of the future construction of health culture.

  17. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  18. Enacting Conceptual Metaphor through Blending: Learning activities embodying the substance metaphor for energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that a particular blended learning space is especially productive in developing understanding of energy transfers and transformations. In this blended space, naturally occurring learner interactions like body movement, gesture, and metaphorical speech are blended with a conceptual metaphor of energy as a substance in a class of activities called Energy Theater. We illustrate several mechanisms by which the blended aspect of the learning environment promotes productive intellectual engagement with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including distinguishing among energy processes, disambiguating matter and energy, identifying energy transfer, and representing energy as a conserved quantity. Conceptual advancement appears to be promoted especially by the symbolic material and social structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants and objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope, and by Energy Theater's embodied action, including body locomotion, gesture, and coordination of speech with symbolic spaces in the Energy Theater arena. Our conclusions are (1) that specific conceptual metaphors can be leveraged to benefit science instruction via the blending of an abstract space of ideas with multiple modes of concrete human action, and (2) that participants' structured improvisation plays an important role in leveraging the blend for their intellectual development.

  19. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of different....... The dataset of the dissertation consists of six conversations of six creative startups. In addition one case from a large Danish food production company was studied. All seven groups were taken through the same process. First they built three buildings in toy bricks of the brand LEGO Serious Play...... cognitive process rather than a number of individual processes. The dissertation is a compilation of four contributions in addition to an introductory part on theory and methodology and a concluding part. The four contributions are: 1. A book chapter for Handbook of Language and Metaphor to be published...

  20. Multimodal psychoanalytically informed aid work with children traumatized by the Chechen war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerfolio, Nina E

    2009-01-01

    As demonstrated in three cases, this paper illustrates how psychoanalytically informed multimodal care was an essential element of effective medical treatment of children traumatized by the Chechen war. Multimodal psychoanalytically informed aid work involves holding a variety of psychoanalytic viewpoints, including but not restricted to those represented by the Freudian, Interpersonal, and Relational orientations; its purpose is to allow for greater clarity in conceptualizing the traumatized child's response to war in order to provide the necessary care during the therapeutic process. Among the issues addressed are how traumatic memory can initially be expressed nonverbally, and therefore the use of embodied life-metaphors and witnessing are central to the survivors' ability to remember and symbolize. In addition, the significance of cultural awareness and sensitivity are explored as key components to the children's care. In the first case, the author illustrates how a traumatic life-metaphor can be resolved at an embodied, rather than an exclusively verbal, level. In the second case, cultural tradition and relativism have a significant impact on addressing medical and quality of life issues for the child. The third case illustrates how the analyst functions as recognizing witness to a parent's trauma; the "being with" of the relationship becomes the agent of the parent's change.

  1. Using metaphoric body-mapping to encourage reflection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: body-mapping; Life Orientation; metaphor; pre-service teacher; professional identity; reflection. Introduction ... discussion about the identity and work ethic of a good teacher. ..... as well as learning, can offer valuable insights into.

  2. Designing to support reasoned imagination through embodied metaphor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, A.N. (Alissa); Corness, G.; Bakker, S.; Droumeva, M.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Bevans, A.; Bryan-Kinns, N.

    2009-01-01

    Supporting users' reasoned imagination in sense making during interaction with tangible and embedded computation involves supporting the application of their existing mental schemata in understanding new forms of interaction. Recent studies that include an embodied metaphor in the interaction model,

  3. METAPHORICAL EVALUATION IN SPONTANEOUS DIALOGUE (СOGNITIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOYKO ANNA KONSTANTINOVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to explore the relationship between metaphor and comic effect in order to achieve the understanding of those cognitive processes that are updated during the implementation of evaluative meanings in dialogical discourse. Analysis of dialogical speech produced in the framework of this publication, indicated that the estimated metaphor acquires comic effect, causes laughter of the participants of communication, when their attention is focused on two concepts directly involved in the modeling metaphor. Speaking subject - intentionally or unintentionally - separates the domains that are relevant for the initiation of this metaphor, specially emphasizing the differences of these domains. This creates a voltage between the two input spaces are denoted by their borders, which, in turn, leads to comic effect.

  4. MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN DISPOSISI MATEMATIS SISWA SMP MELALUI PENDEKATAN METAPHORICAL THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbaiti Widyasari

    2016-12-01

    metaphorical thinking dan kelas yang mendapatkan pembelajaran dengan cara konvensional tidak terdapat perbedaan, serta tidak terdapat pengaruh interaksi antara pendekatan pembelajaran dengan kemampuan awal matematis terhadap kemampuan disposisi matematis siswa.

  5. Conceptual metaphors in South African political speeches (1994 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    The widely discussed conceptual metaphor POLITICS IS WAR, for example, surfaces ..... By conceptualising democracy as a child or person people perceive it as something which .... hoist the racist and sexist standards of the pasttm01b ...

  6. The mutuality metaphor: understanding healthcare provision in NHS Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Brian

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007) sets out how the Scottish Government intends to strengthen public ownership of the National Health Service in Scotland. The purpose of this paper is to advance extant knowledge by understanding how a state-led mutual health policy may be interpreted, and importantly, communicated. Design/methodology/approach - The definitional problem of mutuality will be discussed and analysed in terms of how it is (or perhaps should be) communicated? will be offered. Findings - It actually may be more instructive to think of, and communicate, mutuality as a metaphor to aid understanding of the openness and fluidity found in NHS Scotland. Research limitations/implications - The existence of paradox and ambiguity does not, however, negate the usefulness of the term "mutuality". Quite the opposite in fact: it is precisely by examining healthcare and its delivery through the lens of mutuality (rather than rejecting its complexity as a failure) that this amorphousness can be better appreciated. Practical implications - There is a need for more public, professional, and academic debate to explore and clarify its implementation, and how it is to be led. This must be provided whilst recognising the daily imperatives that NHS leaders must face. This would suggest, therefore, that a dual development path may help. Originality/value - Although Better Health, Better Care Action Plan was published in 2007, some eight years on there is still confusion and misunderstanding as to what mutuality in healthcare is, not only in policy and theory, but also in practice. It is hoped that this analysis will help address, in part, some of this confusion and misunderstanding.

  7. Model or metaphor. More comments on the BEIR III report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Data have been obtained for Hiroshima and Nagasaki from which were prepared the estimates of somatic risk coefficients for ionizing radiation presented in the BEIR III Report. Several Poisson regression models of these data by both Bayesian and Sampling Theory methods. The results of the evaluations disclose some interesting idiosyncracies in the statistical methods by which the BEIR III estimates and inferences were obtained. The paper presents these results in the format of a textual criticism of the foundations of the received estimates of risk that are presented in the Somatic Effects Sections of the BEIR III Report. Whatever the resolution of the current difficulties with the validity of the T65 estimates of dose, the utility of any estimates of risk coefficients depends upon the suitability of the statistical methods by which any estimates of dose are mapped into estimates of risk. The statistical methods of the BEIR III Report seem idiosyncratic. Use of standard methods discloses that its rival models (LQ-L, L-L AND Q-L) may be more effective as metaphors of expression than as models of radiation response

  8. OPPOSITIVE METAPHORICAL MODELS IN THE GERMAN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tameryan, T.Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s metaphoric image in the German press. As a result of analysis 8 binary metaphorical constructions, verbalized by two components, one of which is positively marked (PM, the other one have been negatively (NM identified. Statistical analysis of the linguistic material allowed to conclude that the assessment of Merkel is ambivalently with a slight predominance of positive estimation.

  9. Making sense of the Web: a metaphorical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ratzan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the World Wide Web is unfamiliar to most people. In order to make sense of this foreign environment people describe the unfamiliar in terms of the familiar. Metaphors are often used for this purpose. Since it is important to use the Web effectively it is important to acquire insight on user perceptions. Preliminary results of the Internet Metaphor Project are presented.

  10. THE WORLD-MODELLING POTENCY OF THE INDIVIDUAL METAPHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova, M.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes individual metaphors as a fundamental component of the artistic worldview. The research discusses the correlation between the individual metaphor and interdiscourse markedness that allows identifying some peculiarities of cultural identity of the English-language literary text. The central place belongs to the propositions connected with the ways of reality conceptualization in the minds of the English-speaking mentality, which are necessary for correct interpretation of the cultural-specific information.

  11. Collective Review: Three Approaches to Teaching and Learning Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schmitt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the guiding force of metaphors is a long-standing tradition in the German-speaking educational sciences. However, no connection is made to the theory of metaphor, which is derived from modern cognitive linguistics. This may in part be due to a lack of qualitative studies in the educational sciences on the subject of everyday reasoning. These three doctoral studies seek to fill the void, with Peter GANSEN producing detailed descriptions of how children use metaphors, whilst also developing a theory for an "educational metaphorology." Sabine MARSCH, on the other hand, shows how metaphors shape subjective theories of teaching and can open or close active learning. Kai NIEBERT's work focuses on an analysis and comparison of metaphors used by both climate change theorists and everyday observers, whilst also building didactical bridges. Although the three studies differ in terms of methodology and thematic focus, they open up the field of metaphor analysis in the educational sciences, hopefully providing stimulus for further work in this area. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1103195

  12. Exploring EFL Teachers’ Cognitive Models Through Metaphor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how a group of Chinese university teachers developed their cognitive models by using “English as a Foreign Language (EFL teachers” metaphors. The research method includes an open-ended questionnaire, a checklist questionnaire, and verbal reports. The goal for this research is twofold. First, we will present those metaphors we believe to be the most frequently used or most central in shaping the thoughts or ideas they have had for EFL teaching and learning. Second, we will provide a description of their internal process of developing cognitive models, as well as factors that could account for such models. The findings showed that (a most of us had three ways of understanding EFL teachers in terms of the educational journey metaphor, the educational building metaphor, and the educational conduit metaphor; (b we used such a cluster of converging cognitive models as the instructor model, the transmitter model, and the builder model to construct definitions for EFL teachers, with the instructor model as a central model; and (c metaphor can actually serve as a useful, effective, and analytic tool for making us aware of the cognitive model underlying our conceptual framework.

  13. Cognitive metaphor as a tool for study of work perception by different professional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov E.P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains an analysis of cognitive approach to metaphor and of pos- sibility to use it in researching objects perception by people. Metaphor is considered as a part of thinking process and at the same time as its product, which can be meaning- ful for thinking process analysis itself. The main basics of metaphor were formulated. Methods were modified for creating metaphors. A wide range of respondents were at- tracted to help many of them with creating metaphors as it is too difficult task from their point of view. To open diagnostically potential of cognitive metaphor it was held comparative analysis of metaphors for perception of work among 124 teachers and 52 medicine workers. The result of content analysis helped to find metaphor groups reflecting some patterns of perception of work. It was shown that cognitive metaphor is effective and precise tool which helps to understand characteristic perception people have about their work.

  14. Budget impact analysis of gene expression tests to aid therapy decisions for breast cancer patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, M P; Nabieva, N; Hildebrandt, T; Rebscher, H; Kümmel, S; Blohmer, J-U; Schrauder, M G

    2018-02-01

    Many women with early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer may not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Gene expression tests can reduce chemotherapy over- and undertreatment by providing prognostic information on the likelihood of recurrence and, with Oncotype DX, predictive information on chemotherapy benefit. These tests are currently not reimbursed by German healthcare payers. An analysis was conducted to evaluate the budget impact of gene expression tests in Germany. Costs of gene expression tests and medical and non-medical costs associated with treatment were assessed from healthcare payer and societal perspectives. Costs were estimated from data collected at a university hospital and were combined with decision impact data for Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, Prosigna and EndoPredict (EPclin). Changes in chemotherapy use and budget impact were evaluated over 1 year for 20,000 women. Chemotherapy was associated with substantial annual costs of EUR 19,003 and EUR 84,412 per therapy from the healthcare payer and societal perspective, respectively. Compared with standard care, only Oncotype DX was associated with cost savings to healthcare payers and society (EUR 5.9 million and EUR 253 million, respectively). Scenario analysis showed that both women at high clinical but low genomic risk and low clinical but high genomic risk were important contributors to costs. Oncotype DX was the only gene expression test that was estimated to reduce costs versus standard care in Germany. The reimbursement of Oncotype DX testing in standard clinical practice in Germany should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Theoretical Account on the Study of Metaphor in Didactic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El-Sharif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article makes a literary review to the linguistic research in the use of metaphor in didactic discourse; especially the religious one. Acknowledging Conceptual Metaphor Theory as the primary theory in the field, the researcher embarks upon how metaphor is perceived and analysed in discourse in order to pertain its persuasive function. The article presents different approaches to metaphor analysis and their interconnection. The implications of these approaches are later deduced and interpreted within the scope of Islamic religious discourse as an example of didactic discourses. Keywords: Metaphors, Metaphor Analysis, Didactic Discourse, Persuasion

  16. Metaphors in Managerial and Employee Sensemaking in an Information Systems Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hekkala, Riitta; Stein, Mari-Klara; Rossi, Matti

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study looks at the metaphors used in a public sector information systems development project from the perspective of cognitive metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson,). We examine the use of metaphors by project team members, including representatives of the users, software developers......-intensive situations, metaphor use with unclear intentions and purpose hinders learning and creates more chaos than order. From a practical perspective, our study highlights the relevance of metaphor use for project management. We suggest that intentional selection of metaphors by management could be beneficial...

  17. An Analysis of Commercial Advertisement——From Conceptual Metaphor Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段慧敏

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor as a rhetorical device is widely used in advertisements,many scholars has studied metaphors in advertisements from rhetoric and semantic perspectives.However with the development of cognitive linguistics,it provides a new aspect for metaphor study.Metaphor is not only a rhetorical device but also a method of thinking.More efficient and positive information in advertisements can be conveyed to consumers by using cognitive metaphor.This paper explores the effect and influence of conceptual metaphor in commercial advertisement.

  18. COGNITIVE LINGUISTIC AND ESP: USING METAPHOR AS A USEFUL DEVICE FOR TEACHING L2 BUSINESS ENGLISH LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Hendriyani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Linguistics is language essentially and inherently symbolic in nature. It means that all linguistic expressions such as; words, phrases and sentences, utterances, signs or writting are symbols of concept in a speaker’s mind. Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action that it does not literally denote in order to imply a resemblance. Many people have encountered them in literature and poetry, and most of us know that even when we talk casually, we may take advantage of such figurative language, perhaps especially when there are some evasive, hard-to-grasp emotions or thought that we want to communicate. We can find several metaphors in newspapers, literature or scientific articles, etc. Metaphor is a central issue in ESP teaching. The purposes of this paper are (1 to increase the students’ knowledge of technical and semi-technical business vocabulary. (2 to improve business reading fluency and (3 to enrich vocabulary in business texts or readings. Metaphor in a specific English language program can provide students with a useful device to raise awareness of key concepts, models and issues and to improve their reading in business. The term of Business English refers to a wide range of ESL (English for Specific Learning courses characterized by having sense of purpose, specific content and general. This frequent presence of metaphor in economic and business texts are for second language learners, to improve language learners’ specialized reading of business texts and to help them produce native-like discourse when they translate business texts.

  19. Metaphors in scientific and technical languages: challenges and perspective Metáforas em linguagens técnicas e científicas: desafios e perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Bocorny Finatto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show, in a summarized way, how different studies on metaphor can positively converge to a cognitive-linguistic perception of this phenomenon. This perception surpasses a merely stylistic vision of the metaphor. The paper also reports the research that was done by Huang (2005 about metaphors in scientific texts of Medicine, which is related to the topic of AIDS. The results and difficulties of Huang's research have given examples in the treatment of the theme of metaphor in Terminology and in studies of scientific texts. It is concluded that metaphor is one of the phenomena that make part of the technical and scientific communication and, because of the complexity in approaching such topic, it must also be investigated in Terminology.O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar, de um modo conciso, como diferentes estudos sobre metáfora podem convergir, positivamente, para uma percepção lingüístico-cognitiva do fenômeno, a qual supera uma visão meramente estilística. Relata-se, com destaque, a pesquisa de Huang (2005 sobre a metáfora no texto científico de Medicina que trata sobre AIDS. Essa pesquisa, em seus resultados e dificuldades, serve como um exemplo para o tratamento da metáfora em Terminologia e em estudos do texto especializado. O artigo conclui que a metáfora é um dos fenômenos que integram a comunicação técnico-científica e que, a despeito da complexidade de sua abordagem, deve ser investigado também em estudos de Terminologia.

  20. The neural career of sensory-motor metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rutvik H; Binder, Jeffrey R; Conant, Lisa L; Mano, Quintino R; Seidenberg, Mark S

    2011-09-01

    The role of sensory-motor systems in conceptual understanding has been controversial. It has been proposed that many abstract concepts are understood metaphorically through concrete sensory-motor domains such as actions. Using fMRI, we compared neural responses with literal action (Lit; The daughter grasped the flowers), metaphoric action (Met; The public grasped the idea), and abstract (Abs; The public understood the idea) sentences of varying familiarity. Both Lit and Met sentences activated the left anterior inferior parietal lobule, an area involved in action planning, with Met sentences also activating a homologous area in the right hemisphere, relative to Abs sentences. Both Met and Abs sentences activated the left superior temporal regions associated with abstract language. Importantly, activation in primary motor and biological motion perception regions was inversely correlated with Lit and Met familiarity. These results support the view that the understanding of metaphoric action retains a link to sensory-motor systems involved in action performance. However, the involvement of sensory-motor systems in metaphor understanding changes through a gradual abstraction process whereby relatively detailed simulations are used for understanding unfamiliar metaphors, and these simulations become less detailed and involve only secondary motor regions as familiarity increases. Consistent with these data, we propose that anterior inferior parietal lobule serves as an interface between sensory-motor and conceptual systems and plays an important role in both domains. The similarity of abstract and metaphoric sentences in the activation of left superior temporal regions suggests that action metaphor understanding is not completely based on sensory-motor simulations but relies also on abstract lexical-semantic codes.

  1. Metaphors of construction in ancient poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analogy between the activity of poet and that of a blacksmith or builder characterizes the origin of aesthetics in western culture and influences the idea of kósmos, as structure ordered solely with the purpose of the effect of beauty. Although the metaphor of poet-blacksmith occurs only after the 5th century BC, the image of poet-architect or builder dates back to the Indo-European period. Archaic poets (Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, etc. already described their method of procedure through the comparison with techniques of naval carpentry and building construction: this association is applied both to production and reception of the text, as it is useful to illustrate structural order together with emotional and illusionistic effects of a work. In the classical age, the analogy can be found, in a more pervasive and explicit form, in the treatises of rhetoric which deal with stylistic composition, formulating doctrines which were to influence Vitruvian precepts. The centuries-old validity of comparison between poetry and architecture is also shown by the role which the notion of composition has in Medieval (for example in Dante poetics and Renaissance poetics, and also in the reflections of contemporary poets (such as Pound, Valéry.

  2. Comprehension and Generation of Metaphoric Language in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirer, Anat; Mashal, Nira

    2017-05-01

    Difficulties with figurative language comprehension were documented in adult dyslexia (DYS). In the present research, we investigated the comprehension and generation of metaphors in 37 children, 35 adolescents, and 34 adults with and without DYS. We also tested the contribution of executive function to metaphor processing. A multiple-choice questionnaire with conventional and novel metaphors was used to assess comprehension; a concept-explanation task was used to test conventional and novel metaphor generation (verbal creativity). The findings indicated differences between the dyslexic children and the control group in conventional metaphor comprehension. However, both groups performed similarly in the novel metaphor comprehension test. Furthermore, although children and adolescents with DYS showed similar performance in metaphor generation as their typically developing peers, adults with DYS generated more metaphors than controls. While scores on tests of verbal knowledge and mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of conventional metaphor comprehension, scores on non-verbal tests and mental flexibility contributed to the prediction of novel metaphor generation. Our findings suggest that individuals with DYS are not impaired in novel metaphor comprehension and metaphor generation and that metaphor comprehension and generation utilize different cognitive resources. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.

    1989-01-01

    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  4. Communicating Zika Risk: Using Metaphor to Increase Perceived Risk Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2018-02-27

    Effectively communicating the risks associated with emerging zoonotic diseases remains an important challenge. Drawing on research into the psychological effects of metaphoric framing, we explore the conditions under which exposure to the "nation as a body" metaphor influences perceived risk susceptibility, behavioral intentions, and policy support in the context of Zika virus. In a between-subjects experiment, 354 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions as part of a 2 (severity message: high vs. low) × 2 (U.S. framing: metaphoric vs. literal) design. Results revealed an interaction effect such that metaphoric (vs. literal) framing increased perceived risk susceptibility in the high-severity condition only. Further analyses revealed that perceived risk susceptibility and negative affect mediated the path between the two-way interaction and policy support and behavioral intentions regarding Zika prevention. Overall, these findings complement prior work on the influence of metaphoric framing on risk perceptions, while offering practical insights for risk communicators seeking to communicate about Zika and other zoonotic diseases. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Neural activity associated with metaphor comprehension: spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, María; Carretié, Luis; Hinojosa, José A; Tapia, Manuel; Mercado, Francisco; López-Martín, Sara; Albert, Jacobo

    2005-01-03

    Though neuropsychological data indicate that the right hemisphere (RH) plays a major role in metaphor processing, other studies suggest that, at least during some phases of this processing, a RH advantage may not exist. The present study explores, through a temporally agile neural signal--the event-related potentials (ERPs)--, and through source-localization algorithms applied to ERP recordings, whether the crucial phase of metaphor comprehension presents or not a RH advantage. Participants (n=24) were submitted to a S1-S2 experimental paradigm. S1 consisted of visually presented metaphoric sentences (e.g., "Green lung of the city"), followed by S2, which consisted of words that could (i.e., "Park") or could not (i.e., "Semaphore") be defined by S1. ERPs elicited by S2 were analyzed using temporal principal component analysis (tPCA) and source-localization algorithms. These analyses revealed that metaphorically related S2 words showed significantly higher N400 amplitudes than non-related S2 words. Source-localization algorithms showed differential activity between the two S2 conditions in the right middle/superior temporal areas. These results support the existence of an important RH contribution to (at least) one phase of metaphor processing and, furthermore, implicate the temporal cortex with respect to that contribution.

  6. Metaphors we love by: Conceptualizations of sex among young people in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undie, Chi-Chi; Crichton, Joanna; Zulu, Eliya

    2007-12-01

    This paper explores how young people in Malawi conceptualize sex and sexual relations through an analysis of their personal narratives about these phenomena. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted with 114 youth aged 14-19 years. Participants were asked to describe behaviors, attitudes, and motivations to reduce unplanned pregnancies and the spread of HIV/AIDS, with appropriate probes to illuminate their sexual world-views. The various metaphors that emanated from the discussions suggest that young people in this study take a utilitarian approach to sex, and conceive it as a natural and routine activity of which pleasure and passion are essential components. Future research and prevention efforts (around sexuality education in particular) would do well to incorporate adolescents' language in programming as this can enhance understanding of the world of young people as well as the effectiveness of interventions addressing problems related to early sexual behavior.

  7. On understanding creative language : The late positive complex and novel metaphor comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rataj, Karolina; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; van der Lubbe, Rob H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Novel metaphoric sentences have repeatedly evoked larger N400 amplitudes than literal sentences, while investigations of the late positive complex (LPC) have brought inconsistent results, with reports of both increased and reduced amplitudes. In two experiments, we examined novel metaphor

  8. Indeterministic metaphors: The popular science books of Fritjof Capra and Gary Zukav.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradon Tl

    2013-07-01

    In the popular accounts of the new physics (i.e. relativity and quantum mechanics) by Fritjof Capra and Gary Zukav, the new physics is represented as fatally undermining the universal determinism associated with Newton and Laplace. This paper explores how different metaphors - anthropomorphic metaphors, metaphors of exploration and mapping, and metaphors of shadows - are used strategically by these writers to advance this characterisation of the new physics as indeterministic.

  9. An Idealized Cognitive Model Analysis of Metaphors in American Economic News Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yang

    2018-03-01

    On the basis of the theoretical framework of Lakoff’s Conceptual Metaphor, the paper researches into the cognitive model of conceptual metaphors in American Economic News Reports. Moreover, the paper tries to analyze economic discourse by the application of Idealized Cognitive Model of its metaphorical thinking combined with cultural model and reflect the ideology of the media. It aims to help English learners ponder the implied meaning the economic news reports conveyed and take a new look at metaphors between the lines.

  10. Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia; Rappaz, Marc-André; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Music is often described in terms of emotion. This notion is supported by empirical evidence showing that engaging with music is associated with subjective feelings, and with objectively measurable responses at the behavioural, physiological, and neural level. Some accounts, however, reject the idea that music may directly induce emotions. For example, the 'paradox of negative emotion', whereby music described in negative terms is experienced as enjoyable, suggests that music might move the listener through indirect mechanisms in which the emotional experience elicited by music does not always coincide with the emotional label attributed to it. Here we discuss the role of metaphor as a potential mediator in these mechanisms. Drawing on musicological, philosophical, and neuroscientific literature, we suggest that metaphor acts at key stages along and between physical, biological, cognitive, and contextual processes, and propose a model of music experience in which metaphor mediates between language, emotion, and aesthetic response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The cognitive science of metaphor from philosophy to neuropsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Rohrer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I review some of the theoretical issues surrounding metaphor, and trace them through the context of the cognitive neuroscience debate. Metaphor, like all figurative language, has been usually explained as a secondary linguistic process which takes place as a function taking place on literal language. However this explanation does not fit well with some of the recent work on right hemisphere processing of language or recent cognitive studies, both of which suggest that the figurative and literal language are processed simultaneously and share much structure. In seeking ways to operationalize the Lakoff and Johnson view of metaphor as a constitutive cognitive phenomenon, I begin to spell out what kinds of theoretical predictions the Lakoff-Johnson model would make on the neurophysiological levels cognitive investigation. I conclude by offering some rudimentary thoughts on possible proposals for further investigation using these methods.

  12. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....

  13. Metaphor Identification as a Research Method for the Study of Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Allison; McIlveen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Metaphor Identification Procedure Vrije Universiteit (MIPVU) for the reliable detection of metaphoric language that may be interpreted using extant vocational psychology theory. Metaphors are ubiquitous in communication and carry influential meaning for people. To illustrate MIPVU, we use transcripts of interviews…

  14. The "Metaphorical Collage" as a Research Tool in the Field of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo-Zimet, Gila

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a research tool in the field of education--the "metaphorical collage." This tool facilitates the understanding of concepts and processes in education through the analysis of metaphors in collage works that include pictorial images and verbal images. We believe the "metaphorical collage" to be…

  15. From Ends to Causes (and Back Again) by Metaphor: The Paradox of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Schellens, Tammy; Soetaert, Ronald; Van Keer, Hilde; Braeckman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is one of the most famous metaphors in the history of science. Charles Darwin used the metaphor and the underlying analogy to frame his ideas about evolution and its main driving mechanism into a full-fledged theory. Because the metaphor turned out to be such a powerful epistemic tool, Darwin naturally assumed that he could also…

  16. Metaphors in Congressional Discourse: Cognitive Frames of the Political Status of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Edelmira L.

    2013-01-01

    Linguistics research has demonstrated the commonness and functions of metaphors to carry cognitive frames, which influence the way people understand and act on information. This work conveys the results of three analyses employed to describe cognitive frames: forms of linguistic metaphors used, functions of systematic metaphors that emerged, and…

  17. Pedagogical Perspectives and Practices Reflected in Metaphors of Learning and Digital Learning of ICT Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Ina; Grinberg, Ronen; Shamir-Inbal, Tamar

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the meaning attributed to the contribution of technology to pedagogical practices from the perspective of school ICT leaders. While previous studies use metaphors for bottom-up exploration, this study employs an innovative combination of bottom-up and top-down metaphor analysis based on two frameworks: (a) metaphors of general…

  18. Roosters, Robins, and Alarm Clocks: Aptness and Conventionality in Metaphor Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lara L.; Estes, Zachary

    2006-01-01

    Bowdle and Gentner (2005) proposed a reconciliation of the comparison and categorization models of metaphor comprehension. Their career of metaphor model posits that, as a metaphorical term becomes more conventional, its mode of processing shifts from comparison to categorization. However, other recent studies (Chiappe, Kennedy, & Chiappe, 2003;…

  19. Spatial Metaphor in Language Can Promote the Development of Cross-Modal Mappings in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayan, Shakila; Ozturk, Ozge; Bowerman, Melissa; Majid, Asifa

    2014-01-01

    Pitch is often described metaphorically: for example, Farsi and Turkish speakers use a "thickness" metaphor (low sounds are "thick" and high sounds are "thin"), while German and English speakers use a height metaphor ("low", "high"). This study examines how child and adult speakers of Farsi,…

  20. Johannine metaphors/symbols linked to the paraclete-spirit and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Johannine author uses metaphors and symbols to enable the primary and secondary readers to come to a better understanding of the Paraclete-Spirit. The study of particular Johannine metaphors is valuable in understanding the message and theology of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the ...

  1. Children and Discipline: Investigating Secondary School Students' Perception of Discipline through Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    This is a descriptive study investigating the perception of children about discipline through metaphors developed by them. A total of 445 students participated in the research and the data was collected with the "Discipline Metaphors Survey (DMS)" developed by the researchers. At the end of the study, 143 metaphors, 94 positive and 49…

  2. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Medical Students: Uncovering Core Values and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina; Compton, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to examine the core values of Colombian medical students. The entire 9th semester medical class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  3. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Leadership Students: Core Values and Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to explore the core values of Colombian college students in a leadership program. The entire class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  4. A Theoretical Account on the Study of Metaphor in Didactic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharif, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    This article makes a literary review to the linguistic research in the use of metaphor in didactic discourse; especially the religious one. Acknowledging Conceptual Metaphor Theory as the primary theory in the field, the researcher embarks upon how metaphor is perceived and analysed in discourse in order to pertain its persuasive function. The…

  5. Adolescents' Views on Families as Metaphors in Hong Kong: Implications for Pre-Counselling Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    This interpretative study aims to offer metaphors that describe family meanings from the adolescent's perspective by encouraging them to give a metaphor with their own explanation on a self-administering essay form. This study has three objectives: to explore the family meanings as a metaphor from the Hong Kong adolescent's perspective; to reveal…

  6. Game as a Career Metaphor: A Chaos Theory Career Counselling Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert George Leslie; Bright, Jim E. H.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of game as a career metaphor for use in counselling is explored and it is argued that it has been largely overlooked in the literature to date. This metaphor is then explicitly linked with the Chaos Theory of Careers (CTC), by showing how the notion of attractors within the CTC can be illustrated effectively using games metaphors.…

  7. "Knowledge as Love; How metaphors direct the way we manage knowledge in organizations"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exercise to assess the effects of metaphors on knowledge management. Knowledge is an abstract phenomenon with no direct referent in the real world. To think and talk about knowledge we use conceptual metaphors. The exercise shows that these metaphors greatly

  8. The 'good is light' and 'bad is dark' metaphor in feature films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.J.; Renckens, T.

    2013-01-01

    Light and darkness can be used metaphorically to help structure GOOD and BAD in all media, but film is particularly suitable for exploiting such metaphors. On the basis of examples from three feature films, we discuss in what way the metaphor functions in general and suggest how it allows for a

  9. A Cross-Domain Explanation of the Metaphor "Teaching as Persuasion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Bradford S.; Demerath, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Examines what the metaphor "teaching as persuasion" would mean in the domains of philosophy, anthropology, and teacher education, asserting that if such a metaphor is to be widely accepted by the educational community and the public, then this discussion is necessary. The metaphor suggests that in teacher education, learning to teach…

  10. Corpses of Metaphor. Images of Death in David Leavitt and Jamaica Kincaid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Iuliano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes two works, My Brother by Jamaica Kincaid, and "Saturn Street" by David Leavitt, investigating the construction of homosexuality as a process accomplished by resorting to illness (AIDS and death. In both works, indeed, the slow and dramatic course of AIDS amounts to the progressive unveiling of homosexuality as a social threat or a cause of anxiety and repulsion. The two works are set in different contexts: whereas Jamaica Kincaid refers to the problematic situation of homosexuality in the Caribbean, David Leavitt explores the social and cultural scenario of the 1990s Los Angeles, in the wake of a by now ended utopian confidence in science and technology.  This comparative approach helps us understand the political dynamics through which, in different and, to some extents, opposite realities, the social stigma of AIDS worked as a means to construct homosexual identity and set it apart from the sanitized spectrum of normal and sanctioned sexual behaviors. The point I want to make in this essay is that the corpse is used as an effective metaphor for a dehumanized depiction of male homosexual and ill subjects.

  11. Rigidity, Chaos and Integration: Hemispheric Interaction and Individual Differences in Metaphor Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eFaust

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurotypical individuals cope flexibly with the full range of semantic relations expressed in human language, including metaphoric relations. This impressive semantic ability may be associated with distinct and flexible patterns of hemispheric interaction, including higher right hemisphere (RH involvement for processing novel metaphors. However, this ability may be impaired in specific clinical conditions, such as Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia. The impaired semantic processing is accompanied by different patterns of hemispheric interaction during semantic processing, showing either reduced (in Asperger or excessive (in schizophrenia RH involvement. This paper interprets these individual differences using the terms Rigidity, Chaos and Integration, which describe patterns of semantic memory network states that either lead to semantic well-being or are disruptive of it. We argue that these semantic network states lie on a rigidity-chaos semantic continuum. We define these terms via network science terminology and provide network, cognitive and neural evidence to support our claim. This continuum includes LH hyper-rigid semantic memory state on one end (e.g., in persons with Asperger syndrome, and RH chaotic and over-flexible semantic memory state on the other end (e.g., in persons with schizophrenia. In between these two extremes lie different states of semantic memory structure which are related to individual differences in semantic creativity. We suggest that efficient semantic processing is achieved by semantic integration, a balance between semantic rigidity and semantic chaos. Such integration is achieved via intra-hemispheric communication. However, impairments to this well-balanced and integrated pattern of hemispheric interaction, e.g., when one hemisphere dominates the other, may lead to either semantic rigidity or semantic chaos, moving away from semantic integration and thus impairing the processing of metaphoric language.

  12. The Metaphors on International Intervention: A Discourse Analysis of the Sri Lankan English Newspaper Editorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaseelan Gnanaseelan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The metaphors used in the Sri Lankan English newspaper editorials during the peace talk time (2001-2007 commenting on the international intervention in the Sri Lankan ethnic conflict reveal community based ideological and attitudinal positions of the newspapers published in Sri Lanka. Metaphors literally contribute to our understanding of reality. The frames and scripts used for legitimization and de-legitimization of the issues related to international intervention and facilitation in the peace talk, peace process and monitoring the ceasefire bring out certain realities comfortable to certain people, groups or communities. The binary positions projected in the editorial discourse are identified. Discourse constitutes power in constructing ideational, textual and interpersonal constructs which are ideological. It can transmit and even legitimize power in society. During the peace talk time, the editorials are expected to develop constructive discourse on conflict intervention and resolution to make a positive impact on legislative changes but they display ‘ethno-nationalist’ tendencies. The study analyzes whether the media has been a part of the problem or a part of the solution. Since newspaper and editorial discourses are the constructions of journalists and editors of the elites, the biased ideologies are “hidden or subtle in expressions and often revealed in mild forms”. This study takes up selected editorials of the Sri Lankan English newspapers which appeared mainly during the Memorandum of Understanding between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eezham during that period, to relate the discourse themes with rhetorical and metaphorical features.

  13. Escavando a "comunidade internacional": por uma arqueologia do conhecimento metafórico Excavating "international community": toward a metaphorical archeology of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Onuf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, argumento que metáfora e conceito são nomes para o mesmo tipo de coisa. E, se isso é assim, metáfora é uma metáfora para conceito; conceito é uma metáfora para metáfora. Se assim o é, então o conhecimento é, em geral, metafórico. Uma arqueologia do conhecimento metafórico é uma expressão metafórica para um conjunto de reivindicações e procedimentos concebidos para expor os pressupostos e as associações enterrados, constituindo (e, por meio da constituição, regulando o que pensamos que sabemos. As ressonâncias afetivas e normativas das metáforas relacionadas a "comunidade" se remetem a um profundo anseio em um mundo onde as comunidades não mais se assemelham ao que um dia foram. "Comunidade internacional" é um sítio arqueológico situado na superfície da terra, tão proeminente quanto inexplorado. Sua escavação pode nos conduzir a algum distante passado, somente para nos trazer de volta ao próprio mundo que vivemos.In this paper, I claim that metaphor and concept are names for the same kind of thing. And if this is so, metaphor is a metaphor for concept; concept is a metaphor for metaphor. An archeology of metaphorical knowledge is a metaphorical expression for a set of claims and procedures designed to expose the buried assumptions and associations constituting (and by constituting, regulating what we think we know. The affective and normative resonances of metaphors related to "community" speak to a deep yearning in a world where communities no longer resemble what they once did. "International community" is an above-ground archeological site, as prominent as it is unexplored. Its excavation may take us to some distant past only to bring us back to the very world we live in.

  14. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  15. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  16. Gestures and metaphors as indicators of conceptual understanding of sedimentary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, E. M.; Herrera, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the geometry and evolution of sedimentary systems and sequence stratigraphy is crucial to the development of geoscientists and engineers working in the petroleum industry. There is a wide variety of audiences within industry who require relatively advanced instruction in this area of geoscience, and there is an equally wide array of approaches to teaching this material in the classroom and field. This research was undertaken to develop a clearer picture of how conceptual understanding in this area of sedimentary geology grows as a result of instruction and how instructors can monitor the completeness and accuracy of student thinking and mental models. We sought ways to assess understanding that did not rely on model-specific jargon but rather was based in physical expression of basic processes and attributes of sedimentary systems. Advances in cognitive science and educational research indicate that a significant part of spatial cognition is facilitated by gesture, (e.g. giving directions, describing objects or landscape features). We aligned the analysis of gestures with conceptual metaphor theory to probe the use of mental image-schemas as a source of concept representation for students' learning of sedimentary processes. In order to explore image schemas that lie in student explanations, we focused our analysis on four core ideas about sedimentary systems that involve sea level change and sediment deposition, namely relative sea level, base level, and sea-level fluctuations and resulting basin geometry and sediment deposition changes. The study included 25 students from three U.S. Midwestern universities. Undergraduate and graduate-level participants were enrolled in senior-level undergraduate courses in sedimentology and stratigraphy. We used semi-structured interviews and videotaping for data collection. We coded the data to focus on deictic, iconic, and metaphoric gestures, and coded interview transcripts for linguistic metaphors using the

  17. Leading by Metaphors –A Case Study of a Mega IT Project in a Danish Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Fladkjær Nielsen, Anne-Dorte

    2014-01-01

    in the megaproject and discuss how leading by metaphors are enacted. Our findings are that (1) storytelling with metaphors can act as backbone for communication, (2) metaphors can set direction for technical capabilities, and finally (3) metaphors can be used to emphasize emotional intelligence....

  18. "It's in the Cards": The Contribution of Illustrated Metaphor Cards to Exploring Values Within Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Nissim, Geffen; Goldberg, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present the use of illustrated metaphorical cards as a technique to enrich the qualitative narrative interview. We examine the advantages of incorporating a projective tool to assist in constructing and understanding personal narratives of people living with severe mental illness. We interviewed 25 participants-staff and members of a clubhouse in Israel (an international community model of rehabilitation in mental health)-and sought to understand their stories focused on personal and organizational values. The findings revealed that, in most cases, the cards contributed to data collection by enhancing the interviewees' ability for expression and by facilitating richer, more comprehensive stories and descriptions. This in turn enhanced the researcher's ability to understand the messages and stories presented. The research conclusions discuss the cards' potential contribution to improving data collection and analysis. The cards became an additional channel for expressing participants' experiences, emotions, and unique voice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Geomorphic tipping points: convenient metaphor or fundamental landscape property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    In 2000 Malcolm Gladwell published as book that has done much to publicise Tipping Points in society but also in academia. His arguments, re-expressed in a geomorphic sense, have three core elements: (1) a "Law of the Few", where rapid change results from the effects of a relatively restricted number of critical elements, ones that are able to rapidly connect systems together, that are particularly sensitive to an external force, of that are spatially organised in a particular way; (2) a "Stickiness" where an element of the landscape is able to assimilate characteristics which make it progressively more applicable to the "Law of the Few"; and (3), given (1) and (2) a history and a geography that means that the same force can have dramatically different effects, according to where and when it occurs. Expressed in this way, it is not clear that Tipping Points bring much to our understanding in geomorphology that existing concepts (e.g. landscape sensitivity and recovery; cusp-catastrophe theory; non-linear dynamics systems) do not already provide. It may also be all too easy to describe change in geomorphology as involving a Tipping Point: we know that geomorphic processes often involve a non-linear response above a certain critical threshold; we know that landscapes can, after Denys Brunsden, be though of as involving long periods of boredom ("stability") interspersed with brief moments of terror ("change"); but these are not, after Gladwell, sufficient for the term Tipping Point to apply. Following from these issues, this talk will address three themes. First, it will question, through reference to specific examples, notably in high Alpine systems, the extent to which the Tipping Point analogy is truly a property of the world in which we live. Second, it will explore how 'tipping points' become assigned metaphorically, sometimes evolving to the point that they themselves gain agency, that is, shaping the way we interpret landscape rather than vice versa. Third, I

  20. Conceptual Blending Monitoring Students' Use of Metaphorical Concepts to Further the Learning of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Alexandra; Pelger, Susanne

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how tertiary science students' use of metaphors in their popular science article writing may influence their understanding of subject matter. For this purpose, six popular articles written by students in physics or geology were analysed by means of a close textual analysis and a metaphor analysis. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students. The articles showed variation regarding the occurrence of active (non-conventional) metaphors, and metaphorical concepts, i.e. metaphors relating to a common theme. In addition, the interviews indicated that students using active metaphors and metaphorical concepts reflected more actively upon their use of metaphors. These students also discussed the possible relationship between subject understanding and creation of metaphors in terms of conceptual blending. The study suggests that students' process of creating metaphorical concepts could be described and visualised through integrated networks of conceptual blending. Altogether, the study argues for using conceptual blending as a tool for monitoring and encouraging the use of adequate metaphorical concepts, thereby facilitating students' opportunities of understanding and influencing the learning of science.

  1. Using Visual Metaphors in Health Messages: A Strategy to Increase Effectiveness for Mental Illness Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Bamgbade, Benita A; Sontag, Jennah M; Brown, Carolyn

    2016-12-01

    Depression is highly prevalent among college students. Although treatment is often available on university campuses, many stigma-based barriers prevent students from seeking help. Communication strategies, such as the use of metaphors, are needed to reduce barriers. Specially, the use of visual metaphors, as a strategic message design tactic, may be an effective communication strategy to increase message appeal and engagement. Using a 2-phase approach, this study first identified common metaphors students use to conceptualize mental illness. Messages incorporating conceptual and visual metaphors were then designed and tested to determine their potential in reducing stigma. Participants (n = 256) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions in a between-subjects experiment: messages with visual and textual metaphors, messages with straightforward visuals and textual metaphors, text-based metaphor messages, or a control group. Overall, metaphorical messages are appealing, the use of visual metaphors leads to greater message engagement, and messages based on conceptual metaphors have the potential to reduce stigma. The use of conceptual and visual metaphors in campaign design is an effective strategy to communicate about a complex health topic, such as mental illness, and should be considered for use in campaigns to reduce barriers for help-seeking behavior.

  2. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Haidet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by “mapping” them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students (N = 30 completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b blinded standardized patient assessment of students’ adaptability and quality of listening; and (c qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students’ course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  3. Metaphorical profile of distress in English media discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbytska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research is directed towards the transition of distress studies in the English speaking culture from the prototype towards the conceptual metaphor approach. It enables the enlightenment of mental images, which underlie distress language usage in modern mass communication. The analysis involves identification of conceptual distress metaphors and metonymies within the image-schematic structure. The study includes a cognitive semantic analysis of linguistic units of the distress lexicon retrieved from the GloWbE, BNC, COCA, English newspapers and media platforms. Figurative language reveals conventional beliefs about distress represented in English media discourse, such as strong associations of emotion with darkness and coldness. Metaphorical mappings contain views about the reasons for distress experience which lie in the loss of balance or inner equilibrium, loss of control, and convictions about the reaction characterizing a person as being weak and brittle. The findings of data analysis are summed up in a metaphorical profile of distress (MPD which discloses the behavioural patterns (communicative behaviour, adequacy/inadequacy of behaviour, ability to socialize and physical effects including health issues.

  4. Writing the review of literature: rasgulla as metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Chattopadhyay, DCH, DNB (Ped, FAIMER Fellow

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author uses the metaphor of the Indian sweet, rasgulla, to unravel the details of how to conduct a literature search, and demonstrates thereby, how to structure a review of literature. The process also illustrates that a scientific temperament can be beneficial in any walk of life.

  5. Expanding Possibilities through Metaphor: Breaking Biases to Improve Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirka, Carol C.; Corrigall, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that an exercise using metaphors to overcome cognitive biases helped students to proactively imagine and prepare for an expanded set of potential crises. The exercise complements traditional textbook approaches to crisis management and incorporates creativity skill building in a realistic context. Learning outcomes…

  6. Understanding Productive Learning Through the Metaphorical Lens of Patchworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    , which formed the basis of the author’s PhD thesis (Ryberg, 2007), the concept of understanding learning as a process of patchworking has emerged. The metaphor of patchworking is a perspective that emphasises the constructive, creative and productive aspects of learning. In this chapter the main aspects...

  7. Training to Generate Creative Metaphors by Reviving Dormant Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trench, Máximo; Minervino, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Most creativity techniques encourage breaking away from stored knowledge and known solutions. Counter to this approach, this study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention based on introducing minimal variations to well-established knowledge structures. Two groups were tasked with generating creative metaphorical titles for short essays.…

  8. Technical metaphor of railroad switch and communicative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Caballero Bono

    2016-02-01

    statements on the status of the human embryo. Taken seriously, the «railroad switch» metaphor allows us to talk about an emergent communicative action in terms of the call experienced by a rational agent as a base for his or her calling an unborn human being.

  9. Metaphors in Shona: A Cognitive Approach | Mberi | Zambezia: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subscription or Fee Access. Metaphors in Shona: A Cognitive Approach. NE Mberi. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 72-88. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/zjh.v30i1.6736 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Metaphors as Second Labels: Difficult for Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Grassmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of two cognitive abilities that are involved in metaphor comprehension: implicit analogical reasoning and assigning an unconventional label to a familiar entity (as in Romeo's "Juliet is the sun"). We presented 3- and 4-year-old children with literal object-requests in a pretense setting (e.g.,…

  11. Teaching in the Institutional Cage: Metaphor and Collateral Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël Smith, Becky L.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a philosophical exploration of Marilyn Frye's metaphor of the cage and Patricia Hill Collins' theory of intersecting oppressions. It argues that social structures and forms of oppressive knowledge make up the individual wires on each person's cage and that these work to confine individuals, particularly those in the…

  12. The FORCE and BALANCE schemas in journey metaphor animations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forceville, C.; Fernandes, C.

    2016-01-01

    A central claim of Lakoff and Johnson’s Conceptual Metaphor Theory is that human beings systematically understand abstract and complex phenomena in terms of concrete phenomena, the latter being phenomena that pertain to sensory perception and bodily behaviour. For this reason CMT is also known as

  13. Mixed Metaphors: The Word "Esperanto" in Journalistic Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The study reported here focused on the uses of the word Esperanto in selected English, French, and German newspapers over an 18-month period. Most uses were metaphorical: generally positive in articles on arts or technology, generally negative in political contexts. (Author/VWL)

  14. Figurative framing: Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.F.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  15. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions towards Proof and Proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersen, Zeynep Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Since mathematical proof and proving are in the center of mathematics; preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions against these concepts have a great importance. Therefore, the study aimed to determine preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions towards proof and proving through metaphors. The participants consisted of 192 preservice…

  16. Metaphors Developed by Secondary School Students towards "Earthquake" Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Huseyin

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted to reveal the metaphors of Secondary school students about "earthquake" concept. About 105 students in two schools in Karabuk city centre participated in the research within 2009-2010 academic year. The research Data were obtained by students' completing the statement "Earthquake is like...,…

  17. Cognitive processes, models and metaphors in decision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Newell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Decision research in psychology has traditionally been influenced by the extit{homo oeconomicus} metaphor with its emphasis on normative models and deviations from the predictions of those models. In contrast, the principal metaphor of cognitive psychology conceptualizes humans as `information processors', employing processes of perception, memory, categorization, problem solving and so on. Many of the processes described in cognitive theories are similar to those involved in decision making, and thus increasing cross-fertilization between the two areas is an important endeavour. A wide range of models and metaphors has been proposed to explain and describe `information processing' and many models have been applied to decision making in ingenious ways. This special issue encourages cross-fertilization between cognitive psychology and decision research by providing an overview of current perspectives in one area that continues to highlight the benefits of the synergistic approach: cognitive modeling of multi-attribute decision making. In this introduction we discuss aspects of the cognitive system that need to be considered when modeling multi-attribute decision making (e.g., automatic versus controlled processing, learning and memory constraints, metacognition and illustrate how such aspects are incorporated into the approaches proposed by contributors to the special issue. We end by discussing the challenges posed by the contrasting and sometimes incompatible assumptions of the models and metaphors.

  18. A cognitive analysis of metaphor in Shona terminological dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well-known among linguists and lexicographers that metaphor plays a pivotal role in the creation of new terminology and its importance in the expansion of the Shona lexicon in response to scientific, technical and educational demands cannot be overemphasised. Like most languages, Shona is growing through the use ...

  19. Transformation of Consciousness: Decoding Conceptual Metaphors in Mira Bai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrita; Anisha

    2016-01-01

    Mira Bai, a saint-poet of North India is an important figure in medieval Hindi literature. Her "bhajan"-s (songs) profoundly represent the transforming of consciousness working through conceptual metaphors which fall in the realm of religious poetry wherein target domains are generally abstract. Since, the working of the mind is more…

  20. A New Literary Metaphor for the Genome or Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Gus

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the idea of a blueprint has been used to explain the genome. The concept of a play's cast of characters, the Dramatis Personae, is a more fluid metaphor that allows for mutations and time-dependent phenomena to be taken into account. It also provides an educational and mnemonic exercise for students.

  1. Metaphors of Social Studies Teacher Candidates on Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Aysegül

    2018-01-01

    Democracy is a form of government in which principle of equality is based, human rights and freedoms are protected. In this research, it is aimed to reveal democracy perceptions of social science teacher candidates through metaphors. Towards this aim, 105 social science teacher candidates are consulted about their democracy opinions. Study is a…

  2. The Freshman Odyssey: Classical Metaphors for Counseling College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Jeff

    This paper highlights the use of analogies and metaphors in counseling sessions with a focus on the college freshman experience as a living, contemporary example of how clients may experience mythic themes in their lives. Drawing from the ideas of Joseph Campbell, characters found in classical Greek mythology, as well as contemporary myths as…

  3. Recipe for success: cooking and food in business metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Oana Nicolae

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article sets out to disclose the range of applications and implications of the business media metaphors that draw on the more familiar cognitive domain related to food and cooking. The conclusions rely on a corpus-based approach, while the theoretical framework is provided by cognitive semantics.

  4. Figurative framing : Shaping public discourse through metaphor, hyperbole and irony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, C.; Konijn, E.A.; Steen, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Framing is an important concept in communication, yet many framing studies set out to develop frames relevant to only one issue. We expand framing theory by introducing figurative framing. We posit that figurative language types like metaphor, hyperbole and irony are important in shaping public

  5. "All Gas and No Brakes!": Helpful Metaphor or Harmful Stereotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Monica A.

    2012-01-01

    Stanley Hall's (1904) description of adolescence as a time "suggestive of some ancient period of storm and stress when old moorings were broken and a higher level attained" is arguably one of developmental psychology's most vivid and powerful metaphors. Its relatively insignificant contribution to Hall's treatise (Arnett, 2006), the early demise…

  6. A Contrastive Analysis of Animal Metaphor in English and Persian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Marveh; Soori, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Learning a second language for Iranian students may not be simple at all parts, and it may be difficult for them, especially in some parts that is different from their first language principles. One of these parts is Metaphor, which is different in most languages according to their culture and history. This article is a kind of comparative study…

  7. Using metaphoric body-mapping to encourage reflection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the contribution that a teaching strategy, such as metaphoric body-mapping, can make towards the discourse on the development of professional teacher identity. Second-year students in a Life Orientation methodology module in a B.Ed programme were offered the opportunity to validate their local ...

  8. Using Jazz as a Metaphor to Teach Improvisational Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidet, Paul; Jarecke, Jodi; Yang, Chengwu; Teal, Cayla R; Street, Richard L; Stuckey, Heather

    2017-08-04

    Metaphor helps humans understand complex concepts by "mapping" them onto accessible concepts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using jazz as a metaphor to teach senior medical students improvisational communication skills, and to understand student learning experiences. The authors designed a month-long course that used jazz to teach improvisational communication. A sample of fourth-year medical students ( N = 30) completed the course between 2011 and 2014. Evaluation consisted of quantitative and qualitative data collected pre- and post-course, with comparison to a concurrent control group on some measures. Measures included: (a) Student self-reports of knowledge and ability performing communicative tasks; (b) blinded standardized patient assessment of students' adaptability and quality of listening; and (c) qualitative course evaluation data and open-ended interviews with course students. Compared to control students, course students demonstrated statistically significant and educationally meaningful gains in adaptability and listening behaviors. Students' course experiences suggested that the jazz components led to high engagement and creativity, and provided a model to guide application of improvisational concepts to their own communication behaviors. Metaphor proved to be a powerful tool in this study, partly through enabling increased reflection and decreased resistance to behaviors that, on the surface, tended to run counter to generally accepted norms. The use of jazz as a metaphor to teach improvisational communication warrants further refinement and investigation.

  9. Ontological Metaphors for Negative Energy in an Interdisciplinary Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Benjamin W.; Geller, Benjamin D.; Gouvea, Julia; Sawtelle, Vashti; Turpen, Chandra; Redish, Edward F.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about energy in interdisciplinary settings that emphasize coherence among physics, chemistry, and biology leads to a more central role for chemical bond energy. We argue that an interdisciplinary approach to chemical energy leads to modeling chemical bonds in terms of negative energy. While recent work on ontological metaphors for energy…

  10. A cognitive linguistic exploration of metaphors within the WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    related terms, which seemed to have a predilection for metaphoricity. Which terms to search .... In fact, the claim is that literal modes of thought and literal language are “simply not adequate .... content from a dictionary. This method has been ...

  11. Internalization and Participation as Metaphors of Strategic Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dennis S.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of comprehension strategies instruction rely on an internalization metaphor of strategy learning. In this view, strategies eventually enter students' heads after repeated interactions with teachers who introduce strategies and control how they are used. In this article, the author discusses the limitations of the internalization view…

  12. Comprehension of Metaphor and Metonymy in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Van Herwegen, Jo; Thomas, Michael; Fishman, Roza; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Rundblad, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Background: Figurative language, such as metaphor and metonymy, is very common in daily language use. Its underlying cognitive processes are sometimes viewed as lying at the interface of language and thought. Williams syndrome, which is a rare genetic developmental disorder, provides an opportunity to study this interface because individuals with…

  13. Geography Teachers' Metaphors Concerning the Concept of "Geography"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to reveal geography teachers' perception on the concept of "Geography", by means of the metaphors they use. The study was participated by 116 geography teachers working in several high-schools in Istanbul City center within the 2012-2013 academic year. Answers to the following questions were sought in…

  14. FUZZY CLUSTERING: APPLICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL METAPHORS IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Cobo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Different theories of organization and management are based on implicit images or metaphors. Nevertheless, a quantitative approach is needed to minimize human subjectivity or bias on metaphors studies. Hence, this paper analyzed the presence of metaphors and clustered them using fuzzy data mining techniques in a sample of 61 Brazilian companies that operate in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For this purpose the results of a questionnaire answered by 198 employees of companies in the sample were analyzed by R free software. The results show that it is difficult to find a clear image in most organizations. In most cases characteristics of different images or metaphors are observed, so soft computing techniques are particularly appropriate for this type of analysis. However, according to these results, it is noted that the most present image in the organizations studied is that of “organisms” and the least present image is that of a “political system” and of an “instrument of domination”

  15. Understanding Organizational Culture and Communication through a Gyroscope Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisel, Ryan S.; Messersmith, Amber S.; Keyton, Joann

    2010-01-01

    To fill a critical void in organizational culture pedagogy, the authors present an instructional system that employs the metaphor of a gyroscope to help students understand implicit assumptions in culture research. Working from Martin's nexus approach to organizational culture and Fairhurst and Putnam's tripartite theory of organizational…

  16. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in

  17. Transcoding the digital : how metaphors matter in new media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, M.V.T.

    2014-01-01

    This study traces the role of metaphors in digital praxis. Digital praxis refers to a more or less coherent set of everyday practices – acts, habits, routines – that involve the manipulation, modification, and construction of digital-symbolical objects. Examples of these digital-symbolical objects

  18. On the metaphorical nature of intellectual capital: a textual analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Daan Andriessen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To analyse common metaphors used in the intellectual capital (IC) and knowledge management literatures to conceptualise knowledge, in order to study the nature of the intellectual capital concept. Design/methodology/approach – A textual analysis methodology is used to analyse texts

  19. The role of metaphors in the language of investment banking

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    Magdalena Bielenia-Grajewska

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The language of economics has been one of the author’s interests for some years. To narrow the scope of the research, the language of investment banking will be discussed in depth. Investment banking is a developing domain within the sphere of banking and finance. Newly-created products and services may be complicated for inexperienced investors, thus their names should sound familiar and explain the purpose of a given entity by referring to some well-known concepts. In this case, metaphors play a crucial role. The aim of this paper is to discuss some metaphorical names in investment banking communication. The area of mergers and acquisitions is studied in great detail because of its metaphorical character. The compiled corpus will be investigated by taking into consideration the following languages: English, German, Spanish and Polish. The aim of this linguistic distinction is to show differences as well as similarities in the investment banking lexicon in the above-mentioned languages. After briefly summarising the results of the research conducted, the article will end with an attempt to predict the future situation of metaphors and their role in investment banking communication.

  20. Metaphorical Perceptions of the Concepts "Teaching Profession" and "Raising Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Aykutlu, Isil; Secken, Nilgun; Bayrak, Celai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: This study aims to reveal, via metaphors, pre-service biology teachers' perceptions of "teaching profession" and "raising students." Research Methods: In accordance with the aim of the study, phenomenology, one of the qualitative paradigm patterns, is used. The study group consists of 80 pre-service biology…

  1. New Metaphors and Multi Layered in Khaqani´s Poem

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    Mohammadamir Mashhadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Metaphor is the most important transmission device language than true application to figurative application, It plays a role more than other poetic elements in new creation and forming Personal Style. Khaqani is a creator of new metaphor in number and the most creative power speaking persian. He used artistic creation and hard to obtain in making poem. He profits of new and rare metaphors. Comprehension the metaphors of Kaqani ´ s Poem results to Underestanding his creation in Imaginary and his Poem. This article with this aim is studing background metaphor creation in Kaqani ´ s poem and his modernity new relation and similarity between objects and phenomenons that cause making new metaphor. Sometime his discovery relation between two objects formed in several relation layer that could call them Multi layered metaphor.

  2. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  3. Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors across Levels of Expertise in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppsson, Fredrik; Haglund, Jesper; Amin, Tamer G.

    2015-04-01

    Many studies have previously focused on how people with different levels of expertise solve physics problems. In early work, focus was on characterising differences between experts and novices and a key finding was the central role that propositionally expressed principles and laws play in expert, but not novice, problem-solving. A more recent line of research has focused on characterising continuity between experts and novices at the level of non-propositional knowledge structures and processes such as image-schemas, imagistic simulation and analogical reasoning. This study contributes to an emerging literature addressing the coordination of both propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures and processes in the development of expertise. Specifically, in this paper, we compare problem-solving across two levels of expertise-undergraduate students of chemistry and Ph.D. students in physical chemistry-identifying differences in how conceptual metaphors (CMs) are used (or not) to coordinate propositional and non-propositional knowledge structures in the context of solving problems on entropy. It is hypothesised that the acquisition of expertise involves learning to coordinate the use of CMs to interpret propositional (linguistic and mathematical) knowledge and apply it to specific problem situations. Moreover, we suggest that with increasing expertise, the use of CMs involves a greater degree of subjective engagement with physical entities and processes. Implications for research on learning and instructional practice are discussed. Third contribution to special issue entitled: Conceptual metaphor and embodied cognition in science learning

  4. The Study of Figures of Speech (Simile, Metaphor, Trope, and Metonymy in Bundahishn

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    Razieh Sohrabi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at the study of figures of speech in Bundahishn. The research paradigm is of the qualitative type, and it is conducted using the content analysis method. The first hand source on which the research has been done is that of translated by Mehrdad Bahar to Contemporary Persian. The results of this research indicate that among the aforementioned figures of speech, simile has the highest frequency. And among different kinds of simile, sensuous simile has the highest frequency. After that comes sensuous-reasonable similes as more frequent which is used for making concepts more abstract. It seems that simile is one of the most efficient and expressive devices which is used mostly for making educational, philosophical, and abstract concepts pertinent to Creation and other subjects more receivable and concrete. In between, there are some issues which are sensuous, but normally, they are too hard to be understood; however, simile has made them more illuminated. In this work, only one metaphor was found while there is no figures of speech such as metonymy and trope. Maybe, because metaphor, metonymy, and trope make an educational work more difficult and complicated rather than being effective and illuminating. It seems that in this work, the most useful and deliberate style for teaching educational concepts has been used.

  5. Review Metaphor in Odes Seyfe Farghani

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    Dr. A. Vacegh Abbasi

    Full Text Available Simile as the main element of imagination has a leading function in the creation of various types of poetic images. Seif Farghani is an image maker poet who, via the aid of this element, takes step in the field of original and inspiring image making. In this research, the similes of Seif Farghani’s odes, are investigated from different aspects like types of simile, materials of simile, new similes, simile instruments and their static and dynamic nature and, at the end, their statistic analysis has been presented so that, in addition to knowing how to employ expressive instruments to create poetry and their impact on the poet’s style and language, the basic criteria of Seif Farghani’s poetry aesthetics would be presented to the reader. This study proves that, though Seif has made use of all forms of imagination, the similes of his odes are of a different type as far as the frequency and innovation are concerned, so that, regarding 3019 similes found in 125 odes, it is claimed that Seif Farghani is an image maker poet who has employed this element more than other elements of imagination in his image making. In order to achieve a specific linguistic style and creating some innovation and novelty in image making, he generates novel similes and, with a commitment to difficult nominal rhymes and placing them as one of simile sides, innovates new images.Variety of elements used in Seif's similes shows the breadth of the poet's scientific and intellectual scope in various fields. Comparing all parts of tenor and vehicle in respect to simile materials indicates that, in vehicle, the highest frequency has been dedicated to spiritualities and the lowest frequency to the historical and mythological elements. Similarly, in the investigation of vehicles of his odes, the highest frequency is devoted to objects and the lowest frequency to this world and hereafter.High frequency of singular to singular simile denotes brevity and innovation as well as rich

  6. Food as a Source and Target of Metaphors: Inclusion and Exclusion of Foodstuffs and Persons through Metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Food is an engine and source of metaphorical meanings that permeates our life. Apples can incorporate references of sin or toxin or simple land life, and tomatoes, blood and love. Fast food symbolically represents for many items of the American Dream. Olives are seen as signs of peace. However,

  7. Metaphorical interpretations of the educator-student relationship: An innovation in nursing educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Chien, Wai Tong; Henderson, Saras

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that collecting and analysing metaphors is a useful strategy in seeking data that are difficult to collect via verbal interviews or that cannot be represented by statistics. This study explored nursing students' perceptions of the educator-student relationship using metaphorical interpretation. A qualitative study with a personal essay approach was adopted. A total of 124 students were recruited from a nursing school in Hong Kong. A personal essay form was distributed to the participants. They were asked to give a metaphor with explanations to describe the power dynamics in the educator-student relationship, within 200 words in English or Chinese. After some thought, the participants each gave their own metaphor individually, because the aim of this study was to collect their subjective experiences. The results were presented as follows: a) The overall description of the metaphors; b) The three groups of metaphors; c) The fives natures of metaphors; d) The most significant metaphors; and e) The four thematic meanings - (i) nurturing role; (ii) guiding role; (iii) insufficient connection; and (iv) promoting development. The implications for research methods and nurse education of collecting and analyzing metaphors were discussed. Discrepancies in metaphorical interpretations are to be expected, as interpretations are dependent on the researchers' socio-cultural background, personal experiences, professional training, languages spoken, and other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A roadmap to peace. Journey metaphors in political speeches on the Middle East peace process

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    Assunta Caruso

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – This paper investigates the metaphorical conceptualization of peace by former leaders George W. Bush, Ariel Sharon, and Mahmoud Abbas. Specifically, it examines how peace/the peace process is conceptualized via metaphors through the notion of JOURNEY and MOVEMENT. The corpus in this study comprises twenty speeches given by the three politicians over a four-year period (2002-2005. The corpus data is analyzed using a combination of different methods. The tools are mainly Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff and Johnson 1980, the MIPVU procedure (Steen et al. 2010, and Critical Metaphor Analysis (Charteris-Black 2004. Findings reveal that JOURNEY metaphors are a vital and common part of the three politicians’ political discourse. Overall, there are very few metaphors for peace unique to the individual politicians. The main differences observed lie not in which metaphors are used, but in what aspects of peace or the peace process they are used to highlight.Keywords: metaphor identification, conceptual metaphor, Critical Metaphor Analysis, political discourse, peace.

  9. Surfing the money tides: understanding the foreign exchange market through metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlechner, Thomas; Slunecko, Thomas; Kronberger, Nicole

    2004-03-01

    This study describes metaphorical conceptualizations of the foreign exchange market held by market participants and examines how these metaphors socially construct the financial market. Findings are based on 55 semi-structured interviews with senior foreign exchange experts at banks and at financial news providers in Europe. We analysed interview transcripts by metaphor analysis, a method based on cognitive linguistics. Results indicate that market participants' understanding of financial markets revolves around seven metaphors, namely the market as a bazaar, as a machine, as gambling, as sports, as war, as a living being and as an ocean. Each of these metaphors highlights and conceals certain aspects of the foreign exchange market and entails a different set of implications on crucial market dimensions, such as the role of other market participants and market predictability. A correspondence analysis supports our assumption that metaphorical thinking corresponds with implicit assumptions about market predictability. A comparison of deliberately generated and implicitly used metaphors reveals notable differences. In particular, implicit metaphors are predominantly organic rather than mechanical. In contrast to academic models, interactive and organic metaphors, and not the machine metaphor, dominate the market accounts of participants.

  10. Metaphors in the Wisdom Literature of the Hebrew Bible and Contemporary Art

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    Bálint Károly Zabán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biblical wisdom literature is a treasure-trove of powerful metaphors. This article presents a sample of these metaphors and their significant impact on contemporary artwork. The impact is characterized by both appropriation and adaptation, similitude and analogy, respectively. The highlighted metaphors are not merely catalogued but, more or less, analyzed with regard to relevant contemporary artwork. This augments the importance of contemporary biblical literacy analysis and uses it as one of the tools by which it is possible to gauge the impact and interaction, in this case, of the metaphor-world of the wisdom tradition on contemporary art. More importantly, however, this study underscores the relevance of these metaphors for biblical exegesis, hermeneutics, and theology. The analysis of the reception of these metaphors in contemporary artworks undergirds and informs the process of interpretation. The reception of these metaphors in their contemporary art contexts is best understood within the framework of imagery and imagistic language. Metaphor, as a subset of imagery and imagistic language, is foundational for the examined wisdom books, Proverbs, Job, and Qoheleth, and for the relevant contemporary artwork, alike. Moreover, metaphor also constitutes a bridge between the ancient and contemporary context. With this backdrop in mind, this article argues for the necessity of exploring the connections between these wisdom books, metaphor studies, and contemporary artwork.

  11. Individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing: an eye movement study of sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Georgie; Sheikh, Naveed A; Côté-Lecaldare, Marilena; Häuser, Katja; Baum, Shari R; Titone, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension. We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1. When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors). Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal), and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  12. Individual Differences in Executive Control Relate to Metaphor Processing: An Eye Movement Study of Sentence Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgie eColumbus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors are common elements of language that allow us to creatively stretch the limits of word meaning. However, metaphors vary in their degree of novelty, which determines whether people must create new meanings on-line or retrieve previously known metaphorical meanings from memory. Such variations affect the degree to which general cognitive capacities such as executive control are required for successful comprehension.We investigated whether individual differences in executive control relate to metaphor processing using eye movement measures of reading. Thirty-nine participants read sentences including metaphors or idioms, another form of figurative language that is more likely to rely on meaning retrieval. They also completed the AX-CPT, a domain-general executive control task. In Experiment 1, we examined sentences containing metaphorical or literal uses of verbs, presented with or without prior context. In Experiment 2, we examined sentences containing idioms or literal phrases for the same participants to determine whether the link to executive control was qualitatively similar or different to Experiment 1.When metaphors were low familiar, all people read verbs used as metaphors more slowly than verbs used literally (this difference was smaller for high familiar metaphors. Executive control capacity modulated this pattern in that high executive control readers spent more time reading verbs when a prior context forced a particular interpretation (metaphorical or literal, and they had faster total metaphor reading times when there was a prior context. Interestingly, executive control did not relate to idiom processing for the same readers. Here, all readers had faster total reading times for high familiar idioms than literal phrases. Thus, executive control relates to metaphor but not idiom processing for these readers, and for the particular metaphor and idiom reading manipulations presented.

  13. The Analysis of Metaphor: To What Extent Can the Theory of Lexical Priming Help Our Understanding of Metaphor Usage and Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Katie J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the issues with current systems of categorisation and measurement of linguistic metaphoricity, which have coloured most research into the area to-date. The paper discusses the role of metaphor as a form of creative language and a deviation from more linguistic norms and conventionalities. Two current theories are discussed as…

  14. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  15. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  16. ‘Other’ cities. The mines as a metaphor of the representation.

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    Fabrizio Agnello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on the representation of a sulphur mine located in the heart of Sicily. The link between the outside plants and the underground network of galleries is intended as a symbol of the overlayed structure of the cities and as a metaphor of the representation.The dualism between apollynian and dyonisiac environments, that is open spaces under the light and underground worlds, where obscurity is permanent, forces the search of proper representation techniques, capable of conveying the peculiarities of each realm. Three plates, drawn in an obsolete way, pencil on art board, try to explicit the complex relations underlying the structure of the mine and the role of the ‘technique’ of representation as an expressive mean, according to Heidegger’s definition. Finally, an analogy between the labyrinth and some trends in contemporary architecture, is proposed.

  17. Stage Metaphor Mixing on a Multi-touch Tablet Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a tablet based interface (the Music Mixing Surface) for supporting a more natural user experience while mixing music. It focusses on the so-called stage metaphor control scheme where audio channels are represented by virtual widgets on a virtual stage. Through previous research...... the interface has been developed iteratively with several evaluation sessions with professional users on different platforms. The iteration presented here has been developed especially for the mobile tablet platform and explores this format for music mixing both in a professional and casual setting. The paper...... first discusses various contexts in which the tablet platform might be optimal for music mixing. It then describes the overall design of the mixing interface (especially focused on the stage metaphor), after which the iOS implementation is briefly described. Finally, the interface is evaluated...

  18. A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF METAPHORS AND PHRASEMES IN LSP

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    Dragica Bukovčan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a functional comparative analysis of selected LSP phrasemes and metaphors in English, German and Croatian. A qualitative small scale research was conducted with the purpose of exploring the variety of figurative language in three different disciplines (medicine, economy and law across languages and cultures and the goal was to confirm the claimed universality and complexity of LSP phraseology in general. Our research has also revealed that the variety of metaphorical concepts and mappings are culturally embedded and influenced by traditional roots which might lead to miscommunication in professional environment and cause misunderstandings at all levels of technical communication. This phenomenon should be explored further in a large scale study focused on the particularities of LSP phraseology and metaphorology.

  19. Do metaphors evolve? The case of the social organism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouton, Nicolaas T.O.

    2013-01-01

    A long line of philosophers and social scientists have defended and extended the curious idea that collective entities – states and societies, cities and corporations – are biological organisms. In this article, I study a few short but spectacular episodes from the history of that metaphor......, juxtapose mappings made in one era with correspondences conjured in other epochs, and reflect upon the reasons why they differ. By adopting a historical perspective on the process whereby the notion of a “social organism” evolved from its relatively simple beginnings in ancient philosophy to its rather...... complex manifestations in the modern social sciences, I hope to show that there are good reasons to reconsider both Lakoff’s decree that metaphors “should not be thought of as processes”, and his declaration that they should instead be seen as consisting of “a fixed pattern of ontological correspondences...

  20. Mr. Blademan. Macrolithic technology – Eneolithic vocabulary and metaphors

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    Aleksander Dzbyński

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eneolithic period witnessed a technological breakthrough of a significance comparable to that of the technological revolution in historical times, accompanied by a matching revolution in social and economic relationships. This transition no doubt led also to the creation of new and momentous metaphors, which in their turn triggered new senses and planes of communication. It goes without saying that the Eneolithic technology that had the greatest potential for metaphors promoting new ways of looking at the world was metallurgy. Nevertheless, before Eneolithic communities came to fully appreciate the properties of metal, many of their number resorted to an idiosyncratic flint technology to produce macrolithic implements. It seems that the production and exchange of macrolithic artefacts led to the development of a new vocabulary and grammar that served, among other things, to describe the social inequalities discernible in Eneolithic communities.

  1. METAPHOR: Probability density estimation for machine learning based photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, V.; Cavuoti, S.; Brescia, M.; Vellucci, C.; Tortora, C.; Longo, G.

    2017-06-01

    We present METAPHOR (Machine-learning Estimation Tool for Accurate PHOtometric Redshifts), a method able to provide a reliable PDF for photometric galaxy redshifts estimated through empirical techniques. METAPHOR is a modular workflow, mainly based on the MLPQNA neural network as internal engine to derive photometric galaxy redshifts, but giving the possibility to easily replace MLPQNA with any other method to predict photo-z's and their PDF. We present here the results about a validation test of the workflow on the galaxies from SDSS-DR9, showing also the universality of the method by replacing MLPQNA with KNN and Random Forest models. The validation test include also a comparison with the PDF's derived from a traditional SED template fitting method (Le Phare).

  2. Production of 10S-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid from oleic acid by whole recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing 10S-dioxygenase from Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 with the aid of a chaperone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Seo, Min-Ju; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-01-01

    To increase the production of 10S-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid from oleic acid by whole recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing Nostoc punctiforme 10S-dioxygenase with the aid of a chaperone. The optimal conditions for 10S-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid production by recombinant cells co-expressing chaperone plasmid were pH 9, 35 °C, 15 % (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 40 g cells l -1 , and 10 g oleic acid l -1 . Under these conditions, recombinant cells co-expressing chaperone plasmid produced 7.2 g 10S-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid l -1 within 30 min, with a conversion yield of 72 % (w/w) and a volumetric productivity of 14.4 g l -1 h -1 . The activity of recombinant cells expressing 10S-dioxygenase was increased by 200 % with the aid of a chaperone, demonstrating the first biotechnological production of 10S-hydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid using recombinant cells expressing 10S-dioxygenase.

  3. Beyond Charity: Partial Narratives as a Metaphor for Basic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    In "A New World: Redefining the Legacy of Min-Zhan Lu"(JBW 27.2, Fall 2008), Brian Ray revisits the controversy that emerged in the early 1990s in response to critiques of the iconic Mina Shaughnessy made by Min-Zhan Lu. He offers a reading of the debate that focuses on common ground between the two sides through a metaphor of linguistic charity…

  4. THE TRANSLATION OF METAPHORS IN HARRY POTTER AND THE CHAMBER OF SECRETS FROM ENGLISH TO INDONESIAN

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    Khairuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Translation is undoubtedly an important but at the same time difficult work. Metaphors are among the potential areas of translation problem. This study aimed at describing how metaphors in the novel Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets are translated from English to Indonesian, and evaluating the appropriateness of the translation results. Findings showed certain strategies were applicable and determinant to the appropriateness of the English metaphor translation to Indonesian: adoption or reproduction, adaptation or replacement with Indonesian metaphors, conversion to simile, adoption plus sense, conversion to sense, and deletion. Metaphor translation appropriateness shall be arrived if it qualifies referential and contextual accuracy. Missing one or either two of the accuracy kinds may result in less and inappropriate metaphor translation respectively.

  5. “In-between” a rock and a “third space”? On the trouble with ambivalent metaphors of translation

    OpenAIRE

    Maitland, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Homi Bhabha's The Location of Culture (1994) made waves in translation studies. His theories of hybridity, third space and the in-between have been consistently present in the literature ever since. For scholars concerned with the ethics of translation vis-à-vis the cultural other, Bhabha's metaphors give expression to the notion of “writing back” to neocolonial hegemonies. Despite their allure, what has not been addressed is the extent to which their success is threatened by the agency of th...

  6. Good is up – Spatial metaphors in action observation

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    Janna Marleen Gottwald

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive objects or actions are associated with physical highness, whereas negative objects or actions are related to physical lowness. Previous research suggests that metaphorical connection (good is up or bad is down between spatial experience and evaluation of objects is grounded in actual experience with the body. Prior studies investigated effects of spatial metaphors with respect to verticality of either static objects or self-performed actions. By presenting videos of object placements, the current three experiments combined vertically-located stimuli with observation of vertically-directed actions. As expected, participants’ ratings of emotionally-neutral objects were systematically influenced by the observed vertical positioning, that is, ratings were more positive for objects that were observed being placed up as compared to down. Moreover, effects were slightly more pronounced for bad is down, because only the observed downward, but not the upward, action led to different ratings as compared to a medium-positioned action. Last, some ratings were even affected by observing only the upward/downward action, without seeing the final vertical placement of the object. Thus, both, a combination of observing a vertically-directed action and seeing a vertically-located object, and observing a vertically-directed action alone, affected participants’ evaluation of emotional valence of the involved object. The present findings expand the relevance of spatial metaphors to action observation, thereby giving new impetus to embodied-cognition research.

  7. Wunderkammers: Powerful Metaphors for ‘Tangible’ Experiential Knowledge Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Charlton

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Research problem: The paper identifies the need to support powerful metaphors that capture innovations of new emerging human computer interaction (HCI technologies and innovative question and answering (Q&A systems in the context of spatial learning and inquiry-based learning in education. Aim/goals of the research: Explore the potential of ‘Wunderkammer’ (curiosity cabinet as a powerful metaphor to design new types of learning experiences catering for an ecology of artefacts (real of virtual objects to provide a holistic context for educators to share and extend learning in action. Conclusions: We provide insight into the emergence of smart interactive objects with different types of sensors that can potentially support everyday life and the increasing access to new visual experiences through augment reality and virtual reality, for new types of tangible knowledge building that can be personalised and shared. This reshaping of human centred design and creating new experiences through tangible creations that externalize in real time and through new materials, the creative power of the ‘imaginations of movement’ provides new user experience design thinking through the concept of powerful metaphors, to provide core design requirements where the blending of worlds is common place.

  8. For a metaphorical tool to evoke identity: the tomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Gandolfi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In my contribution I want to investigate, from a theoretical point of view but also with methodological and practical consequences, the qualitative role of metaphor in social research. As tool able to improve and facilitate the visualization of complex ideas and states of mind, this rhetorical figure permits to obtain more information from interviewed people about topics hard to access in common interviews. This goal can be achieved by the build of the so called “tomen”, an artifact/experience design created by the subject(s interviewed which represents a gate point from which explore hidden dimensions, individual as diffused. Furthermore, the metaphor offers a strong link to another concept that now in sociology needs an operative dimension, the game: a buzz word that I intend as social frame of experience positioned in an artificial setting, a “magic circle”, able to represent in its operations a collective metaphor which gives us enormous possibilities to configure and set the ground of analysis.

  9. Obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum as a scientific "metaphor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric

    2008-09-01

    As a result of clinical, epidemiological, neuroimaging, and therapy studies that took place in the late 1980s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been well-characterized in the field of anxiety disorders. Other disorders attracted attention for their similarities to OCD, and were located in the orbit of the disorder. OCD has become known as the "primary domain" of a scientific "metaphor" comprising the putative cluster of OCD-related disorders (OCRDs). It is a "paradigm" with which to explore basal ganglia dysfunction. The OCRDs share common phenomenology, comorbidities, lifetime course, demographics, possible genetics, and frontostriatal dysfunction (particularly caudate hyperactivity.) The adoption of this metaphor analogy has proven useful. However, 15 years since its emergence, the spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorders remains controversial. Questions under debate include whether OCD is a unitary or split condition, whether it is an anxiety disorder, and whether there exists only one spectrum or several possible spectrums. Further work is needed to clarify obsessive-compulsive symptoms, subtypes, and endophenotypes. There is need to integrate existing databases, better define associated symptom domains, and create a more comprehensive endophenotyping protocol for OCRDs. There is also a need to integrate biological and psychological perspectives, concepts, and data to drive this evolution. By increasing research in this field, the OCD spectrum may evolve from a fragmented level of conceptualization as a "metaphor" to one that is more comprehensive and structured.

  10. Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, not Polarity Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Casasanto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness) has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as "high" and "low," or as "front" and "back," to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small), but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short), even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  11. Spatial congruity effects reveal metaphorical thinking, not polarity correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eDolscheid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as high and low, or as front and back, to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small, but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short, even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  12. Factors influencing metaphor translation in online cosmetic advertising in the context of the PRC

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Luanjuan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines metaphor translation from English to Mandarin in online cosmetic advertisements in the recent socio-cultural and historical context of the People's Republic of China. This examination of metaphor translation occurs at the level of discourse. In this thesis, discourse is understood as the linguistic representation of metaphor for persuasive and localised communicative purposes. In my study, I argue that in the translation of these online cosmetic advertisements, the trans-...

  13. INVECTIVES AS ANTHROP METAPHORS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LEXEME "CUNT"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOLODNAYA V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to some formats and contexts of using the word "cunt" as an anthrop metaphors within the corpora approach. The metaphor gradation takes place in the framework of a binary opposition "We/Ours" - "They/Others", in which target groups referents are presented in a negative/positive way. The anthrop metaphor "cunt" is hypothesized to appear as a result of its emotive meaning's reconsideration.

  14. INVECTIVES AS ANTHROP METAPHORS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LEXEME "CUNT")

    OpenAIRE

    GOLODNAYA V.N.

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to some formats and contexts of using the word "cunt" as an anthrop metaphors within the corpora approach. The metaphor gradation takes place in the framework of a binary opposition "We/Ours" - "They/Others", in which target groups referents are presented in a negative/positive way. The anthrop metaphor "cunt" is hypothesized to appear as a result of its emotive meaning's reconsideration.

  15. Metaphoric Car Drawings By a 12-Year-Old Congenitally Blind Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsin-Yi; Kennedy, John M

    2015-12-01

    A 12-year-old congenitally-blind girl drew a car moving, stationary, and braking. For stationary, she put the wheels inside the car and, for braking, drew the wheels as rough rectangles. At the age verbal metaphor is understood (Winner, 1988), the girl invented metaphoric drawings. In these, what is shown is not what is meant. In late childhood, metaphor may be understood similarly in pictures and words and by the sighted and blind. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Literally experts: expertise and the processing of analogical metaphors in pharmaceutical advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Marjorie; Smith, Malcolm C

    2014-01-01

    This research examined differences between novices and experts in processing analogical metaphors appearing in prescription drug advertisements. In contrast to previous studies on knowledge transfer, no evidence of the superiority of experts in processing metaphors was found. The results from an experiment suggest that expert consumers were more likely to process a metaphor in an ad literally than novices. Our findings point to a condition in which the expertise effect with processing analogies is not the linear relationship assumed in previous studies.

  17. Leading by Metaphors –A Case Study of a Mega IT Project in a Danish Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Fladkjær Nielsen, Anne-Dorte

    2014-01-01

    of metaphors by executive management to form and shape the megaproject appeared to have significant impact on guidance of individual and collective action, and thereby presumably one of the important factors for the successful implementation. To learn from this case study, we investigate the use of metaphors...... in the megaproject and discuss how leading by metaphors are enacted. Our findings are that (1) storytelling with metaphors can act as backbone for communication, (2) metaphors can set direction for technical capabilities, and finally (3) metaphors can be used to emphasize emotional intelligence....

  18. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  19. Use Of Imagery And Metaphor In Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama Kasbekar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the use of imagery and metaphors in Arvind Adiga’s The White Tiger (2008. The writer deliberately and skillfully uses animal imagery and other kinds of metaphors to highlight the intrinsic values of his characters and present themes and characters vividly. This paper highlights how this imagery and metaphor has been used by the writer to bring out the thematic rich and poor divide or the servitude of the poor and overbearing opulence of the rich. The metaphors give added value to the themes and the characters and provide an immediate verbal picture.

  20. The Development of Metaphor Comprehension and Its Relationship with Relational Verbal Reasoning and Executive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Carriedo

    Full Text Available Our main objective was to analyse the different contributions of relational verbal reasoning (analogical and class inclusion and executive functioning to metaphor comprehension across development. We postulated that both relational reasoning and executive functioning should predict individual and developmental differences. However, executive functioning would become increasingly involved when metaphor comprehension is highly demanding, either because of the metaphors' high difficulty (relatively novel metaphors in the absence of a context or because of the individual's special processing difficulties, such as low levels of reading experience or low semantic knowledge. Three groups of participants, 11-year-olds, 15-year-olds and young adults, were assessed in different relational verbal reasoning tasks-analogical and class-inclusion-and in executive functioning tasks-updating information in working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The results revealed clear progress in metaphor comprehension between ages 11 and 15 and between ages 15 and 21. However, the importance of executive function in metaphor comprehension was evident by age 15 and was restricted to updating information in working memory and cognitive inhibition. Participants seemed to use two different strategies to interpret metaphors: relational verbal reasoning and executive functioning. This was clearly shown when comparing the performance of the "more efficient" participants in metaphor interpretation with that of the "less efficient" ones. Whereas in the first case none of the executive variables or those associated with relational verbal reasoning were significantly related to metaphor comprehension, in the latter case, both groups of variables had a clear predictor effect.

  1. The Development of Metaphor Comprehension and Its Relationship with Relational Verbal Reasoning and Executive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriedo, Nuria; Corral, Antonio; Montoro, Pedro R; Herrero, Laura; Ballestrino, Patricia; Sebastián, Iraia

    2016-01-01

    Our main objective was to analyse the different contributions of relational verbal reasoning (analogical and class inclusion) and executive functioning to metaphor comprehension across development. We postulated that both relational reasoning and executive functioning should predict individual and developmental differences. However, executive functioning would become increasingly involved when metaphor comprehension is highly demanding, either because of the metaphors' high difficulty (relatively novel metaphors in the absence of a context) or because of the individual's special processing difficulties, such as low levels of reading experience or low semantic knowledge. Three groups of participants, 11-year-olds, 15-year-olds and young adults, were assessed in different relational verbal reasoning tasks-analogical and class-inclusion-and in executive functioning tasks-updating information in working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The results revealed clear progress in metaphor comprehension between ages 11 and 15 and between ages 15 and 21. However, the importance of executive function in metaphor comprehension was evident by age 15 and was restricted to updating information in working memory and cognitive inhibition. Participants seemed to use two different strategies to interpret metaphors: relational verbal reasoning and executive functioning. This was clearly shown when comparing the performance of the "more efficient" participants in metaphor interpretation with that of the "less efficient" ones. Whereas in the first case none of the executive variables or those associated with relational verbal reasoning were significantly related to metaphor comprehension, in the latter case, both groups of variables had a clear predictor effect.

  2. Images and Metaphors, Mirrors of Social Concern in the Saga af Viktor ok Blavus

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Annegret

    2002-01-01

    Images and Metaphors, Mirrors of Social Concern in the Saga af Viktor ok Blavus I wish to examine how the images and metaphors in the Saga af Viktor ok Blavus reflect the concerns of Icelandic society. Included among the metaphors are the personae which populate the saga. As in the Saints’ legends they are not characters but types and are therefore themselves metaphors. The opening stanzas of the Saga af Viktor ok Blavus comprise a reference to the translated riddarasögur which the ano...

  3. The Interpretation Of Metaphor Found In 20 Songs Of Taylor Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Desriani, Shella

    2015-01-01

    This paper entitled The interpretation of metaphor found in 20 of taylor swift. this paper discuss the types and meaning of metaphor in the lyrics of the song taylor swift. The purpose of this paper is to analyze types of metaphor in the form of simile, personification and hyperbole contained in the lyrics of the song taylor swift. In this paper the authors wrote the paper used the method of literature, collect some data from some books, and the internet. the lyric which contained metaphors i...

  4. What Role do Metaphors Play in Game-Based Learning Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the role played by metaphors in learning games and game-based learning processes. The aim is to contribute better understanding of the mechanisms of how such games contribute to learning and learning transfer. On the basis of an analytical strategy that emphasises metaphors...... as storylines, actors, acts and movement, three learning games are analysed in order to understand how learning emerges in association to game-embedded metaphors. As shown in this chapter, metaphors seem to play a profound role in game-based learning, both by providing participants with a suitcase containing...

  5. A Cognitive Metaphorical Analysis of Selected Verses in the Glorius Qu’ran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf Eldin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metaphor has been generally contemplated and broke down inside the schema of verbal and written discourse, scholarly works and artistic studies. It has been identified with metaphorical language and has been viewed as quite recently a sort of aesthetic frivolity (Murray & Moon, 2006. In addition, conventional instructing of metaphors presents language as an abnormal or different method for using it (Goatly, 1997. Likewise, as Goatly has put it, scholars have needed figures of speech strictly limited to writing, talk and craftsmanship. Moreover, metaphor is viewed as something that fits in with abstract structures which is more concerned with novel or intriguing uses of words. Lakoff & Johnson (1980 presented an alternate idea and perspective of metaphor which is known as reasonable metaphorical dissection. The theory underlying this new approach is that the reasonable metaphors enter our understanding of our general surroundings and they shape our demeanor. Appropriately, as pointed out by Lakoff & Johnson (1980, metaphor is available in ordinary discourse, in every language, and is to a certain degree, has gotten to be culturally specific. Besides both contend that metaphors affect our way of viewing the meanings and are discovered widely in a significant number of our languages, contemplations and activities.

  6. A clinical treatment intervention for dysphoria: externalizing metaphors therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinty, Everett; Armstrong, David; Carrière, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore a novel, short-term treatment intervention for internalizing behaviours. This intervention is primarily based upon an externalizing process, transforming of metaphoric imagery, and shifting of underlying maladaptive emotional schemas. This article addresses the clinical population of children and youth, specifically through outlining the protocol, externalizing metaphors therapy. A selective review of significant works regarding the efficacy of short-term therapy was conducted, including the process of change within narrative therapy. It is proposed that two specific processes account for the mental health change experienced by clients who receive this new treatment intervention: (1) externalization of problems and (2) purposeful client-generated metaphor manipulation, impacting upon underlying schemas. From these theoretical constructs, the present article outlines a three-session treatment protocol that manualizes these key clinical processes. A case study is presented to illustrate this intervention for anxiety and depression. Further clinical research is underway to address the testable hypotheses resulting from the current theoretical model. Clinical trials in brief psychotherapy are suggested to empirically evaluate the efficacy of this new treatment intervention for dysphoria. This article outlines a short-term treatment intervention for anxiety and depression (dysphoira) through a novel 3-session model, where the clinician-practitioner can obtain competency through a one-day workshop.Its relevance for the clinical researcher and the mental health community is in its versatility in addressing internalizing behavior for four clinical populations: (1) children and adolescents; (2) children and adolescents on the autism spectrum; (3) adults in general; and, (4) adults with a dual-diagnosis. The treatment protocol described within is based upon the externalizing and deconstructive properties of Narrative Therapy, and the

  7. ATHENA AIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible

  8. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...

  9. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  10. CANCER IN OTHER WORDS? THE ROLE OF METAPHOR IN EMOTION DISCLOSURE IN CANCER PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanceley, Anne; Clark, Jill Macleod

    2013-05-01

    Despite evidence that nurses may play a crucial part in the wellbeing and recovery of cancer patients by facilitating their expression of feelings, research is lacking into the emotional content of nurse-patient talk and patients' use of language in emotion disclosure. In this study, 23 participating nurses in a variety of cancer care settings were asked to tape-record their conversations with patients during daily care. A data set of 60 nurse-patient conversations was collected. Individual expression of emotion by patients was identified through interpretive literary analysis within a framework of psychodynamic theory. Overall the picture of emotion disclosure was intense. In particular, patients' use of metaphor and figurative language to express their distress was powerful and pervasive. Participating nurses demonstrated responsive skills but their responses to figurative expression were often problematic. The study provides evidence of unconscious processes in nurses' work and advocates career-long psychoanalytically informed supervision for nurses to better support them in challenging dialogue with cancer patients. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of supervision on communications with cancer patients to ensure patients have access to appropriate emotional supportive and care.

  11. On metaphorical designation of humans, animals, plants and things in Serbian and English language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Stanimir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine compound names of plants, animals, human beings and other things in which at least one nominal component designates a part of the body or clothes, or some basic elements of houshold in Serbian and English. The object of my analysis are complex derivatives of the type (adjective noun + suffix in Serbian and componds of the type noun's + noun, noun + noun and adjective + noun in English. I try to show that there is a difference in metaphorical designation of human beings and other living creatures and things by such compound nouns. My thesis is that the metathorical designation of human beings by such compounds is based on the symbolic meaning of some words and expressions while the designation of other things and beings relies on noticed similarity. In Serbian language such designation is provided by comples derivatives praznoglavac 'empty-headed person', tupoglavac 'dullard' debolokoiac 'callos person', golobradac 'young, inexperienced person' žutokljunac 'tledling' (fig, in English chicken liver, beetle brain birdbrain, bonehead, butterfingers, bigwig, blackleg, blue blood bluestocking, eat's paw, deadhead,fat-guts,fathead, goldbrick (kol hardhat, hardhead, greenhorn, redcoat (ist, redneck (sl, thickhead, etc. Polisemous compounds like eat's paw lend support for this thesis because their designation of human beings is based on symbolic meaning of some words or expressions. I hypothesize that the direction and extend of the possible metaphorization of names may be accounted for by the following hierarchy (11 people - animals - plants - meterial things. Such hierarchy is well supported by the observations of Lakoff (1987 and Taylor (1995 about the role of human body in early experience and perception ofthe reality. Different restrictions which may be imposed in the hierarchy (11 should be the matter of further study, some of which have been noted on this paper. The compounds of this type denoting people have

  12. "The Foreign Language Classroom is Like an Airplane" Metaphorical Conceptualizations of Teachers’ Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan İnceçay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drawing on constructivist perspectives, this study aimed to investigate the tacit knowledge of pre-service English teachers regarding the foreign language classroom by discovering their belief systems mainly through a metaphor analysis. The participants consisted of two pre-service teachers, who enrolled in a practicum class of a one-year intensive teaching certificate course offered at an English-medium foundation university located in Istanbul, Turkey, during the spring semester of 2012-2013 academic year. The possible effects of practice teaching period on the metaphors were also explored. In so doing, the participants were requested to reflect on the metaphors they generated. In this exploratory design, the data collection tools included a metaphor completion task, a semi-structured interview, and follow-up e-mails. The results suggested that pre-service teachers do not enter teacher education as a tabula rasa and that the use of metaphors to reveal previous knowledge was a useful instrument. It was also found that real teaching experience seemed to influence the metaphors expressed prior to practicum. Implications and applications for teacher education and suggestions for future research are discussed. Keywords: Pre-service teacher education, teaching certificate programs, practicum, metaphor analysis, prior beliefs, tacit knowledge Öz Yapılandırmacı yaklaşımı takip eden bu çalışma hizmet öncesi İngilizce öğretmenlerinin yabancı dil sınıfı ile ilgili var olan bilgilerini metafor analizi yöntemi ile ortaya çıkarmayı amaçlamıştır. 2012-2013 eğitim-öğretim yılının bahar döneminde bir vakıf üniversitesinde verilmekte olan bir yıllık yoğun bir pedagojik formasyon programının okul deneyimi dersine kayıt olan iki hizmet öncesi İngilizce öğretmeni çalışmada yer almışlardır. Bahsi geçen okul deneyimi döneminin araştırmaya katılan öğretmenler tarafından dile getirilen metaforlar

  13. Metaphores et representations du cerveau plurilingue: conceptions naives ou construction du savior? Exemples dans le contexte d'enseignement andorran (Metaphors and Representations of the Multilingual Brain: Naive Conceptions or Knowledge Construction? Examples in the Context of Andorran Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larruy, Martine Marquillo

    2000-01-01

    This article concentrates on the use of metaphors characterizing a multilingual brain in a corpus of oral interactions drawn from the Andorran part of an international research study. First, the situation and the status of metaphors in fields connected to the elaboration of knowledge is questioned. Next, the most important metaphors associated to…

  14. AIDS wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery.

  15. Metaphorical and literal readings of aphorisms in the Book of Proverbs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a corollary, illustrations of the many instances where literal readings are necessary, so that such an overriding hermeneutical perspective cannot be convincing. Interpreting a metaphor is one thing, reading metaphorically is another, notably a creative act independent of whether its “correctness” can be demonstrated by ...

  16. Metaphors and the Pejorative Framing of Marginalized Groups: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Although the importance of metaphors is described in the social work literature, few articles or books in the profession have considered the role of metaphors in social policy, especially in providing a negative frame within which marginalized groups can be considered. This negative framing naturally supports aversive social policies designed to…

  17. Arrow of Time: Metaphorical Construals of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tamer G.; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Haglund, Jesper; Stromdahl, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Various features of scientific discourse have been characterized in the science education literature, and challenges students face in appropriating these features have been explored. Using the framework of conceptual metaphor, this paper sought to identify explicit and implicit metaphors in pedagogical texts dealing with the concept of entropy and…

  18. Metaphorical Duality: High School Subject Departments as Both Communities and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Wallace, John

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the metaphorical duality that exists when school subject departments are concurrently conceptualized as both communities and organizations. Employing a narrative methodology, we use the metaphorical duality to examine the manner in which science teachers negotiate two key aspects of their work; professional learning and…

  19. Investigating Primary School Teachers' Perception about Democracy through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirci, Hasan; Sadik, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine democracy perception of classroom teachers via metaphor analysis. Study group for research is formed of 253 classroom teachers. "Democracy Metaphors Questionnaire" (DMQ) has been used in collecting data. Content analysis has been used on analysis of qualitative data of research and descriptive…

  20. Scientific Knowledge, Popularisation, and the Use of Metaphors: Modern Genetics in Popular Science Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling, Niklas; Saljo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The article reports an empirical study of how authors in popular science magazines attempt to render scientific knowledge intelligible to wide audiences. In bridging the two domains of "popular" and "scientific" knowledge, respectively, metaphor becomes central. We ask the empirical question of what metaphors are used when communicating about…

  1. Kill the Song--Steal the Show: What Does Distinguish Predicative Metaphors from Decomposable Idioms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillies, Stephanie; Declercq, Christelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the semantic processing difference between decomposable idioms and novel predicative metaphors. It was hypothesized that idiom comprehension results from the retrieval of a figurative meaning stored in memory, that metaphor comprehension requires a sense creation process and that this process difference affects the processing…

  2. Teaching Metaphorical Extensions of Private Events through Rival-Model Observation to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Belisle, Jordan; Munoz, Bridget E.; Stanley, Caleb R.; Rowsey, Kyle E.

    2017-01-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of observational learning using the rival-model technique in teaching three children with autism to state metaphorical statements about emotions when provided a picture, as well as to intraverbally state an appropriate emotion when provided a scenario and corresponding metaphorical emotion. The results provide a…

  3. Metaphors for the Internet Used by Nursing Students in Turkey: A Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyuva, Emine; Kaya, Hülya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Study: This study was conducted within the scope of a qualitative and quantitative study pattern in order to determine nursing students' perceptions of the Internet through metaphors and the variables affecting such metaphors. Method: The study sampling included all undergraduate students (575 individuals) attending a nursing school…

  4. The Use of Metaphoric Language in Introducing Video and Computer Technology in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the use of metaphoric language is common in non-literary fields of learning. Considering its potential for application as evidenced by reference in books, journal papers, e-zine discussions and blogs, and the historical time over which metaphors have been engaged in rhetoric, it is surprising that there is little allusion to…

  5. Product Packaging Metaphors: Effects of Ambiguity and Explanatory Information on Consumer Appreciation and Brand Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rompay, Thomas Johannes Lucas; Veltkamp, M.

    2014-01-01

    Product packaging is an important means for communicating product and brand benefits. Research suggests that visual metaphors may be particularly suited in this context, however, the conditions under which metaphors are effective are not yet well understood. In the research reported herein, effects

  6. The role of designer expertise in source selection during product metaphor generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cila, N.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Visch, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    Metaphors have a communicative role in design that entails a transfer of meaning from an entity (i.e. source) to the designed product (i.e. target). In this paper, we investigate the effect of the expertise of designer on the accessibility of the sources that they employ in metaphors. In the study

  7. Enhancing the comprehension of visual metaphors in individuals with intellectual disability with or without down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnitzer-Meirovich, Shlomit; Lifshitz, Hefziba; Mashal, Nira

    2018-03-01

    This study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of deep and shallow intervention programs in the acquisition of visual metaphor comprehension in individuals with non-specific intellectual disability (NSID; aged 15-59, N = 53) or Down syndrome (DS; aged 15-52, N = 50). The deep intervention program was based on dynamic assessment model for enhancing analogical thinking. The shallow intervention program involves memorizing a metaphorical relationship between pairs of pictures. Visual metaphor comprehension was measured by the construction of a metaphorical connection between pairs of pictures. The results indicated that both etiology groups exhibited poor understanding of visual metaphors before the intervention. A significant improvement was observed in both interventions and both etiology groups, with greater improvement among individuals who underwent the deep processing. Moreover, the latter procedure led to greater generalization ability. The results also indicated that vocabulary contributed significantly to understanding unstudied metaphors and that participants with poorer linguistic abilities exhibited greater improvement in their metaphorical thinking. Thus, individuals with ID with or without DS are able to recruit the higher-order cognitive abilities required for visual metaphor comprehension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Epistemic Role of Novel Metaphors in Teachers' Knowledge Constructions of School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cheryl J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a parallel is drawn between Steven Hawking's use of common and novel metaphors in his evolving explanation of the theory of the universe and the similar use of common and novel metaphors by educators in four school contexts attempting to illuminate their experiences of school reform storied and restoried over time. The epistemic…

  9. Metaphors as Two-Way Mirrors: Illuminating Preservice to In-Service Teacher Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John

    2015-01-01

    The transition from pre-service to in-service can be difficult for teachers. One means of looking into the minds and hearts of such teachers is to elicit the metaphors they adopt for themselves. Previous studies have indicated that during this transition much of the confidence, idealism and optimism of teacher metaphors is displaced by bleak and…

  10. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  11. Dancing on the Heads of Snakes: An Intertextual Analysis of Political Metaphor in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zuraiki, Mokhtar

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use and linguistic behavior of the "al-raqs ala ru'oos al-tha'abeen" "dancing on the heads of snakes" metaphor and metaphors about unity in pro-government and anti-government discourse in Yemen. It adopts an intertextual, discourse-based approach that, following Oakley and Coulson (2008),…

  12. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

  13. Resilient cities: meaning, models, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic, and planning realms

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T.A. Pickett; M.L. Cadenasso; J.M. Grove

    2004-01-01

    Urban designers, ecologists, and social scientists have called for closer links among their disciplines. We examine a promising new tool for promoting this linkage—the metaphor of "cities of resilience." To put this tool to best use, we indicate how metaphor fits with other conceptual tools in science. We then present the two opposing definitions of...

  14. Metaphors in Digital Hermeneutics: Zooming through Literary, Didactic and Historical Representations of Imaginary and Existing Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armaselu, Florentina; van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes to bridge two areas of inquiry, digital hermeneutics and metaphor within a digital environment, by the analysis of a less studied phenomenon, i.e. how interpretation is supported and shaped by metaphors embedded in an interface. The study is articulated around three use cases for

  15. Globalization: In Terms of Teachers' Opinion and Metaphorical Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çayak, Semih; Eskici, Menekse

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate teachers' opinion and metaphorical perceptions about globalization. In this paper, phenomenology one of the qualitative research type was used. 61 teachers' metaphorical perceptions about globalization were collected and interviewed with 12 teachers about globalization in education. Teachers'…

  16. The Dangers of Pipeline Thinking: How the School-to-Prison Pipeline Metaphor Squeezes out Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Ken McGrew critically examines the "school-to-prison pipeline" metaphor and associated literature. The origins and influence of the metaphor are compared with the origins and influence of the competing "prison industrial complex" concept. Specific weaknesses in the "pipeline literature" are examined.…

  17. Friendly Fire: War-Normalizing Metaphors in the Israeli Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriely-Nuri, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    Combining principles of peace education and political discourse analysis, this study dwells on one powerful metaphorical mechanism engaged in by Israeli political leaders: war-normalizing metaphors, a mechanism for framing war as part of human nature and normal life. Six core semantic fields were identified as particularly useful "raw…

  18. What the Shadow Knows: Exploring the Hidden Dimensions of the Consumer Metaphor in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael A.; Hogler, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    This article aims to uncover hidden dimensions of the metaphor of consumerism in management education. By exploring the metaphor, the authors elucidate the implicit claims in the assertion that teachers produce business education and students consume that product. The image of commodification structures a discourse that involves conceptions of…

  19. The Haunting of Communication Research by Dead Metaphors: For Reflexive Analyses of the Communication Research Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christian K.

    2001-01-01

    Explicates two closely related metaphors about communication in everyday discourse that lead to a picture of communication as an indeterminate process for sharing subjective meanings. Demonstrates the tacit utilization of these metaphors by the Michigan State tradition of compliance-gaining research through examination of both their theory and…

  20. "Commedia Dell'Arte" as a Metaphor for the Art of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    With my background in acting, stagecraft, and some knowledge of theatre history from high school and college, it was natural for me as a novice teacher to think about theatre as a metaphor for teaching. In this article I will discuss how over my career I conceived of teaching in terms of theatrical metaphors, and make a comparison with a common…

  1. A Corpus-Based Evaluation of Metaphors in a Business English Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorczynska Sznajder, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the selection of metaphors in a published business English textbook using findings from a specialised corpus of written business English. While most scholars agree that metaphors should be included in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) syllabuses as a potentially problematic area in successful language learning, it is…

  2. Aristotle's Definition of Rhetoric in the "Rhetoric": The Metaphors and Their Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sara J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates Aristotle's metaphorical definitions of rhetoric in book 1 of his "Rhetoric," using his own theory of metaphor as a measure of his practice in these definitions. Indicates that Aristotle's practice in the situation does not match his theory, a circumstance that has consequences for one's reading of the "Rhetoric."…

  3. In the Same Boat? On Metaphor Variation as Mediating the Individual Voice in Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaman, Einav

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the notion of metaphor variation, and argues that it may play a significant role as a linguistic tool for positioning the subjects in a given organizational change. More specifically, it is argued that metaphor variation enables the subject to corroborate the organization's centripetal forces on the one hand, and to express…

  4. An Investigation Of The Effects Of The Metaphor and Simile In Persuasive Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, N. Ramar, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The author found through experimentation that a well-used metaphor can facilitate persuasion and attitude change. The author's hypothesis is that inclusion of similes will increase persuasiveness but that use of metaphors instead of similes would have a greater effect in attitude change. (MS)

  5. The Role of Metaphorical Thinking in the Creativity of Scientific Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Santos, Manuela Romo; Jiménez, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    This article critically reviews the extant literature on scientific creativity and metaphorical thinking. Metaphorical thinking is based on a conceptual transfer of relationships or mapping, from a well-known source domain to a poorly known target domain, which could result in creative outcomes in sciences. Creativity leads to products that are…

  6. Using metaphor and narrative ideas in trauma and family therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike N. Witney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Everyday people living in South Africa experience trauma, either first hand through accidents, crime, violence and abuse or through being witnesses to the traumatic event. This results in people in South Africa suffering from anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and other severe mental health issues. One only has to read a newspaper, watch or listen to the news to get a glimpse of the landscape of trauma in our country. In this article I looked at using narrative ideas and metaphor in therapy with trauma and family therapy.

  7. Metaphors of DNA: a review of the popularisation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Cortiñas Rovira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a 1953-present day review of the models that have popularised DNA, one of the fundamental molecules of biochemistry. DNA has become an iconic concept over the 20th century, overcoming the boundaries of science and spreading into literature, painting, sculpture or religion. This work analyses the reasons why DNA has penetrated society so effectively and examines some of the main metaphors used by the scientists and scientific popularisers. Furthermore, this article, taken from the author's PhD thesis, describes some recent popularisation models for this molecule.

  8. Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand: From Metaphor to Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Adam Smith and the ‘invisible hand’ are nearly synonymous in modern economic thinking. Adam Smith is strongly associated with the invisible hand, understood as a general rule that people in realising their self-interests unintentionally benefit the public good. The attribution to Smith is challengeable. Adam Smith’s use of the metaphor was much more modest; it was re-invented in the 1930s and 1940s onwards to bolster mathematical treatments of capitalism (Samuelson, Friedman) and to sup...

  9. Biology and Economics: Metaphors that Economists usually take from Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny García Callejas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Stanley Jevons, Karl Marx, Francois Quesnay and Joseph Schumpeter all have at least one thing in common: they used biological metaphors when speaking about economics. Nonetheless, today, this relation subsists and biology and economics are viewed as complementary sciences that have a lot to gain from joint research in fields like: evolutionary economics, economic growth, cognitive economics and environmental and ecological economics, among others. This paper, divided in four sections, will show this conclusion and explain that biology and economics are more sisters than strangers

  10. The metaphors we stream by: Making sense of music streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Anja Nylund

    2016-01-01

    In Norway music-streaming services have become mainstream in everyday music listening. This paper examines how 12 heavy streaming users make sense of their experiences with Spotify and WiMP Music (now Tidal). The analysis relies on a mixed-method qualitative study, combining music-diary self-reports, online observation of streaming accounts, Facebook and last.fm scrobble-logs, and in-depth interviews. By drawing on existing metaphors of Internet experiences we demonstrate that music-streaming...

  11. DEVELOPING A SEVEN METAPHORS MODEL OF MARKETING FOR UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COITA Dorin-Cristian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of marketing applied in education offers a lot of possibilities of social innovation. It is a tool helping educational organization to acquire resources and to provide value. In this article presented a model of seven metaphors to be used by a universities in order to acquire resources and to provide value to its stakeholders and applied it in the case of a Romanian university called The University. The aim of the paper is to identify sources of social innovations by using this model in the field of educational marketing.

  12. An Empirical Assessment of Metaphor Use in the Design Studio: Analysis, Reflection and Restructuring of Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan

    2012-01-01

    This investigation was concerned with the use of metaphors in architectural design education. Reasoning by means of metaphors helps to understand a design situation in terms of a remote concept normally not associated with it. By juxtaposing the known with the unknown in an unusual way, metaphors can enhance design problem solving. The goal of…

  13. Laterality in Metaphor Processing: Lack of Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Right Hemisphere Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M.; Leube, Dirk T.; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Kircher, Tilo T. J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated processing of metaphoric sentences using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen healthy subjects (6 female, 11 male) read 60 novel short German sentence pairs with either metaphoric or literal meaning and performed two different tasks: judging the metaphoric content and judging whether the sentence…

  14. Translating the Metaphor in Poetry: A Cognitive Approach to "Le Bateau Ivre" and Its Translation in Turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Ruhan

    2017-01-01

    Lakoff and Johnson (1980) gave a cognitive point of view to metaphor study explaining that metaphor is not a mere literary stylistic device, rather a tool for conceptualization. According to this view, metaphors are conceptualized in man's mind with regard to source domain and target domain in different types of context. This study is an attempt…

  15. The baby and the bath water: improving metaphors and analogies in high school biology texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Luke

    This dissertation is concerned with understanding how metaphors and analogies function in biology education and whether some of the philosophical critiques of the language used in the field of biology -- and in particular its accompanying metaphors and analogies, have a basis in the educational materials used to teach the subject. This inquiry was carried out through examining the pedagogical features and content of metaphors and analogies from three high school biology textbooks. After identifying over two hundred and twenty-five verbal and pictorial metaphors and analogies, these figures of speech were coded based on prior research that establishes effective characteristics for their use. In tandem with this quantitative analysis, a philosophical analysis considers how well the content of these metaphors and analogies aligns with current scientific understanding and what misunderstandings may be engendered through the use of these metaphors and analogies. The major findings of the analysis include: 1) Textbook authors are much more likely to utilize metaphors and analogies as well as signal their presence to students compared with past analyses; 2) A number of metaphors and analogies either contain errors in analogical mapping or use source analogues that are too antiquated to support today's students; 3) The content of many metaphors and analogies is frequently outdated in reference to current scientific understanding; and 4) Many metaphors and analogies tend to reinforce tacit elements of past scientific paradigms - these are termed 'reinforcing metaphors' in the dissertation and include nature as machine, nature as blueprint or information, nature as business and nature as war. The present work submits several implications for students learning biology as well as the manner in which students come to understand the natural world. The work suggests ways to reduce ineffective metaphors and analogies as well as reliance on reinforcing metaphors. It offers new

  16. Metaphorical Singular Reference. The Role of Enriched Composition in Reference Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bezuidenhout

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that, in the course of interpreting a metaphorical utterance, both literal and metaphorical interpretations of the utterance are available to the interpreter, although there may be disagreement about the order in which these interpretations are accessed. I call this the dual availability assumption. I argue that it does not apply in cases of metaphorical singular reference. These are cases in which proper names, complex demonstratives or definite descriptions are used metaphorically; e.g., ‘That festering sore must go’, referring to a derelict house. We are forced to give up dual availability in these cases because a process of predicate transfer happens in the restriction clauses of such metaphorically used definite phrases (DPs, so that a denotation-less definite concept is never constructed. A process of enriched composition yields only a metaphorical referent/denotation. I compare cases of metaphorical reference both to cases of metonymic reference and to uses of epithets of the ‘That N of an N’ form. Reflection on the former is helpful in getting clear about the kind of property transfer involved in referential metaphors. Such transfer happens directly at the level of properties and is not mediated via a correspondence between objects, as is the case with metonymic reference. Reflection on epithets such as ‘that festering sore of a house’ is helpful since these are a sort of intermediate case between cases of literal and metaphorical reference. They provide support for my claim that in cases of metaphorical reference there is only a single referent (the metaphorical one. Moreover, constraints on the use of these epithets suggest that referential metaphors are similarly constrained. In particular, I argue that referential metaphors can only be used when the implicit category restriction (e.g., house in the case of the example ‘That festering sore must go’ is highly salient, and that the evaluative

  17. Verbal and perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Sullivan, M P

    1987-09-01

    In contrast to the common assumption that young children have little or no ability to reason by analogy or to comprehend proportional metaphors, the present study demonstrated that children as young as age 5 years have an emerging ability to solve both verbal and perceptual proportional analogy problems and to detect the meanings of proportional metaphoric sentences. These results were largely because the experimental tasks were designed to minimize the number of factors that would restrict the performance of young children. The results indicated that the years between 5 and 7 mark a steady improvement in analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension, but that children ages 5, 6, and 7 display a wide-ranging ability in these areas. It was also found that perceptual analogical reasoning was statistically related to verbal analogical reasoning and to proportional metaphor comprehension, and that perceptual analogical reasoning and proportional metaphor comprehension were both statistically related to receptive vocabulary development.

  18. Metaphor Comprehension and Interpretation in Cleft Palate Children Aged 6–9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopka Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The level of metaphor comprehension and interpretation was investigated in a sample of children with cleft palate (CP, aged 6;0-8;11, and healthy controls matched with age, sex, socioeconomic status, and IQ level. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R was used to evaluate the children’s cognitive functioning, and the metaphor tests from a modified version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery - Polish version (RHLB-PL were used to assess comprehension of figurative language. The CP and control groups differed significantly in Verbal IQ values and in performance in the Vocabulary test, Comprehension test, Picture Metaphor Explanation test, and Written Metaphor Explanation test. In both metaphor explanation tests, children with CP gave fewer responses than controls. The results suggest no differences between children with CP and controls in understanding figurative language, although they point to weaker performance in communicating responses and producing statements in the CP children group.

  19. Angel or Devil? Dentists and Dental Students Conceptions of Pediatric Dental Patients through Metaphor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldur, B

    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify the conceptions of dentists and dental students (DSs) about pediatric dental patients (PDPs) using metaphor analysis. The study group (N = 259) consisted of dentists and DSs. Participants completed the sentence "A pediatric dental patient is like ... because …..." in order to reveal the metaphors they use about the concept of PDPs. The data were analyzed using the mixed-methods: qualitative (metaphor analysis) and quantitative (chi-square) data analysis techniques. The dentists and DSs produced 259 metaphors. These metaphors were gathered under six different conceptual categories that define a PDP as unpredictable, dangerous, uncontrollable, requiring care and sensitivity, valuable, and orientable. The most important factors leading to these conceptions were the uncooperativeness of some PDPs and the effectiveness of behavior management. The results of this study indicate that there was no significant difference among DSs, general dentists and specialist dentists with respect to six conceptual categories that identify the conceptions about PDPs.

  20. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...