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Sample records for metamorphic high electron

  1. Millimeter-wave small-signal modeling with optimizing sensitive-parameters for metamorphic high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S-W; Baek, Y-H; Han, M; Rhee, J-K; Kim, S-D; Oh, J-H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and reliable technique for determining the small-signal equivalent circuit model parameters of the 0.1 µm metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMTs) in a millimeter-wave frequency range. The initial eight extrinsic parameters of the MHEMT are extracted using two S-parameter (scattering parameter) sets measured under the pinched-off and zero-biased cold field-effect transistor conditions by avoiding the forward gate biasing. Furthermore, highly calibration-sensitive values of the R s , L s and C pd are optimized by using a gradient optimization method to improve the modeling accuracy. The accuracy enhancement of this procedure is successfully verified with an excellent correlation between the measured and calculated S-parameters up to 65 GHz

  2. Electron microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating and metamorphic evolution of the Acaiaca Granulite Complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros Junior, Edgar Batista; Marques, Rodson Abreu, E-mail: edgarjr@ymail.com, E-mail: rodson.marques@ufes.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Queiroga, Glaucia Nascimento, E-mail: hanna@degeo.ufop.br, E-mail: glauciaqueiroga@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Departamento de Geologia; Schulz, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schulz@mineral.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie - Institute of Mineralogy, Freiberg - Saxony (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The Acaiaca Complex (AC) is located in southeastern Minas Gerais state, and comprises felsic, mafic, ultramafic, and aluminous granulite as well as lower grade gneisses and mylonite. The complex is distributed over an area of ca. 36 km by 6 km, surrounded by amphibolite facies gneisses of the Mantiqueira Complex (MC). The discrepancy in the metamorphic grade between both complexes led to the present study aiming to understand the metamorphic history of the AC by means of geothermobarometry calculations and electron microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating. Estimates of the metamorphic conditions of the granulite based on conventional geothermobarometry and THERMOCALC resulted in temperatures around 800 deg C and pressures between of 5.0 and 9.9 kbar and a retro metamorphic path characterized by near-isobaric cooling. Part of the granulite was affected by anatexis. The melting of felsic granulite resulted in the generation of pegmatites and two aluminous lithotypes. These are: 1) garnet-sillimanite granulite with euhedral plagioclase and cordierite that show straight faces against quartz, and is the crystallization product of an anatectic melt, and 2) garnet-kyanite-cordierite granulite, which is probably the restite of anatexis, as indicated by textures and high magnesium contents. Th-U-Pb monazite geochronology of two granulite samples resulted in a metamorphic age around 2060 Ma, which is similar to the age of the MC registered in the literature. The similar Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of both complexes lead to the conclusion that the Acaiaca Complex may be the high grade metamorphic unit geochronological related to the lower grade Mantiqueira Complex. (author)

  3. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  4. Temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100 nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.

  5. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor employing growth interruption and in situ rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihn, Soo-Ghang; Jo, Seong June; Song, Jong-In

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of high temperature (∼700 deg. C) in situ rapid thermal annealing (RTA) carried out during growth interruption between spacer and δ-doping layers of an In 0.52 Al 0.48 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) grown on a compositionally graded InGaAlAs buffer layer. The in situ RTA improved optical and structural properties of the MHEMT without degradation of transport property, while postgrowth RTA improved the structural property of the MHEMT but significantly degraded mobility due to the defect-assisted Si diffusion. The results indicate the potential of the in situ RTA for use in the growth of high-quality metamorphic epitaxial layers for optoelectronic applications requiring improved optical and electrical properties

  6. Metamorphers

    KAUST Repository

    Sorger, Johannes; Mindek, Peter; Rautek, Peter; Grö ller, Eduard; Johnson, Graham; Viola, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    In molecular biology, illustrative animations are used to convey complex biological phenomena to broad audiences. However, such animations have to be manually authored in 3D modeling software, a time consuming task that has to be repeated from scratch for every new data set, and requires a high level of expertise in illustration, animation, and biology. We therefore propose metamorphers: a set of operations for defining animation states as well as the transitions to them in the form of re-usable storytelling templates. The re-usability is two-fold. Firstly, due to their modular nature, metamorphers can be re-used in different combinations to create a wide range of animations. Secondly, due to their abstract nature, metamorphers can be re-used to re-create an intended animation for a wide range of compatible data sets. Metamorphers thereby mask the low-level complexity of explicit animation specifications by exploiting the inherent properties of the molecular data, such as the position, size, and hierarchy level of a semantic data subset. We demonstrate the re-usability of our technique based on the authoring and application of two animation use-cases to three molecular data sets.

  7. Metamorphers

    KAUST Repository

    Sorger, Johannes

    2018-01-18

    In molecular biology, illustrative animations are used to convey complex biological phenomena to broad audiences. However, such animations have to be manually authored in 3D modeling software, a time consuming task that has to be repeated from scratch for every new data set, and requires a high level of expertise in illustration, animation, and biology. We therefore propose metamorphers: a set of operations for defining animation states as well as the transitions to them in the form of re-usable storytelling templates. The re-usability is two-fold. Firstly, due to their modular nature, metamorphers can be re-used in different combinations to create a wide range of animations. Secondly, due to their abstract nature, metamorphers can be re-used to re-create an intended animation for a wide range of compatible data sets. Metamorphers thereby mask the low-level complexity of explicit animation specifications by exploiting the inherent properties of the molecular data, such as the position, size, and hierarchy level of a semantic data subset. We demonstrate the re-usability of our technique based on the authoring and application of two animation use-cases to three molecular data sets.

  8. Isotopic evidence for two neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic events in the Brazilia belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Piuzanna, Danielle; Moraes, Renato de; Gioia, Simone Maria C.L

    2001-01-01

    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons. The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620 Ma. There has been increasing geochronological evidence, however, for an older Neoproterozoic metamorphic event at ca. 780 Ma, observed mainly in high grade rocks of three large mafic-ultramafic complexes in the northern part of the belt. In this study we present: (i) new U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological data, (ii) a review of the existing metamorphic ages in the Brasilia Belt, and (iii) a discussion on the tectonic model to explain the two Neoproterozoic metamorphic ages (au)

  9. Metamorphic and geochronogical study of the Triassic El Oro metamorphic complex, Ecuador: Implications for high-temperature metamorphism in a forearc zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, N.; Guillot, S.; Jaillard, E.; Martelat, J.-E.; Paquette, J.-L.; Schwartz, S.; Goncalves, P.; Duclaux, G.; Thebaud, N.; Lanari, P.; Janots, E.; Yuquilema, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the forearc of the Andean active margin in southwest Ecuador, the El Oro metamorphic complex exhibits a well exposed tilted forearc section partially migmatized. We used Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous matter (RSCM) thermometry and pseudosections coupled with mineralogical and textural studies to constrain the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the El Oro metamorphic complex during Triassic times. Our results show that anatexis of the continental crust occurred by white-mica and biotite dehydration melting along a 10 km thick crustal domain (from 4.5 to 8 kbar) with increasing temperature from 650 to 700 °C. In the biotite dehydration melting zone, temperature was buffered at 750-820 °C in a 5 km thick layer. The estimated average thermal gradient during peak metamorphism is of 30 °C/km within the migmatitic domain can be partitioned into two apparent gradients parts. The upper part from surface to 7 km depth records a 40-45 °C/km gradient. The lower part records a quasi-adiabatic geotherm with a 10 °C/km gradient consistent with an isothermal melting zone. Migmatites U-Th-Pb geochronology yielded zircon and monazite ages of 229.3 ± 2.1 Ma and 224.5 ± 2.3 Ma, respectively. This thermal event generated S-type magmatism (the Marcabeli granitoid) and was immediately followed by underplating of the high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) Arenillas-Panupalí unit at 225.8 ± 1.8 Ma. The association of high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP) migmatites with HP-LT unit constitutes a new example of a paired metamorphic belt along the South American margin. We propose that in addition to crustal thinning, underplating of the Piedras gabbroic unit before 230 Ma provided the heat source necessary to foster crustal anatexis. Furthermore, its MORB signature shows that the asthenosphere was involved as the source of the heat anomaly. S-type felsic magmatism is widespread during this time and suggests that a large-scale thermal anomaly affected a large part of the

  10. Tectonic origin and deformation process of the Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in Central Qiangtang of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    The metamorphic characteristics, deformation process, geochronology of the medium-high pressure metamorphic rocks in blueschist bearing Central Qiangtang Metamorphic belt (CQMB) of Tibet were less well constrained. It is, however, commonly assumed that these rock slices in the margin also contain important implications on the evolution of the entire metamorphic belt. The well-exposed Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in north flank of the CQMB provides an unique opportunity to investigate the outer part of the CQMB, which could facilitate the study on the subduction-exhumation-post orogenic scenarios of the Triassic accretionary orogeny in Central Qiangtang. Field structural analyses indicate the Mayer Kangri metamorphic dome are bounded by low-angle normal faults (LANF) within the hanging wall of low-green schist facies mélange. It majorly consists of epidote-amphibolites, quartz-phengite schist, epidote-albite schist. The outcrop and micro structural observations of footwall metamorphic rocks show an open anticline with multiple foliation replacement, which largely differentiate themselves from the dextral strike-slip shearing of the hanging wall. Well-zoned amphiboles were found within the epidote-amphibolite after micro-structural observations and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), which indicate that the amphibole zonation demonstrates a Hastingsite core, a Ferro-actinolite mantle and a Ferro-winchite rim in most cases. The mean temperature and pressure estimates of the zoned amphibolites change from 544 °, 0.98Gpa in the core, to 426°, 0.34Gpa in the mantle, and to ca.364° and 0.70 GPa in the rim. The detailed analyses on the stepwise-heating Ar-Ar results of the zoned amphiboles provide good constrains on the episodic deformation process of the CQMB. For Hast-cores, we obtained near plateau ages of 242.4-241.2 Ma, indicating the onset of the oceanic subduction is earlier than the Anisian stage of Middle Triassic. The subsequent

  11. Phases of metamorphism in the metamorphic base of Xiangshan uranium orefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhenpin; Dong Yongjie; Hu Rongquan; Wu Shuilin

    2008-01-01

    Metamorphic rocks in the basement of Xiangshan uranium orefield, experienced long-term complex metamorphic-deformational evolution. From Jinning period to later Mesozoic era. It had suffered from four phase of superimposed metamorphism: regional dynamo thermal metamorphism in Mesoproterozoic era, contact-thermal metamorphism after mesoproterozoic era, dynamic metamorphism in Mesozoic era and contact-thermal metamorphism in the later of Mesozoic era. Multi-phase superimposed metamorphism show that Xiangshan area is a geothermally anomalous area ever since Proterozoic Eon. In Xiangshan area, the uranium mineralization are the outcome of superimposition of tectonism-magmatism-metamorphism. (authors)

  12. High resolution TEM of chondritic carbonaceous matter: Metamorphic evolution and heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, Corentin; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël.; Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Derenne, Sylvie; Remusat, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    The insoluble carbonaceous matter from 12 chondrites (CI, CM, CO, CV, EH, and UOC), was characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Besides ubiquitous nanoglobules, the insoluble organic matter from petrologic type 1 and 2 chondrites and Semarkona (LL 3.0) is composed of a highly disordered polyaromatic component. No structural differences were observed between these IOMs, in agreement with the limited thermal metamorphism they all experienced. In chondrites of petrologic type >3.0, the evolution of the IOM is controlled by the extent of thermal metamorphism. The polyaromatic layers, shorter than 1 nm in petrologic type ≤3.0 chondrites, grow up to sizes between 5 and 10 nm in petrologic type >3.6 chondrites, contributing to the increase of the degree of structural order. In addition, we find rare, but ubiquitous onion-like carbons, which may be the product of nanodiamond graphitization. The insoluble carbonaceous matter of the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH 3) is different from the other meteorites studied here. It is more heterogeneous and displays a high abundance of graphitized particles. This may be the result of a mixture between (1) the disordered carbon located in the matrix, and (2) catalytic graphitized phases associated with metal, potentially originating from partial melting events. The structural and nanostructural evolution are similar in all IOMs. This suggests that the structure of the accreted precursors and the parent body conditions of their secondary thermal modifications (temperature, duration, and pressure) were similar. The limited degree of organization of the most metamorphosed IOMs compared with terrestrial rocks submitted to similar temperature suggests that the conditions are not favorable to graphitization processes, due to the chemical nature of the precursor or the lack of confinement pressure.

  13. Monazite behaviours during high-temperature metamorphism: a case study from Dinggye region, Tibetan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Jin-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Monazite is a key accessory mineral for metamorphic geochronology, but its growth mechanisms during melt-bearing high-temperature metamorphism is not well understood. Therefore, the petrology, pressure-temperature and timing of metamorphism have been investigated in pelitic and psammitic granulites from the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) in Dinggye, southern Tibet. These rocks underwent an isothermal decompression process from pressure conditions of >10 kbar to armour effect of matrix crystals (biotite and quartz). Most monazite grains formed at the M3-stage (21-19 Ma) through either dissolution-reprecipitation or recrystallization that was related to biotite dehydration melting reaction. These monazite grains record HREE and Y signatures in local equilibrium with different reactions involving either garnet breakdown or peritectic garnet growth. Another peak of monazite growth occurs during melt crystallization ( 15 Ma), and these monazites are unzoned and have homogeneous compositions. Our results documented the widespread recrystallization to account for monazite growth during high-temperature metamorphism and related melting reactions that trigger monazite recrystallization. In a regional sense, our P-T-t data along with published data indicate that the pre-M1 eclogite-facies metamorphism occurred at 39-30 Ma in the Dinggye Himalaya. Our results are in favour of a steady exhumation of the GHC rocks since Oligocene that was contributed by partial melting. Key words: U-Th-Pb geochronology, Monazite, Recrystallization, Pelitic granulite, Himalaya

  14. The Heart of China revisited: II Early Paleozoic (ultra)high-pressure and (ultra)high-temperature metamorphic Qinling orogenic collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Thomas; Franz, Leander; Ratschbacher, Lothar; de Capitani, Christian; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Yang, Zhao; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Orogens with multiple (ultra)high-pressure ((U)HP) and (ultra)high-temperature ((U)HT) metamorphic events provide a complex but telling record of oceanic and continental interaction. The Early Paleozoic history of the "Heart of China," the Qinling orogenic collage, offers snapshots of at least three (U)HP and two (U)HT metamorphic events. The preservation of remnants of both oceanic and continental domains together with a ≥110 Myr record of magmatism allows the reconstruction of the processes that resulted in this disparate metamorphism. Herein, we first illuminate the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) evolution of the Early Paleozoic (U)HP and (U)HT events by refining the petrographic descriptions and P-T estimates, assess published, and employ new U/Th-Pb zircon, monazite, and titanite, and 40Ar-39Ar phengite geochronology to date the magmatic and metamorphic events. Then we explore how the metamorphic and magmatic events are related tectonically and how they elucidate the affinities among the various complexes in the Qinling orogenic collage. We argue that a Meso-Neoproterozoic crustal fragment—the Qinling complex—localized subduction-accretion events that involved subduction, oceanic-arc formation, and back-arc spreading along its northern margin, and mtantle-wedge exhumation and spreading-ridge subduction along its southern margin.

  15. Effect of the non-annealed ohmic-recess approach on temperature-dependent properties of a metamorphic high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li-Yang; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chen, Tzu-Pin; Liu, Yi-Chun; Liu, Wen-Chau; Cheng, Shiou-Ying; Lour, Wen-Shiung; Tsai, Jung-Hui; Guo, Der-Feng

    2008-01-01

    The reliability-related properties of an InAlAs/InGaAs metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT), using the non-annealed ohmic-recess (NAOR) approach, are studied and demonstrated. The NAOR device shows significantly improved dc and radio frequency (RF) performance over a wide temperature range (300–500 K). With a 1 × 100 µm 2 gate-dimension MHEMT by the NAOR approach, the considerably improved thermal stability and dc performances, including lower temperature variation coefficients on turn-on voltage (−1.38 mV K −1 ) and gate-drain breakdown voltage (−30.4 mV K −1 ), and on-resistance (2.41 × 10 −3 Ω mm K −1 ), are obtained as the temperature is increased from 300 to 500 K. For RF characteristics, the NAOR device also shows a low degradation rate on drain saturation current operating regimes (−5.52 × 10 −4 K −1 ) as the temperature is increased from 300 to 400 K. In addition, based on the lifetime tests, an activation energy of 1.33 eV and a projected median lifetime of 1.2 × 10 7 h at T ch = 125 °C are obtained for the NAOR MHEMT

  16. High-performance CPW MMIC LNA using GaAs-based metamorphic HEMTs for 94-GHz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Keun-Kwan; Kim, Sung-Chan; An, Dan; Rhee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a high-performance low-noise amplifier (LNA) using metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) technology for 94-GHz applications. The 100 nm x 60 μm MHEMT devices for the coplanar MMIC LNA exhibited DC characteristics with a drain current density of 655 mA/mm and an extrinsic transconductance of 720 mS/mm. The current gain cutoff frequency (f T ) and the maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) were 195 GHz and 305 GHz, respectively. Based on this MHEMT technology, coplanar 94-GHz MMIC LNAs were realized, achieving a small signal gain of more than 13 dB between 90 and 100 GHz and a small signal gain of 14.8 dB and a noise figure of 4.7 dB at 94 GHz.

  17. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the

  18. Mobility enhancement in tensile-strained Ge grown on InAlP metamorphic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Gong, Qian; Zhou, Haifei; Kang, Chuanzhen; Yan, Jinyi; Liu, Qingbo; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth of tensile-strained Ge on InAlP metamorphic templates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good control of biaxial tensile strain in the Ge layer was demonstrated in the range of 0.5–2.0% by adjusting the In content of the metamorphic template. It was found that the growth of Ge was layer-by-layer (2D) even under high tensile strain of 2.0%, resulting in a smooth surface with roughness less than 1.5 nm. Hall results showed that the electron mobility of Ge increased monotonically with tensile strain.

  19. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the amphiboles

  20. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report here for the first time the occurrence of garnet and corundum in Mg-Al-rich rocks at Sevitturangampatti (Namakkal district) in the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone System (PCSS), southern India. The rocks contain several rare mineral assemblages such as garnet-corundum-sillimanite-cordierite-sapphirine-spinel-Mg-rich staurolite, garnet-corundum-sodic gedrite-cordierite-sillimanite/kyanite, garnet-Mg-rich staurolite-sillimanite/kyanite, sodic gedrite-Mg-rich staurolite-corundum-sapphirine, biotite-corundum-sapphirine and sodic gedrite-sapphirine-spinel-cordierite. Both garnet and corundum in these rocks occur as coarse-grained (1 mm to 10 cm) porphyroblasts in the matrix of sillimanite, cordierite and gedrite. Kyanite is common as inclusions in garnet, but matrix aluminosilicates are mainly sillimanite. The presence of rare garnet + corundum, which has so far been reported from kimberlite xenoliths, aluminous eclogites and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks as well as in high-pressure experiments, suggests that the assemblage is an indicator of an unusually high-pressure event, which has not been recorded in previous studies from southern India. Phase analysis of quartz-absent MAS system also suggests high-pressure stability of the assemblage. The inference of high pressure metamorphism is also supported by the presence of Mg-rich [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.51] staurolite, which has been reported from high-pressure rocks, included from cores of coarse-grained garnet and gedrite. Porphyroblastic occurrence of garnet + corundum as well as staurolite and kyanite inclusions suggests that the area underwent prograde high-pressure metamorphism, probably in the eclogite field. The rocks subsequently underwent continuous heating at 940 to 990 °C, suggesting ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism along a clockwise trajectory. Sapphirine + cordierite and spinel + cordierite symplectites between garnet and sillimanite suggest near isothermal decompression after the peak event

  1. Eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism records early collision in West Gondwana: new data from the Southern Brasilia Belt, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Brown, Michael; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2009-01-01

    constrain the age of. (1) retrograded eclogite from a block along the tectonic contact beneath the uppermost nappe in a stack of passive margin-derived nappes; (2) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the uppermost passive margin-derived nappe; (3) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism...... in the overlying arc-derived nappe. Rare zircons from a retrograded eclogite yield a Pb-206/U-238 age of 678 +/- 29 Ma. which we interpret as most likely to (late close-to-peak-P metamorphism and to provide a minimum age for detachment of the overlying passive margin-derived nappe from the subducting plate. Zircon...

  2. Alkali control of high-grade metamorphism and granitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We review petrologic observations of reaction textures from high-grade rocks that suggest the passage of fluids with variable alkali activities. Development of these reaction textures is accompanied by regular compositional variations in plagioclase, pyroxenes, biotite, amphibole and garnet. The textures are interpreted in terms of exchange and net-transfer reactions controlled by the K and Na activities in the fluids. On the regional scale, these reactions operate in granitized, charnockitized, syenitized etc. shear zones within high-grade complexes. Thermodynamic calculations in simple chemical systems show that changes in mineral assemblages, including the transition from the hydrous to the anhydrous ones, may occur at constant pressure and temperature due only to variations in the H2O and the alkali activities. A simple procedure for estimating the activity of the two major alkali oxides, K2O and Na2O, is implemented in the TWQ software. Examples of calculations are presented for well-documented dehydration zones from South Africa, southern India, and Sri Lanka. The calculations have revealed two end-member regimes of alkalis during specific metamorphic processes: rock buffered, which is characteristic for the precursor rocks containing two feldspars, and fluid-buffered for the precursor rocks without K-feldspar. The observed reaction textures and the results of thermodynamic modeling are compared with the results of available experimental studies on the interaction of the alkali chloride and carbonate-bearing fluids with metamorphic rocks at mid-crustal conditions. The experiments show the complex effect of alkali activities in the fluid phase on the mineral assemblages. Both thermodynamic calculations and experiments closely reproduce paragenetic relations theoretically predicted by D.S. Korzhinskii in the 1940s.

  3. Electrical and structural characteristics of metamorphic In0.38Al0.62As/In0.37Ga0.63As/In0.38Al0.62As HEMT nanoheterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Klochkov, A. N.; Maltsev, P. P.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Zhigalina, O. M.; Imamov, R. M.; Kuskova, A. N.; Khmelenin, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the metamorphic buffer design and epitaxial growth conditions on the electrical and structural characteristics of metamorphic In 0.38 Al 0.62 As/In 0.37 Ga 0.63 As/In 0.38 Al 0.62 As high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) nanoheterostructures has been investigated. The samples were grown on GaAs(100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The active regions of the nanoheterostructures are identical, while the metamorphic buffer In x Al 1−x As is formed with a linear or stepwise (by Δ x = 0.05) increase in the indium content over depth. It is found that MHEMT nanoheterostructures with a step metamorphic buffer have fewer defects and possess higher values of two-dimensional electron gas mobility at T = 77 K. The structures of the active region and metamorphic buffer have been thoroughly studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that the relaxation of metamorphic buffer in the heterostructures under consideration is accompanied by the formation of structural defects of the following types: dislocations, microtwins, stacking faults, and wurtzite phase inclusions several nanometers in size

  4. The post collisional metamorphic evolution from Ultra High Temperature to Amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odesan area during the Triassic collision between the North and South China cratons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Kee Wook

    2015-04-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (OGC) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odesan collision belt in Korean Peninsula which is the extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China blocks. The OGC mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneiss with porphyritic granitoid and amphibolite. The banded gneiss can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. The highest metamorphic P/T conditions of the migmatitic and garnet-biotite banded gneiss were 760-820°C/6.3-7.2kbar and 810-840°C/7.2-7.8kbar respectively. On the other hand, the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss records 940-950°C/10.5-10.7kbar that is corresponded to UHT metamorphic condition. These data indicate that the peak UHT metamorphic condition of the study area was preserved only within the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss because its lower water content than other gneisses and UHT metamorphic mineral assemblage was completely replaced by the granulite facies metamorphism in other gneisses due to their higher water content than the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss. Finally all gneisses experienced amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism which is observed locally within rocks, such as garnet rim and surrounding area. The peak UHT metamorphism is estimated to occur at ca. 250-230 Ma using SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age dating and was caused by the heat supplied from asthenospheric mantle through the opening formed by slab break-off during early post collision stage. The calculated metamorphic conditions represent that geothermal gradient of the study area during the post collision stage was 86°C/kbar indicating the regional low-P/T metamorphic event. Besides the Triassic metamorphic age, two Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of ca. 1930 and 1886 Ma are also recognized by the SHRIMP age dating from the banded gneisses and Paleoproterozoic emplacement age of ca. 1847 Ma is identified from the porphyritic granitoid which formed in the within plate tectonic

  5. Ni/Au-gate In0.45Al0.55As/In0.53Ga0.47As/InAlGaAs/GaAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ching-Sung; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Su, Ke-Hua; Huang, Jun-Chin; Huang, Dong-Hai; Chen, Yeong-Jia

    2006-01-01

    A δ-doped In 0.45 Al 0.55 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/InAlGaAs/GaAs metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) using a Ni/Au-gate electrode has been successfully fabricated and demonstrated. Compared to conventional Au-gate devices with identical structures, the proposed device improves the kink-effect-related output conductance, the gate-voltage swing, the current drive capability, the breakdown characteristics, and the device power performance. Experimentally, a high extrinsic transconductance of 309 mS/mm, a high drain-source saturation current density of 573 mA/mm, an improved gate-voltage swing of 1.05 V with a corresponding saturation current density of 314 mA/mm, a high saturated output power of 11.3 dBm, and a high power gain of 23.8 dB with a power-added efficiency of 39.2 % are obtained for a 0.65 x 200 μm 2 gate at 300 K. In addition, the measured f T and f max are 49.1 and 61.7 GHz, respectively.

  6. Recycling argon through metamorphic reactions: The record in symplectites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher S.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Kelley, Simon P.; Sherlock, Sarah C.

    2018-02-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of metamorphic micas that crystallized at high temperatures are commonly interpreted as cooling ages, with grains considered to have lost 40Ar via thermally-driven diffusion into the grain boundary network. Recently reported laser-ablation data suggest that the spatial distribution of Ar in metamorphic micas does not always conform to the patterns predicted by diffusion theory and that despite high metamorphic temperatures, argon was not removed efficiently from the local system during metamorphic evolution. In the Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, felsic gneisses preserve microtextural evidence for the breakdown of phengite to biotite and plagioclase symplectites during near isothermal decompression from c. 20-25 to c. 8-12 kbar at 700 °C. These samples provide an ideal natural laboratory to assess whether the complete replacement of one K-bearing mineral by another at high temperatures completely 'resets' the Ar clock, or whether there is some inheritance of 40Ar in the neocrystallized phase. The timing of the high-temperature portion of the WGR metamorphic cycle has been well constrained in previous studies. However, the timing of cooling following the overprint is still much debated. In-situ laser ablation spot dating in phengite, biotite-plagioclase symplectites and coarser, texturally later biotite yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages that span much of the metamorphic cycle. Together these data show that despite residence at temperatures of 700 °C, Ar is not completely removed by diffusive loss or during metamorphic recrystallization. Instead, Ar released during phengite breakdown appears to be partially reincorporated into the newly crystallizing biotite and plagioclase (or is trapped in fluid inclusions in those phases) within a close system. Our data show that the microtextural and petrographic evolution of the sample being dated provides a critical framework in which local 40Ar recycling can be tracked, thus potentially allowing 40Ar/39Ar dates

  7. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this SBIR Phase II project is the development of a unique triple junction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  8. Oxygen isotope thermometry of quartz-Al2SiO5veins in high-grade metamorphic rocks on Naxos island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putlitz, Benita; Valley, John; Matthews, Alan; Katzir, Yaron

    2002-04-01

    Diffusion models predict that peak metamorphic temperatures are best recorded by the oxygen isotope fractionation between minerals in a bi-mineralic rock in which a refractory accessory mineral with slow oxygen diffusion rate is modally minor to a mineral with a faster diffusion rate. This premise is demonstrated for high-grade metamorphism on the island of Naxos, Greece, where quartz-kyanite oxygen isotope thermometry from veins in high-grade metamorphic pelites gives temperatures of 635-690 °C. These temperatures are in excellent agreement with independent thermometry for the regional M2 peak metamorphic conditions and show that the vein minerals isotopically equilibrated at the peak of metamorphism. Quartz-sillimanite fractionations in the same veins give similar temperatures (680+/-35 °C) and suggest that the veins grew near to the kyanite-sillimanite boundary, corresponding to pressures of 6.5 to 7.5 kbar for temperatures of 635-685 °C. By contrast, quartz-kyanite and quartz-biotite pairs in the host rocks yield lower temperature estimates than the veins (590-600 and 350-550 °C, respectively). These lower apparent temperatures are also predicted from calculations of diffusional resetting in the polyphase host-rock system. The data demonstrate that bimineralic vein assemblages can be used as accurate thermometers in high-temperature rocks whereas retrograde exchange remains a major problem in many polymineralic rocks.

  9. High-pressure granulites in the Fuping Complex of the central North China Craton: Metamorphic P-T-t evolution and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiahui; Yin, Changqing; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Li; Wang, Luojuan

    2018-04-01

    Mafic granulites in the Fuping Complex occur as lenses or boudins within high-grade TTG (Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite) gneisses. Petrographic observations reveal four generations of mineral assemblage in the granulites: an inclusion assemblage of hornblende + plagioclase + ilmenite + quartz within garnet core; an inferred peak assemblage composed of garnet ± hornblende + plagioclase + clinopyroxene + rutile/ilmenite + quartz; a decompression assemblage characterized by symplectites of clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene + plagioclase, coronae of plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± hornblende around embayed garnet porphyroblasts or a two-pyroxene association; and a late amphibolite-facies retrogressive assemblage. Two representative samples were used for pseudosection modeling in NCFMASHTO model system to determine their metamorphic evolution. The results show that these granulites experienced a high-pressure stage of metamorphism with peak P-T conditions of 12-13 kbar and 760-800 °C (Pmax) and a post-peak history under P-T conditions of ∼9.0 kbar and 805-835 °C (Tmax), indicating a nearly isothermal decompression process (ITD) with a slight heating. Metamorphic evolution from the Pmax to the Tmax is predicted to be dominated by garnet breakdown through continuous metamorphic reactions of garnet + quartz ± diopside = hornblende + plagioclase + liquid and garnet + quartz + hornblende = plagioclase + diopside + liquid + orthopyroxene. Further metamorphic evolution after the Tmax is dominated by cooling, suggesting that high-pressure (HP) granulites may also exist in the Fuping Complex. Metamorphic zircons in the Fuping HP mafic granulites have left inclined REE patterns, Ti contents of 1.68-6.88 ppm and crystallization temperatures of 602-712 °C. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating on these zircons yields 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1891 ± 14 Ma and 1849 ± 6 Ma, interpreted to represent the cooling stage of metamorphism. The P-T-t evolution of the Fuping HP mafic granulites records

  10. Carboniferous high-pressure metamorphism of Ordovician protoliths in the Argentera Massif (Italy), Southern European Variscan belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Ferrando, Simona; Compagnoni, Roberto; Lombardo, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    The age of high-pressure metamorphism is crucial to identify a suitable tectonic model for the vast Variscan orogeny. Banded H P granulites from the Gesso-Stura Terrain in the Argentera Massif, Italy, have been recently described (Ferrando et al., 2008) relicts of high-pressure metamorphism in the western part of the Variscan orogen. Bulk rock chemistry of representative lithologies reveals intermediate silica contents and calc-alkaline affinity of the various cumulate layers. Enrichment in incompatible elements denotes a significant crustal component in line with intrusion during Ordovician rifting. Magmatic zircon cores from a Pl-rich layer yield scattered ages indicating a minimum protolith age of 486 ± 7 Ma. Carboniferous zircons (340.7 ± 4.2 and 336.3 ± 4.1 Ma) are found in a Pl-rich and a Pl-poor layer, respectively. Their zoning, chemical composition (low Th/U, flat HREE pattern and Ti-in-zircon temperature) and deformation indicate that they formed during the high-pressure event before decompression and mylonitisation. The proposed age for high-pressure metamorphism in the Argentera Massif proves that subduction preceded anatexis by less than 20 Ma. The new data allow a first-order comparison with the Bohemian Massif, which is located at the eastern termination of the Variscan orogen. Similarities in evolution at either end of the orogen support a Himalayan-type tectonic model for the entire European Variscides.

  11. contact metamorphism in the supracrustal rocks of the sukumaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    University of Dar es Salaam, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geology,. P. O. Box 35052, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... bounded by rational crystal faces (decussate texture). Keywords. Contact metamorphism, intrusions ..... electron microbeam X-ray analysis of thick polished materials, thin films and.

  12. Prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes in high-pressure subduction zone serpentinites from East Thessaly, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros

    2016-04-01

    The East Thessaly region, Central Greece, includes metaophiolitic mélange formations which extend from the eastern foothills of Mt. Olympus and Ossa, throughout the Agia basin, Mt. Mavrovouni (Sklithro region), South Pelion and reaching up to northeast Othris (regions of Aerino and Velestino). They appear in the form of dispersed and deformed thrust sheets having been variably emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks of the Pelagonian tectonostratigraphic zone[1]. These formations consist mainly of serpentinites, as well as metasediments, metagabbros, metadolerites, rodingites, ophicalcites, talc-schists and chromitites. Based upon petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data and XRD patterns, the subduction zone-related serpentinites from the regions of Potamia, Anavra, Aetolofos and Kalochori-Chasanbali (Agia basin), as well as from the regions of Aerino and Velestino, are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite and are distinguished into two groups. The first group includes serpentinites from the metaophiolitic formations of Potamia, Anavra, Aerino and Velestino, which are marked by destibillization of lizardite to antigorite, mostly along the grain boundaries of the lizardite mesh textured relics. The presence of lizardite and antigorite in almost equal amounts indicates medium-temperature blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (˜340-370 ° C; P≈10-11 kbar)[2,3,4]. The second serpentinite group appears in the regions of Aetolofos and Kalochori, characterized by the predominance of antigorite, the minor occurrence of lizardite and the complete replacement of spinel by Cr-magnetite. The absence of metamorphic olivine suggests that these serpentinites were most likely formed at slightly higher temperature and pressure conditions compared to the first serpentinite group, corresponding to medium or high temperature blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-380 ° C; P≈12 kbar)[2,3,4]. These metamorphic conditions are

  13. The magmatism and metamorphism at the Malayer area, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, V.; Valizadeh, M. V.; Esmaeily, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Malayer area is located in the NW-SE aligned Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, western Iran and consists mainly of Mesozoic schists so-called Hamadan Phyllites, Jurassic to Tertiary intrusive rocks and related contact metamorphic aureoles, aplites and pegmatites. The Sanandj-Sirjan Zone is produced by oblique collisional event between Arabian plate and Central Iran microcontinent. Highest level of regional metamorphism in the area is greenschist facies and injection of felsic magmas is caused contact metamorphism. Magmatism is consist of a general northwest trend large felsic to intermediate intrusive bodies. The main trend of structural features i.e. faults, fractures and other structural features is NW-SE. The Malayer granitoid complex is ellipsoid in shape and has NW-SE foliation especially at the corners of the intrusions. Petrography of the magmatic rocks revealed recrystallization of quartz and feldspars, bending of biotite, and aligment of minerals paralle to the main trend of magmatic and metamorphic country rocks. These indicated that intrusion of felsic magma is coincide to the regional metamorphism and is syn-tectoinc. Non-extensive contact metamorphism aureoles and rareness of pegmatite and aplite in the area are interpreted as injection of felsic magmas into the high-strain metamorphic zone. The regional metamorphic rocks mainly consist of meta-sandstone, slate, phyllite, schist. These gray to dark metasedimentary rocks are consist of quartz, muscovite, turmaline, epidote, biotite and chlorite. Sheeted minerals form extended schistosity and study of porphyroblast-matrix relationships shows that injection of granitic magma into the country rocks is syn to post-tectonic. Syn-tectonic indicating porphyroblast growth synchronous with the development of the external fabric. The thermal contact area of the granite can be observed in the contact margin of granite and regional metamorphic rocks, where it produced hornfelses, andalusit-garnet schists and

  14. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  15. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting Ma for two point isochrons between clean garnet (Sm/Nd ≥ 1.0) and their leached inclusion populations [2]. Four grouped garnet grain separates from one sample yield preliminary dates of 2703.6×6.0Ma, 2612.4×6.0Ma, 2605.0×5.5Ma, and 2567.3×8.3Ma, while the second sample yielded a date of 2579.6×4.6 Ma (2σ). Compositional and geochronologic data indicate likely in situ garnet growth during a late

  16. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of geothermal gradients of >30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on

  17. Earthquakes, fluid pressures and rapid subduction zone metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viete, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism is commonly incomplete, meaning that large tracts of rock can remain metastable at blueschist- and eclogite-facies conditions for timescales up to millions of years [1]. When HP/LT metamorphism does take place, it can occur over extremely short durations (the role of fluids in providing heat for metamorphism [2] or catalyzing metamorphic reactions [1]. Earthquakes in subduction zone settings can occur to depths of 100s of km. Metamorphic dehydration and the associated development of elevated pore pressures in HP/LT metamorphic rocks has been identified as a cause of earthquake activity at such great depths [3-4]. The process of fracturing/faulting significantly increases rock permeability, causing channelized fluid flow and dissipation of pore pressures [3-4]. Thus, deep subduction zone earthquakes are thought to reflect an evolution in fluid pressure, involving: (1) an initial increase in pore pressure by heating-related dehydration of subduction zone rocks, and (2) rapid relief of pore pressures by faulting and channelized flow. Models for earthquakes at depth in subduction zones have focussed on the in situ effects of dehydration and then sudden escape of fluids from the rock mass following fracturing [3-4]. On the other hand, existing models for rapid and incomplete metamorphism in subduction zones have focussed only on the effects of heating and/or hydration with the arrival of external fluids [1-2]. Significant changes in pressure over very short timescales should result in rapid mineral growth and/or disequilibrium texture development in response to overstepping of mineral reaction boundaries. The repeated process of dehydration-pore pressure development-earthquake-pore pressure relief could conceivably produce a record of episodic HP/LT metamorphism driven by rapid pressure pulses. A new hypothesis is presented for the origins of HP/LT metamorphism: that HP/LT metamorphism is driven by effective pressure

  18. Kanfenggou UHP Metamorphic Fragment in Eastern Qinling Orogen and Its Relationship to Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    In the Central Orogenic Belt, China, two UHP metamorphic belts are discriminated mainly based on a detailed structural analysis of the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment exposed in the eastern Qinling orogen, and together with previous regional structural, petrological and geochronological data at the scale of the orogenic domain. The first one corresponds to the South Altun-North QaidamNorth Qinling UHP metamorphic belt. The other is the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts. The two UHP metamorphic belts are separated by a series of tectonic slices composed by the Qinling rock group, Danfeng rock group and Liuling or Foziling rock group etc. respectively, and are different in age of the peak UHP metamorphism and geodynamic implications for continental deep subduction and collision. Regional field and petrological relationships suggest that the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment that contains a large volume of the coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses is compatible with the structures recognized in the South Altun and North Qaidam UHP metamorphic fragments exposed in the western part of China, thereby forming a large UHP metamorphic belt up to 1 000 km long along the orogen strike. This UHP metamorphic belt represents an intercontinental deep subduction and collision belt between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons, occurred during the Paleozoic. On the other hand, the well-constrained Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts occurred mainly during Triassic time (250-220 Ma), and were produced by the intrucontinental deep subduction and collision within the Yangtze craton. The Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts along the orogen. There is no reason to assume the two UHP metamorphic belts us a single giant deep subduction and collision zone in the Central Orogenic Belt situated between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Therefore, any dynamic model for the orogen must account

  19. Stacking and metamorphism of continuous segments of subducted lithosphere in a high-pressure wedge: The example of Alpine Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Malavieille, Jacques; Molli, Giancarlo; Beltrando, Marco; Compagnoni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Alpine Corsica consists of a stack of variably metamorphosed units of continental and Tethys-derived rocks. It represents an excellent example of high-pressure (HP) orogenic belt, such as the Western Alps, exposed over a small and accessible area. Compared to the Western Alps, the geology of Alpine Corsica is poorly unraveled. During the 1970s-80s, based on either lithostratigraphic or metamorphic field observations, various classifications of the belt have been proposed, but these classifications have been rarely matched together. Furthermore, through time, the internal complexity of large domains has been progressively left aside in the frame of large-scale geodynamic reconstructions. As a consequence, major open questions on the internal structure of the belt have remained unsolved. Apart from a few local studies, Alpine Corsica has not benefited of modern developments in petrology and basin research. This feature results in several uncertainties when combining lithostratigraphic and metamorphic patterns and, consequently, in the definition of an exhaustive architecture of the belt. In this paper we provide a review on the geology of Alpine Corsica, paying particular attention to the available lithostratigraphic and metamorphic classifications of the metamorphic terranes. These data are completed by a new and exhaustive metamorphic dataset obtained by means of thermometry based on Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Material (RSCM). This technique provides reliable insights on the peak temperature of the metamorphic history for CM-bearing metasediments. A detailed metamorphic characterization of metasediments, which have been previously largely ignored due to retrogression or to the lack of diagnostic mineralogy, is thus obtained and fruitfully coupled with the available lithostratigraphic data. Nine main tectono-metamorphic units are defined, from subgreenschist (ca. 280-300 °C) to the lawsonite-eclogite-facies (ca. 500-550 °C) condition. These units are

  20. Constraining metamorphic rates through allanite and monazite petrochronology: a case study from the Miyar Valley (High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, Martin; Goswami-Banerjee, Sriparna

    2014-05-01

    Dating metamorphic rocks raises specific issues because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over millions or tens of millions of years so that metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". Therefore, an accurate interpretation of radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in LREE-accessory phases like monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages are collectively interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. As a consequence, to correctly interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is essential to accurately determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A meticulous account of the chemical and textural evolution of monazite and allanite along a well constrained prograde pelitic sequence of the High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar (Miyar Valley; e.g. Robyr et al., 2002; 2006; 2014) reveals that: (1) the occurrence of the first metamorphic allanite coincides with the biotite-in isograd and (2) the formation of the first metamorphic monazite occurs at the staurolite-in isograd. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite porphyroblasts indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. Thermobarometry results show that the metamorphic allanites are appeared in the 400-420 °C, while the signature of the first metamorphic monazite is found at ~ 600 °C with staurolite-in isograd. Allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages thus constrain the timing when the rocks reached the ~ 420 °C and ~ 600 °C isotherms respectively. In situ LA-ICPMS dating of coexisting allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet

  1. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Chinese Altai, central Asia: new insights from microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Jian; Schulmann, Karel; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun

    2013-04-01

    The Altai Orogen, extending from Russia, through northeast Kazakhstan and northwest China, to western and southern Mongolia, occupies a pivotal position in understanding the accretionary process of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and has drawn much attention in recent years. However, its orogenic evolution remains poorly constrained, because previous studies were mainly focused on the geochronological and geochemical signatures and much less work has been done on metamorphic and structural studies. Metamorphic rocks widely occur in the southern Altai Range and have previously been separated into high-T/low-P and medium-P types. Recent studies demonstrated that these two kinds of rocks may have similar protoliths, i.e. early Paleozoic arc-related assemblages, but experienced different metamorphic histories. The development of biotite, garnet, staurolite and kyanite metamorphic zonal sequences in the low- to medium- grade rocks, demonstrate typical medium-pressure metamorphism that has been suggested as a major consequence of the orogenesis. The high-T/low-P metamorphism, represented by the growth of garnet+cordierite+sillimanite+k-feldspar and was accompanied by extensive anatexis, remains its tectonic significance poorly constrained. Field structural investigation in the Chinese Altai reveals that the high-T/low-P metamorphic rocks have major S-L fabrics (defined by the strongly aligned biotite and sillimanite) exactly in the same orientations as those developed in the associated medium-P grade rocks. Geochronological studies constrain the major fabrics in both kinds of rocks developed during mid-Devonian, coeval with the strong magmatism in the region. Micro-structural investigation on both kinds of rocks show similar prograde metamorphic history featured by clockwise P-T path evolution. Phase equilibrium modeling in the MnNCKFMASH system indicates that the development of major fabrics in the medium-P metamorphic rocks mainly recorded the notable increase of

  2. Cathodoluminescence (CL Characteristics of Quartz from Different Metamorphic Rocks within the Kaoko Belt (Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sittner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quartz of metamorphic rocks from the Kaoko belt (Namibia representing metamorphic zones from greenshist to granulite facies were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy to characterize their CL properties. The samples cover P-T conditions from the garnet zone (500 ± 30 °C, 9 ± 1 kbar up to the garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-K-feldspar zone (750 ± 30 °C, 4.0–5.5 kbar. Quartz from 10 different localities and metamorphic environments exclusively exhibits blue CL. The observed CL colors and spectra seem to be more or less independent of the metamorphic grade of the host rocks, but are determined by the regional geological conditions. Quartz from different localities of the garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-K-feldspar zone shows a dominant 450 nm emission band similar to quartz from igneous rocks, which might be related to recrystallization processes. In contrast, quartz from different metamorphic zones in the western part of the central Kaoko zone (garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and kyanite-sillimanite-muscovite zone is characterized by a heterogeneous blue-green CL and a dominant 500 nm emission band that strongly decreases in intensity under electron irradiation. Such CL characteristics are typical for quartz of pegmatitic and/or hydrothermal origin and indicate the participation of fluids during neoformation of quartz during metamorphism.

  3. On the K-Ar ages of the rocks of two kinds existed in the Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks located in the Horokanai district, Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Masayuki; Ueda, Yoshio.

    1981-01-01

    In the Fransiscan metamorphic rocks known as the typical high-pressure type metamorphic belts, existence of the blocks of high grade metamorphic rocks of older age in the widely distributed low grade ones of younger age is commonly noticed. This feature has been explained as a phenomenon that the blocks had been tectonically mixed with the surroundings - so-called tectonic blocks - based on the absolute age determination of the component minerals. The Kamuikotan tectonic belt is a melange zone in which occur various kinds of metamorphic rocks of high-pressure and low-pressure types. The high-pressure Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks can be classified into two kinds based upon the modes of occurrence and mineral paragenesis. One is the low grade metamorphic rocks of greenschist and glaucophane schist and the other, the high grade metamorphic rocks of epidote glaucophane schist and epidote amphibolite. The high grade metamorphic rocks always occur as isolated blocks in the low grade metamorphics and associated serpentinite. The report discusses the age of muscovites separated from the two types of high-pressure Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks in the Horokanai district, central Hokkaido. The muscovites separated from the low grade metamorphics of the district give the age of 72 - 116 m.y., while those separated from the high grade metamorphics give the age of 132 - 145 m.y. These ages seem to agree with the idea that the blocks of high grade metamorphics (epidote glaucophane schist and epidote amphibolite) would be the ''tectonic blocks'' - namely the fragments tectonically mixed into the low grade metamorphics of younger age. (author)

  4. Seismic evidence for multiple-stage exhumation of high/ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yinhe; Zhao, Kaifeng; Tang, Chi-Chia; Xu, Yixian

    2018-05-01

    The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in China contains one of the largest exposures of high and ultrahigh pressure (HP and UHP) metamorphic rocks in the world. The origin of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks and their exhumation to the surface in this belt have attracted great interest in the geologic community because the study of exhumation history of HP/UHP rocks helps to understand the process of continental-continental collision and the tectonic evolution of post-collision. However, the exhumation mechanism of the HP-UHP rocks to the surface is still contentious. In this study, by deploying 28 broadband seismic stations in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt and combining seismic data from 40 stations of the China National Seismic Network (CNSN), we image the high-resolution crustal isotropic shear velocity and radial anisotropy structure using ambient noise tomography. Our high-resolution 3D models provide new information about the exhumation mechanism of HP/UHP rocks and the origin of two dome structures.

  5. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  6. Isotopic studies of marbles in the Sanbagawa metamorphic terrain, central Shikoku, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hideki; Enami, Masaki; Yanagi, Takeru.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic studies were carried out on marbles occurring in crystalline schists and epidote amphibolites of the Sanbagawa metamorphic terrain, central Shikoku, Japan, in order to estimate metamorphic temperatures and to elucidate their origin. Carbon isotopic fractionation between calcite and graphite shows the metamorphic temperature of 460 deg C at the transitional part between the garnet and albite-biotite zones. Marbles are isotopically classified into two groups. (1) some marbles in epidote amphibolite masses show characteristically negative delta 13 C values and low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. These marbles are interpreted as have been derived from magmatic or deep-seated carbonates. (2) marbles collected from the crystalline schists and from the marginal part of epidote amphibolite masses, have high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and delta 13 C values similar to those of typical sedimentary carbonates. They were probably derived from sedimentary carbonates and/or carbonates re-equilibrated with metamorphic fluid segregated from crystalline schists during the Sanbagawa metamorphism. (author)

  7. Development of III-Sb metamorphic DBR membranes on InP for vertical cavity laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addamane, S. J.; Mansoori, A.; Renteria, E. J.; Dawson, N.; Shima, D. M.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dawson, L. R.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2016-04-01

    Sb-based metamorphic DBR membranes are developed for InP-based vertical cavity laser applications. The reflectivity of the metamorphic DBR membrane is compared to the reflectivity of a lattice-matched DBR to characterize the optical quality of the DBR membrane. The metamorphic interface between InP and the III-antimonides is found to degrade the reflectivity of the DBR. Therefore, the growth temperature for the metamorphic DBR is optimized in order to obtain highly reflective (>99.8%) III-Sb thin-film membranes.

  8. Pb-Pb zircon ages of the Porto Nacional high-grade metamorphic terrain, northern portion of the Goias Massif, central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorayeb, Paulo Sergio de Sousa; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail: gorayebp@ufpa.br; c_moura@ufpa.br; Barros, Gisele Ribeiro de [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica (PIBIC)]. E-mail: agbarros@amazon.com.br

    2000-03-01

    Single zircon Pb-evaporation ages were determined for a mafic granulite, two enderbites and a kinzigite of the Porto Nacional High-Grade Metamorphic Terrain (PNHGT) in the Goias massif. Zircons from mafic granulites and one of the enderbites of yielded average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages of 2125{+-}3 Ma and 2153{+-}1 Ma, respectively, being interpreted as minimum ages of the igneous protoliths. The other enderbite, whose zircons presented round terminations, yielded an average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb age of 2097 {+-} 2 Ma. Zircons from the kinzigite, displaying cores and rims overgrowth, presented {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages ranging between 2027 and 2115 Ma. However, a very homogeneous zircon crystal without overgrowth yielded age of 2100 {+-} 2 Ma, with a distinctive low Th/U value (0.02). This zircon is interpreted as a metamorphic crystal and its age probably sets the age of the granulite facies metamorphism, indicating that the PNHGT is a result of the Transamazonian thermotectonic event. (author)

  9. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of high-P/T and low-P/T metamorphic rocks in the Tia Complex, southern New England Fold Belt, eastern Australia: Insights from K-Ar chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shiro; Tsujimori, Tatsuki; Watanabe, Teruo; Itaya, Tetsumaru

    2012-10-01

    The Tia Complex in the southern New England Fold Belt is a poly-metamorphosed Late Paleozoic accretionary complex. It consists mainly of high-P/low-T type pumpellyite-actinolite facies (rare blueschist facies) schists, phyllite and serpentinite (T = 300 °C and P = 5 kbar), and low-P/high-T type amphibolite facies schist and gneiss (T = 600 °C and P Tia granodiorite). White mica and biotite K-Ar ages distinguish Carboniferous subduction zone metamorphism and Permian granitic intrusions, respectively. The systematic K-Ar age mapping along a N-S traverse of the Tia Complex exhibits a gradual change. The white mica ages become younger from the lowest-grade zone (339 Ma) to the highest-grade zone (259 Ma). In contrast, Si content of muscovite changes drastically only in the highest-grade zone. The regional changes of white mica K-Ar ages and chemical compositions of micas indicate argon depletion from precursor high-P/low-T type phengitic white mica during the thermal overprinting and recrystallization by granitoids intrusions. Our new K-Ar ages and available geological data postulate a model of the eastward rollback of a subduction zone in Early Permian. The eastward shift of a subduction zone system and subsequent magmatic activities of high-Mg andesite and adakite might explain formation of S-type granitoids (Hillgrove suite) and coeval low-P/high-T type metamorphism in the Tia Complex.

  10. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Jomolhari massif: Variations in timing of syn-collisional metamorphism across western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Young, David; Roberts, Nick M. W.

    2014-03-01

    Our current understanding of the rates and timescales of mountain-building processes is largely based on information recorded in U-bearing accessory minerals such as monazite, which is found in low abundance but which hosts the majority of the trace element budget. Monazite petrochronology was used to investigate the timing of crustal melting in migmatitic metasedimentary rocks from the Jomolhari massif (NW Bhutan). The samples were metamorphosed at upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions (~ 0.85 GPa, ~ 800 °C), after an earlier High-Pressure stage (P > 1.4 GPa), and underwent partial melting through dehydration melting reactions involving muscovite and biotite. In order to link the timing of monazite growth/dissolution to the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the samples, we identified 'chemical fingerprints' in major and accessory phases that were used to back-trace specific metamorphic reactions. Variations in Eu anomaly and Ti in garnet were linked to the growth and dissolution of major phases (e.g. growth of K-feldspar and dehydration melting of muscovite/biotite). Differences in M/HREE and Y from garnet core to rim were instead related to apatite breakdown and monazite-forming reactions. Chemically zoned monazite crystals reacted multiple times during the metamorphic evolution suggesting that the Jomolhari massif experienced a prolonged high-temperature metamorphic evolution from 36 Ma to 18 Ma, significantly different from the P-T-time path recorded in other portions of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in Bhutan. Our data demonstrate unequivocally that the GHS in Bhutan consists of units that experienced independent high-grade histories and that were juxtaposed across different tectonic structures during exhumation. The GHS may have been exhumed in response to (pulsed) mid-crustal flow but cannot be considered a coherent block.

  11. Epitaxial nanowire formation in metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip

    2017-07-01

    Metamorphic growth presents routes to novel nanomaterials with unique properties that may be suitable for a range of applications. We discuss self-assembled, epitaxial nanowires formed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices. The heterostructures incorporate strain-engineered GaPAs compositional grades on 6°-B miscut GaAs substrates. Lateral diffusion within the SPS into vertically aligned, three-dimensional columns results in nanowires extending along A directions with a lateral period of 70-90 nm. The microstructure is probed by transmission electron microscopy to confirm the presence of coherent GaAs nanowires within GaPAs barriers. The compositional profile is inferred from analysis of {200} dark-field image contrast and lattice images.

  12. At what conditions does zircon grow/dissolve during high-T metamorphism? Relating zircon textures to PT-conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Manzotti, Paola; Engi, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A key question in ziconology is when and how zircon grows during metamorphism. To shed light on zircon forming processes and the corresponding PT-conditions during high-T metamorphism a case study was undertaken. The Ivrea Zone (N-Italy) exposes a lower continental crustal section in which a continuous metamorphic field gradient from amphibolite to granulite facies is documented. This field gradient is thought to reflect protracted heating during late Paleozoic times, with a probable high-T peak in the Permian. We present first results from a primarily textural study supported by U-Pb ages, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-Zrn thermometry. Four types of zircon were identified based on their overgrowth proportions and the preservation of detrital cores. Zircon grains were thus classified as Type1 - detrital grains with no overgrowth or very narrow rims (300 Ma) and appears to reflect an early dehydration phase. Rim2b has Permian ages (median 275 Ma), is by far the most common overgrowth type, found in a wide PT-range. Its development appears related to biotite breakdown. Rim3 is texturally indicative of magmatic zircon, occurs only in diatexites. Rim4 is the latest overgrowth and is locally found at all metamorphic grades. Textural features suggest late fluid-related recrystallization of existing zircon. At lowest grade (675±35°C, 6±2 kbar) zircons show type1 only, overgrowths are too thin to clearly identify the rim type. Further upgrade (~700°C, 7 kbar) type1 and type2 dominate. Type2 zircons show rim1, rim2a and occasionally rim4. At the Mu-out isograd (750±50°C, 8.2±1.4 kbar) most zircons are of type2, now with rim2b instead of 2a, in addition to rim1 and rim4. Near and in granulite facies (to 800°C, 8±2 kbar) mostly zircon type2 and type4 are present. While rim1 gets more narrow with increasing metamorphic grade, rim2b grows significantly thicker. Occasionally rim2a and rim4 occur. Close to the Bt-out isograd (~860°C, 9.2±1.7 kbar), mostly type3 and type4 are

  13. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The preservation of premetamorphic, whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios in Adirondack metasediments shows that neither these rocks nor adjacent anorthosites and gneisses have been penetrated by large amounts of externally derived, hot CO2-H2O fluids during granulite facies metamorphism. This conclusion is supported by calculations of the effect of fluid volatilization and exchange and is also independently supported by petrologic and phase equilibria considerations. The data suggest that these rocks were not an open system during metamorphism; that fluid/rock ratios were in many instances between 0.0 and 0.1; that externally derived fluids, as well as fluids derived by metamorphic volatilization, rose along localized channels and were not pervasive; and thus that no single generalization can be applied to metamorphic fluid conditions in the Adirondacks. Analyses of 3 to 4 coexisting minerals from Adirondack marbles show that isotopic equilibrium was attained at the peak of granulite and upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Thus the isotopic compositions of metamorphic fluids can be inferred from analyses of carbonates and fluid budgets can be constructed. Carbonates from the granulite facies are on average, isotopically similar to those from lower grade or unmetamorphosed limestones of the same age showing that no large isotopic shifts accompanied high grade metamorphism. Equilibrium calculations indicate that small decreases in ??18O, averaging 1 permil, result from volatilization reactions for Adirondack rock compositions. Additional small differences between amphibolite and granulite facies marbles are due to systematic lithologie differences. The range of Adirondack carbonate ??18O values (12.3 to 27.2) can be explained by the highly variable isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed limestones in conjunction with minor 18O and 13C depletions caused by metamorphic volatilization suggesting that many (and possibly most) marbles have closely preserved their

  14. Metamorphic quantum dots: Quite different nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Nasi, L.; Trevisi, G.; Bocchi, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of InAs quantum dots deposited on InGaAs metamorphic buffers by molecular beam epitaxy. By comparing morphological, structural, and optical properties of such nanostructures with those of InAs/GaAs quantum dot ones, we were able to evidence characteristics that are typical of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs structures. The more relevant are: the cross-hatched InGaAs surface overgrown by dots, the change in critical coverages for island nucleation and ripening, the nucleation of new defects in the capping layers, and the redshift in the emission energy. The discussion on experimental results allowed us to conclude that metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are rather different nanostructures, where attention must be put to some issues not present in InAs/GaAs structures, namely, buffer-related defects, surface morphology, different dislocation mobility, and stacking fault energies. On the other hand, we show that metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures can provide new possibilities of tailoring various properties, such as dot positioning and emission energy, that could be very useful for innovative dot-based devices.

  15. Pathway to 50% Efficient Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); France, Ryan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perl, Emmett [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Series-connected five (5J) and six junction (6J) concentrator solar cell strategies have the realistic potential to exceed 50% efficiency to enable low-cost CPV systems. We propose three strategies for developing a practical 6J device. We have overcome many of the challenges required to build such concentrator solar cell devices: We have developed 2.1 eV AlGaInP, 1.7 eV AlGaAs, and 1.7 eV GaInAsP junctions with external radiative efficiency greater than 0.1%. We have developed a transparent tunnel junction that absorbs minimal light intended for the second junction yet resists degradation under thermal load. We have developed metamorphic grades from the GaAs to the InP lattice constant that are transparent to sub-GaAs bandgap light. We have grown and compared low bandgap junctions (0.7eV - 1.2 eV) using metamorphic GaInAs, metamorphic GaInAsP, and GaInAsP lattice-matched to InP. And finally, we have demonstrated excellent performance in a high voltage, low current 4 junction inverted metamorphic device using 2.1, 1.7, 1.4, and 1.1 eV junctions with over 8.7 mA/cm2 one-sun current density that operates up to 1000 suns without tunnel junction failure.

  16. The ammonium content in the Malayer igneous and metamorphic rocks (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, Vahid; Hirt, Ann Marie; Valizadeh, Mohammad-Vali; Bokani, Saeed Jabbari

    2011-04-01

    The ammonium (NH4+) contents of the Malayer area (Western Iran) have been determined by using the colorimetric method on 26 samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is the first analysis of the ammonium contents of Iranian metamorphic and igneous rocks. The average ammonium content of metamorphic rocks decreases from low-grade to high-grade metamorphic rocks (in ppm): slate 580, phyllite 515, andalusite schist 242. In the case of igneous rocks, it decreases from felsic to mafic igneous types (in ppm): granites 39, monzonite 20, diorite 17, gabbro 10. Altered granitic rocks show enrichment in NH4+ (mean 61 ppm). The high concentration of ammonium in Malayer granites may indicate metasedimentary rocks as protoliths rather than meta-igneous rocks. These granitic rocks (S-types) have high K-bearing rock-forming minerals such as biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar which their potassium could substitute with ammonium. In addition, the high ammonium content of metasediments is probably due to inheritance of nitrogen from organic matter in the original sediments. The hydrothermally altered samples of granitic rocks show highly enrichment of ammonium suggesting external sources which intruded additional content by either interaction with metasedimentary country rocks or meteoritic solutions.

  17. Evaluation of defect density by top-view large scale AFM on metamorphic structures grown by MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocalinska, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.gocalinska@tyndall.ie; Manganaro, Marina; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Pelucchi, Emanuele

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Metamorphic buffer layers of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As were grown by MOVPE and characterised by AFM and TEM. • It was found that AFM provides sufficient information to estimate threading defect density in metamorphic structures, even when significant roughness is present. • When planar-view TEM is lacking, a combination of cross-sectional TEM and large scale AFM can provide good evaluation of the material quality. • It is fast, cheap and non-destructive – can be very useful in development process of complicated structures, requiring multiple test growths and characterisation. - Abstract: We demonstrate an atomic force microscopy based method for estimation of defect density by identification of threading dislocations on a non-flat surface resulting from metamorphic growth. The discussed technique can be applied as an everyday evaluation tool for the quality of epitaxial structures and allow for cost reduction, as it lessens the amount of the transmission electron microscopy analysis required at the early stages of projects. Metamorphic structures with low surface defectivities (below 10{sup 6}) were developed successfully with the application of the technique, proving its usefulness in process optimisation.

  18. Shear heating and metamorphism in subduction zones, 1. Thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, M. J.; Castro, A. E.; Spear, F. S.

    2017-12-01

    Popular thermal-mechanical models of modern subduction systems are 100-500 °C colder at c. 50 km depth than pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions determined from exhumed metamorphic rocks. This discrepancy has been ascribed by some to profound bias in the rock record, i.e. metamorphic rocks reflect only anomalously warm subduction, not normal subduction. Accurately inferring subduction zone thermal structure, whether from models or rocks, is crucial for predicting depths of seismicity, fluid release, and sub-arc melting conditions. Here, we show that adding realistic shear stresses to thermal models implies P-T conditions quantitatively consistent with those recorded by exhumed metamorphic rocks, suggesting that metamorphic rock P-T conditions are not anomalously warm. Heat flow measurements from subduction zone fore-arcs typically indicate effective coefficients of friction (µ) ranging from 0.025 to 0.1. We included these coefficients of friction in analytical models of subduction zone interface temperatures. Using global averages of subducting plate age (50 Ma), subduction velocity (6 cm/yr), and subducting plate geometry (central Chile), temperatures at 50 km depth (1.5 GPa) increase by c. 200 °C for µ=0.025 to 700 °C for µ=0.1. However, at high temperatures, thermal softening will reduce frictional heating, and temperatures will not increase as much with depth. Including initial weakening of materials ranging from wet quartz (c. 300 °C) to diabase (c. 600 °C) in the analytical models produces concave-upward P-T distributions on P-T diagrams, with temperatures c. 100 to 500 °C higher than models with no shear heating. The absolute P-T conditions and concave-upward shape of the shear-heating + thermal softening models almost perfectly matches the distribution of P-T conditions derived from a compilation of exhumed metamorphic rocks. Numerical models of modern subduction zones that include shear heating also overlap metamorphic data. Thus, excepting the

  19. The timing of tertiary metamorphism and deformation in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of southern Idaho and northern Utah exposes 2.56-Ga orthogneisses and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks that were intruded by 32-25-Ma granitic plutons. Pluton emplacement was contemporaneous with peak metamorphism, ductile thinning of the country rocks, and top-to-thewest, normal-sense shear along the Middle Mountain shear zone. Monazite and zircon from an attenuated stratigraphic section in the Middle Mountain were dated with U-Pb, using a SHRIMP-RG (reverse geometry) ion microprobe. Zircons from the deformed Archean gneiss preserve a crystallization age of 2532 ?? 33 Ma, while monazites range from 32.6 ?? 0.6 to 27.1 ?? 0.6 Ma. In the schist of the Upper Narrows, detrital zircons lack metamorphic overgrowths, and monazites produced discordant U-Pb ages that range from 52.8 ?? 0.6 to 37.5 ?? 0.3 Ma. From the structurally and stratigraphically highest unit sampled, the schist of Stevens Spring, narrow metamorphic rims on detrital zircons yield ages from 140-110 Ma, and monazite grains contained cores that yield an age of 141 ??2 Ma, whereas rims and some whole grains ranged from 35.5 ?? 0.5 to 30.0 ?? 0.4 Ma. A boudinaged pegmatite exposed in Basin Creek is deformed by the Middle Mountains shear zone and yields a monazite age of 27.6 ?? 0.2 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate two periods of monazite and metamorphic zircon growth: a poorly preserved Early Cretaceous period (???140 Ma) that is strongly overprinted by Oligocene metamorphism (???32-27 Ma) related to regional plutonism and extension. ?? 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  20. First evidence of the Ellesmerian metamorphism on Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Schneider, David A.

    2016-04-01

    The Ellesmerian fold-and-thrust belt is exposed in the High Arctic from Ellesmere Island in the east, through North Greenland, to Svalbard in the west (e.g. Piepjohn et al., 2015). It developed during Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous, and overprinted older (mainly Caledonian) structures. It is thought that this fold-and-thrust belt was formed due to collision of the Pearya Terrane and Svalbard with the Franklinian Basin of Laurentia. Traditionally, the Ellesmerian fold-and-thrust belt comprises a passive continental margin affected by foreland deformation processes, but the exact larger scale tectonic context of this belt is disputable. It is partly because the Eocene Eurekan deformation superimposed significantly the Ellesmerian structures, thus making the reconstruction of the pre-Eurekan history very difficult. Here we present for the first time evidence for Ellesmerian metamorphism within the crystalline basement of Svalbard. These rocks are exposed in the Pinkie unit on Prins Karls Forland (W-Svalbard), which exhibits tectonic contacts with the overlying sequences. The Pinkie unit is mainly composed of strongly deformed lithologies such as laminated quartzites, siliciclastic rocks and garnet-bearing mica schists. Detrital zircon dating yielded ages as young as Neoproterozoic (0.95-1.05 Ga), thus the Pinkie unit is considered to be Neoproterozoic (Kośmińska et al., 2015a). The M1 assemblages and D1 structures are affected by D2 mylonitization (cf. Faehnrich et al., 2016, this meeting). Petrological characterization and Th-U-total Pb chemical monazite dating have been performed on the Pinkie metapelites. These rocks exhibit an apparent inverted Barrovian metamorphic sequence, within which three metamorphic zones have been distinguished: garnet+staurolite+muscovite+biotite, garnet+staurolite+kyanite+muscovite+biotite, garnet+kyanite+muscovite+biotite. The P-T estimates using the QuiG barometry coupled with thermodynamic modelling revealed that the

  1. Low temperature step-graded InAlAs/GaAs metamorphic buffer layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, X Z; Wu, S D; Liu, C; Wang, W X; Guo, L W; Huang, Q; Zhou, J M

    2006-01-01

    Low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers on GaAs substrate grown by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The strain relaxation and the composition of the top InAlAs layer were determined by high-resolution triple-axis x-ray diffraction measurements, which show that the top InAlAs layer is nearly fully relaxed. Surface morphology was observed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy. Under a selected range of growth parameters, the root mean square surface roughness of the sample grown at 380 deg. C is 0.802 nm, which has the smallest value compared with those of other samples. Furthermore, The ω-2θ and ω scans of the triple-axis x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence show the sample grown at 380 deg. C has better crystalline quality. With decreasing As overpressure at this growth temperature, crystalline quality became poor and could not maintain two dimensional growth with increasing overpressure. The carrier concentrations and Hall mobilities of the InAlAs/ InGaAs/GaAs MM-HEMT structure on low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers grown in optimized conditions are high enough to make devices

  2. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile

  3. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  4. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction In this work we present new structural and petrographic data collected in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of Monte Capanne (western Elba Island) and its metamorphic evolution. In the western Elba Island the Monte Capanne monzogranitic body (ca. 7 Ma) and its thermo-metamorphic aureole crop out. At least two different tectonic units can be distinguished: the Punta Le Tombe Unit, weak re-crystallized, and the Punta Nera Unit. In the latter one the re-crystallization is strong and a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework is evident (Morelli et al., 2002). The latter is mainly constituted by thermo-metamorphosed meta-ophiolites and meta-sedimentary successions previously correlated by Barberi et al. (1969) with the un-metamorphic ones (Complex IV and V of Trevisan, 1950) cropping out in the central-eastern Elba. According to Perrin (1975) and Reutter &Spohn (1982) a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework was recognized into such rocks. As suggested by Daniel &Jolivet (1995) complex relationships between metamorphic evolution and magmatic events are also recognizable. Geological Data The Punta Nera Unit crops out all around the Monte Capanne magmatic body and the primary contact with the underlying granitoid is somewhere preserved. This unit, strongly re-crystallized and locally crosscut by aplitic and porphyritic dikes, is represented by (Coli &Pandeli, 1997; Morelli, 2000) tectonized meta-serpentinites, meta-gabbros with rodingitic dikes, rare meta-basalts and meta-ophicalcites, meta-cherts, marbles, cherty meta-limestones, phyllites and meta-limestones with rare meta-arenites intercalations. A "pre-magmatic" tectono-metamorphic framework of this unit is well evident only in its meta-sedimentary portion. The meta-sediments are deformed by syn-metamorphic isoclinal folds caractherized by N-S trending axes, west dipping axial planes and easternward vergence. A later folding and flattening event clearly post-dated the above said folds and associated

  5. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement [fr

  6. Evaluating the importance of metamorphism in the foundering of continental crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Timothy; Clarke, Geoffrey L; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan R

    2017-10-12

    The metamorphic conditions and mechanisms required to induce foundering in deep arc crust are assessed using an example of representative lower crust in SW New Zealand. Composite plutons of Cretaceous monzodiorite and gabbro were emplaced at ~1.2 and 1.8 GPa are parts of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO); examples of the plutons are tectonically juxtaposed along a structure that excised ~25 km of crust. The 1.8 GPa Breaksea Orthogneiss includes suitably dense minor components (e.g. eclogite) capable of foundering at peak conditions. As the eclogite facies boundary has a positive dP/dT, cooling from supra-solidus conditions (T > 950 ºC) at high-P should be accompanied by omphacite and garnet growth. However, a high monzodioritic proportion and inefficient metamorphism in the Breaksea Orthogneiss resulted in its positive buoyancy and preservation. Metamorphic inefficiency and compositional relationships in the 1.2 GPa Malaspina Pluton meant it was never likely to have developed densities sufficiently high to founder. These relationships suggest that the deep arc crust must have primarily involved significant igneous accumulation of garnet-clinopyroxene (in proportions >75%). Crustal dismemberment with or without the development of extensional shear zones is proposed to have induced foundering of excised cumulate material at P > 1.2 GPa.

  7. The first find of spinel peridotite in the Southern Kazakhstan: Structure, composition, and parameters of high-pressure metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilitsyna, A. V.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Alifirova, T. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kovalchuk, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    Spinel peridotite, metamorphosed in high-pressure conditions, was first described within the Western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The spinel peridotite has the characteristics of Mg-Cr ultramafites indicating the mantle origin of its protolith. The preliminary estimation of the metamorphism peak for the model system MgO-Al2O3—SiO2-Cr2O3 (MASCr) is 10-19 kbar at 680-800°C.

  8. Pre-Alpine contrasting tectono-metamorphic evolutions within the Southern Steep Belt, Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Manuel; Zucali, Michele; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Spalla, Maria Iole; Yao, Weihua

    2018-06-01

    a high thermal state, which is compatible with an extensional tectonic setting that occurred during the exhumation of the Languard-Tonale Tectono-Metamorphic Unit. The extensional regime is interpreted as being responsible for the thinning of the Adriatic continental lithosphere during the Permian, which may be related to an early rifting phase of Pangea.

  9. Effects of Si3N4 passivation on the dc and RF characteristics of metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistors depending on the gate-recess structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, J H; Han, M; Baek, Y H; Moon, S W; Rhee, J K; Kim, S D

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the Si 3 N 4 passivation on the dc and RF characteristics of a 0.1 µm metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) are investigated for narrow and wide gate-recess structures. Maximum drain-source saturation current (I dss,max ) and maximum extrinsic transconductance (g m,max ) are reduced by ∼14.8 and ∼11.6%, respectively, in the wide gate-recess structure after the passivation; on the other hand, only ∼5.7 and ∼4.9% reductions are measured from I dss,max and g m,max , respectively, in the narrow gate-recess structure. We examine the passivation-induced degradation by using a modified charge control model assuming the charged surface states on the Si 3 N 4 interface and a comparative study of the hydrodynamic device simulation with the experimental measurement. From the analysis, it is proposed that the difference of degradation in two different gate structures is due to an approximately three times higher charged surface state density of ∼4.5 × 10 11 cm −2 in the wide gate-recess structure than ∼1.6 × 10 11 cm −2 in the narrow gate-recess structure. The cut-off frequency (f T ) of the wide gate-recess structure also exhibits a greater reduction of ∼14.5%, while the f T of the narrow gate-recess structure is reduced by only ∼6.6% after the passivation. This is mainly due to the passivation-induced surface states of a higher density in the wide gate-recess structure. A great increase of the gate-to-drain parasitic capacitance in the wide gate-recess structure makes a major contribution to ∼13.5% degradation of the maximum frequency of oscillation

  10. Silicate-Oxide Equilibria in the Wilson Lake Terrane, Labrador - Evidence for a Pre- Metamorphic Oxidizing Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, F. J.; Stout, J. H.

    2006-05-01

    The presence of Fe3+ and Ti in silicates and their presumed equilibration with Fe2+-Fe3+-Ti oxide minerals has long been recognized as an important factor in metamorphic phase equilibria. The Red Wine Mountains massif is a granulite facies unit in the Wilson Lake terrane of central Labrador, where this equilibration is especially important for estimating both temperature and fO2 during peak metamorphism. Peak assemblages are sapphirine + quartz, and orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz. The coexisting oxides, which are largely responsible for the pronounced aeromagnetic high of the massif, consist of nearly pure magnetite and an exsolved titanohematite. Estimates of fO2 based on magnetite + integrated titanohematite compositions are slightly below that defined by the pure magnetite-hematite buffer. This assemblage is also responsible for the magnetic signature of metagabbro and metanorite dikes, a fact which challenges the conventional wisdom that the high Fe3+ content of the host paragneisses was inherited from a highly oxidized ferruginous shale. We suggest here that prior to granulite facies metamorphism, an oxidizing hydrothermal event either coeval or following the emplacement of mafic dikes into the paragneiss host was responsible for the highly oxidized nature of the massif as a whole. Subsequent metamorphism then produced the observed assemblages. This scenario is supported by recent U-Pb zircon and monazite ages of ca. 1626 ± 10 Ma, which indicate that both metagabbro dikes and host paragneiss were metamorphosed at the same time. Dike emplacement and the oxidizing event must have preceded 1626 Ma. The implications of this pre-metamorphic oxidizing event is that Fe3+ becomes an inherent and fixed component in the chemical system during metamorphism. Phase relationships, preliminary thermodynamic modeling, and geothermobarometric constraints indicate that peak temperatures are lower than those previously determined for Fe3+-absent systems. More appropriate

  11. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  12. Geology and genesis of uranium deposits in sedimentary and metamorphic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.; Belevtsev, Ya.N.

    1980-01-01

    Main genetic types of uranium deposits in sedimentary cover are described. Their genetic classification is based on the principle of conjugation of ore-forming process with the stages of lithogenesis of ore-enclosing rocks. Examples of poligeneity of uranium mineralization are presented. Texture-structural peculiarities of ores and types of ore-controlling zonality are considered as criteria of definite deposits belonging to various genetic classes. The analysis is given of main regularities of location of exogenous and poligenic uranium deposits. Processes of uranium ore-formation under the conditions of low and high degrees of metamorphism are considered. On the basis of separate types of deposits shown is the possibility of mobilization, transfer and concentration of ore substance, its transformation from primary to secondary forms. Metamorphous and ultrametamorphous deposits are formed as a result of ore element translocation within considerable distances under the effect of endogenous solutions and their concentration in favourable structures. Conclusions on the effect of lithogenesis and metamorphism processes on the ore formation are substantiated by field observations, analyses (including methods of isotopic geochemistry) as well as by experiments

  13. Metamorphic core complex formation by density inversion and lower-crust extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F; Goodliffe, A M; Taylor, B

    2001-06-21

    Metamorphic core complexes are domal uplifts of metamorphic and plutonic rocks bounded by shear zones that separate them from unmetamorphosed cover rocks. Interpretations of how these features form are varied and controversial, and include models involving extension on low-angle normal faults, plutonic intrusions and flexural rotation of initially high-angle normal faults. The D'Entrecasteaux islands of Papua New Guinea are actively forming metamorphic core complexes located within a continental rift that laterally evolves to sea-floor spreading. The continental rifting is recent (since approximately 6 Myr ago), seismogenic and occurring at a rapid rate ( approximately 25 mm yr-1). Here we present evidence-based on isostatic modelling, geological data and heat-flow measurements-that the D'Entrecasteaux core complexes accommodate extension through the vertical extrusion of ductile lower-crust material, driven by a crustal density inversion. Although buoyant extrusion is accentuated in this region by the geological structure present-which consists of dense ophiolite overlaying less-dense continental crust-this mechanism may be generally applicable to regions where thermal expansion lowers crustal density with depth.

  14. The discovery of hornblende-garnet-zoisite hornfels in the metamorphic basement of Xiangshan uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhenpin; Dong Yongjie; Yu Jianfa; Hu Rongquan; Wu Shuilin

    2007-01-01

    Some vein rocks are found among mica schist in the metamorphic rock area of the Xiangshan uranium ore field. They are petrologically denominated as hornblende-garnet-zoisite hornfels. The primitive rocks are basic vein rocks. The hornfels are formed under thermal metamorphism with the temperature about 640 degree C and belong to low-pressure faces. This is closed to the form condition of EarlyMiddle Proterozoic metamorphic rocks in the area. The metamorphism forming the hornfels means that the Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rocks was superimposed to another thermal metamorphism and produced the second phase metamorphic minerals such as staurolite, almandine and biotite. The lattice of the second phase metamorphic mineral developed continuously with the first phase minerals. The overlapping metamorphism made the first phase metamorphic mineral suffer recrystallization, auto purification and idiomorphism. The discovery of hornfelsed basic rock veins discloses that strong geologic process with the activity of fault, magma and metamorphism were still taken placed in Paleozoic era within the metamorphic basement of the Xiangshan uranium ore field. (authors)

  15. Syn-extensional plutonism and peak metamorphism in the albion-raft river-grouse creek metamorphic core complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassia plutonic complex (CPC) is a group of variably deformed, Oligocene granitic plutons exposed in the lower plate of the Albion-Raft River- Grouse Creek (ARG) metamorphic core complex of Idaho and Utah. The plutons range from granodiorite to garnet-bearing, leucogranite, and during intrusion, sillimanite- grade peak metamorphism and ductile attenuation occurred in the country rocks and normal-sense, amphibolite-grade deformation took place along the Middle Mountain shear zone. U-Pb zircon geochronology from three variably deformed plutons exposed in the lower plate of the ARG metamorphic core complex revealed that each zircon is comprised of inherited cores (dominantly late Archean) and Oligocene igneous overgrowths. Within each pluton, a spread of concordant ages from the Oligocene zircon overgrowths is interpreted as zircon recycling within a long-lived magmatic system. The plutons of the CPC have very low negative whole rock ??Nd values of -26 to -35, and initial Sr values of 0.714 to 0.718, consistent with an ancient, crustal source. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Oligocene zircon overgrowths from the CPC have an average ??18O value of 5.40 ?? 0.63 permil (2SD, n = 65) with a slight trend towards higher ??18O values through time. The ??18O values of the inherited cores of the zircons are more variable at 5.93 ?? 1.51 permil (2SD, n = 29). Therefore, we interpret the plutons of the CPC as derived, at least in part, from melting Archean crust based on the isotope geochemistry. In situ partial melting of the exposed Archean basement that was intruded by the Oligocene plutons of the CPC is excluded as the source for the CPC based on field relationships, age and geochemistry. Correlations between Ti and Hf concentrations in zircons from the CPC suggest that the magmatic system may have become hotter (higher Ti concentration in zircon) and less evolved (lower Hf in zircon concentration) through time. Therefore, the CPC represents prolonged or episodic magmatism

  16. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherby Josh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement, i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA, a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We

  17. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  18. Post-peak metamorphic evolution of the Sumdo eclogite from the Lhasa terrane of southeast Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dadi; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Lingmin; Wang, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A reconstruction of the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of high-pressure eclogite-facies rocks in subduction zones may reveal important information about the tectono-metamorphic processes that occur at great depths along the plate interface. The majority of studies have focused on prograde to peak metamorphism of these rocks, whereas after-peak metamorphism has received less attention. Herein, we present a detailed petrological, pseudosection modeling and radiometric dating study of a retrograded eclogite sample from the Sumdo ultrahigh pressure belt of the Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Mineral chemical variations, textural discontinuities and thermodynamic modeling suggest that the eclogite underwent an exhumation-heating period. Petrographic observations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the garnet cores formed at the pressure peak (∼2.5 GPa and ∼520 °C) within the lawsonite eclogite-facies and garnet rims (∼1.5 GPa and spans an interval of ∼7 million years, which is a minimum estimate of the duration of the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Sumdo eclogite.

  19. Lithium, boron and chlorine as tracers for metasomatism in high-pressure metamorphic rocks: a case study from Syros (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Horst R.; Altherr, Rainer; Gméling, Katalin; Kasztovszky, Zsolt

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure metamorphic (HPM) rocks (derived from igneous protoliths) and their metasomatised rinds from the island of Syros (Greece) were analysed for their B and Cl whole-rock abundances and their H2O content by prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis (PGNAA) and for their Li and Be whole-rock abundances by ICP-OES. In the HPM rocks, B /Be and Cl /Be ratios correlate with H2O contents and appear to be controlled by extraction of B and Cl during dehydration and prograde metamorphism. In contrast, samples of the metasomatised rinds show no such correlation. B /Be ratios in the rinds are solely governed by the presence or absence of tourmaline, and Cl /Be ratios vary significantly, possibly related to fluid inclusions. Li/Be ratios do not correlate with H2O contents in the HPM rocks, which may in part be explained by a conservative behaviour of Li during dehydration. However, Li abundances exceed the vast majority of published values for Li abundances in fresh, altered, or differentiated oceanic igneous rocks and presumably result from metasomatic enrichment of Li. High Li concentrations and highly elevated Li/Be ratios in most metasomatised samples demonstrate an enrichment of Li in the Syros HP mélange during fluid infiltration. This study suggests that B and Cl abundances of HPM meta-igneous rocks can be used to trace prograde dehydration, while Li concentrations seem to be more sensitive for retrograde metasomatic processes in such lithologies.

  20. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  1. Ediacaran ( 620 Ma) high grade regional metamorphism in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield: U/Th-Pb monazite ages of the Elat schist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisha, Bar; Katzir, Yaron; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Ediacaran times witnessed a hemisphere-scale orogenesis forming the extensive Pan-African mountain ranges and resulting in the final assembly of Gondwana supercontinent. The Elat metamorphic basement (S Israel) located at the northernmost tip of a major Pan-African orogenic suture, the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS), comprises amphibolite facies schists and gneisses and was most likely shaped by this major continental collision. However the timing, number and duration of metamorphic events in Elat and elsewhere in the ANS are non-conclusive and a major emphasis was given to pre-Ediacaran island-arc related tectonics. This is mostly because U-Pb dating of zircon, widely used in Elat and elsewhere, is very successful in constraining the ages of the igneous and sedimentary protoliths, but is 'blind' to metamorphism at grades lower than granulite. Here U/Th-Pb dating of monazite, a precise chronometer of metamorphic mineral growth, is systematically applied to the Elat schist and unveils the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Elat basement. Previous U-Pb dating of detrital zircon has shown that the sedimentary protoliths of the Elat schist are the oldest basement components (≥800 Ma), and detailed structural observations of the schists portrayed a complex deformation history including four successive phases (Shimron, 1972). The earliest three phases were defined as ductile and penetrative, but some of the available geochronological data apparently contradict field relations. In-situ analysis of metamorphic monazites by LASS (Laser Ablation Split Stream) involves simultaneous measurement of U/Th-Pb isotope ratios and REE contents in a single 10 μm sized grain or domain, thus allowing determining the age of specific texture and metamorphic assemblage. Monazite dating of the Elat schist yielded two concordant age clusters at 712±6 and 613±5 Ma. The corresponding REE patterns of the dated monazite grains indicate that porphyroblast growth, either garnet or staurolite

  2. A versatile digitally-graded buffer structure for metamorphic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingjie; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Xingyou; Gu, Yi; Shi, Yanhui; Ji, Wanyan; Du, Ben

    2018-04-01

    Exploring more effective buffer schemes for mitigating dislocation deficiencies is the key technology towards higher performance metamorphic devices. Here we demonstrate a versatile metamorphic grading structure consisting of 38-period alternated multilayers of In0.52Al0.48As and In0.82Al0.18As on InP substrate, thicknesses of which in each period were gradually varied in opposite directions from 48.7 and 1.3 nm to 1.3 and 48.7 nm, respectively, akin to a digital alloy. Both preferentially dislocation nucleation and blocking of threading dislocation transmission are observed near the In0.82Al0.18As/In0.52Al0.48As interfaces, which help relax the strain and lower the residual defect density. A 2.6 μm In0.83Ga0.17As pin photodetector is fabricated on this pseudo-substrate, attaining a low dark current density of 2.9  ×  10‑6 A cm‑2 and a high detectivity of 1.8  ×  1010 cmHz1/2W‑1 at room temperature, comparable with the states of the art that on linearly-graded buffer layers. These results indicate such digitally-graded buffer structures are promising for enhancing performances of metamorphic devices, and can be easily generalized to other lattice-mismatched material systems.

  3. Uranium and thorium migration under dislocative metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.K.; Bilibina, T.V.; Dashkova, A.D.; Il'in, V.K.; Makarova, L.I.; Shmuraeva, L.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were peculiarities of uranium and thorium behaviour in the process of dislocation metamorphism on the basis of regional fracture zones of early-proterozoic embedding of Ukrainian, Aldan and Baltic shields. The studied zones correspond to tectonite of green-shale and almandin-amphibolite facies of regional metamorphism according to mineral associations. The most peculiar feature of the tectonites of green-shale facies is uranium presence in migrationally able forms, which can be involved afterwards into the ore process by hydrothermal solutions. Adsorved forms of uranium on the crystal surface or separate grains and in the cracks, as well as microinclusions of uranium minerals, selectively timed to mineral structure defects prevail among easily mobile uranium compounds. Dissolved uranium is present, evidently in gas-liquid inclusions in minerals and pore waters. There forms of uranium presence are peculiar for epidote-chlorite mylonites, as well as cataclasites and diaphthorites related to them by blastomylonites of almandin-amphibolite facies. Wide range of manifestation of this process, caused by multikilometer extension of deep fracture zones permit to consider the formations of green-shale facies of dislocation metamorphism as one of the main uranium sources in deposit formation in different uranium-ore associations different age

  4. Uranium, rare metals, and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cuney

    2014-09-01

    The Tranomaro metasomatized marbles recrystallizing under granulite-facies conditions represent a demonstrative example of fluid transfer from granulite-facies supracrustals to traps represented by regional scale skarns. Such fluids may be at the origin of the incompatible element enrichment detected in leucosomes of migmatites from St Malo in Brittany (France and Black Hills in South Dakota. The northern French Massif Central provides us with an example of a potential association between incompatible element enrichment of granitic melts and granulite-facies metamorphism. U- and F-enriched fine-grained granites are emplaced along a crustal scale shear zone active during the emplacement within the St Sylvestre peraluminous leucogranitic complex. We propose that during granulite-facies metamorphism dominated by carbonic waves in a deep segment of the continental crust, these shear zones control: (i the percolation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich fluids liberated primarily by the breakdown of biotite; (ii the enhancement of partial melting by F-rich fluids at intermediate crustal levels with the generation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich granitic melts; (iii their transfer through the crust with protracted fractionation facilitated by their low viscosity due to high F-Li contents; and finally (iv their emplacement as rare metal intrusions at shallow crust levels.

  5. Paleozoic age of high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Dakh salient, North-Western Caucasus: results of U-Pb-geochronological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somin, M.L.; Levchenkov, O.A.; Kotov, A.B.; Makeev, A.F.; Komarov, A.N.; Ro, N.I.; Lavrishchev, V.A.; Lebedev, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological studies of an ancient component of the Dakh salient, i.e. metaaplites, which are vein fine-grained rocks made up by albite, microcline, quartz and potash mica, were made. Besides, K-Ar dating of granodiorites breaking through metamorphic rocks was conducted. U-Pb dating of accessory zircons (353 mln. years) defines the lower age boundary of the Dakh salient rock metamorphism. Its upper boundary was identified by K-Ar dating (301 ± 10 mln. years) of hornfels blende of nonmetamophized granodiorites [ru

  6. Morphology and U-Pb ages of zircons from the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian in the Sirdal-Oersdal area, SW Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielens, J.B.W.

    1979-01-01

    The U-Pb systematics of seven suites of zircons and two apatites were investigated in an attempt to obtain data about the pre-Sveconorwegian geochronology. Very little was known about this earlier history, as previous studies have shown that the high-grade metamorphism has obliterated most of the older Rb-Sr record. Three samples were investigated from the augengneisses, two from the pyroxene syenites, one garnetiferous migmatite and one magnetite-ilmenite-zircon veinlet cross-cutting the charnockitic migmatites. (Auth.)

  7. X-ray color maps of the zoned garnets from Silgará Formation metamorphic rocks,SantanderMassif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takasu Akira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The metamorphic rocks of the Lower Paleozoic Silgará Formation of the Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia, were affected by a Barrovian-type metamorphism under low to high temperature and medium pressure conditions. These rocks contain garnet porphyroblasts, which show several kinds of chemical zoning patterns. The garnet grains behave as closed systems with respect to the rock matrix. Most of the observed zoning patterns are due to gradual changes in physicochemical conditions during growth. However, some garnet grains show complex zoning patterns during multiple deformation and metamorphic events.

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METAMORPHISM DEGREE AND LIBERATION SIZE OF COMPACT ITABIRITES FROM THE IRON QUADRANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fina Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron ore exploited in Brazil can be classified into several lithological types which have distinct features. The progress of mining over time leads to scarcity of high grade iron ores, leading to the exploitation of poor, contaminated and compact ores. There is a growing trend of application of process flowsheets involving grinding to promote mineral liberation, essential condition for concentration processes. Several authors have correlated metamorphism processes of banded iron formations to mineralogical features observed on itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle, mainly the crystals size. This paper presents the implications of such variation in defining the mesh of grinding. Mineralogical characterization and grinding, desliming and flotation tests have been carried out with samples from two regions of the Iron Quadrangle subjected to different degrees of metamorphism. It was found a trend of reaching satisfactory liberation degree in coarser size for the itabirite of higher metamorphic degree, which has larger crystals. The flotation tests have confirmed the mineralogical findings.

  9. Study on Kalimantan uranium province: The assessment on uranium mineralization of metamorphic and granitic rocks at Schwaner mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjokrokardono, Soeprapto

    2002-01-01

    Uranium exploration activities done by CEA-BATAN had discovered uranium occurrences as the radiometric and uranium content anomalies at metamorphic and granite rocks of Schwaner Mountains, Kalimantan. A part of the occurrences on metamorphic rocks at Kalan basin has been evaluated and be developed onto follow-up step of prospecting by construction of some drilling holes and an exploration adit. In order to increase the national uranium resources, it is necessarily to extent the exploration activity to out side or nearby of Kalan basin. The goal of this assessment is to understand the uranium accumulation mechanism at Pinoh metamorphic rocks of Kalan Kalimantan and to delineate areas that uranium may exist. The assessment was based on the aspect of geology, anomaly of radioactivity and uranium contents, tectonics and alterations. Pinoh metamorphic rocks which is influenced by Sukadana granite intrusion are the high potential rocks for the uranium accumulation, because the intrusion contains a relatively high of U, Th, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mn, and W. The potential rock distributions are in between G. Ransa granite intrusion at the east and Kotabaru granite intrusions at the west. The mineralizations are categorized as vein type deposits of granitic association

  10. Metamorphic history and age of aluminous gneisses of the Belomorian belt of the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Borisova, E.Yu.; Makarov, V.A.; Drugova, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Metamorphic conditions and age are determined for the early metamorphic stage of aluminous gneisses in the Chupa nappe in the Belomorian Mobile Belt. The granulite-facies metamorphic conditions during Late Archean time are determined based on the composition of garnet and biotie from the metapelites. The early metamorphic stage was dated at 2860 ± 30 Ma based on the U-Pb systematics of granulitic zircon from the metapelites. The U-Pb isotopic system of the zircon was strongly affected by Svecogennian metamorphism (at 1750 Ma). The geodynamic evolution of the Belomorian Mobile Belt is discussed in light of the data of this work

  11. Mineral chemistry of garnet in pegmatite and metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadi Khalaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The area of this study is located near Hamadan within the Sanandaj - Sirjan tectonic zone. In the Hamadan area, consisting mainly of Mesozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks, aplites and pegmatites locally contain garnets.(Baharifar et al., 2004, Amidi and Majidi, 1977; Torkian, 1995. Garnet-bearing schists and hornfelses in the area are products of regional metamorphism shown by slate and phyllite (Baharifar, 2004. In this investigation the distribution of elements in garnet in different rock type was studied to determine their mineral types and conditions of formation. Garnet samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks were analyzed by electron microprobe (EMPA, the results of which are presented in this article. Materials and methods Thirty-five samples were selected for thin section preparation and twenty thin-polished sections were prepared for mineralogical and microprobe analysis. Thin sections of garnet-bearing igneous (pegmatite and metamorphic rocks (schist and hornfels were studied by polarizing microscope. Chemical analysis was performed on the garnets (38 points using a Caimeca SX100 electron microprobe at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and electric current of 15 nA in the Mineral Processing Research Center, Iran. Separation of iron (II and Fe (III was calculated by Droop’s method (1987 and the structural formulas of the garnets were calculated using 24 oxygens to determine the relative proportions of the end-members using the mineral spreadsheet software of Preston and Still (2001. Results Based on the analyses, almandine (Fe - Al garnet and spessartine (Mn - Al garnet are the principal types of the (Kamari metamorphic and (Abaro pegmatitic garnets, that belong to the well-known pyralspite garnet group. Chemical zoning patterns of the garnets in the metamorphic rocks (schists differ from those in the igneous rocks (pegmatite, showing different compositions from core to rim. Petrographic evidence such as: co

  12. Metamorphic evolution of the eastern part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Inner to Central parts of the Western Carpathians consist of several tectonic units that provide unique opportunity to investigate Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the Western Carpathians. Lithological and geochemical composition of sedimentary and igneous rocks indicate the presence of Alpine-Meliata and Pre-Alpine Rakovec suture zones. The Meliata blueschists are the only evidence of subducted Triassic Meliata-Hallstatt oceanic basin and adjacent continental wedge which occurred during the Jurassic time. These processes were followed by the Cretaceous collision that suffered not only the Gemer but also the Vepor Belts. Since Alpine and Variscan metamorphism occurred in most tectonic units under similar pressure and/or temperature conditions, for reconstruction of Alpine development is necessary to understand Pre-Alpine history of each tectonic unit. The Field Meeting is aimed to comprehend Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the eastern parts of the Western Carpathians with a special respect to subduction and exhumation history of the Jurassic Meliata blueschists, as well as of Cretaceous collision in the Western Carpathians. In order to clear metamorphic characteristic and geological position of each unit a brief outline on structure and metamorphism of the Central Western Carpathians is given in the excursion guide. The manuscript of this work was improved by helpful suggestions of S. Jacko, D. Plašienka and M. Janák. This work was supported by Slovak Academic Agency, project WEGA-1/5003/98

  13. Growth and characterization of metamorphic InAs/GaSb tunnel heterojunction on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jheng-Sin; Clavel, Michael B.; Hudait, Mantu K., E-mail: mantu.hudait@vt.edu [Advanced Devices and Sustainable Energy Laboratory (ADSEL), Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Pandey, Rahul [Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Datta, Suman [Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Meeker, Michael; Khodaparast, Giti A. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-06-28

    The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical transport characteristics of a metamorphic, broken-gap InAs/GaSb p-i-n tunnel diode structure, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs, were demonstrated. Precise shutter sequences were implemented for the strain-balanced InAs/GaSb active layer growth on GaAs, as corroborated by high-resolution X-ray analysis. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and detailed micrograph analysis demonstrated strain relaxation primarily via the formation of 90° Lomer misfit dislocations (MDs) exhibiting a 5.6 nm spacing and intermittent 60° MDs at the GaSb/GaAs heterointerface, which was further supported by a minimal lattice tilt of 180 arc sec observed during X-ray analysis. Selective area diffraction and Fast Fourier Transform patterns confirmed the full relaxation of the GaSb buffer layer and quasi-ideal, strain-balanced InAs/GaSb heteroepitaxy. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements demonstrated the optical band gap of the GaSb layer. Strong optical signal at room temperature from this structure supports a high-quality material synthesis. Current–voltage characteristics of fabricated InAs/GaSb p-i-n tunnel diodes measured at 77 K and 290 K demonstrated two bias-dependent transport mechanisms. The Shockley–Read–Hall generation–recombination mechanism at low bias and band-to-band tunneling transport at high bias confirmed the p-i-n tunnel diode operation. This elucidated the importance of defect control in metamorphic InAs/GaSb tunnel diodes for the implementation of low-voltage and high-performance tunnel field effect transistor applications.

  14. Stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikin, N.P. (University Coll., Cardiff (UK)); Harmon, R.S. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1983-02-01

    D/H and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members.

  15. Argon and fission track dating of Alpine metamorphism and basement exhumation in the Sopron Mts. (Eastern Alps, Hungary): thermochronology or mineral growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, K.; Dunkl, I.

    2005-01-01

    The crystalline basement rocks of the Sopron Mountains are the easternmost and most isolated outcrops of the Austroalpine basement of the Eastern Alps. Ar/Ar and K/Ar dating of phengitic mica indicates that the Eoalpine high-pressure metamorphism of the area occurred between 76 and 71 Ma. Short-lived metamorphism is characterized by fluid-poor conditions. Fluid circulation was mostly restricted to shear zones, thus the degree of Alpine overprint has an extreme spatial variation. In several metamorphic slices Variscan mineral assemblages have been preserved and biotite yielded Variscan and Permo-Triassic Ar ages. Different mineral and isotope thermometers (literature data) yielded temperatures of 500-600 o C for the peak of Alpine metamorphism in the Sopron Mountains, but muscovite and biotite do not show complete argon resetting. Thus, we consider this crystalline area as a well constrained natural test site, which either indicates considerably high closure temperatures (around 550 o C) for Ar in muscovite and biotite in a dry metamorphic environment, or which is suitable for testing the widely applied methods of temperature estimations under disequilibrium conditions. Apatite fission track results and their thermal modeling, together with structural, mineralogical and sedimentological observations, allows the identification of a post-metamorphic, Eocene hydrothermal event and Late Miocene-Pliocene sediment burial of the crystalline rocks of the Sopron Mountains. (author)

  16. New evidence for an old idea: Geochronological constraints for a paired metamorphic belt in the central European Variscides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, T. M.; Schmädicke, E.; Ling, X.-X.; Li, X.-H.; Li, Q.-L.

    2018-03-01

    New geochronological data reveal a prolonged tectonothermal evolution of the Variscan Odenwald-Spessart basement, being part of the Mid-German Crystalline Zone in central Europe. We report the results from (i) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon, rutile and monazite, (ii) SIMS zircon oxygen isotope analyses, (iii) laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) zircon Lu-Hf isotope analyses and, (iv) LA-ICPMS zircon and rutile trace element data for a suite of metamorphic rocks (five amphibolite- and eclogite-facies mafic meta-igneous rocks and one granulite-facies paragneiss). The protoliths of the mafic rocks formed from juvenile as well as depleted mantle sources in distinct tectonic environments at different times. Magmatism took place at a divergent oceanic margin (possibly in a back-arc setting) at 460 Ma, in an intraoceanic basin at ca. 445 Ma and at a continental margin at 329 Ma. Regardless of lithology, zircon in eclogite, amphibolite and high-temperature paragneiss provide almost identical Carboniferous ages of 333.7 ± 4.1 Ma (eclogite), 329.1 ± 1.8 to 328.4 ± 8.9 Ma (amphibolite), and 334.0 ± 2.0 Ma (paragneiss), respectively. Rutile yielded ages of 328.6 ± 4.7 and 321.4 ± 7.0 Ma in eclogite and amphibolite, and monazite in high-temperature paragneiss grew at 330.1 ± 2.4 Ma (all ages are quoted at the 2σ level). The data constrain coeval high-pressure eclogite- and high-temperature granulite-facies metamorphism of the Odenwald-Spessart basement at ca. 330 Ma. Amphibolite-facies conditions were attained shortly afterwards. The lower plate eclogite formed in a fossil subduction zone and the upper plate high-temperature, low-pressure rocks are the remains of an eroded Carboniferous magmatic arc. The close proximity of tectonically juxtaposed units of such radically different metamorphic conditions and thermal gradients is characteristic for a paired metamorphic belt sensu Miyashiro

  17. Measuring metamorphic history of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Melcher, C.L.; Ross, L.M.; Mills, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoluminescence sensitivity technique is used to give a new measurement of the degree of metamorphism of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Consequently the petrological assignment of these meteorites is modified. (author)

  18. Pressure-temperature evolution of Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Welayati Formation (Kabul Block), Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2015-11-01

    The Welayati Formation, consisting of alternating layers of mica-schist and quartzite with lenses of amphibolite, unconformably overlies the Neoarchean Sherdarwaza Formation of the Kabul Block that underwent Paleoproterozoic granulite-facies and Neoproterozoic amphibolite-facies metamorphic events. To analyze metamorphic history of the Welayati Formation and its relations to the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation, petrographic study and pressure-temperature (P-T) pseudosection modeling were applied to staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mica-schists, which crop out to the south of Kabul City. Prograde metamorphism, identified by inclusion trails and chemical zonation in garnet from the micaschists indicates that the rocks underwent burial from around 6.2 kbar at 525 °C to maximum pressure conditions of around 9.5 kbar at temperatures of around 650 °C. Decompression from peak pressures under isothermal or moderate heating conditions are indicated by formation of biotite and plagioclase porphyroblasts which cross-cut and overgrow the dominant foliation. The lack of sillimanite and/or andalusite suggests that cooling and further decompression occurred in the kyanite stability field. The results of this study indicate a single amphibolite-facies metamorphism that based on P-T conditions and age dating correlates well with the Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation. The rocks lack any paragenetic evidence for a preceding granulite-facies overprint or subsequent Paleozoic metamorphism. Owing to the position of the Kabul Block, within the India-Eurasia collision zone, partial replacement of the amphibolite-facies minerals in the micaschist could, in addition to retrogression of the Neoproterozoic metamorphism, relate to deformation associated with the Alpine orogeny.

  19. Telescoping metamorphic isograds: Evidence from 40Ar/39A dating in the Orange-Milford belt, southern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunk, Michael J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; Growdon, Martha L.; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar ages for hornblende and muscovite from the Orange-Milford belt in southern Connecticut reflect cooling from Acadian amphibolite facies metamorphism between ∼380 to 360 Ma followed by retrograde recrystallization of fabric-forming muscovite and chlorite during lower greenschist facies Alleghanian transpression at ∼280 Ma. Reported field temperature and pressure gradients are improbably high for these rocks and a NW metamorphic field gradient climbing from chlorite-grade to staurolite-grade occurs over less than 5 km. Simple tilting cannot account for this compressed isograd spacing given the geothermal gradient of ∼20 °C/km present at the time of regional metamorphism. However, post-metamorphic transpression could effectively telescope the isograds by stretching the belt at an oblique angle to the isograd traces. Textures in the field and in thin section reveal several older prograde schistosities overprinted by lower greenschist facies fabrics. The late cleavages commonly occur at the scale of ∼100 μm and these samples contain multiple age populations of white mica. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of these poly-metamorphic samples with mixed muscovite populations yield climbing or U-shaped age spectra. The ages of the low temperature steps are late Paleozoic, while the ages of the older steps are late Devonian. These results support our petrologic interpretation that the younger cleavage developed under metamorphic conditions below the closure temperature for Ar diffusion in muscovite, that is, in the lower greenschist facies. The correlation of a younger regionally reproducible age population with a pervasive retrograde muscovite ± chlorite cleavage reveals an Alleghanian (∼280 Ma) overprint on the Acadian metamorphic gradient (∼380 Ma). Outcrop-scale structures including drag folds and imbricate boudins suggest that Alleghanian deformation and cleavage development occurred in response to dextral transpression along a northeast striking boundary

  20. Petrological evolution of subducted rodingite from seafloor metamorphism to dehydration of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite (Cerro del Almirez massif, southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda-López, Casto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Marchesi, Claudio; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Rodingites are common rocks associated with serpentinites in exhumed terrains that experienced subduction and high pressure metamorphism. However, the response of these rocks to devolatilization and redox reactions in subduction settings is not well constrained. In the Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif (southern Spain) rodingites constitute about 1-2% of the total volume of exposed rocks. Metarodingites are enclosed in antigorite-serpentinite and chlorite-harzburgite separated by a transitional zone that represents the front of prograde serpentinite-dehydration in a paleo-subduction setting (Padrón-Navarta et al., 2011). Metarodingites occur as boudin lenses, 1 to 20 m in length and 30 cm to 2 m in thickness. During serpentinization of peridotite host rocks, dolerites and basalts precursor of rodingites underwent intense seafloor metasomatism, causing the enrichment in Ca and remobilization of Na and K. Subsequent metamorphism during subduction transformed the original igneous and seafloor metamorphic mineralogy into an assemblage of garnet (Ti-rich hydrogrossular), diopside, chlorite, and epidote. During prograde metamorphism, garnet composition changed towards higher andradite contents. High-pressure transformation of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite released fluids which induced breakdown of garnet to epidote in metarodingites. Ti liberation by this latter reaction produced abundant titanite. Released fluids also triggered the formation of amphibole by alkalis addition. Highly recrystallized metarodingites in chlorite-harzburgite present a new generation of idiomorphic garnet with composition equal to 10-30% pyrope, 30-40% grossular and 35-55% almandine + spessartine. This garnet has titanite inclusions in the core and rutile inclusions in the rim. The contact between metarodingites and ultramafic rocks consists of a metasomatic zone (blackwall) with variable thickness (7 to 40 cm) constituted by chlorite, diopside, and titanite

  1. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in metamorphic rocks from northern Kyushu, western Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Terada, Kentaro; Sano, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric ages of detrital zircons in psammitic schists from the Nagasaki, Kurume, Konoha and Kiyama areas, northern Kyushu, were obtained from 238 U/ 206 Pb ratio and isotopic compositions of Pb using a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP II). Zircons from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show bimodal age distribution with peaks at ca. 1900 Ma and 250 Ma. It is suggested from this study that the older zircons were derived from Proterozoic landmass and the Korean Peninsula. Zircons from the Kiyama metamorphic rock show a different pattern with ages concentrated at 380-590 Ma. Such zircons are rare in rock samples from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas, indicating that Kiyama rocks and a different origin than those from the other three areas. The youngest zircons from the Kiyama, Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show ages of 382±23 Ma, 238±13 Ma, 249±13 Ma, and 175±4 Ma, respectively, These data mark the upper age limit of their deposition. Since a continuous igneous activity occurred during the period from 300 to 170 Ma in Far East Asia, and the metamorphic age has been close to the zircon age of each area, these youngest ages for the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas are considered nearly contemporary to the depositional ages. An evaluation of the nature of metamorphism and available ages suggest the possibility that the Nagasaki metamorphic rocks as well as the schist from the Kurume area belong to the Suo zone of the Sangun belt, whereas the metamorphic rocks in the Konoha area may belong to the Ryoke belt or Suo zone of the Sangun belt. (author)

  2. Design and accuracy analysis of a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine for ship manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenghai; Zhang, Manhui; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The current research of processing large size fabrication holes on complex spatial curved surface mainly focuses on the CNC flame cutting machines design for ship hull of ship manufacturing. However, the existing machines cannot meet the continuous cutting requirements with variable pass conditions through their fixed configuration, and cannot realize high-precision processing as the accuracy theory is not studied adequately. This paper deals with structure design and accuracy prediction technology of novel machine tools for solving the problem of continuous and high-precision cutting. The needed variable trajectory and variable pose kinematic characteristics of non-contact cutting tool are figured out and a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine designed through metamorphic principle is presented. To analyze kinematic accuracy of the machine, models of joint clearances, manufacturing tolerances and errors in the input variables and error models considering the combined effects are derived based on screw theory after establishing ideal kinematic models. Numerical simulations, processing experiment and trajectory tracking experiment are conducted relative to an eccentric hole with bevels on cylindrical surface respectively. The results of cutting pass contour and kinematic error interval which the position error is from-0.975 mm to +0.628 mm and orientation error is from-0.01 rad to +0.01 rad indicate that the developed machine can complete cutting process continuously and effectively, and the established kinematic error models are effective although the interval is within a `large' range. It also shows the matching property between metamorphic principle and variable working tasks, and the mapping correlation between original designing parameters and kinematic errors of machines. This research develops a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine and establishes kinematic error models for accuracy analysis of machine tools.

  3. A stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikin, N.P.; Harmon, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members. (author)

  4. Timing and duration of Variscan high-pressure metamorphism in the French Massif Central: A multimethod geochronological study from the Najac Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Van Den Driessche, Jean

    2018-05-01

    Accurate dating of eclogite-facies metamorphism is of paramount importance in order to understand the tectonic evolution of an orogen. An eclogite sample from the Najac Massif (French Massif Central, Variscan belt) displays a zircon-bearing garnet-omphacite-amphibole-rutile-quartz peak assemblage. Pseudosection modeling suggests peak pressure conditions of 15-20 kbar, 560-630 °C. Eclogite-facies garnet displays Lu-enriched cores and Sm-rich rims and yields a Lu-Hf age of 382.8 ± 1.0 Ma and a Sm-Nd age of 376.7 ± 3.3 Ma. The ages are interpreted as marking the beginning of the prograde garnet growth during the initial stages of the eclogite-facies metamorphism, and the high-pressure (and temperature) peak reached by the rock, respectively. Zircon grains display chondrite-normalized REE spectra with variably negative, positive or no Eu anomalies and are characterized by either enriched or flat HREE patterns. However, they yield a well constrained in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, despite this REE pattern variability. Zr zonation in garnet, Y content in zircon and the diversity of zircon HREE spectra may suggest that zircon crystallized prior to and during incipient garnet growth on the prograde P-T path, recording the initial stages of the eclogite-facies conditions. Consequently, the zircon age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, comparable within error with the Lu-Hf age obtained on garnet, is interpreted as dating the beginning of the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Accordingly, the duration of the prograde part of the eclogite-facies event is estimated at 6.1 ± 4.3 Myr. Subsequent exhumation is constrained by an apatite U-Pb age at 369 ± 13 Ma.

  5. Fabrics produced mimetically during static metamorphism in retrogressed eclogites from the Zermatt-Saas zone, Western Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. D.; Wheeler, J.; Pearce, M.; Prior, D. J.

    2012-11-01

    Lattice preferred orientations (LPOs) are commonly interpreted to form by dislocation creep. Consequently they are used to infer deformation at the metamorphic grade at which the minerals were stable, especially if those minerals show a shape fabric. Here we show that LPOs can occur through mimicry of a pre-existing LPO, so they formed statically, not during deformation. Omphacite and glaucophane LPOs occur in eclogite facies rocks from the Zermatt-Saas Unit of the Northwest Italian Alps. Barroisite grew during greenschist facies retrogression and has an LPO controlled significantly by the eclogite facies omphacite and glaucophane LPOs, rather than directly by deformation. Using spatially resolved lattice orientation data from the three key minerals, collected using electron backscatter diffraction, we deploy a new technique of interphase misorientation distribution analysis to prove this. Barroisite LPO develops by mimicry of omphacite (via a particular lattice orientation relationship) and by direct topotactic and epitactic replacement of glaucophane. LPO in turn influenced anisotropic grain growth, resulting in a barroisite grain shape fabric. Thus regional retrogression during exhumation of the Zermatt-Saas high-pressure rocks was, in large part, static, rather than dynamic as previously interpreted. In general the possibility of mimetic fabrics forming during metamorphic reactions must be borne in mind when interpreting direct structural observations and seismic anisotropy data in terms of deformation, in both crust and mantle.

  6. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglinger, Aurelien

    2013-01-01

    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  7. Magnetotelluric investigation in and around southern part of Hidaka metamorphic belt in Hokkaido, Japan; Hidaka henseitai nanbuiki ni okeru MT kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H; Utsugi, M; Hirano, K; Doi, T; Nishida, Y; Arita, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An MT observation was conducted in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, for the estimation of the 2D resistivity structure in the southern part of the metamorphic belt, when frequencies of the VLF, ELF, and ULF bands were used. An approximately 42km-long traverse line was set to cross the Hidaka metamorphic belt from east to west. As for the observation points, 48 VLF points, 16 ELF points, and 4 ULF points were provided. During the data processing, impedance tensor was calculated in the frequency domain for the determination of the apparent resistivity relative to frequency and the phase difference. As the result, it was found that there is a fairly large resistivity gap between observation spots MNS and KWR and that the boundary corresponds to the Hidaka metamorphic belt, that the metamorphic belt that is reflected as a conspicuous high-resistivity layer in the VLF-, ELF-MT slopes down toward the east and has a distribution as deep as 10km in the vicinity of observation point KWR, that this high-resistivity layer sandwiches a low-resistivity layer at a depth of 5-7km, and that on the east side of the metamorphic belt there is a medium-resistivity layer creeping under the belt from the east side toward the west side. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  8. K-Ar ages of the low-grade metamorphic rocks in the Altar massif, Northwest Sonora, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayama, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Ken; Takeda, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    The K-Ar ages of low-grade regional metamorphism, granodiorite intrusion and its contact metamorphism were studied in the Altar massif of Northwest Sonora, Mexico. The results gave the ages of 55 Ma for metamorphic hornblende and 15 to 17 Ma for mica of metamorphic rocks and granodiorite. About the meaning of these discordant ages and the too young ages of 15 to 17 Ma against the previously presented data, we pointed out the following two possibilities; 1) the contact effect of the Miocene granodiorite on the regional metamorphic rocks of the Laramide phase, 2) both regional metamorphism and granodiorite intrusion took place during the Laramide phase, whereas the young ages, 15 to 17 Ma, show the time of temperature release after the low-angle thrust movement, which is well known in the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt in Nevada and Utah. (author)

  9. CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating of single zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single metamorphic event at ˜2.0 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, H.; Brandl, G.; Whitehouse, M.; de Waal, S.; Guiraud, M.

    2008-02-01

    The combination of ion microprobe dating and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt were used to constrain the age of metamorphic events in the area. Zircon grains extracted from an orthopyroxene-gedrite-bearing granulite were prepared for single crystal CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating. The grains display complex zoning when using SEM-based CL-imaging. A common feature in most grains is the presence of a distinct core with a broken oscillatory zoned structure, which clearly appears to be the remnant of an original grain of igneous origin. This core is overgrown by an unzoned thin rim measuring about 10-30 μm in diameter, which is considered as new zircon growth during a single metamorphic event. Selected domains of the zircon grains were analysed for U, Pb and Th isotopic composition using a CAMECA IMS 1270 ion microprobe (Nordsim facility). Most of the grains define a near-concordant cluster with some evidence of Pb loss. The most concordant ages of the cores yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2689 ± 15 (2 σ) Ma, interpreted as the age of the protolith of an igneous origin. The unzoned overgrowths of the zircon grains yielded a considerably younger weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of ˜2006.5 ± 8.0 Ma (2 σ), and these data are interpreted to reflect closely the age of the ubiquitous high-grade metamorphic event in the Central Zone. This study shows clearly, based on both the internal structure of the zircons and the data obtained by ion microprobe dating, that only a single metamorphic event is recorded by the studied 2.69 Ga old rocks, and we found no evidence of an earlier metamorphic event at ˜2.5 Ga as postulated earlier by some workers.

  10. Geochemistry and paleotectonomagmatic setting of metabasites protolith from Asalem metamorphic complex (northwest Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nasrabady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asalem metamorphic complex consists mostly of metabasite, metapelite and serpentinite. Metabasites display metamorphic features of greenschist and blueschist facies. Greenschist facies rocks that found as both foliated and massive types contain mineralogical assemblage of actinolite, chlorite, albite and epidote. Blueschists contain mineralogical assemblage of sodic amphibole, epidote and phengite. Whole rock analyses of the metabasites indicate basaltic to andesitic composition with mainly calcalkaline nature of their protolith. According to the discrimination diagrams of tectonomagmatic setting, the protolith of investigated metabasites has been islands arc and somewhat mid ocean ridge. The patterns of rare earth elements and spider diagrams of the Asalem metabasites resemble to the basic and intermediate magmatism of islands arc or suprasubduction setting as well. Greenschists and blueschists facies rocks of the Asalem metamorphic complex have been probably equivalent to islands arc or young and hot oceanic crust of suprasubduction zone setting. This portion of oceanic basin unlike the subducted even and thick oceanic lithosphere of Paleotethys during accretion in the shallower levels of accretionary prisms, have underwent metamorphic conditions of blueschist and greenschist facies and finally gave rise to the formation of the metabasites of the Asalem metamorphic complex.

  11. Multiple tectonic mode switches indicate short-duration heat pulses in a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. T.; Hall, R.; Gunawan, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Wandaman Peninsula is a narrow (2 km) promontory in remote western New Guinea. The peninsula is almost entirely composed of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks considered to be associated with a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex. Previous work has shown that the uplift and exhumation of the core complex has potentially brought some extremely young eclogite to the surface. These might be comparable to the world's youngest (4.3 Ma) eclogites found in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands at the opposite end of New Guinea. We show that tectonic history of this region is complex. This is because the metamorphic sequences in the Wandaman Peninsula record multiple phases of deformation, all within the last few million years. This is demonstrated through methodical collation of cross-cutting relations from field and microstructural studies across the peninsula. The first phase of deformation and metamorphism is associated with crustal extension and partial melting that took place at 5-7 Ma according to new U-Pb data from metamorphic zircons. This extensional phase ceased after a tectonic mode switch and the region was shortened. This is demonstrated by two phases of folding (1. recumbent and 2. open) that overprint the earlier extensional fabrics. All previous structures were later overprinted by brittle extensional faults and uplift. This extensional phase is still taking place today, as is indicated by submerged forests exposed along the coastline associated with recent earthquakes and hot springs. The sequence of metamorphic rocks that are exposed in the Wandaman Peninsula show that stress and thermal conditions can change rapidly. If we consider that the present is a key to the past, then such results can identify the duration of deformation and metamorphic events more accurately than in much older orogenic systems.

  12. Thermal effects of metamorphic reactions in a three-component slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Dolejš, David; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Thermal evolution of a subducting crust is of primary importance for understanding physical properties, phase transformations, fluid migration and melting regimes at convergent plate boundaries. Various factors influencing the thermal structure of a subduction zone have been considered previously......), and moderately serpentinized harzburgite (SHB). These layers are examined over the range of pressure-temperature conditions of interest by computing metamorphic phase diagrams and retrieving whole-rock thermodynamic properties. Our results suggest that metamorphic reactions consume a significant amount of slab...

  13. The role of evaporites in the formation of gems during metamorphism of carbonate platforms: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Dubessy, Jean; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Banks, David; Branquet, Yannick; Feneyrol, Julien; Fallick, Anthony E.; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The mineral and fluid inclusions trapped by gemstones during the metamorphism of carbonate platform successions are precious markers for the understanding of gem genesis. The nature and chemical composition of inclusions highlight the major contribution of evaporites through dissolution or fusion, depending on the temperature of formation from greenschist to granulite facies. The fluids are highly saline NaCl-brines circulating either in an open system in the greenschist facies (Colombian and Afghan emeralds) and with huge fluid-rock metasomatic interactions, or sulphurous fluids (ruby, garnet tsavorite, zoisite tanzanite and lapis-lazuli) or molten salts formed in a closed system with a low fluid mobility (ruby in marble) in the conditions of the amphibolite to granulite facies. These chloride-fluoride-sulphate ± carbonate-rich fluids scavenged the metals essential for gem formation. At high temperature, the anions SO4 2-, NO3 -, BO3 - and F- are powerful fluxes which lower the temperature of chloride- and fluoride-rich ionic liquids. They provided transport over a very short distance of aluminium and/or silica and transition metals which are necessary for gem growth. In summary, the genetic models proposed for these high-value and ornamental gems underline the importance of the metamorphism of evaporites formed on continental carbonate shelves and emphasise the chemical power accompanying metamorphism at moderate to high temperatures of evaporite-rich and organic matter-rich protoliths to form gem minerals.

  14. Petrographic and Geochemical Study of Low Grade Metamorphic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Low grade metamorphic rocks, Base metal mineralization, Petrography,. Hydrogeochemistry, Negash ... Use of mineral deposit genetic models has become an important ..... The clasts show elongation due to deformation, parallel.

  15. Evolutionary genetics of metamorphic failure using wild-caught vs. laboratory axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S R; Shaffer, H B

    2000-09-01

    In many organisms metamorphosis allows for an ecologically important habitat-shift from water to land. However, in some salamanders an adaptive life cycle mode has evolved that is characterized by metamorphic failure (paedomorphosis); these species remain in the aquatic habitat throughout the life cycle. Perhaps the most famous example of metamorphic failure is the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which has become a focal species for developmental biology since it was introduced into laboratory culture in the 1800s. Our previous genetic linkage mapping analysis, using an interspecific crossing design, demonstrated that a major gene effect underlies the expression of metamorphic failure in laboratory stocks of the Mexican axolotl. Here, we repeated this experiment using A. mexicanum that were sampled directly from their natural habitat at Lake Xochimilco, Mexico. We found no significant association between the major gene and metamorphic failure when wild-caught axolotls were used in the experimental design, although there is evidence of a smaller genetic effect. Thus, there appears to be genetic variation among Mexican axolotls (and possibly A. tigrinum tigrinum) at loci that contribute to metamorphic failure. This result suggests a role for more than one mutation and possibly artificial selection in the evolution of the major gene effect in the laboratory Mexican axolotl.

  16. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  17. Effect of food on metamorphic competence in the model system Crepidula fornicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Dianna K; McCann, Michael J; Glenn, Mica McCarty; Hooks, Alexandra P; Shumway, Sandra E

    2014-12-01

    Food quality and quantity, as well as temperature, are all factors that are expected to affect rates of development, and are likely to be affected by expected climatic change. We tested the effect of a mixed diet versus a single-food diet on metamorphic competence in the emerging model species Crepidula fornicata. We then compared our results with other published studies on this species that examined time to metamorphic competence across a range of food concentrations and rearing temperatures. Ours was the only study to test the effects of single food versus a mixed diet on metamorphic competence for this species. Diet composition did not affect metamorphic competence or survivorship. Comparing results across studies, we found that the shortest time to metamorphic competence was typically found when the food availability per larva was the greatest, independent of rearing temperature. Unfortunately, some published studies did not include important metadata needed for comparison with other studies; these data included larval rearing density, food density, frequency of feeding, and rearing temperature. Mortality rates were not always reported and when reported were often measured in different ways, preventing comparison. Such metadata are essential for comparisons among studies as well as among taxa, and for the determination of generalizable patterns and evolutionary trends. Increased reporting of all such metadata is essential if we are to use scientific studies performed to their fullest potential. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  18. Anisotropy effect on strengths of metamorphic rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özbek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0° and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90° to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist. The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.

  19. Spatiotemporal evolution of magmatic pulses and regional metamorphism during a Cretaceous flare-up event: Constraints from the Ryoke belt (Mikawa area, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Kota; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Skrzypek, Etienne; Sakata, Shuhei; Obayashi, Hideyuki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2018-05-01

    The spatiotemporal relationship between granitoid intrusions and low-pressure/temperature type regional metamorphism in the Ryoke belt (Mikawa area) is investigated to understand the tectono-thermal evolution of the upper- to middle-crust during a Cretaceous flare-up event at the Eurasian active continental margin. Three plutono-metamorphic stages are recognized; (1) 99-84 Ma: intrusion of granitoids (99-95 Ma pulse) into the upper crust and high-T regional metamorphism reaching sillimanite-grade (97.0 ± 4.4 Ma to 88.5 ± 2.5 Ma) in the middle crust, (2) 81-75 Ma: intrusion of gneissose granitoids (81-75 Ma Ma pulse) into the middle crust at 19-24 km depth, and (3) 75-69 Ma: voluminous intrusions of massive to weakly-foliated granitoids (75-69 Ma pulse) at 9-13 km depth and formation of contact metamorphic aureoles. Cooling of the highest-grade metamorphic zone below the wet solidus of granitic rocks is estimated at 88.5 ± 2.5 Ma. At ca. 75 Ma, the upper-middle crustal section underwent northward tilting, resulting in the exhumation of regional metamorphic zones to 9-13 km depth. Although the highest-grade metamorphic rocks and the 99-95 Ma pulse granitoids preserve similar U-Pb zircon ages, the absence of spatial association suggests that the regional metamorphic zones were mainly produced by a transient thermal anomaly in the mantle and thermal conduction through the crust, supplemented by localized advection due to granitoid intrusions. The successive emplacement of granitoids into shallow, deep and shallow levels of the crust was probably controlled by the combination of change in thermal structure of the crust and tectonics during granitoid intrusions.

  20. Metamorphism, P-T-t Conditions of Formation, and Prospects for the Practical Use of Al2SiO5 Polymorphs, Chloritoid, and Staurolite (Yenisei Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Yenisei Ridge is an accretion-collisional orogen located in the southwestern frame of the Siberian Craton in the interfluve between Podkamennaya Tunguska, Angara, Kan, and Yenisei rivers. The Precambrian mono- and polymetamorphic complexes composed predominantly of the Mesoarchean-Neoproterozoic metapelitic rocks have been studied. Based on the typification of metamorphic complexes by pressure, temperature, metamorphic gradient, as well as age of metamorphism, the location scheme of the fields of the Precambrian sedimentary-metamorphic rock which are prospective for searching deposits of high-alumina metamorphic minerals (andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite, chloritoid, and staurolite) in the Trans-Angara segment of the Yenisei Region, was compiled. The Teya sillimanite and Panimbinsk andalusite deposits, which are confined to the fields of regional metamorphic complexes of iron-alumina metapelites of the And-Sill facies series, are recommended as a priority for the organization of prospecting works and the subsequent involvement to the metallurgical industry. These metapelites are classified as monomineral. Owing to widespread occurrence and abundance of andalusite and sillimanite, the above deposits have significant inferred resources. Stratiform deposits of garnet-staurolite and chloritoid high-alumina rocks are still insufficiently studied and should be investigated further. The prospects for the possible use of high-alumina andalusite and sillimanite together with Middle Tatarka and Kiya nepheline syenite massifs and the bauxites of the Chadobets uplift, already being explored in the region, for production of aluminum oxide, silumin, and aluminum, as well as, the prospects for the expansion of the raw material base of the Boguchansk Electrometallurgical Complex, brought into operation in 2016 in the Lower Angara region, are considered.

  1. The Lost South Gobi Microcontinent: Protolith Studies of Metamorphic Tectonites and Implications for the Evolution of Continental Crust in Southeastern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Heumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, or Altaids, is an amalgamation of volcanic arcs and microcontinent blocks that records a complex late Precambrian–Mesozoic accretionary history. Although microcontinents cored by Precambrian basement are proposed to play an integral role in the accretion process, a lack of isotopic data hampers volume estimates of newly produced arc-derived versus old-cratonic crust in southeastern Mongolia. This study investigates metamorphic tectonites in southern Mongolia that have been mapped as Precambrian in age, largely on the basis of their high metamorphic grade and high strain. Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.55° E and the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (41.89° N, 104.24° E. Our results show no compelling evidence for Precambrian basement in southeastern Mongolia. Rather, the protoliths to all tectonites examined are Paleozoic–Mesozoic age rocks, formed during Devonian–Carboniferous arc magmatism and subsequent Permian–Triassic orogenesis during collision of the South Mongolia arc with the northern margin of China. These results yield important insights into the Paleozoic accretionary history of southern Mongolia, including the genesis of metamorphic and igneous basement during the Paleozoic, as well as implications for subsequent intracontinental reactivation.

  2. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.

    2017-06-01

    The Tso Morari massif is one of only two regions where ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism of subducted crust has been documented in the Himalayan Range. The tectonic evolution of the massif is enigmatic, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism vary from ∼2.4 GPa to ∼4.8 GPa. This uncertainty is problematic for constructing large-scale numerical models of the early stages of India-Asia collision. To address this, we provide new constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the massif via a combined geodynamic and petrological forward-modelling approach. A prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path has been derived from thermomechanical simulations tailored for Eocene subduction in the northwestern Himalaya. Phase equilibrium modelling performed along this P-T path has described the petrological evolution of felsic and mafic components of the massif crust, and shows that differences in their fluid contents would have controlled the degree of metamorphic phase transformation in each during subduction. Our model predicts that peak P-T conditions of ∼2.6-2.8 GPa and ∼600-620 ∘C, representative of 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), could have been reached just ∼3 Myr after the onset of subduction of continental crust. This P-T path and subduction duration correlate well with constraints reported for similar UHP eclogite in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of what may have been a ∼400-km-long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. A maximum overpressure of ∼0.5 GPa was calculated in our simulations for a homogeneous crust, although small-scale mechanical heterogeneities may produce overpressures that are larger in magnitude. Nonetheless, the extremely high pressures for peak metamorphism reported by some workers (up to 4.8 GPa) are unreliable owing to conventional thermobarometry

  3. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  4. Metamorphic rocks in the deep boreholes near Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Trajanova

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Six research-captive boreholes for thermal water passed through a pile of metamorphic rocks near Maribor (Eastern Slovenia that is on average about 1000 m thick. The succession of metamorphic rocks is characteristic for the Pohorje Mt. and eastern Kobansko region. In the area of the boreholes two tectonic zones are more pronounced: the upper one, at a depth of about 510 to 550 m at the contact of the Štelenska Gora and Phyllite formations and the deeper one at a depth of about 460 to 590 m, indicating the reverse fault junction of the Phyllite and Kobansko formations. They belong to the second andthe third thrust unit of the accretionary wedge formed at the collision of the European and African plates. Four Alpine nappe units are proven in the Slovenian part of the Eastern Alps.

  5. Coronitic metagabbro and eclogite from the Grenville Province of western Quebec: interpretation of U-Pb geochronology and metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indares, A.; Dunning, G.

    1997-01-01

    We present new U-Pb and metamorphic data on high-pressure coronitic metagabbros from three distinct structural settings in the Parautochthonous belt of the Grenville Province in western Quebec. Intrusive ages are (i) 1217 -10 +15 Ma, for metagabbro close to the Grenville Front, correlative with the Sudbury dykes, defined in Ontario; (ii) 1403 -11 +14 Ma for an eclogitized lens at the base of the highest structural level (SL4), a new age for mafic magmatism in the western Grenville; and (iii) 1218 -34 +53 Ma for metagabbro from SL4, interpreted as correlative with metagabbros from the Algonquin and Shawanaga domains in Ontario. Metamorphism in all cases is Grenvillian, with the best constrained age of 1069 ± 3 Ma for the metagabbro of SL4. Metamorphic grade increases from the Grenville Front to the south. The mafic rocks preserve relict igneous textures overprinted by garnet + clinopyroxene that developed as coronas and (or) pseudomorphs after igneous phases. The highest grade metagabbros contain omphacite and some lack primary plagioclase, therefore being eclogites. However, interpretation of textures and mineral chemistry indicates that they were equilibrated during decompression (at 1350 MPa and 720 o C, sample 51: and at 1200 MPa and 740 o C, sample 29), so maximum depths of burial remain unconstrained. Their evolution is interpreted as follows: (i) high-pressure metamorphism by burial of the Laurentian margin under accreted terranes thrust toward the northwest between 1080 and 1060 Ma; (ii) residence at intermediate crustal levels, for a few tens of millions of years; and (iii) rapid exhumation by renewed thrusting that led to the emplacement of the high-pressure units over the northerly adjacent structural units of the Parautochthonous Belt. (author)

  6. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, B.B.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Lead isotope relations were studied in whole rock and separated phases of Mezoe-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites in order to study the record of early events in the solar system and to seek further information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead. The internal 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are 4.480+-0.011 AE (1 AE=10 9 years) for Mezoe-Madaras and 4.472+-0.005 AE for Sharps. The ages are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. U-Pb data from both meteorites plot along chords in concordia diagrams that indicate recent disturbances in U/Pb ratios. The chords are poorly defined owing to the relatively non-radiogenic character of the lead isotopes. Rb-Sr measurements on Sharps likewise fail to yield an isochron, in agreement with the U-Pb data. Data from the literature indicate a similar disturbance in the Rb-Sr system for Mezoe-Madaras. The 4.48 AE ages could be caused by pre-analysis contamination with terrestrial lead, however statistical comparison of isotope correlations between the acid-washes of analyzed samples and the residual washed samples suggests that the ages are real and not due to terrestrial contamination. The 4.48 AE age, which is distinctly younger than the well-established ages of 4.54-4.56 AE for the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages in support of the 4.48 AE metamorphic event are reviewed. Such a metamorphic age is not necessarily in conflict with 129 I/ 129 Xe data which indicate that the parent material of most chondrites, including those of type 3, cooled through temperatures sufficient to retain radiogenic Xe within a time interval of ca. 0.02 AE. (orig.)

  7. The effects of metamorphism on iron mineralogy and the iron speciation redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Eiler, John M.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2018-03-01

    As the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust, iron is a key player in the planetary redox budget. Observations of iron minerals in the sedimentary record have been used to describe atmospheric and aqueous redox environments over the evolution of our planet; the most common method applied is iron speciation, a geochemical sequential extraction method in which proportions of different iron minerals are compared to calibrations from modern sediments to determine water-column redox state. Less is known about how this proxy records information through post-depositional processes, including diagenesis and metamorphism. To get insight into this, we examined how the iron mineral groups/pools (silicates, oxides, sulfides, etc.) and paleoredox proxy interpretations can be affected by known metamorphic processes. Well-known metamorphic reactions occurring in sub-chlorite to kyanite rocks are able to move iron between different iron pools along a range of proxy vectors, potentially affecting paleoredox results. To quantify the effect strength of these reactions, we examined mineralogical and geochemical data from two classic localities where Silurian-Devonian shales, sandstones, and carbonates deposited in a marine sedimentary basin with oxygenated seawater (based on global and local biological constraints) have been regionally metamorphosed from lower-greenschist facies to granulite facies: Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations, Vermont, USA and the Waterville and Sangerville-Vassalboro Formations, Maine, USA. Plotting iron speciation ratios determined for samples from these localities revealed apparent paleoredox conditions of the depositional water column spanning the entire range from oxic to ferruginous (anoxic) to euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic). Pyrrhotite formation in samples highlighted problems within the proxy as iron pool assignment required assumptions about metamorphic reactions and pyrrhotite's identification depended on the extraction techniques

  8. Fore arc tectonothermal evolution of the El Oro metamorphic province (Ecuador) during the Mesozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Nicolas; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Jaillard, Etienne; Monié, Patrick; Yuquilema, Jonatan; Duclaux, Guillaume; Mercier, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The El Oro metamorphic province of SW Ecuador is a composite massif made of juxtaposed terranes of both continental and oceanic affinity that has been located in a fore-arc position since Late Paleozoic times. Various geochemical, geochronological, and metamorphic studies have been undertaken on the El Oro metamorphic province, providing an understanding of the origin and age of the distinct units. However, the internal structures and geodynamic evolution of this area remain poorly understood. Our structural analysis and thermal modeling in the El Oro metamorphic province show that this fore-arc zone underwent four main geological events. (1) During Triassic times (230-225 Ma), the emplacement of the Piedras gabbroic unit at crustal-root level ( 9 kbar) triggered partial melting of the metasedimentary sequence under an E-W extensional regime at pressure-temperature conditions ranging from 4.5 to 8.5 kbar and from 650 to 900°C for the migmatitic unit. (2) At 226 Ma, the tectonic underplating of the Arenillas-Panupalí oceanic unit (9 kbar and 300°C) thermally sealed the fore-arc region. (3) Around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, the shift from trench-normal to trench-parallel subduction triggered the exhumation and underplating of the high-pressure, oceanic Raspas Ophiolitic Complex (18 kbar and 600°C) beneath the El Oro Group (130-120 Ma). This was followed by the opening of a NE-SW pull-apart basin, which tilted the massif along an E-W subhorizontal axis (110 Ma). (4) In Late Cretaceous times, an N-S compressional event generated heterogeneous deformation due to the presence of the Cretaceous Celica volcanic arc, which acted as a buttress and predominantly affected the central and eastern part of the massif.

  9. Metaultramafic schists and dismembered ophiolites of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite of northwestern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Loren A.; Merschat, Arthur J.; Vance, R. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Metaultramafic rocks (MUR) in the Ashe Metamorphic Suite (AMS) of northwestern North Carolina include quartz ± feldspar-bearing QF-amphibolites and quartz-deficient, locally talc-, chlorite-, and/or Mg-amphibole-bearing TC-amphibolites. Some workers divide TC-amphibolites into Todd and Edmonds types, based on mineral and geochemical differences, and we provisionally add a third type – olivine ± pyroxene-rich, Rich Mountain-type rocks. Regionally, MUR bodies range from equant, Rich Mountain- to highly elongate, Todd-TC-amphibolite-type bodies. The MURs exhibit three to five mineral associations containing assemblages with olivine, anthophyllitic amphibole, Mg-hornblende, Mg-actinolite, cummingtonite, and serpentine representing decreasing eclogite to greenschist facies grades of metamorphism over time. MUR protoliths are difficult to determine. Southwestern MUR bodies have remnant olivine ± pyroxene-rich assemblages representing ultrabasic-basic, dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite protoliths. Northeastern TC-amphibolite MURs contain hornblende and actinolitic amphiboles plus chlorites – aluminous and calcic assemblages suggesting to some that metasomatism of basic, QF-amphibolites yields all TC-amphibolites. Yet MgO-CaO-Al2O3 and trace element chemistries of many TC-amphibolites resemble compositions of plagioclase peridotites. We show that a few AMS TC-amphibolites had basaltic/gabbroic protoliths, while presenting arguments opposing application of the metasomatic hypothesis to all TC-amphibolites. We establish that MUR bodies are petrologically heterolithic and that TC-amphibolites are in contact with many rock types; that those with high Cr, Ni, and Mg have olivine- or pyroxene-dominated protoliths; that most exhibit three or more metamorphic mineral associations; and that contacts thought to be metasomatic are structural. Clearly, different MUR bodies have different chemistries representing various protoliths, and have different mineral assemblages, reflecting

  10. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. Chapter 1 is an overview of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes which describes their physical characteristics, tectonic setting and geologic history. This overview is accompanied by a tectonic map. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the mantled gneiss dome concept. The purpose of including this work is to provide a basic history of this concept and to describe the characteristics and distribution of gneiss domes throughout the world to enable one to compare and contrast them with the metamorphic core complexes as discussed in this report. Some gneiss domes are known producers of uranium (as are also some core complexes). Chapter 3 is an examination of the effects of the core complex process on adjacent sedimentary and volcanic cover terranes. Also included is a discussion of the kinematic significance of these cover terranes as they are related to process within the cores of the complexes. Some of the cover terranes have uranium prospects in them. Chapter 4 is a detailed discussion of uranium in Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and includes the conceptual basis for the various types of occurrences and the processes that might favor concentration of uranium. The report is supported by a 5-part Appendix. The majority of the core complexes discussed in this report either do not appear or are not recognizable on existing published geologic maps

  11. Towards an integrated magmatic, structural and metamorphic model for the 1.1-0.9 Ga Sveconorwegian orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagstad, Trond; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Røhr, Torkil S.; Marker, Mogens K.

    2013-04-01

    Orogeny involves magmatic, metamorphic, deformational and erosional processes that are caused by or lead to crustal thickening and the development of high topography. In general, these processes operate along the margins of continental plates, either as a result of subduction of oceanic crust (accretionary) or collision between two or more continental plates (collisional). Many of these processes are common to accretionary and collisional orogeny, and do not uniquely discriminate between the two. With only a fragmented geological record, unravelling the style of orogenesis in ancient orogens may, therefore, be far from straightforward. Adding to the complexity, modern continental margins, e.g., the southern Asian margin, display significant variation in orogenic style along strike, rendering along-strike comparisons and correlations unreliable. The late Mesoproterozoic Sveconorwegian province in SW Baltica is traditionally interpreted as the eastward continuation of the Grenville province in Canada, resulting from collision with Amazonia and forming a central part in the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. We recently proposed that the Sveconorwegian segment of this orogen formed as a result of accretionary processes rather than collision. This hypothesis was based mainly on considerations of the Sveconorwegian magmatic evolution. Here, we show how the metamorphic/structural record supports (or at least may be integrated in) our model as well. The key elements in our accretionary model are: 1) formation of the Sirdal Magmatic Belt (SMB) between 1070 and 1020 Ma, most likely representing a continental arc batholith. Coeval deformation and high-grade metamorphism farther east in the orogen could represent deformation in the retroarc. 2) cessation of SMB magmatism at 1020 Ma followed by UHT conditions at 1010-1005 Ma, with temperatures in excess of 1000°C at 7.5 kbar. Subduction of a spreading ridge at ca. 1020 Ma would result in an end to arc magmatism and

  12. On protolith-, metamorphic overprint, microstructure and rheology of mineral assemblages in orogenic peridotites of the central Scandinavian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Mattia; Clos, Frediano; Van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2013-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides (SC) are a deeply eroded Alpine-type orogenic belt formed by closure of the Iapetus ocean and collision between Baltica and Laurentia (500-380 Ma). The SC consists of a stack of Nappe Complexes (from bottom to top called Lower, Middle, Upper and Uppermost Allochthons) thrusted to the east over the Baltic Shield (Brueckner and Van Roermund, 2004; Gee et al., 2008). Fossil lithospheric mantle fragments, called orogenic peridotites, have been found within the (upper part of) middle, upper and uppermost Allochthons, as well as in the reworked basement gneisses (a.o Western Gneiss Complex (WGC)) along the Norwegian west coast. They occur as isolated lenses that contain diverse mineral parageneses and/or bulk rock compositions. Crustal incorporation of orogenic peridotite is classically interpreted to be the result of plate collisional processes related to orogeny (Brueckner and Medaris, 2000). The WGC and parts of the upper part of the Middle Allochthon (a.o. Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in N Jämtland/S Västerbotten, central Sweden), are well known for the occurrence of high (HP) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes (of Caledonian age). The (U)HPM evidence clearly demonstrates the deep metamorphic origin of these rocks interpreted to be caused by continental subduction and/or collision. Other metamorphic rocks (of Caledonian age) exposed in allochthonous nappes are solely characterised by greenschist-, amphibolite- and/or MP granulite "facies" mineral assemblages that can be interpreted, in the absence of retrogression, to have formed in less deeply subducted (and/or metamorphic) environments. This duality in metamorphic "facies" allows for a discrimination (at least theoretically) between "deep" versus "shallow" rooted nappes (in central parts of the Scandinavian Caledonides). Conform this reasoning, this duality should also be present within the Caledonian mineral assemblages (= metamorphic overprint) of orogenic peridotites (in

  13. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity. PMID:27559196

  14. Pseudo- and real-inverted metamorphism caused by the superposition and extrusion of a stack of nappes: a case study of the Southern Brasília Orogen, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Motta, Rafael Gonçalves; Moraes, Renato

    2017-10-01

    The Southern Brasília Orogen is a Neoproterozoic belt that occurs along the southernmost border of the São Francisco Craton where the Andrelândia Nappe System represents the subducted sedimentary domain and is divided into three allochthonous groups, of which the ages and P-T conditions of metamorphism are studied here. The basal unit, the Andrelândia Nappe, exhibits an inverted metamorphic pattern. The base of the structure, composed of staurolite, garnet, biotite, kyanite, quartz, and muscovite, marks the metamorphic peak, whereas at the top, the association of the metamorphic peak does not contain staurolite. The Liberdade Nappe, the middle unit, presents a normal metamorphic pattern; its base, close to the Andrelândia Nappe, shows paragneiss with evidence of in situ partial melting, and towards the top, coarse-grained staurolite schist is found. The staurolite-out and melt-in isograds are coincident and parallel to the main foliation. Thus, the shear zone that limits the nappes is syn-metamorphic, reheating the underlying Andrelândia Nappe and influencing the establishment of metamorphic inversion. This suggestion is supported by the monazite chemical ages, which indicates that the Andrelândia Nappe metamorphic peak (586 ± 15 Ma) is younger than that of the Liberdade Nappe (622.3 ± 7.6 Ma). The upper unit, the Serra da Natureza Klippe, bears a typical high-pressure granulite mineral assemblage that is composed of kyanite, garnet, K-feldspar, rutile, and leucosome, as well as a metamorphic peak at 604.5 ± 6.1 Ma. This tectonic assembly, with inverted and non-inverted metamorphic patterns and generation of klippen structures, is consistent with exhumation models and a strong indentor located in the lower continental crust.

  15. Precipitation of Oriented Rutile and Ilmenite Needles in Garnet, Northeastern Connecticut, USA: Evidence for Extreme Metamorphic Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    We report the discovery of oriented needles of rutile and, less commonly, ilmenite in the cores of garnets from northeastern CT, USA. The rocks preserve granulite facies mineral assemblages, form part of the Merrimack Synclinorium, and underwent metamorphism and deformation during the Acadian orogeny. The needles appear identical to those reported from a number of extreme P-T environments worldwide, including UHP metamorphic rocks, high-P granulites, and garnet peridotites. The needles are predominantly oriented along directions in garnet. The long axes of the rutile needles commonly do not go extinct parallel to the cross hairs under cross-polarized light (e.g., Griffin et al., 1971). This anomalous extinction indicates that the needles do not preserve a specific crystallographic relationship with their garnet hosts (e.g., Hwang et al., 2007). The needles range from a few hundred nm to a few um in diameter, and can be mm-scale in length. Micrometer-scale plates of rutile, srilankite and crichtonite have also been observed in some garnets together with the Fe-Ti oxide needles. Several origins for the needles have been proposed in the literature; we investigate the hypothesis that they precipitated in situ from originally Ti-rich garnet. Chemical profiles across garnets indicate that some retain Ti zoning, with elevated-Ti concentrations in the cores dropping to low values in the rims. For these zoned garnets, high-resolution, 2-D chemical mapping using the JEOL JXA-8530F field emission gun electron microprobe at Yale University reveals that the needles are surrounded by well-defined Ti-depletion halos. Chemical profiles also document strong depletions of Cr (which is present in both rutile and ilmenite) directly adjacent to needles. The observed Ti-depletions demonstrate that the needles precipitated from Ti-bearing garnet, probably during cooling and/or decompression associated with exhumation. The rutile precipitates must be largely incoherent with respect to the

  16. Study of the metamorphic belts and tectonics; Henseitai kenkyu to tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    Study of metamorphic belts and tectonics is introduced. Minerals supposedly originating in the transitional zone and the lower mantle, that is, inclusions in diamond in kimberlite, are deemed to carry information about the depth level of 670km and lower. The place of origin of peridotite, Alpe Arami of Switzerland, is again estimated at a level of 300km or deeper. In the tectonic cross section in this region, the oceanic crust is bent and folded, and such a structure enables the supposition that fragments off the transitional zone may be carried upward to the ground surface. This region is now being limelighted, with plume tectonics enjoying popularity. The split of Pangaea is related with the ascent of plume. In the eastern part of Australia, there are alkali rocks attributable to the plume that was supposedly active at the end of the Proterozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating by SHRIMP offers a new approach to the tectonics of metamorphic rocks, and is reinforcing the position of metamorphic petrology relative to the study of collision and split of continents. 64 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Metamorphic Perspectives of Subduction Zone Volatiles Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    Field study of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks provides "ground-truthing" for experimental and theoretical petrologic studies estimating extents of deep volatiles subduction, and provides information regarding devolatilization and deep subduction-zone fluid flow that can be used to reconcile estimates of subduction inputs and arc volcanic outputs for volatiles such as H2O, N, and C. Considerable attention has been paid to H2O subduction in various bulk compositions, and, based on calculated phase assemblages, it is thought that a large fraction of the initially structurally bound H2O is subducted to, and beyond, subarc regions in most modern subduction zones (Hacker, 2008, G-cubed). Field studies of HP/UHP mafic and sedimentary rocks demonstrate the impressive retention of volatiles (and fluid-mobile elements) to depths approaching those beneath arcs. At the slab-mantle interface, high-variance lithologies containing hydrous phases such as mica, amphibole, talc, and chlorite could further stabilize H2O to great depth. Trench hydration in sub-crustal parts of oceanic lithosphere could profoundly increase subduction inputs of particularly H2O, and massive flux of H2O-rich fluids from these regions into the slab-mantle interface could lead to extensive metasomatism. Consideration of sedimentary N concentrations and δ15N at ODP Site 1039 (Li and Bebout, 2005, JGR), together with estimates of the N concentration of subducting altered oceanic crust (AOC), indicates that ~42% of the N subducting beneath Nicaragua is returned in the corresponding volcanic arc (Elkins et al., 2006, GCA). Study of N in HP/UHP sedimentary and basaltic rocks indicates that much of the N initially subducted in these lithologies would be retained to depths approaching 100 km and thus available for addition to arcs. The more altered upper part of subducting oceanic crust most likely to contribute to arcs has sediment-like δ15NAir (0 to +10 per mil; Li et al., 2007, GCA), and study of HP/UHP eclogites

  18. Timing of metamorphism of the Lansang gneiss and implications for left-lateral motion along the Mae Ping (Wang Chao) strike-slip fault, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Searle, M. P.; Morley, C. K.; Charusiri, P.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Roberts, N. M. W.

    2013-10-01

    The Mae Ping fault (MPF), western Thailand, exhibits dominantly left-lateral strike-slip motion and stretches for >600 km, reportedly branching off the right-lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and extending southeast towards Cambodia. Previous studies have suggested that the fault assisted the large-scale extrusion of Sundaland that occurred during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, with a geological offset of ˜120-150 km estimated from displaced high-grade gneisses and granites of the Chiang Mai-Lincang belt. Exposures of high-grade orthogneiss in the Lansang National Park, part of this belt, locally contain strong mylonitic textures and are bounded by strike-slip ductile shear zones and brittle faults. Geochronological analysis of monazite from a sample of sheared biotite-K-feldspar orthogneiss suggests two episodes of crystallization, with core regions documenting Th-Pb ages between c. 123 and c. 114 Ma and rim regions documenting a significantly younger age range between c. 45-37 Ma. These data are interpreted to represent possible magmatic protolith emplacement for the Lansang orthogneiss during the Early Cretaceous, with a later episode of metamorphism occurring during the Eocene. Textural relationships provided by in situ analysis suggest that ductile shearing along the MPF occurred during the latter stages of, or after, this metamorphic event. In addition, monazite analyzed from an undeformed garnet-two-mica granite dyke intruding metamorphic units at Bhumipol Lake outside of the Mae Ping shear zone produced a Th-Pb age of 66.2 ± 1.6 Ma. This age is interpreted to date the timing of dyke emplacement, implying that the MPF cuts through earlier formed magmatic and high-grade metamorphic rocks. These new data, when combined with regional mapping and earlier geochronological work, show that neither metamorphism, nor regional cooling, was directly related to strike-slip motion.

  19. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic

  20. High-brightness electron injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators and synchrotron light sources require pulse trains of high peak brightness and, in some applications, high-average power. Recent developments in the technology of photoemissive and thermionic electron sources in rf cavities for electron-linac injector applications offer promising advances over conventional electron injectors. Reduced emittance growth in high peak-current electron injectors may be achieved by using high field strengths and by linearizing the radial component of the cavity electric field at the expense of lower shunt impedance

  1. Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoviev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    deformation systems. 2) folded (folded-thrust) deformation systems combine deformation zones with relic lenses of Paleozoid substratum, and predominantly conform systems of the main faults. Despite a high degree of regional deformation the sedimentary-stratified and intrusive-contact relations of geological bodies are stored within the deformation systems, and this differs in the main the collision systems from zones of dynamic metamorphism. 3) regional zones of dynamic metamorphism of Kuznetsk-Altai region are the concentration belts of multiple mechanic deformations and contrast dynamometamorphism of complexes. The formational basis of dynamic metamorphism zones is tectonites of the collision stage. Zones of dynamic metamorphism attract special attention in the structural model of Kuznetsk-Altai region. They not only form the typical tectonic framework of collision sutures, but also contain the main part of ore deposits of this region. Pulse mode of structure formation of Kuznetsk-Altai region is detected. Major collision events in Kuznetsk-Altai region were in the late-Carboniferous-Triassic time (307-310, 295-285, 260-250 and 240-220 Ma). This study was supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 14-05-00117).

  2. Investigation of InP/InGaAs metamorphic co-integrated complementary doping-channel field-effect transistors for logic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    DC performance of InP/InGaAs metamorphic co-integrated complementary doping-channel field-effect transistors (DCFETs) grown on a low-cost GaAs substrate is first demonstrated. In the complementary DCFETs, the n-channel device was fabricated on the InxGa1-xP metamorphic linearly graded buffer layer and the p-channel field-effect transistor was stacked on the top of the n-channel device. Particularly, the saturation voltage of the n-channel device is substantially reduced to decrease the VOL and VIH values attributed that two-dimensional electron gas is formed and could be modulated in the n-InGaAs channel. Experimentally, a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 215 (17) mS/mm and a maximum saturation current density of 43 (-27) mA/mm are obtained in the n-channel (p-channel) device. Furthermore, the noise margins NMH and NML are up to 0.842 and 0.330 V at a supply voltage of 1.5 V in the complementary logic inverter application.

  3. New data on tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Peri-Trasmontano domain (Schistose Domain) in Northeastern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias da Silva, I.; Gonzalez Clavijo, E.

    2010-01-01

    Under the main Tras-os-Montes thrust plane, in the easternmost region of the Morais Allochthonous Complex, a geologic unit has been identified. It shows syn-tectonic S 2 -related andalusite blastesis, representative of low pressure thermal metamorphism. In the studied sector this metamorphism affects essentially the black slaty lithologies present in Neoproterozoic to Silurian formations. This kind of thermal metamorphism is easily distinguishable from the late to post S 3 plutonic-related metamorphism, due to the existence of evidence of syn kinematic mineral blastesis with rotation and boudinage, synchronously with S 2 development. Syn-kinematic andalusite blastesis seems to affect only the autochthonous Central Iberian Zone rocks and it could be associated to crustal extensional phenomena like the ones identified in the Tormes Gneissic Dome. It is proposed that at least part of this andalusite blast generation could have a distinct origin, reflecting earlier low pressure thermal metamorphic events in inner Variscan orogen zones that were tectonically imbricated to present coordinates during the second Variscan phase. The vertical proximity of only a few hundred meters between extensional structures, to the East, and the compressive ones, to the West of the studied sector, could justify the presence of both pre- and syn-S 2 andalusite blasts inside the above mentioned tectono-metamorphic unit. The kinematic criteria (top to SE) are consistent with the ones of the Variscan synorogenic extensional structures placed nearby to the SE, pointing to a possible genetic relation with those crustal thinning processes. (Author) 42 refs.

  4. The Katmandu and Gosainkund nappes, central Nepal Himalaya (cartography, structure, metamorphism, geochemistry and radio-chronology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, S.M.

    1998-10-01

    In central Nepal, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out to characterize and distinguish the crystalline nappes of Katmandu and Gosainkund from the Midland formations. Two principal deformations are recorded: one ductile, syn-metamorphic, marked by microstructures (stretching lineation, S-C structures, etc. ), another, post-metamorphic, recorded by an anticline, roughly EW -directed, and by NNE-SSW -directed folds. The syn-metamorphic P-T conditions show differences between Katmandu Crystalline Nappe (900-720 MPa; 700-480 deg C) and Gosainkund Crystalline Nappe (890-580 MPa; 750-590 deg C). They exhibit well preserved inverted metamorphism between the Upper Midland Formations (750 Mpa; 560 deg C) and the Gosainkund Nappe. In central Nepal, the augen gneisses and the 'Lesser Himalayan' Cambro-Ordovician granites bear similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics which suggest a common origin. However, the geological setting and age of the Proterozoic Ulleri augen gneiss rule out correlation with these formations. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses of muscovite, indicate cooling ages younger from south to north: 22 to 13 Ma in the Katmandu Nappe, 16 to 5 Ma in the Gosainkund Nappe, and 12 to 6 Ma in the Midland Formation. The principal points summarized by this study are the following: clear distinction between two nappes marked by their litho-stratigraphy and metamorphism; the ductile movement of MCT in the north of Katmandu is blocked since approximately 25 Ma; the late emplacement and late or common post metamorphic history of the two nappes; but earlier cooling history of the Katmandu nappe; the present uplift of the Katmandu region, underlined by the intense micro-seismicity, concerns indifferently the two nappes that form a single tectonic block at present; the combined uplift of the two nappes is due to the displacement on a ramp of major decollement surface. (author)

  5. Teaching Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Through Guided Inquiry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, N. J.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate Petrology at New Mexico State University (GEOL 399) has been taught using three, 5-6 week long projects in place of lectures, lab, and exams for the last six years. Reasons for changing from the traditional format include: 1) to move the focus from identification and memorization to petrologic thinking; 2) the need for undergraduate students to apply basic chemical, structural, and field concepts to igneous and metamorphic rocks; 3) student boredom in the traditional mode by the topic that has captivated my professional life, in spite of my best efforts to offer thrilling lectures, problems, and labs. The course has three guided inquiry projects: volcanic, plutonic, and pelitic dynamothermal. Two of the rock suites are investigated during field trips. Each project provides hand samples and thin sections; the igneous projects also include whole-rock major and trace element data. Students write a scientific paper that classifies and describes the rocks, describes the data (mineralogical and geochemical), and uses data to interpret parameters such as tectonic setting, igneous processes, relationship to phase diagrams, geologic history, metamorphic grade, metamorphic facies, and polymetamorphic history. Students use the text as a major resource for self-learning; mini-lectures on pertinent topics are presented when needed by the majority of students. Project scores include evaluation of small parts of the paper due each Friday and participation in peer review as well as the final report. I have found that petrology is much more fun, although more difficult, to teach using this method. It is challenging to be totally prepared for class because students are working at different speeds on different levels on different aspects of the project. Students enjoy the course, especially the opportunity to engage in scientific investigation and debate. A significant flaw in this course is that students see fewer rocks and have less experience in rock classification

  6. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-02-01

    The primary objectives of this report are to list known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks in New Mexico, and to provide an annotated bibliography of geologic reports concerning these regions. Only plutonic, metamorphic, vein, and Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits are considered in this report; other nonsandstone uranium deposits (such as shale, limestone, phosphorite, coal, evaporative precipitates, and fossil placer deposits) will be considered at a later time. These objectives were achieved through a literature search. Some field examinations of some of the radioactive occurrences have been completed. A table of known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks was compiled from the literature (Appendix I)

  7. Rb-Sr geochronology from Barro Alto Complex, Goias: metamorphism evidence of high degree and continental collision around 1300 Ma ago in Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A.; Neves, B.B.B.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1989-01-01

    Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation carried out on rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, yielded iso chronic ages of 1266 +- 17 Ma, for felsic rocks from the granulite belt and 1330 +- 67 Ma, for gneisses belonging to the Juscelandia Sequence. Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that Barro Alto rocks have undergone an important metamorphic event during middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event, volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Juscelandia Sequence, as well as the underlying gabbros-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. Deformation and metamorphism took place during the collision of two continental blocks, which resulted in a southeastward directed thrust complex, allowing the exposure of granulite slices from the middle-lower crust of the overthrusted block. (author)

  8. Gneiss Macuira: tectonic evolution of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Alta Guajira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I; A Julian; Zuluaga C; A, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Macuira Gneiss is a Paleozoic metamorphic unit that outcrops in the Simarua, Jarara and Macuira ranges, Alta Guajira. It is composed by a lithologies metamorphosed under amphibolite facies P-T conditions and consist of amphibolitic and quartz feldspathic gneisses, amphibolites, schists, pegmatites, calc-silicated rocks and marbles, with migmatization evidences in gneisses and amphibolites. Five foliations (S1-5) and three folding events (F1-3) were identified and interpreted as product of two metamorphic events, developed in a progressive barrovian metamorphic gradient of intermediate pressure with intermediate P-T ratio, interpreted as product of continental collision tectonics. This unit is important in understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Alta Guajira and Caribbean because it records different deformational phases pre-, syn- and post-migmatitic, that could be related with different tectonic episodes: the first associated with the collision between Laurasia and Gondwana (Alleghanian Orogeny - Late Paleozoic), and the second related with the Caribbean Plate evolution (Andean Orogeny - Meso-Cenozoic).

  9. High-temperature granulites and supercontinents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.R. Touret

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of continents involves a combination of magmatic and metamorphic processes. These processes become indistinguishable at the crust-mantle interface, where the pressure-temperature (P-T conditions of (ultra high-temperature granulites and magmatic rocks are similar. Continents grow laterally, by magmatic activity above oceanic subduction zones (high-pressure metamorphic setting, and vertically by accumulation of mantle-derived magmas at the base of the crust (high-temperature metamorphic setting. Both events are separated from each other in time; the vertical accretion postdating lateral growth by several tens of millions of years. Fluid inclusion data indicate that during the high-temperature metamorphic episode the granulite lower crust is invaded by large amounts of low H2O-activity fluids including high-density CO2 and concentrated saline solutions (brines. These fluids are expelled from the lower crust to higher crustal levels at the end of the high-grade metamorphic event. The final amalgamation of supercontinents corresponds to episodes of ultra-high temperature metamorphism involving large-scale accumulation of these low-water activity fluids in the lower crust. This accumulation causes tectonic instability, which together with the heat input from the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, leads to the disruption of supercontinents. Thus, the fragmentation of a supercontinent is already programmed at the time of its amalgamation.

  10. Inheritance, Variscan tectonometamorphic evolution and Permian to Mesozoic rejuvenations in the metamorphic basement complexes of the Romanian Carpathians revealed by monazite microprobe geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, Gavril; Negulescu, Elena

    2014-05-01

    South Carpathians contain lower Paleozoic or older units intruded by Ordovician granitoids, imbricated with juvenile Variscan slivers, the structural sequence differing in individual basement complexes. So, in the Leaota Massif the lowermost term of the sequence is prograde Variscan, tectonically overlain by reworked lower Paleozoic gneisses, supporting thrust sheets with very low- to low-grade Variscan schists. In the Făgăraş Massif a lower Paleozoic (Cumpăna) complex bearing a strong Variscan overprint, straddles Variscan juvenile rocks, and the lowermost visible structural level is assumed by upper Carboniferous to Permian juvenile medium-grade metamorphic schists. In the Lotru Metamorphic Suite of the Alpine Getic Nappe, the Variscan stacking is overprinted by post-orogenic differential uplift, documented by the correlation among younging ages, structural and metamorphic low-pressure overprints, recording often higher metamorphic temperatures. The most spectacular structure is Upper Jurassic in age, contains high-grade metamorphic rocks and peraluminous anatectic granitoids, is outlined by a deformed boundary evolving from ductile to brittle regime during cooling, and induces a thermal overprint in the neighbouring rocks. In the basement units thrust over the Getic Nappe, the Sibişel unit yielded Permian prograde peak metamorphic ages and Triassic post-peak overprints, while an adjacent gneissic unit (Laz) delivered an exclusively Cretaceous age pattern. Unexpectedly young metamorphic ages resulted also for the East Carpathians and the Apuseni Mountains. While most of the ages obtained so far correspond to Variscan retrogression of older basement units, the lowermost structural unit of the infra-Bucovinian nappe system in the East Carpathians yielded Upper Cretaceous metamorphic ages in apparently monometamorphic medium-grade schists. In the Apuseni Mountains, schists of the Baia de Arieş Unit display an Upper Jurassic age spectrum, corresponding to a clearly

  11. K-Ar dating celadonite: A contribution to timing of a very low-grade metamorphism in the Central Andes of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmar, M; Schmidt, S.; Frey, M

    2001-01-01

    Clay minerals have been used in several studies to date very low-grade metamorphism processes and hydrothermal episodes. The technique of using the K-Ar isotopic dating was demonstrated by many authors (e.g. Hunziker et al., 1986; Clauer et al., 1995; Kirschner et al 1995; Zhao et al., 1997; Glasmacher et al., 2001). White mica and illitic materials of different size are usually analysed, whereasceladonite mineral with high potassium content has been low developed and few data are published. Successful dating of continental Andean celadonite could mean that is possible to date the very low-grade metamorphism (zeolites facies) in which celadonites are very often observed (au)

  12. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addressing the geologic significance of lineaments and their correlation with joints/fractures is still unclear. The present study attempts to analyse the lineament swarms developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in India using both unfiltered and filtered techniques. The unfiltered analysis technique shows that the ...

  13. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    ) to develop a tool that uses the diffusion zoning of these cations in garnet to constrain peak temperature conditions for garnet-bearing rocks. The thermometric approach was externally tested by applying it to garnet crystals from various metamorphic terranes worldwide and comparing the results to published...

  14. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better

  15. Comparative study of the thermoluminescence properties of natural metamorphic quartz belonging to Turkey and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topaksu, M.; Dogan, T.; Yüksel, M.; Kurt, K.; Topak, Y.; Yegingil, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitization of the thermoluminescence (TL) peak of metamorphic quartzes from Adiyaman in Turkey (TMQ) and from Madrid in Spain (SMQ). Quartz samples of two different origins were β-irradiated between ∼6.689 Gy and 4816 Gy at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis has indicated that both TMQ and SMQ have the same crystal structure. Chemical analyses of both TMQ and SMQ were performed using the XRF technique. The preheat processes were carried out at 125 °C for 10 s in the TL measurement. TMQ and SMQ samples have different TL properties in two ways. First TMQ has four first order TL glow peaks while SMQ has five first order TL peaks and secondly, the observed dose sensitivity of TMQ samples is higher than the SMQ samples. - Highlights: • The thermoluminescence (TL) peak of metamorphic quartzes was investigated. • Comparable differences were seen between low and high dose levels. • AD and CGCD methods were used

  16. Petrographic and EMP study of metamorphic rocks from the Variscan basement of Dinarides (Vranica Mountains, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrvanovic, S [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    The Vranica Mountains are located in the middle part of Bosnia and Herzegovina or in the southeastern part of the Mid - Bosnian schist Mountains (MBSM). The Mid - Bosnian schist Mountains represent one of the largest allochtonous Paleozoic terranes in the Dinarides. This region is characterized by a multistage geodynamic evolution. The presented results concern Variscan metamorphism of the Silur-Devonian protolith formations that occurred mainly during the Early Carboniferous in LT/MP greenschist facies. Petrographical description of metamorphic rocks is completed by EMPA of muscovite, chlorite and chloritoid. The Early Alpine metamorphic overprint is related to the closure of a Tethyan Basin and Early Cretaceous collision of the Adria microplate with the Tissia-Moesia continental Blocks. The Neo-Alpine metamorphic overprint occurred due to the collision of the African and Euroasian Plates. (authors)

  17. High brightness electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.; Carlsten, B.E.; Young, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of accelerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electrons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electrons as the electrons enter the first cavity. 5 figs

  18. Geochronologic constraints of the uplift and metamorphism along the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, C.P.; Zeitler, P.K.; Cooper, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Geochronological studies of pegmatites and Alpine Schist exposed east of the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, reveal a complex history beginning with magmatism and metamorphism at c. 68 m.y. ago and ending with rapid uplift and exhumation in the last 5 m.y. Pegmatites exposed in the Mataketake Range give conventional U-Pb monazite and SHRIMP ion-probe zircon ages of 68 ± 2.6 Ma and 67.9 ± 2.5 Ma, respectively. Inasmuch as petrologic and isotopic data indicate that the Alpine pegmatites are melts derived from the Alpine Schist, the age of the pegmatites suggests that, at least locally, the high-grade metamorphism is considerably younger than previously assumed. We tentatively suggest that metamorphism, in at least some areas of the Alpine Schist, may be associated with Late Cretaceous transtension rather than resulting from the consequences of collision during the Rangitata Orogeny. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar studies of hornblendes from the Alpine Schist, collected from the Haast River to the Franz Josef Glacier area, reveal highly disturbed spectra. Despite this complexity, these analyses define a systematic decrease in ages both across-strike toward the Alpine Fault (Haast River traverse) and northwards along-strike towards Mt Cook. This pattern of decreasing 40 Ar/ 39 Ar hornblende ages is also observed in lower closure temperature systems such as zircon and apatite fission-track ages. We interpret the decrease in ages toward the fault to be the result of deeper exhumation in the immediate vicinity of the Alpine Fault, whereas we interpret the northward younging of fault-proximal samples to be a result of both more recent and possibly more extensive exhumation than occurred in areas to the south. (author). 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-11-23

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications. While there exist bulk material reduction methods to flex them, such thinned CMOS electronics are fragile and vulnerable to handling for high throughput manufacturing. Here, we show a fusion of a CMOS technology compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics, with inkjet and conductive cellulose based interconnects, followed by additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing based packaging) and finally roll-to-roll printing of packaged decal electronics (thin film transistors based circuit components and sensors) focusing on printed high performance flexible electronic systems. This work provides the most pragmatic route for packaged flexible electronic systems for wide ranging applications.

  20. Gold, uranium and thorium in zones of greenschist displacement metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilenko, B.V.; Savitskij, A.V.; Titov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of gold, uranium (bar and mobile) and thorium in 15 zones of greenschist dislocated metamorphism in different structures of the Karelo-Kola region carried out by geologic formations of the Early-Archean-Late-Proterozoic age has been studied. More than 200 samples of well core from 0-200 m depths have been analyzed. The results obtained testify to the increase of gold, uranium and less thorium content in zones of green-schist dislocated metamorphism in comparison with the enclosing rocks 1.4-3.1 times. The variation coefficient of gold, uranium and thorium content in green-schist dislocated tectonites increases 1.5-2.9 times. The correlation coefficient of Au/U mob. pair is +0.69, and Au/U bar pair -+0.87. Essential correlation between concentrations of all three elements in enclosing rocks is absent

  1. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  2. Investigating the response of biotite to impact metamorphism: Examples from the Steen River impact structure, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.; Tschauner, O.

    2018-01-01

    Impact metamorphic effects from quartz and feldspar and to a lesser extent olivine and pyroxene have been studied in detail. Comparatively, studies documenting shock effects in other minerals, such as double chain inosilicates, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates, are lacking. In this study, we investigate impact metamorphism recorded in crystalline basement rocks from the Steen River impact structure (SRIS), a 25 km diameter complex crater in NW Alberta, Canada. An array of advanced analytical techniques was used to characterize the breakdown of biotite in two distinct settings: along the margins of localized regions of shock melting and within granitic target rocks entrained as clasts in a breccia. In response to elevated temperature gradients along shock vein margins, biotite transformed at high pressure to an almandine-Ca/Fe majorite-rich garnet with a density of 4.2 g cm-3. The shock-produced garnets are poikilitic, with oxide and silicate glass inclusions. Areas interstitial to garnets are vesiculated, in support of models for the formation of shock veins via oscillatory slip, with deformation continuing during pressure release. Biotite within granitic clasts entrained within the hot breccia matrix thermally decomposed at ambient pressure to produce a fine-grained mineral assemblage of orthopyroxene + sanidine + titanomagnetite. These minerals are aligned to the (001) cleavage plane of the original crystal. In this and previous work, the transformation of an inosilicate (pargasite) and a phyllosilicate (biotite) to form garnet, an easily identifiable, robust mineral, has been documented. We contend that in deeply eroded astroblemes, high-pressure minerals that form within or in the environs of shock veins may serve as one of the possibly few surviving indicators of impact metamorphism.

  3. Eclogite-facies metamorphism in impure marble from north Qaidam orogenic belt: Geodynamic implications for early Paleozoic continental-arc collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xu, Rongke; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Zheng, Youye

    2018-06-01

    In the North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, impure marble and interbedded eclogite represent a particular sedimentary provenance and tectonic setting, which have important implications for a controversial problem - the dynamic evolution of early Paleozoic subduction-collision complexes. In this contribution, detailed field work, mineral chemistry, and whole-rock geochemistry are presented for impure marble to provide the first direct evidence for the recycling of carbonate sediments under ultrahigh-pressures during subduction and collision in the Yuka terrane, in the North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt. According to conventional geothermobarometry, pre-peak subduction to 0.8-1.3 GPa/485-569 °C was followed by peak UHP metamorphism at 2.5-3.3 GPa/567-754 °C and cooling to amphibolite facies conditions at 0.6-0.7 GPa/571-589 °C. U-Pb dating of zircons from impure marble reveals a large group with ages ranging from 441 to 458 Ma (peak at 450 Ma), a smaller group ranging from 770 to 1000 Ma (peak at 780 Ma), and minor >1.8 Ga zircon aged ca. 430 Ma UHP metamorphism. The youngest detrital zircons suggest a maximum depositional age of ca. 442 Ma and a burial rate of ca. 1.0-1.1 cm/yr when combined with P-T conditions and UHP metamorphic age. The REE and trace element patterns of impure marble with positive Sr and U anomalies, negative high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti), and Ce anomalies imply that the marble had a marine limestone precursor. Impure marble intercalated with micaschist and eclogite was similar to limestone and siltstone protoliths deposited in continental fore-arc or arc setting with basic volcanic activity. Therefore, the Yuka terrane most likely evolved in a continental island arc setting during the Paleozoic. These data suggest that metasediments were derived from a mixture of Proterozoic continental crust and juvenile early Paleozoic oceanic and/or island arc crust. In addition, their protoliths were likely

  4. Miocene metamorphism of pan-African granites in the Edough Massif (NE Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammor, D.; Lancelot, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Edough Massif is the eastern most crystalline core of the Maghrebides that represents the African segment of the west Mediterranean Alpine belt. U-Pb zircon dating provides upper intercept ages of 595± My and 606±55 My and orthogneiss of the lower unit and a deformed leucogranite of the upper pelitic unit, respectively. These ages suggest emplacement of the two granitoids during the Pan-African orogeny. Monazites from a paragneiss sample gave a 18± My U-Pb age that points to a Miocene age of the high-temperature metamorphism. (authors)

  5. Ammonium in Witwatersrand reefs: a possible indicator of metamorphic fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ammonium concentrations and NH 4 + /K ratios in the Kimberley Reef indicate chemical interaction with metamorphic fluids. The data, although preliminary, also suggests a gold-ammonium association in that higher gold levels are related to higher NH 4 + /K ratios. Samples from the Ventersdorp Contact Reef are also hydrothermally altered but no ammonium was detected. The low ammonium concentrations suggest that over-printing by NH 4 -bearing metamorphic fluids was negligible. From this it is concluded that chemically different fluid systems must have been operative, probably at different times, during Witwatersrand history. It appears, therefore, that ammonium geochemistry is potentially useful in the study of fluid flow and related gold (re)distribution in Witwatersrand reefs. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Distributed consensus for metamorphic systems using a gossip algorithm for CAT(0) metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellachehab, Anass; Jakubowicz, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    We present an application of distributed consensus algorithms to metamorphic systems. A metamorphic system is a set of identical units that can self-assemble to form a rigid structure. For instance, one can think of a robotic arm composed of multiple links connected by joints. The system can change its shape in order to adapt to different environments via reconfiguration of its constituting units. We assume in this work that several metamorphic systems form a network: two systems are connected whenever they are able to communicate with each other. The aim of this paper is to propose a distributed algorithm that synchronizes all the systems in the network. Synchronizing means that all the systems should end up having the same configuration. This aim is achieved in two steps: (i) we cast the problem as a consensus problem on a metric space and (ii) we use a recent distributed consensus algorithm that only make use of metrical notions.

  7. U-Pb, Nd isotope and REE geochemistry in eclogites from the Cabo Ortegal Complex, Galicia, Spain: an example of REE immobility conserving MORB-like patterns during high-grade metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Griffiths, J.; Peucat, J.-J.; Cornichet, J.; Iglesias Ponce de Leon, M.; Gil Ibarguchi, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    REE abundances and Nd isotopic compositions were determined on representative samples of eclogite from the Cabo Ortegal Complex of northern Spain. Zircons were also separated from a whole-rock eclogite and analysed by the U-Pb radiometric method. Results indicate that eclogite facies metamorphism occurred between 480 and 420 Ma ago, but no precise constraint can be placed on the protolith age. The REE patterns observed suggest that there has been no significant alteration of the protolith whole-rock systems and that high-grade metamorphism has had little effect on the more mobile LREE. The eclogite protoliths were probably derived from ancient mantle sources with geochemical characteristics very similar to present-day MORB sources. This implies that LREE-depleted (N-type) tholeiites have been erupted at constructive plate margins since at least the early Palaeozoic and possibly long before. The Cabo Ortegal eclogites are allochthonous. They have been thrust up on to the continent and thus they can be compared to other eclogites which also show MORB-like characteristics (e.g., 90% of the eclogites of Vendee area of western France). (orig.)

  8. First data on Sm-Nd systematization of Khanka Massif metamorphic rocks, Primor'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, M.A.; Khanchuk, A.I.; Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Lavrik, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The age of the metamorphic rocks of the Khanka massif, Primor'e, is determined through the method of the Sm-Nd isotopic dating. The results of the isotopic studies on the amphibolites of the Nakhimov suite of the Khanka massif indicated that the rocks of this suite are not older than 1.7 billion years. The obtained age corresponds to the time of the amphibolite protolith formation, the source whereof is the moderately depleted mantle. The isotopic age of the amphibole and plagioclase mineral fractions constitutes 733 ± 25 mln years, which reflects the time of the Nakhimov suite rocks metamorphism [ru

  9. Research advances in contact model and mechanism configuration for nut shelling manipulation based on metamorphic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan BAO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are the important economic forest tree species of China. De-shell is the key operation of nut deep processing. There are some problems in the current nut cracking devices such as the low decorticating rate, the high nuts losses rate and nutmeat integrity problems, etc.. The foundation of force analysis is to establish contact model for nut and mechanical. The nut surface is rough and irregular, so the contact area cannot be modeled as regular shape. How to set up contact constraint model is the key problem to accomplish non-loss shelling. In order to study the shell-breaking mechanism and structural design of the nut shelling manipulation, a multi-fingered metamorphic manipulator is presented. An overview of the nut shelling technology and the contact manipulator modeling are proposed. The origin and application of metamorphic mechanisms are introduced. Then the research contents and development prospects of nut shelling manipulator are described.

  10. New P-T and U-Pb constraints on Alpine Schist metamorphism in south Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.M.; Auer, A.; Muhling, J.R.; Czertowicz, T.A.; Cooper, A.F.; Billia, M.A.; Kennedy, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphic mineral compositions of a staurolite-bearing greyschist from the middle reaches of the Moeraki River valley in south Westland reveal peak equilibration at c. 558±50 degrees C and c. 6.1±1.2 kbar. Two c. 83 Ma U-Pb monazite age populations from the cores of monazite-apatite-allanite-epidote corona structures in mylonitised schists from near Fox Glacier confirm that Alpine Schist metamorphism occurred during the Late Cretaceous. The published spread in Late Cretaceous metamorphic ages indicates that metamorphism was diachronous or was a protracted event. Further dating is required to pin down the cryptic transition into the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous metamorphosed Otago Schist, but the Alpine Schist must extend at least 11 km east of the Alpine Fault in south Westland and overprint the suture between the Pounamu and Rakaia terranes. The P-T-t results imply that the Late Cretaceous crust represented by portions of the Alpine Schist was probably of similar thickness to that beneath the Southern Alps today, but with dehydration and partial melting occurring near the base. The crust under Westland and Otago may be dry and therefore strong. (author).

  11. Rubidium-strontium chronology of the metamorphism and prehistory of central Australian granulites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, C M [La Trobe Univ., Bundoora (Australia); Compston, W

    1978-11-01

    Rubidium-strontium isotopic study of intermediate-pressure granulites at Mt. Aloysius, central Australia reveals total rock isochrons that either record the metamorphism or predate it. The gneisses involved, typically quartz + feldspar + orthopyroxene + garnet granulites, occur in five lithological units which outline a simple fold structure. The distribution of isotopic ages in a 25 km/sup 2/ area is tested using 74 samples collected in groups of 2 to 4 both along and across strike in each of the units. Two total rock isochron ages of 1200 and 1550 Myr occur, and both are found at different sites in one unit. Mineral ages are younger and independent of location, with feldspars giving 800 Myr and biotites 730 Myr. The 1200 Myr isochrons show the features of outcrop-scale Sr isotopic homogenisation and are taken to record the time of metamorphism. Contemporaneous regional depletion of U, commonly associated with granulite facies metamorphism, confirms the interpretation. The 1550 Myr isochrons describe entire lithological units and are best assigned to the supracrustal genesis of the rocks. The preservation of two ages indicates that isotopic equilibration of anhydrous total rocks is incomplete even within the granulite facies. Careful interpretation is required to assign geological meaning to granulite isochrons.

  12. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-08-01

    High pressure granulite and granulite gneiss from the Rychleby Mountains in the East Sudetes form an approximately 7 km long and 0.8 km wide body, which is enclosed by amphibolite facies orthogneiss with a steep foliation. Well preserved felsic granulite is located in the central part of the body, where several small bodies of mafic granulite are also present. In comparison to other high pressure granulites in the Bohemian Massif, which show strong mineral and textural re-equilibration under granulite facies conditions, the mafic granulite samples preserve eclogite facies minerals (garnet, omphacite, kyanite, rutile and phengite) and their field and textural relations indicate that both mafic and felsic granulites shared common metamorphic history during prograde eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies events. Garnet from both granulite varieties shows prograde compositional zoning and contains inclusions of phengite. Yttrium and REEs in garnet show typical bell-shaped distributions with no annular peaks near the grain rims. Investigation of major and trace elements zoning, including REEs distribution in garnet, was combined with thermodynamic modelling to constrain the early eclogite facies metamorphism and to estimate pressure-temperature conditions of the subsequent granulite facies overprint. The first (U)HP metamorphism occurred along a low geothermal gradient in a subduction-related environment from its initial stage at 0.8 GPa/460 °C and reached pressures up to 2.5 GPa at 550 °C. The subsequent granulite facies overprint (1.6-1.8 GPa/800-880 °C) affected the rocks only partially; by replacement of omphacite into diopside + plagioclase symplectite and by compositional modification of garnet rims. The mineral textures and the preservation of the eclogite facies prograde compositional zoning in garnet cores confirm that the granulite facies overprint was either too short or too faint to cause recrystallisation and homogenisation of the eclogite

  13. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  14. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    An integrated study of petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and geochronology was carried out for contemporaneous mafic granulite and diorite from the Dabie orogen. The results provide evidence for granulite-facies reworking of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rock in the collisional orogen. Most zircons from the granulite are new growth, and their U-Pb ages are clearly categorized into two groups at 122-127 Ma and 188 ± 2 Ma. Although these two groups of zircons show similarly steep HREE patterns and variably negative Eu anomalies, the younger group has much higher U, Th and REE contents and Th/U ratios, much lower εHf(t) values than the older group. This suggests their growth is associated with different types of dehydration reactions. The older zircon domains contain mineral inclusions of garnet + clinopyroxene ± quartz, indicating their growth through metamorphic reactions at high pressures. In contrast, the young zircon domains only contain a few quartz inclusions and the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry yields pressures of 4.9 to 12.5 kb. In addition, the clinopyroxene-garnet Fe-Mg exchange thermometry gives temperatures of 738-951 °C. Therefore, the young zircon domains would have grown through peritectic reaction at low to medium pressures. The younger granulite-facies metamorphic age is in agreement not only with the adjacent diorite at 125 ± 1 Ma in this study but also the voluminous emplacement of coeval mafic and felsic magmas in the Dabie orogen. Mineral separates from both mafic granulite and its adjacent diorite show uniformly lower δ18O values than normal mantle, similar to those for UHP eclogite-facies metaigneous rocks in the Dabie orogen. In combination with major-trace elements and zircon Lu-Hf isotope compositions, it is inferred that the protolith of mafic granulites shares with the source rock of diorites, both being a kind of mafic metasomatites at the slab-mantle interface in the continental subduction channel

  15. Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural

  16. Decal electronics for printed high performance cmos electronic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Sevilla, Galo Torres; Cordero, Marlon Diaz; Kutbee, Arwa T.

    2017-01-01

    High performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are critical for any full-fledged electronic system. However, state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are rigid and bulky making them unusable for flexible electronic applications

  17. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Anapolis-Itaucu complex, Araxa group and associated granites: Neoproterozoic high grade metamorphism and magmatism in the Central part of the Brasilia Belt, Goias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, D.P.; Pimentel, M.M.; Fuck, R.A; Armstrong, R

    2001-01-01

    The Tocantins Province (Almeida et al. 1981) in central Brazil is a Neoproterozoic orogenic zone developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons and possibly a third continental block, known as Parapanema Block, hidden below the sedimentary rocks of the Parana Basin. The Tocantins Province comprises the eastward vergent Brasilia Belt, adjacent to the Sao Francisco Craton (Marini et al. 1984), and the westward vergent Paraguay and Araguaia belts, developed on the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. According to Trompette (1997), the Brasilia and Araguaia belts had sedimentation starting at around 1.1-1.0 Ga and final closure at 0.6 Ga. In the northern part of the Brasilia Belt occur the Barro Alto, Canabrava and Niquelandia maficultramafic layered complexes. Inconclusive U-Pb isotopic data indicate ages between ca. 1600 and 2000 Ma for these intrusions that were affected by highgrade metamorphism ca. 740-790 Ma ago, during the Neoproterozoic (Ferreira Filho et al. 1994; Suita et al. 1994; Correia et al. 1997). In the southern part of the Brasilia Belt, in central Goias , is the Anapolis-Itaucu granulite complex. It consists of a large complex of high-grade rocks, volcano-sedimentary sequences and granites, exposed in between metasediments of the Araxa Group, the main constituent of the internal zone of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994). These granulites have traditionally been interpreted as the exposure of Archean sialic basement to the sediments of the Brasilia Belt (Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984; Lacerda Filho and Oliveira 1995). This work reports the results of a regional Sm- Nd isotopic investigation and U-Pb SHRIMP data in order to assess (i) the nature of the protoliths of the Araxa Group in this area; (ii) the nature and the high grade metamorphism of rocks from Anapolis-Itaucu Complex; (iii) the crystallization and metamorphism of aluminous granites (au)

  18. K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating of the Palaeozoic metamorphic complex from the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts., Central Dinarides, Bosnia and Hercegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamic, J.; Balogh, K.; Hrvatovic, H.; Balen, D.; Palinkas, L.; Jurkovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    K-Ar and Ar-Ar whole rock and mineral ages are presented for 25 samples of metamorphic rocks from the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts., representing one of the largest allochthonous Palaeozoic terranes incorporated within the Internal Dinarides. Four main age groups can be distinguished: 1) Variscan (∼ 343 Ma), 2) post-Variscan (288-238 Ma), 3) Early Cretaceous (mainly 121-92 Ma), and 4) Eocene (59--35 Ma) ages. Apart from this, an Oligocene (31 Ma) age was obtained on Alpine vein hyalophane. The radiometric dating indicates a polyphase metamorphic evolution of the Palaeozoic formations and suggests a pre-Carboniferous age of the volcano-sedimentary protoliths, an Early Carboniferous age of Variscan metamorphism and deformation, post-Variscan volcanism, an Early Cretaceous metamorphic overprint related to out-of-sequence thrusting of the Palaeozoic complex, and an Eocene and Oligocene metamorphic overprint related to the main Alpine compressional deformation and subsequent strike-slip faulting, and uplift of the metamorphic core. Accordingly, the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts. can be correlated in its multistage geodynamic evolution with some Palaeozoic tectonostratigraphic units from the Austroalpine domain in the Eastern Alps. (author)

  19. Relationships among seismic velocity, metamorphism, and seismic and aseismic fault slip in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Lohman, Rowena B.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is one of the most geothermally and seismically active areas in California and presents an opportunity to study the effect of high-temperature metamorphism on the properties of seismogenic faults. The area includes numerous active tectonic faults that have recently been imaged with active source seismic reflection and refraction. We utilize the active source surveys, along with the abundant microseismicity data from a dense borehole seismic network, to image the 3-D variations in seismic velocity in the upper 5 km of the crust. There are strong velocity variations, up to ~30%, that correlate spatially with the distribution of shallow heat flow patterns. The combination of hydrothermal circulation and high-temperature contact metamorphism has significantly altered the shallow sandstone sedimentary layers within the geothermal field to denser, more feldspathic, rock with higher P wave velocity, as is seen in the numerous exploration wells within the field. This alteration appears to have a first-order effect on the frictional stability of shallow faults. In 2005, a large earthquake swarm and deformation event occurred. Analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and earthquake relocations indicates that the shallow aseismic fault creep that occurred in 2005 was localized on the Kalin fault system that lies just outside the region of high-temperature metamorphism. In contrast, the earthquake swarm, which includes all of the M > 4 earthquakes to have occurred within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the last 15 years, ruptured the Main Central Fault (MCF) system that is localized in the heart of the geothermal anomaly. The background microseismicity induced by the geothermal operations is also concentrated in the high-temperature regions in the vicinity of operational wells. However, while this microseismicity occurs over a few kilometer scale region, much of it is clustered in earthquake swarms that last from

  20. Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwei Hui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.

  1. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s

  2. Isotopic chronometry of zoned garnets: Growth kinetics and metamorphic histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, D.; O'Nions, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Basic information on the chronological and pressure-temperature evolution of regional metamorphic terrains may in principle be derived from metamorphic garnets because of the similarly low diffusivities of Sm, Nd and major cations in this mineral. We report here Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic and major element data on prograde garnets from regionally metamorphosed pelites from Newfoundland. The garnets preserve a prograde major element zonation as well as a sympathetic variation in Sm/Nd ratio. Sm-Nd data for separated portions of the garnet from core to rim provide both upper limits on the time for garnet growth and demonstrate synchronous growth of different garnet grains on a hand specimen scale. The Rb-Sr data on the same garnet fractions are in general agreement with these results but in some cases cannot be interpreted in terms of growth. A minimum heating rate of 3 K Ma -1 is derived by combining the estimates for garnet growth time with the apparent temperature interval over which the garnet grew, deduced from the major element zonation. This value is similar to the minimum suggested by theoretical models for the thermal evolution of thickened continental crust. The growth rate is within the range of 1.3-19 mm Ma -1 , set respectively by the isotopic data and the likely upper limit for heating rate during regional metamorphism. These growth rates appear too slow to be controlled by surface reaction and suggest that other factors, such as transport, may be rate-limiting. In this case, the limits set of the effective diffusion coefficient for material transport to the growth site (=0.4-6.1x10 -17 m 2 s -1 ) suggest that grain boundary diffusion is probably the transport mechanism for supply of material to the growing garnet. (orig.)

  3. Timing of metamorphism and exhumation in the Nordøyane ultra-high-pressure domain, Western Gneiss Region, Norway: New constraints from complementary CA-ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. P.; Jamieson, R. A.; Dunning, G. R.; Pecha, M. E.; Robinson, P.; Steenkamp, H. M.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a combined CA-ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology study of zircon and associated rutile and titanite from the Nordøyane ultra-high-pressure (UHP) domain in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway. The dated samples include 4 eclogite bodies, 2 host-rock migmatites, and 2 cross-cutting pegmatites and leucosomes, all from the island of Harøya. Zircon from a coesite eclogite yielded an age of ca. 413 Ma, interpreted as the time of UHP metamorphism in this sample. Zircon data from the other eclogite bodies yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 413 Ma, 407 Ma, and 406 Ma; zircon trace-element data associated with 413 Ma and 407 Ma ages are consistent with eclogite-facies crystallization. In all of the eclogites, U-Pb dates from zircon cores, interpreted as the times of protolith crystallization, range from ca. 1680-1586 Ma, consistent with Gothian ages from orthogneisses in Nordøyane and elsewhere in the WGR. A zircon core age of ca. 943 Ma from one sample agrees with Sveconorwegian ages of felsic gneisses and pegmatites in the western part of the area. Migmatites hosting the eclogite bodies yielded zircon core ages of ca. 1657-1591 Ma and rim ages of ca. 395-392 Ma, interpreted as the times of Gothian protolith formation and Scandian partial melt crystallization, respectively. Pegmatite in an eclogite boudin neck yielded a crystallization age of ca. 388 Ma, interpreted as the time of melt crystallization. Rutile and titanite from 3 samples (an eclogite and two migmatites) yielded concordant ID-TIMS ages of 378-376 Ma. The results are similar to existing U-Pb data from other Nordøyane eclogites (415-405 Ma). In combination with previous pressure-temperature data from the coesite eclogite, these ages indicate that peak metamorphic conditions of 3 GPa/760 °C were reached ca. 413 Ma, followed by decompression to 1 GPa/810 °C by ca. 397 Ma and cooling below ca. 600 °C by ca. 375 Ma. The results are compatible with protracted UHP

  4. Technical report of electronics shop characteristics of high speed electronics component, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Shiino, Kazuo.

    1975-01-01

    We must develop electronics circuits for high speed signals. The electronics components of the circuits make use of the special components. This report treats a pulse response of the electronics components (i.e. coaxial cable, connector, resistor, capacitor, diode, transistor) for high speed electronics. The results of this report was already applied constructions of high speed electronics circuits and experimental equipments of the High Energy Physics Division. (auth.)

  5. High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotaev, Yu.; Meshkov, I.; Petrov, A.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Titkova, I.

    2000-01-01

    The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 μA/V 3/2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual)

  6. High perveance electron gun for the electron cooling system

    CERN Document Server

    Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M; Titkova, I

    2000-01-01

    The cooling time in the electron cooling system is inversely proportional to the beam current. To obtain high current of the electron beam the control electrode of the gun is provided with a positive potential and an electrostatic trap for secondary electrons appears inside the electron gun. This leads to a decrease in the gun perveance. To avoid this problem, the adiabatic high perveance electron gun with the clearing control electrode is designed in JINR (J. Bosser, Y. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, E. Syresin et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 391 (1996) 103. Yu. Korotaev, I. Meshkov, A. Sidorin, A. Smirnov, E. Syresin, The generation of electron beams with perveance of 3-6 mu A/V sup 3 sup / sup 2 , Proceedings of SCHEF'99). The clearing control electrode has a transverse electric field, which clears secondary electrons. Computer simulations of the potential map were made with RELAX3D computer code (C.J. Kost, F.W. Jones, RELAX3D User's Guide and References Manual).

  7. Assessment of fire-damaged concrete. Combining metamorphic petrology and concrete petrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Nijland, T.G.

    2001-01-01

    Metamorphic petrology is a branch of geology that deals with the study of changes in rocks due changing physio-chemical conditions. As conditions shift in or out of the thermodynamic stability field of phases, new phases may appear whereas others disappear. A basic approach is mapping of so-called

  8. Zircon and monazite petrochronologic record of prolonged amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones, NW Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergouz, Celia; Martin, Laure; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Thébaud, Nicolas; Fiorentini, Marco

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the understanding of thermal-tectonic evolution of high-grade terranes, we conducted a systematic study of textures, REE content and U-Pb ages of zircon and monazite grains extracted from migmatitic metapelites across the amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic gradient exposed in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones (Italy). This study documents the behaviour of these accessory minerals in the presence of melt. The absence of relict monazite grains in the metasediments and the gradual decrease in the size of inherited zircon grains from amphibolite to granulite facies cores indicate partial to total dissolution of accessory minerals during the prograde path and partial melting. The retrograde path is marked by (i) growth of new zircon rims (R1 and R2) around inherited cores in the mesosome, (ii) crystallisation of stubby zircon grains in the leucosome, especially at granulite facies, and (iii) crystallisation of new monazite in the mesosome. Stubby zircon grains have a distinctive fir-tree zoning and a constant Th/U ratio of 0.20. Together, these features reflect growth in the melt; conversely, the new zircon grains with R1 rims have dark prismatic habits and Th/U ratios ages obtained on both types are similar, indicating contemporaneous growth of stubby zircon and rims around unresorbed zircon grains, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of the melt at the grain scale. In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone the interquartile range (IQR) of U-Pb ages on zircon and monazite are interpreted to represent the length of zircon and monazite crystallisation in the presence of melt. Accordingly, they provide an indication on the minimum duration for high-temperature metamorphism and partial melting of the lower crust: 20 Ma and 30 Ma in amphibolite and granulite facies, respectively. In amphibolite facies, zircon crystallisation between 310 and 294 Ma (IQR) is interpreted to reflect metamorphic peak condition and earlier retrograde history; conversely

  9. Fluid-driven metamorphism of the continental crust governed by nanoscale fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sorenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    The transport of fluids through the Earth’s crust controls the redistribution of elements to form mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, the release and sequestration of greenhouse gases, and facilitates metamorphic reactions that influence lithospheric rheology. In permeable systems with a

  10. Post-Metamorphic Thermal Anomaly across the Nacimiento Block, Central California: a Hydrothermal Overprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Hughes, J.; Lahfid, A.; Delchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal history of the Nacimiento block located within the Franciscan Complex (California, USA) has been previously proposed based on both vitrinite reflectance (Rm) and illite cristallinity methods (Underwood et al., 1995). These authors suggest that the Nacimiento block is locally perturbed by a thermal anomaly (up to 300ºC), probably caused by post-metamorphic hydrothermal activity linked to the emplacement of an Au-deposit: the Los Burros Gold deposit. Although both thermal anomaly and deposit seem spatially correlated, their relationship is still poorly constrained. Detailed geological and structural mapping within the Los Burros Mining District (LBMD) coupled with a thermal study was conducted to better understand processes responsible for the anomalous temperatures recorded near the deposit. The regional maximum temperature reached by metasediments from the Nacimiento block have been first investigated using the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) method. In addition, through careful fluid-inclusion and stable isotopes (O and C) studies on the deposit, the temperature and the potential source of the fluid responsible for the Los Burros Au-deposit emplacement were investigated. RSCM technique confirms the presence of a thermal anomaly in the range 260-320ºC near LBMD. However, our structural and petrographic results suggest that the thermal anomaly is not correlated to a post-metamorphic hydrothermal overprint but rather to a late, transpressive deformation uplifting buried metamorphic rocks.

  11. Metamorphism and plutonism around the middle and south forks of the Feather River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Anna Martta

    1976-01-01

    The area around the Middle and South Forks of the Feather River provides information on metamorphic and igneous processes that bear on the origin of andesitic and granitic magmas in general and on the variation of their potassium content in particular. In the north, the area joins the Pulga and Bucks Lake quadrangles studied previously. Tectonically, this area is situated in the southern part of an arcuate segment of the Nevadan orogenic belt in the northwestern Sierra Nevada. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed calcalkaline island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite with interbedded tuff layers (the Franklin Canyon Formation), all probably correlative with Devonian rocks in the Klamath Mountains. Younger rocks form a sequence of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks including some limestone (The Horseshoe Bend Formation), probably Permian in age. All the volcanic and sedimentary rocks were folded and recrystallized to the greenschist facies during the Nevadan (Jurassic) orogeny and were invaded by monzotonalitic magmas shortly thereafter. A second lineation and metamorphism to the epidote-amphibolite facies developed in a narrow zone around the plutons. In light of the concept of plate tectonics, it is suggested that the early (Devonian?) island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite (the Franklin Canyon Formation) were derived from the mantle above a Benioff zone by partial melting of peridotite in hydrous conditions. The water was probably derived from an oceanic plate descending to the mantle. Later (Permian?) magmas were mainly basaltic; some discontinuous layers of potassium-rich rhyolite indicate a change into anhydrous conditions and a deeper level of magma generation. The plutonic magmas that invaded the metamorphic rocks at the end of the Jurassic may contain material from the mantle, the subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the downfolded metamorphic rocks. The ratio of partial melts from these three sources may have changed with time

  12. Crystallography of hornblende amphibole in LAP04840 R chondrite and implication for its metamorphic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kouhei; Mikouchi, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    LAP04840 is an unusual R chondrite that includes abundant hornblende amphibole. LAP04840 shows a texture of equilibrated chondrite composed of 59.3% olivine, 13.5% orthopyroxene, 13.3% hornblende, 6.2% plagio-clase, 6.0% Fe-Ni sulfide, and 1.7% accessory minerals. Hornblende replaces olivine and pyroxene in both chondrules and matrices, suggesting its secondary origin. All major phases in LAP04840 are homogeneous: olivine (Fa 37 ), orthopyroxene (En 70 Wo 1 ), and plagioclase (An 8 Or 2 ). Hornblende is also nearly homogeneous, but the total sum by electron microprobe analysis is 96-98 wt%, suggesting the presence of Fe 3+ and a hydroxyl group. Synchrotron Fe-XANES analysis gives a Fe 3+ /ΣFe ratio of ∼0.6 and micro-FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of a hydroxyl group. Thus, the structural formula is (Na 0.40 K 0 . 04 ) (Ca 1.46 Mn 0.02 Fe 0.06 2+ Na 0.46 ) (Al 0.08 Fe 0.43 2+ Fe 0.75 3+ Cr 0.08 Mg 3.60 ) (Si 7.02 Al 0.98 )O 22 (OH) 2 . Single crystal X-ray diffraction of LAP04840 hornblende gives the following lattice constants: a=9.7957(9) A, b=18.0788(12) A, c=5.2949(5) A, β=104.747(3)deg. The relatively short distances of [M(1)-O=2.069 A], [M(2)-O=2.081 A], and [M(3)-O=2.058 A] suggest the feasible preference of small Fe 3+ at these sites. The mineralogy and petrology of LAP04840 are consistent with its classification as an R6 chondrite. However, the presence of hornblende and biotite is quite unique among not only R chondrites but also asteroidal meteorites in general. The presence of these hydrous minerals suggests metamorphism under high pressure and an aqueous environment probably at depth in the parent body. A thermometer using hornblende and plagioclase equilibria gives T=670-690degC. Further, a barometer using Al content in hornblende gives P=∼0.1 GPa. Although these estimates bear some uncertainties, it is likely that the size of the R chondrite parent body was large enough to induce such metamorphism. (author)

  13. The Metamorphic Rocks-Hosted Gold Mineralization At Rumbia Mountains Prospect Area In The Southeastern Arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasria Hasria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in Indonesia gold exploration activities  are not only focused along volcanic-magmatic belts, but also starting to shift along metamorphic and sedimentary terrains. The study area is located in Rumbia mountains, Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. This paper is aimed to describe characteristics of alteration and ore mineralization associated  with metamorphic rock-related gold deposits.  The study area is found the placer and  primary gold hosted by metamorphic rocks. The gold is evidently derived from gold-bearing quartz veins hosted by Pompangeo Metamorphic Complex (PMC. These quartz veins are currently recognized in metamorphic rocks at Rumbia Mountains. The quartz veins are mostly sheared/deformed, brecciated, irregular vein, segmented and  relatively massive and crystalline texture with thickness from 1 cm to 15.7 cm. The wallrock are generally weakly altered. Hydrothermal alteration types include sericitization, argillic, inner propylitic, propylitic, carbonization and carbonatization. There some precious metal identified consist of native gold and ore mineralization including pyrite (FeS2, chalcopyrite (CuFeS2, hematite (Fe2O3, cinnabar (HgS, stibnite (Sb2S3 and goethite (FeHO2. The veins contain erratic gold in various grades from below detection limit <0.0002 ppm to 18.4 ppm. Based on those characteristics, it obviously indicates that the primary gold deposit present in the study area is of orogenic gold deposit type. The orogenic gold deposit is one of the new targets for exploration in Indonesia

  14. The age of the rocks and the metamorphic episodes from the Southeastern of Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.; Kawashita, K.; Schmuss, R. van; Taylor, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and U-Pb geochronologic studies carried out on precambrian rocks from the southeastern Sao Paulo state suggest a Complex geologic evolution during the Archean and Proterozoic times. This region is divided in five differents allochthonous terranes named Itapira-Amparo, Piracaiba-Jundiai, Sao Roque, Embu and Costeiro, separated by thrust and strike-slip faults. The Itapira-Amparo domain has a original history dating back to 3.4 Ga. and since 2.6 to 2.5 Ga. and 2.2 to 1.9 Ga. metamorphic rockformation episode occurred involving both mantle-derived magmas and recycled material. Supracrustal sequences developed around 1.4 Ga. The domain was locally reworked in 0.8 - 0.65 Ga. In the Piracaia-Jundiai the main rock-formation event occurred at 1.4 Ga., but this domian was affected by strong granization and migmatization episodes during the period 1.1 - 0.6 Ga. The third terrain is characterized by the Sao Roque metavolcanossedimentary sequence developed during the time period 1.8 - 0.7 Ga., and comprising two metamorphic superimposed events (1.4 and 0.8 - 0.7 Ga.). the post-tectonics granites ranging in ages from 0.7 to 0.55 Ga. Within the Embu terrain ages of 2.5, 1.4 and 0,75 Ga. were obtained for the metamorphic terrain, with post-tectonic activities around 650 Ma. In the Costeiro domain all the metamorphic rocks developed in late-Proterozoic time, with syntectonic phase around 650 Ma [pt

  15. Assessment of role of metamorphic remobilization in genesis of uranium ores from Ralston Buttes area, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Ralston Buttes mining district, the principal source of commercial uranium in the Front Range since the late 1940s, is located northeast of Golden and southeast of the Front Range mineral belt. Uranium ore occurs in veins emplaced in fault breccia in Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The progenitors of the metamorphic rocks are a possible source for the uranium. Hornblende gneisses of the Idaho Springs Formation is the major rock type in the area, thus its origin is a major consideration in assessing the quantity of uranium that might have been contributed by metamorphic processes. To evaluate this, 41 rock samples (19 hornblende gneisses, 7 biotite gneisses, 5 chlorite gneisses, and 10 metapelites) were analyzed for major elements, and 3 rock samples (16 hornblende gneisses, 8 biotite gneisses, 4 chlorite gneisses, and 5 mica schists) were analyzed for trace metals (Rb, Sc, Zr, V, Ni, Co, Cr, Ba, U, and Th). Four samples of hornblende gneiss and 1 sample of mica schists were also analyzed for rare earth elements. Major elements are rare earth data indicate that the hornblende gneiss was derived from sediments and tholeiitic basalts. Trace element data suggest a volcanic provenance for these sediments. Rare earth patterns and uranium and thorium abundances of metapelites are similar to average North American shales. Low uranium and thorium values and low thorium-uranium ratios in hornblende gneisses and mica schists preclude large-scale uranium remobilization during metamorphism of these source rocks

  16. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  17. Evolution of Migmatitic Granulite Complexes: implications from Lapland Granulite Belt, Part I: metamorphic geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuisku

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Lapland granulite belt was juxtaposed between Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the NE part of the Fennoscandian Shield concurrently with the accretion of Svecofennian arc complexes at ~1.9 Ga. The belt consists mainly of aluminous migmatiticmetagreywackes. Abundant noritic to enderbitic magmas were intruded concordantly into the metasediments and were probably an important heat source for metamorphism, which took place during the crystallization of the magmas. This is supported by structural and contact relations of metasediments and igneous rocks, and by the lack progressive metamorphic reaction textures in the igneous rock series. The peak of metamorphism took place above the dehydration melting temperature of the biotite-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz assemblageat 750−850°C and 5−8.5 kbar which lead to formation of a restitic palaeosome and peraluminous granitic melt in metapelites. Subsequently, the rocks were decompressed and cooled below the wet melting temperature of pelitic rocks (650°C under the stability field of andalusite coexisting with potassium feldspar (2−3 kbar. Cooling was accompanied by the crystallization of the neosomes, often carrying aluminium-rich phases. Postmetamorphic duplexing of the LGB is clearly seen in the distribution of calculated PT conditions.

  18. Extensional ductile tectonics of the Sioule metamorphic series (Variscan French Massif Central)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, M.; Grolier, J.; Pons, J.

    1993-09-01

    In the Northern part of the Variscan French Massif Central, the Sioule series, from top to bottom, consists of a pre-Viséan granite, migmatite, gneiss and mica schist. Two ductile deformations have been recognized. The earlier phase is characterized by a north-east-south-west trending stretching lineation; the second phase, characterized by a north-west-south-east trending mineral, stretching and crenulation lineation, is better marked in the lower mica schist part than in the upper granito-gneissic part. This second phase occurred during retrogression of the metamorphic rocks; related shear criteria indicate a top to the south-west shear. The Namurian-Westphalian magmatic bodies such as the Echassières leucogranite, Pouzol-Servant microgranite and numerous north-east -south-west trending microgranite dykes are emplaced in extensional fractures related to the same north-west-south-east maximum stretching direction. The asymmetrical shapes of the two granitic massifs indicate that they intruded towards the south-east. The synkinematic retrogression of the metamorphic rocks, the shape of the magmatic bodies and a re-examination of the numerous available data support the interpretation that the deformation is due to the extensional tectonic regime related to the Variscan crustal re-quilibration. This interpretation is in agreement with the correlation of the Sioule series with the Chavanon series. The two series belong to a unique tectono-metamorphic unit left-laterally offset by the Stephanian motion of the Sillon Houiller fault. This study also shows that the Sillon Houiller did not play a significant part during the Namurian-Westphalian extensional tectonics of the Massif Central.

  19. Timing of isoclinal folds in multiply deformed high metamorphic grade region using FIA succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Cai, Zhihui

    2013-04-01

    Multiply deformed and isoclinally folded interlayered high metamorphic grade gneisses and schists can be very difficult rocks for resolving early formed stratigraphic and structural relationships. When such rocks contain porphyroblasts a new approach is possible because of the way in which porphyroblast growth is affected by crenulation versus reactivation of compositional layering. The asymmetries of the overprinting foliations preserved as inclusion trails that define the FIAs can be used to investigate whether an enigmatic isoclinal fold is an antiform or synform. This approach also reveals when the fold first formed during the tectonic history of the region. Isoclinally folded rocks in the Arkansas River region of Central Colorado contain relics of fold hinges that have been very difficult to ascertain whether they are antiforms or synforms because of younger refolding effects and the locally truncated nature of coarse compositional layering. With the realization that rocks with a schistosity parallel to bedding (S0 parallel S1) have undergone lengthy histories of deformation that predate the obvious first deformation came recognition that large scale regional folds can form early during this process and be preserved throughout orogenesis. This extensive history is lost within the matrix because of reactivational shear on the compositional layering. However, it can be extracted by measuring FIAs. Recent work using this approach has revealed that the trends of axial planes of all map scale folds, when plotted on a rose diagram, strikingly reflect the FIA trends. That is, although it was demonstrated that the largest scale regional folds commonly form early in the total history, other folds can form and be preserved from subsequent destruction in the strain shadows of plutons or through the partitioning of deformation due to heterogeneities at depth.

  20. Thermal modeling of pluton emplacement and associated contact metamorphism:Parashi stock emplacement in the Serranía de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga C. Carlos A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the northernmost portion of the Serrania de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia, low - medium grade metamorphic rocks from the Etpana Metamorphic Suite were thermally affected by emplacement of a small calc-alkaline intrusion (Parashi Stock. Detailed petrographic analysis in collected rock samples across the NE and NW plutonic contacts show occurrences of textural and mineralogical changes in the country rock fabric that evidence contact metamorphism overprinting regional metamorphism of the Etpana Suite. These changes include growth of andalusite (chiastolite, calcic clinopyroxeneand amphibole porphyroblast crosscutting Sn+1 metamorphicfoliation. Hornblende-plagioclase barometry (ca. 3.1 kbar and cooling models for the stock show maximum time temperature evolution in the country rock at the interpreted depth of intrusion (ca. 11 km and help to evaluate the behavior of the country rock with the changing local geotherm.

  1. Thermodynamic modeling using BINGO-ANTIDOTE: A new strategy to investigate metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre; Duesterhoeft, Erik

    2016-04-01

    of its functionality, such as the determination of P-T conditions of high-grade rocks. BINGO-ANTIDOTE is still under development and will soon be freely available online. References: [1] Lanari P., Vidal O., De Andrade V., Dubacq B., Lewin E., Grosch E. G. and Schwartz S. (2013) XMapTools: a MATLAB©-based program for electron microprobe X-ray image processing and geothermobarometry. Comput. Geosci. 62, 227-240. [2] de Capitani C. and Petrakakis K. (2010) The computation of equilibrium assemblage diagrams with Theriak/Domino software. Am. Mineral. 95, 1006-1016. [3] Duesterhoeft E. and de Capitani C. (2013) Theriak_D: An add-on to implement equilibrium computations in geodynamic models. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, 4962-4967.

  2. Breccia pipes in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, as conduits for metamorphic gases to the Early Jurassic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkoset, Petter; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2014-05-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) event was manifested by globally elevated temperatures and anoxic ocean conditions that particularly affected shallow marine taxa. The event coincided with the emplacement of the vast Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province. Among the suggestions for trigger mechanisms for the climatic perturbation is metamorphic methane generation from black shale around the sills in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. The sill emplacement provides a mechanism for voluminous in-situ production and emission of greenhouse gases, and establishes a distinct link between basin-trapped and atmospheric carbon. In the lower stratigraphic levels of the Karoo Basin, black shales are metamorphosed around sills and the sediments are cut by a large number of pipe structures with metamorphic haloes. The pipes are vertical, cylindrical structures that contain brecciated and baked sediments with variable input of magmatic material. Here, we present borehole, petrographic, geochemical and field data from breccia pipes and contact aureoles based on field campaigns over a number of years (2004-2014). The metamorphism around the pipes show equivalent metamorphic grade as the sediments around nearby sills, suggesting a more prominent phreatomagmatic component than previously thought. The stratigraphic position of pipes and the breccia characteristics strengthens the hypothesis of a key role in the Toarcian carbon isotope excursion.

  3. Diffusion models in metamorphic thermo chronology: philosophy and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munha, Jose Manuel; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta

    1999-01-01

    Understanding kinetics of diffusion is of major importance to the interpretation of isotopic ages in metamorphic rocks. This paper provides a review of concepts and methodologies involved on the various diffusion models that can be applied to radiogenic systems in cooling rocks. The central concept of closure temperature is critically discussed and quantitative estimates for the various diffusion models are evaluated, in order to illustrate the controlling factors and the limits of their practical application. (author)

  4. Exhumation And Evolution Of Al-Taif Metamorphic Core Complex (Western Arabian Shield) During Dextral Transpressional Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Al-Taif metamorphic belt is a NE-trending belt decorating steeply dipping major transpressional shear zone in western central Arabian Shield. It comprises gneisses and migmatites that were syn-kinematically invaded under relatively high-grade metamorphic conditions by voluminous granitic bodies and a confluence of pegmatitic veins. Field mapping and outcrop investigation reveal that the belt was evolved during at least three Neoproterozoic deformations (D1-D3). D1 and D2 were progressive deformations, took place during a contractional regime, and resulted in SW-mildly plunging isoclinal folds, superimposed by NE- gently to moderately plunging folds. The prevailed tectonic regime during D3was primordially plastic, accompanied with a NE-oriented oblique shearing that was subsequently evolved as semi ductile-semi brittle shearing during an episode of exhumation. Mesoscopic kinematic indicators, as well as microstructural analysis of the collected rock samples, reflect dextral sense of shearing. Such style of shearing is most probably the conjugate trend of the NNW- to NW- oriented sinistral Najd Fault System. Various cross cutting structures and overprinting relations were detected at both the outcrop- and microscopic scales, including; ductile S2folia with ESE-plunging amphibole mineral lineations; narrow, steeply dipping ductile D2 shear zones; and semi brittle to brittle fault zones. S-C' fabrics, asymmetric strain shadows around porphyroclasts and drag fault indicate a top-to-the-NE sense of shear for most structures. The geometry and style of deformation, together with map pattern highlighted in this study attest a simple shear rotational strain origin for the domed mylonitic foliation (S1) and mineral elongation lineation (L1). This result is in congruent with the landform pattern recorded in the inner parts of the metamorphic core complexes.

  5. Chemical-Petrographic Types and Shock Metamorphism of 184 Grove Mountains Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiu Dai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We reported the petrography and mineral chemistry of 184 equilibrated ordinary chondrites collected from Grove Mountains, Antarctica. The chemical-petrographic types and shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. They were classified into 46 H groups (22 H4, 20 H5, and four H6, 133 L groups (eight L4, 75 L5, and 50 L6, and five LL groups (four LL4 and one LL5. Some of these chondrites could be paired; however, both H and L group meteorites were affected. Further studies such as terrestrial ages and thermal luminescence are required in order to confirm the pairings. The relative abundances of H, L, and LL are different in Grove Mountain meteorites, when compared to those in Transcontinental Ridge meteorites. Based on the shock effects, the shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. Compared to previous studies, the heavily shocked samples of S4 and S5 have a higher fraction (59 out of 184 in Grove Mountain ordinary chondrites. The L group (54 out of 59 is the dominant chemical group in the heavily shocked chondrites, except for five meteorites which belong to the H group. The shock metamorphism degrees of the H and L groups are distinct, which may indicate different surface properties in their parent bodies. In addition, the petrologic types and shock degrees are probably closely related, with the most heavily shocked chondrites observed in types 5 and 6.

  6. Late Mesoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic history of metamorphic basement from the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico, and implications for the evolution of NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bodo; González-Guzmán, Reneé; Manjarrez-Juárez, Román; Cisneros de León, Alejandro; Martens, Uwe; Solari, Luigi; Hecht, Lutz; Valencia, Victor

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, U-Pb zircon geochronology, Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics, geochemistry and geothermobarometry of metaigneous basement rocks exposed in the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex are presented. Geologic mapping of the newly defined "El Triunfo Complex" located at the southeastern edge of the Chiapas Massif reveals (1) partial melting of a metamorphic basement mainly constituted by mafic metaigneous rocks (Candelaria unit), (2) an Ediacaran metasedimentary sequence (Jocote unit), and (3) occurrence of massif-type anorthosite. All these units are intruded by undeformed Ordovician plutonic rocks of the Motozintla suite. Pressure and temperature estimates using Ca-amphiboles, plagioclase and phengite revealed prograde metamorphism that reached peak conditions at 650 °C and 6 kbar, sufficient for partial melting under water saturated conditions. Relict rutile in titanite and clinopyroxene in amphibolite further indicate a previous metamorphic event at higher P-T conditions. U-Pb zircon ages from felsic orthogneiss boudins hosted in deformed amphibolite and migmatite yield crystallization ages of 1.0 Ga, indicating that dry granitic protoliths represent remnants of Rodinia-type basement. Additionally, a mid-Tonian ( 920 Ma) metamorphic overprint is suggested by recrystallized zircon from a banded gneiss. Zircon from folded amphibolite samples yield mainly Ordovician ages ranging from 457 to 444 Ma that are indistinguishable from the age of the undeformed Motozintla plutonic suite. Similar ages between igneous- and metamorphic- zircon suggest a coeval formation during a high-grade metamorphic event, in which textural discrepancies are explained in terms of differing zircon formation mechanisms such as sub-solidus recrystallization and precipitation from anatectic melts. In addition, some amphibolite samples contain inherited zircon yielding Stenian-Tonian ages around 1.0 Ga. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopes and geochemical data indicate that the protoliths of

  7. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  8. Metamorphic P-T conditions and CO2 influx history of medium-grade metapelites from Karakorum, Trans-Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Himanshu K.; Santosh, M.; Prakash, Divya; Kharya, Aditya; Chandra Singh, P.; Rai, Santosh K.

    2016-07-01

    The medium grade metapelites of Pangong-Tso area in the trans-Himalayan region underwent sillimanite-grade metamorphism initiated during the Cretaceous, associated with the collision of the Kohistan arc and the Indian plate with Asia. This paper present results from a petrological and fluid inclusion study to understand the metamorphic P-T conditions and fluid history of these rocks. The calculated phase equilibria in the Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 (NCKFMMnASHT) system suggest P-T conditions of 8 kbar and 650 °C for the peak metamorphic event. Primary fluid inclusions occur in staurolite and garnet, whereas quartz carries mostly secondary fluid inclusions. The trapped fluids in primary inclusions show initial melting temperatures in the range of -56.9 to -56.6 °C, suggesting nearly pure CO2 composition. The secondary fluids are of mixed carbonic-aqueous nature. The re-equilibrated inclusions show annular morphology as well as necking phenomena. The CO2 isochores for the primary inclusions indicate pressures of 6.1-6.7 kbar, suggesting that the CO2-rich fluids were trapped during post-peak exhumation of the rocks, or that synmetamorphic carbonic fluids underwent density reversal during isothermal decompression. The secondary CO2-H2O fluids must have been trapped during the late exhumation stage, as their isochores define further lower pressures of 4.8 kbar. The morphology of re-equilibrated fluid inclusions and the rapid decrease in pressure are consistent with a near-isothermal decompression trajectory following the peak metamorphism. The carbonic fluids were probably derived locally from decarbonation reactions of the associated carbonate rocks during metamorphism or from a deep-seated reservoir through Karakorum fault.

  9. A metamorphic controller for plant control system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Klopot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in the design of industrial control systems is the selection and parameterization of the control algorithm. In practice, the most common solution is the PI (proportional-integral controller, which is simple to implement, but is not always the best control strategy. The use of more advanced controllers may result in a better efficiency of the control system. However, the implementation of advanced control algorithms is more time-consuming and requires specialized knowledge from control engineers. To overcome these problems and to support control engineers at the controller design stage, the paper describes a tool, i.e., a metamorphic controller with extended functionality, for selection and implementation of the most suitable control algorithm. In comparison to existing solutions, the main advantage of the metamorphic controller is its possibility of changing the control algorithm. In turn, the candidate algorithms can be tested through simulations and the total time needed to perform all simulations can be less than a few minutes, which is less than or comparable to the design time in the concurrent design approach. Moreover, the use of well-known tuning procedures, makes the system easy to understand and operate even by inexperienced control engineers. The application was implemented in the real industrial programmable logic controller (PLC and tested with linear and nonlinear virtual plants. The obtained simulation results confirm that the change of the control algorithm allows the control objectives to be achieved at lower costs and in less time.

  10. Determination of fluorine by proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) spectrometry in igneous and metamorphic charnockitic rocks from Rogaland (S.W. Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J.M.; Duchesne, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    More than 200 specimens from different occurrences of the Rogaland igneous complex and surrounding granulite facies metamorphic rocks (S.W. Norway) have been analysed by a direct non-destructive proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) technique. The fluorine contents vary from < 25 ppm to 3500 ppm. There is a good correlation between the concentration of fluorine and that of phosphorus for igneous rocks, suggesting a control of apatite on the F content. In metamorphic rocks, amphibole and biotite besides apatite are the principal concentrations of fluorine indicating that fluorine in the system is controlled by granulite facies metamorphism conditions. (author)

  11. Investigation of In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.7Al0.3As metamorphic HEMT- heterostructures by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Saint-Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" >Romanovskiy, D S; LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Saint-Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" >Tarasov, S A; Galiev, G B; Pushkarev, S S

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence and photoreflectance have been studied in several metamorphic HEMT- (MHEMT-) heterostructures with the same active regions and different buffer layer designs grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The indium mole fraction in InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs single quantum well (QW) is 0.7. It was found that structures with step-graded metamorphic buffer have better quality. Also it was shown that mismatched superlattices in metamorphic buffer can influence on the half-width of photoluminescence spectra. The possible attribution of photoluminescence and photoreflectance spectral lines and their thermal behaviour are critically discussed

  12. InAlAs/InGaAs Pseudomorphic High Eelectron Mobility Transistors Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy on the InP Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jie; Guo Tian-Yi; Zhang Hai-Ying; Xu Jing-Bo; Fu Xiao-Jun; Yang Hao; Niu Jie-Bin

    2010-01-01

    A novel PMMA/PMGI/ZEP520 trilayer resist electron beam lithograph (EBL) technology is successfully developed and used to fabricate the 150 nm gate-length In 0.7 Ga 0.3 As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As Pseudomorphic HEMT on an InP substrate, of which the material structure is successfully designed and optimized. A perfect profile of T-gate is successfully obtained. These fabricated devices demonstrate excellent dc and rf characteristics: the transconductance G m , maximum saturation drain-to-source current I DSS , threshold voltage V T , maximum current gain frequency f T derived from h 21 , maximum frequency of oscillation derived from maximum available power gain/maximum stable gain and from unilateral power-gain of metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are 470 mS/mm, 560 mA/mm, −1.0 V, 76 GHz, 135 GHz and 436 GHz, respectively. The excellent high frequency performances promise the possibility of metamorphic HEMTs for millimeter-wave applications. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Evidence of an upper ordovician thermo-metamorphic event in the SW-Corner of the Cantabrian Mountains (N-Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krumm, S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Illite «crystallinity» (IC data, the metamorphic evolution of the SW Cantabrian Mountains took place in several steps. After a Precambrian deformation with accompanying low-grade metamorphism a thermal event during the Upper Ordovician affected the Cambro-Ordovician sediments. This event is marked by anchizonal IC values in the Pre-Silurian sequence contrasting the diagenetic data obtained from Siluro-Devonian rocks.Apparently, the metamorphic history in that part of the Cantabrian Mountains ended during the Late Ordovician, a Hercynian metamorphism cannot be proven conclusively.Segun la cristalinidad de Illita (IC la evolución metamórfica de la zona sudoeste de la Cordillera Cantábrica tuvo lugar en varias etapas. Siguiendo una deformación precámbrica con un metamorfismo de bajo grado, un evento térmico durante el Ordovícico Superior afecto a la secuencia Cambro-Ordovícica. Este evento esta marcado en las rocas pre-Silúricas por valores de IC indicando la anchizona. Estos datos contrastan con valores obtenidos de la secuencia Siluro-Devónica, que son característicos de la diagénesis.Aparentemente, la evolución metamórfica del sudoeste de la Cordillera Cantábrica termino durante el Ordovícico, un metamorfismo Hercínico no pudo ser comprobado.

  14. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included

  15. Development of an electron gun for high power CW electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshio; Nomura, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    An electron gun launching high average current beam has been designed for the high power CW electron linac at PNC. A peak electron beam current of 400mA with beam energy 200keV is required from the buncher design. However its average current is very high(duty factor 20%), a mesh grid is not able to be used for current control because of heating up or melting of grid. Furthermore, the beam current have to be variable up to 400mA to match with downstream modules, especially the accelerating guides including recirculating system. We employed the electron gun with two aperture grids to control beam current. The dimension of the electrodes, electron trajectory, the size of beam radius, and gun emittance was simulated by EGUN. (author)

  16. Ontogeny of the vertebral column of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) reveals heterochronies relative to metamorphic frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Ramos-Pallares, Eliana Patricia; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2013-07-01

    Over the last century, the morphogenesis of the vertebral column has been considered as a highly conserved process among anurans. This statement is based on the study of few metamorphic taxa, ignoring the role of developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of specialized life-histories. Direct development in anurans has been regarded as evolutionarily derived and involves developmental recapitulation and repatterning at different levels in all amphibian taxa studied so far. Herein, we analyze the vertebral column morphogenesis of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, describing the sequence of chondrification and ossification, based on cleared and double-stained specimens from early stage embryos to adults. In general, our results show that the morphogenesis of the vertebral column in E. johnstonei recapitulates the ancestral tadpole-like pattern of development. However, the analysis of the sequence of events using heterochrony plots shows important heterocronies relative to metamorphic species, such as a delay in the chondrification of the vertebral centra and in osteogenesis. These ontogenetic peculiarities may represent derived traits in direct-developing frogs and are possibly correlated with its unusual life history. In addition, several features of the vertebral column of E. johnstonei are highly variable from its typical morphology. We report some malformations and small deviations, which do not seem to affect the survival of individuals. These anomalies have also been found in other frogs, and include many vertebral defects, such as vertebral fusion, and vertebral preclusion and/or induction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  18. Enzyme clusters during the metamorphic period of Ambystoma mexicanum: role of thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Mooren, P. G.; de Graaf, A.

    1982-01-01

    Enzyme activities and DNA content have been measure in axolotl liver during the metamorphic period (4-8 months after spawning). Three different types of enzyme activity profiles were observed. In the type I profile (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, arginase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, and glutamate

  19. Photoelectric properties of the metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dot structure at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovynskyi, S. L., E-mail: golovynskyi@isp.kiev.ua [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Seravalli, L.; Trevisi, G.; Frigeri, P.; Gombia, E. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, CNR-IMEM, Parco delle Scienze 37a, I-43100 Parma (Italy); Dacenko, O. I.; Kondratenko, S. V. [Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64 Volodymyrska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2015-06-07

    We present the study of optical and photoelectric properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on a metamorphic In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As buffer layer: such nanostructures show efficient light emission in the telecom window at 1.3 μm (0.95 eV) at room temperature. We prepared a sample with vertical geometry of contacts isolated from the GaAs substrate. The structure is found to be photosensitive in the spectral range above 0.9 eV at room temperature, showing distinctive features in the photovoltage and photocurrent spectra attributed to QDs, InAs wetting layer, and In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As metamorphic buffer, while a drop in the photoelectric signal above 1.36 eV is related to the GaAs layer. No effect of defect centers on the photoelectrical properties is found, although they are observed in the absorption spectrum. We conclude that metamorphic QDs have a low amount of interface-related defects close to the optically active region and charge carriers can be effectively collected into InAs QDs.

  20. Measured versus calculated thermal conductivity of high-grade metamorphic rocks – inferences on the thermal properties of the lower crust at ambient and in-situ conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Labani; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Förster, Andrea

    in the literature are applied. Thus, if appropriate samples (in terms of sample size or physical-chemical-mechanical condition) for laboratory measurement are not available, bulk TC of high-grade metamorphic rocks with low anisotropy and porosity could be satisfactorily good assessed from modal mineralogy, using......The bulk thermal conductivity (TC) of 26 rock samples representing felsic, intermediate and mafic granulites, from the Southern Granulite Province, India, is measured at dry and saturated conditions with the optical-scanning method. Thermal conductivity is also calculated from modal mineralogy...... (determined by XRD and EPMA), applying mixing models commonly used in thermal studies. Most rocks are fine- to medium -grained equigranular in texture. All samples are isotropic to weakly anisotropic and possess low porosities (

  1. High electron mobility InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R. E.; Li, S. X.; Haller, E. E.; van Genuchten, H. C. M.; Yu, K. M.; Ager, J. W. III; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of InN films with 2 MeV He + ions followed by thermal annealing below 500 deg. C creates films with high electron concentrations and mobilities, as well as strong photoluminescence. Calculations show that electron mobility in irradiated samples is limited by triply charged donor defects. Subsequent thermal annealing removes a fraction of the defects, decreasing the electron concentration. There is a large increase in electron mobility upon annealing; the mobilities approach those of the as-grown films, which have 10 to 100 times smaller electron concentrations. Spatial ordering of the triply charged defects is suggested to cause the unusual increase in electron mobility

  2. Reaction induced nucleation and growth v. grain coarsening in contact metamorphic, impure carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Brodhag, Sabine; Herwegh, Marco

    2010-01-01

    aureole of the Adamello pluton (N-Italy). As a function of increasing distance from the pluton contact, the investigated samples have peak metamorphic temperatures ranging from the stability field of diopside/tremolite down to diagenetic conditions. All samples consist of calcite as the dominant matrix...

  3. Response of zircon to melting and metamorphism in deep arc crust, Fiordland (New Zealand): implications for zircon inheritance in cordilleran granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shrema; Kemp, A. I. S.; Collins, W. J.

    2018-04-01

    The Cretaceous Mount Daniel Complex (MDC) in northern Fiordland, New Zealand was emplaced as a 50 m-thick dyke and sheet complex into an active shear zone at the base of a Cordilleran magmatic arc. It was emplaced below the 20-25 km-thick, 125.3 ± 1.3 Ma old Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO) and is characterized by metre-scale sheets of sodic, low and high Sr/Y diorites and granites. 119.3 ± 1.2 Ma old, pre-MDC lattice dykes and 117.4 ± 3.1 Ma late-MDC lattice dykes constrain the age of the MDC itself. Most dykes were isoclinally folded as they intruded, but crystallised within this deep-crustal, magma-transfer zone as the terrain cooled and was buried from 25 to 50 km (9-14 kbar), based on published P-T estimated from the surrounding country rocks. Zircon grains formed under these magmatic/granulite facies metamorphic conditions were initially characterized by conservatively assigning zircons with oscillatory zoning as igneous and featureless rims as metamorphic, representing 54% of the analysed grains. Further petrological assignment involved additional parameters such as age, morphology, Th/U ratios, REE patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperature estimates. Using this integrative approach, assignment of analysed grains to metamorphic or igneous groupings improved to 98%. A striking feature of the MDC is that only 2% of all igneous zircon grains reflect emplacement, so that the zircon cargo was almost entirely inherited, even in dioritic magmas. Metamorphic zircons of MDC show a cooler temperature range of 740-640 °C, reflects the moderate ambient temperature of the lower crust during MDC emplacement. The MDC also provides a cautionary tale: in the absence of robust field and microstructural relations, the igneous-zoned zircon population at 122.1 ± 1.3 Ma, derived mostly from inherited zircons of the WFO, would be meaningless in terms of actual magmatic emplacement age of MDC, where the latter is further obscured by younger (ca. 114 Ma) metamorphic overgrowths

  4. Sc, Y, La-Lu. Rare earth elements. Vol. A 6a. Y, La, and the lanthanoids. Geochemistry: Sedimentary cycle. Metamorphic cycle. 8. rev. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditz, R; Sarbas, B; Schubert, P; Toepper, W

    1988-01-01

    The present volume 'Rare Earth Elements' A 6a describes origin, mode of occurrence, and behavior of Y and RE elements in the sedimentary and metamorphic cycles, and completes the series of volumes describing cosmo- and geochemistry of these elements. In the chapter 'Sedimentary Cycle', the behavior of Y and RE during the weathering process is first outlined under both marine and terrestrial conditions, including a short compilation for migration and precipitation in surficial weathering and oxidation zones. The main part of the chapter treats, in addition to the mode of occurrence, predominantly the distribution of Y and RE in the different types of sedimentary rocks in relation to genetic processes (comprising physical and/or spatial factors such as geological age of the deposition). A concluding part gives a description of mobilization, migration, and precipitation of Y and RE during the diagenetic transformation of sediments, especially in relation to the various types of ferromanganese concretions. In the chapter 'Metamorphic Cycle', the first, extensive part gives examples of mode of occurrence and behavior of Y and RE during both the contact-metamorphic and prograde and retrograde regional-metamorphic processes affecting sedimentary and igeneous source rocks. The second part briefly describes behaviour of Y and RE during ultrametamorphism of metamorphic rocks, and during metamorphic processes in connection with special types of geologic events (as, e.g., subduction of crustal material into the earth's mantle and impact of extraterrestrial material). (orig.) With 4 figs.

  5. Rb-Sr measurements on metamorphic rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A.; Neves, B.B.B.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Barro Alto Complex comprises a highly deformed and metamorphosed association of plutonic, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks exposed in a 150 x 25 Km boomerang-like strip in Central Goias, Brazil. It is the southernmost tip of an extensive yet discontinuous belt of granulite and amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks which include the Niquelandia and Cana Brava complexes to the north. Two rock associations are distinguished within the granulite belt. The first one comprises a sequence of fine-grained mafic granulite, hypersthene-quartz-feldspar granulite, garnet quartzite, sillimanite-garnet-cordierite gneiss, calc-silicate rock, and magnetite-rich iron formation. The second association comprises medium-to coarse-grained mafic rocks. The medium-grade rocks of the western/northern portion (Barro Alto Complex) comprise both layered mafic rocks and a volcanic-sedimentary sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions. The fine-grained amphibolite form the basal part of the Juscelandia meta volcanic-sedimentary sequence. A geochronologic investigation by the Rb-Sr method has been carried out mainly on felsic rocks from the granulite belt and gneisses of the Juscelandia sequence. The analytical results for the Juscelandia sequence are presented. Isotope results for rocks from different outcrops along the gneiss layer near Juscelandia are also presented. In conclusion, Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that the Barro Alto rocks have undergone at least one important metamorphic event during Middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Juscelandia sequence, as well as the underlying gabbro-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. (author)

  6. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  7. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  8. Development of high current electron beam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sun Kook [and others

    1997-05-01

    A high-current electron beam generator has been developed. The energy and the average current of the electron beam are 2 MeV and 50 mA, respectively. The electron beam generator is composed of an electron gun, RF acceleration cavities, a 260-kW RF generator, electron beam optics components, and control system, etc. The electron beam generator will be used for the development of a millimeter-wave free-electron laser and a high average power infrared free-electron laser. The machine will also be used as a user facility in nuclear industry, environment industry, semiconductor industry, chemical industry, etc. (author). 15 tabs., 85 figs.

  9. Development of high current electron beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sun Kook

    1997-05-01

    A high-current electron beam generator has been developed. The energy and the average current of the electron beam are 2 MeV and 50 mA, respectively. The electron beam generator is composed of an electron gun, RF acceleration cavities, a 260-kW RF generator, electron beam optics components, and control system, etc. The electron beam generator will be used for the development of a millimeter-wave free-electron laser and a high average power infrared free-electron laser. The machine will also be used as a user facility in nuclear industry, environment industry, semiconductor industry, chemical industry, etc. (author). 15 tabs., 85 figs

  10. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages of high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Highland and Wanni Complexes, Sri Lanka: Their geochronological correlation with southern India and East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Ippei; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko; Adachi, Tatsuro; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.

    2018-05-01

    The high-grade metamorphic rocks of Sri Lanka place valuable constraints on the assembly of central parts of the Gondwana supercontinent. They are subdivided into the Wanni Complex (WC), Highland Complex (HC) and Vijayan Complex (VC), but their correlation with neighbouring Gondwana terranes is hindered by a poor understanding of the contact between the HC and WC. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb dating of remnant zircon cores from 45 high-grade metamorphic rocks in Sri Lanka reveals two domains with different age characteristics that correlate with the HC and WC and which help constrain the location of the boundary between them. The HC is dominated by detrital zircon ages of ca. 3500-1500 Ma from garnet-biotite gneiss, garnet-cordierite-biotite gneiss, some samples of garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite gneiss and siliceous gneiss (interpreted as paragneisses) and igneous protolith ages of ca. 2000-1800 Ma from garnet-hornblende-biotite gneiss, other samples of garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite gneiss, garnet-two-pyroxene granulite, two-pyroxene granulite and charnockite (interpreted as orthogneisses). In contrast, the WC is dominated by detrital zircon ages of ca. 1100-700 Ma from paragneisses and igneous protolith ages of ca. 1100-800 Ma from orthogneisses. This clearly suggests the HC and WC have different origins, but some of our results and previous data indicate their spatial distribution does not correspond exactly to the unit boundary proposed in earlier studies using Nd model ages. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages in the HC suggest that sedimentary protoliths were eroded from local 2000-1800 Ma igneous rocks and an older Paleoproterozoic to Archean craton. In contrast, the WC sedimentary protoliths were mainly eroded from local late Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic igneous rocks with very minor components from an older 2500-1500 Ma craton, and in the case of the WC precursor sediments there was possibly

  11. Highly efficient electron gun with a single-atom electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Urata, Tomohiro; Cho, Boklae; Rokuta, Eiji; Oshima, Chuhei; Terui, Yoshinori; Saito, Hidekazu; Yonezawa, Akira; Tsong, Tien T.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated highly collimated electron-beam emission from a practical electron gun with a single-atom electron source; ∼80% of the total emission current entered the electron optics. This ratio was two or three orders of magnitude higher than those of the conventional electron sources such as a cold field emission gun and a Zr/O/W Schottky gun. At the pressure of less than 1x10 -9 Pa, the authors observed stable emission of 20 nA, which generates the specimen current of 5 pA required for scanning electron microscopes

  12. HIGH-CURRENT ERL-BASED ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEN-ZVI, I.

    2005-01-01

    The design of an electron cooler must take into account both electron beam dynamics issues as well as the electron cooling physics. Research towards high-energy electron cooling of RHIC is in its 3rd year at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The luminosity upgrade of RHIC calls for electron cooling of various stored ion beams, such as 100 GeV/A gold ions at collision energies. The necessary electron energy of 54 MeV is clearly out of reach for DC accelerator system of any kind. The high energy also necessitates a bunched beam, with a high electron bunch charge, low emittance and small energy spread. The Collider-Accelerator Department adopted the Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) for generating the high-current, high-energy and high-quality electron beam. The RHIC electron cooler ERL will use four Superconducting RF (SRF) 5-cell cavities, designed to operate at ampere-class average currents with high bunch charges. The electron source will be a superconducting, 705.75 MHz laser-photocathode RF gun, followed up by a superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). An R and D ERL is under construction to demonstrate the ERL at the unprecedented average current of 0.5 amperes. Beam dynamics performance and luminosity enhancement are described for the case of magnetized and non-magnetized electron cooling of RHIC

  13. On the Magnitude and Orientation of Stress during Shock Metamorphism: Understanding Peak Ring Formation by Combining Observations and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, A.; Poelchau, M.; Collins, G. S.; Timms, N.; Cavosie, A. J.; Lofi, J.; Salge, T.; Riller, U. P.; Ferrière, L.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Osinski, G.; Morgan, J. V.; Expedition 364 Science Party, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    Shock metamorphism occurs during the earliest moments after impact. The magnitude and orientation of shock leaves recordable signatures in rocks, which spatially vary across an impact structure. Consequently, observations of shock metamorphism can be used to understand deformation and its history within a shock wave, and to examine subsequent deformation during crater modification. IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 recovered nearly 600 m of shocked target rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub Crater. Samples from the expedition were used to measure the magnitude and orientation of shock in peak ring materials, and to determine the mechanism of peak-ring emplacement. Here, we present the results of petrographic analyses of the shocked granitic target rocks of the Chicxulub peak ring; using universal-stage optical microscopy, back-scattered electron images, and electron back-scatter diffraction. Deformation microstructures in quartz include planar deformation features (PDFs), feather features (FFs), which are unique to shock conditions, as well as planar fractures and crystal-plastic deformation bands. The assemblage of PDFs in quartz suggest that the peak-ring rocks experienced shock pressures of 15 GPa throughout the recovered drill core, and that the orientation of FFs are consistent with the present-day orientation of the maximum principal stress direction during shock is close to vertical. Numerical impact simulations of the impact event were run to determine the magnitude and orientation of principal stresses during shock and track those orientations throughout crater formation. Our results are remarkably consistent with the geological data, and accurately predict both the shock-pressure magnitudes, and the final near-vertical orientation of the direction of maximum principal stress in the shock wave. Furthermore, analysis of the state of stress throughout the impact event can be used to constrain the timing of fracture and fault orientations observed in the core

  14. Preliminary isotopic data from some amphibolites of the metamorphic basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa M, Ana Maria; Martens K, Uwe; Ordonez C, Oswaldo; Pimentel, Marcio M; Restrepo A, Jorge Julian

    2001-01-01

    Various amphibolite bodies are exposed in the Antioquia Department, Colombia, mainly around the cities of Medellin and El Retiro. Two types of amphibolites occur in the study area; the first one is considered as part of an ophiolite complex and the second one correspond to amphibolites associated to metasediments from the basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera. The present work refers to these last ones. The relationships between amphibolite bodies and other lythological units are the following ones: Intercalation of amphibolites layers with metasediments in the unit migmatites and granulites of El Retiro. The Medellin amphibolites are conformably overlaid by the paragneisses of Las Penas. The granodiorite body represented by the Antioquian Batolith is intrusive in the metamorphic rocks and the Medellin Dunites unit is in thrust fault contact with Medellin amphibolites. These amphibolites have been studied by Botero (1963), Gonzalez (1976 and 1980), Restrepo and Toussaint (1984), Ardila (1986), Restrepo (1986), Rendon (1999) and, Correa and Martens (2000). Available radiometric ages on the amphibolites come from former works by Restrepo y Toussaint (1978), Restrepo et al. (1991) that presented K-Ar ages in amphiboles and a Rb-Sr isochron which yielded a Cretaceous age that they interpreted as a metamorphic age. This work presents new evidences, obtained from field work, petrography, rock geochemistry and specially the first isotopic data on these amphibolites from the Central Cordillera Metamorphic Basement (au)

  15. Organic High Electron Mobility Transistors Realized by 2D Electron Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panlong; Wang, Haibo; Yan, Donghang

    2017-09-01

    A key breakthrough in inorganic modern electronics is the energy-band engineering that plays important role to improve device performance or develop novel functional devices. A typical application is high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which utilizes 2D electron gas (2DEG) as transport channel and exhibits very high electron mobility over traditional field-effect transistors (FETs). Recently, organic electronics have made very rapid progress and the band transport model is demonstrated to be more suitable for explaining carrier behavior in high-mobility crystalline organic materials. Therefore, there emerges a chance for applying energy-band engineering in organic semiconductors to tailor their optoelectronic properties. Here, the idea of energy-band engineering is introduced and a novel device configuration is constructed, i.e., using quantum well structures as active layers in organic FETs, to realize organic 2DEG. Under the control of gate voltage, electron carriers are accumulated and confined at quantized energy levels, and show efficient 2D transport. The electron mobility is up to 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , and the operation mechanisms of organic HEMTs are also argued. Our results demonstrate the validity of tailoring optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductors by energy-band engineering, offering a promising way for the step forward of organic electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Cordero, Marlon D.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hanna, Amir; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  17. Decal Electronics: Printable Packaged with 3D Printing High-Performance Flexible CMOS Electronic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-10-14

    High-performance complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics are flexed, packaged using 3D printing as decal electronics, and then printed in roll-to-roll fashion for highly manufacturable printed flexible high-performance electronic systems.

  18. The next chapter in experimental petrology: Metamorphic dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum captured in 3D microtomographic time series datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, John; Fusseis, Florian; Leclere, Henry; Wheeler, John; Faulkner, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleation and growth of new minerals in response to disequilibrium is the most fundamental metamorphic process. However, our current kinetic models of metamorphic reactions are largely based on inference from fossil mineral assemblages, rather than from direct observation. The experimental investigation of metamorphism has also been limited, typically to concealed vessels that restrict the possibility of direct microstructural monitoring. Here we present one of the first time series datasets that captures a metamorphic reaction, dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum to form hemihydrate, in a series of three dimensional x-ray microtomographic datasets. We achieved this by installing an x-ray transparent hydrothermal cell (Fusseis et al., 2014, J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 251-253) in the microtomography beamline 2BM at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). In the cell, we heated a millimetre-sized sample of Volterra Alabaster to 388 K while applying an effective pressure of 5 MPa. Using hard x-rays that penetrate the pressure vessel, we imaged the specimen 40 times while it reacted for approximately 10 hours. Each microtomographic dataset was acquired in 300 seconds without interrupting the reaction. Our absorption microtomographic data have a voxel size of 1.3 μm, which suffices to analyse the reaction progress in 4D. Gypsum can clearly be distinguished from hemihydrate and pores, which form due to the large negative solid volume change. On the resolved scale, the first hemihydrate needles appear after about 2 hours. Our data allow tracking of individual needles throughout the entire experiment. We quantified their growth rates by measuring their circumference. While individual grains grow at different rates, they all start slowly during the initial nucleation stage, then accelerate and grow steadily between about 200 and 400 minutes before reaction rate decelerates again. Hemihydrate needles are surrounded by porous haloes, which grow with the needles, link up and

  19. Optimization of structural and growth parameters of metamorphic InGaAs photovoltaic converters grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalchenko, D. V.; Mintairov, S. A.; Salii, R. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A., E-mail: nickk@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Metamorphic Ga{sub 0.76}In{sub 0.24}As heterostructures for photovoltaic converters are grown by the MOCVD (metal–organic chemical vapor deposition) technique. It is found that, due to the valence-band offset at the p-In{sub 0.24}Al{sub 0.76}As/p-In{sub 0.24}Ga{sub 0.76}As (wide-gap window/emitter) heterointerface, a potential barrier for holes arises as a result of a low carrier concentration in the wide-gap material. The use of an InAlGaAs solid solution with an Al content lower than 40% makes it possible to raise the hole concentration in the widegap window up ~9 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –3} and completely remove the potential barrier, thereby reducing the series resistance of the device. The parameters of an GaInAs metamorphic buffer layer with a stepwise In content profile are calculated and its epitaxial growth conditions are optimized, which improves carrier collection from the n-GaInAs base region and provides a quantum efficiency of 83% at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Optimization of the metamorphic heterostructure of the photovoltaic converter results in that its conversion efficiency for laser light with a wavelength of 1064 nm is 38.5%.

  20. Unified Singularity Modeling and Reconfiguration of 3rTPS Metamorphic Parallel Mechanisms with Parallel Constraint Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a unified singularity modeling and reconfiguration analysis of variable topologies of a class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms with parallel constraint screws. The new parallel mechanisms consist of three reconfigurable rTPS limbs that have two working phases stemming from the reconfigurable Hooke (rT joint. While one phase has full mobility, the other supplies a constraint force to the platform. Based on these, the platform constraint screw systems show that the new metamorphic parallel mechanisms have four topologies by altering the limb phases with mobility change among 1R2T (one rotation with two translations, 2R2T, and 3R2T and mobility 6. Geometric conditions of the mechanism design are investigated with some special topologies illustrated considering the limb arrangement. Following this and the actuation scheme analysis, a unified Jacobian matrix is formed using screw theory to include the change between geometric constraints and actuation constraints in the topology reconfiguration. Various singular configurations are identified by analyzing screw dependency in the Jacobian matrix. The work in this paper provides basis for singularity-free workspace analysis and optimal design of the class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms with parallel constraint screws which shows simple geometric constraints with potential simple kinematics and dynamics properties.

  1. High-field electron-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, F V.

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in novel technologies (including chirped-pulse amplification, femtosecond laser systems operating in the TW-PW range, high-gradient rf photoinjectors, and synchronized relativistic electron bunches with subpicosecond durations and THz bandwidths) allow experimentalists to study the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultrahigh-intensity photon fields. Ponderomotive scattering can accelerate these electrons with extremely high gradients in a three-dimensional vacuum laser focus. The nonlinear Doppler shift induced by relativistic radiation pressure in Compton backscattering is shown to yield complex nonlinear spectra which can be modified by using temporal laser pulse shaping techniques. Colliding laser pulses, where ponderomotive acceleration and Compton backscattering are combined, could also yield extremely short wavelength photons. Finally, one expects strong radiative corrections when the Doppler-upshifted laser wavelength approaches the Compton scale. These are discussed within the context of high-field classical electrodynamics, a new discipline borne out of the aforementioned innovations

  2. Formation of a high quality electron beam using photo cathode RF electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2000-01-01

    Formation of a high quality electron beam using photo cathode RF electron gun is expected for formation of a next generation high brilliant X-ray beam and a source for electron and positron collider. And, on a field of material science, as is possible to carry out an experiment under ultra short pulse and extremely high precision in time, it collects large expectation. Recently, formation of high quality beam possible to develop for multi directions and to use by everyone in future has been able to realize. Here were explained on electron beam source, principle and component on RF electron gun, working features on RF gun, features and simulation of RF gun under operation, and some views in near future. (G.K.)

  3. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yaogen; Liu Pukun; Zhang Zhaochuan; Wang Yong; Shen Bin

    2011-01-01

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  4. Cristal size distribution in metamorphic rocks: an example for the relationship between nucleation and growth rates with overstepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    Crystal size distribution in metamorphic rocks provide fundamental information about crystal nucleation and growth rate, growth time and the degree of overstepping. Crystal size distribution data for garnet, saluretil, keynote, and and alusite crystals from the aureole demonstrate that the earliest formed of this minerals, garnet, has the highest population density and the shortest growth time. The last formed mineral, and alusite, has the lowest population density and longest growth time. keynote and saluretil have the similar population density and growth times intermediate between those of overstepping on the nucleation and growth rates of minerals during metamorphism

  5. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijbrans, J.R.; McDougall, I.

    1987-01-01

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism. (orig.)

  6. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  7. Generation of Low-Energy High-Current Electron Beams in Plasma-Anode Electron Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozur, G. E.; Proskurovsky, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies on the generation of low-energy high-current electron beams in electron guns with a plasma anode and an explosive-emission cathode. The problems related to the initiation of explosive electron emission under plasma and the formation and transport of high-current electron beams in plasma-filled systems are discussed consecutively. Considerable attention is given to the nonstationary effects that occur in the space charge layers of plasma. Emphasis is also placed on the problem of providing a uniform energy density distribution over the beam cross section, which is of critical importance in using electron beams of this type for surface treatment of materials. Examples of facilities based on low-energy high-current electron beam sources are presented and their applications in materials science and practice are discussed.

  8. Mesozoic monazite in Neoproterozoic metasediments. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism of Sinian sediments during Triassic continental collision, Liaodong Peninsula, NE China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yusheng; Song Tianrui; Liu Dunyi; Yang Tiannan; Yin Xiaoyan; Zhang Qiaoda; Chen Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Sericite phyllite from the Sinian Shisanlitai Formation, Dalian area, Liaodong Peninsula, NE China, contains an assemblage of newly-formed lower-greenschist facies minerals (sericite, chlorite, Fe minerals and Ti minerals) plus aggregates of fine-grained monazite. The texture of the monazite, its mineral inclusions, and its close association with Fe oxide minerals show that it is not detrital or diagenetic, but a product of the low-grade metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Th-Pb dating of the monazite at 217±15 Ma shows that the metamorphism, and associated regional deformation and fluid flow, occurred in the Late Triassic, coeval with the waning stages of the Dabie-Sulu orogeny. The Dabie-Sulu tectonothermal event has produced both deformation and metamorphism in rocks of the eastern North China Block at least up to ∼200 km north of the main continent-continent collision zone. (author)

  9. Petrology, geochemistry and zirconology of impure calcite marbles from the Precambrian metamorphic basement at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Can; Zhang, Pin-Gang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Groppo, Chiara; Rolfo, Franco; Yang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Deng, Liang-Peng; Song, Biao

    2017-10-01

    Impure calcite marbles from the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Wuhe Complex, southeastern margin of the North China Craton, provide an exceptional opportunity to understand the depositional processes during the Late Archean and the subsequent Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic evolution of one of the oldest cratons in the world. The studied marbles are characterized by the assemblage calcite + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + K-feldspar + quartz + rutile ± biotite ± white mica. Based on petrography and geochemistry, the marbles can be broadly divided into two main types. The first type (type 1) is rich in REE with a negative Eu anomaly, whereas the second type (type 2) is relatively poor in REE with a positive Eu anomaly. Notably, all marbles exhibit remarkably uniform REE patterns with moderate LREE/HREE fractionation, suggesting a close genetic relationship. Cathodoluminescence imaging, trace elements and mineral inclusions reveal that most zircons from two dated samples display distinct core-rim structures. Zircon cores show typical igneous features with oscillatory growth zoning and high Th/U ratios (mostly in the range 0.3-0.7) and give ages of 2.53 - 2.48 Ga, thus dating the maximum age of deposition of the protolith. Zircon rims overgrew during granulite-facies metamorphism, as evidenced by calcite + clinopyroxene + rutile + plagioclase + quartz inclusions, by Ti-in-zircon temperatures in the range 660-743 °C and by the low Th/U (mostly marbles are ascribed to syn-depositional felsic hydrothermal activity which occurred at 2.53 - 2.48 Ga. Our results, together with other published data and the inferred tectonic setting, suggest that the marbles' protolith is an impure limestone, rich in detrital silicates of igneous origin, deposited in a back-arc basin within an active continental margin during the late Archean and affected by synchronous high-T hydrothermalism at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton.

  10. Erosion of the Alps: use of Rb-Sr isotopic data from molassic sediments to identify the ages of the metamorphism recorded by the eroded rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, P.; Deloule, E.

    1994-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotopic data from Oligocene and Miocene peri-alpine molassic sediments allow us to identify the different periods for which the eroded rocks have or have not recorded an alpine metamorphism. The Chattian and the Burdigalian sediments result from the erosion of rocks for which the latest metamorphic event was variscan, while the Stampian, Aquitanian and ''Helvetian'' sediments show evidence for the erosion of rocks which have recorded alpine metamorphic events. The application of this method to old detrital sediments could permit determination of the ages of the tectonic events which occurred in the sediment source regions. (authors). 18 refs., 6 figs

  11. High-Throughput Printing Process for Flexible Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Woo Jin

    Printed electronics is an emerging field for manufacturing electronic devices with low cost and minimal material waste for a variety of applications including displays, distributed sensing, smart packaging, and energy management. Moreover, its compatibility with roll-to-roll production formats and flexible substrates is desirable for continuous, high-throughput production of flexible electronics. Despite the promise, however, the roll-to-roll production of printed electronics is quite challenging due to web movement hindering accurate ink registration and high-fidelity printing. In this talk, I will present a promising strategy for roll-to-roll production using a novel printing process that we term SCALE (Self-aligned Capillarity-Assisted Lithography for Electronics). By utilizing capillarity of liquid inks on nano/micro-structured substrates, the SCALE process facilitates high-resolution and self-aligned patterning of electrically functional inks with greatly improved printing tolerance. I will show the fabrication of key building blocks (e.g. transistor, resistor, capacitor) for electronic circuits using the SCALE process on plastics.

  12. The Eindhoven High-Brightness Electron Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    The Eindhoven High-Brightness programme is aimed at producing ultra-short intense electron bunches from compact accelerators. The RF electron gun is capable of producing 100 fs electron bunches at 7.5 MeV and 10 pC bunch charge. The DC/RF hybrid gun under development will produce bunches <75 fs at

  13. Constraint-plane-based synthesis and topology variation of a class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Dongming; Dias, Jorge; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Dai, Jian S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates various topologies and mobility of a class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms synthesized with reconfigurable rTPS limbs. Based on the reconfigurable Hooke (rT) joint, the rTPS limb has two phases which result in parallel mechanisms having ability of mobility change. While in one phase the limb has no constraint to the platform, in the other it constrains the spherical joint center to lie on a plane which is used to demonstrate different topologies of the nrTPS metamorphic parallel mechanisms by investigating various relations (parallel or intersecting) among the n constraint planes (n = 2,3,..,6). Geometric constraint equations of the platform rotation matrix and translation vector are set up based on the point-plane constraint, which reveals mobility and redundant geometric conditions of the mechanism topologies. By altering the limbs into the non-constraint phase without constraint plane, new mechanism phases are deduced with mobility change based on each mechanism topology.

  14. Carbide-metal assemblages in a sample returned from asteroid 25143 Itokawa: Evidence for methane-rich fluids during metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Dennis; Langenhorst, Falko

    2018-02-01

    We found that the particle RA-QD02-0115 returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft from near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa contains the iron carbide haxonite (Fe21.9-22.7Co0.2-0.3Ni0.2-0.8)C6 and several Fe,Ni alloys, including multi-domain tetrataenite and spinodally decomposed taenite. Ellipsoidal to nearly spherical voids occur throughout the particle and suggest the presence of a fluid phase during textural and chemical equilibration of the host rock within the parent asteroid of 25143 Itokawa. The calculated solubility of carbon in Fe,Ni metal indicates that the carbide formed at temperatures larger than 600 °C during thermal metamorphism of the LL-chondritic mineral assemblage. Haxonite formed metastably with respect to graphite and cohenite, probably due to its high degree of lattice match with neighboring taenite, a low cooling rate at peak metamorphic temperatures, and the hindered nucleation of graphite. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicate that the fluid present was dry (H2O-poor) and dominated by methane. The reactive fluid most plausibly had an atomic H/C ratio of 4-5 and was derived from the reduction of macromolecular, insoluble organic matter (IOM) that initially co-accreted with water ice. The initial presence of water is a necessary assumption to provide sufficient hydrogen for the formation of methane from hydrolyzed IOM. Metallic iron was in turn partially oxidized and incorporated into the ferromagnesian silicates during the high-temperature stage of metamorphism. An exemplary bulk reaction from unequilibrated material on the left to an equilibrated assemblage on the right may be written as: 330 CH0.8O0.2(IOM) + 500 H2O(ice/g) + 681 Fe(in alloy) + 566 FeSiO3(in Opx) → 300 CH4(g) + 32 H2(g) + 5 Fe23C6(in Hx) + 566 Fe2SiO4(in Ol) (Opx = orthopyroxene, Hx = haxonite, Ol = olivine, g = fluid species). The best estimate of the fluid/rock ratio in the region of the LL parent body where RA-QD02-0115 formed is about 3 × 10-3 and corresponds to

  15. Tectonic superposition of the Kurosegawa Terrane upon the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt in eastern Shikoku, southwest Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hisashi; Isozaki, Yukio; Itaya, Tetsumaru.

    1990-01-01

    Weakly metamorphosed pre-Cenozoic accretionary complex in the northern part of the Chichibu Belt in Kamikatsu Town, eastern Shikoku, consists of two distinct geologic units; the Northern Unit and Southern Unit. The Northern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites and basic tuff with allochthonous blocks of chert and limestone, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the glaucophane schist facies. The Southern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites with allochthonous blocks of sandstone, limestone, massive green rocks, and chert, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the pumpellyite-actinolite facies. The Southern Unit tectonically overlies the Northern Univ by the south-dipping Jiganji Fault. K-Ar ages were dated for the recrystallized white micas from 11 samples of pelites and basic tuff in the Northern Unit, and from 6 samples of pelites in the Southern Unit. The K-Ar ages of the samples from the Northern Unit range in 129-112 Ma, and those from the Southern Unit in 225-194 Ma. In terms of metamorphic ages, the Northern Unit and Southern Unit are referred to the constituents of the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt, and to those of the Kurosegawa Terrane, respectively. Thus, tectonic superposition of these two units in the study area suggests that the Kurosegawa Terrane occurs in a higher structural position over the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt in eastern Shikoku. (author)

  16. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrabady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry, and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous mafic granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture zone of NE Iran. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the Sabzevar granulites are likely derived from a MORB-type precursor. They are thus considered as remnants of a dismembered dynamo-thermal sole formed during subduction of a back-arc basin (proto-Sabzevar Ocean formed in the upper-plate of the Neotethyan slab. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone, followed by cooling during exhumation. Transition from a nascent to a mature stage of oceanic subduction is the geodynamic scenario proposed to accomplish for the reconstructed thermobaric evolution. When framed with the regional scenario, results of this study point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing disparity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected to emerge with further investigations.

  17. High-power fiber lasers for photocathode electron injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many new applications for electron accelerators require high-brightness, high-average power beams, and most rely on photocathode-based electron injectors as a source of electrons. To achieve such a photoinjector, one requires both a high-power laser system to produce the high average current beam, and also a system at reduced repetition rate for electron beam diagnostics to verify high beam brightness. Here we report on two fiber laser systems designed to meet these specific needs, at 50 MHz and 1.3 GHz repetition rate, together with pulse pickers, second harmonic generation, spatiotemporal beam shaping, intensity feedback, and laser beam transport. The performance and flexibility of these laser systems have allowed us to demonstrate electron beam with both low emittance and high average current for the Cornell energy recovery linac.

  18. High Power Electron Accelerator Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachenko, Vadim; Cheskidov, Vladimir; Korobeynikov, G I; Kuznetsov, Gennady I; Lukin, A N; Makarov, Ivan; Ostreiko, Gennady; Panfilov, Alexander; Sidorov, Alexey; Tarnetsky, Vladimir V; Tiunov, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    In recent time the new powerful industrial electron accelerators appear on market. It caused the increased interest to radiation technologies using high energy X-rays due to their high penetration ability. However, because of low efficiency of X-ray conversion for electrons with energy below 5 MeV, the intensity of X-rays required for some industrial applications can be achieved only when the beam power exceeds 300 kW. The report describes a project of industrial electron accelerator ILU-12 for electron energy up to 5 MeV and beam power up to 300 kW specially designed for use in industrial applications. On the first stage of work we plan to use the existing generator designed for ILU-8 accelerator. It is realized on the GI-50A triode and provides the pulse power up to 1.5-2 MW and up to 20-30 kW of average power. In the report the basic concepts and a condition of the project for today are reflected.

  19. Electron-optical design parameters for a high-resolution electron monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Huebner, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed design parameters of a new, high-resolution electron monochromator are presented. The design utilizes a hemispherical filter as the energy-dispersing element and combines both cylindrical and aperture electrostatic lenses to accelerate, decelerate, transport, and focus the electron beam from the cathode to the interaction region

  20. Metamorphism of cosmic dust: Processing from circumstellar outflows to the cometary regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuth, J.A. III.

    1989-01-01

    Metamorphism of refractory particles continues in the interstellar medium (ISM) where the driving forces are sputtering by cosmic ray particles, annealing by high energy photons, and grain destruction in supernova generated shocks. Studies of the depletion of the elements from the gas phase of the interstellar medium tell us that if grain destruction occurs with high efficiency in the ISM, then there must be some mechanism by which grains can be formed in the ISM. Most grains in a cloud which collapses to form a star will be destroyed; many of the surviving grains will be severely processed. Grains in the outermost regions of the nebula may survive relatively unchanged by thermal processing or hydration. It is these grains which one hopes to find in comets. However, only those grains encased in ice at low temperature can be considered pristine since a considerable degree of hydrous alteration might occur in a cometary regolith if the comet enters the inner solar system. The physical, chemical and isotopic properties of a refractory grain at each stage of its life cycle will be discussed

  1. Metamorphic evolution and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite, Encantadas Complex, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Léo A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated investigation of metamorphism and zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite from southernmost Brazil leads to a better understanding of the processes involved in the generation of the Encantadas Complex. Magmatic evidence of the magnesian basalt or pyroxenite protolith is only preserved in cores of zircon crystals, which are dated at 2257 ± 12 Ma. Amphibolite facies metamorphism M1 formed voluminous hornblende in the investigated rock possibly at 1989 ± 21 Ma. This ultramafic rock was re-metamorphosed at 702±21 Ma during a greenschist facies eventM2; the assemblage actinolite + oligoclase + microcline + epidote + titanite + monazite formed by alteration of hornblende. The metamorphic events are probably related to the Encantadas Orogeny (2257±12 Ma and Camboriú Orogeny (~ 1989 Ma of the Trans-Amazonian Cycle, followed by an orogenic event (702±21 Ma of the Brasiliano Cycle. The intervening cratonic period (2000-700 Ma corresponds to the existence of the Supercontinent Atlantica, known regionally as the Rio de la Plata Craton.

  2. Resetting of Mg isotopes between calcite and dolomite during burial metamorphism: Outlook of Mg isotopes as geothermometer and seawater proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongya; Hu, Wenxuan; Wang, Xiaomin; Lu, Yizhou; Wang, Lichao; Liao, Zhiwei; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium isotopes are an emerging tool to study the geological processes recorded in carbonates. Calcite, due to its ubiquitous occurrence and the large Mg isotope fractionation associated with the mineral, has attracted great interests in applications of Mg isotope geochemistry. However, the fidelity of Mg isotopes in geological records of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite) against burial metamorphism remains poorly constrained. Here we report our investigation on the Mg isotope systematics of a dolomitized Middle Triassic Geshan carbonate section in eastern China. Magnesium isotope analysis was complemented by analyses of Sr-C-O isotopic compositions, major and trace element concentrations, and petrographic and mineralogical features. Multiple lines of evidence consistently indicated that post-depositional diagenesis of carbonate minerals occurred to the carbonate rocks. Magnesium isotope compositions of the carbonate rocks closely follow a mixing trend between a high δ26Mg dolomite end member and a low δ26Mg calcite end member, irrespective of sample positions in the section and calcite/dolomite ratio in the samples. By fitting the measured Mg isotope data using a two-end member mixing model, an inter-mineral Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation of 0.72‰ was obtained. Based on the experimentally derived Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite and calcite, a temperature of 150-190 °C was calculated to correspond to the 0.72‰ Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation. Such temperature range matches with the burial-thermal history of the local strata, making a successful case of Mg isotope geothermometry. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite had been re-equilibrated during burial metamorphism, and based on isotope mass balance of Mg, the system was buffered by dolomite in the section. Therefore, burial metamorphism may reset Mg isotope signature of calcite, and Mg isotope compositions in calcite should be dealt with caution in

  3. High quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelbloom, A.M.; Hadley, P.; van der Marel, D.; Mooij, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a high quality flux control system for electron gun evaporation developed and tested for the MBE growth of high temperature superconductors. The system can be applied to any electron gun without altering the electron gun itself. Essential elements of the system are a high bandwidth mass spectrometer, control electronics and a high voltage modulator to sweep the electron beam over the melt at high frequencies. the sweep amplitude of the electron beam is used to control the evaporation flux at high frequencies. The feedback loop of the system has a bandwidth of over 100 Hz, which makes it possible to grow superlattices and layered structures in a fast and precisely controlled manner

  4. First results of U-Pb dating of metamorphic rocks of the Greater Antilles arc: age of the Mabujina complex (Cuba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Somin, M.L.; Gracheva, T.V.; Makarov, V.A.; Mil'yan, G.; Shukolyukov, Yu.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1988-01-01

    U-Pb-dating of zircons, entering the composition of metamorphic rocks of the Mabujina complex, was conducted in order to solve the problem concerming the place of metamorphic complexes in the structure and tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles arc. The accuracy of uranium and lead determination was equal to ± 1%, the accuracy of lead isotopic ratio determination with the use of TSN-206A mass-spectrometer- ±0.15%. Isotope data showed, that all examined zircons crystallized about 100 mil. years ago

  5. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectrum technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijbrans, J.R.; McDougall, I.

    1987-07-01

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism.

  6. High current polarized electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, R.; Adderley, P.; Grames, J.; Hansknecht, J.; Poelker, M.; Stutzman, M.

    2018-05-01

    Jefferson Lab operates two DC high voltage GaAs photoguns with compact inverted insulators. One photogun provides the polarized electron beam at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 200 µA. The other gun is used for high average current photocathode lifetime studies at a dedicated test facility up to 4 mA of polarized beam and 10 mA of un-polarized beam. GaAs-based photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed facilities that must operate in excess of tens of mA of polarized average current. This contribution describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering high beam currents, and techniques that minimize damage due to ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield. Advantages of higher DC voltage include reduced space-charge emittance growth and the potential for better photocathode lifetime. Highlights of R&D to improve the performance of polarized electron sources and prolong the lifetime of strained-superlattice GaAs are presented.

  7. Strain induced effects on the transport properties of metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capotondi, F.; Biasiol, G.; Ercolani, D.; Grillo, V.; Carlino, E.; Romanato, F.; Sorba, L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between structural and low-temperature transport properties is explored for In x Al 1 - x As/In x Ga 1 - x As metamorphic quantum wells with x > 0.7 grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Different step-graded buffer layers are used to gradually adapt the in-plane lattice parameter from the GaAs towards the InGaAs value. We show that using buffer layers with a suitable maximum In content the residual compressive strain in the quantum well region can be strongly reduced. Samples with virtually no residual strain in the quantum well region show a low-temperature electron mobility up to 29 m 2 /V s while for samples with higher residual compressive strain the low-temperature mobility is reduced. Furthermore, for samples with buffers inducing a tensile strain in the quantum well region, deep grooves are observed on the surface, and in correspondence we notice a strong deterioration of the low-temperature transport properties

  8. The diagenesis-metamorphism limit in pelitic rocks: an X-ray diffraction and decomposition study of illite and interstratified illite/smectite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharrabi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The definition of the limit between diagenesis and metamorphism has long been debated. Various approaches have been used to describe this limit including mineral reaction such as the appearance of pyrophyllite, illite crystallinity and rock textures (i.e. the development of schistosity). The aim of this study is to characterize the illite clays transformation during this transition. Study of the (001) and (003) XRD peaks of illite and illite-rich interstratified illite/smectite (I/S) by decomposition of XRD spectra allows to define the transformation that affect these minerals in the transition from extensive diagenesis to low grade metamorphism. We studied Paleozoic pelites from the Illinois Basin (USA), Cornwall (UK), Brittany (France) and the Anti-Atlas mountains and the Eastern-Haou/Basin (Morocco) that have undergone this transition. Illite clays pass through three evolutionary stages during the transition from diagenesis to metamorphism: advanced diagenesis where the population of illite particles is composed of the following phases: interstratified illite/smectite (I/S), small illite crystallites (PCI) and large illite crystallites (WCI). The composition of I/S particles that contain approximately 95 % illite layers changes very little at low temperatures even over long periods of time. The most important change during this stage is the reduction in the amount of this phase. These I/S particles (<5% smectite layers) dissolve and furnish the chemical constituents necessary for the growth of PCI and WCI before they are transformed into 100 % illite. Particles of PCI also contain smectite interlayers in their structure. These smectite interlayers may be considered as a characteristic of diagenetic conditions. The second stage, corresponding to anchizone metamorphism is characterized by the disappearance of I/S. The disappearance is caused by higher thermal regime. In the last stage corresponding to epizone metamorphism there exists only one population of illite

  9. Influence of high energy electrons on ECRH in LHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogasawara S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The central bulk electron temperature of more than 20 keV is achieved in LHD as a result of increasing the injection power and the lowering the electron density near 2 × 1018 m−3. Such collision-less regime is important from the aspect of the neoclassical transport and also the potential structure formation. The presences of appreciable amount of high energy electrons are indicated from hard X-ray PHA, and the discrepancy between the stored energy and kinetic energy estimated from Thomson scattering. ECE spectrum are also sensitive to the presence of high energy electrons and discussed by solving the radiation transfer equation. The ECRH power absorption to the bulk and the high energy electrons are dramatically affected by the acceleration and the confinement of high energy electrons. The heating mechanisms and the acceleration process of high energy electrons are discussed by comparing the experimental results and the ray tracing calculation under assumed various density and mean energy of high energy electrons.

  10. Heteroepitaxial growth of In{sub 0.30}Ga{sub 0.70}As high-electron mobility transistor on 200 mm silicon substrate using metamorphic graded buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohen, David, E-mail: david.kohen@asm.com; Nguyen, Xuan Sang; Made, Riko I; Lee, Kwang Hong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian [Low Energy Electronic Systems IRG (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Yadav, Sachin; Kumar, Annie; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee Chia [National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077 (Singapore); Heidelberger, Christopher [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Yoon, Soon Fatt [Low Energy Electronic Systems IRG (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Fitzgerald, Eugene A. [Low Energy Electronic Systems IRG (LEES), Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, 1 CREATE Way, Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We report on the growth of an In{sub 0.30}Ga{sub 0.70}As channel high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) on a 200 mm silicon wafer by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. By using a 3 μm thick buffer comprising a Ge layer, a GaAs layer and an InAlAs compositionally graded strain relaxing buffer, we achieve threading dislocation density of (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10{sup 7} cm{sup −2} with a surface roughness of 10 nm RMS. No phase separation was observed during the InAlAs compositionally graded buffer layer growth. 1.4 μm long channel length transistors are fabricated from the wafer with I{sub DS} of 70 μA/μm and g{sub m} of above 60 μS/μm, demonstrating the high quality of the grown materials.

  11. High luminosity electron-hadron collider eRHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, V.; Aschenauer, E.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Blaskiewicz, M..; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Fedotov, A.; Gassner, D.; Hammons, L.; Hahn, H.; Hammons, L.; He, P.; Hao, Y.; Jackson, W.; Jain, A.; Johnson, E.C.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Luo, Y.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Parker, B.; Pikin, A.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Skaritka, J.; Sheehy, B.; Skaritka, J.; Tepikian, S.; Than, Y.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Webb, S.; Wu, Q.; Xu, W.; Pozdeyev, E.; Tsentalovich, E.

    2011-03-28

    We present the design of a future high-energy high-luminosity electron-hadron collider at RHIC called eRHIC. We plan on adding 20 (potentially 30) GeV energy recovery linacs to accelerate and to collide polarized and unpolarized electrons with hadrons in RHIC. The center-of-mass energy of eRHIC will range from 30 to 200 GeV. The luminosity exceeding 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be achieved in eRHIC using the low-beta interaction region with a 10 mrad crab crossing. We report on the progress of important eRHIC R&D such as the high-current polarized electron source, the coherent electron cooling, ERL test facility and the compact magnets for recirculation passes. A natural staging scenario of step-by-step increases of the electron beam energy by building-up of eRHIC's SRF linacs is presented.

  12. Shielding for high energy, high intensity electron accelerator installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warawas, C.; Chongkum, S.

    1997-03-01

    The utilization of electron accelerators (eBA) is gradually increased in Thailand. For instance, a 30-40 MeV eBA are used for tumor and cancer therapy in the hospitals, and a high current eBA in for gemstone colonization. In the near future, an application of eBA in industries will be grown up in a few directions, e.g., flue gases treatment from the coal fire-power plants, plastic processing, rubber vulcanization and food preservation. It is the major roles of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to regulate the public safety and protection of the environment. By taking into account of radiation safety aspect, high energy electrons are not only harmful to human bodies, but the radioactive nuclides can be occurred. This report presents a literature review by following the National Committee on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report No.31. This reviews for parametric calculation and shielding design of the high energy (up to 100 MeV), high intensity electron accelerator installation

  13. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J A; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified,

  14. Chemical zoning and homogenization of Pasamonte-type pyroxene and their bearing on thermal metamorphism of a howardite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M.; Duke, M. B.; Mckay, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mg-Fe zoning of pyroxenes in Pasamonte and Juvinas eucrites is examined in order to gain a better understanding of the metamorphism in the surface layer of a eucrite/howardite parent body. Three distinct types of Ca-Mg-Fe zoning of Pasamonte pyroxenes are identified. The wide compositional range of the zoned pyroxenes suggests that Pasamonte is less metamorphosed than previously believed. It is also found that a Pasamonte-type pyroxene may yield a Juvinas-type pyroxene by thermal metamorphism. Calculations imply that the homogenization of Juvinas pyroxenes may have occurred during later reheating events rather than during initial cooling.

  15. Distinct metamorphic evolution of alternating silica-saturated and silica-deficient microdomains within garnet in ultrahigh-temperature granulites: An example from Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Dharmapriya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the occurrence of garnet porphyroblasts that have overgrown alternating silica-saturated and silica deficient microdomains via different mineral reactions. The samples were collected from ultrahigh-temperature (UHT metapelites in the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka. In some of the metapelites, garnet crystals have cores formed via a dehydration reaction, which had taken place at silica-saturated microdomains and mantle to rim areas formed via a dehydration reaction at silica-deficient microdomains. In contrast, some other garnets in the same rock cores had formed via a dehydration reaction which occurred at silica-deficient microdomains while mantle to rim areas formed via a dehydration reaction at silica-saturated microdomains. Based on the textural observations, we conclude that the studied garnets have grown across different effective bulk compositional microdomains during the prograde evolution. These microdomains could represent heterogeneous compositional layers (paleobedding/laminations in the precursor sediments or differentiated crenulation cleavages that existed during prograde metamorphism. UHT metamorphism associated with strong ductile deformation, metamorphic differentiation and crystallization of locally produced melt may have obliterated the evidence for such microdomains in the matrix. The lack of significant compositional zoning in garnet probably due to self-diffusion during UHT metamorphism had left mineral inclusions as the sole evidence for earlier microdomains with contrasting chemistry.

  16. Review of the intrusive, structural and metamorphic history of the Namaqualand geotraverse and environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blignault, H.J.; Van Aswegen, G.; Van der Merwe, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Namaqualand excursion is concerned with the geologic strata, stratigraphy and metamorhic history of the Namaqualand geotraverse and its environs. The general aim of the project was to decipher the history and interactions of tectonic, metamorphic and magmatic processes. Isotope dating were used to determine the ages of various rock formations

  17. Material Evidence for Ocean Impact from Shock-Metamorphic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y.; Takayama, K.; Iancu, O. G.

    1993-07-01

    Continental impact reveals an excavated crater that has few fresh fine ejecta showing major high shock metamorphism due to weathering [1]. A giant ocean impact rarely remains as an excavated crater mainly due to crushing by dynamic plate-tectonic movements on the crust [2]. However, all impact materials, including fine-grained ejecta, can be obtained with artificial impact experiments [3]. The purpose of this study is to discuss material evidence for ocean impact based on shock-metamorphic experiments. Artificial impact experiments indicate that fine shocked quartz (SQ) aggregates can be formed on several target rocks (Table 1) [1]. It is found in Table 1 that (1) the largest-density deviation of SQ grain is found not at the wall-rock or the impact crater but at fine-grained ejecta, and (2) silica-poor rocks of basalt, gabbro, and anorthosite can also make fine SQ aggregates by impact. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows formations of fine shocked quartz aggregates from ocean-floor rocks of basalt, gabbroic anorthosite, and granite [3]. An asteroid (about 10 km across) hits the Earth ~65 m.y. ago [4] to result in global catastrophe by titanic explosion and climate change. But shocked quartz grains found in the K/T boundary layer were considered to come from crystalline continental rocks [5]. The present result as listed in Table 1 indicates that fine SQ aggregates can also be formed at sea-floor basaltic and gabbroic rocks [3]. The present result of formation of the SQ grains from sea- floor target rocks is nearly consistent with the finding of a sea-impact crater at the K/T boundary near the Caribbean [6]. Impact-induced volcanism at the K/T boundary can explained by the penetration from thin ocean crust to upper mantle reservoirs, if giant impact of a 10-km- diameter asteroid hit the ocean [2,7]. The present result can explain "phreatomagmatic (magmatic vapor) explosion," which is created by abrupt boiling between high-temperature magma and cold

  18. High current plasma electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F.; Craig, D.

    1995-07-01

    A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications

  19. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid

    2017-04-01

    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from geothermal gradients (up to 60°C/km) known in the region, and higher temperature closer to the pre-rift units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  20. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Macek, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures

  1. Dating of retrograde metamorphism in Western Carpathians by K-Ar analysis of muscovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Korikovskij, S.P.; Krasivskaya, I.S.; Arakelyants, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using the K-Ar isotope dating method of muscovites it was found that many retrogradely metamorphosed rocks are the results of Variscan retrograde metamorphism and are not pre-Cambrian or Alpine metamorphites (diaphthorites). Samples for dating were taken from the Western Carpathian crystalline formation. The content of radiogenic argon was determined by mass spectrometry using the method of isotope dilution. (M.D.)

  2. A high-energy electron beam ion trap for production of high-charge high-Z ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.; Elliott, S.R.; Magee, E.W.; Zasadzinski, R.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new high-energy electron beam ion trap, the first laboratory source of low-energy, few-electron, high-Z ions. We describe the device and report measurements of its performance, including the electron beam diameter, current density and energy, and measurements of the ionization balance for several high-Z elements in the trap. This device opens up a wide range of possible experiments in atomic physics, plasma physics, and nuclear physics. (orig.)

  3. Direct Growth of High-Quality InP Layers on GaAs Substrates by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Yarn

    2003-01-01

    group V partial pressure, growth rate and V/III ratios. A mirror-like, uniform surface and high crystal quality of the metamorphic buffer layer directly grown on a GaAs substrate can be achieved. Finally, to investigate the performance of the metamorphic microwave devices, we also fabricate the InAlAs/InGaAs metamorphic HEMT on GaAs substrates.

  4. Possible zircon U-Pb evidence for Pan-African granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, J.J.M.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Four zircon fractions of garnet-bearing two-pyroxene granulite, from the Furua granulite complex of southern Tanzania, plot very close to concordia. A discordia yields a lower intercept at 652 +- 10 Ma, an age slightly higher than the Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages reported from the surrounding amphibolite-facies rocks. The U-Pb systematics indicate the presence of a very small amount of older (2-3 Ga) radiogenic lead. The zircon data may be interpreted as indicating an event of granulite-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. This interpretation is at variance with current models postulating that the granulite complexes in the Mozambique belt are relicts of older, possibly Archaean events of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  5. Sr and Nd isotope composition of the metamorphic, sedimentary and ultramafic xenoliths of Lanzarote (Canary Islands): Implications for magma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Alfredo; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; García, Roberto; Araña, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The lavas produced by the Timanfaya eruption of 1730-1736 (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) contain a great many sedimentary and metamorphic (metasedimentary), and mafic and ultramafic plutonic xenoliths. Among the metamorphosed carbonate rocks (calc-silicate rocks [CSRs]) are monomineral rocks with forsterite or wollastonite, as well as rocks containing olivine ± orthopyroxene ± clinopyroxene ± plagioclase; their mineralogical compositions are identical to those of the mafic (gabbros) and ultramafic (dunite, wherlite and lherzolite) xenoliths. The 87Sr/ 86Sr (around 0.703) and 143Nd/ 144Nd (around 0.512) isotope ratios of the ultramafic and metasedimentary xenoliths are similar, while the 147Sm/ 144Nd ratios show crustal values (0.13-0.16) in the ultramafic xenoliths and mantle values (0.18-0.25) in some CSRs. The apparent isotopic anomaly of the metamorphic xenoliths can be explained in terms of the heat source (basaltic intrusion) inducing strong isotopic exchange ( 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd) between metasedimentary and basaltic rocks. Petrofabric analysis also showed a possible relationship between the ultramafic and metamorphic xenoliths.

  6. Development of a high power free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sun Kook; Jung, Yung Wook; Cho, Sung Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator has been developed. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable in the range of 3 - 12 mm by tuning the energy of the electron beam. The output power is estimated to be 1 kW. The electrostatic accelerator is composed of high-current electron gun, acceleration tube, high-voltage generator, high-voltage terminal, deceleration tube, electron collator, and vacuum pumps. Two types of LaB{sub 6}-based thermionic electron guns (triode gun and diode gun) and their power supplies have been developed. The voltage of the guns is 30 kV and the output current is - 2 A. A beam-focusing planar undulator and a permanent-magnet helical undulator have been developed and 3D trajectories of electron beam in the undulators have been calculated to find optimal input condition of electron beam. 135 figs, 15 pix, 17 tabs, 98 refs. (Author).

  7. Development of a high power free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sun Kook; Jung, Yung Wook; Cho, Sung Oh

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator has been developed. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable in the range of 3 - 12 mm by tuning the energy of the electron beam. The output power is estimated to be 1 kW. The electrostatic accelerator is composed of high-current electron gun, acceleration tube, high-voltage generator, high-voltage terminal, deceleration tube, electron collator, and vacuum pumps. Two types of LaB 6 -based thermionic electron guns (triode gun and diode gun) and their power supplies have been developed. The voltage of the guns is 30 kV and the output current is - 2 A. A beam-focusing planar undulator and a permanent-magnet helical undulator have been developed and 3D trajectories of electron beam in the undulators have been calculated to find optimal input condition of electron beam. 135 figs, 15 pix, 17 tabs, 98 refs. (Author)

  8. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees Part II, Valle de Arán, Sheet 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    1963-01-01

    The structural geology and metamorphic petrology of the Bosost area in the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees) is discussed. The rocks exposed in this area consist of Cambro-Ordovician mica-schists with numerous granite and pegmatite bodies, phyllites and limestones; Silurian slates and schists and

  9. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  10. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  11. Crustal metamorphic fluid flux beneath the Dead Sea Basin: constraints from 2-D and 3-D magnetotelluric modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meqbel, Naser; Weckmann, Ute; Muñoz, Gerard; Ritter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    We report on a study to explore the deep electrical conductivity structure of the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) using magnetotelluric (MT) data collected along a transect across the DSB where the left lateral strike-slip Dead Sea transform (DST) fault splits into two fault strands forming one of the largest pull-apart basins of the world. A very pronounced feature of our 2-D inversion model is a deep, subvertical conductive zone beneath the DSB. The conductor extends through the entire crust and is sandwiched between highly resistive structures associated with Precambrian rocks of the basin flanks. The high electrical conductivity could be attributed to fluids released by dehydration of the uppermost mantle beneath the DSB, possibly in combination with fluids released by mid- to low-grade metamorphism in the lower crust and generation of hydrous minerals in the middle crust through retrograde metamorphism. Similar high conductivity zones associated with fluids have been reported from other large fault systems. The presence of fluids and hydrous minerals in the middle and lower crust could explain the required low friction coefficient of the DST along the eastern boundary of the DSB and the high subsidence rate of basin sediments. 3-D inversion models confirm the existence of a subvertical high conductivity structure underneath the DSB but its expression is far less pronounced. Instead, the 3-D inversion model suggests a deepening of the conductive DSB sediments off-profile towards the south, reaching a maximum depth of approximately 12 km, which is consistent with other geophysical observations. At shallower levels, the 3-D inversion model reveals salt diapirism as an upwelling of highly resistive structures, localized underneath the Al-Lisan Peninsula. The 3-D model furthermore contains an E-W elongated conductive structure to the northeast of the DSB. More MT data with better spatial coverage are required, however, to fully constrain the robustness of the above

  12. Metamorphic distributed Bragg reflectors for the 1440–1600 nm spectral range: Epitaxy, formation, and regrowth of mesa structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A. Yu.; Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Novikov, I. I.; Babichev, A. V.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Nevedomskiy, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that metamorphic In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As/In 0.3 Al 0.7 As distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with a reflection band at 1440–1600 nm and a reflectance of no less than 0.999 can be fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a GaAs substrate. It is demonstrated that mesa structures formed from metamorphic DBRs on a GaAs substrate can be regrown by MBE and microcavities can be locally formed in two separate epitaxial processes. The results obtained can find wide application in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a buried tunnel junction

  13. Vapor flux and recrystallization during dry snow metamorphism under a steady temperature gradient as observed by time-lapse micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pinzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry snow metamorphism under an external temperature gradient is the most common type of recrystallization of snow on the ground. The changes in snow microstructure modify the physical properties of snow, and therefore an understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on climate to assessing avalanche risk. We directly imaged the microstructural changes in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM under a constant gradient of 50 K m−1, using in situ time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography. This novel and non-destructive technique directly reveals the amount of ice that sublimates and is deposited during metamorphism, in addition to the exact locations of these phase changes. We calculated the average time that an ice volume stayed in place before it sublimated and found a characteristic residence time of 2–3 days. This means that most of the ice changes its phase from solid to vapor and back many times in a seasonal snowpack where similar temperature conditions can be found. Consistent with such a short timescale, we observed a mass turnover of up to 60% of the total ice mass per day. The concept of hand-to-hand transport for the water vapor flux describes the observed changes very well. However, we did not find evidence for a macroscopic vapor diffusion enhancement. The picture of {temperature gradient metamorphism} produced by directly observing the changing microstructure sheds light on the micro-physical processes and could help to improve models that predict the physical properties of snow.

  14. Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Dharma Rao

    2012-01-01

    of garnet compositions in the domains where some melt was retained. The post-peak evolution is constrained by a succession of melt-present reactions that occur at p < 10 kbar, inferred from micro-structural relations among various minerals. After high-temperature decompression from the metamorphic peak, the p–T path followed a near isobaric cooling stage to T < 900 °C. The UHT rocks investigated in this study occur within a continental collision suture which witnessed prolonged subduction–accretion history prior to the final collision. We correlate the extreme metamorphism and the stabilization of UHT mineral assemblages to heat and volatile input from an upwelled asthenosphere during subduction–collision tectonics in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin.

  15. Rb-Sr dating of low-grade metamorphics in the U.S.S.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhov, I.M.; Varshavskaya, E.S.; Kutyavin, E.P.; Melnikov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    Geologically well-dated low-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks from five localities have been studied using the whole-rock Rb-Sr age method. All age values obtained are younger than those suggested by stratigraphy. When whole-rock points fit either an isochron or an errorchron with low value of the mean square of weighted deviates, the slope of this line gives the age of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  16. Metamorphic brines and no surficial fluids trapped in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (Nevado-Filábride units, Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyja-Person, Vanessa; Tarantola, Alexandre; Richard, Antonin; Hibsch, Christian; Siebenaller, Luc; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Boulvais, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The ductile-brittle transition zone in extensional regimes can play the role of a hydrogeological barrier. Quartz veins developed within an orthogneiss body located in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) in the Nevado-Filábride units (Betics, Spain). The detachment footwall is composed mainly of gneisses, schists and metacarbonates from the Bédar-Macael sub-unit. Schist and metacarbonate bodies show evidence of ductile deformation at the time the gneiss was already undergoing brittle deformation and vein opening during exhumation. The vein system provides the opportunity to investigate the origin, composition and PVTX conditions of the fluids that circulated in the detachment footwall while the footwall units were crossing the ductile-brittle transition. The analysis of fluid inclusions reveals the presence of a single type of fluid: 30-40 mass% NaCl > KCl > CaCl2 > MgCl2 brines, with trace amounts of CO2 and N2 and tens to thousands of ppm of metals such as Fe, Sr, Li, Zn, Ba, Pb and Cu. δDfluid values between -39.8 and -16.7‰ and δ18Ofluid values between 4.4 and 11.7 ± 0.5‰ show that the brines have undergone protracted interaction with the host orthogneissic body. Coupled salinity and Cl/Br ratios (200 to 4400) indicate that the brines originate from dissolution of Triassic metaevaporites by metamorphic fluids variably enriched in Br by interaction with graphitic schists. This study highlights the absence of any record of surficial fluids within the veins, despite the brittle deformation conditions prevailing in this orthogneiss body. The fact that fluids from the detachment footwall were isolated from surficial fluid reservoirs may result from the presence of overlying schists and metacarbonates that continued to be affected by ductile deformation during vein formation in the gneiss, preventing downward circulation of surface-derived fluids.

  17. High Performance Electronics on Flexible Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last few years, flexible electronic systems have gained increased attention from researchers around the world because of their potential to create new applications such as flexible displays, flexible energy harvesters, artificial skin, and health monitoring systems that cannot be integrated with conventional wafer based complementary metal oxide semiconductor processes. Most of the current efforts to create flexible high performance devices are based on the use of organic semiconductors. However, inherent material\\'s limitations make them unsuitable for big data processing and high speed communications. The objective of my doctoral dissertation is to develop integration processes that allow the transformation of rigid high performance electronics into flexible ones while maintaining their performance and cost. In this work, two different techniques to transform inorganic complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor electronics into flexible ones have been developed using industry compatible processes. Furthermore, these techniques were used to realize flexible discrete devices and circuits which include metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors, the first demonstration of flexible Fin-field-effect-transistors, and metal-oxide-semiconductors-based circuits. Finally, this thesis presents a new technique to package, integrate, and interconnect flexible high performance electronics using low cost additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing and inkjet printing. This thesis contains in depth studies on electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the fabricated devices.

  18. Uraniferous leukogranites from the Namaqualand metamorphic complex: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    A number of small leucogranite or alaskite bodies intrude the Modderfontein augen gneiss on the farm Nooitgedacht, south-west of Springbok. These intrusions, correlated with the Kweekfontein Granite of the Spektakel Suite, are anomalously enriched in uranium and thorium, and certain of them have been assessed as potential low-grade deposits. The leucogranites are highly differentiated and are characterized by a pervasive alteration which has sericitized the feldspars and propylitized the biotite. Alteration was probably of a deuteric nature, associated with the late magmatic-early subsolidus stages, and was neither a low-temperature, open-system event, nor was it related to regional retrogressive metamorphism. The leucogranite bodies have I-type characteristics and appear to have been derived by partial melting of lower crustal material. A subset of eight leucogranites were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the rare-earth elements. Typical depleted lower crust is ruled out as a source, however, because of the necessity to markedly enrich the leucogranite magma in elements such as K, Rb, U, and Th. Scatter in Rb-Sr isotope ratios for the Nooitgedacht alaskites indicates that the source may have been heterogeneous and/or anomalously fertile in certain selected elements. In addition, a component of scatter was probably introduced during the extensive alteration of the rocks

  19. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  20. Geology of uranium vein deposits (including Schwartzwalder Mine) in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Front Range, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voto, R.H. de; Paschis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is one of many uranium vein occurrences in the Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Front Range, Colorado. The principal veins of significant uranium content occur marginal to the Colorado Mineral Belt; are localized by structural dilation zones, vein junctions, fault deflections or branching; and occur dominantly within or at the contact of certain preferred metamorphic-stratigraphic units, particularly the siliceous, garnetiferous gneisses, where these rock units are broken by faults and fractures associated with the north-northwest-trending throughgoing faults. Uranium at the Schwartzwalder mine occurs primarily as open-space brecciated vein filling along the steeply west-dipping Illinois vein and numerous east-dipping subsidiary veins where they cut preferred metamorphic host rocks that are tightly folded. Uraninite occurs with molybdenite, adularia, jordisite, ankerite, pyrite, base-metal sulphides, and calcite in vein-filling paragenetic sequence. Minor wall-rock alteration is mainly hematite alteration and bleaching. Vertical relief on the developed ore deposit is 900 metres and still open-ended at depth. No vertical zonation of alteration, vein mineralogy, density of the subsidiary veins, or ore grade has been detected. The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is of substantial tonnage (greater than 10,000 metric tons of U 3 O 8 ) and grade (averaging 0.57% U 3 O 8 ). Structural mapping shows that the Illinois vein-fault is a Proterozoic structure. Discordant Proterozoic (suggested) and Laramide dates have been obtained from Schwartzwalder ore. The data suggest, therefore, a Proterozoic ancestry of this heretofore presumed Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary) hydrothermal uranium deposit. The authors suggest a polygenetic model for the origin of the Schwartzwalder uranium deposit

  1. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  2. Highly solvatochromic emission of electron donor-acceptor compounds containing propanedioato boron electron acceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Bakker, N.A.C.; Wiering, P.G.; Verhoeven, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Light-induced electron transfer occurs in bifunctional compounds consisting of 1,3-diphenylpropanedioato boron oxalate or fluoride electron acceptors and simple aromatic electron-donor groups, linked by a methylene bridge; fluorescence from the highly polar charge-transfer excited state is

  3. A summary of high-temperature electronics research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, F.V.; King, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Current and future needs in automative, aircraft, space, military, and well logging industries require operation of electronics at higher temperatures than today's accepted limit of 395 K. Without the availability of high-temperature electronics, many systems must operate under derated conditions or must accept severe mass penalties required by coolant systems to maintain electronic temperatures below critical levels. This paper presents ongoing research and development in the electronics community to bring high-temperature electronics to commercial realization. Much of this work was recently reviewed at the First International High-Temperature Electronics Conference held 16--20 June 1991 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 4 refs., 1 tab

  4. High electron beam dosimetry using ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueza M, F.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.; Garcia H, M.

    2009-10-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of studying the thermoluminescent (Tl) properties of ZrO 2 powder embedded in polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) exposed to high energy electron beam from linear accelerators (Linac). Structural and morphological characteristics were also reported. Irradiations were conducted using high energy electrons beams in the range from 2 to 18 MeV. Pellets of ZrO 2 +PTFE were produced using polycrystalline powder grown by the precipitation method. These pellets presented a Tl glow curve exhibiting an intense glow peak centered at around 235 C. Tl response as a function of high electron absorbed dose was linear in the range from 2 to 30 Gy. Repeatability determined by exposing a set of pellets repeatedly to the same electron absorbed dose was 0.5%. Fading along 30 days was about 50%. Then, results obtained in this study suggest than ZrO 2 +PTFE pellets could be used for high energy electron beam dosimetry provided fading correction is accounted for. (Author)

  5. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.

    2012-12-01

    Dating metamorphic events appears to be unsatisfactorily addressed by most of the widely-employed and otherwise accurate and productive isotopic techniques, because the phases and systems investigated do not directly relate to the metamorphic events themselves. An adequate answer to this challenge is instead provided by microprobe-assisted chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology, by its spatial resolution, truly in situ character and the possibility to reference analyses against well-defined textural environments and features, as well as a qualitative timeframe derived therefrom. Though chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology is increasingly applied to seek answers ranging form a general characterization to fine details of the thermotectonic evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks, there are so far, unlike in the case of isotopic geochronological methods, no clearly defined standard analytical and data processing protocols. Two main reasons for this have to be mentioned, namely that chemical U-Th-PbT chronology is actually a proxy for isotopic geochronology, and the quantification of the errors and their propagation cannot be directly assessed because apparent ages are related to the measured element concentrations by an implicit function, the law of radioactive decay. Current approaches rely on treating calculated individual age values as primary data, a priori grouping of analyses supposed (and subsequently tested) to be coeval, and their statistical processing in order to obtain age values. An alternative approach we applied in basement units of the South Carpathians consists in an explicit approximation of the age formula and associated errors propagated from element concentrations to age values, and individual treatment of each age datum. The separation of the age clusters from the overall age spectrum of each sample was operated by tracing the variations of the normalized age gradient on the age spectrum sorted by increasing age values, and fine

  6. CellDyM: A room temperature operating cryogenic cell for the dynamic monitoring of snow metamorphism by time-lapse X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, N.; Flin, F.; Lesaffre, B.; Dufour, A.; Roulle, J.; Puglièse, P.; Philip, A.; Lahoucine, F.; Geindreau, C.; Panel, J.-M.; Roscoat, S. Rolland; Charrier, P.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the time evolution of snow microstructure in 3-D is crucial for a better understanding of snow metamorphism. We, therefore, designed a cryogenic cell that precisely controls the experimental conditions of a sample while it is scanned by X-ray tomography. Based on a thermoelectrical regulation and a vacuum insulation, the cell operates at room temperature. It is, thus, adaptable to diverse scanners, offering advantages in terms of imaging techniques, resolution, and speed. Three-dimensional time-lapse series were obtained under equitemperature and temperature gradient conditions at a 7.8 μm precision. The typical features of each metamorphism and the anisotropic faceting behavior between the basal and prismatic planes, known to occur close to -2°C, were observed in less than 30 h. These results are consistent with the temperature fields expected from heat conduction simulations through the cell. They confirm the cell's accuracy and the interest of relatively short periods to study snow metamorphism.

  7. Uranium mineralization possibilities in metamorphic Massif of Isla de Juventud, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora Dominguez, L.E.; Llanes Castro, A.I.; Pena Fortes, B.; Capote Rodriguez, G.

    1996-01-01

    The geologic and metallogenic characteristic of the metamorphic Massif shows the presence of possible uranium vein type mineralization as a result of a hidrotermal genetic process. Metalliferous fluids rising along the fault system were responsible for the deposition of the uranium in the reduction zones, i.e. presence of pyrite, organic matter and others. This type of uranium minerization is proposed for the Bibijagua area and for the Revolucion and Lela area the same type is expected. The gamma spectrometric analysis was used to evaluate the geological samples

  8. Dissecting the dynamic conformations of the metamorphic protein lymphotactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Sophie R; Porrini, Massimiliano; Konijnenberg, Albert; Clarke, David J; Tyler, Robert C; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R R; MacPhee, Cait E; Volkman, Brian F; Barran, Perdita E

    2014-10-30

    A mass spectrometer provides an ideal laboratory to probe the structure and stability of isolated protein ions. Interrogation of each discrete mass/charge-separated species enables the determination of the intrinsic stability of a protein fold, gaining snapshots of unfolding pathways. In solution, the metamorphic protein lymphotactin (Ltn) exists in equilibrium between two distinct conformations, a monomeric (Ltn10) and a dimeric (Ltn40) fold. Here, we use electron capture dissociation (ECD) and drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (DT IM-MS) to analyze both forms and use molecular dynamics (MD) to consider how the solution fold alters in a solvent-free environment. DT IM-MS reveals significant conformational flexibility for the monomer, while the dimer appears more conformationally restricted. These findings are supported by MD calculations, which reveal how salt bridges stabilize the conformers in vacuo. Following ECD experiments, a distinctive fragmentation pattern is obtained for both the monomer and dimer. Monomer fragmentation becomes more pronounced with increasing charge state especially in the disordered regions and C-terminal α-helix in the solution fold. Lower levels of fragmentation are seen in the β-sheet regions and in regions that contain salt bridges, identified by MD simulations. The lowest charge state of the dimer for which we obtain ECD data ([D+9H](9+)) exhibits extensive fragmentation with no relationship to the solution fold and has a smaller collision cross section (CCS) than charge states 10-13+, suggesting a "collapsed" encounter complex. Other charge states of the dimer, as for the monomer, are resistant to fragmentation in regions of β-sheets in the solution fold. This study provides evidence for preservation and loss of global fold and secondary structural elements, providing a tantalizing glimpse into the power of the emerging field of native top-down mass spectrometry.

  9. Frontend electronics for high-precision single photo-electron timing using FPGA-TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinali, M., E-mail: cardinal@kph.uni-mainz.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dzyhgadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The next generation of high-luminosity experiments requires excellent particle identification detectors which calls for Imaging Cherenkov counters with fast electronics to cope with the expected hit rates. A Barrel DIRC will be used in the central region of the Target Spectrometer of the planned PANDA experiment at FAIR. A single photo-electron timing resolution of better than 100 ps is required by the Barrel DIRC to disentangle the complicated patterns created on the image plane. R and D studies have been performed to provide a design based on the TRB3 readout using FPGA-TDCs with a precision better than 20 ps RMS and custom frontend electronics with high-bandwidth pre-amplifiers and fast discriminators. The discriminators also provide time-over-threshold information thus enabling walk corrections to improve the timing resolution. Two types of frontend electronics cards optimised for reading out 64-channel PHOTONIS Planacon MCP-PMTs were tested: one based on the NINO ASIC and the other, called PADIWA, on FPGA discriminators. Promising results were obtained in a full characterisation using a fast laser setup and in a test experiment at MAMI, Mainz, with a small scale DIRC prototype. - Highlights: • Frontend electronics for Cherenkov detectors have been developed. • FPGA-TDCs have been used for high precision timing. • Time over threshold has been utilised for walk correction. • Single photo-electron timing resolution less than 100 ps has been achieved.

  10. Characterisation of 100 kW electron beam melting gun and its adaptation as electron gun for high power DC electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Bhattacharjee, Dhruva; Waghmare, Abhay; Tiwari, Rajnish; Bakhtsingh, R.I.; Dasgupta, K.; Gupta, Sachin; Prakash, Baibhaw; Jha, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the characterization of the 100 kW electron beam melting gun for its adaptation in high power DC Electron Accelerators. The indigenously designed electron beam melting system at BARC is chosen for characterization. It comprises of electron gun as source of electrons, two electromagnetic focusing lenses viz. upper focusing lens and lower focusing lens for beam focusing, intermediate beam aperture for vacuum decoupling between gun region and melt zone, deflection and oscillation lens for maneuvering the beam on the melt charge and water cooled crucible that acts as a beam dump. In this system, the electron gun is designed for 40 kV and 100 kW corresponding to a maximum beam current of 2.5 A. The electron gun uses directly heated spiral tungsten filament. The operating temperature of the filament is 2800 °K. The focusing electrode and the anode profile are designed based on Pierce geometry. High Power DC Electron Accelerators require high currents of 1 A. The beam must comply with the requirement of 40 mm beam diameter and 10 mrad divergence at the exit of the electron gun. The characterization of the existing electron gun was done to find out all the beam parameters, for e.g. beam size, beam divergence, perveance etc. to be adapted or to be modified for the design of electron gun for high power DC accelerators. This paper shows limitations and the possible solutions for design of high power DC accelerators. (author)

  11. Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera,Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Elias-Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Metamorphosis in holometabolous insects occurs through two subsequent molting cycles: pupation (metamorphic molt and adult differentiation (imaginal molt. The imaginal molt in Apis mellifera L. was recently investigated in both histological and physiological-molecular approaches. Although the metamorphic molt in this model bee is extremely important to development, it is not well-known yet. In the current study we used this stage as an ontogenetic scenario to investigate the transcriptional profile of the gene Amlac2, which encodes a laccase with an essential role in cuticle differentiation. Amlac2 expression in epidermis was contrasted with the hemolymph titer of ecdysteroid hormones and with the most evident morphological events occurring during cuticle renewal. RT-PCR semiquantitative analyses using integument samples revealed increased levels of Amlac2 transcripts right after apolysis and during the subsequent pharate period, and declining levels near pupal ecdysis. Compared with the expression of a cuticle protein gene, AmelCPR14, these results highlighted the importance of the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis as an ontogenetic marker of gene reactivation in epidermis for cuticle renewal. The obtained results strengthen the comprehension of metamorphosis in Apis mellifera. In addition, we reviewed the literature about the development of A. mellifera, and emphasize the importance of revising the terminology used to describe honey bee molting cycles.

  12. Deciphering fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons van den Kerkhof

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of fluid inclusions in high-grade rocks is especially challenging as the host minerals have been normally subjected to deformation, recrystallization and fluid-rock interaction so that primary inclusions, formed at the peak of metamorphism are rare. The larger part of the fluid inclusions found in metamorphic minerals is typically modified during uplift. These late processes may strongly disguise the characteristics of the “original” peak metamorphic fluid. A detailed microstructural analysis of the host minerals, notably quartz, is therefore indispensable for a proper interpretation of fluid inclusions. Cathodoluminescence (CL techniques combined with trace element analysis of quartz (EPMA, LA-ICPMS have shown to be very helpful in deciphering the rock-fluid evolution. Whereas high-grade metamorphic quartz may have relatively high contents of trace elements like Ti and Al, low-temperature re-equilibrated quartz typically shows reduced trace element concentrations. The resulting microstructures in CL can be basically distinguished in diffusion patterns (along microfractures and grain boundaries, and secondary quartz formed by dissolution-reprecipitation. Most of these textures are formed during retrograde fluid-controlled processes between ca. 220 and 500 °C, i.e. the range of semi-brittle deformation (greenschist-facies and can be correlated with the fluid inclusions. In this way modified and re-trapped fluids can be identified, even when there are no optical features observed under the microscope.

  13. Genesis and petrology of Late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites associated with the Taba metamorphic complex in southern Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelfadil, K.M.; Asimow, P.D.; Azer, M.K.; Gahlan, H.A.

    2016-07-01

    We present new field, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data from late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites in southern Sinai, Egypt, at the northernmost limit of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The pegmatites cross-cut host rocks in the Taba Metamorphic Complex (TMC) with sharp contacts and are divided into massive and zoned pegmatites. Massive pegmatites are the most common and form veins, dykes and masses of variable dimensions; strikes range mainly from E-W through NW-SE to N-S. Mineralogically, the massive pegmatites are divided into K-feldspar-rich and albite-rich groups. Zoned pegmatites occur as lenses of variable dimensions, featuring a quartz core, an intermediate zone rich in K-feldspars and an outer finer-grained zone rich in albite. All compositions are highly evolved and display geochemical characteristics of post-collisional A-type granites: high SiO2, Na2O+K2O, FeO*/MgO, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, Ga and Y alongside low CaO, MgO, Ba and Sr. They are rich in Rare Earth Elements (REE) and have extreme negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 0.03–0.09). A genetic linkage between the pegmatites, aplites and alkali granite is confirmed by their common mild alkaline affinity and many other geochemical characteristics. These pegmatites and aplites represent the last small fraction of liquid remaining after extensive crystallization of granitic magma, injected along the foliation and into fractures of the host metamorphic rocks. The extensional tectonic regime and shallow depth of emplacement are consistent with a post-collisional environment. (Author)

  14. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of granitic and contact-metamorphic rocks of the Owens Valley area, Inyo and Mono Counties, California, and Esmeralda and Mineral Counties, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, G.M.; Mitchell, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Granitic and contact-metamorphic rocks of the Owens Valley area were sampled to determine their favorability for uranium. Uranium deposits associated with these rocks were examined to determine the mode of occurrence. Metamorphic rocks near contacts with intrusive rocks include skarns, schists, quartzites, metaconglomerates, hornfels, gneisses, and metavolcanics. The grade of contact metamorphism ranges from slight to intense, depending upon the distance from the intrusive contact. The average U 3 O 8 content of the metamorphic rock samples is 3 ppM. Metamorphic rock samples in a roof pendant at the Claw prospect contain as much as 3 percent U 3 O 8 . Skarn samples from the Birch Creek pluton contain as much as 114 ppM U 3 O 8 ; those from the Santa Rita Flat pluton contain as much as 23 ppM U 3 O 8 . Most of the intrusive rocks are granite, quartz monzonite, or monzonite. Granodiorite and diorite are less common, and gabbro is rare. The average U 3 O 8 content of the crystalline rock samples is 4 ppM. Samples from a quartz-monzonite pluton east of Lone Pine, California, and quartz monzonite in the Santa Rosa Hills had maximum contents of 28 and 13 ppM U 3 O 8 , respectively. Areas of contact metamorphism and metasomatism, such as those at the Claw prospect and Birch Creek pluton, are probably the most favorable sites for uranium deposits. There are many miles of granitic and contact-metamorphic zones in which undiscovered uranium deposits may exist. Although the overall uranium content of granitic rocks appears to be low, the pluton east of Lone Pine and the Hunter Mountain pluton in the area of the Santa Rosa Hills have sufficient uranium to have acted as uranium and detrital source rocks for uranium deposits that may now be buried in Tertiary sediments in the basins around the plutons. The Claw deposit is the only known uranium deposit of a size and grade to be of possible commercial interest

  15. Secondary electron spectroscopy and Auger microscopy at high spatial resolution. Application to scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gressus, Claude; Massignon, Daniel; Sopizet, Rene

    1979-01-01

    Secondary electron spectroscopy (SES), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (ELS) are combined with ultra high vacuum scanning microscopy (SEM) for surface analysis at high spatial resolution. Reliability tests for the optical column for the vacuum and for the spectrometer are discussed. Furthermore the sensitivity threshold in AES which is compatible with a non destructive surface analysis at high spatial resolution is evaluated. This combination of all spectroscopies is used in the study of the beam damage correlated with the well known secondary electron image (SEI) darkening still observed in ultra high vacuum. The darkening is explained as a bulk decontamination of the sample rather than as a surface contamination from the residual vacuum gas [fr

  16. High Intensity Polarized Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, Benard; Adderley, Philip; Brittian, Joshua; Clark, J.; Grames, Joseph; Hansknecht, John; McCarter, James; Stutzman, Marcy; Suleiman, Riad; Surles-law, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, at numerous facilities world wide, extensive RandD devoted to constructing reliable GaAs photoguns helped ensure successful accelerator-based nuclear and high-energy physics programs using spin polarized electron beams. Today, polarized electron source technology is considered mature, with most GaAs photoguns meeting accelerator and experiment beam specifications in a relatively trouble-free manner. Proposals for new collider facilities however, require electron beams with parameters beyond today's state-of-the-art and serve to renew interest in conducting polarized electron source RandD. And at CEBAF/Jefferson Lab, there is an immediate pressing need to prepare for new experiments that require considerably more beam current than before. One experiment in particular?Q-weak, a parity violation experiment that will look for physics beyond the Standard Model?requires 180 uA average current at polarization >80% for a duration of one year, with run-averaged helicity correlate

  17. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) is the main metamorphic unit of the Himalayas, stretching for over 2400 km, bounded to the South by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the North by the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) whose contemporanous activity controlled its exhumation between 23 and 17 Ma (Godin et al., 2006). Several shear zones and/or faults have been recognized within the GHS, usually regarded as out of sequence thrusts. Recent investigations, using a multitechnique approach, allowed to recognize a tectonic and metamorphic discontinuity, localized in the mid GHS, with a top-to-the SW sense of shear (Higher Himalayan Discontinuity: HHD) (Carosi et al., 2010; Montomoli et al., 2013). U-(Th)-Pb in situ monazite ages provide temporal constraint of the acitivity of the HHD from ~ 27-25 Ma to 18-17 Ma. Data on the P and T evolution testify that this shear zone affected the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the belt and different P and T conditions have been recorded in the hanging-wall and footwall of the HHD. The HHD is a regional tectonic feature running for more than 700 km, dividing the GHS in two different portions (Iaccarino et al., 2015; Montomoli et al., 2015). The occurrence of even more structurally higher contractional shear zone in the GHS (above the HHD): the Kalopani shear zone (Kali Gandaki valley, Central Nepal), active from ~ 41 to 30 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite) points out to a more complex deformation pattern in the GHS characterized by in sequence shearing. The actual proposed models of exhumation of the GHS, based exclusively on the MCT and STD activities, are not able to explain the occurrence of the HHD and other in-sequence shear zones. Any model of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the GHS should account for the occurrence of the tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities within the GHS and its consequences on the metamorphic paths and on the assembly of Himalayan belt. References Godin L., Grujic D., Law, R. D. & Searle, M. P. 2006

  18. Late Cretaceous extension and exhumation of the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    François, T.; Md Ali, M.A.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Ng, T.F.; Taib, N.I.; Shuib, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation of large continental areas by post-orogenic extension requires favourable geodynamic conditions and frequently occurs along pre-existing suture zones or nappe contacts, as exemplified by the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes of northern Peninsular Malaysia. For this

  19. The metamorphic basement of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza: New geochronologic and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, Miguel; Ramos, Victor A.; Vujovich, Graciela I.; Poma, Stella

    1998-01-01

    The metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Frontal exposed in the Cordon del Portillo, Mendoza were examined by Rb/Sr geochronology and Nd/Sm isotopic analysis. The Rb/Sr data defined a Devonian age for the last metamorphic episode, similar to the previous K/Ar and Ar/Ar ages obtained in this region and western Precordillera. The isotopic analysis identified three sets of model ages: 1.- The oldest corresponds to a set of meta sedimentary rocks with a model age of 1,400 to 1,700 Ma; 2.- A monzogranodiorite with a model age of 1,000 Ma; and 3.- Metabasites with model ages between 577 and 330 Ma. These rocks are interpreted as 1.- A typical Grenvillian derived basement; 2.- Late Paleozoic granitoids derived from a different Proterozoic basement; and 3.- Some Eopaleozoic metabasites tectonically inter fingered with the Grenvillian basement. These new data are coherent with the existence of a Laurentia derived terrane, Chilenia, that was separated by oceanic rocks from the basement of Pre cordillera during Eopaleozoic times. This last basement known as the Cuyania terrane, was also derived from Laurentia. (author)

  20. Simulation of electron displacement damage in a high voltage electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Susumu; Kanaya, Koichi

    1979-01-01

    By applying the fundamental theory of the neutron cooling to the conservation law of energy and momentum, the threshold energies of incident electrons for displacing atoms are calculated and illustrated periodically for the atomic number. And the observable damage due to the secondary action of displaced atoms in the practical use of a high voltage electron microscope is described for several materials and accelerating voltages. The trajectories of incident electrons and displaced atoms in several materials are simulated by a Monte-Carlo method, using rigorous formulas of electron scattering events, i.e. elastic and inelastic scattering cross-sections, ionization loss and plasmon excitation. The simulation results are substantially agreement with experiments. (author)

  1. High Energy Electron Detectors on Sphinx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Porte, A.; Zucchini, F.; Calamy, H.; Auriel, G.; Coleman, P. L.; Bayol, F.; Lalle, B.; Krishnan, M.; Wilson, K.

    2008-11-01

    Z-pinch plasma radiation sources are used to dose test objects with K-shell (˜1-4keV) x-rays. The implosion physics can produce high energy electrons (> 50keV), which could distort interpretation of the soft x-ray effects. We describe the design and implementation of a diagnostic suite to characterize the electron environment of Al wire and Ar gas puff z-pinches on Sphinx. The design used ITS calculations to model detector response to both soft x-rays and electrons and help set upper bounds to the spurious electron flux. Strategies to discriminate between the known soft x-ray emission and the suspected electron flux will be discussed. H.Calamy et al, ``Use of microsecond current prepulse for dramatic improvements of wire array Z-pinch implosion,'' Phys Plasmas 15, 012701 (2008) J.A.Halbleib et al, ``ITS: the integrated TIGER series of electron/photon transport codes-Version 3.0,'' IEEE Trans on Nuclear Sci, 39, 1025 (1992)

  2. Properties of the electron cloud in a high-energy positron and electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkay, K.C.; Rosenberg, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-energy, background electrons are ubiquitous in high-energy particle accelerators. Under certain conditions, interactions between this electron cloud and the high-energy beam can give rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade the accelerator performance. These effects range from vacuum degradation to collective beam instabilities and emittance blowup. Although electron-cloud effects were first observed two decades ago in a few proton storage rings, they have in recent years been widely observed and intensely studied in positron and proton rings. Electron-cloud diagnostics developed at the Advanced Photon Source enabled for the first time detailed, direct characterization of the electron-cloud properties in a positron and electron storage ring. From in situ measurements of the electron flux and energy distribution at the vacuum chamber wall, electron-cloud production mechanisms and details of the beam-cloud interaction can be inferred. A significant longitudinal variation of the electron cloud is also observed, due primarily to geometrical details of the vacuum chamber. Such experimental data can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters in modeling efforts, leading ultimately to greater confidence in predicting electron-cloud effects in future accelerators.

  3. Electron-electron interactions in graphene field-induced quantum dots in a high magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlof, A.; Shylau, Artsem; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of electron-electron interaction in graphene quantum dots defined by an external electrostatic potential and a high magnetic field. To account for the electron-electron interaction, we use the Thomas-Fermi approximation and find that electron screening causes the formation...... of compressible strips in the potential profile and the electron density. We numerically solve the Dirac equations describing the electron dynamics in quantum dots, and we demonstrate that compressible strips lead to the appearance of plateaus in the electron energies as a function of the magnetic field. Finally...

  4. Changes in mitochondrial electron transport chain activity during insect metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, M E

    2007-02-01

    The midgut of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) is a highly aerobic tissue that is destroyed by programmed cell death during larval-pupal metamorphosis. The death of the epithelium begins after commitment to pupation, and the oxygen consumption of isolated midgut mitochondria decreases soon after commitment. To assess the role of the electron transport chain in this decline in mitochondrial function, the maximal activities of complexes I-IV of the respiratory chain were measured in isolated midgut mitochondria. Whereas there were no developmental changes in the activity of complex I or III, activities of complexes II and IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] were higher in mitochondria from precommitment than postcommitment larvae. This finding is consistent with a higher rate of succinate oxidation in mitochondria isolated from precommitment larvae and reveals that the metamorphic decline in mitochondrial respiration is due to the targeted destruction or inactivation of specific sites within the mitochondria, rather than the indiscriminate destruction of the organelles. The COX turnover number (e- x s(-1) x cytochrome aa3(-1)) was greater for the enzyme from precommitment than postcommitment larvae, indicating a change in the enzyme structure and/or its lipid environment during the early stages of metamorphosis. The turnover number of COX in the intact mitochondria (in organello COX) was also lower in postcommitment larvae. In addition to changes in the protein or membrane phospholipids, the metamorphic decline in this rate constant may be a result of the observed loss of endogenous cytochrome c.

  5. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  6. Nanodiamond Formation at the Lithogenesis and Low-Stages of Regional Metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, S. K.; Melnik, N. N.; Vyalov, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    Samples of gilsonite from Adzharia, anthraxolite and graphite of coal from Taimyr, shungite from Karelia, and anthracite from Donbass are studied using Raman spectroscopy. Peaks at 1600 cm-1, indicating the presence of nanographite, are recorded in all samples. The anthracite sample from Donbass, 1330 cm-1, corresponds to the sp 3-line of carbon hybridization conforming to a nanodiamond. It is concluded that in nature diamonds can be formed at late stages of lithogenesis (catagensis, metagenesis), and for coals, it can occur at the zeolite stage of regional metamorphism of rocks, before the green schist stage.

  7. Timing of mid-crustal ductile extension in the northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada: Evidence from U/Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Blackburn, T.; Johnston, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (Mccs) within the western U.S. record a history of Cenozoic ductile and brittle extensional deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism, and exhumation within the footwall of high-angle Basin and Range normal faults. Documenting these histories within Mccs have been topics of research for over 40 years, yet there remains disagreement about: 1) whether the detachment fault formed and moved at low angles or initiated at high angles and rotated to a low angle; 2) whether brittle and ductile extensional deformation were linked in space and time; and 3) the temporal relationship of both modes of extension to the development of the detachment fault. The northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex (NSR), Nevada has been central to this debate. To address these issues, we report new U/Pb dates from zircon in deformed and undeformed rhyolite dikes emplaced into ductilely thinned and horizontally stretched lower plate rocks that provide tight bounds on the timing of ductile extension at between 38.2 ± 0.3 Ma and 22.50 ± 0.36 Ma. The maximum age constraint is from the Northern dike swarm (NDS), which was emplaced in the northwest part of the range pre- to syn-tectonic with ductile extension. The minimum age constraint is from the Silver Creek dike swarm (SDS) that was emplaced in the southern part of the range post ductile extensional deformation. Our field observations, petrography, and U/Pb zircon ages on the dikes combined with published data on the geology and kinematics of extension, moderate and low temperature thermochronology on lower plate rocks, and age and faulting histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins adjacent to the NSR are interpreted as recording an episode of localized upper crustal brittle extension during the Eocene that drove upward ductile extensional flow of hot middle crustal rocks from beneath the NSR detachment soon after, or simultaneous with, emplacement of the NDS. Exhumation of the lower plate continued in a rolling

  8. Device characterization for design optimization of 4 junction inverted metamorphic concentrator solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F.; France, Ryan M.; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); García, Iván [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 USA and Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Quantitative electroluminescence (EL) and luminescent coupling (LC) analysis, along with more conventional characterization techniques, are combined to completely characterize the subcell JV curves within a fourjunction (4J) inverted metamorphic solar cell (IMM). The 4J performance under arbitrary spectral conditions can be predicted from these subcell JV curves. The internal radiative efficiency (IRE) of each junction has been determined as a function of current density from the external radiative efficiency using optical modeling, but this required the accurate determination of the individual junction current densities during the EL measurement as affected by LC. These measurement and analysis techniques can be applied to any multijunction solar cell. The 4J IMM solar cell used to illustrate these techniques showed excellent junction quality as exhibited by high IRE and a one-sun AM1.5D efficiency of 36.3%. This device operates up to 1000 suns without limitations due to any of the three tunnel junctions.

  9. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  10. Migmatization and low-pressure overprinting metamorphism as record of two pre-Cretaceous tectonic episodes in the Santander Massif of the Andean basement in northern Colombia (NW South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, C. A.; Amaya, S.; Urueña, C.; Bernet, M.

    2017-03-01

    The core of the Santander Massif in the northern Andes of Colombia is dominated by migmatitic gneisses with a 7.5 kbar. Lithologies are overprinted by low-pressure metamorphism, related to extensive Jurassic intrusions and linked with growth of cordierite and equilibration of low-pressure mineral assemblages, recorded metamorphic conditions are Pangaea.

  11. Arbitrarily shaped high-coherence electron bunches from cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, A. J.; Sheludko, D. V.; Saliba, S. D.; Bell, S. C.; Junker, M.; Nugent, K. A.; Scholten, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    Ultrafast electron diffractive imaging of nanoscale objects such as biological molecules and defects in solid-state devices provides crucial information on structure and dynamic processes: for example, determination of the form and function of membrane proteins, vital for many key goals in modern biological science, including rational drug design. High brightness and high coherence are required to achieve the necessary spatial and temporal resolution, but have been limited by the thermal nature of conventional electron sources and by divergence due to repulsive interactions between the electrons, known as the Coulomb explosion. It has been shown that, if the electrons are shaped into ellipsoidal bunches with uniform density, the Coulomb explosion can be reversed using conventional optics, to deliver the maximum possible brightness at the target. Here we demonstrate arbitrary and real-time control of the shape of cold electron bunches extracted from laser-cooled atoms. The ability to dynamically shape the electron source itself and to observe this shape in the propagated electron bunch provides a remarkable experimental demonstration of the intrinsically high spatial coherence of a cold-atom electron source, and the potential for alleviation of electron-source brightness limitations due to Coulomb explosion.

  12. Using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter to Teach Phase Equilibria to Students of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Anton H.; Millam, Evan L.; Wright, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    As an aid for teaching phase equilibria to undergraduate students of igneous and metamorphic petrology, we have designed a laboratory exercise that allows them to create a phase diagram from data produced by differential scanning calorimetry. By preparing and analyzing samples of naphthalene and phenanthrene, students acquire hands-on insight into…

  13. Chemical and oxygen isotopic properties of ordinary chondrites (H5, L6) from Oman: Signs of isotopic equilibrium during thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Nasir, Sobhi J.; Jabeen, Iffat; Al Rawas, Ahmed; Banerjee, Neil R.; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2017-10-01

    Mean bulk chemical data of recently found H5 and L6 ordinary chondrites from the deserts of Oman generally reflect isochemical features which are consistent with the progressive thermal metamorphism of a common, unequilibrated starting material. Relative differences in abundances range from 0.5-10% in REE (Eu = 14%), 6-13% in siderophile elements (Co = 48%), and >10% in lithophile elements (exceptions are Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, U = >30%) between H5 and L6 groups. These differences may have accounted for variable temperature conditions during metamorphism on their parent bodies. The CI/Mg-normalized mean abundances of refractory lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Sm, Yb, Lu, V) show no resolvable differences between H5 and L6 suggesting that both groups have experienced the same fractionation. The REE diagram shows subtle enrichment in LREE with a flat HREE pattern. Furthermore, overall mean REE abundances are 0.6 × CI with enriched La abundance ( 0.9 × CI) in both groups. Precise oxygen isotope compositions demonstrate the attainment of isotopic equilibrium by progressive thermal metamorphism following a mass-dependent isotope fractionation trend. Both groups show a slope-1/2 line on a three-isotope plot with subtle negative deviation in Δ17O associated with δ18O enrichment relative to δ17O. These deviations are interpreted as the result of liberation of water from phyllosilicates and evaporation of a fraction of the water during thermal metamorphism. The resultant isotope fractionations caused by the water loss are analogous to those occurring between silicate melt and gas phase during CAI and chondrule formation in chondrites and are controlled by cooling rates and exchange efficiency.

  14. Compact high-current, subnanosecond electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpak, V G; Shunajlov, S A; Ulmaskulov, M R; Yalandin, M I [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Electrophysics; Pegel, I V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). High-Current Electronics Inst.; Tarakanov, V P [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). High-Temperature Inst.

    1997-12-31

    A compact subnanosecond, high-current electron accelerator producing an annular electron beam of duration up to 300 - 400 ps, energy about 250 keV, and current up to 1 kA has been developed to study transient processes in pulsed power microwave devices. The measuring and recording techniques used to experimentally investigate the dynamics of the beam current pulse and the transformation of the electron energy during the transportation of the beam in a longitudinal magnetic field are described. The experimental data obtained are compared with the predictions of a numerical simulation. (author). 6 figs., 5 refs.

  15. The Marbat metamorphic core-complex (Southern Arabian Peninsula) : reassessment of the evolution of a Neoproterozoic island-arc from petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon data

    OpenAIRE

    Barbey, P.; Denele, Y.; Paquette, J. L.; Berger, J.; Ganne, Jérôme; Roques, D.

    2018-01-01

    The Marbat basement (Sultanate of Oman) belongs to the Neoproterozoic accretion domain of the Arabian-Nubian shield. We present new geochronological, petrological and geochemical data as an extension of our previous study (Denele et al., 2017) re-interpreting this basement as a metamorphic core complex (MCC). We showed that this MCC consists of a metamorphic unit (Juffa complex) separated by an extensional detachment from a plutonic unit (Sadh complex and Tonalite plutons). Geochemical data s...

  16. Charnockites and UHT metamorphism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt, western Suriname : Evidence for two separate UHT events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Martijn; de Roever, Emond W F; Nanne, Josefine A M; Mason, Paul R D; Davies, Gareth R.

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt in western Suriname is an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic terrain in the centre of the Paleoproterozoic (Transamazonian) Guiana Shield. Next to the UHT granulites, the belt contains a 30 by 30km body of orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids: the Kabalebo charnockites.

  17. Thirty-five-nm T-Gate In0.52Al0.48As/In0.53Ga0.47As metamorphic HEMTs with an ultrahigh fmax of 610 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Do-Young; Kim, Sung-Ho; Choi, Gil-Bok; Jung, Sung-Woo; Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-five-nanometer T-gate GaAs-based In 0.52 Al 0.48 As/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (mHEMTs) are successfully fabricated using a zigzag-shaped T-gate. We obtain a maximum extrinsic transconductance (g m ) of 1060 mS/mm and a maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) of 610 GHz. These superior results are obtained by reducing the T-gate's length to 35 nm without the assistance of a supporting layer and by fabricating a wide-recessed-gate structure. The stand-alone 35-nm T-gate effectively improves the device performance because it doesn't cause additional parasitic capacitances. The wide-recessed-gate structure alleviates impact ionization in the channel, which suppresses the kink effect in the output characteristic and reduces the output conductance (g ds ). In addition, the wide-recessed-gate structure reduces the gate-to-drain capacitance (C gd ); consequently realizing a state-of-the-art f max . The f max of 610 GHz, to our knowledge, is the highest value reported to date for GaAs-based HEMTs.

  18. High-power, high-frequency, annular-beam free-electron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Carlsten, B.E.; Earley, L.M.; Fortgang, C.M.; Haynes, W.B.; Haddock, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed a 15--17 GHz free electron maser (FEM) capable of producing high power pulses with a phase stability appropriate for linear collider applications. The electron beam source is a 1 micros, 800 kV, 5 kA, 6-cm-dia annular electron beam machine called BANSHEE. The beam interacts with the TM 02 mode Raman FEM amplifier in a corrugated cylindrical waveguide where the beam runs close to the interaction device walls to reduce the power density in the fields. They studied the phase stability by analyzing the dispersion relation for an axial FEL, in which the rf field was transversely wiggled and the electron trajectories were purely longitudinal. Detailed particle-in-cell simulations demonstrated the transverse wiggling of the rf mode and the axial FEL interaction and explicit calculations of the growing root of the dispersion relation are included to verify the phase stability

  19. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  20. On some aspects of high voltage electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffrey, B.; Trinquier, J.

    1987-01-01

    The present paper deals with high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). It is an overview on this domain due to the pionneer work of G. Dupouy which has permitted to perform a new kind of electron microscopy. Since this time, HVEM has shown its interest in high resolution, irradiations, chemical analysis, in situ experiments

  1. Research of the chemical activity of microgrinding coals of various metamorphism degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Butakov, E. B.; Kuznetsov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of mechanically activating grinding of coals of various degrees of metamorphism by two different methods - determination of the flash time in a vertical tubular furnace and thermogravimetric analysis. In the experiments, the coals that had been processed on a vibrating centrifugal mill and a disintegrator, aged for some time, were compared. The experiments showed a decrease in the ignition temperature of mechanically activated coals - deactivation of fuel, as well as the effect of mechanical activation on the further process of thermal-oxidative degradation.

  2. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  3. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  4. High-energy electron beams for ceramic joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, Bob N.; Glass, S. J.; Halbleib, J. A.; Helmich, D. R.; Loehman, Ron E.; Clifford, Jerome R.

    1995-03-01

    Joining of structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for high temperature joining. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the ceramic. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 MPa have been measured. This strength is comparable to that reported in the literature for bonding silicon nitride (Si3N4) to molybdenum with copper-silver-titanium braze, but weaker than that reported for Si3N4 - Si3N4 with gold-nickel braze. The bonding mechanism appears to be formation of a thin silicide layer. Beam damage to the Si3N4 was also assessed.

  5. Impact of electron-electron Coulomb interaction on the high harmonic generation process in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H. K.; Mkrtchian, G. F.

    2018-03-01

    Generation of high harmonics in a monolayer graphene initiated by a strong coherent radiation field, taking into account electron-electron Coulomb interaction, is investigated. A microscopic theory describing the nonlinear optical response of graphene is developed. The Coulomb interaction of electrons is treated in the scope of dynamic Hartree-Fock approximation. The closed set of integrodifferential equations for the single-particle density matrix of a graphene quantum structure is solved numerically. The obtained solutions show the significance of many-body Coulomb interaction on the high harmonic generation process in graphene.

  6. On the electronic structure of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.; Nuecker, N.; Romberg, H.; Alexander, M.; Knupfer, M.; Mante, J.; Claessen, R.; Buslaps, T.; Harm, S.; Manzke, R.; Skibowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of the electronic structure of high-T c superconductors and related compounds by high-energy spectroscopies are reviewed. In particular, we report on investigations by electron energy-loss, angle-resolved photoemission, and inverse angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Information on the symmetry and the character of states close to the Fermi level has been obtained. 25 refs., 8 figs

  7. Grain coarsening in polymineralic contact metamorphic carbonate rocks: The role of different physical interactions during coarsening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodhag, Sabine; Herwegh, Marco; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    ) and microstructures with considerable second-phase volume fractions of up to 0.5. The variations might be of general validity for any polymineralic rock, which undergoes grain coarsening during metamorphism. The new findings are important for a better understanding of the initiation of strain localization based...... on the activation of grain size dependent deformation mechanisms....

  8. Electron beam generation in high voltage glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, J.J.; Szapiro, B.; Murray, C.

    1989-01-01

    The generation of intense CW and pulsed electron beams in glow discharges in reviewed. Glow discharge electron guns operate at a pressure of the order of 1 Torr and often have an advantage in applications that require a broad area electron beam in a gaseous atmosphere, such as laser excitation and some aspects of materials processing. Aspects of electron gun design are covered. Diagnostics of the high voltage glow discharges including the electric field distribution mapped by Doppler free laser spectroscopy, and plasma density and electron temperature measurements of the electron yield of different cathode materials under glow discharge conditions are presented

  9. Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  10. The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maria; Terracciano, Rosario; Balassone, Giuseppina; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Matthews, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Zambian willemite (Zn2SiO4) deposits occur in the metasedimentary carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic Katangan Supergroup. The most important orebodies are located around Kabwe and contain both sulphides and willemite in dolomites of low metamorphic grade. The Star Zinc and Excelsior prospects (Lusaka area), discovered in the early 1920s, occur in the metamorphic lithotypes of the late Proterozoic Zambezi Supracrustal sequence, which were deposited in a transtensional basin formed during the oblique collision of the Kalahari and Congo cratons. The deposits are hosted by the limestone and dolomitic marbles of the Cheta and Lusaka Formations. Structural analysis indicates that several fracture sets host the deposits, which may be genetically related to the Pan-African Mwembeshi dislocation zone (a major geotectonic boundary between the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt). In both prospects, willemite replaces the marbles and is found along joints and fissures with open-space filling textures and locally may develop colloform and vuggy fabrics as well. Silver as well as traces of germanium and cadmium have been detected within the willemite ore, and lead or zinc sulphides are scarce or absent. Calcite locally replaces willemite. Willemite is associated with specular hematite and franklinite and post-dates the Zn-spinel gahnite in the paragenesis. Genthelvite [Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S] occurs as a minor phase in irregular aggregates. The willemites from the Lusaka area, though Mn-poor, show green cathodoluminescence colours and bright green fluorescence in short-wave UV (as the high-temperature willemites in USA). Thermometric analyses of primary fluid inclusions in willemite yield homogenization temperatures that range from 160°C to 240°C and salinities of 8-16 wt.% equiv. NaCl. The homogenization temperatures suggest a hypogene-hydrothermal origin for the willemite concentrations. The geochemistry of fluid inclusion leachates suggests that the hydrothermal fluids were brines

  11. Preliminary investigations on high energy electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertling, Yves; Hoppe, Dietrich; Hampel, Uwe

    2010-12-15

    In computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional images of the attenuation distribution within a slice are created by scanning radiographic projections of an object with a rotating X-ray source detector compound and subsequent reconstruction of the images from these projection data on a computer. CT can be made very fast by employing a scanned electron beam instead of a mechanically moving X-ray source. Now this principle was extended towards high-energy electron beam tomography with an electrostatic accelerator. Therefore a dedicated experimental campaign was planned and carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk. There we investigated the capabilities of BINP's accelerators as an electron beam generating and scanning unit of a potential high-energy electron beam tomography device. The setup based on a 1 MeV ELV-6 (BINP) electron accelerator and a single detector. Besides tomographic measurements with different phantoms, further experiments were carried out concerning the focal spot size and repeat accuracy of the electron beam as well as the detector's response time and signal to noise ratio. (orig.)

  12. Applications of molecules as high-resolution, high-sensitivity threshold electron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutjian, A.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the work under the contract entitled ''Applications of Molecules as High-Resolution, High-Sensitivity Threshold Electron Detectors'' (DoE IAA No. DE-AI01-83ER13093 Mod. A006) was to explore the electron attachment properties of a variety of molecules at electron energies not accessible by other experimental techniques. As a result of this work, not only was a large body of basic data measured on attachment cross sections and rate constants; but also extensive theoretical calculations were carried out to verify the underlying phenomenon of s-wave attachment. Important outgrowths of this week were also realized in other areas of research. The basic data have applications in fields such as combustion, soot reduction, rocket-exhaust modification, threshold photoelectron spectroscopy, and trace species detection

  13. High energy electron multibeam diffraction and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Alain.

    1980-04-01

    The different theories of dynamical scattering of electrons are firstly reviewed with special reference to their basis and the validity of the different approximations. Then after a short description of the different experimental set ups, structural analysis and the investigation of the optical potential by means of high energy electrons will be surveyed

  14. Enhanced Contacts for Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using Carbon Nanotube Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-18

    substrates through a shadow mask. The native oxide was removed by HCl (hydrochloric acid) immersion immediately before the deposition process...34Pushing Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction Solar Cells Toward Higher Efficiency at Realistic Operating Conditions," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 3...Multijunction Solar Cells," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 2, pp. 377-381, Jul 2012. [7] F. Newman, et al., "PROGRESS IN ADAPTING INVERTED

  15. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Webb, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. The replacement cost of the RHIC facility is about two billion US dollars, and the eRHIC will fully take advantage and utilize this investment. We plan adding a polarized 5-30 GeV electron beam to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a top energy of 325 GeV, to heavy fully-striped ions with energies up to 130 GeV/u. Brookhaven's innovative design, is based on one of the RHIC's hadron rings and a multi-pass energy-recovery linac (ERL). Using the ERL as the electron accelerator assures high luminosity in the 10 33 -10 34 cm -2 sec -1 range, and for the natural staging of eRHIC, with the ERL located inside the RHIC tunnel. The eRHIC will provide electron-hadron collisions in up to three interaction regions. We detail the eRHIC's performance in Section 2. Since first paper on eRHIC paper in 2000, its design underwent several iterations. Initially, the main eRHIC option (the so-called ring-ring, RR, design) was based on an electron ring, with the linac-ring (LR) option as a backup. In 2004, we published the detailed 'eRHIC 0th Order Design Report' including a cost-estimate for the RR design. After detailed studies, we found that an LR eRHIC has about a 10-fold higher luminosity than the RR. Since 2007, the LR, with its natural staging strategy and full transparency for polarized electrons, became the main choice for eRHIC. In 2009, we completed technical studies of the design and dynamics for MeRHIC with 3-pass 4 GeV ERL. We learned much from this evaluation, completed a bottom-up cost estimate for this $350M machine, but then shelved the design. In the same year, we turned again to considering the cost-effective, all-in-tunnel six-pass ERL for our design of the high-luminosity eRHIC. In it

  16. Physiological effects and cellular responses of metamorphic larvae and juveniles of sea urchin exposed to ionic and nanoparticulate silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesky, Adriano; Ribeiro, Ciro A Oliveiro; Pelletier, Émilien

    2016-05-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) would likely result in their discharge into wastewater and inevitable release in densely populated coastal areas. It is known that AgNPs can cause harmful effects to marine fauna, but how they affect development stages is still an open question. In order to understand in details how polymer-coated AgNPs (PAAm-AgNPs) (from 0.19 to 4.64mM as Ag) can affect critical stages of marine invertebrate development, metamorphic larvae and juveniles of sea urchins were used as biological models. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrix with PERMANOVA showed organisms in a multivariate space undergoing through different physiological conditions as a function of time, chemical forms of silver, nominal concentrations, and presence or absence of food. Sublethal effects such as lethargy, oedema and immobility mainly characterized PAAm-AgNPs effects with juveniles and postlarvae, whereas necrosis and death arose in Ag(+) conditions in short-term tests. Chronically exposed metamorphic larvae had their morphogenic processes interrupted by PAAm-AgNPs and a high mortality rate was observed in recovery period. On the contrary, Ag(+) ions caused progressive mortality during exposure, but a quick recovery in uncontaminated seawater was observed. By means of fluorescent markers we showed that nanosilver could be transferred between consecutive stages (swimming larvae and postlarvae) and highlighted how important is food to enhance PAAm-AgNPs uptake. Using TEM we observed that unfed juveniles had nanosilver aggregates mostly restricted to their coelomic sinuses, while metamorphic larvae already had nano-contamination overspread in different tissues and blastocoel. Our main hypothesis for nanotoxicity of PAAM-AgNPs relies on the slow dissolution of nano-core over time, but in this study the effects of particulate silver form itself are also evoked. Main mechanisms governing tissular and cellular responses

  17. High-Temperature Electronics: Status and Future Prospects in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Touati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of current electronics and states the drive toward high-temperature electronics. The problems specific to high-temperature effects on conventional electronics and prospects of alternative technologies like silicon-on-insulator, silicon carbide, and diamond are discussed. Improving petroleum recovery from oil wells with hightemperature coverage of downhole electronics, making combustion processes more efficient utilizing embedded electronics, programs for More Electric Aircraft and Vehicles necessitating distributed control systems, and environmental protection issues stress the need to use and develop high-temperature electronics. This makes high-temperature electronics a key-enabling technology in the 21st century. Actual applications using high-temperature electronics are discussed in some details. Also information and guidelines are included about supporting electronics needed to make a complete high-temperature system. The technology has been making major advancements and is expected to account for 20% of the electronics market by 2010. However, many technical challenges have to be solved.

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY - HIGH VOLTAGE ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The high energy electron beam irradiation technology is a low temperature method for destroying complex mixtures of hazardous organic chemicals in solutions containing solids. The system consists of a computer-automated, portable electron beam accelerator and a delivery system. T...

  19. Frontend electronics for high-precision single photo-electron timing using FPGA-TDCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, M.; Dzyhgadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Ferretti Bondy, M. I.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Rosner, C.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation of high-luminosity experiments requires excellent particle identification detectors which calls for Imaging Cherenkov counters with fast electronics to cope with the expected hit rates. A Barrel DIRC will be used in the central region of the Target Spectrometer of the planned PANDA experiment at FAIR. A single photo-electron timing resolution of better than 100 ps is required by the Barrel DIRC to disentangle the complicated patterns created on the image plane. R&D studies have been performed to provide a design based on the TRB3 readout using FPGA-TDCs with a precision better than 20 ps RMS and custom frontend electronics with high-bandwidth pre-amplifiers and fast discriminators. The discriminators also provide time-over-threshold information thus enabling walk corrections to improve the timing resolution. Two types of frontend electronics cards optimised for reading out 64-channel PHOTONIS Planacon MCP-PMTs were tested: one based on the NINO ASIC and the other, called PADIWA, on FPGA discriminators. Promising results were obtained in a full characterisation using a fast laser setup and in a test experiment at MAMI, Mainz, with a small scale DIRC prototype.

  20. High voltage high brightness electron accelerators with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Frost, C.A.; Shope, S.L.; Halbleib, J.A.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    During the last ten years the authors have extensively studied the physics and operation of magnetically-immersed electron foilless diodes. Most of these sources were utilized as injectors to high current, high energy linear induction accelerators such as those of the RADLAC family. Recently they have experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that foilless diodes can be successfully coupled to self-magnetically insulated transmission line voltage adders to produce very small high brightness, high definition (no halo) electron beams. The RADLAC/SMILE experience opened the path to a new approach in high brightness, high energy induction accelerators. There is no beam drifting through the device. The voltage addition occurs in a center conductor, and the beam is created at the high voltage end in an applied magnetic field diode. This work was motivated by the remarkable success of the HERMES-III accelerator and the need to produce small radius, high energy, high current electron beams for air propagation studies and flash x-ray radiography. In this paper they present experimental results compared with analytical and numerical simulations in addition to design examples of devices that can produce multikiloamp electron beams of as high as 100 MV energies and radii as small as 1 mm

  1. Theoretical description of high-lying two-electrons states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, C.H.; Cavagnero, M.; Sadeghpour, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Within the past two years, experiments on high-lying doubly-excited states in He and H- have shown spectra at energies near excited hydrogenic thresholds having principal quantum numbers in the range N=5--9. While they display some nontrivial complexities, the spectra are tremendously simpler than might be anticipated on the basis of independent electron models, in that only a small fraction of the total number of anticipated resonances are observed experimentally. Moreover, for principal quantum number N that are not too high, specifically N - , the resonance positions are described accurately by adiabatic calculations using hyperspherical coordinates and can be parametrized by a remarkably simple two-electron Rydberg formula. The observed propensity for excitation of only a small subset of the possible resonance states has been codified by several groups into approximate selection rules based on alternative (but apparently equivalent) classification schemes. Comparatively few attempts have been made at quantitative tests of the validity of these rules. The present review describes recent efforts to quantify their accuracy and limitations using R-matrix and quantum defect techniques, and Smith's delay-time matrix. Prospensity rules for exciting different degrees of freedom are found to differ greatly in their degree of validity

  2. Distribution of uranium in two sulphide ore environments from the reversed metamorphic sequence of the Daling Rocks in the Dargeeling-Sikkim Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    In the low-grade Daling metasediments of Gorubathan, the average U content of 3-4 ppm reflects the original U content of the unmetamorphosed sediments. The high-grade metasediments of Dichu averag 6 ppm, and the sulphide ores of this area also have more U compared to Gorubathan ores.This higher U content in the high-grade rocks and in the associated ores is believed to be the result of enrichment during metasomatic activity in the area. Neverthelessthe fact that the Daling metasediments have higher U contents thanthat of the sulphide ores appears to be independent of the grade of metamorphism in the progressive sequence

  3. High power electron accelerators for flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas treatment process based on electron beam application for SO 2 and NO x removal was successfully demonstrated in number of laboratories, pilot plants and industrial demonstration facilities. The industrial scale application of an electron beam process for flue gas treatment requires accelerators modules with a beam power 100-500 kW and electron energy range 0.8-1.5 MeV. The most important accelerator parameters for successful flue gas radiation technology implementation are related to accelerator reliability/availability, electrical efficiency and accelerator price. Experience gained in high power accelerators exploitation in flue gas treatment industrial demonstration facility was described and high power accelerator constructions have been reviewed. (author)

  4. Mechanics of lung ventilation in a post-metamorphic salamander, Ambystoma Tigrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R S; Bennett, W O; Brainerd, E L

    2000-03-01

    The mechanics of lung ventilation in frogs and aquatic salamanders has been well characterized, whereas lung ventilation in terrestrial-phase (post-metamorphic) salamanders has received little attention. We used electromyography (EMG), X-ray videography, standard videography and buccal and body cavity pressure measurements to characterize the ventilation mechanics of adult (post-metamorphic) tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). Three results emerged: (i) under terrestrial conditions or when floating at the surface of the water, adult A. tigrinum breathed through their nares using a two-stroke buccal pump; (ii) in addition to this narial two-stroke pump, adult tiger salamanders also gulped air in through their mouths using a modified two-stroke buccal pump when in an aquatic environment; and (iii) exhalation in adult tiger salamanders is active during aquatic gulping breaths, whereas exhalation appears to be passive during terrestrial breathing at rest. Active exhalation in aquatic breaths is indicated by an increase in body cavity pressure during exhalation and associated EMG activity in the lateral hypaxial musculature, particularly the M. transversus abdominis. In terrestrial breathing, no EMG activity in the lateral hypaxial muscles is generally present, and body cavity pressure decreases during exhalation. In aquatic breaths, tidal volume is larger than in terrestrial breaths, and breathing frequency is much lower (approximately 1 breath 10 min(-)(1 )versus 4-6 breaths min(-)(1)). The use of hypaxial muscles to power active exhalation in the aquatic environment may result from the need for more complete exhalation and larger tidal volumes when breathing infrequently. This hypothesis is supported by previous findings that terrestrial frogs ventilate their lungs with small tidal volumes and exhale passively, whereas aquatic frogs and salamanders use large tidal volumes and and exhale actively.

  5. New initiatives for producing high current electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Pogue, E.W.

    1996-01-01

    New classes of compact electron accelerators able to deliver multi-kiloamperes of pulsed 10-50 MeV electron beams are being studied. One class is based upon rf linac technology with dielectric-filled cavities. For materials with ε/ε o >>1, the greatly increased energy storage permits high current operation. The second type is a high energy injected betatron. Circulating current limits scale as Β 2 γ 3

  6. UHP metamorphism recorded by kyanite-bearing eclogite in the Seve Nappe Complex of northern Jämtland, Swedish Caledonides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janák, M.; Van Roermund, H.; Majka, J.; Gee, D.

    The first evidence for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism in the Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides is recorded by kyanite-bearing eclogite, found in a basic dyke within a garnet peridotite body exposed close to the lake Friningen in northern Jämtland (central Sweden). UHP

  7. Electron drift time in silicon drift detectors: A technique for high precision measurement of electron drift mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Rehak, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a precise absolute measurement of the drift velocity and mobility of electrons in high resistivity silicon at room temperature. The electron velocity is obtained from the differential measurement of the drift time of an electron cloud in a silicon drift detector. The main features of the transport scheme of this class of detectors are: the high uniformity of the electron motion, the transport of the signal electrons entirely contained in the high-purity bulk, the low noise timing due to the very small anode capacitance (typical value 100 fF), and the possibility to measure different drift distances, up to the wafer diameter, in the same semiconductor sample. These features make the silicon drift detector an optimal device for high precision measurements of carrier drift properties. The electron drift velocity and mobility in a 10 kΩ cm NTD n-type silicon wafer have been measured as a function of the electric field in the range of possible operation of a typical drift detector (167--633 V/cm). The electron ohmic mobility is found to be 1394 cm 2 /V s. The measurement precision is better than 1%. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. SHRIMP chronology of the Magallanes Basin basement, Tierra del Fuego: Cambrian plutonism and Permian high-grade metamorphism Geocronología SHRIMP del basamento de la Cuenca de Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego: plutonismo Cámbrico y metamorfismo Pérmico de alto grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hervé

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new SHRTMP U-Pb zircon ages are reported for gneisses and foliated plutonic rocks belonging to the Tierra del Fuego igneous and metamorphic basement complex (TFIMC, obtained from the bottom of borehole cores through the Magallanes Basin. Three of the samples yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages (523±7 Ma, 522±6 Ma and 538±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating Early Cambrian igneous crystallization of the host rocks. A migmatitic gneiss shows peaks at ca. 950-1,100 Ma and 560-650 Ma from inherited zircon grains in addition to two grains with ages of ca. 525 Ma, suggesting involvement of Grenvillian and Brasiliano material in the protolith of a Cambrian migmatite. A cordierite-sillimanite-garnet gneiss contains igneous zircons of Cambrian age and a population of U-rich metamorphic Permian zircons, indicating that a Permian high-grade metamorphic and anatectic (P=2-3 kbar, T=730-770°C event affected the Cambrian igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks derived from them. Cambrian/Ediacaran plutonic rocks are known from the basement of NW Argentina, the Sierra de la Ventana, the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, and the Ross Orogen in Antarctica. The Permian metamorphic event is coeval with the deformation and low-grade metamorphism of the sedimentary successions that overlie the basement in many of these areas. In Tierra del Fuego at least 8 to 12 km of cover rocks were removed following the high-grade Permian metamorphic episode and the unconformable deposition of the Tobífera Formation volcanic rocks in the Middle to Late Jurassic. This eroded cover could nave been an important source of detritus for the conglomeratic Permian and Triassic? Successions of neighboring regions in South America, Africa and Antarctica.Cinco nuevas edades radiométricas logradas mediante análisis U-Pb en circón utilizando el SHRIMP, fueron determinadas en gneises y rocas plutónicas foliadas obtenidas desde el fondo de pozos de sondajes en la Cuenca de Magallanes y

  9. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of plagioclase and maskelynite in Martian meteorites: Evidence of progressive shock metamorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz,Jorg; Greshake,Ansgar; Stoffler,Dieter

    2005-01-01

    We present the first systematic Micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of plagioclase of different degree of shock metamorphism in Martian meteorites. The equilibrium shock pressure of all plagioclase phases of seventeen unpaired Martian meteorites was determined by measuring the shock-induced reduction of the refractive index. Systematic variations in the recorded Raman spectra of the plagioclase phases correlate with increasing shock pressure. In general, the shock induced deformation of t...

  10. Oxidation of water to hydrogen peroxide at the rock-water interface due to stress-activated electric currents in rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Bose, M.; Ertem, G.; Rogoff, D.A.; Rothschild, L.J.; Freund, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    Common igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain dormant defects, which release electronic charge carriers when stressed. Rocks thereby behave like a battery. The charge carriers of interest are defect electrons h¿, e.g. electronic states associated with O¿ in a matrix of O2¿. Known as

  11. Oxidation of water to hydrogen peroxide at the rock–water interface due to stress-activated electric currents in rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Bose, M.; Ertem, G.; Rogoff, D.A.; Rothschild, L.J.; Freund, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    Common igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks contain dormant defects, which release electronic charge carriers when stressed. Rocks thereby behave like a battery. The charge carriers of interest are defect electrons h•, e.g. electronic states associated with O− in a matrix of O2−. Known as

  12. Method for controlling low-energy high current density electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.N.; Oswald, R.B. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for controlling the angle of incidence of low-energy, high current density electron beams are disclosed. The apparatus includes a current generating diode arrangement with a mesh anode for producing a drifting electron beam. An auxiliary grounded screen electrode is placed between the anode and a target for controlling the average angle of incidence of electrons in the drifting electron beam. According to the method of the present invention, movement of the auxiliary screen electrode relative to the target and the anode permits reliable and reproducible adjustment of the average angle of incidence of the electrons in low energy, high current density relativistic electron beams

  13. High-brightness electron beams for production of high intensity, coherent radiation for scientific and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams with high six-dimensional phase space densities, i.e., high-brightness beams, are the basis for efficient generation of intense and coherent radiation beams for advanced scientific and industrial applications. The remarkable progress in synchrotrons radiation facilities from the first generation to the current, third-generation capability illustrates this point. With the recent development of the high-brightness electron gun based on laser-driven rf photocathodes, linacs have become another important option for high-brightness electron beams. With linacs of about 100 MeV, megawatt-class infrared free-electron lasers can be designed for industrial applications such as power beaming. With linacs of about 10 GeV, 1- angstrom x-ray beams with brightness and time resolution exceeding by several orders of magnitude the current synchrotrons radiation sources can be generated based on self-amplified spontaneous emission. Scattering of a high-brightness electron beam by high power laser beams is emerging as a compact method of generating short-pulse, bright x-rays. In the high-energy frontier, photons of TeV quantum energy could be generated by scattering laser beams with TeV electron beams in future linear colliders

  14. An innovative approach for testing bioinformatics programs using metamorphic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have fueled the development of many sophisticated bioinformatics programs. The correctness of such programs is crucial as incorrectly computed results may lead to wrong biological conclusion or misguide downstream experimentation. Common software testing procedures involve executing the target program with a set of test inputs and then verifying the correctness of the test outputs. However, due to the complexity of many bioinformatics programs, it is often difficult to verify the correctness of the test outputs. Therefore our ability to perform systematic software testing is greatly hindered. Results We propose to use a novel software testing technique, metamorphic testing (MT, to test a range of bioinformatics programs. Instead of requiring a mechanism to verify whether an individual test output is correct, the MT technique verifies whether a pair of test outputs conform to a set of domain specific properties, called metamorphic relations (MRs, thus greatly increases the number and variety of test cases that can be applied. To demonstrate how MT is used in practice, we applied MT to test two open-source bioinformatics programs, namely GNLab and SeqMap. In particular we show that MT is simple to implement, and is effective in detecting faults in a real-life program and some artificially fault-seeded programs. Further, we discuss how MT can be applied to test programs from various domains of bioinformatics. Conclusion This paper describes the application of a simple, effective and automated technique to systematically test a range of bioinformatics programs. We show how MT can be implemented in practice through two real-life case studies. Since many bioinformatics programs, particularly those for large scale simulation and data analysis, are hard to test systematically, their developers may benefit from using MT as part of the testing strategy. Therefore our work

  15. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desilva, S.L.; Sharpton, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary

  16. High field electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duff, J.

    1985-12-01

    High field electron linacs are considered as potential candidates to provide very high energies beyond LEP. Since almost twenty years not much improvement has been made on linac technologies as they have been mostly kept at low and medium energies to be used as injectors for storage rings. Today, both their efficiency and their performances are being reconsidered, and for instance the pulse compression sheme developed at SLAC and introduced to upgrade the energy of that linac is a first step towards a new generation of linear accelerators. However this is not enough in terms of power consumption and more development is needed to improve both the efficiency of accelerating structures and the performances of RF power sources

  17. Considerations for high-brightness electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Particle accelerators are now used in many areas of physics research and in industrial and medical applications. New uses are being studied to address major societal needs in energy production, materials research, generation of intense beams of radiation at optical and suboptical wavelengths, treatment of various kinds of waste, and so on. Many of these modern applications require a high intensity beam at the desired energy, along with a very good beam quality in terms of the beam confinement, aiming, or focusing. Considerations for ion and electron accelerators are often different, but there are also many commonalties, and in fact, techniques derived for one should perhaps more often be considered for the other as well. We discuss some aspects of high-brightness electron sources here from that point of view. 6 refs

  18. The Punta del Este terrain and its volcano sedimentary cover, metamorphic and sedimentary: geology, geochemistry and geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Gariep belt it develops over the West Africa coastal region of Namibia underlying on Namaqua metamorphic complex.It characterized by supra crustal rocks affected for a very low to low metamorphism and in two tecto no-stratigraphic units identified by Base i et al 2005 showing that sediments of Formation Rocha in Uruguay and the Group Oranjemund Gariep in S E Africa have similar ages in the provenance of the zircons, suggesting that they were probably deposited in the same basin. This unit exhibits detrital zircons around 600my, sedimentation and metamorphism and deformación occur in a narrow time interval from 600-610 to 574 m (Granite de Castillo intrusion) .Cam pal et al, 2005 proposed to the Cerros Aguirre Formation similar in a range of age of different events. To the east separated from the Punta del Este Terrane –Pelotas. Aigua .Florianopolis batholith s by the shear zone Alferez Cordillera (Preciozzi et al. 1999, Basei et al. 2000) Another option develops this granitic belt is an integral part of Land Punta del Este Terrane(Preciozzi in this work), being deployed on a thin cratonic granite edge. The climax of the post-brasilian magmatism is 580my, strongly related to trans current movements (eg shear zones Major Gercino-Alferez- Cordillera and Sierra Ballena.In South America an old west domain is formed by the Piedra Alta Terrane which integrate the Río de la Pl ata Craton, a central domain intensely reworked by Neoproterozoic events known so far as Nico Perez . The primary coverage is integrated by two volcano-sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation and Cerros de Aguirre Formation)In this study are considered the Geology,Geochemistry and Geochronology of the different units of Rocha Formation

  19. Comparison of different pathways in metamorphic graded buffers on GaAs substrate: Indium incorporation with surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Bag, A.; Jana, S. Kr.; Chakraborty, A.; Das, S.; Mahata, M. Kr.; Biswas, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In(Al,Ga)As metamorphic buffers on GaAs have been grown. • Surface morphology, strain relaxation and compositional variation have been studied. • Al containing buffers shows inferior surface roughness. • Surface roughness modulates the indium incorporation rate. - Abstract: In this work, compositionally graded In(Al,Ga)As metamorphic buffers (MBs) on GaAs substrate have been grown by MBE through three different paths. A comparative study has been done to comprehend the effect of underlying MB on the constant composition InAlAs healing layer by analyzing the relaxation behaviour, composition and surface morphology of the grown structures. The compositional variation between the constant composition healing layers on top of graded MB has been observed in all three samples although the growth conditions have been kept same. Indium incorporation rate has been found to be dependent on underlying MB. By combining the result of atomic force microscopy, photo-luminescence and X-ray reciprocal space mapping, varying surface roughness has been proposed as the probable driving force behind different Indium incorporation rate

  20. Comparison of different pathways in metamorphic graded buffers on GaAs substrate: Indium incorporation with surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rahul, E-mail: rkp203@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Mukhopadhyay, P. [Rajendra Mishra School of Engineering Entrepreneurship, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bag, A.; Jana, S. Kr. [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Chakraborty, A. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Das, S.; Mahata, M. Kr. [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Biswas, D. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In(Al,Ga)As metamorphic buffers on GaAs have been grown. • Surface morphology, strain relaxation and compositional variation have been studied. • Al containing buffers shows inferior surface roughness. • Surface roughness modulates the indium incorporation rate. - Abstract: In this work, compositionally graded In(Al,Ga)As metamorphic buffers (MBs) on GaAs substrate have been grown by MBE through three different paths. A comparative study has been done to comprehend the effect of underlying MB on the constant composition InAlAs healing layer by analyzing the relaxation behaviour, composition and surface morphology of the grown structures. The compositional variation between the constant composition healing layers on top of graded MB has been observed in all three samples although the growth conditions have been kept same. Indium incorporation rate has been found to be dependent on underlying MB. By combining the result of atomic force microscopy, photo-luminescence and X-ray reciprocal space mapping, varying surface roughness has been proposed as the probable driving force behind different Indium incorporation rate.

  1. High power electron accelerators for flue gas treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Flue gas treatment process based on electron beam application for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal was successfully demonstrated in number of laboratories, pilot plants and industrial demonstration facilities. The industrial scale application of an electron beam process for flue gas treatment requires accelerators modules with a beam power 100-500 kW and electron energy range 0.8-1.5 MeV. The most important accelerator parameters for successful flue gas radiation technology implementation are related to accelerator reliability/availability, electrical efficiency and accelerator price. Experience gained in high power accelerators exploitation in flue gas treatment industrial demonstration facility was described and high power accelerator constructions have been reviewed. (author)

  2. Textural and chemical evolution of pyroxene during hydration and deformation: A consequence of retrograde metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Stephen; Putnis, Andrew; Lanari, Pierre; Austrheim, Håkon

    2018-01-01

    Centimetre-sized grains of Al-rich clinopyroxene within the granulitic anorthosites of the Bergen Arcs, W-Norway undergo deformation by faults and micro-shear zones (kinks) along which fluid has been introduced. The clinopyroxene (11 wt% Al2O3) reacts to the deformation and hydration in two different ways: reaction to garnet (Alm41Prp32Grs21) plus a less aluminous pyroxene (3 wt% Al2O3) along kinks and the replacement of the Al-rich clinopyroxene by chlorite along cleavage planes. These reactions only take place in the hydrated part of a hand specimen that is separated from dry, unreacted granulite by a sharp interface that defines the limit of hydration. We use electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-Ray mapping together with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping to investigate the spatial and possible temporal relationships between these two parageneses. Gresens' analysis (Gresens, 1967) has been used to determine the mass balance and the local volume changes associated with the two reactions. The reaction to garnet + low-Al clinopyroxene induces a loss in volume of the solid phases whereas the chlorite formation gains volume. Strain variations result in local variation in undulose extinction in the parent clinopyroxene. EBSD results suggest that the density-increasing reaction to garnet + low-Al clinopyroxene takes place where the strain is highest whereas the density-decreasing reaction to chlorite forms away from shear zones where EBSD shows no significant strain. Modelling of phase equilibria suggest that the thermodynamic pressure of the assemblage within the shear zones is > 6 kbar higher than the pressure conditions for the whole rock for the same range of temperature ( 650 °C). This result suggests that the stress redistribution within a rock may play a role in determining the reactions that take place during retrograde metamorphism.

  3. 2D and 3D imaging of the metamorphic carbonates at Omalos plateau/polje, Crete, Greece by employing independent and joint inversion on resistivity and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pangratis Pangratis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geophysical survey carried out at Omalos plateau in Chania, Western Crete, Greece employed seismic as well as electrical tomography methods in order to image karstic structures and the metamorphic carbonates (Tripali unit and Plattenkalk group which are covered by post-Mesozoic deposits (terra rossa, clays, sands and gravels. The geoelectrical sections image the metamorphic carbonates which exhibit a highly irregular relief. At the central part of the plateau the thickness of post-Mesozoic deposits (terra rossa, clays, sands and gravels ranges from 40-130 m. A 3D resistivity image was generated by inverting resistivity data collected on a grid to the south west at the Omalos plateau. The 3D resistivity image delineated a karstic structure at a depth of 25 to 55 m. On the same grid the depth to the top of the karstified carbonates ranges from 25-70 m. This is also verified on the resistivity sections and seismic velocity sections along lines 5 and 7 of the above mentioned grid which are derived from the cross-gradients joint inversion.

  4. Geochronology, geochemistry, and petrogenesis of late Permian to early Triassic mafic rocks from Darongshan, South China: Implications for ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and S-type granite generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang-Chun; Luo, Bi-Ji; Xu, Ya-Jun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi

    2018-05-01

    The role of the mantle in generating ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and peraluminous S-type granites, and the extent of crust-mantle interaction are topics fundamental to our understanding of the Earth's evolution. In this study we present geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for dolerites and mafic volcanic rocks from the Darongshan granite complex belt in western Cathaysia, South China. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses yielded magma crystallization ages of ca. 250-248 Ma for the dolerites, which are coeval with eruption of the mafic volcanic rocks, ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism, and emplacement of S-type granites in the Darongshan granite complex belt. The mafic volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline or shoshonitic, enriched in Th, U, and light rare earth elements, and depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti. The dolerites are characterized by high Fe2O3tot (11.61-20.39 wt%) and TiO2 (1.62-3.17 wt%), and low MgO (1.73-4.38 wt%), Cr (2.8-10.8 ppm) and Ni (2.5-11.4 ppm). Isotopically, the mafic volcanic rocks have negative whole-rock εNd(t) values (-6.7 to -9.0) and high ISr values (0.71232 to 0.71767), which are slightly depleted compared with the dolerite samples (εNd(t) = -10.3 to -10.4 and ISr = 0.71796 to 0.71923). Zircons in the dolerites have εHf(t) values of -7.6 to -10.9. The mafic volcanic rocks are interpreted to have resulted from the partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle source with minor crustal contamination during ascent, whereas the dolerites formed by late-stage crystallization of enriched lithospheric mantle-derived magmas after fractionation of olivine and pyroxene. The formation of these mantle-derived mafic rocks may be attributed to transtension along a NE-trending strike-slip fault zone that was related to oblique subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate beneath South China. Such underplated mafic magmas would provide sufficient heat for the generation of ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and S-type granites, and

  5. Metamorphic chlorite and "vermiculitic" phases in mafic dikes from the Maláguide Complex (Betic Cordillera, Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruiz Cruz, M. D.; Novák, Jiří Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-14 ISSN 0935-1221 Grant - others:Ministerio de Educación y Cultura(ES) BTE-2000-1150; Research Group(ES) RNM-199 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : low-grade metamorphism * vermiculite * Betic Cordillera Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2003

  6. Interband Photoconductivity of Metamorphic InAs/InGaAs Quantum Dots in the 1.3-1.55-μm Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovynskyi, Sergii; Datsenko, Oleksandr I.; Seravalli, Luca; Trevisi, Giovanna; Frigeri, Paola; Babichuk, Ivan S.; Golovynska, Iuliia; Qu, Junle

    2018-04-01

    Photoelectric properties of the metamorphic InAs/In x Ga1 - x As quantum dot (QD) nanostructures were studied at room temperature, employing photoconductivity (PC) and photoluminescence spectroscopies, electrical measurements, and theoretical modeling. Four samples with different stoichiometry of In x Ga1 - x As cladding layer have been grown: indium content x was 0.15, 0.24, 0.28, and 0.31. InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As QD structure was found to be photosensitive in the telecom range at 1.3 μm. As x increases, a redshift was observed for all the samples, the structure with x = 0.31 was found to be sensitive near 1.55 μm, i.e., at the third telecommunication window. Simultaneously, only a slight decrease in the QD PC was recorded for increasing x, thus confirming a good photoresponse comparable with the one of In0.15Ga0.75As structures and of GaAs-based QD nanostructures. Also, the PC reduction correlate with the similar reduction of photoluminescence intensity. By simulating theoretically the quantum energy system and carrier localization in QDs, we gained insight into the PC mechanism and were able to suggest reasons for the photocurrent reduction, by associating them with peculiar behavior of defects in such a type of structures. All this implies that metamorphic QDs with a high x are valid structures for optoelectronic infrared light-sensitive devices.

  7. Physics of high intensity nanosecond electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Gomez, A.; Spicer, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    A new high-intensity, short-time electron source is now being used at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Using a GaAs negative affinity semiconductor in the construction of the cathode, it is possible to fulfill operation requirements such as peak currents of tens of amperes, peak widths of the order of nanoseconds, hundreds of hours of operation stability, and electron spin polarization. The cathode is illuminated with high intensity laser pulses, and photoemitted electrons constitute the yield. Because of the high currents, some nonlinear effects are present. Very noticeable is the so-called Charge Limit (CL) effect, which consists of a limit on the total charge in each pulse-that is, the total bunch charge stops increasing as the light pulse total energy increases. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of the CL and how it is caused by the photovoltaic effect. Our treatment is based on the Three-Step model of photoemission. We relate the CL to the characteristics of the surface and bulk of the semiconductor, such as doping, band bending, surface vacuum level, and density of surface states. We also discuss possible ways to prevent the Char's Level effect

  8. The propagation of high power CW scanning electron beam in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Sergey; Korenev, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    The question of propagation of high power electron beam in air presents the scientific and applied interests. The high power (80 kW) CW electron accelerator 'Rhodotron' with kinetic energy of electrons 5 and 10 MeV was used in the experiments. The experimental results for propagation of scanning electron beams in air are presented and discussed

  9. The application analysis of high energy electron accelerator in food irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wenmin; Chen Hao; Feng Lei; Zhang Yaqun; Chen Xun; Li Wenjun; Xiang Chengfen; Pei Ying; Wang Zhidong

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation technology of high energy electron accelerator has been highly concerned in food processing industry with its fast development, especially in the field of food irradiation processing. In this paper, equipment and research situation of high energy electron accelerator were collected, meanwhile, the similarities and differences between high energy electron beam and 60 Co γ-rays were discussed. In order to provide more references of high energy electron beam irradiation, the usages of high energy electron in food irradiation processing was prospected. These information would promote the development of domestic food irradiation industry and give a useful message to irradiation enterprises and researchers. (authors)

  10. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choong, W-S; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Turko, B T; Moses, W W

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr 3 crystals respectively.

  11. A Geothermochronologic Investigation of the Coyote Mountains Metamorphic Core Complex (AZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, M.; Gottardi, R.; Casale, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Coyote Mountains metamorphic core complex (CM-MCC) makes up the northern end of the Baboquivari Mountain complex, which is composed of Mesozoic rocks, Tertiary granites, pegmatites, and metasediments. The CM-MCC expose the Pan Tak granite, a 58 Ma intrusive muscovite-biotite-garnet peraluminous granite. The Pan Tak and other intrusions within the Baboquivari Mountains have been interpreted as anatectic melts representing the culmination of a Laramide crustal shortening orogenic event started in the Late Cretaceous ( 70 Ma). Evidence of this magmatic episode includes polysynthetic twinning in plagioclase, myrmekitic texture in alkali feldspars, and garnet, mica and feldspar assemblages. The magmatic fabric is overprinted by a Tertiary tectonic fabric, associated with the exhumation of the CM-MCC along the Ajo road décollement and associated shear zone. In the shear zone, the Pan Tak mylonite display N-dipping foliation defined by gneissic layering and aligned muscovite, and N-trending mineral stretching lineation. Various shear sense indicators are all consistent with a top-to the-N shear sense. Preliminary argon geochronology results suggest that the shear zone was exhumed 29 Ma ago, an age similar to the onset of detachment faulting in other nearby MCCs (Catalina, Rincon, Pinaleño). In the Pan Tak mylonite, quartz grains display regime 2 to 3 microstructures and shows extensive recrystallization by subgrain rotation and grain boundary migration. The recrystallized grain size ranges between 20 and 50 µm in all samples. Quartz crystallographic preferred orientation measured using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) shows that recrystallization was accommodated by dominant prism and minor rhomb slip, suggesting deformation temperature ranging from 450°C to 550°C. These preliminary results constrain the timing of uplift and exhumation, and thermomechanical evolution of the CM-MCC, and improve our understanding of recycling of the continental crust in

  12. Temporal and spatial distribution of high energy electrons at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, I.; Garrett, H. B.; Ratliff, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of the high energy, omni-directional electron environment by the Galileo spacecraft Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) were used to study the high energy electron environment in the Jovian magnetosphere, especially in the region between 8 to 18 Rj (1 Rj = 1 Jovian radius = 71,400 km). 10-minute averages of the EPD data collected between Jupiter orbit insertion (JOI) in 1995 and the orbit number 33 (I33) in 2002 form an extensive dataset, which has been extremely useful to observe temporal and spatial variability of the Jovian high energy electron environment. The count rates of the EPD electron channels (0.174, 0.304, 0.527, 1.5, 2.0, and 11 MeV) were grouped into 0.5 Rj or 0.5 L bins and analyzed statistically. The results indicate that: (1) a log-normal Gaussian distribution well describes the statistics of the high energy electron environment (for example, electron differential fluxes) in the Jovian magnetosphere, in the region studied here; (2) the high energy electron environments inferred by the Galileo EPD measurements are in a close agreement with the data obtained using the Divine model, which was developed more than 30 years ago from Pioneer 10, 11 and Voyager 1, 2 data; (3) the data are better organized when plotted against magnetic radial parameter L than Rj; (4) the standard deviations of the 0.174, 0.304, 0.527 MeV channel count rates are larger than those of the 1.5, 2.0, 11 MeV count rates in 12 Rj. These observations are very helpful to understand short- and long-term, and local variability of the Jovian high energy electron environment, and are discussed in detail.

  13. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, G.; Ferron, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He + , Ne + and Ar + ) and Li + ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  14. High-voltage pulse generator for electron gun power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Enchevich, I.B.; Mikhov, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    High-voltage pulse generator with combined capacitive and inductive energy storages for electron gun power supply is described. Hydrogen thyratron set in a short magnetic lense is a current breaker. Times of current interruption in thyratrons are in the range from 100 to 300 ns. With 1 kV charging voltage of capacitive energy storage 25 kV voltage pulse is obtained in the load. The given high-voltage pulse generator was used for supply of an electron gun generating 10-30 keV low-energy electron beam

  15. Interaction of high-current relativistic electron beams with plasma. Physical nature of the phenomenon and its application in microwave electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukhadze, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pulsed high-current electron beams with characteristic parameters: electron energy 10 5 -10 7 eV, electron current 10 3 -10 6 A, pulse duration 10 -8 -10 -6 s, beam energy 10 2 -10 6 J and power 10 8 -10 13 W, are widely used in different branches of science and technology such as controlled thermonuclear fusion, relativistic microwave electronics, powerful semiconductors, chemical and gaseous lasers, new principles of heavy-ion acceleration, and long-distance energy transmission. The paper discusses a new branch of science - pulsed high-current electronics, which has its own experimental technique and methods of theoretical analysis. Parts I and II determine what is meant by ''high current'' in an electron beam and calculate the maximum obtainable current values; these calculations are made for the simplest geometrical configurations realizable in practice. Current methods for theoretical analysis of high-current electron beam physics are described, together with classification of current experimental devices for generating such beams according to high-current parameters. The stability of electron beams is discussed and the concept of critical currents is introduced. Part III gives a detailed account of plasma-beam instability which occurs on the interaction of a high-current electron beam with high-density space-limited plasma. The linear and non-linear stages of beam instability are considered. The given theory is used for calculations for amplifiers and microwave generators of electromagnetic radiation. Finally, the experimental achievements in high-current relativistic microwave electronics are reviewed. (author)

  16. High Thermoelectric Power Factor of High-Mobility 2D Electron Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiromichi; Kim, Sung Wng; Kaneki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2018-01-01

    Thermoelectric conversion is an energy harvesting technology that directly converts waste heat from various sources into electricity by the Seebeck effect of thermoelectric materials with a large thermopower ( S ), high electrical conductivity (σ), and low thermal conductivity (κ). State-of-the-art nanostructuring techniques that significantly reduce κ have realized high-performance thermoelectric materials with a figure of merit ( ZT = S 2 ∙σ∙ T ∙κ -1 ) between 1.5 and 2. Although the power factor (PF = S 2 ∙σ) must also be enhanced to further improve ZT , the maximum PF remains near 1.5-4 mW m -1 K -2 due to the well-known trade-off relationship between S and σ. At a maximized PF, σ is much lower than the ideal value since impurity doping suppresses the carrier mobility. A metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structure on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is prepared. Applying a gate electric field to the MOS-HEMT simultaneously modulates S and σ of the high-mobility electron gas from -490 µV K -1 and ≈10 -1 S cm -1 to -90 µV K -1 and ≈10 4 S cm -1 , while maintaining a high carrier mobility (≈1500 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ). The maximized PF of the high-mobility electron gas is ≈9 mW m -1 K -2 , which is a two- to sixfold increase compared to state-of-the-art practical thermoelectric materials.

  17. Ultra high energy electrons powered by pulsar rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Osmanov, Zaza; Chkheidze, Nino

    2013-01-01

    A new mechanism of particle acceleration, driven by the rotational slow down of the Crab pulsar, is explored. The rotation, through the time dependent centrifugal force, can efficiently excite unstable Langmuir waves in the electron-positron (hereafter e(±)) plasma of the star magnetosphere. These waves, then, Landau damp on electrons accelerating them in the process. The net transfer of energy is optimal when the wave growth and the Landau damping times are comparable and are both very short compared to the star rotation time. We show, by detailed calculations, that these are precisely the conditions for the parameters of the Crab pulsar. This highly efficient route for energy transfer allows the electrons in the primary beam to be catapulted to multiple TeV (~ 100 TeV) and even PeV energy domain. It is expected that the proposed mechanism may, unravel the puzzle of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray electrons.

  18. APES: Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer - A High Time Resolution Monodirectional Magnetic Deflection Electron Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michell, R. G.; Samara, M.; Grubbs, G., II; Ogasawara, K.; Miller, G.; Trevino, J. A.; Webster, J.; Stange, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a description of the Acute Precipitating Electron Spectrometer (APES) that was designed and built for the Ground-to-Rocket Electron Electrodynamics Correlative Experiment (GREECE) auroral sounding rocket mission. The purpose was to measure the precipitating electron spectrum with high time resolution, on the order of milliseconds. The trade-off made in order to achieve high time resolution was to limit the aperture to only one look direction. The energy selection was done by using a permanent magnet to separate the incoming electrons, such that the different energies would fall onto different regions of the microchannel plate and therefore be detected by different anodes. A rectangular microchannel plate (MCP) was used (15 mm x 100 mm), and there was a total of 50 discrete anodes under the MCP, each one 15 mm x 1.5 mm, with a 0.5 mm spacing between anodes. The target energy range of APES was 200 eV to 30 keV.

  19. Laboratory design for high-performance electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Michael A.; Turner, John H.; Hetherington, Crispin J.D.; Cullis, A.G.; Carragher, Bridget; Jenkins, Ron; Milgrim, Julie; Milligan,Ronald A.; Potter, Clinton S.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Blom, Douglas A.; Degenhardt, Lynn; Sides, William H.

    2004-04-23

    Proliferation of electron microscopes with field emission guns, imaging filters and hardware spherical aberration correctors (giving higher spatial and energy resolution) has resulted in the need to construct special laboratories. As resolutions improve, transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) become more sensitive to ambient conditions. State-of-the-art electron microscopes require state-of-the-art environments, and this means careful design and implementation of microscope sites, from the microscope room to the building that surrounds it. Laboratories have been constructed to house high-sensitive instruments with resolutions ranging down to sub-Angstrom levels; we present the various design philosophies used for some of these laboratories and our experiences with them. Four facilities are described: the National Center for Electron Microscopy OAM Laboratory at LBNL; the FEGTEM Facility at the University of Sheffield; the Center for Integrative Molecular Biosciences at TSRI; and the Advanced Microscopy Laboratory at ORNL.

  20. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  1. LAT Perspectives in Detection of High Energy Cosmic Ray Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, Alexander; Ormes, J.F.; Funk, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The LAT science objectives and capabilities in the detection of high energy electrons in the energy range from 20 GeV to ∼1.5 TeV are presented. LAT simulations are used to establish the event selections. It is found that maintaining the efficiency of electron detection at the level of 30%, the residual hadron contamination does not exceed 2-3% of the electron flux. It is expected to collect ∼ ten million of electrons with the energy above 20 GeV for one year of observation. Precise spectrum reconstruction with collected electron statistics opens the unique opportunity to investigate several important problems such as models of IC radiation, revealing the signatures of nearby sources such as high energy cutoff in the electron spectrum, testing the propagation model, and search for KKDM particles decay through their contribution to the electron spectrum

  2. High Pressure X-ray Absorption Studies on Correlated-Electron Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    This project used high pressure to alter the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions in rare earth and actinide compounds. Knowledge of these properties is the starting points for a first-principles understanding of electronic and electronically related macroscopic properties. The research focused on a systematic study of x-ray absorption measurements on rare earth and actinide compounds.

  3. Guiding effect of bent macroscopic quartz tube for high current electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingwu; Chen Jing; Wu Yehong; Yang Bian; Wang Wei; Xue Yingli; Yu Deyang; Cai Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    By using an incident electron beam with the high current and high energy, the guiding effect of the bent macroscopic quartz tube for the electron beam has been investigated. The angular distributions of outgoing electrons depending on the current and energy of incident electrons were measured. The dependences of electron transmitted fraction on energy and current of incident electrons are also shown. As the incident electron energy increasing, the electron transmitted fraction increases, but it decreases while the incident electron current increasing. The results have been compared with the present data. This work presents, the process of guiding electrons is essentially different from that of guiding highly charged ions, the guiding electron beam was caused by both elastic and inelastic collisions between electrons and inner walls of quartz tube, rather than self-organized charging effect on the surface of inner wall of quartz tube. (authors)

  4. High quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, S M; Issac, R C; Welsh, G H; Brunetti, E; Shanks, R P; Anania, M P; Cipiccia, S; Manahan, G G; Aniculaesei, C; Ersfeld, B; Islam, M R; Burgess, R T L; Vieux, G; Jaroszynski, D A [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W A [SUPA, Division of Electronic Engineering and Physics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A M [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Van der Geer, S B; De Loos, M J, E-mail: m.wiggins@phys.strath.ac.u [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    High quality electron beams have been produced in a laser-plasma accelerator driven by femtosecond laser pulses with a peak power of 26 TW. Electrons are produced with an energy up to 150 MeV from the 2 mm gas jet accelerator and the measured rms relative energy spread is less than 1%. Shot-to-shot stability in the central energy is 3%. Pepper-pot measurements have shown that the normalized transverse emittance is {approx}1{pi} mm mrad while the beam charge is in the range 2-10 pC. The generation of high quality electron beams is understood from simulations accounting for beam loading of the wakefield accelerating structure. Experiments and self-consistent simulations indicate that the beam peak current is several kiloamperes. Efficient transportation of the beam through an undulator is simulated and progress is being made towards the realization of a compact, high peak brilliance free-electron laser operating in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelength ranges.

  5. High power, high brightness electron beam generation in a pulse-line driven pseudospark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Segalov, Z.; Rodgers, J.; Ramaswamy, K.; Reiser, M.

    1993-01-01

    High brightness (∼10 10 A/m 2 rad 2 ), high power density (∼10 10 W/cm 2 ) electron beams have been generated by the mating of a hollow-cathode discharge device operating in the pseudospark regime to the output of a high power pulse line accelerator. Very small diameter (∼1 mm) electron beams with currents in the range 500--1000 A and energies in the range 150--300 keV have been generated with effective emittances estimated to be at or below 170 mm mrad. Such emittances are comparable to those achieved in conventional electron beam sources at current densities several orders of magnitude lower than those observed in these experiments

  6. Ion induced high energy electron emission from copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: gdruano@ceride.gov.ar; Ferron, J. [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Universidad Nacional del Litoral Gueemes 3450 CC 91, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2008-11-15

    We present measurements of secondary electron emission from Cu induced by low energy bombardment (1-5 keV) of noble gas (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +} and Ar{sup +}) and Li{sup +} ions. We identify different potential and kinetic mechanisms and find the presence of high energetic secondary electrons for a couple of ion-target combinations. In order to understand the presence of these fast electrons we need to consider the Fermi shuttle mechanism and the different ion neutralization efficiencies.

  7. High energy gain electron beam acceleration by 100TW laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Matoba, Toru; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2001-01-01

    A laser wakefield acceleration experiment using a 100TW laser is planed at JAERI-Kansai. High quality and short pulse electron beams are necessary to accelerate the electron beam by the laser. Electron beam - laser synchronization is also necessary. A microtron with a photocathode rf-gun was prepared as a high quality electron injector. The quantum efficiency (QE) of the photocathode of 2x10 -5 was obtained. A charge of 100pC from the microtron was measured. The emittance and pulse width of the electron beam was 6π mm-mrad and 10ps, respectively. In order to produce a short pulse electron beam, and to synchronize between the electron beam and the laser pulse, an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) is planned. One of problems of LWFA is the short acceleration length. In order to overcome the problem, a Z-pinch plasma waveguide will be prepared as a laser wakefield acceleration tube for 1 GeV acceleration. (author)

  8. KEK/NAGOYA/SLAC: Highly polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the push by the Japanese KEK Laboratory, in collaboration with university groups and overseas laboratories, to develop new techniques for the future Japan electronpositron collider (JLC), a recent achievement is a significant increase in the efficient yield of highly polarized electrons

  9. A high power, tunable free electron maser for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanus, W.H.; Bratman, V.L.; Bongers, W.A.; Caplan, M.; Denisov, G.G.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Manintveld, P.; Militsyn, B.; Oomens, A.A.M.; Poelman, A.J.; Plomp, J.; Pluygers, J.; Savilov, A.V.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Sterk, A.B.; Verhoeven, A.G.A

    2001-01-01

    The Fusion-FEM experiment, a high-power, electrostatic free-electron maser being built at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', is operated at various frequencies. So far, experiments were done without a depressed collector, and the pulse length was limited to 12 {mu}s. Nevertheless, many aspects of generation of mm-wave power have been explored, such as the dependency on the electron beam energy and beam current, and cavity settings such as the feedback coefficient. An output power of 730 kW at 206 GHz is generated with a 7.2 A, 1.77 MeV electron beam, and 360 kW at 167 GHz is generated with a 7.4 A, 1.61 MeV electron beam. It is shown experimentally and by simulations that, depending on the electron beam energy, the FEM can operate in single-frequency regime. The next step of the FEM experiment is to reach a pulse length of 100 ms. The major part of the beam line, the high voltage systems, and the collector have been completed. The undulator and mm-wave cavity are now at high voltage (2 MV). The new mm-wave transmission line, which transports the mm-wave output power from the high-voltage terminal to ground and outside the pressure tank, has been tested at low power.

  10. High-brightness electron source driven by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Geng Rongli; Wang Lifang

    1996-01-01

    A DC high-brightness laser driven by photo emissive electron gun is being developed at Beijing University, in order to produce 50∼100 ps electron bunches of high quality. The gun consists of a photocathode preparation chamber and a DC acceleration cavity. Different ways of fabricating photocathode, such as chemical vapor deposition, ion beam implantation and ion beam enhanced deposition, can be adopted. The acceleration gap is designed with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON. 100 kV DC high voltage is fed to the anode through a careful designed ceramic insulator. The laser system is a mode locked Nd-YAG oscillator proceeded by an amplifier at 10 Hz repetition rate, which can deliver three different wavelength (1064/532/266 nm). The combination of a superconducting cavity with the photocathode preparation chamber is discussed

  11. Electron-cloud effects in high-luminosity colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1998-01-01

    Electron-cloud instabilities are expected to be important in most high-luminosity double-ring colliders. In this report, the author describes a few parameter regimes and some critical parameter dependences of this type of instability, and illustrate these with simulation results for the PEP-II and KEK B factories, the LHC, the VLHC, and DAPHNE. In addition, the author studies the possibility and the potential impact of an electron cloud in the interaction region.

  12. Experimental observations of electron-backscatter effects from high-atomic-number anodes in large-aspect-ratio, electron-beam diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooperstein, G; Mosher, D; Stephanakis, S J; Weber, B V; Young, F C [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Swanekamp, S B [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Backscattered electrons from anodes with high-atomic-number substrates cause early-time anode-plasma formation from the surface layer leading to faster, more intense electron beam pinching, and lower diode impedance. A simple derivation of Child-Langmuir current from a thin hollow cathode shows the same dependence on the diode aspect ratio as critical current. Using this fact, it is shown that the diode voltage and current follow relativistic Child-Langmuir theory until the anode plasma is formed, and then follows critical current after the beam pinches. With thin hollow cathodes, electron beam pinching can be suppressed at low voltages (< 800 kV) even for high currents and high-atomic-number anodes. Electron beam pinching can also be suppressed at high voltages for low-atomic-number anodes as long as the electron current densities remain below the plasma turn-on threshold. (author). 8 figs., 2 refs.

  13. Overview on thermal and mechanical challenges of high power RF electronic packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Kregting, R.; Driel, W. van; Gielen, A.W.J.; Xiao, A.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    High Power RF electronics is one of the essential parts for wireless communication, including the personal communication, broadcasting, microwave radar, etc. Moreover, high efficient high power electronics has entered the ISM market, such as the power generator of microwave oven. Power electronics

  14. High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.

  15. Tectonic evolution of part of the Southern Metamorphic Belt of the Armorican Massif including the Ile de Groix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lawrence Edward

    The Southern Metamorphic Belt (SMB) of the Armorican Massifextends 400km along the south coast of Brittany and into Vendee. It is separated from the Central Armorican Domain by a major, late-Hercynian shear belt, known as the South Armorican Shear Zone. In the area studied, belts of metasedimentary and metavolcanic schist of uncertain age are separated by belts of granitic gneiss; areas of migmatite and Hercynian granite plutons cross-cut these belts. Three distinctive lithologic assemblages have been identified in the schist belts, characteristic of different depositional environments: the Le Pouldu Group, Kerleven and Gouesnach formations probably originated as abyssal black shales deposited on oceanic crust; the St. Laurent Formation and Melgven Schists probably formed as distal greywacke deposits on a deep continental shelf; the Nerly and Beg-Meil formations probably formed in a proximal marine or fluviatile environment. These disparate assemblages were tectonically juxtaposed by overthrusting (obduction) before an amphibolite facies metamorphism and deformation during the Cadomian Orogeny. The Moelan Gneiss, a Lower Ordovician alkali-granite intrusion, postdates M1/D1 and probably formed in a rifting environment at the onset of ocean-floor spreading along an axis south of the present Armorican Massif. The famous blueschists of the Ile de Groix probably formed in a subduction zone on the south side of the ocean and were obducted onto the passive southern margin of the Armorican Massif following closure of the ocean and continental collision. A second phase of regional deformation, producing a cataclastic foliation in the Moelan Gneiss, probably resulted from the collision. Large-scale overthrusting of the southern continent onto the Armorican Massif took place, causing metamorphism with partial melting at depth generating migmatites. A third phase of pervasive deformation may correlate with oroclinal bending of the Ibero-Armorican Arc during the Hercynian

  16. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references

  17. Evaluation of high-energy brachytherapy source electronic disequilibrium and dose from emitted electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Facundo; Granero, Domingo; Pérez-Calatayud, José; Melhus, Christopher S; Rivard, Mark J

    2009-09-01

    The region of electronic disequilibrium near photon-emitting brachytherapy sources of high-energy radionuclides (60Co, 137CS, 192Ir, and 169Yb) and contributions to total dose from emitted electrons were studied using the GEANT4 and PENELOPE Monte Carlo codes. Hypothetical sources with active and capsule materials mimicking those of actual sources but with spherical shape were examined. Dose contributions due to source photons, x rays, and bremsstrahlung; source beta-, Auger electrons, and internal conversion electrons; and water collisional kerma were scored. To determine if conclusions obtained for electronic equilibrium conditions and electron dose contribution to total dose for the representative spherical sources could be applied to actual sources, the 192Ir mHDR-v2 source model (Nucletron B.V., Veenendaal, The Netherlands) was simulated for comparison to spherical source results and to published data. Electronic equilibrium within 1% is reached for 60Co, 137CS, 192Ir, and 169Yb at distances greater than 7, 3.5, 2, and 1 mm from the source center, respectively, in agreement with other published studies. At 1 mm from the source center, the electron contributions to total dose are 1.9% and 9.4% for 60Co and 192Ir, respectively. Electron emissions become important (i.e., > 0.5%) within 3.3 mm of 60Co and 1.7 mm of 192Ir sources, yet are negligible over all distances for 137Cs and 169Yb. Electronic equilibrium conditions along the transversal source axis for the mHDR-v2 source are comparable to those of the spherical sources while electron dose to total dose contribution are quite different. Electronic equilibrium conditions obtained for spherical sources could be generalized to actual sources while electron contribution to total dose depends strongly on source dimensions, material composition, and electron spectra.

  18. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    Plenary sessions. RF deflector based sub-Ps beam diagnostics: application to FEL and advanced accelerators / D. Alesini. Production of fermtosecond pulses and micron beam spots for high brightness electron beam applications / S.G. Anderson ... [et al.]. Wakefields of sub-picosecond electron bunches / K.L.F. Bane. Diamond secondary emitter / I. Ben-Zvi ... [et al.]. Parametric optimization for an X-ray free electron laser with a laser wiggler / R. Bonifacio, N. Piovella and M.M. Cola. Needle cathodes for high-brightness beams / C.H. Boulware ... [et al.]. Non linear evolution of short pulses in FEL cascaded undulators and the FEL harmonic cascade / L. Giannessi and P. Musumeci. High brightness laser induced multi-meV electron/proton sources / D. Giulietti ... [et al.]. Emittance limitation of a conditioned beam in a strong focusing FEL undulator / Z. Huang, G. Stupakov and S. Reiche. Scaled models: space-charge dominated electron storage rings / R.A. Kishek ... [et al.]. High brightness beam applications: energy recovered linacs / G.A. Krafft. Maximizing brightness in photoinjectors / C. Limborg-Deprey and H. Tomizawa. Ultracold electron sources / O.J. Luiten ... [et al.]. Scaling laws of structure-based optical accelerators / A. Mizrahi, V. Karagodsky and L. Schächter. High brightness beams-applications to free-electron lasers / S. Reiche. Conception of photo-injectors for the CTF3 experiment / R. Roux. Superconducting RF photoinjectors: an overview / J. Sekutowicz. Status and perspectives of photo injector developments for high brightness beams / F. Stephan. Results from the UCLA/FNLP underdense plasma lens experiment / M.C. Thompson ... [et al.]. Medical application of multi-beam compton scattering monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source / M. Uesaka ... [et al.]. Design of a 2 kA, 30 fs RF-photoinjector for waterbag compression / S.B. Van Der Geer, O.J. Luiten and M.J. De Loos. Proposal for a high-brightness pulsed electron source / M. Zolotorev ... [et al

  19. Survey on neutron production by electron beam from high power CW electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, S.

    1999-04-01

    In Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, the development of high current CW electron linear accelerator is in progress. It is possible for an accelerator to produce neutrons by means of a spallation and photo nuclear reactions. Application of neutron beam produced by bremsstrahlung is one of ways of the utilization for high current electron accelerator. It is actual that many electron linear accelerators which maximum energy is higher than a few hundreds MeV are used as neutron sources. In this report, an estimate of neutron production is evaluated for high current CW electron linear accelerator. The estimate is carried out by 10 MeV beam which is maximum energy limited from the regulation and rather low for neutron production. Therefore, the estimate is also done by 17 and 35 MeV beam which is possible to be accelerated. Beryllium is considered as a target for lower electron energy in addition to Lead target for higher energy, because Beryllium has low threshold energy for neutron production. The evaluation is carried out in account of the target thickness optimized by the radiation length and neutron cross section reducing the energy loss for both of electron and neutron, so as to get the maximum number of neutrons. The result of the calculations shows neutron numbers 1.9 x 10 10 , 6.1 x 10 13 and 4.8 x 10 13 (n/s), respectively, for 10, 17, and 35 MeV with low duty. The thermal removal from the target is one of critical points. The additional shielding and cooling system is necessary in order to endure radiation. A comparison with other facilities are also carried out. The estimate of neutron numbers suggests the possibility to be applied for neutron radiography and measurement of nuclear data by means of Lead spectrometer, for example. (author)

  20. Results of Rb-Sr dating of metamorphic rocks of crystalline complexes of Male Karpaty Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, P.Kh.; Cambel, B.; Veselsky, J.

    1983-01-01

    The paper follows up on a recently published paper on Rb-Sr isochrone dating of granitoid rocks of the Male Karpaty Mts. Data are given on comparative statistical analysis of isochrones obtained for the Bratislava and Modra massifs (isochrone of the latter is complemented with the analyses of two new samples) and the results of age determination of metasedimentary rocks of the Pezinok-Pernek zone and the Bratislava area by the Rb-Sr isochrone. Regression analysis shows that there is no statistically significant difference between the age of the Bratislava massif (347+-4 m.y.) and the Modra massif (326+-22 m.y.) and between their initial ratios 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i.e., they are synchronous, having the same magma source) which makes it possible to calculate uniform value for age. Whole-rock samples of metamorphic and crystalline schists (gneisses) of the Male Karpaty Mts. also determine the isochrone corresponding to the age 387+-38 m.y. (2σ) and initial ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7100+-0.00O8 (2σ). Rb-Sr isotope analyses of several pairs of biotite-crystalline schist (from which biotite was separated) point out that redistribution of Sr isotopes among the mineral phases of rocks takes place during the periplutonic metamorphism, while the whole-rock samples remain chemically closed systems. (author)

  1. Efficient temporal shaping of electron distributions for high-brightness photoemission electron guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Bazarov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the lowest emittance electron bunches from photoemission electron guns, it is essential to limit the uncorrelated emittance growth due to space charge forces acting on the bunch in the vicinity of the photocathode through appropriate temporal shaping of the optical pulses illuminating the photocathode. We present measurements of the temporal profile of electron bunches from a bulk crystal GaAs photocathode illuminated with 520 nm wavelength pulses from a frequency-doubled Yb-fiber laser. A transverse deflecting rf cavity was used to make these measurements. The measured laser pulse temporal profile and the corresponding electron beam temporal profile have about 30 ps FWHM duration, with rise and fall times of a few ps. GaAs illuminated by 520 nm optical pulses is a prompt emitter within our measurement uncertainty of ∼1  ps rms. Combined with the low thermal emittance of negative electron affinity photocathodes, GaAs is a very suitable photocathode for high-brightness photoinjectors. We also report measurements of the photoemission response time for GaAsP, which show a strong dependence on the quantum efficiency of the photocathode.

  2. Geochemistry and metamorphic evolution of a Ti-metagabbro in the Asnawa Group of the Shalair terrain (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone), Kurdistan region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yara, Irfan; Schulz, Bernhard; Tichomirowa, Marion; Mohammad, Yousif; Matschullat, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Geochemistry and metamorphic evolution of a Ti-metagabbro in the Asnawa Group of the Shalair terrain (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone), Kurdistan region, Iraq. We present geochemical data, mineral chemistry, petrography, and theP-T conditions of a Ti-metagabbro from the Asnawa Group in the Shalair Terrain (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone).Geochemical data indicate that this Ti-metagabbro has tholeiitic characteristics with low-K contents. Factor analyses of the elements indicate fractionation of common mineral phases such as clinopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase, Ti-bearing phases (rutile, ilmenite, titanite), and apatite. The normal mid-oceanic ridge basalt (N-MORB)-normalized incompatible trace element diagram shows close similarity with typical N-MORB pattern. Tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams suggest a dominating MORB environment. The rock/chondrite-normalized REE diagram of the amphibolites also shows their N-MORB-type signature, with relative enrichment in LREE. The rock derived from mixed primitive and depleted mantel. The formation and preservation of the various metamorphic mineral assemblages and their mineral chemical characteristicsare strongly affected by the original magmatic whole-rock composition. This can be demonstrated by different microdomains, which contain different amphiboles and plagioclases. The metamorphic history can be subdivided into the stages M1-M2-M3. The first stage of metamorphism was recorded by crystallisation of actinolite replacing clinopyroxene and igneous amphibole (M1 stage, 410< T < 490°C; 1.8 < P <2.2 kbar). Increase of temperature resulted in the formation of hornblende pseudomorphism and hornblende and sphene coronae growing on previous amphibole or clinopyroxene and ilmenite, respectively (M2 stage, 540 < T <580°C; 4.5 < P < 5.5 kbar). The third stage (M3 stage, 730 < T °C < 780°C; 6.5 < P < 7.5 kbar) led to the formation of a ferro-tschermakite corona, around the M2 amphibole, and rutile that developed on the sphene and ilmenite

  3. Electronics and triggering challenges for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, A.

    2018-02-01

    The High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL), presently being designed by the CMS collaboration to replace the CMS endcap calorimeters for the High Luminosity phase of LHC, will feature six million channels distributed over 52 longitudinal layers. The requirements for the front-end electronics are extremely challenging, including high dynamic range (0.2 fC-10 pC), low noise (~2000 e- to be able to calibrate on single minimum ionising particles throughout the detector lifetime) and low power consumption (~20 mW/channel), as well as the need to select and transmit trigger information with a high granularity. Exploiting the intrinsic precision-timing capabilities of silicon sensors also requires careful design of the front-end electronics as well as the whole system, particularly clock distribution. The harsh radiation environment and requirement to keep the whole detector as dense as possible will require novel solutions to the on-detector electronics layout. Processing the data from the HGCAL imposes equally large challenges on the off-detector electronics, both for the hardware and incorporated algorithms. We present an overview of the complete electronics architecture, as well as the performance of prototype components and algorithms.

  4. Metamorphic reprocessing of a serpentinized carbonate-bearing peridotite after detachment from the mantle wedge: A P-T path constrained from textures and phase diagrams in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In the central Rhodope mountains of Greece a carbonate-bearing metaperidotite lens ˜ 200 × 500 m in size crops out as part of the high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic Upper Sidironero Complex ˜ 500 m SE of the Gorgona Village, north of Xanthi town. It is composed primarily of coarse grained (3-20 mm in size) olivine and orthopyroxene, medium grained clinohumite and medium to fine grained tremolite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite, talc, antigorite and various spinel phases. Whole-rock chemistry, mineral textures and compositions, and phase diagram calculations show that the metaperidotite was subjected to a prograde HP metamorphism, isofacial with the surrounding migmatitic gneisses, metapelites and amphibolites. The prograde character of metamorphism is demonstrated by inclusions of talc, antigorite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite and Ti-clinohumite in ferrit-chromite, olivine, and orthopyroxene, as well as of olivine in orthopyroxene, and by the typical change in composition of zoned spinel minerals from ferrit-chromite in the core to chromian spinel at the rim. The prograde path is characterized by successive growth of amphibole, Ti-clinohumite, olivine and orthopyroxene, followed by the breakdown of Ti-clinohumite to olivine + Mg-ilmenite and of chlorite to olivine + spinel, probably during exhumation. The construction of a partial petrogenetic P- T grid in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O (CMASCH) for Ca-poor ultramafic bulk compositions has proven highly useful for the reconstruction of the metamorphic evolution and a P- T path, indicating that the use of univariant reactions in mixed volatile systems is highly warranted. The P- T path is clearly constrained to pressures below 1.5-1.7 GPa by the absence of clinopyroxene. These pressures are slightly lower than those recorded in the closely associated Jurassic eclogites and much lower than those recorded in the diamond-bearing gneisses 5 km to the south in the same tectonic unit. The carbonate

  5. Survey of potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.B.; Bourne, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a survey of the potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films. During the past four years there has been substantial speculation on this topic. The authors will cover only a small fraction of the potential electronic applications that have been identified. Their treatment is influenced by the developments over the past few years in materials and device development and in market analysis. They present their view of the most promising potential applications. Superconductors have two important properties that make them attractive for electronic applications. These are (a) low surface resistance at high frequencies, and (b) the Josephson effect

  6. High-Temperature Electronics: Status and Future Prospects in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    F. Touati; F. Mnif; A. Lawati

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of current electronics and states the drive toward high-temperature electronics. The problems specific to high-temperature effects on conventional electronics and prospects of alternative technologies like silicon-on-insulator, silicon carbide, and diamond are discussed. Improving petroleum recovery from oil wells with hightemperature coverage of downhole electronics, making combustion processes more efficient utilizing embedded electronics, programs for More Elec...

  7. Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    2012-10-01

    At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.

  8. High Throughput Petrochronology and Sedimentary Provenance Analysis by Automated Phase Mapping and LAICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Pieter; Rittner, Martin; Petrou, Ethan; Omma, Jenny; Mattinson, Chris; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    The first step in most geochronological studies is to extract dateable minerals from the host rock, which is time consuming, removes textural context, and increases the chance for sample cross contamination. We here present a new method to rapidly perform in situ analyses by coupling a fast scanning electron microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS) to a Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LAICPMS) instrument. Given a polished hand specimen, a petrographic thin section, or a grain mount, Automated Phase Mapping (APM) by SEM/EDS produces chemical and mineralogical maps from which the X-Y coordinates of the datable minerals are extracted. These coordinates are subsequently passed on to the laser ablation system for isotopic analysis. We apply the APM + LAICPMS method to three igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary case studies. In the first case study, a polished slab of granite from Guernsey was scanned for zircon, producing a 609 ± 8 Ma weighted mean age. The second case study investigates a paragneiss from an ultra high pressure terrane in the north Qaidam terrane (Qinghai, China). One hundred seven small (25 µm) metamorphic zircons were analyzed by LAICPMS to confirm a 419 ± 4 Ma age of peak metamorphism. The third and final case study uses APM + LAICPMS to generate a large provenance data set and trace the provenance of 25 modern sediments from Angola, documenting longshore drift of Orange River sediments over a distance of 1,500 km. These examples demonstrate that APM + LAICPMS is an efficient and cost effective way to improve the quantity and quality of geochronological data.

  9. Effects of magnetic configuration on hot electrons in highly charged ECR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H Y; Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Wang, H; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Zh; Li, X X; Ma, X W; Zhu, Y H; Lu, W; Shang, Y; Xie, D Z

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the hot electrons in highly charged electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, Bremsstrahlung radiations were measured on two ECR ion sources at the Institute of Modern Physics. Used as a comparative index of the mean energy of the hot electrons, a spectral temperature, T spe , is derived through a linear fitting of the spectra in a semi-logarithmic representation. The influences of the external source parameters, especially the magnetic configuration, on the hot electrons are studied systematically. This study has experimentally demonstrated the importance of high microwave frequency and high magnetic field in the electron resonance heating to produce a high density of hot electrons, which is consistent with the empirical ECR scaling laws. The experimental results have again shown that a good compromise is needed between the ion extraction and the plasma confinement for an efficient production of highly charged ion beams. In addition, this investigation has shown that the correlation between the mean energy of the hot electrons and the magnetic field gradient at the ECR is well in agreement with the theoretical models.

  10. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  11. Non-equilibrium thermionic electron emission for metals at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Tierno, S. P.; Conde, L.

    2015-08-01

    Stationary thermionic electron emission currents from heated metals are compared against an analytical expression derived using a non-equilibrium quantum kappa energy distribution for the electrons. The latter depends on the temperature decreasing parameter κ ( T ) , which decreases with increasing temperature and can be estimated from raw experimental data and characterizes the departure of the electron energy spectrum from equilibrium Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculations accurately predict the measured thermionic emission currents for both high and moderate temperature ranges. The Richardson-Dushman law governs electron emission for large values of kappa or equivalently, moderate metal temperatures. The high energy tail in the electron energy distribution function that develops at higher temperatures or lower kappa values increases the emission currents well over the predictions of the classical expression. This also permits the quantitative estimation of the departure of the metal electrons from the equilibrium Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  12. Thermal and impact history of the H chondrite parent asteroid during metamorphism: Constraints from metallic Fe-Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Tatiana V.; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Wakita, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    We have studied cloudy taenite, metallographic cooling rates, and shock effects in 30 H3-6 chondrites to elucidate the thermal and early impact history of the H chondrite parent body. We focused on H chondrites with old Ar-Ar ages (>4.4 Gyr) and unshocked and mildly shocked H chondrites, as strongly shocked chondrites with such old ages are very rare. Cooling rates for most H chondrites at 500 °C are 10-50 °C/Myr and do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type as predicted by the onion-shell model in which types 3-5 are arranged in concentric layers around a type 6 core. Some type 4 chondrites cooled slower than some type 6 chondrites and type 3 chondrites did not cool faster than other types, contrary to the onion-shell model. Cloudy taenite particle sizes, which range from 40 to 120 nm, are inversely correlated with metallographic cooling rates and show that the latter were not compromised by shock heating. The three H4 chondrites that were used to develop the onion-shell model, Ste. Marguerite, Beaver Creek, and Forest Vale, cooled through 500 °C at ⩾5000 °C/Myr. Our thermal modeling shows that these rates are 50× higher than could be achieved in a body that was heated by 26Al and cooled without disturbance by impact. Published Ar-Ar ages do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type but do correlate inversely with cloudy taenite particle size suggesting that impact mixing decreased during metamorphism. Metal and silicate compositions in regolith breccias show that impacts mixed material after metamorphism without causing significant heating. Impacts during metamorphism created Portales Valley and two other H6 chondrites with large metallic veins, excavated the fast-cooled H4 chondrites around 3-4 Myr after accretion, and mixed petrologic types. Metallographic data do not require catastrophic disruption by impact during cooling.

  13. Development of High-frequency Soft Magnetic Materials for Power Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Jun-chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The new requirements of high-frequency magnetic properties are put forward for electronic components with the rapid development of power electronics industry and the use of new electromagnetic materials. The properties of magnetic core, which is the key unit of electronic components, determine the performance of electronic components directly. Therefore, it's necessary to study the high-frequency soft magnetic materials. In this paper, the development history of four types of soft magnetic materials was reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each kind of soft magnetic materials and future development trends were pointed out. The emphases were placed on the popular soft magnetic composite materials in recent years. The tendency is to develop high-frequency soft magnetic composite materials with the particle size controllable, uniform coating layer on the core and a mass production method from laboratory to industrialization.

  14. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ 2 , where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  15. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-02-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.

  16. High-Temperature Electronics: A Role for Wide Bandgap Semiconductors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Okojie, Robert S.; Chen, Liang-Yu

    2002-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that semiconductor based electronics that can function at ambient temperatures higher than 150 C without external cooling could greatly benefit a variety of important applications, especially-in the automotive, aerospace, and energy production industries. The fact that wide bandgap semiconductors are capable of electronic functionality at much higher temperatures than silicon has partially fueled their development, particularly in the case of SiC. It appears unlikely that wide bandgap semiconductor devices will find much use in low-power transistor applications until the ambient temperature exceeds approximately 300 C, as commercially available silicon and silicon-on-insulator technologies are already satisfying requirements for digital and analog very large scale integrated circuits in this temperature range. However, practical operation of silicon power devices at ambient temperatures above 200 C appears problematic, as self-heating at higher power levels results in high internal junction temperatures and leakages. Thus, most electronic subsystems that simultaneously require high-temperature and high-power operation will necessarily be realized using wide bandgap devices, once the technology for realizing these devices become sufficiently developed that they become widely available. Technological challenges impeding the realization of beneficial wide bandgap high ambient temperature electronics, including material growth, contacts, and packaging, are briefly discussed.

  17. On the possibility of obtaining high-energy polarized electrons on Yerevan synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikyan, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A possibility of producing high-energy polarized electrons on the Yerevan synchrotron is discussed. A review of a number of low-energy polarized electron sources and of some of experiments with high-energy polarized electrons is given

  18. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.

    2008-07-01

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  19. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlis, T L; Serpa, L [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 7996 (United States); Miller, M [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)], E-mail: tlpavlis@utep.edu

    2008-07-01

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  20. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlis, T L; Serpa, L; Miller, M

    2008-01-01

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  1. Modelling high-resolution electron microscopy based on core-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Findlay, S.D.; Oxley, M.P.; Witte, C.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    There are a number of factors affecting the formation of images based on core-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution electron microscopy. We demonstrate unambiguously the need to use a full nonlocal description of the effective core-loss interaction for experimental results obtained from high angular resolution electron channelling electron spectroscopy. The implications of this model are investigated for atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Simulations are used to demonstrate that core-loss spectroscopy images formed using fine probes proposed for future microscopes can result in images that do not correspond visually with the structure that has led to their formation. In this context, we also examine the effect of varying detector geometries. The importance of the contribution to core-loss spectroscopy images by dechannelled or diffusely scattered electrons is reiterated here

  2. Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

    2014-05-01

    Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojević Šoštarić et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pamić et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the

  3. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  4. Behaviour of uranium during late-Hercynian and alpine metamorphisms in the Aiguilles rouges and Belledonne (Valorcine, Lauziere) massifs. Western Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negga, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this research thesis is to define the origin of numerous uranium anomalies in the external crystalline Alpine massifs, more precisely the massif of the Aiguilles Rouges and the massif of Belledonne. The primary cause of uranium mineralization in the first massif appears to have been the retrograde metamorphism events of the late-Hercynian age. In the second massif, the same conditions of uranium mineralization appear to have been realised, but with a much higher calcium activity in the fluids. After having explained the choice of the selected areas, the sampling and the chemical analysis performed, the author describes the geological and structural framework of Western Alps: geological history of the paleozoic platform, regional geology of the studied massifs. The next part reports the petrographic and geochemical study, the analysis of the mineral chemistry, of the alteration and the metamorphism. Then the author describes the geochemistry of uranium and thorium within the studied structures

  5. Metamorphism and Shear Localization in the Oceanic and Continental Lithosphere: A Local or Lithospheric-Scale Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ductile rheologies are characterized by strain rate hardening, which favors deformation zones that are as wide as possible, thus minimizing strain rate and stress. By contrast, plate tectonics and the observation of ductile shear zones in the exposed middle to lower crust show that deformation is often localized, that is, strain (and likely strain rate) is locally very high. This behavior is most easily explained if the material in the shear zone is intrinsically weaker than the reference material forming the wall rocks. Many origins for that weakness have been proposed. They include higher temperature (shear heating), reduced grain size, and fabric. The latter two were shown to be the most effective in the middle crust and upper mantle (given observational limits restricting heating to 50K or less) but they were not very important in the lower crust. They are not sufficient to explain the generation of narrow plate boundaries in the oceans. We evaluate here the importance of metamorphism, especially related to hydration, in weakening the lithosphere. Serpentine is a major player in the dynamics of the oceanic lithosphere. Although its ductile behavior is poorly constrained, serpentine is likely to behave in a brittle or quasi-plastic manner with a reduced coefficient of friction, replacing stronger peridotite. Serpentinization sufficiently weakens the oceanic lithosphere to explain the generation of diffuse plate boundaries and, combined with grain size reduction, the development of narrow plate boundaries. Lower crust outcrops, especially in the Bergen Arc (Norway), display eclogite shear zones hosted in metastable granulites. The introduction of water triggered locally a metamorphic reaction that reduces rock strength and resulted in a ductile shear zone. The presence of these shear zones has been used to explain the weakness of the lower crust perceived from geodesy and seismic activity. We evaluate here how much strain rate may increase as a result of

  6. Study on the behaviour of high energy electrons in REPUTE-1 ULQ plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Morikawa, J.; Nihei, H.; Nakajima, T.; Ozawa, D.; Ohno, M.; Suzuki, T.; Himura, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morita, S.; Shirai, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In REPUTE-1 Ultra-Low-q (ULQ) plasmas, behaviors of high energy electrons have been studied through a low-Z pellet injection experiment, in addition to the measurements of soft-X ray PHA and Electron Energy Analyzer (EEA). The high energy tail has been measured in the soft-X ray spectrum, and EEA signal has shown a strong anisotropy of the electron distribution function (i.e., the electron flux to the electron drift side is dominant). To study temporal and spatial information on these high energy electrons, a low-Z pellet injection experiment has been conducted. A small piece of plastic pellet is injected from the top of the REPUTE-1 device, and the trajectory of the pellet inside the plasma is measured by CCD camera. We have observed a large deflection of the pellet trajectory to the toroidal direction opposite to the plasma current (i.e., the electron drift side). This suggests that a pellet is ablated selectively only from one side due to the high energy electrons with a large heat flux. We have calculated the heat flux carried by high energy electrons. Since the repulsion force to the pellet can be calculated with the 2 nd derivative of the pellet trajectory, we have estimated the heat flux of high energy electrons to be a few tens MW/m 2 around the plasma center. Experimental data by EEA measurement and low-Z pellet ablation show the large population of the high energy electrons at the core region in comparison with the edge region, suggesting a MHD dynamo mechanism for the production of the high energy electrons. (author)

  7. High energy electron acceleration with PW-class laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanii, N.; Kondo, K.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tsuji, K.; Kimura, K.; Fukumochi, S.; Kashihara, M.; Tanimoto, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ishikura, T.; Kodama, R.; Mima, K.; Tanaka, K. A.; Mori, Y.; Miura, E.; Suzuki, S.; Asaka, T.; Yanagida, K.; Hanaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    2008-01-01

    We performed electron acceleration experiment with PW-class laser and a plasma tube, which was created by imploding a hollow polystyrene cylinder. In this experiment, electron energies in excess of 600 MeV have been observed. Moreover, the spectra of a comparatively high-density plasma ∼10 19 cm -3 had a bump around 10 MeV. Additionally, we performed the absolute sensitivity calibration of imaging plate for 1 GeV electrons from the injector Linac of Spring-8 in order to evaluate absolute number of GeV-class electrons in the laser acceleration experiment

  8. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    relation between magmatism, metamorphism and deformations, accompanying formation of dome structure. Structural data also indicate the dome formation between two regional strike-slips. Strike-slip deformations of terminal stage of collision might have resulted in local zones of extensions [6, 8]. Intrusive contacts of studied granitoid plutons with already deformed host deposits indicate their postcollisional origin. Wide petrographical spectrum of granitoids, hornblende and biotite existence in granites, metaluminous high-K and shoshonite character, biotites compositions allow belonging them to high-K granites of I-type. Appearance of I-type granites in postcollisional setting is usually related to crustal anatexis under the influence of hot asthenospheric mantle due to delamination of lower parts of lithosphere. At the same time the processes of mingling of magmas of different composition, assimilation, fractional crystallization take place. Thus, in tectonic scenario of Alarmaut dome formation except dominating submergence of Chukotka microcontinent margin beneath the structures of North-Asian craton active margin we should assume slab-breakoff or delamination of lithospheric mantle which might have facilitated heat transfer, necessary for melting of granite magma. Aptian-Albian volcanism, localized in postcollisional extensional structures, confirms this assumption. Interrelations of major oxides in granitoids show that compositions of Alarmaut intermediate rocks fall in the fields of melts, experimentally obtained during partial melting of amphibolites, and compositions of granodiorites and granites, along the boundary zone of partial melts of greywackes and dacites, tonalites. Heterogeneity of granitoids source composition or different level of magma contamination by ancient crustal material is confirmed by Sr-Nd data. It is expressed in significant dispersal of ɛNd(Т) and 87Sr/86Sr values in granitoids. Work is carried out at the financial support of RFBR

  9. Metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex: Implications for the tectonic evolution of Neoarchean basement of the Eastern Block, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Kuen Wu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the areas where typical late Archean crust is exposed in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the northern Laioning Complex consists principally of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG gneisses, massive granitoids and supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks, named the Qingyuan Group, consist of interbedded amphibolite, hornblende granulite, biotite granulite and BIF. Petrological evidence indicates that the amphibolites experienced the early prograde (M1, peak (M2 and post-peak (M3 metamorphism. The early prograde assemblage (M1 is preserved as mineral inclusions, represented by actinotite + hornblende + plagioclase + epidote + quartz + sphene, within garnet porphyroblasts. The peak assemblage (M2 is indicated by garnet + clinopyroxene + hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite, which occur as major mineral phases in the rock. The post-peak assemblage (M3 is characterized by the garnet + quartz symplectite. The P–T pseudosections in the NCFMASHTO system constructed by using THERMOCALC define the P–T conditions of M1, M2 and M3 at 490–550 °C/<4.5 kbar, 780–810 °C/7.65–8.40 kbar and 630–670 °C/8.15–9.40 kbar, respectively. As a result, an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling is inferred for the metamorphic evolution of the amphibolites. Such a P–T path suggests that the late Archean metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex was related to the intrusion and underplating of mantle-derived magmas. The underplating of voluminous mantle-derived magmas leading to metamorphism with an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling may have occurred in continental magmatic arc regions, above hot spots driven by mantle plumes, or in continental rift environments. A mantle plume model is favored because this model can reasonably interpret many other geological features of late Archean basement rocks from the northern Liaoning Complex in the Eastern Block of

  10. Evaporation of carbon using electrons of a high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.; Camps, E.; Escobar A, L.; Garcia E, J.L.; Olea, O.

    1999-01-01

    The high density plasmas are used frequently in the preparation of thin films or surface modification, for example to nitridation. In these processes, are used mainly the ions and the neutrals which compose the plasma. However, the electrons present in the plasma are not used, except in the case of chemical reactions induced by collisions, although the electron bombardment usually get hot the work piece. Through the adequate polarization of a conductor material, it is possible to extract electrons from a high density plasma at low pressure, that could be gotten the evaporation of this material. As result of the interaction between the plasma and the electron flux with the vapor produced, this last will be ionized. In this work, it is reported the use of this novelty arrangement to prepare carbon thin films using a high density argon plasma and a high purity graphite bar as material to evaporate. It has been used substrates outside plasma and immersed in the plasma. Also it has been reported the plasma characteristics (temperature and electron density, energy and ions flux), parameters of the deposit process (deposit rate and ion/neutral rate) as well as the properties of the films obtained (IR absorption spectra and UV/Vis, elemental analysis, hardness and refractive index. (Author)

  11. High-intensity-laser-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of an intense laser, photon-electron scattering becomes nonlinear when the oscillatory energy of the electron approaches its rest mass. The electron wave function is dressed by the field with a concomitant increase in the effective electron mass. When the photon energy in the electron rest frame is comparable to the electron rest mass, multiphoton Compton scattering occurs. When the photon energy is significantly lower than the electron rest mass, the electron acquires momentum from the photon field and emits harmonics. This paper reviews nonlinear photon-electron scattering processes and results from two recent experiments where they have been observed

  12. High current table-top setup for femtosecond gas electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed an experimental setup for gas phase electron diffraction with femtosecond resolution and a high average beam current. While gas electron diffraction has been successful at determining molecular structures, it has been a challenge to reach femtosecond resolution while maintaining sufficient beam current to retrieve structures with high spatial resolution. The main challenges are the Coulomb force that leads to broadening of the electron pulses and the temporal blurring that results from the velocity mismatch between the laser and electron pulses as they traverse the sample. We present here a device that uses pulse compression to overcome the Coulomb broadening and deliver femtosecond electron pulses on a gas target. The velocity mismatch can be compensated using laser pulses with a tilted intensity front to excite the sample. The temporal resolution of the setup was determined with a streak camera to be better than 400 fs for pulses with up to half a million electrons and a kinetic energy of 90 keV. The high charge per pulse, combined with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, results in an average beam current that is between one and two orders of magnitude higher than previously demonstrated.

  13. Experimental design of high energy electron gun by means of scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the design of a new family of electron guns by means of scaling theory of electron-optical devices (EOD) is presented. According to the theory, EOD with a relatively big space charge, as in high energy Pierce type electron guns used in technological equipment, generally cannot be scaled, because of their nonlinear space charge nature. Therefore, the scaling rules are applied here only to the anode zone of the gun, where the electron beam perveance is small, and the cathode lens of gun with considerable space charge remains unchanged. The procedure for scaling a 25 kV and 150 mA gun with cylindrical electron beam into a high voltage 75 kV and 150 mA electron system is given. An experimental investigation proved the high technological quality of a high voltage gun constructed according to the above conception. (author)

  14. Relativistic electron mirrors from high intensity laser nanofoil interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Daniel

    2012-12-21

    The reflection of a laser pulse from a mirror moving close to the speed of light could in principle create an X-ray pulse with unprecedented high brightness owing to the increase in photon energy and accompanying temporal compression by a factor of 4γ{sup 2}, where γ is the Lorentz factor of the mirror. While this scheme is theoretically intriguingly simple and was first discussed by A. Einstein more than a century ago, the generation of a relativistic structure which acts as a mirror is demanding in many different aspects. Recently, the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a nanometer thin foil has raised great interest as it promises the creation of a dense, attosecond short, relativistic electron bunch capable of forming a mirror structure that scatters counter-propagating light coherently and shifts its frequency to higher photon energies. However, so far, this novel concept has been discussed only in theoretical studies using highly idealized interaction parameters. This thesis investigates the generation of a relativistic electron mirror from a nanometer foil with current state-of-the-art high intensity laser pulses and demonstrates for the first time the reflection from those structures in an experiment. To achieve this result, the electron acceleration from high intensity laser nanometer foil interactions was studied in a series of experiments using three inherently different high power laser systems and free-standing foils as thin as 3nm. A drastic increase in the electron energies was observed when reducing the target thickness from the micrometer to the nanometer scale. Quasi-monoenergetic electron beams were measured for the first time from ultrathin (≤5nm) foils, reaching energies up to ∝35MeV. The acceleration process was studied in simulations well-adapted to the experiments, indicating the transition from plasma to free electron dynamics as the target thickness is reduced to the few nanometer range. The experience gained from those

  15. Research on high performance mirrors for free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitatani, Fumito

    1996-01-01

    For the stable functioning of free electron laser, high performance optical elements are required because of its characteristics. In particular in short wavelength free electron laser, since its gain is low, the optical elements having very high reflectivity are required. Also in free electron laser, since high energy noise light exists, the optical elements must have high optical breaking strength. At present in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, the research for heightening the performance of dielectric multi-layer film elements for short wavelength is carried out. For manufacturing such high performance elements, it is necessary to develop the new materials for vapor deposition, new vapor deposition process, and the techniques of accurate substrate polishing and inspection. As the material that satisfies the requirements, there is diamond-like carbon (DLC) film, of which the properties are explained. As for the manufacture of the DLC films for short wavelength optics, the test equipment for forming the DLC films, the test of forming the DLC films, the change of the film quality due to gas conditions, discharge conditions and substrate materials, and the measurement of the optical breaking strength are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Feasibility of ceramic joining with high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E.; Clifford, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Joining structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for producing joints with high temperature capability. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the adjacent ceramic. The authors have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 NTa have been measured for Si 3 N 4 -Mo-Si 3 N 4 . These modest strengths are due to beam non-uniformity and the limited area of bonding. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide reaction layer. Si 3 N 4 -Si 3 N 4 joints with no metal layer were also produced, apparently bonded an yttrium apatite grain boundary phase

  17. BANSHEE: High-voltage repetitively pulsed electron-beam driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanHaaften, F.

    1992-01-01

    BANSHEE (Beam Accelerator for a New Source of High-Energy Electrons) this is a high-voltage modulator is used to produce a high-current relativistic electron beam for high-power microwave tube development. The goal of the BANSHEE research is first to achieve a voltage pulse of 700--750 kV with a 1-μs pulse width driving a load of ∼100 Ω, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a few hertz. The ensuing goal is to increase the pulse amplitude to a level approaching 1 MV. We conducted tests using half the modulator with an output load of 200 Ω, up to a level of ∼650 kV at a PRF of 1 Hz and 525 kV at a PRF of 5 Hz. We then conducted additional testing using the complete system driving a load of ∼100 Ω

  18. Innovative electron-beam welding of high-melting metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, W.; Reisgen, U.

    2007-01-01

    Since its establishment as nuclear research plant Juelich in the year 1956, the research centre Juelich (FZJ) is concerned with the material processing of special metals. Among those are, above all, the high-melting refractory metals niobium, molybdenum and tungsten. Electron beam welding has always been considered to be an innovative special welding method; in the FZJ, electron beam welding has, moreover, always been adapted to the increasing demands made by research partners and involved manufacturing and design sectors. From the manual equipment technology right up to highly modern multi-beam technique, the technically feasible for fundamental research has, this way, always been realised. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  19. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Sanyam, E-mail: bajaj.10@osu.edu; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M. [Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems, Andover, Massachusetts 01810 (United States); Khurgin, Jacob [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Rajan, Siddharth [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  20. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10 7  cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10 11  cm −2 . An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs

  1. Electron mobility and drift velocity in selectively doped InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil’evskii, I. S.; Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Požela, K.; Požela, J.; Jucienė, V.; Sužiedėlis, A.; Žurauskienė, N.; Keršulis, S.; Stankevič, V.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in the electron mobility and drift velocity in high electric fields in quantum wells of selectively doped InAlAs/InGaAs/InAsAs heterostructures is obtained experimentally via controlling the composition of semiconductors forming the interface. The electron mobility at the interface in the In 0.8 Ga 0.2 As/In 0.7 Al 0.3 As metamorphic structure with a high molar fraction of In (0.7–0.8) is as high as 12.3 × 10 3 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at room temperature. An increase in the electron mobility by a factor of 1.1–1.4 is attained upon the introduction of thin (1–3 nm) InAs layers into a quantum well of selectively doped In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As heterostructures. A maximal drift velocity attains 2.5 × 10 7 cm/s in electric fields of 2–5 kV/cm. The threshold field F th for the intervalley Γ-L electron transfer (the Gunn effect) in the InGaAs quantum well is higher than in the bulk material by a factor of 2.5–3. The effect of two- to threefold decrease in the threshold field F th in the InGaAs quantum well is established upon increasing the molar fraction of In in the InAlAs barrier, as well as upon the introduction of thin InAs inserts into the InGaAs quantum well.

  2. Structure characterization of MHEMT heterostructure elements with In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrate using reciprocal space mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, A. N., E-mail: a.n.aleshin@mail.ru; Bugaev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Ermakova, M. A. [Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology, Center for Study of Surface and Vacuum Properties (Russian Federation); Ruban, O. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.

  3. Structure characterization of MHEMT heterostructure elements with In0.4Ga0.6As quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrate using reciprocal space mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshin, A. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Ermakova, M. A.; Ruban, O. A.

    2016-03-01

    The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In0.4Ga0.6As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In x Ga1- x As ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.

  4. Structure characterization of MHEMT heterostructure elements with In_0_._4Ga_0_._6As quantum well grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrate using reciprocal space mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshin, A. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Ermakova, M. A.; Ruban, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In_0_._4Ga_0_._6As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In_xGa_1_–_xAs ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.

  5. [The spectrum studies of structure characteristics in magma contact metamorphic coal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dun; Sun, Ruo-Yu; Liu, Gui-Jian; Yuan, Zi-Jiao

    2013-10-01

    The structural parameters evolution of coal due to the influence of intrusions of hot magma was investigated and analyzed. X-ray diffraction and laser confocal microscope Raman spectroscopy were used to test and analyze 4 coal samples undergoing varying contact-metamorphism by igneous magmas in borehole No. 13-4 of Zhuji coal mine, Huainan coalfield. The result showed that coal XRD spectrum showed higher background intensity, with the 26 degrees and 42 degrees nearby apparent graphite diffraction peak. Two significant vibration peaks of coal Raman spectra were observed in the 1 000-2 000 cm(-1) frequency range: broad "D" peak at 1 328-1 369 cm(-1) and sharp "G" peak at 1 564-1 599 cm(-1). With the influence of magma intrusion, the relationship between coal structural parameters and coal ranks was excellent.

  6. Protracted fluid-induced melting during Barrovian metamorphism in the Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Berger, Alfons

    2009-01-01

    that repeated melting events occurred within a single Barrovian metamorphic cycle at roughly constant temperature; that in the country rocks zircon formation was limited to the initial stages of melting, whereas further melting concentrated in the segregated leucosomes; that melting occurred at different times......The timing and dynamics of fluid-induced melting in the typical Barrovian sequence of the Central Alps has been investigated using zircon chronology and trace element composition. Multiple zircon domains in leucosomes and country rocks yield U-Pb ages spanning from ~32 to 22 Ma. The zircon formed...... in samples a few meters apart because of the local rock composition and localized influx of the fluids; and that leucosomes were repeatedly melted when fluids became available. The geochronological data force a revision of the temperature-time path of the migmatite belt in the Central Alps. Protracted...

  7. Potential ceramics processing applications with high-energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    High-energy, high-current electron beams may offer unique features for processing of ceramics that are not available with any other heat source. These include the capability to instantaneously heat to several centimeters in depth, to preferentially deposit energy in dense, high-z materials, to process at atmospheric pressures in air or other gases, to have large control over heating volume and heating rate, and to have efficient energy conversion. At a recent workshop organized by the authors to explore opportunities for electron beam processing of ceramics, several applications were identified for further development. These were ceramic joining, fabrication of ceramic powders, and surface processing of ceramics. It may be possible to join ceramics by either electron-beam brazing or welding. Brazing with refractory metals might also be feasible. The primary concern for brazing is whether the braze material can wet to the ceramic when rapidly heated by an electron beam. Raw ceramic powders, such as silicon nitride and aluminum nitride, which are difficult to produce by conventional techniques, could possibly be produced by vaporizing metals in a nitrogen atmosphere. Experiments need to be done to verify that the vaporized metal can fully react with the nitrogen. By adjusting beam parameters, high-energy beams can be used to remove surface flaws which are often sites of fracture initiation. They can also be used for surface cleaning. The advantage of electron beams rather than ion beams for this application is that the heat deposition can be graded into the material. The authors will discuss the capabilities of beams from existing machines for these applications and discuss planned experiments

  8. Heat sinking of highly integrated photonic and electronic circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, M.B.J.; Smit, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Dense integration of photonic and electronic circuits poses high requirements on thermal management. In this paper we present analysis of temperature distributions in PICs in InP membranes on top of a BiCMOS chip, which contain hot spots in both the photonic and the electronic layer (lasers, optical

  9. Development techniques and electron optical studies of high voltage, high current electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, L.M.; Mahadevan, S.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1992-01-01

    The progress of the electron gun design, limiting to axially symmetric geometries is discussed here with a view to utilise such guns for electron accelerators. The mechanical design features leading to the physical configuration of the gun with stringent tolerances are outlined. Vacuum processing is done at pressures of 1.3x10 -5 Pa. The gun employs W-filament emitter or a cathode pellet with bombarder service. A water cooled compact faraday cup is used to measure the electron current. Electron gun geometries have been studied using the computer programme. The preveance of the gun is 0.7x10 -7 A/Vsup(1.5) at 80 kV. Developmental techniques of such pulsed electron guns are described. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  10. High-performance green flexible electronics based on biodegradable cellulose nanofibril paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yei Hwan; Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Zhang, Huilong; Yao, Chunhua; Zheng, Qifeng; Yang, Vina W; Mi, Hongyi; Kim, Munho; Cho, Sang June; Park, Dong-Wook; Jiang, Hao; Lee, Juhwan; Qiu, Yijie; Zhou, Weidong; Cai, Zhiyong; Gong, Shaoqin; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2015-05-26

    Today's consumer electronics, such as cell phones, tablets and other portable electronic devices, are typically made of non-renewable, non-biodegradable, and sometimes potentially toxic (for example, gallium arsenide) materials. These consumer electronics are frequently upgraded or discarded, leading to serious environmental contamination. Thus, electronic systems consisting of renewable and biodegradable materials and minimal amount of potentially toxic materials are desirable. Here we report high-performance flexible microwave and digital electronics that consume the smallest amount of potentially toxic materials on biobased, biodegradable and flexible cellulose nanofibril papers. Furthermore, we demonstrate gallium arsenide microwave devices, the consumer wireless workhorse, in a transferrable thin-film form. Successful fabrication of key electrical components on the flexible cellulose nanofibril paper with comparable performance to their rigid counterparts and clear demonstration of fungal biodegradation of the cellulose-nanofibril-based electronics suggest that it is feasible to fabricate high-performance flexible electronics using ecofriendly materials.

  11. Highly Manufacturable Deep (Sub-Millimeter) Etching Enabled High Aspect Ratio Complex Geometry Lego-Like Silicon Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Electron capture by highly charged ions from surfaces and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this study highly charged ions produced in Electron Beam Ion Traps are used to investigate electron capture from surfaces and gases. The experiments with gas targets focus on spectroscopic measurements of the K-shell x-rays emitted at the end of radiative cascades following electron capture into Rydberg states of Ar 17+ and Ar 18+ ions as a function of collision energy. The ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at an energy of 2 keVu -1 , charge-selected and then decelerated down to 5 eVu -1 for interaction with an argon gas target. For decreasing collision energies a shift to electron capture into low orbital angular momentum capture states is observed. Comparative measurements of the K-shell x-ray emission following electron capture by Ar 17+ and Ar 18+ ions from background gas in the trap are made and a discrepancy in the results compared with those from the extraction experiments is found. Possible explanations are discussed. For the investigation of electron capture from surfaces, highly charged ions are extracted from an Electron Beam Ion Trap at energies of 2 to 3 keVu -1 , charge-selected and directed onto targets comprising arrays of nanoscale apertures in silicon nitride membranes. The highly charged ions implemented are Ar 16+ and Xe 44+ and the aperture targets are formed by focused ion beam drilling in combination with ion beam assisted thin film deposition, achieving hole diameters of 50 to 300 nm and aspect ratios of 1:5 to 3:2. After transport through the nanoscale apertures the ions pass through an electrostatic charge state analyzer and are detected. The percentage of electron capture from the aperture walls is found to be much lower than model predictions and the results are discussed in terms of a capillary guiding mechanism. (orig.)

  13. Proposal to detect an emission of unusual super-high energy electrons in electron storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-peng Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to an extended Lorentz–Einstein mass formula taken into the uncertainty principle, it is predicted that the electron beams passing accelerating electric field should with a small probability generate abnormal super-high energy electrons which are much higher than the beam energy. Author’s preliminary experiment result at electron storage ring has hinted these signs, so suggests to more strictly detect this unusual phenomenon, and thus to test the extended mass formula as well as a more perfect special relativity.

  14. Highly integrated electronics for the star TPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, A.A.; Bieser, F.; Hearn, W.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Millaud, J.; Noggle, T.; Rai, G.; Ritter, H.G.; Wieman, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The concept for the STAR TPC front-end electronics is presented and the progress toward the development of a fully integrated solution is described. It is the goal of the R+D program to develop the complete electronics chain for the STAR central TPC detector at RHIC. It is obvious that solutions chosen e.g. for ALEPH are not adequate for the 150000 channels that need to be instrumented for readout. It will be necessary to perform all the signal processing, digitization and multiplexing directly on the detector in order to reduce per channel cost and the amount of cabling necessary to read out the information. We follow the approach chosen by the EOS TPC project, where the readout electronics on the detector consists of an integrated preamplifier, a hybrid shaping amplifier, an integrated switched capacitor array and a highly multiplexed ADC. The STAR electronics will be further integrated so that approximately 16 channels of the preamplifier, the shaper, the analog store and the ADC will be contained in two integrated circuits located directly on the pad plane.

  15. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  16. High-Energy Electron Beam Application to Air Pollutants Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Manaila, E.; Craciun, G.; Calinescu, I.

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of electron beam (EB) process in pollutants removal is connected to its high efficiency to transfer high amount of energy directly into the matter under treatment. Disadvantage which is mostly related to high investment cost of accelerator may be effectively overcome in future as the result of use accelerator new developments. The potential use of medium to high-energy high power EB accelerators for air pollutants removal is demonstrated in [1]. The lower electrical efficiencies of accelerators with higher energies are partially compensated by the lower electron energy losses in the beam windows. In addition, accelerators with higher electron energies can provide higher beam powers with lower beam currents [1]. The total EB energy losses (backscattering, windows and in the intervening air space) are substantially lower with higher EB incident energy. The useful EB energy is under 50% for 0.5 MeV and about 95% above 3 MeV. In view of these arguments we decided to study the application of high energy EB for air pollutants removal. Two electron beam accelerators are available for our studies: electron linear accelerators ALIN-10 and ALID-7, built in the Electron Accelerator Laboratory, INFLPR, Bucharest, Romania. Both accelerators are of traveling-wave type, operating at a wavelength of 10 cm. They utilize tunable S-band magnetrons, EEV M 5125 type, delivering 2 MW of power in 4 μ pulses. The accelerating structure is a disk-loaded tube operating in the 2 mode. The optimum values of the EB peak current IEB and EB energy EEB to produce maximum output power PEB for a fixed pulse duration EB and repetition frequency fEB are as follows: for ALIN-10: EEB = 6.23 MeV; IEB =75 mA; PEB 164 W (fEB = 100 Hz, EB = 3.5 s) and for ALID-7: EEB 5.5 MeV; IEB = 130 mA; PEB = 670 W (fEB = 250 Hz, EB = 3.75 s). This paper presents a special designed installation, named SDI-1, and several representative results obtained by high energy EB application to SO 2 , NOx and VOCs

  17. Progress in element analysis on a high-voltage electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tivol, W.F.; Barnard, D.; Guha, T.

    1985-01-01

    X-Ray microprobe (XMA) and electron energy-loss (EELS) spectrometers have been installed on the high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM). The probe size has been measured and background reduction is in progress for XMA and EELS as are improvements in electron optics for EELS and sensitivity measurements. XMA is currently useful for qualitative analysis and has been used by several investigators from our laboratory and outside laboratories. However, EELS background levels are still too high for meaningful results to be obtained. Standards suitable for biological specimens are being measured, and a library for quantitative analysis is being compiled