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Sample records for metamorphic core complexes

  1. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  2. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. Chapter 1 is an overview of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes which describes their physical characteristics, tectonic setting and geologic history. This overview is accompanied by a tectonic map. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the mantled gneiss dome concept. The purpose of including this work is to provide a basic history of this concept and to describe the characteristics and distribution of gneiss domes throughout the world to enable one to compare and contrast them with the metamorphic core complexes as discussed in this report. Some gneiss domes are known producers of uranium (as are also some core complexes). Chapter 3 is an examination of the effects of the core complex process on adjacent sedimentary and volcanic cover terranes. Also included is a discussion of the kinematic significance of these cover terranes as they are related to process within the cores of the complexes. Some of the cover terranes have uranium prospects in them. Chapter 4 is a detailed discussion of uranium in Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and includes the conceptual basis for the various types of occurrences and the processes that might favor concentration of uranium. The report is supported by a 5-part Appendix. The majority of the core complexes discussed in this report either do not appear or are not recognizable on existing published geologic maps

  3. Syn-extensional plutonism and peak metamorphism in the albion-raft river-grouse creek metamorphic core complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassia plutonic complex (CPC) is a group of variably deformed, Oligocene granitic plutons exposed in the lower plate of the Albion-Raft River- Grouse Creek (ARG) metamorphic core complex of Idaho and Utah. The plutons range from granodiorite to garnet-bearing, leucogranite, and during intrusion, sillimanite- grade peak metamorphism and ductile attenuation occurred in the country rocks and normal-sense, amphibolite-grade deformation took place along the Middle Mountain shear zone. U-Pb zircon geochronology from three variably deformed plutons exposed in the lower plate of the ARG metamorphic core complex revealed that each zircon is comprised of inherited cores (dominantly late Archean) and Oligocene igneous overgrowths. Within each pluton, a spread of concordant ages from the Oligocene zircon overgrowths is interpreted as zircon recycling within a long-lived magmatic system. The plutons of the CPC have very low negative whole rock ??Nd values of -26 to -35, and initial Sr values of 0.714 to 0.718, consistent with an ancient, crustal source. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Oligocene zircon overgrowths from the CPC have an average ??18O value of 5.40 ?? 0.63 permil (2SD, n = 65) with a slight trend towards higher ??18O values through time. The ??18O values of the inherited cores of the zircons are more variable at 5.93 ?? 1.51 permil (2SD, n = 29). Therefore, we interpret the plutons of the CPC as derived, at least in part, from melting Archean crust based on the isotope geochemistry. In situ partial melting of the exposed Archean basement that was intruded by the Oligocene plutons of the CPC is excluded as the source for the CPC based on field relationships, age and geochemistry. Correlations between Ti and Hf concentrations in zircons from the CPC suggest that the magmatic system may have become hotter (higher Ti concentration in zircon) and less evolved (lower Hf in zircon concentration) through time. Therefore, the CPC represents prolonged or episodic magmatism

  4. Metamorphic core complex formation by density inversion and lower-crust extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F; Goodliffe, A M; Taylor, B

    2001-06-21

    Metamorphic core complexes are domal uplifts of metamorphic and plutonic rocks bounded by shear zones that separate them from unmetamorphosed cover rocks. Interpretations of how these features form are varied and controversial, and include models involving extension on low-angle normal faults, plutonic intrusions and flexural rotation of initially high-angle normal faults. The D'Entrecasteaux islands of Papua New Guinea are actively forming metamorphic core complexes located within a continental rift that laterally evolves to sea-floor spreading. The continental rifting is recent (since approximately 6 Myr ago), seismogenic and occurring at a rapid rate ( approximately 25 mm yr-1). Here we present evidence-based on isostatic modelling, geological data and heat-flow measurements-that the D'Entrecasteaux core complexes accommodate extension through the vertical extrusion of ductile lower-crust material, driven by a crustal density inversion. Although buoyant extrusion is accentuated in this region by the geological structure present-which consists of dense ophiolite overlaying less-dense continental crust-this mechanism may be generally applicable to regions where thermal expansion lowers crustal density with depth.

  5. The timing of tertiary metamorphism and deformation in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of southern Idaho and northern Utah exposes 2.56-Ga orthogneisses and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks that were intruded by 32-25-Ma granitic plutons. Pluton emplacement was contemporaneous with peak metamorphism, ductile thinning of the country rocks, and top-to-thewest, normal-sense shear along the Middle Mountain shear zone. Monazite and zircon from an attenuated stratigraphic section in the Middle Mountain were dated with U-Pb, using a SHRIMP-RG (reverse geometry) ion microprobe. Zircons from the deformed Archean gneiss preserve a crystallization age of 2532 ?? 33 Ma, while monazites range from 32.6 ?? 0.6 to 27.1 ?? 0.6 Ma. In the schist of the Upper Narrows, detrital zircons lack metamorphic overgrowths, and monazites produced discordant U-Pb ages that range from 52.8 ?? 0.6 to 37.5 ?? 0.3 Ma. From the structurally and stratigraphically highest unit sampled, the schist of Stevens Spring, narrow metamorphic rims on detrital zircons yield ages from 140-110 Ma, and monazite grains contained cores that yield an age of 141 ??2 Ma, whereas rims and some whole grains ranged from 35.5 ?? 0.5 to 30.0 ?? 0.4 Ma. A boudinaged pegmatite exposed in Basin Creek is deformed by the Middle Mountains shear zone and yields a monazite age of 27.6 ?? 0.2 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate two periods of monazite and metamorphic zircon growth: a poorly preserved Early Cretaceous period (???140 Ma) that is strongly overprinted by Oligocene metamorphism (???32-27 Ma) related to regional plutonism and extension. ?? 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  6. A Geothermochronologic Investigation of the Coyote Mountains Metamorphic Core Complex (AZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, M.; Gottardi, R.; Casale, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Coyote Mountains metamorphic core complex (CM-MCC) makes up the northern end of the Baboquivari Mountain complex, which is composed of Mesozoic rocks, Tertiary granites, pegmatites, and metasediments. The CM-MCC expose the Pan Tak granite, a 58 Ma intrusive muscovite-biotite-garnet peraluminous granite. The Pan Tak and other intrusions within the Baboquivari Mountains have been interpreted as anatectic melts representing the culmination of a Laramide crustal shortening orogenic event started in the Late Cretaceous ( 70 Ma). Evidence of this magmatic episode includes polysynthetic twinning in plagioclase, myrmekitic texture in alkali feldspars, and garnet, mica and feldspar assemblages. The magmatic fabric is overprinted by a Tertiary tectonic fabric, associated with the exhumation of the CM-MCC along the Ajo road décollement and associated shear zone. In the shear zone, the Pan Tak mylonite display N-dipping foliation defined by gneissic layering and aligned muscovite, and N-trending mineral stretching lineation. Various shear sense indicators are all consistent with a top-to the-N shear sense. Preliminary argon geochronology results suggest that the shear zone was exhumed 29 Ma ago, an age similar to the onset of detachment faulting in other nearby MCCs (Catalina, Rincon, Pinaleño). In the Pan Tak mylonite, quartz grains display regime 2 to 3 microstructures and shows extensive recrystallization by subgrain rotation and grain boundary migration. The recrystallized grain size ranges between 20 and 50 µm in all samples. Quartz crystallographic preferred orientation measured using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) shows that recrystallization was accommodated by dominant prism and minor rhomb slip, suggesting deformation temperature ranging from 450°C to 550°C. These preliminary results constrain the timing of uplift and exhumation, and thermomechanical evolution of the CM-MCC, and improve our understanding of recycling of the continental crust in

  7. Dating an actively exhuming metamorphic core complex, the Suckling Dayman Massif in SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, J.; Seward, D.; Little, T.; Stockli, D. F.; Mizera, M.

    2016-12-01

    Low-temperature thermochronology is a powerful tool for revealing the thermal and kinematic evolution of metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). Most globally studied MCCs are ancient, partially eroded, and have been modified by deformation events that postdate their origin. The Mai'iu Fault is a rapidly slipping active low-angle normal fault (LANF) in the Woodlark Rift in Papua New Guinea that has exhumed a >25 km-wide (in the slip direction), and over 3 km-high domal fault surface in its footwall called the Suckling-Dayman massif. Some knowledge of the present-day thermal structure in the adjacent Woodlark Rift, and the pristine nature of this active MCC make it an ideal candidate for thermochronological study of a high finite-slip LANF. To constrain the thermal and kinematic evolution of this MCC we apply the U/Pb, fission-track (FT) and (U-Th)/He methods. Zircon U/Pb analyses from the syn-extensional Suckling Granite that intrudes the footwall of the MCC yield an intrusion age of 3.3 Ma. Preliminary zircon FT ages from the same body indicate cooling below 300 °C at 2.7 Ma. Ages decrease to 2.0 Ma with increasing proximity to the Mai'iu Fault and imply cooling controlled by tectonic exhumation. Almost coincident zircon U/Pb and FT ages from the nearby syn-extensional Mai'iu Monzonite, on the other hand, record extremely rapid cooling from magmatic temperatures to 300 °C at 2 Ma. As apparent from the preliminary He extraction stage, these syn-extensional plutons have young zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He ages. These initial results suggest that the Mai'iu Fault was initiated as an extensional structure by 3.3 Ma. We infer that it reactivated an older ophiolitic suture that had emplaced the Papuan Ultramafic body in the Paleogene. Rapid cooling of the Mai'iu Monzonite indicates that it was intruded into a part of the MCC's footwall that was already shallow in the crust by 2 Ma. This inference is further supported by the mineral andalusite occurring in the contact

  8. The Marbat metamorphic core-complex (Southern Arabian Peninsula) : reassessment of the evolution of a Neoproterozoic island-arc from petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon data

    OpenAIRE

    Barbey, P.; Denele, Y.; Paquette, J. L.; Berger, J.; Ganne, Jérôme; Roques, D.

    2018-01-01

    The Marbat basement (Sultanate of Oman) belongs to the Neoproterozoic accretion domain of the Arabian-Nubian shield. We present new geochronological, petrological and geochemical data as an extension of our previous study (Denele et al., 2017) re-interpreting this basement as a metamorphic core complex (MCC). We showed that this MCC consists of a metamorphic unit (Juffa complex) separated by an extensional detachment from a plutonic unit (Sadh complex and Tonalite plutons). Geochemical data s...

  9. A study of the Eocene S-type granites of Chapedony metamorphic core complex (northeast of Yazd province, Central Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakipour, A.; Torabi, Gh.

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex, is located in western part of the Posht-e-Badam block. This complex is consisting of migmatite, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, micaschist and various types of granitoids. In middle part of this complex (Kalut-e-Chapedony), an Eocene granitic rock unit cross cuts the other rocks. The minerals of this granite are plagioclase (An 9 Ab 8 7O r 4), potassium feldspars (orthoclase), quartz, euhedral garnet (Alm 7 7Sps 1 3Prp 9 Grs 1 ), zircon, apatite, fibrolitic sillimanite and muscovite. Petrology and geochemical studies reveal calc-alkaline, peraluminous and S-type nature of the studied granites. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns represent evident negative anomaly of Eu and low values of the REEs. Continental crust and North American shale composite (NASC) - normalized multi-elements spider diagrams indicate trace elements depletion. These granites are formed by melting of continental crust sedimentary rocks, resulted by emplacement of mantle-derived magma at the bottom of continental crust which formed the Chapedony metamorphic core complex. The source rock of these granites should be a clay-rich sedimentary rock with low amount of plagioclase and CaO/Na 2 O ratio.

  10. Granite intrusion in a metamorphic core complex: the example of the Mykonos laccolith (Cyclades, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denèle, Yoann; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Jolivet, Laurent; Huet, Benjamin; Labrousse, Loïc.; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lacombe, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Numerical and analogical modelling underlined the importance of a pre-existing anomaly of viscosity-density such as a granite or migmatitic body below the brittle-ductile transition as a primary cause of metamorphic core complex (MCC) developpement. While field studies of MCC show a spatial and temporal link between MCC formation and plutonic activity, thermochronological studies show that there is no link between the intrusion of granites and the velocity of slip on the detachement plane. The Aegean domain is a good natural laboratory for studying the formation of MCC and syn-tectonic granites. In the northern Cyclades, the Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia MCC is characterised by the intrusion of a plurikilometric Late Miocene pluton of I-type granite within a migmatitic gneiss dome. AMS (Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) and microstructural studies in the Mykonos granites combined with recent cooling rate data allow us to use the granites as strain marker. The Mykonos granitoïds form a plurikilometric laccolith slightly deeping to the east and presenting an elliptical shape with a N170°E long axis. The laccolith is strongly asymmetrical with an outlying root zone in the SW cropping out on Delos and Rhenia islands and a major body mainly developed to the NE and cropping out on Mykonos Island. The laccolith consists of various petrographic facies presenting straight contacts that demonstrate emplacement by successive pulses of more or less differentiated magmas. The laccolith was developed at the interface between the Cycladic Basement and the Blueschists Unit and within the Blueschist Unit. Two events of deformation have been recorded in the granites. The first event is characterized by submagmatic and high to middle temperature protomylonite microstructures developped during or just after the intrusion. The second event of deformation characterized by low temperature mylonites and cataclasites close to the major detachment fault corresponds to the localization of

  11. Metamorphic brines and no surficial fluids trapped in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (Nevado-Filábride units, Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyja-Person, Vanessa; Tarantola, Alexandre; Richard, Antonin; Hibsch, Christian; Siebenaller, Luc; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Boulvais, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The ductile-brittle transition zone in extensional regimes can play the role of a hydrogeological barrier. Quartz veins developed within an orthogneiss body located in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) in the Nevado-Filábride units (Betics, Spain). The detachment footwall is composed mainly of gneisses, schists and metacarbonates from the Bédar-Macael sub-unit. Schist and metacarbonate bodies show evidence of ductile deformation at the time the gneiss was already undergoing brittle deformation and vein opening during exhumation. The vein system provides the opportunity to investigate the origin, composition and PVTX conditions of the fluids that circulated in the detachment footwall while the footwall units were crossing the ductile-brittle transition. The analysis of fluid inclusions reveals the presence of a single type of fluid: 30-40 mass% NaCl > KCl > CaCl2 > MgCl2 brines, with trace amounts of CO2 and N2 and tens to thousands of ppm of metals such as Fe, Sr, Li, Zn, Ba, Pb and Cu. δDfluid values between -39.8 and -16.7‰ and δ18Ofluid values between 4.4 and 11.7 ± 0.5‰ show that the brines have undergone protracted interaction with the host orthogneissic body. Coupled salinity and Cl/Br ratios (200 to 4400) indicate that the brines originate from dissolution of Triassic metaevaporites by metamorphic fluids variably enriched in Br by interaction with graphitic schists. This study highlights the absence of any record of surficial fluids within the veins, despite the brittle deformation conditions prevailing in this orthogneiss body. The fact that fluids from the detachment footwall were isolated from surficial fluid reservoirs may result from the presence of overlying schists and metacarbonates that continued to be affected by ductile deformation during vein formation in the gneiss, preventing downward circulation of surface-derived fluids.

  12. Exhumation And Evolution Of Al-Taif Metamorphic Core Complex (Western Arabian Shield) During Dextral Transpressional Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Al-Taif metamorphic belt is a NE-trending belt decorating steeply dipping major transpressional shear zone in western central Arabian Shield. It comprises gneisses and migmatites that were syn-kinematically invaded under relatively high-grade metamorphic conditions by voluminous granitic bodies and a confluence of pegmatitic veins. Field mapping and outcrop investigation reveal that the belt was evolved during at least three Neoproterozoic deformations (D1-D3). D1 and D2 were progressive deformations, took place during a contractional regime, and resulted in SW-mildly plunging isoclinal folds, superimposed by NE- gently to moderately plunging folds. The prevailed tectonic regime during D3was primordially plastic, accompanied with a NE-oriented oblique shearing that was subsequently evolved as semi ductile-semi brittle shearing during an episode of exhumation. Mesoscopic kinematic indicators, as well as microstructural analysis of the collected rock samples, reflect dextral sense of shearing. Such style of shearing is most probably the conjugate trend of the NNW- to NW- oriented sinistral Najd Fault System. Various cross cutting structures and overprinting relations were detected at both the outcrop- and microscopic scales, including; ductile S2folia with ESE-plunging amphibole mineral lineations; narrow, steeply dipping ductile D2 shear zones; and semi brittle to brittle fault zones. S-C' fabrics, asymmetric strain shadows around porphyroclasts and drag fault indicate a top-to-the-NE sense of shear for most structures. The geometry and style of deformation, together with map pattern highlighted in this study attest a simple shear rotational strain origin for the domed mylonitic foliation (S1) and mineral elongation lineation (L1). This result is in congruent with the landform pattern recorded in the inner parts of the metamorphic core complexes.

  13. Multiple tectonic mode switches indicate short-duration heat pulses in a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. T.; Hall, R.; Gunawan, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Wandaman Peninsula is a narrow (2 km) promontory in remote western New Guinea. The peninsula is almost entirely composed of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks considered to be associated with a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex. Previous work has shown that the uplift and exhumation of the core complex has potentially brought some extremely young eclogite to the surface. These might be comparable to the world's youngest (4.3 Ma) eclogites found in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands at the opposite end of New Guinea. We show that tectonic history of this region is complex. This is because the metamorphic sequences in the Wandaman Peninsula record multiple phases of deformation, all within the last few million years. This is demonstrated through methodical collation of cross-cutting relations from field and microstructural studies across the peninsula. The first phase of deformation and metamorphism is associated with crustal extension and partial melting that took place at 5-7 Ma according to new U-Pb data from metamorphic zircons. This extensional phase ceased after a tectonic mode switch and the region was shortened. This is demonstrated by two phases of folding (1. recumbent and 2. open) that overprint the earlier extensional fabrics. All previous structures were later overprinted by brittle extensional faults and uplift. This extensional phase is still taking place today, as is indicated by submerged forests exposed along the coastline associated with recent earthquakes and hot springs. The sequence of metamorphic rocks that are exposed in the Wandaman Peninsula show that stress and thermal conditions can change rapidly. If we consider that the present is a key to the past, then such results can identify the duration of deformation and metamorphic events more accurately than in much older orogenic systems.

  14. Timing of mid-crustal ductile extension in the northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada: Evidence from U/Pb zircon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Blackburn, T.; Johnston, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (Mccs) within the western U.S. record a history of Cenozoic ductile and brittle extensional deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism, and exhumation within the footwall of high-angle Basin and Range normal faults. Documenting these histories within Mccs have been topics of research for over 40 years, yet there remains disagreement about: 1) whether the detachment fault formed and moved at low angles or initiated at high angles and rotated to a low angle; 2) whether brittle and ductile extensional deformation were linked in space and time; and 3) the temporal relationship of both modes of extension to the development of the detachment fault. The northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex (NSR), Nevada has been central to this debate. To address these issues, we report new U/Pb dates from zircon in deformed and undeformed rhyolite dikes emplaced into ductilely thinned and horizontally stretched lower plate rocks that provide tight bounds on the timing of ductile extension at between 38.2 ± 0.3 Ma and 22.50 ± 0.36 Ma. The maximum age constraint is from the Northern dike swarm (NDS), which was emplaced in the northwest part of the range pre- to syn-tectonic with ductile extension. The minimum age constraint is from the Silver Creek dike swarm (SDS) that was emplaced in the southern part of the range post ductile extensional deformation. Our field observations, petrography, and U/Pb zircon ages on the dikes combined with published data on the geology and kinematics of extension, moderate and low temperature thermochronology on lower plate rocks, and age and faulting histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins adjacent to the NSR are interpreted as recording an episode of localized upper crustal brittle extension during the Eocene that drove upward ductile extensional flow of hot middle crustal rocks from beneath the NSR detachment soon after, or simultaneous with, emplacement of the NDS. Exhumation of the lower plate continued in a rolling

  15. THE GEOCHEMISTRY AND AGES OF ROCKS IN THE FOOTWALL OF THE BUTULIYN-NUR AND ZAGAN METAMORPHIC CORE COMPLEXES (NORTH MONGOLIA – WESTERN TRANSBAIKALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Donskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews data on ages of rocks in the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur and Zagan metamorphic core complexes (MCC and provides new data on the geochemistry of the rock complexes. It is noted that the oldest rocks are mylonitized gneisses on rhyolites (554 Ma in the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur MCC. The Late Permian – Triassic (249–211 Ma igneous rocks are ubiquitous in the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur and Zagan MCC. The youngest rocks in the studied MCC are the Jurassic granitoids (178–152 Ma of the Naushki and Verhnemangirtui massifs. In the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur and Zagan MCC, the most common are granitoids and felsic volcanic rocks (249–211 Ma with many similar geochemical characteristics, such as high alkalinity, high contents of Sr and Ba, moderate and low concentrations of Nb and Y. Considering the contents of trace elements and REE, the granitoids and the felsic volcanic rocks are similar to I-type granites. Specific compositions of these rocks suggest that they might have formed in conditions of the active continental margin of the Siberian continent over the subducting oceanic plate of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean. The granitoids of the Naushki and Verhnemangirtui massifs, which are the youngest of the studied rocks (178–152 Ma, also have similar geochemical characteristics. In both massif, granitoids are ferriferous, mostly alkaline rocks. By contents of both major and trace elements, they are comparable to A-type granites. Such granitoids formed in conditions of intracontinental extension while subduction was replaced by collision. Based on ages and geochemical characteristics of the rocks in the footwall of the Butuliyn-Nur and Zagan MCC, a good correlation is revealed between the studied rocks  and the rock complexes of the Transbaikalian and North-Mongolian segments of the Central Asian fold belt (CAFB, and it can thus be suggested that the regions under study may have a common evolutionary history.

  16. Metamorphers

    KAUST Repository

    Sorger, Johannes; Mindek, Peter; Rautek, Peter; Grö ller, Eduard; Johnson, Graham; Viola, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    In molecular biology, illustrative animations are used to convey complex biological phenomena to broad audiences. However, such animations have to be manually authored in 3D modeling software, a time consuming task that has to be repeated from scratch for every new data set, and requires a high level of expertise in illustration, animation, and biology. We therefore propose metamorphers: a set of operations for defining animation states as well as the transitions to them in the form of re-usable storytelling templates. The re-usability is two-fold. Firstly, due to their modular nature, metamorphers can be re-used in different combinations to create a wide range of animations. Secondly, due to their abstract nature, metamorphers can be re-used to re-create an intended animation for a wide range of compatible data sets. Metamorphers thereby mask the low-level complexity of explicit animation specifications by exploiting the inherent properties of the molecular data, such as the position, size, and hierarchy level of a semantic data subset. We demonstrate the re-usability of our technique based on the authoring and application of two animation use-cases to three molecular data sets.

  17. Metamorphers

    KAUST Repository

    Sorger, Johannes

    2018-01-18

    In molecular biology, illustrative animations are used to convey complex biological phenomena to broad audiences. However, such animations have to be manually authored in 3D modeling software, a time consuming task that has to be repeated from scratch for every new data set, and requires a high level of expertise in illustration, animation, and biology. We therefore propose metamorphers: a set of operations for defining animation states as well as the transitions to them in the form of re-usable storytelling templates. The re-usability is two-fold. Firstly, due to their modular nature, metamorphers can be re-used in different combinations to create a wide range of animations. Secondly, due to their abstract nature, metamorphers can be re-used to re-create an intended animation for a wide range of compatible data sets. Metamorphers thereby mask the low-level complexity of explicit animation specifications by exploiting the inherent properties of the molecular data, such as the position, size, and hierarchy level of a semantic data subset. We demonstrate the re-usability of our technique based on the authoring and application of two animation use-cases to three molecular data sets.

  18. Early Cretaceous overprinting of the Mesozoic Daqing Shan fold-and-thrust belt by the Hohhot metamorphic core complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Davis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Early Cretaceous Hohhot metamorphic core complex (mcc of the Daqing Shan (Mtns. of central Inner Mongolia is among the best exposed and most spectacular of the spatially isolated mcc’s that developed within the northern edge of the North China “craton”. All of these mcc’s were formed within the basement of a Late Paleozoic Andean-style arc and across older Mesozoic fold-and-thrust belts of variable age and tectonic vergence. The master Hohhot detachment fault roots southwards within the southern margin of the Daqing Shan for an along-strike distance of at least 120 km. Its geometry in the range to the north is complicated by interference patterns between (1 primary, large-scale NW-SE-trending convex and concave fault corrugations and (2 secondary ENE-WSW-trending antiforms and synforms that folded the detachment in its late kinematic history. As in the Whipple Mtns. of California, the Hohhot master detachment is not of the Wernicke (1981 simple rooted type; instead, it was spawned from a mid-crustal shear zone, the top of which is preserved as a mylonitic front within Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks in its exhumed lower plate. 40Ar–39Ar dating of siliceous volcanic rocks in basal sections of now isolated supradetachment basins suggest that crustal extension began at ca. 127 Ma, although lower-plate mylonitic rocks were not exposed to erosion until after ca. 119 Ma. Essentially synchronous cooling of hornblende, biotite, and muscovite in footwall mylonitic gneisses indicates very rapid exhumation and at ca. 122–120 Ma. Contrary to several recent reports, the master detachment clearly cuts across and dismembers older, north-directed thrust sheets of the Daqing Shan foreland fold-and-thrust belt. Folded and thrust-faulted basalts within its foredeep strata are as young as 132.6 ± 2.4 Ma, thus defining within 5–6 Ma the regional tectonic transition between crustal contraction and profound crustal extension.

  19. The influence of tectonic inheritance on crustal extension style following failed subduction of continental crust: applications to metamorphic core complexes in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, J.; Ellis, S. M.; Little, T.; Mizera, M.; Wallace, L. M.; Lavier, L.

    2017-12-01

    The structural, mechanical and geometric evolution of rifted continental crust depends on the lithospheric conditions in the region prior to the onset of extension. In areas where tectonic activity preceded rift initiation, structural and physical properties of the previous tectonic regime may be inherited by the rift and influence its development. Many continental rifts form and exhume metamorphic core complexes (MCCs), coherent exposures of deep crustal rocks which typically surface as arched or domed structures. MCCs are exhumed in regions where the faulted upper crust is displaced laterally from upwelling ductile material along a weak detachment fault. Some MCCs form during extensional inversion of a subduction thrust following failed subduction of continental crust, but the degree to which lithospheric conditions inherited from the preceding subduction phase control the extensional style in these systems remains unclear. For example, the Dayman Dome in Southeastern Papua New Guinea exposes prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies rocks in a smooth 3 km-high dome exhumed with at least 24 km of slip along one main detachment normal fault, the Mai'iu Fault, which dips 21° at the surface. The extension driving this exhumation is associated with the cessation of northward subduction of Australian continental crust beneath the oceanic lithosphere of the Woodlark Plate. We use geodynamic models to explore the effect of pre-existing crustal structures inherited from the preceding subduction phase on the style of rifting. We show that different geometries and strengths of inherited subduction shear zones predict three distinct modes of subsequent rift development: 1) symmetric rifting by newly formed high-angle normal faults; 2) asymmetric rifting along a weak low-angle detachment fault extending from the surface to the brittle-ductile transition; and 3) extension along a rolling-hinge structure which exhumes deep crustal rocks in coherent rounded exposures. We

  20. The Taili-Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex corridor: Diachronous exhumation and relationships to the adjacent basins based on new 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th-Sm)/He mineral ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Genser, Johann; Dunkl, István; Heberer, Bianca; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone (western Liaoning Province in China) formed during latest Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal extension of the eastern North China craton, and exhumed low to medium metamorphic grade Archean, Upper Triassic and Upper Jurassic granitic rocks. The Mesozoic Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex (Yiwulüshan MCC) is dominated by a NNE-SSW elongated dome with a left-lateral shear zone, which is located in the northeastern part of Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone, and combine as Taili-Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex corridor. To the east, it is bounded by the NNE-trending Cretaceous to Eocene Liaohe basin (the northern extension of the Bohai Bay basin), and to the west by the Cretaceous-aged Fuxin-Yixian basin, which could potentially interpreted as supra-detachment basins. Here, we present results from a multi-method thermochronological study and coupled with structural investigations and sections of adjacent supra-detachment basins, which constrain the timing of regional deformation as well as the cooling history and exhumation processes of the low- to middle-grade metamorphic complex in the Taili-Yiwulüshan MCC corridor, in order to understand the mode of lithospheric scale reactivation, extension and thinning of the North China craton. The new40Ar/39Ar muscovite, biotite, K-feldspar and (U-Th)/He apatite ages from granitic rocks help constrain the thermal evolution during its exhumation. The thermochronologic studies have shown at least three stages of exhumation and cooling from late Jurassic to Eocene in Xingcheng-Taili shear zone should be distinguished, e.g., ~ 150-130 Ma, 130-115 Ma and 115-52 Ma, respectively. Diachronous onset and subsequent parallel cooling and exhumation characterize the early thermal history. The Yiwulüshan MCC has a similar exhumation history from 135 to 97 Ma with a similar cooling history. The development of Taili-Yiwulüshan MCC corridor is associated with synkinematic emplacement

  1. Kinematics of the southern Rhodope Core Complex (North Greece).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, J.P.; Sokoutis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern Rhodope Core Complex is a wide metamorphic dome exhumed in the northern Aegean as a result of large-scale extension from mid-Eocene to mid-Miocene times. Its roughly triangular shape is bordered on the SW by the Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic units of the Serbo-Macedonian in the

  2. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  3. Metamorphic and geochronogical study of the Triassic El Oro metamorphic complex, Ecuador: Implications for high-temperature metamorphism in a forearc zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, N.; Guillot, S.; Jaillard, E.; Martelat, J.-E.; Paquette, J.-L.; Schwartz, S.; Goncalves, P.; Duclaux, G.; Thebaud, N.; Lanari, P.; Janots, E.; Yuquilema, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the forearc of the Andean active margin in southwest Ecuador, the El Oro metamorphic complex exhibits a well exposed tilted forearc section partially migmatized. We used Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous matter (RSCM) thermometry and pseudosections coupled with mineralogical and textural studies to constrain the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the El Oro metamorphic complex during Triassic times. Our results show that anatexis of the continental crust occurred by white-mica and biotite dehydration melting along a 10 km thick crustal domain (from 4.5 to 8 kbar) with increasing temperature from 650 to 700 °C. In the biotite dehydration melting zone, temperature was buffered at 750-820 °C in a 5 km thick layer. The estimated average thermal gradient during peak metamorphism is of 30 °C/km within the migmatitic domain can be partitioned into two apparent gradients parts. The upper part from surface to 7 km depth records a 40-45 °C/km gradient. The lower part records a quasi-adiabatic geotherm with a 10 °C/km gradient consistent with an isothermal melting zone. Migmatites U-Th-Pb geochronology yielded zircon and monazite ages of 229.3 ± 2.1 Ma and 224.5 ± 2.3 Ma, respectively. This thermal event generated S-type magmatism (the Marcabeli granitoid) and was immediately followed by underplating of the high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) Arenillas-Panupalí unit at 225.8 ± 1.8 Ma. The association of high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP) migmatites with HP-LT unit constitutes a new example of a paired metamorphic belt along the South American margin. We propose that in addition to crustal thinning, underplating of the Piedras gabbroic unit before 230 Ma provided the heat source necessary to foster crustal anatexis. Furthermore, its MORB signature shows that the asthenosphere was involved as the source of the heat anomaly. S-type felsic magmatism is widespread during this time and suggests that a large-scale thermal anomaly affected a large part of the

  4. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  5. Geochemistry and paleotectonomagmatic setting of metabasites protolith from Asalem metamorphic complex (northwest Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nasrabady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asalem metamorphic complex consists mostly of metabasite, metapelite and serpentinite. Metabasites display metamorphic features of greenschist and blueschist facies. Greenschist facies rocks that found as both foliated and massive types contain mineralogical assemblage of actinolite, chlorite, albite and epidote. Blueschists contain mineralogical assemblage of sodic amphibole, epidote and phengite. Whole rock analyses of the metabasites indicate basaltic to andesitic composition with mainly calcalkaline nature of their protolith. According to the discrimination diagrams of tectonomagmatic setting, the protolith of investigated metabasites has been islands arc and somewhat mid ocean ridge. The patterns of rare earth elements and spider diagrams of the Asalem metabasites resemble to the basic and intermediate magmatism of islands arc or suprasubduction setting as well. Greenschists and blueschists facies rocks of the Asalem metamorphic complex have been probably equivalent to islands arc or young and hot oceanic crust of suprasubduction zone setting. This portion of oceanic basin unlike the subducted even and thick oceanic lithosphere of Paleotethys during accretion in the shallower levels of accretionary prisms, have underwent metamorphic conditions of blueschist and greenschist facies and finally gave rise to the formation of the metabasites of the Asalem metamorphic complex.

  6. Uraniferous leukogranites from the Namaqualand metamorphic complex: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    A number of small leucogranite or alaskite bodies intrude the Modderfontein augen gneiss on the farm Nooitgedacht, south-west of Springbok. These intrusions, correlated with the Kweekfontein Granite of the Spektakel Suite, are anomalously enriched in uranium and thorium, and certain of them have been assessed as potential low-grade deposits. The leucogranites are highly differentiated and are characterized by a pervasive alteration which has sericitized the feldspars and propylitized the biotite. Alteration was probably of a deuteric nature, associated with the late magmatic-early subsolidus stages, and was neither a low-temperature, open-system event, nor was it related to regional retrogressive metamorphism. The leucogranite bodies have I-type characteristics and appear to have been derived by partial melting of lower crustal material. A subset of eight leucogranites were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the rare-earth elements. Typical depleted lower crust is ruled out as a source, however, because of the necessity to markedly enrich the leucogranite magma in elements such as K, Rb, U, and Th. Scatter in Rb-Sr isotope ratios for the Nooitgedacht alaskites indicates that the source may have been heterogeneous and/or anomalously fertile in certain selected elements. In addition, a component of scatter was probably introduced during the extensive alteration of the rocks

  7. K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating of the Palaeozoic metamorphic complex from the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts., Central Dinarides, Bosnia and Hercegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamic, J.; Balogh, K.; Hrvatovic, H.; Balen, D.; Palinkas, L.; Jurkovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    K-Ar and Ar-Ar whole rock and mineral ages are presented for 25 samples of metamorphic rocks from the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts., representing one of the largest allochthonous Palaeozoic terranes incorporated within the Internal Dinarides. Four main age groups can be distinguished: 1) Variscan (∼ 343 Ma), 2) post-Variscan (288-238 Ma), 3) Early Cretaceous (mainly 121-92 Ma), and 4) Eocene (59--35 Ma) ages. Apart from this, an Oligocene (31 Ma) age was obtained on Alpine vein hyalophane. The radiometric dating indicates a polyphase metamorphic evolution of the Palaeozoic formations and suggests a pre-Carboniferous age of the volcano-sedimentary protoliths, an Early Carboniferous age of Variscan metamorphism and deformation, post-Variscan volcanism, an Early Cretaceous metamorphic overprint related to out-of-sequence thrusting of the Palaeozoic complex, and an Eocene and Oligocene metamorphic overprint related to the main Alpine compressional deformation and subsequent strike-slip faulting, and uplift of the metamorphic core. Accordingly, the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts. can be correlated in its multistage geodynamic evolution with some Palaeozoic tectonostratigraphic units from the Austroalpine domain in the Eastern Alps. (author)

  8. High-pressure granulites in the Fuping Complex of the central North China Craton: Metamorphic P-T-t evolution and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiahui; Yin, Changqing; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Li; Wang, Luojuan

    2018-04-01

    Mafic granulites in the Fuping Complex occur as lenses or boudins within high-grade TTG (Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite) gneisses. Petrographic observations reveal four generations of mineral assemblage in the granulites: an inclusion assemblage of hornblende + plagioclase + ilmenite + quartz within garnet core; an inferred peak assemblage composed of garnet ± hornblende + plagioclase + clinopyroxene + rutile/ilmenite + quartz; a decompression assemblage characterized by symplectites of clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene + plagioclase, coronae of plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± hornblende around embayed garnet porphyroblasts or a two-pyroxene association; and a late amphibolite-facies retrogressive assemblage. Two representative samples were used for pseudosection modeling in NCFMASHTO model system to determine their metamorphic evolution. The results show that these granulites experienced a high-pressure stage of metamorphism with peak P-T conditions of 12-13 kbar and 760-800 °C (Pmax) and a post-peak history under P-T conditions of ∼9.0 kbar and 805-835 °C (Tmax), indicating a nearly isothermal decompression process (ITD) with a slight heating. Metamorphic evolution from the Pmax to the Tmax is predicted to be dominated by garnet breakdown through continuous metamorphic reactions of garnet + quartz ± diopside = hornblende + plagioclase + liquid and garnet + quartz + hornblende = plagioclase + diopside + liquid + orthopyroxene. Further metamorphic evolution after the Tmax is dominated by cooling, suggesting that high-pressure (HP) granulites may also exist in the Fuping Complex. Metamorphic zircons in the Fuping HP mafic granulites have left inclined REE patterns, Ti contents of 1.68-6.88 ppm and crystallization temperatures of 602-712 °C. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating on these zircons yields 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1891 ± 14 Ma and 1849 ± 6 Ma, interpreted to represent the cooling stage of metamorphism. The P-T-t evolution of the Fuping HP mafic granulites records

  9. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s

  10. Timing of tertiary extension in the Southern Canadian Cordillera: constraints from fission-track analysis in the Shuswap metamorphic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencak, M.; Seward, D.; Burg, J.-P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Nine zircon and eighteen apatite fission-track analyses have been made in order to determine the low temperature cooling history of the Shuswap metamorphic core complex, western Canada. The zircons vary in apparent age from 53.9 ± 5.6 to 37.5 ± 5.0 Ma and the apatites from 48.5 ± 3.2 to 27.7 ± 3.4 Ma. In the footwall of the detachment faults defining the core complex, the cooling histories show a similarity until temperatures of ∼250 C were reached at about 45 Ma. From then on, activity on two normal faults, the Columbia River Fault and the Victor Creek Fault, controlled the regional cooling pattern. The ages and the combination of ages fall into four groups and on the basis of the fission-track data, we suggest that the region can now be divided into four thermotectonic units which are the result of differing tectonic controls during regional extension. Additionally, a complete cooling history of the Shuswap core complex can now be reconstructed, using constraints from U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar age data from several authors as well as the fission track results presented here. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  11. Preliminary radiometric analyses of zircons from the Mount Copeland syenite gneiss, Shuswap metamorphic complex, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulitch, A.V.; Laveridge, W.D.; Sullivan, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic ratios resulting from Pb and U analyses on three zircon fractions from syenite gneiss intrusive into metasediments of the Shuswap Metamorphic Complex are collinear on a concordia plot and yield upper and lower intercepts of about 773 Ma and 70 Ma. The upper intercept is tentatively interpreted as the minimum age of emplacement. The lower intercept is suggested to be the time of uplift and cooling associated with tectonic denudation of the Shuswap Complex. The implied age of the country rocks is pre-late Proterozoic and they may be correlatives of the Purcell Supergroup. (auth)

  12. Evolution of Migmatitic Granulite Complexes: implications from Lapland Granulite Belt, Part I: metamorphic geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuisku

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Lapland granulite belt was juxtaposed between Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the NE part of the Fennoscandian Shield concurrently with the accretion of Svecofennian arc complexes at ~1.9 Ga. The belt consists mainly of aluminous migmatiticmetagreywackes. Abundant noritic to enderbitic magmas were intruded concordantly into the metasediments and were probably an important heat source for metamorphism, which took place during the crystallization of the magmas. This is supported by structural and contact relations of metasediments and igneous rocks, and by the lack progressive metamorphic reaction textures in the igneous rock series. The peak of metamorphism took place above the dehydration melting temperature of the biotite-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz assemblageat 750−850°C and 5−8.5 kbar which lead to formation of a restitic palaeosome and peraluminous granitic melt in metapelites. Subsequently, the rocks were decompressed and cooled below the wet melting temperature of pelitic rocks (650°C under the stability field of andalusite coexisting with potassium feldspar (2−3 kbar. Cooling was accompanied by the crystallization of the neosomes, often carrying aluminium-rich phases. Postmetamorphic duplexing of the LGB is clearly seen in the distribution of calculated PT conditions.

  13. Electron microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating and metamorphic evolution of the Acaiaca Granulite Complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros Junior, Edgar Batista; Marques, Rodson Abreu, E-mail: edgarjr@ymail.com, E-mail: rodson.marques@ufes.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Queiroga, Glaucia Nascimento, E-mail: hanna@degeo.ufop.br, E-mail: glauciaqueiroga@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Departamento de Geologia; Schulz, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schulz@mineral.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie - Institute of Mineralogy, Freiberg - Saxony (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The Acaiaca Complex (AC) is located in southeastern Minas Gerais state, and comprises felsic, mafic, ultramafic, and aluminous granulite as well as lower grade gneisses and mylonite. The complex is distributed over an area of ca. 36 km by 6 km, surrounded by amphibolite facies gneisses of the Mantiqueira Complex (MC). The discrepancy in the metamorphic grade between both complexes led to the present study aiming to understand the metamorphic history of the AC by means of geothermobarometry calculations and electron microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating. Estimates of the metamorphic conditions of the granulite based on conventional geothermobarometry and THERMOCALC resulted in temperatures around 800 deg C and pressures between of 5.0 and 9.9 kbar and a retro metamorphic path characterized by near-isobaric cooling. Part of the granulite was affected by anatexis. The melting of felsic granulite resulted in the generation of pegmatites and two aluminous lithotypes. These are: 1) garnet-sillimanite granulite with euhedral plagioclase and cordierite that show straight faces against quartz, and is the crystallization product of an anatectic melt, and 2) garnet-kyanite-cordierite granulite, which is probably the restite of anatexis, as indicated by textures and high magnesium contents. Th-U-Pb monazite geochronology of two granulite samples resulted in a metamorphic age around 2060 Ma, which is similar to the age of the MC registered in the literature. The similar Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of both complexes lead to the conclusion that the Acaiaca Complex may be the high grade metamorphic unit geochronological related to the lower grade Mantiqueira Complex. (author)

  14. Rb-Sr measurements on metamorphic rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A.; Neves, B.B.B.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Barro Alto Complex comprises a highly deformed and metamorphosed association of plutonic, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks exposed in a 150 x 25 Km boomerang-like strip in Central Goias, Brazil. It is the southernmost tip of an extensive yet discontinuous belt of granulite and amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks which include the Niquelandia and Cana Brava complexes to the north. Two rock associations are distinguished within the granulite belt. The first one comprises a sequence of fine-grained mafic granulite, hypersthene-quartz-feldspar granulite, garnet quartzite, sillimanite-garnet-cordierite gneiss, calc-silicate rock, and magnetite-rich iron formation. The second association comprises medium-to coarse-grained mafic rocks. The medium-grade rocks of the western/northern portion (Barro Alto Complex) comprise both layered mafic rocks and a volcanic-sedimentary sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions. The fine-grained amphibolite form the basal part of the Juscelandia meta volcanic-sedimentary sequence. A geochronologic investigation by the Rb-Sr method has been carried out mainly on felsic rocks from the granulite belt and gneisses of the Juscelandia sequence. The analytical results for the Juscelandia sequence are presented. Isotope results for rocks from different outcrops along the gneiss layer near Juscelandia are also presented. In conclusion, Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that the Barro Alto rocks have undergone at least one important metamorphic event during Middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Juscelandia sequence, as well as the underlying gabbro-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. (author)

  15. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  16. Genesis and petrology of Late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites associated with the Taba metamorphic complex in southern Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelfadil, K.M.; Asimow, P.D.; Azer, M.K.; Gahlan, H.A.

    2016-07-01

    We present new field, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data from late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites in southern Sinai, Egypt, at the northernmost limit of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The pegmatites cross-cut host rocks in the Taba Metamorphic Complex (TMC) with sharp contacts and are divided into massive and zoned pegmatites. Massive pegmatites are the most common and form veins, dykes and masses of variable dimensions; strikes range mainly from E-W through NW-SE to N-S. Mineralogically, the massive pegmatites are divided into K-feldspar-rich and albite-rich groups. Zoned pegmatites occur as lenses of variable dimensions, featuring a quartz core, an intermediate zone rich in K-feldspars and an outer finer-grained zone rich in albite. All compositions are highly evolved and display geochemical characteristics of post-collisional A-type granites: high SiO2, Na2O+K2O, FeO*/MgO, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, Ga and Y alongside low CaO, MgO, Ba and Sr. They are rich in Rare Earth Elements (REE) and have extreme negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 0.03–0.09). A genetic linkage between the pegmatites, aplites and alkali granite is confirmed by their common mild alkaline affinity and many other geochemical characteristics. These pegmatites and aplites represent the last small fraction of liquid remaining after extensive crystallization of granitic magma, injected along the foliation and into fractures of the host metamorphic rocks. The extensional tectonic regime and shallow depth of emplacement are consistent with a post-collisional environment. (Author)

  17. Metamorphic evolution and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite, Encantadas Complex, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Léo A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated investigation of metamorphism and zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite from southernmost Brazil leads to a better understanding of the processes involved in the generation of the Encantadas Complex. Magmatic evidence of the magnesian basalt or pyroxenite protolith is only preserved in cores of zircon crystals, which are dated at 2257 ± 12 Ma. Amphibolite facies metamorphism M1 formed voluminous hornblende in the investigated rock possibly at 1989 ± 21 Ma. This ultramafic rock was re-metamorphosed at 702±21 Ma during a greenschist facies eventM2; the assemblage actinolite + oligoclase + microcline + epidote + titanite + monazite formed by alteration of hornblende. The metamorphic events are probably related to the Encantadas Orogeny (2257±12 Ma and Camboriú Orogeny (~ 1989 Ma of the Trans-Amazonian Cycle, followed by an orogenic event (702±21 Ma of the Brasiliano Cycle. The intervening cratonic period (2000-700 Ma corresponds to the existence of the Supercontinent Atlantica, known regionally as the Rio de la Plata Craton.

  18. UHP metamorphism recorded by kyanite-bearing eclogite in the Seve Nappe Complex of northern Jämtland, Swedish Caledonides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janák, M.; Van Roermund, H.; Majka, J.; Gee, D.

    The first evidence for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism in the Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides is recorded by kyanite-bearing eclogite, found in a basic dyke within a garnet peridotite body exposed close to the lake Friningen in northern Jämtland (central Sweden). UHP

  19. Late Cretaceous extension and exhumation of the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    François, T.; Md Ali, M.A.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Ng, T.F.; Taib, N.I.; Shuib, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation of large continental areas by post-orogenic extension requires favourable geodynamic conditions and frequently occurs along pre-existing suture zones or nappe contacts, as exemplified by the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes of northern Peninsular Malaysia. For this

  20. Mayer Kangri metamorphic complexes in Central Qiangtang (Tibet, western China): implications for the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics associated with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yuan, Guoli; Bons, Paul D.

    2018-03-01

    The Mesozoic orogeny in Central Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt, northern Tibet, provides important insights into the geological evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. However, the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics, particularly those associated with the continental collisionstage, remains poorly constrained. Here we present results from geological mapping, structural analysis, P-T data, and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Mayer Kangri metamorphic complex. Our data reveal an E-W-trending, 2 km wide dome-like structure associated with four successive tectonic events during the Middle Triassic and Early Jurassic. Field observations indicate that amphibolite and phengite schist complexes in this complex are separated from the overlying lower greenschist mélange by normal faulting with an evident dextral shearing component. Open antiform-like S2 foliation of the footwall phengite schist truncates the approximately north-dipping structures of the overlying mélange. Microtextures and mineral chemistry of amphibole reveal three stages of growth: Geothermobarometric estimates yield temperatures and pressures of 524 °C and 0.88 GPa for pargasite cores, 386 °C and 0.34 GPa for actinolite mantles, and 404 °C and 0.76 GPa for winchite rims. Peak blueschist metamorphism in the phengite schist occurred at 0.7-1.1 GPa and 400 °C. Our Ar-Ar dating of amphibole reveals rim-ward decreasing in age bands, including 242.4-241.2 Ma, ≥202.6-196.8, and 192.9-189.8 Ma. The results provide evidence for four distinct phases of Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Central Qiangtang: (1) northward oceanic subduction beneath North Qiangtang ( 244-220 Ma); (2) syn-collisional slab-break off (223-202 Ma); (3) early collisional extension driven by buoyant extrusion flow from depth ( 202.6-197 Ma); and (4) post-collision contraction and reburial (195.6-188.7 Ma).

  1. Mineralogy of asbestos from the metamorphic complex from north eastern Takab-NW Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajialioghli, R.; Moazzen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ultramafic rocks from the Takht-e-Soleyman metamorphic complex, in Precambrian age, are classified as serpentinized meta peridotites and serpentinites, based on degree of serpentinization. Serpentine forms more than 90 volume% of the serpentinites. On the basis of serpentine polymorphs, textural relations and micro-structure features, variety of serpentinites are determined as massive serpentinites, serpentinite schists and chrysotile-bearing serpentinites. Chrysotile in serpentinites has been formed due to static condition and brittle deformations. During static state chrysotile and lizardite after olivine and pyroxene are formed as pseudomorphic mesh and bastite textures in the massive serpentinites. Then serpentinization processes reactivated by formation and development of joints and fractures related to brittle deformations at the local sheared zones. Chrysotile occur as fine grained crystals in the serpentinite matrix and veinlets with mm thickness filling fractures of the chrysotile-bearing serpentinites. Slight thickness of chrysotile veinlet in the investigated serpentinites can be attributed to the olivine rich composition of protolite. Low amounts of Cr 2 O 3 in composition of the analyzed chrysotile supports low clinopyroxene and high olivine in protolite of serpentinites. Serpentinite schists are formed under ductile deformation condition at the regional sheared zones. Amphibole asbestos occur as veins having meter scale thickness filling of joints and fractures at the regional sheared zone. Length of thin and long asbestos amphibole arrives up to cm. On the basis of petrography, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and microprope analysis, both chrysotile- and amphibole asbestos have been recognized in the Takht-e-Soleyman serpentintes.

  2. Ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation in rain forests of low altitude on complex metamorphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cantos Cevallos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation of the low altitude rain forest on a metamorphic complex, Quibiján-Naranjal del Toa sector, a floristic inventory was carried out, 36 sample plots of 20 x 25 m in the forest in both sides of Toa's riverside. Tree species with d1,3 e» 5 cm were measured, a total of 1507 individuals represented in 52 species belonging to 49 genera and 24 families were identified and evaluated. Both forests were statistically compared in terms of richness, composition, structure, diversity and abundance, with a high alpha and beta diversity. The species with the highest value index of ecological importance were determined. The families Fabaceae, Moraceae, Lauraceae and Meliaceae are the most representative in terms of species and genera. The most important species are Hibiscus elatus, Calophyllum utile, Carapa guianensis, Buhenavia capitata, y Guarea guara, among others, which stand out as the most abundant. Economic occupation was adequate in a few plots and incomplete in most of the sampling units. Taking into account the results obtained, we propose silvicultural actions aimed at sustainable forest management through the application of improvement shorts and the method of enrichment in dense spaced-groups for the rehabilitation and the achievement of the expected multiethane forest.

  3. ON THE SURVIVABILITY AND METAMORPHISM OF TIDALLY DISRUPTED GIANT PLANETS: THE ROLE OF DENSE CORES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Lin, Douglas N. C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: liushangfei@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A large population of planetary candidates in short-period orbits have been found recently through transit searches, mostly with the Kepler mission. Radial velocity surveys have also revealed several Jupiter-mass planets with highly eccentric orbits. Measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect indicate that the orbital angular momentum vector of some planets is inclined relative to the spin axis of their host stars. This diversity could be induced by post-formation dynamical processes such as planet-planet scattering, the Kozai effect, or secular chaos which brings planets to the vicinity of their host stars. In this work, we propose a novel mechanism to form close-in super-Earths and Neptune-like planets through the tidal disruption of gas giant planets as a consequence of these dynamical processes. We model the core-envelope structure of gas giant planets with composite polytropes which characterize the distinct chemical composition of the core and envelope. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of close encounters between Jupiter-like planets and their host stars, we find that the presence of a core with a mass more than 10 times that of the Earth can significantly increase the fraction of envelope which remains bound to it. After the encounter, planets with cores are more likely to be retained by their host stars in contrast with previous studies which suggested that coreless planets are often ejected. As a substantial fraction of their gaseous envelopes is preferentially lost while the dense incompressible cores retain most of their original mass, the resulting metallicity of the surviving planets is increased. Our results suggest that some gas giant planets can be effectively transformed into either super-Earths or Neptune-like planets after multiple close stellar passages. Finally, we analyze the orbits and structure of known planets and Kepler candidates and find that our model is capable of producing some of the shortest-period objects.

  4. Paleomagnetic evidence for an inverse rotation history of Western Anatolia during the exhumation of Menderes core complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzel, Bora; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Kaymakçı, Nuretdin; Sözbilir, Hasan; Özkaymak, Çağlar; Özkaptan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Within the Aegean extensional system, the Izmir-Balikesir Transfer Zone (IBTZ) is a crucial element in the late Cenozoic evolution of western Anatolia since it accommodates the differential deformation between the Cycladic and the Menderes metamorphic core complexes. Here, we determine the

  5. Phases of metamorphism in the metamorphic base of Xiangshan uranium orefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhenpin; Dong Yongjie; Hu Rongquan; Wu Shuilin

    2008-01-01

    Metamorphic rocks in the basement of Xiangshan uranium orefield, experienced long-term complex metamorphic-deformational evolution. From Jinning period to later Mesozoic era. It had suffered from four phase of superimposed metamorphism: regional dynamo thermal metamorphism in Mesoproterozoic era, contact-thermal metamorphism after mesoproterozoic era, dynamic metamorphism in Mesozoic era and contact-thermal metamorphism in the later of Mesozoic era. Multi-phase superimposed metamorphism show that Xiangshan area is a geothermally anomalous area ever since Proterozoic Eon. In Xiangshan area, the uranium mineralization are the outcome of superimposition of tectonism-magmatism-metamorphism. (authors)

  6. Results of Rb-Sr dating of metamorphic rocks of crystalline complexes of Male Karpaty Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, P.Kh.; Cambel, B.; Veselsky, J.

    1983-01-01

    The paper follows up on a recently published paper on Rb-Sr isochrone dating of granitoid rocks of the Male Karpaty Mts. Data are given on comparative statistical analysis of isochrones obtained for the Bratislava and Modra massifs (isochrone of the latter is complemented with the analyses of two new samples) and the results of age determination of metasedimentary rocks of the Pezinok-Pernek zone and the Bratislava area by the Rb-Sr isochrone. Regression analysis shows that there is no statistically significant difference between the age of the Bratislava massif (347+-4 m.y.) and the Modra massif (326+-22 m.y.) and between their initial ratios 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i.e., they are synchronous, having the same magma source) which makes it possible to calculate uniform value for age. Whole-rock samples of metamorphic and crystalline schists (gneisses) of the Male Karpaty Mts. also determine the isochrone corresponding to the age 387+-38 m.y. (2σ) and initial ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7100+-0.00O8 (2σ). Rb-Sr isotope analyses of several pairs of biotite-crystalline schist (from which biotite was separated) point out that redistribution of Sr isotopes among the mineral phases of rocks takes place during the periplutonic metamorphism, while the whole-rock samples remain chemically closed systems. (author)

  7. Inheritance, Variscan tectonometamorphic evolution and Permian to Mesozoic rejuvenations in the metamorphic basement complexes of the Romanian Carpathians revealed by monazite microprobe geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, Gavril; Negulescu, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Monazite U-Th-Pb chemical dating reaches an acceptable compromise between precision and accuracy on one side, and spatial resolution and textural constraints on the other side. Thus it has a powerful potential in testing the coherence of individual metamorphic basement units, and enabling correlations among them. Yet, sensitivity and specificity issues in monazite response to thermotectonic events, especially in the case of superposed effects, remain still unclear. Monazite dating at informative to detailed scale in the main metamorphic basement units of the Carpathians resulted in complex age spectra. In the main, the spectra are dominated by the most pervasive thermal and structural overprint, as checked against independent geochronological data. Post-peak age resetting is mostly present, but statistically subordinate. Resetting in case of superposed events is correlated with the degree of textural and paragenetic overprinting, inheritances being always indicated by more or less well-defined age clusters. The lack of relict ages correlating with prograde structural and porphyroblast zonation patterns is indicative for juvenile formations. Age data distribution in the Carpathians allowed distinction of pre-Variscan events, syn-metamorphic Variscan tectonic stacking of juvenile and reworked basement, post-Variscan differential tectonic uplift, as well as prograde metamorphic units ranging down to Upper Cretaceous ages. In the South Carpathians, the Alpine Danubian domain consists of several Variscan and Alpine thrust sheets containing a metamorphic complex dominated by Upper Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian metamorphic and magmatic ages (Lainici-Păiuş), and several complexes with metamorphic overprints ranging from Carboniferous to Lower Permian. Any correlation among these units, as well as geotectonic models placing a Lower Paleozoic oceanic domain between pre-existing Lainici-Păiuş and Drăgşan terranes are precluded by the age data. Other basement of the

  8. Metamorphic P-T path and zircon U-Pb dating of HP mafic granulites in the Yushugou granulite-peridotite complex, Chinese South Tianshan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lifei; Xia, Bin; Lü, Zeng

    2018-03-01

    Co-existing granulite and peridotite may represent relics of the paleo-suture zone and provides an optimal opportunity for better understanding of orogeny between two blocks. In this study, we carried out petrological and U-Pb zircon dating investigation on the HP mafic granulites associated with peridotite complex at Yushugou in Chinese South Tianshan. The studied samples include garnet-bearing high-pressure mafic granulites which can be subdivided into two types: Type I orthopyroxene-free and Type II orthopyroxene-bearing granulites and amphibolite. Type I granulite (Y21-2) has a mineral assemblage of garnet (33 vol.%), clinopyroxene (32 vol.%) and plagioclase (30 vol.%); and Type II granulite (Y18-8) has a mineral assemblage of garnet (22 vol.%), clinopyroxene (10 vol.%), orthopyroxene (14 vol.%), plagioclase (45 vol.%) and quartz. Garnet in both granulites exhibits core-rim structure characterized by increasing grossular and decreasing pyrope from core to rim. Petrographic observations and phase equilibrium modeling using THERMOCALC in the NCFMASHTO system for the mafic granulites (Y21-2 and Y18-8) show three stages of metamorphism: Stage I (granulite facies) was recognized by the large porphyroblastic garnet core, with P-T conditions of 9.8-10.4 Kbar and 860-900 °C (Y21-2) and 9.9-10.6 Kbar and 875-890 °C (Y18-8), respectively; Stage II (HP granulite facies) has peak P-T conditions of 12.1 Kbar at 755 °C (Y21-2) and 13.8 Kbar at 815 °C (Y18-8) using mineral assemblages combining with garnet rim compositions with maximum grossular and minimum pyrope contents; Stage III (amphibolite facies) was characterized by the development of calcic amphibole in granulites with temperature of 446-563 °C. Therefore, an anticlockwise P-T path characterized by simultaneous temperature-decreasing and pressure-increasing was inferred for the Yushugou HP mafic granulite. Studies of zircon morphology and inclusions, combined with zircon U-Pb dating and REE geochemistry

  9. Late Cretaceous extension and exhumation of the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, T.; Md Ali, M. A.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Ng, T. F.; Taib, N. I.; Shuib, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    Fragmentation of large continental areas by post-orogenic extension requires favourable geodynamic conditions and frequently occurs along pre-existing suture zones or nappe contacts, as exemplified by the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes of northern Peninsular Malaysia. For this case, we have employed a field and microstructural kinematic study combined with low temperature thermo-chronology to analyse the tectonic and exhumation history. The results show that the Late Palaeozoic - Triassic Indosinian orogeny created successive phases of burial related metamorphism, shearing and contractional deformation. This orogenic structure was subsequently dismembered during a Cretaceous thermal event that culminated in the formation of a large scale Late Santonian - Early Maastrichtian extensional detachment, genetically associated with crustal melting, the emplacement of syn-kinematic plutons and widespread migmatisation. The emplacement of these magmatic rocks led to an array of simultaneously formed structures that document deformation conditions over a wide temperature range, represented by amphibolite- and greenschist- facies mylonites and as well as brittle structures, such as cataclastic zones and normal faults that formed during exhumation in the footwall of the detachment. The formation of this detachment and a first phase of Late Cretaceous cooling was followed by renewed Eocene - Oligocene exhumation, as evidenced from our fission track ages. We infer that an initial Cretaceous thermal anomaly was responsible for the formation of an extensional gneiss dome associated with simple shear and rotation of normal faults. These Cretaceous processes played a critical role in the establishment of the presently observed crustal structure of Peninsular Malaysia.

  10. First results of U-Pb dating of metamorphic rocks of the Greater Antilles arc: age of the Mabujina complex (Cuba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Somin, M.L.; Gracheva, T.V.; Makarov, V.A.; Mil'yan, G.; Shukolyukov, Yu.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1988-01-01

    U-Pb-dating of zircons, entering the composition of metamorphic rocks of the Mabujina complex, was conducted in order to solve the problem concerming the place of metamorphic complexes in the structure and tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles arc. The accuracy of uranium and lead determination was equal to ± 1%, the accuracy of lead isotopic ratio determination with the use of TSN-206A mass-spectrometer- ±0.15%. Isotope data showed, that all examined zircons crystallized about 100 mil. years ago

  11. Petrologic and geochemical characterization and mineralization of the metavolcanic rocks of the Heib Formation, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H. Khalifa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Metavolcanic rocks hosting base metal sulphide mineralization, and belonging to the Kid Metamorphic Complex, are exposed in the Samra-Tarr area, Southern Sinai. The rocks consist of slightly metamorphosed varicolored porphyritic lavas of rhyolite-to-andesite composition, and their equivalent pyroclastics. Geochemically, these metavolcanics are classified as high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous andesites, trachyandesites, dacites, and rhyolites. The geochemical characteristics of these metavolcanics strongly point to their derivation from continental crust in an active continental margin. The sulphide mineralization in these metavolcanics occurs in two major ore zones, and is represented by four distinct styles of mineralization. The mineralization occurs either as low-grade disseminations or as small massive pockets. The associated hydrothermal alterations include carbonatization, silicification, sericitization and argillic alterations. The base metal sulphide mineralization is epigenetic and was formed by hydrothermal solutions associated with subduction-related volcanic activity.

  12. Another dimension to metamorphic phase equilibria: the power of interactive movies for understanding complex phase diagram sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulas, E.; Caddick, M. J.; Tisato, N.; Burg, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of metamorphic phase equilibria, using software packages that perform thermodynamic calculations, involves a series of important assumptions whose validity can often be questioned but are difficult to test. For example, potential influences of deformation on phase relations, and modification of effective reactant composition (X) at successive stages of equilibrium may both introduce significant uncertainty into phase diagram calculations. This is generally difficult to model with currently available techniques, and is typically not well quantified. We present here a method to investigate such phenomena along pre-defined Pressure-Temperature (P-T) paths, calculating local equilibrium via Gibbs energy minimization. An automated strategy to investigate complex changes in the effective equilibration composition has been developed. This demonstrates the consequences of specified X modification and, more importantly, permits automated calculation of X changes that are likely along the requested path if considering several specified processes. Here we describe calculations considering two such processes and show an additional example of a metamorphic texture that is difficult to model with current techniques. Firstly, we explore the assumption that although water saturation and bulk-rock equilibrium are generally considered to be valid assumptions in the calculation of phase equilibria, the saturation of thermodynamic components ignores mechanical effects that the fluid/melt phase can impose on the rock, which in turn can modify the effective equilibrium composition. Secondly, we examine how mass fractionation caused by porphyroblast growth at low temperatures or progressive melt extraction at high temperatures successively modifies X out of the plane of the initial diagram, complicating the process of determining best-fit P-T paths for natural samples. In particular, retrograde processes are poorly modeled without careful consideration of prograde

  13. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of high-P/T and low-P/T metamorphic rocks in the Tia Complex, southern New England Fold Belt, eastern Australia: Insights from K-Ar chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shiro; Tsujimori, Tatsuki; Watanabe, Teruo; Itaya, Tetsumaru

    2012-10-01

    The Tia Complex in the southern New England Fold Belt is a poly-metamorphosed Late Paleozoic accretionary complex. It consists mainly of high-P/low-T type pumpellyite-actinolite facies (rare blueschist facies) schists, phyllite and serpentinite (T = 300 °C and P = 5 kbar), and low-P/high-T type amphibolite facies schist and gneiss (T = 600 °C and P Tia granodiorite). White mica and biotite K-Ar ages distinguish Carboniferous subduction zone metamorphism and Permian granitic intrusions, respectively. The systematic K-Ar age mapping along a N-S traverse of the Tia Complex exhibits a gradual change. The white mica ages become younger from the lowest-grade zone (339 Ma) to the highest-grade zone (259 Ma). In contrast, Si content of muscovite changes drastically only in the highest-grade zone. The regional changes of white mica K-Ar ages and chemical compositions of micas indicate argon depletion from precursor high-P/low-T type phengitic white mica during the thermal overprinting and recrystallization by granitoids intrusions. Our new K-Ar ages and available geological data postulate a model of the eastward rollback of a subduction zone in Early Permian. The eastward shift of a subduction zone system and subsequent magmatic activities of high-Mg andesite and adakite might explain formation of S-type granitoids (Hillgrove suite) and coeval low-P/high-T type metamorphism in the Tia Complex.

  14. Thrusting and transpressional shearing in the Pan-African nappe southwest El-Sibai core complex, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahed, Mohamed A. Abd.

    2008-01-01

    The Wadi El-Shush area in the Central Eastern Desert (CED) of Egypt is occupied by the Sibai core complex and its surrounding Pan-African nappe complex. The sequence of metamorphic and structural events in the Sibai core complex and the enveloping Pan-African nappe can be summarized as follows: (1) high temperature metamorphism associated with partial melting of amphibolites and development of gneissic and migmatitic rocks, (2) between 740 and 660 Ma, oblique island arc accretion resulted in Pan-African nappe emplacement and the intrusion of syn-tectonic gneissic tonalite at about 680 ± 10 Ma. The NNW-SSE shortening associated with oblique island arc accretion produced low angle NNW-directed thrusts and open folds in volcaniclastic metasediments, schists and isolated serpentinite masses (Pan-African nappe) and created NNE-trending recumbent folds in syn-tectonic granites. The NNW-SSE shortening has produced imbricate structures and thrust duplexes in the Pan-African nappe, (3) NE-ward thrusting which deformed the Pan-African nappe into SW-dipping imbricate slices. The ENE-WSW compression event has created NE-directed thrusts, folded the NNW-directed thrusts and produced NW-trending major and minor folds in the Pan-African nappe. Prograde metamorphism (480-525 °C at 2-4.5 kbar) was synchronous with thrusting events, (4) retrograde metamorphism during sinistral shearing along NNW- to NW-striking strike-slip shear zones (660-580 Ma), marking the external boundaries of the Sibai core complex and related to the Najd Fault System. Sinistral shearing has produced steeply dipping mylonitic foliation and open plunging folds in the NNW- and NE-ward thrust planes. Presence of retrograde metamorphism supports the slow exhumation of Sibai core complex under brittle-ductile low temperature conditions. Arc-accretion caused thrusting, imbrication and crustal thickening, whereas gravitational collapse of a compressed and thickened lithosphere initiated the sinistral movement

  15. Late Mesoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic history of metamorphic basement from the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico, and implications for the evolution of NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bodo; González-Guzmán, Reneé; Manjarrez-Juárez, Román; Cisneros de León, Alejandro; Martens, Uwe; Solari, Luigi; Hecht, Lutz; Valencia, Victor

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, U-Pb zircon geochronology, Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics, geochemistry and geothermobarometry of metaigneous basement rocks exposed in the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex are presented. Geologic mapping of the newly defined "El Triunfo Complex" located at the southeastern edge of the Chiapas Massif reveals (1) partial melting of a metamorphic basement mainly constituted by mafic metaigneous rocks (Candelaria unit), (2) an Ediacaran metasedimentary sequence (Jocote unit), and (3) occurrence of massif-type anorthosite. All these units are intruded by undeformed Ordovician plutonic rocks of the Motozintla suite. Pressure and temperature estimates using Ca-amphiboles, plagioclase and phengite revealed prograde metamorphism that reached peak conditions at 650 °C and 6 kbar, sufficient for partial melting under water saturated conditions. Relict rutile in titanite and clinopyroxene in amphibolite further indicate a previous metamorphic event at higher P-T conditions. U-Pb zircon ages from felsic orthogneiss boudins hosted in deformed amphibolite and migmatite yield crystallization ages of 1.0 Ga, indicating that dry granitic protoliths represent remnants of Rodinia-type basement. Additionally, a mid-Tonian ( 920 Ma) metamorphic overprint is suggested by recrystallized zircon from a banded gneiss. Zircon from folded amphibolite samples yield mainly Ordovician ages ranging from 457 to 444 Ma that are indistinguishable from the age of the undeformed Motozintla plutonic suite. Similar ages between igneous- and metamorphic- zircon suggest a coeval formation during a high-grade metamorphic event, in which textural discrepancies are explained in terms of differing zircon formation mechanisms such as sub-solidus recrystallization and precipitation from anatectic melts. In addition, some amphibolite samples contain inherited zircon yielding Stenian-Tonian ages around 1.0 Ga. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopes and geochemical data indicate that the protoliths of

  16. Rb-Sr geochronology from Barro Alto Complex, Goias: metamorphism evidence of high degree and continental collision around 1300 Ma ago in Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A.; Neves, B.B.B.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1989-01-01

    Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation carried out on rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, yielded iso chronic ages of 1266 +- 17 Ma, for felsic rocks from the granulite belt and 1330 +- 67 Ma, for gneisses belonging to the Juscelandia Sequence. Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that Barro Alto rocks have undergone an important metamorphic event during middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event, volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Juscelandia Sequence, as well as the underlying gabbros-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. Deformation and metamorphism took place during the collision of two continental blocks, which resulted in a southeastward directed thrust complex, allowing the exposure of granulite slices from the middle-lower crust of the overthrusted block. (author)

  17. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Mid-Late Proterozoic Rayner Complex, Cape Bruce, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, D.J.; Clarke, G.L.; White, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Granulite to transitional granulite facies gneisses exposed at Cape Bruce, Rayner Complex, East Antarctica, record three main orogenic/magmatic phases: (1) intrusion of c. 1000-980 Ma felsic orthogneisses into Mid-Proterozoic metasediments, contemporary with the development of north-trending reclined to recumbent folds; (2) extensive c. 980-900 Ma felsic magmatism, including equivalents of the Mawson Charnockite, which accompanied the development of upright, east-northeast-trending folds; and (3) ultramylonite zones of uncertain age. The first two phases are known as the Rayner Structrual Episode, the effects of which are similar in rocks to the east of Cape Bruce, at Mawson, and in the northern Prince Charles Mountains. Archaean rocks immediately to the west of Cape Bruce were tectonically reworked during the Rayner Structural Episode. The first orogenic phase is inferred to represent the collision between a wedge-shaped Proterozoic block comprising rocks of the Mawson Coast and Eastern Ghats Province, with the Archaean Napier Complex. The second orogenic phase included a major period of crustal growth through emplacement of the Mawson Charnockite and equivalents. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Mineral chemistry and geothemobarometry of mantle harzburgites in the Eastern Metamorphic Complex of Khoy ophiolite -NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morovvat Faridazad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Khoy ophiolite at the global scale is in the middle part of the Alp-Himalaya orogenic belt and it is extended over 3900 Km2 which indicates remnant Neotethys oceanic lithosphere in the Mesozoic era (Kananian et al., 2010. In this paper, in addition to a review of previous investigations about Khoy ophiolite, we will try to determine the nature and kind of minerals, origin and partial melting rate as well as the equilibrium pressure and temperature of harzburgites from the Eastern Metamorphic Complex of Khoy ophiolite. Materials and methods Thin sections microscopy studies were carried out following field investigations. EPMA analysis was carried out with using a Superprobe JEOL, JXA 8200 Microprobe unit at the state of WDS and under condition of 15kv accelerating voltage, 10nA current beam, 1µm beam diameter and collection of natural and synthetic standards for calibration. Results The study area is located at the NW of Iran and north of the Khoy city in the west Azarbaijan province. This area is part of the ophiolitic complex of NW Iran and belongs to its Eastern Metamorphic Complex. This metamorphic zone has large tectonically segments of the metamorphic ophiolites which mainly include serpentinized peridotites with associated metagabbros. There are three types of peridotitic rocks in this area which are: Lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites. Lherzolites are composed of olivine (60-70%, orthopyroxene (10-30% and clinopyroxene (~10-20% with minor amounts (~2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Harzburgites are composed of olivine (70-80%, orthopyroxene (10-20% and clinopyroxene (~5% with minor amounts (~2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Dunites are composed of olivine (90-95%, orthopyroxene (5-10% with minor amounts (~1-2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Composition range of olivines is between Fo89.46 Fa10.37 to Fo89.86 Fa10.0 as well as NiO content range is 018-046 (wt %. The calculated Mg# of olivines is 0.90 and the composition of olivines in Fo-Fa diagram

  19. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  20. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang; Lavier, Luc L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  1. The effects of lower crustal strength and preexisting midcrustal shear zones on the formation of continental core complexes and low-angle normal faults

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang

    2016-08-22

    To investigate the formation of core complexes and low-angle normal faults, we devise thermomechanical simulations on a simplified wedge-like orogenic hinterland that has initial topography, Moho relief, and a preexisting midcrustal shear zone that can accommodate shear at very low angles (<20°). We mainly vary the strength of the lower crust and the frictional strength of the preexisting midcrustal shear zone. We find that the strength of the lower crust and the existence and strength of a preexisting shear zone significantly affect the formation and evolution of core complexes. With increasing lower crustal strength, we recognize varying extensional features with decreasing exhumation rate: these are characterized by bivergent metamorphic massifs, classic Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes, multiple consecutive core complexes (or boudinage structures), and a flexural core complex underlined by a large subsurface low-angle detachment fault with a small convex curvature. Topographic loading and mantle buoyancy forces, together with divergent boundaries, drive a regional lower crustal flow that leads to the exhumation of the lower crust where intensive upper crustal faulting induces strong unloading. The detachment fault is a decoupling zone that accommodates large displacement and accumulates sustained shear strain at very low angle between upper and lower crust. Though the regional stress is largely Andersonian, we find non-Andersonian stress in regions adjacent to the preexisting shear zone and those with high topographic gradient. Our new models provide a view that is generally consistent with geological and geophysical observations on how core complexes form and evolve.

  2. Metamorphic chlorite and "vermiculitic" phases in mafic dikes from the Maláguide Complex (Betic Cordillera, Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruiz Cruz, M. D.; Novák, Jiří Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-14 ISSN 0935-1221 Grant - others:Ministerio de Educación y Cultura(ES) BTE-2000-1150; Research Group(ES) RNM-199 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : low-grade metamorphism * vermiculite * Betic Cordillera Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2003

  3. Metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex: Implications for the tectonic evolution of Neoarchean basement of the Eastern Block, North China Craton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Kuen Wu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the areas where typical late Archean crust is exposed in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the northern Laioning Complex consists principally of tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG gneisses, massive granitoids and supracrustal rocks. The supracrustal rocks, named the Qingyuan Group, consist of interbedded amphibolite, hornblende granulite, biotite granulite and BIF. Petrological evidence indicates that the amphibolites experienced the early prograde (M1, peak (M2 and post-peak (M3 metamorphism. The early prograde assemblage (M1 is preserved as mineral inclusions, represented by actinotite + hornblende + plagioclase + epidote + quartz + sphene, within garnet porphyroblasts. The peak assemblage (M2 is indicated by garnet + clinopyroxene + hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite, which occur as major mineral phases in the rock. The post-peak assemblage (M3 is characterized by the garnet + quartz symplectite. The P–T pseudosections in the NCFMASHTO system constructed by using THERMOCALC define the P–T conditions of M1, M2 and M3 at 490–550 °C/<4.5 kbar, 780–810 °C/7.65–8.40 kbar and 630–670 °C/8.15–9.40 kbar, respectively. As a result, an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling is inferred for the metamorphic evolution of the amphibolites. Such a P–T path suggests that the late Archean metamorphism of the northern Liaoning Complex was related to the intrusion and underplating of mantle-derived magmas. The underplating of voluminous mantle-derived magmas leading to metamorphism with an anticlockwise P–T path involving isobaric cooling may have occurred in continental magmatic arc regions, above hot spots driven by mantle plumes, or in continental rift environments. A mantle plume model is favored because this model can reasonably interpret many other geological features of late Archean basement rocks from the northern Liaoning Complex in the Eastern Block of

  4. Measurement of activity concentration of 222Rn in ground waters drawn from two wells drilled in the Amparo Complex metamorphic rocks, municipio de Amparo, SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Igor Jose Chaves de

    2008-01-01

    A sampling system was assembled for field 222 Rn activity concentration measurements in ground waters. The system consists of a sampling flask that prevents the contact between the water sample and the atmosphere and a closed line for radon extraction from water. The system, its operation and calibration, are described in full detail, as well as, the conversion of the measured alpha counting rates in activity concentrations. The assembled system was used in 222 Rn activity concentrations measurements in ground waters drawn from two wells drilled in the Amparo Complex metamorphic rocks. The wells are located at the urban area of the city of Amparo and are exploited for public use water. One well, named Vale Verde, is 56 meters deep and crosses 18 meters of soil, 26 meters of quartz rich gneiss and 12 meters of biotite-gneiss. The other well, named Seabra, is 117 meters deep, crosses 28 meters of soil and weathered rocks and ends in granite-gneiss. The mean activity concentrations for the year long observation were (377 +- 25) Bq/dm 3 , for Seabra well, and (1282 +- 57) Bq/dm3, for the Vale Verde well. The 222 Rn activity concentrations fall in the activity concentration range reported in the literature for similar geology areas and are larger than the concentrations found neighboring areas of the same metamorphic Complex. The seasonal activity concentration variations seem to correlate with rain fall variations in the study area. (author)

  5. Structure and Stability of Complex Coacervate Core Micelles with Lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; de Vries, Renko; Norde, Willem; Cohen Stuart, Martinus Abraham

    2007-01-01

    Encapsulation of enzymes by polymers is a promising method to influence their activity and stability. Here, we explore the use of complex coacervate core micelles for encapsulation of enzymes. The core of the micelles consists of negatively charged blocks of the diblock copolymer PAA42PAAm417 and

  6. Structure and stability of complex coacervate core micelles with lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, Saskia; de Vries, Renko; Norde, Willem; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.

    Encapsulation of enzymes by polymers is a promising method to influence their activity and stability. Here, we explore the use of complex coacervate core micelles for encapsulation of enzymes. The core of the micelles consists of negatively charged blocks of the diblock copolymer PAA(42)PAAm(417)

  7. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages of high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Highland and Wanni Complexes, Sri Lanka: Their geochronological correlation with southern India and East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Ippei; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko; Adachi, Tatsuro; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.

    2018-05-01

    The high-grade metamorphic rocks of Sri Lanka place valuable constraints on the assembly of central parts of the Gondwana supercontinent. They are subdivided into the Wanni Complex (WC), Highland Complex (HC) and Vijayan Complex (VC), but their correlation with neighbouring Gondwana terranes is hindered by a poor understanding of the contact between the HC and WC. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb dating of remnant zircon cores from 45 high-grade metamorphic rocks in Sri Lanka reveals two domains with different age characteristics that correlate with the HC and WC and which help constrain the location of the boundary between them. The HC is dominated by detrital zircon ages of ca. 3500-1500 Ma from garnet-biotite gneiss, garnet-cordierite-biotite gneiss, some samples of garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite gneiss and siliceous gneiss (interpreted as paragneisses) and igneous protolith ages of ca. 2000-1800 Ma from garnet-hornblende-biotite gneiss, other samples of garnet-orthopyroxene-biotite gneiss, garnet-two-pyroxene granulite, two-pyroxene granulite and charnockite (interpreted as orthogneisses). In contrast, the WC is dominated by detrital zircon ages of ca. 1100-700 Ma from paragneisses and igneous protolith ages of ca. 1100-800 Ma from orthogneisses. This clearly suggests the HC and WC have different origins, but some of our results and previous data indicate their spatial distribution does not correspond exactly to the unit boundary proposed in earlier studies using Nd model ages. Detrital zircon and igneous protolith ages in the HC suggest that sedimentary protoliths were eroded from local 2000-1800 Ma igneous rocks and an older Paleoproterozoic to Archean craton. In contrast, the WC sedimentary protoliths were mainly eroded from local late Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic igneous rocks with very minor components from an older 2500-1500 Ma craton, and in the case of the WC precursor sediments there was possibly

  8. Evaluating the core microbiota in complex communities: A systematic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-García, Carmen; Bell, James J; Webster, Nicole S; Glasl, Bettina; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Montoya, Jose M; Taylor, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    The study of complex microbial communities poses unique conceptual and analytical challenges, with microbial species potentially numbering in the thousands. With transient or allochthonous microorganisms often adding to this complexity, a 'core' microbiota approach, focusing only on the stable and permanent members of the community, is becoming increasingly popular. Given the various ways of defining a core microbiota, it is prudent to examine whether the definition of the core impacts upon the results obtained. Here we used complex marine sponge microbiotas and undertook a systematic evaluation of the degree to which different factors used to define the core influenced the conclusions. Significant differences in alpha- and beta-diversity were detected using some but not all core definitions. However, findings related to host specificity and environmental quality were largely insensitive to major changes in the core microbiota definition. Furthermore, none of the applied definitions altered our perception of the ecological networks summarising interactions among bacteria within the sponges. These results suggest that, while care should still be taken in interpretation, the core microbiota approach is surprisingly robust, at least for comparing microbiotas of closely related samples. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Modularized Functions of the Fanconi Anemia Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA core complex provides the essential E3 ligase function for spatially defined FANCD2 ubiquitination and FA pathway activation. Of the seven FA gene products forming the core complex, FANCL possesses a RING domain with demonstrated E3 ligase activity. The other six components do not have clearly defined roles. Through epistasis analyses, we identify three functional modules in the FA core complex: a catalytic module consisting of FANCL, FANCB, and FAAP100 is absolutely required for the E3 ligase function, and the FANCA-FANCG-FAAP20 and the FANCC-FANCE-FANCF modules provide nonredundant and ancillary functions that help the catalytic module bind chromatin or sites of DNA damage. Disruption of the catalytic module causes complete loss of the core complex function, whereas loss of any ancillary module component does not. Our work reveals the roles of several FA gene products with previously undefined functions and a modularized assembly of the FA core complex.

  10. GluR2 ligand-binding core complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, C; Lunn, M-L; Liljefors, T

    2002-01-01

    X-ray structures of the GluR2 ligand-binding core in complex with (S)-Des-Me-AMPA and in the presence and absence of zinc ions have been determined. (S)-Des-Me-AMPA, which is devoid of a substituent in the 5-position of the isoxazolol ring, only has limited interactions with the partly hydrophobic...

  11. Colorful packages : fluorescent proteins in complex coacervate core micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, Antsje

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores the encapsulation of fluorescent proteins (FPs) into complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) and features the impact of this encapsulation on the biophysical properties of the FPs. In total eight different FPs were investigated originating from two different classes

  12. Complex coacervate core micelles with a lysozyme-modified corona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton; Norde, Willem; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization, and enzymatic activity of complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium iodide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PQ2VP-PEO) to which the antibacterial enzyme lysozyme is end-attached.

  13. Magnetic fabrics of the syn to post orogenic granite suites of the Brusque metamorphic complex (Dom Feliciano Belt, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenken, A; Basei, M.; Lopez de Luchi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Dom Feliciano belt in southern Brazil and Uruguay has accommodated the collision between the cratons of Kalahari and Congo versus the Luis Alves microplate as a fragment of the Rio de La Plata craton during the Rio Doce orogeny in the late Neoproterozoic. The Sierra Ballena - Major Gercino shear zone was interpreted as the suture between the cratons. In the state of Santa Catarina three suites of highly evolved granites intruded the Brusque metamorphic complex in the northwest of the Major Gercino shear zone. Magmatic contacts between the different suites denote to their close temporal intrusion sequence. Shear zone activity is documented by local low temperature brittle deformation of the intrusive suites. Fabrics of the granites were obtained by the measurement of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Low bulk susceptibilities (Kvol -6 SI) and a low degree of the total anisotropy (P' < 1.07) suggest a paramagnetic origin of the magnetic fabrics that may be directly correlated with the macroscopic rock fabric. Planar fabrics form a dome-like foliation pattern for the main Valsungana intrusion occupying the southwestern part of the NE-SW elongated intrusion. Linear fabrics show a weakly defined ENE-WSW trend parallel to the late stage transcurrent extension of the basement. It is suggested that a number of dome-like intrusions that follow the trend of the Major Gercino shear zone in the northwest were emplaced and subsequently amalgamated in the course of magma ascent leading to present outcrop shape of the intrusive complex

  14. Possible origin and significance of extension-parallel drainages in Arizona's metamophic core complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The corrugated form of the Harcuvar, South Mountains, and Catalina metamorphic core complexes in Arizona reflects the shape of the middle Tertiary extensional detachment fault that projects over each complex. Corrugation axes are approximately parallel to the fault-displacement direction and to the footwall mylonitic lineation. The core complexes are locally incised by enigmatic, linear drainages that parallel corrugation axes and the inferred extension direction and are especially conspicuous on the crests of antiformal corrugations. These drainages have been attributed to erosional incision on a freshly denuded, planar, inclined fault ramp followed by folding that elevated and preserved some drainages on the crests of rising antiforms. According to this hypothesis, corrugations were produced by folding after subacrial exposure of detachment-fault foot-walls. An alternative hypothesis, proposed here, is as follows. In a setting where preexisting drainages cross an active normal fault, each fault-slip event will cut each drainage into two segments separated by a freshly denuded fault ramp. The upper and lower drainage segments will remain hydraulically linked after each fault-slip event if the drainage in the hanging-wall block is incised, even if the stream is on the flank of an antiformal corrugation and there is a large component of strike-slip fault movement. Maintenance of hydraulic linkage during sequential fault-slip events will guide the lengthening stream down the fault ramp as the ramp is uncovered, and stream incision will form a progressively lengthening, extension-parallel, linear drainage segment. This mechanism for linear drainage genesis is compatible with corrugations as original irregularities of the detachment fault, and does not require folding after early to middle Miocene footwall exhumations. This is desirable because many drainages are incised into nonmylonitic crystalline footwall rocks that were probably not folded under low

  15. Redefining the modular organization of the core Mediator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Sun, Qianqian; Ding, Zhenrui; Ji, Jinhua; Wang, Jianye; Kong, Xiao; Yang, Jianghong; Cai, Gang

    2014-07-01

    The Mediator complex plays an essential role in the regulation of eukaryotic transcription. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae core Mediator comprises 21 subunits, which are organized into Head, Middle and Tail modules. Previously, the Head module was assigned to a distinct dense domain at the base, and the Middle and Tail modules were identified to form a tight structure above the Head module, which apparently contradicted findings from many biochemical and functional studies. Here, we compared the structures of the core Mediator and its subcomplexes, especially the first 3D structure of the Head + Middle modules, which permitted an unambiguous assignment of the three modules. Furthermore, nanogold labeling pinpointing four Mediator subunits from different modules conclusively validated the modular assignment, in which the Head and Middle modules fold back on one another and form the upper portion of the core Mediator, while the Tail module forms a distinct dense domain at the base. The new modular model of the core Mediator has reconciled the previous inconsistencies between the structurally and functionally defined Mediator modules. Collectively, these analyses completely redefine the modular organization of the core Mediator, which allow us to integrate the structural and functional information into a coherent mechanism for the Mediator's modularity and regulation in transcription initiation.

  16. The Common Core State Standards' Quantitative Text Complexity Trajectory: Figuring out How Much Complexity Is Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary L.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) set a controversial aspirational, quantitative trajectory for text complexity exposure for readers throughout the grades, aiming for all high school graduates to be able to independently read complex college and workplace texts. However, the trajectory standard is presented without reference to how the…

  17. Towards a Molecular Understanding of the Fanconi Anemia Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Hodson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is a genetic disorder characterized by the inability of patient cells to repair DNA damage caused by interstrand crosslinking agents. There are currently 14 verified FA genes, where mutation of any single gene prevents repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs. The accumulation of ICL damage results in genome instability and patients having a high predisposition to cancers. The key event of the FA pathway is dependent on an eight-protein core complex (CC, required for the monoubiquitination of each member of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Interestingly, the majority of patient mutations reside in the CC. The molecular mechanisms underlying the requirement for such a large complex to carry out a monoubiquitination event remain a mystery. This paper documents the extensive efforts of researchers so far to understand the molecular roles of the CC proteins with regard to its main function in the FA pathway, the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI.

  18. Towards a Molecular Understanding of the Fanconi Anemia Core Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Charlotte; Walden, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by the inability of patient cells to repair DNA damage caused by interstrand crosslinking agents. There are currently 14 verified FA genes, where mutation of any single gene prevents repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). The accumulation of ICL damage results in genome instability and patients having a high predisposition to cancers. The key event of the FA pathway is dependent on an eight-protein core complex (CC), required for the monoubiquitination of each member of the FANCD2-FANCI complex. Interestingly, the majority of patient mutations reside in the CC. The molecular mechanisms underlying the requirement for such a large complex to carry out a monoubiquitination event remain a mystery. This paper documents the extensive efforts of researchers so far to understand the molecular roles of the CC proteins with regard to its main function in the FA pathway, the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. PMID:22675617

  19. Geomorphic response of an active metamorphic core-complex in a collisional orogen: Example from the Lunggar Shan, Southern Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M H; Stockli, D F; Kapp, P A

    2008-01-01

    We present structural and neotectonic mapping from the Lunggar Shan rift in southern Tibet. The Lunggar Shan is a N-trending mountain range ∼70 km long N-S and up to 40 km wide E-W. The Lunggar Shan is bounded on its east side by a low-angle ( 0 ) east-dipping detachment fault that juxtaposes mylonitic gneiss and variably deformed granites in its footwall against alluvial fans and Neogene gravels in its hangingwall. Foliations in the mylonitic footwall dip 40 m of throw on individual scarps. An intriguing observation is that an intrabasinal topographic high is actively developing near areas of inferred maximum extension, with lacustrine sediments being uplifted and eroded. This observation indicates that the rift basin initially developed as a typical half-graben system that underwent a transition from deposition, to uplift and erosion perhaps as a result of isostatic rebound of the footwall at depth, warping the overlying hangingwall basin. If correct, the Lunggar Shan may represent a modern analogue to the supradetachment basin model

  20. Structural characterization of core-bradavidin in complex with biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Nitin; Määttä, Juha A. E.; Kulomaa, Markku S.; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Johnson, Mark S.; Airenne, Tomi T.

    2017-01-01

    Bradavidin is a tetrameric biotin-binding protein similar to chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin, and was originally cloned from the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. We have previously reported the crystal structure of the full-length, wild-type (wt) bradavidin with 138 amino acids, where the C-terminal residues Gly129-Lys138 (“Brad-tag”) act as an intrinsic ligand (i.e. Gly129-Lys138 bind into the biotin-binding site of an adjacent subunit within the same tetramer) and has potential as an affinity tag for biotechnological purposes. Here, the X-ray structure of core-bradavidin lacking the C-terminal residues Gly114-Lys138, and hence missing the Brad-tag, was crystallized in complex with biotin at 1.60 Å resolution [PDB:4BBO]. We also report a homology model of rhodavidin, an avidin-like protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and of an avidin-like protein from Bradyrhizobium sp. Ai1a-2, both of which have the Brad-tag sequence at their C-terminus. Moreover, core-bradavidin V1, an engineered variant of the original core-bradavidin, was also expressed at high levels in E. coli, as well as a double mutant (Cys39Ala and Cys69Ala) of core-bradavidin (CC mutant). Our data help us to further engineer the core-bradavidin–Brad-tag pair for biotechnological assays and chemical biology applications, and provide deeper insight into the biotin-binding mode of bradavidin. PMID:28426764

  1. Structural characterization of core-bradavidin in complex with biotin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Agrawal

    Full Text Available Bradavidin is a tetrameric biotin-binding protein similar to chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin, and was originally cloned from the nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. We have previously reported the crystal structure of the full-length, wild-type (wt bradavidin with 138 amino acids, where the C-terminal residues Gly129-Lys138 ("Brad-tag" act as an intrinsic ligand (i.e. Gly129-Lys138 bind into the biotin-binding site of an adjacent subunit within the same tetramer and has potential as an affinity tag for biotechnological purposes. Here, the X-ray structure of core-bradavidin lacking the C-terminal residues Gly114-Lys138, and hence missing the Brad-tag, was crystallized in complex with biotin at 1.60 Å resolution [PDB:4BBO]. We also report a homology model of rhodavidin, an avidin-like protein from Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and of an avidin-like protein from Bradyrhizobium sp. Ai1a-2, both of which have the Brad-tag sequence at their C-terminus. Moreover, core-bradavidin V1, an engineered variant of the original core-bradavidin, was also expressed at high levels in E. coli, as well as a double mutant (Cys39Ala and Cys69Ala of core-bradavidin (CC mutant. Our data help us to further engineer the core-bradavidin-Brad-tag pair for biotechnological assays and chemical biology applications, and provide deeper insight into the biotin-binding mode of bradavidin.

  2. Westinghouse loading pattern search methodology for complex core designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.A.; Alsop, B.H.; Johansen, B.J.; Morita, T.

    1991-01-01

    Pressurized water reactor core designs have become more complex and must meet a plethora of design constraints. Trends have been toward longer cycles with increased discharge burnup, increased burnable absorber (BA) number, mixed BA types, reduced radial leakage, axially blanketed fuel, and multiple-batch feed fuel regions. Obtaining economical reload core loading patterns (LPs) that meet design criteria is a difficult task to do manually. Automated LP search tools are needed. An LP search tool cannot possibly perform an exhaustive search because of the sheer size of the combinatorial problem. On the other hand, evolving complexity of the design features and constraints often invalidates expert rules based on past design experiences. Westinghouse has developed a sophisticated loading pattern search methodology. This methodology is embodied in the LPOP code, which Westinghouse nuclear designers use extensively. The LPOP code generates a variety of LPs meeting design constraints and performs a two-cycle economic evaluation of the generated LPs. The designer selects the most appropriate patterns for fine tuning and evaluation by the design codes. This paper describes the major features of the LPOP methodology that are relevant to fulfilling the aforementioned requirements. Data and examples are also provided to demonstrate the performance of LPOP in meeting the complex design needs

  3. The UHP metamorphic Seve Nappe Complex of the Swedish Caledonides - a new occurrence of the microdiamond-bearing gneisses and their exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonowska, Iwona; Janák, Marian; Majka, Jarosław; ‎ Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Gee, David G.

    2015-04-01

    The ultra-high pressure metamorphism (UHPM) in the Seve Nappe Complex of the Swedish Caledonides has been recently recognized within several lithologies including gneisses, eclogites and garnet pyroxenites (e.g. Janák et al. 2013, Klonowska et al. 2014a, Majka et al. 2014). Thermodynamic modelling and thermobarometric calculations indicate peak pressure conditions of >3GPa at c. 800-900°C (reaching the diamond stability field) for eclogites and garnet pyroxenites from northern Jämtland (e.g. Klonowska et al. 2014b). In addition to this, the first microdiamonds were found in paragneisses from the Snasahögarna Mt. in central Jämtland (Majka et al. 2014). Here we report a new discovery of microdiamond together with moissanite (SiC) from one of the world's most famous localities for thrusting, Mount Åreskutan, where long transport distances were recognized already in the 19th century (Törnebohm 1888). Garnet porphyroblasts in gneisses from the Åreskutan Mt. contain abundant mineral inclusions, mainly graphite, carbonates and quartz, together with fluid inclusions of CO2 concentrated in swarms. Among these inclusions three microdiamonds were found in two gneiss samples. In one of the samples moissanite was also discovered. Both minerals were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. In addition to these 'swarm' inclusions, biotite, kyanite, rutile, feldspars, zircon, monazite, ±phengite, ±muscovite, ±spinel, ±ilmenite, ±apatite occur in garnets. Phase equilibrium modelling for the phengite-bearing gneiss confirms its UHP history at temperatures of c. 800°C. Recent discoveries of UHP metamorphism within the Seve Nappe Complex derived from the Baltican outer margin (part of the Middle Allochthon) challenged us to present a new tectonic model incorporating exhumation of the deeply subducted continental rocks together with mantle lithosphere peridotites. Majka et al. (2014) introduced a new "under-pressure"-driven exhumation mechanism of rocks buried in

  4. A- and I-type metagranites from the North Shahrekord Metamorphic Complex, Iran: Evidence for Early Paleozoic post-collisional magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Afsaneh; Davoudian, Ali Reza; Shabanian, Nahid; Azizi, Hossein; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Neubauer, Franz; Dong, Yunpeng; Yamamoto, Koshi

    2018-02-01

    The North Shahrekord Metamorphic Complex (NSMC) of the central Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SaSZ) consists of metagranitoid bodies, which were metamorphosed within high pressure-low temperature conditions. Whole rock chemistry shows relatively high amounts of SiO2 (65-77 wt%) and Al2O3 (12-15 wt%), low amounts of Nb, P, Sr, Ti, a high ratio of Ga/Al (4-9) and a negative Eu anomaly. The chemical compositions of metagranites are reasonably similar to A- and I-type granites. U-Pb zircon ages of three samples of metagranites indicate that crystallization of the granites occurred at 521.6 ± 9.1 to 513.5 ± 8.5 Ma, Middle Cambrian. The initial 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of samples vary from 0.7057-0.7239 and 0.511801-0.511890, respectively. High initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and low εNd(t) values (- 3.39 to - 1.07) associated with high ratios of 206Pb/204Pb(t) = 17.8557-18.8045, 207Pb/204Pb(t) = 15.6721-15.7220, and 208Pb/204Pb(t) = 37.7490-38.4468 infer a significant contribution of continental crust in generating the source magma of the metagranite bodies. The results reveal that the metagranites were mainly produced through mixing of basaltic melts with components similar to metasedimentary sources. The new results show that crystallization of the metagranites occurred in Early Paleozoic times and much earlier than break-up and drifting of the SaSZ from the Arabian plate, suggesting that the metagranites were mainly produced in the western Iran after the closure of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. This model is consistent with the previously suggested models for formation of an Early Paleozoic granitoid belt along the northern rim of Gondwana.

  5. Shock-induced kelyphite formation in the core of a complex impact crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deseta, Natalie; Boonsue, Suporn; Gibson, Roger L.; Spray, John G.

    2017-10-01

    We present a compositional and textural analysis of shock-induced microtextures in garnet porphyroblasts in migmatitic garnet-cordierite-biotite paragneisses from the centre of the Vredefort impact structure, South Africa. Detailed imaging and major element analysis of deformation features in, and adjacent to, the garnet porphyroblasts record a complex, heterogeneous distribution of shock effects at the microscale. As the most competent silicate mineral in the assemblage, with the highest Hugoniot Elastic Limit and a wide pressure-temperature stability field, the porphyroblastic garnet preserves a more diverse shock deformation response compared to minerals such as quartz and feldspar, which underwent more comprehensive shock metamorphism and subsequent annealing. The garnet porphyroblasts display pre-impact fractures that are overprinted by later intra-granular Hertzian and distinctive planar fractures associated with the impact event. Shock-induced strain localization occurred along internal slip planes and defects, including pre-existing fractures and inclusion boundaries in the garnet. Symplectitic (kelyphitic) coronas commonly enclose the garnet porphyroblasts, and inhabit intra-granular fractures. The kelyphite assemblage in fractures with open communication beyond garnet grain boundaries is characterized by orthopyroxene—cordierite—sapphirine. Conversely, the kelyphite assemblage in closed-off intra-granular fractures is highly variable, comprising spatially restricted combinations of a secondary garnet phase with a majoritic component, Al-rich orthopyroxene, sapphirine and cordierite. The impedance contrast between garnet porphyroblasts and their inclusions further facilitated the formation of shock-induced features (Al-rich orthopyroxene coronas). Together, the textural and mineralogical data suggest that these features provide a record of oscillatory shock perturbations initiated under confining pressure beneath the transient crater floor. This

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE: Geophysical signatures of oceanic core complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Donna K.; Canales, J. Pablo; Harding, Alistair

    2009-08-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) provide access to intrusive and ultramafic sections of young lithosphere and their structure and evolution contain clues about how the balance between magmatism and faulting controls the style of rifting that may dominate in a portion of a spreading centre for Myr timescales. Initial models of the development of OCCs depended strongly on insights available from continental core complexes and from seafloor mapping. While these frameworks have been useful in guiding a broader scope of studies and determining the extent of OCC formation along slow spreading ridges, as we summarize herein, results from the past decade highlight the need to reassess the hypothesis that reduced magma supply is a driver of long-lived detachment faulting. The aim of this paper is to review the available geophysical constraints on OCC structure and to look at what aspects of current models are constrained or required by the data. We consider sonar data (morphology and backscatter), gravity, magnetics, borehole geophysics and seismic reflection. Additional emphasis is placed on seismic velocity results (refraction) since this is where deviations from normal crustal accretion should be most readily quantified. However, as with gravity and magnetic studies at OCCs, ambiguities are inherent in seismic interpretation, including within some processing/analysis steps. We briefly discuss some of these issues for each data type. Progress in understanding the shallow structure of OCCs (within ~1 km of the seafloor) is considerable. Firm constraints on deeper structure, particularly characterization of the transition from dominantly mafic rock (and/or altered ultramafic rock) to dominantly fresh mantle peridotite, are not currently in hand. There is limited information on the structure and composition of the conjugate lithosphere accreted to the opposite plate while an OCC forms, commonly on the inside corner of a ridge-offset intersection. These gaps preclude full

  7. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Anapolis-Itaucu complex, Araxa group and associated granites: Neoproterozoic high grade metamorphism and magmatism in the Central part of the Brasilia Belt, Goias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, D.P.; Pimentel, M.M.; Fuck, R.A; Armstrong, R

    2001-01-01

    The Tocantins Province (Almeida et al. 1981) in central Brazil is a Neoproterozoic orogenic zone developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons and possibly a third continental block, known as Parapanema Block, hidden below the sedimentary rocks of the Parana Basin. The Tocantins Province comprises the eastward vergent Brasilia Belt, adjacent to the Sao Francisco Craton (Marini et al. 1984), and the westward vergent Paraguay and Araguaia belts, developed on the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. According to Trompette (1997), the Brasilia and Araguaia belts had sedimentation starting at around 1.1-1.0 Ga and final closure at 0.6 Ga. In the northern part of the Brasilia Belt occur the Barro Alto, Canabrava and Niquelandia maficultramafic layered complexes. Inconclusive U-Pb isotopic data indicate ages between ca. 1600 and 2000 Ma for these intrusions that were affected by highgrade metamorphism ca. 740-790 Ma ago, during the Neoproterozoic (Ferreira Filho et al. 1994; Suita et al. 1994; Correia et al. 1997). In the southern part of the Brasilia Belt, in central Goias , is the Anapolis-Itaucu granulite complex. It consists of a large complex of high-grade rocks, volcano-sedimentary sequences and granites, exposed in between metasediments of the Araxa Group, the main constituent of the internal zone of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994). These granulites have traditionally been interpreted as the exposure of Archean sialic basement to the sediments of the Brasilia Belt (Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984; Lacerda Filho and Oliveira 1995). This work reports the results of a regional Sm- Nd isotopic investigation and U-Pb SHRIMP data in order to assess (i) the nature of the protoliths of the Araxa Group in this area; (ii) the nature and the high grade metamorphism of rocks from Anapolis-Itaucu Complex; (iii) the crystallization and metamorphism of aluminous granites (au)

  8. Meteoric water circulation and rolling-hinge detachment faulting: Example of the Northern Snake Range core complex, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gébelin, Aude; Teyssier, Christian; Heizler, Matthew T.; Andreas, Mulch

    2014-05-01

    The Northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex developed as a consequence of Oligo-Miocene extension of the Basin and Range Province and is bounded by an arched detachment that separates the cold, brittle upper crust from the ductile middle crust. On the western and eastern limbs of the arch, the detachment footwall displays continuous sections of muscovite-bearing quartzite and schist from which we report new microfabrics, δD values, and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Results indicate that the two limbs record distinct stages of the metamorphic and kinematic Cenozoic events, including Eocene collapse of previously overthickned crust in the west, and one main Oligo-Miocene extensional event in the east. Quartzite from the western part of the range preserves Eocene fabrics (~49-45 Ma) that developed during coaxial deformation in the presence of metamorphic fluids. In contrast, those from the east reveal a large component of non coaxial strain, Oligo-Miocene ages (27-21 Ma) and contain recrystallized muscovite grains indicating that meteoric fluids sourced at high elevation (low-δD) infiltrated the brittle-ductile transition zone during deformation. Percolation of meteoric fluids down to the mylonitic detachment footwall was made possible by the development of an east-dipping rolling-hinge detachment system that controlled the timing and location of active faulting in the brittle upper crust and therefore the pathway of fluids from the surface to the brittle-ductile transition. Oligo-Miocene upper crustal extension was accommodated by a fan-shaped fault pattern that generated shear and tension fractures and channelized surface fluids, while top-to-the-east ductile shearing and advection of hot material in the lower plate allowed the system to be progressively exhumed. As extension proceeded, brittle normal faults active in the wedge of the hanging wall gradually rotated and translated above the detachment fault where, became inactive and precluded the circulation of fluids

  9. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  10. Complex coacervate core micelles with a lysozyme-modified corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton; Norde, Willem; Stuart, Martien A Cohen

    2007-07-17

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization, and enzymatic activity of complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(N-methyl-2-vinyl pyridinium iodide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PQ2VP-PEO) to which the antibacterial enzyme lysozyme is end-attached. C3Ms were prepared by polyelectrolyte complex formation between PAA and mixtures containing different ratios of aldehyde and hydroxyl end-functionalized PQ2VP-PEO. This resulted in the formation of C3Ms containing 0-40% (w/w) of the aldehyde end-functionalized PQ2VP-PEO block copolymer (PQ2VP-PEO-CHO). Chemical conjugation of lysozyme was achieved via reductive amination of the aldehyde groups, which are exposed at the surface of the C3M, with the amine groups present in the side chains of the lysine residues of the protein. Dynamic and static light scattering indicated that the conjugation of lysozyme to C3Ms prepared using 10 and 20% (w/w) PQ2VP-PEO-CHO resulted in the formation of unimicellar particles. Multimicellar aggregates, in contrast, were obtained when lysozyme was conjugated to C3Ms prepared using 30 or 40% (w/w) PQ2VP-PEO-CHO. The enzymatic activity of the unimicellar lysozyme-C3M conjugates toward the hydrolysis of the bacterial substrate Micrococcus lysodeikticus was comparable to that of free lysozyme. For the multimicellar particles, in contrast, significantly reduced enzymatic rates of hydrolysis, altered circular dichroism, and red-shifted tryptophan fluorescence spectra were measured. These results are attributed to the occlusion of lysozyme in the interior of the multimicellar conjugates.

  11. Core nucleosomes by digestion of reconstructed histone-DNA complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, P N; Wright, E B; Olins, D E

    1979-04-01

    Reconstructed complexes of the inner histones (H2A, H2B, H3, H4) and a variety of DNAs were digested with micrococcal nuclease to yield very homogeneous populations of core nucleosomes (..nu../sub 1/). Nucleosomes containing Micrococcus luteus DNA (72% G+C); chicken DNA (43% G+C), Clostridium perfringens DNA (29% G+C); or poly(dA-dT).poly(dA-dT) have been examined by circular dichroism, thermal denaturation, electron microscopy, and DNAse I digestion. Circular dichroism spectra of all particles show a typically suppressed ellipticity at 260 to 280 nm and a prominent ..cap alpha..-helix signal at 222 nm. All particles show biphasic melting except ..nu../sub 1/(dA-dT), which show three prominent melting transitions at ionic strength less than or equal to 1 mM. DNAse I digestion of ..nu../sub 1/ (dA-dT) produces a ladder of DNA fragments differing in length by one base residue. ..nu../sub 1/ (dA-dT) contain 146 base pairs of DNA and exhibit an average DNA helix pitch of 10.4 to 10.5 bases per turn. There appear to be two regions of different DNA pitch within ..nu../sub 1/ (dA-dT). It is suggested that the two regions of DNA pitch might correspond to the two regions of the melting profiles.

  12. Eocene and Miocene extension, meteoric fluid infiltration, and core complex formation in the Great Basin (Raft River Mountains, Utah)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Wells, Michael L.; Cosca, Michael A.; Gottardi, Raphael; Gebelin, Aude; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) in the North American Cordillera reflect the effects of lithospheric extension and contribute to crustal adjustments both during and after a protracted subduction history along the Pacific plate margin. While the Miocene-to-recent history of most MCCs in the Great Basin, including the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek MCC, is well documented, early Cenozoic tectonic fabrics are commonly severely overprinted. We present stable isotope, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar), and microstructural data from the Raft River detachment shear zone. Hydrogen isotope ratios of syntectonic white mica (δ2Hms) from mylonitic quartzite within the shear zone are very low (−90‰ to −154‰, Vienna SMOW) and result from multiphase synkinematic interaction with surface-derived fluids. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology reveals Eocene (re)crystallization of white mica with δ2Hms ≥ −154‰ in quartzite mylonite of the western segment of the detachment system. These δ2Hms values are distinctively lower than in localities farther east (δ2Hms ≥ −125‰), where 40Ar/39Ar geochronological data indicate Miocene (18–15 Ma) extensional shearing and mylonitic fabric formation. These data indicate that very low δ2H surface-derived fluids penetrated the brittle-ductile transition as early as the mid-Eocene during a first phase of exhumation along a detachment rooted to the east. In the eastern part of the core complex, prominent top-to-the-east ductile shearing, mid-Miocene 40Ar/39Ar ages, and higher δ2H values of recrystallized white mica, indicate Miocene structural and isotopic overprinting of Eocene fabrics.

  13. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  14. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity. PMID:27559196

  15. U-Pb, Nd isotope and REE geochemistry in eclogites from the Cabo Ortegal Complex, Galicia, Spain: an example of REE immobility conserving MORB-like patterns during high-grade metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Griffiths, J.; Peucat, J.-J.; Cornichet, J.; Iglesias Ponce de Leon, M.; Gil Ibarguchi, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    REE abundances and Nd isotopic compositions were determined on representative samples of eclogite from the Cabo Ortegal Complex of northern Spain. Zircons were also separated from a whole-rock eclogite and analysed by the U-Pb radiometric method. Results indicate that eclogite facies metamorphism occurred between 480 and 420 Ma ago, but no precise constraint can be placed on the protolith age. The REE patterns observed suggest that there has been no significant alteration of the protolith whole-rock systems and that high-grade metamorphism has had little effect on the more mobile LREE. The eclogite protoliths were probably derived from ancient mantle sources with geochemical characteristics very similar to present-day MORB sources. This implies that LREE-depleted (N-type) tholeiites have been erupted at constructive plate margins since at least the early Palaeozoic and possibly long before. The Cabo Ortegal eclogites are allochthonous. They have been thrust up on to the continent and thus they can be compared to other eclogites which also show MORB-like characteristics (e.g., 90% of the eclogites of Vendee area of western France). (orig.)

  16. Functional and structural analysis of photosystem II core complexes from spinach with high oxygen evolution capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Elisabeth; Irrgang, Klaus-D.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Renger, Gernot

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen-evolving photo system II core complexes were prepared from spinach by solubilizing photosystem II membrane fragments with dodecyl-β-D-maltoside. The core complexes consist of the intrinsic 47-kDa, 43-kDa, D1 and D2 polypeptides, the two subunits of cytochrome b559 and the extrinsic 33-kDa

  17. Combined Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Mariánské Lázně Complex: New constraints on the timing of eclogite- and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Štípská, Pavla; Schulmann, Karel; Peřestý, Vít; Soldner, Jeremie; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Lexa, Ondrej; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology combined with petrographic observations, minero-chemical variations, thermodynamic modelling and structural data was used to constrain the P-T-t-d evolution of eclogites from the Mariánské Lázně Complex (Bohemian Massif). Boudins of mostly isotropic eclogite with relict steep eclogite-facies fabric are affected by steep migmatitic foliation, which is followed on a regional scale by the development of almost pervasive, predominantly SE-dipping, extensional foliation. The structural succession shows continuous transition from eclogite to garnetiferous migmatitic amphibolite and to amphibolite migmatite. A least retrogressed sample of eclogite shows clusters of fine-grained inclusion-poor garnet, omphacite relicts surrounded by a fine-grained clinopyroxene-plagioclase symplectite with minor amphibole, biotite-plagioclase intergrowths after white mica, kyanite with plagioclase-spinel coronas and accessory rutile. Rare potassic white mica occurs as inclusions in omphacite. A more retrogressed eclogite, with no omphacite or kyanite relicts, contains inclusion-poor garnet surrounded by amphibole-plagioclase corona in a matrix dominated by plagioclase-amphibole symplectite with minor clinopyroxene. In places, the symplectite is overgrown by coarse-grained amphibole. Peak P-T conditions, inferred from combined conventional thermobarometry and phase-equilibria modelling and based on inclusions of white mica (up to 3.33 Si p.f.u.), matrix omphacite (Jd33-36) and garnet core (Alm33-38Prp38-42Grs22-25Sps1) compositions are 25 kbar at 650-750 °C. A HT overprint occurred at 14-18 kbar and >800 °C based on coexisting clinopyroxene (Jd18-24), plagioclase (An18-35), and amphibole (Na(B) modelling of garnet mantle compositions. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology has been applied to both samples, an older age (c. 390 Ma) obtained by the Lu-Hf method is interpreted as the timing of HP metamorphism, while c. 15 Ma younger ages were

  18. A core hSSB1–INTS complex participates in the DNA damage response

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Feng; Ma, Teng; Yu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Human single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) plays an important role in the DNA damage response and the maintenance of genomic stability. It has been shown that the core hSSB1 complex contains hSSB1, INTS3 and C9orf80. Using protein affinity purification, we have identified integrator complex subunit 6 (INTS6) as a major subunit of the core hSSB1 complex. INTS6 forms a stable complex with INTS3 and hSSB1 both in vitro and in vivo. In this complex, INTS6 directly interacts with INTS3. I...

  19. The Conceptual Complexity of Vocabulary in Elementary-Grades Core Science Program Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, W. Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Kung, Melody; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2017-01-01

    The researchers explored the conceptual complexity of vocabulary in contemporary elementary-grades core science program textbooks to address two research questions: (1) Can a progression of concepts' complexity level be described across grades? (2) Was there gradual developmental growth of the most complex concepts' networks of associated concepts…

  20. Strike-slip linked core complexes: A new kinematic model of basement rock exhumation in a crustal-scale fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sven Erik; Passchier, Cees; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt

    2014-05-01

    Metamorphic core complexes usually develop as extensional features during continental crustal thinning, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-scale strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of core complexes. We report on two such structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15 km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140 km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE-trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome core, without overprinting, and changes by more than 90 degrees from a NS-trending strike-slip zone to an EW-trending 40 degree south-dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE-trending sinistral strike-slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike-slip shear zone during 40 km of horizontal strike-slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed later during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit core complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The NW trending strike slip

  1. Has First-Grade Core Reading Program Text Complexity Changed across Six Decades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Relyea, Jackie Eunjung; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to address possible text complexity shifts across the past six decades for a continually best-selling first-grade core reading program. The anthologies of one publisher's seven first-grade core reading programs were examined using computer-based analytics, dating from 1962 to 2013. Variables were Overall Text…

  2. Architecture of the human mTORC2 core complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttfeld, Edward; Aylett, Christopher Hs; Imseng, Stefan; Boehringer, Daniel; Scaiola, Alain; Sauer, Evelyn; Hall, Michael N; Maier, Timm; Ban, Nenad

    2018-02-09

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key protein kinase controlling cellular metabolism and growth. It is part of the two structurally and functionally distinct multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. Dysregulation of mTOR occurs in diabetes, cancer and neurological disease. We report the architecture of human mTORC2 at intermediate resolution, revealing a conserved binding site for accessory proteins on mTOR and explaining the structural basis for the rapamycin insensitivity of the complex. © 2018, Stuttfeld et al.

  3. The Lost South Gobi Microcontinent: Protolith Studies of Metamorphic Tectonites and Implications for the Evolution of Continental Crust in Southeastern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Heumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, or Altaids, is an amalgamation of volcanic arcs and microcontinent blocks that records a complex late Precambrian–Mesozoic accretionary history. Although microcontinents cored by Precambrian basement are proposed to play an integral role in the accretion process, a lack of isotopic data hampers volume estimates of newly produced arc-derived versus old-cratonic crust in southeastern Mongolia. This study investigates metamorphic tectonites in southern Mongolia that have been mapped as Precambrian in age, largely on the basis of their high metamorphic grade and high strain. Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.55° E and the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (41.89° N, 104.24° E. Our results show no compelling evidence for Precambrian basement in southeastern Mongolia. Rather, the protoliths to all tectonites examined are Paleozoic–Mesozoic age rocks, formed during Devonian–Carboniferous arc magmatism and subsequent Permian–Triassic orogenesis during collision of the South Mongolia arc with the northern margin of China. These results yield important insights into the Paleozoic accretionary history of southern Mongolia, including the genesis of metamorphic and igneous basement during the Paleozoic, as well as implications for subsequent intracontinental reactivation.

  4. Late Paleozoic onset of subduction and exhumation at the western margin of Gondwana (Chilenia Terrane): Counterclockwise P-T paths and timing of metamorphism of deep-seated garnet-mica schist and amphibolite of Punta Sirena, Coastal Accretionary Complex, central Chile (34° S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyppolito, T.; García-Casco, A.; Juliani, C.; Meira, V. T.; Hall, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the Paleozoic albite-epidote-amphibolite occurring as meter-sized intercalations within garnet-mica schist at Punta Sirena beach (Pichilemu region, central Chile) is characterized for the first time. These rocks constitute an unusual exposure of subduction-related rocks within the Paleozoic Coastal Accretionary Complex of central Chile. Whereas high pressure (HP) greenschist and cofacial metasediments are the predominant rocks forming the regional metamorphic basement, the garnet-mica schist and amphibolite yield higher P-T conditions (albite-epidote amphibolite facies) and an older metamorphic age. Combining detailed mineral chemistry and textural information, P-T calculations and Ar-Ar ages, including previously published material from the Paleozoic Accretionary Complex of central Chile, we show that the garnet-mica schist and associated amphibolite (locally retrograded to greenschist) are vestiges of the earliest subducted material now forming exotic bodies within the younger HP units of the paleo-accretionary wedge. These rocks are interpreted as having been formed during the onset of subduction at the southwestern margin of Gondwana. However, we show that the garnet-mica schist formed at a slightly greater depth (ca. 40 km) than the amphibolite (ca. 30 km) along the same hot-subduction gradient developed during the onset of subduction. Both lithotypes reached their peak-P conditions at ca. 335-330 Ma and underwent near-isobaric cooling followed by cooling and decompression (i.e., counterclockwise P-T paths). The forced return flow of the garnet-mica schist from the subduction channel started at ca. 320 Ma and triggered the exhumation of fragments of shallower accreted oceanic crust (amphibolite). Cores of phengite (garnet-mica schist) and amphibole (amphibolite) grains have similar chemical compositions in both the S1 and S2 domains, indicating rotation of these grains during the transposition of the burial-related (prograde peak-T) foliation S1

  5. Student Reading Growth Illuminates the Common Core Text-Complexity Standard: Raising Both Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary L.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, Jackson A.

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) establish a challenging text-complexity standard for all high school graduates to read at college and workplace text-complexity levels. We argue that implementation of the CCSS standard requires concurrent examination of historical student reading-growth trends. An example of a historical student average…

  6. The magmatism and metamorphism at the Malayer area, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, V.; Valizadeh, M. V.; Esmaeily, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Malayer area is located in the NW-SE aligned Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, western Iran and consists mainly of Mesozoic schists so-called Hamadan Phyllites, Jurassic to Tertiary intrusive rocks and related contact metamorphic aureoles, aplites and pegmatites. The Sanandj-Sirjan Zone is produced by oblique collisional event between Arabian plate and Central Iran microcontinent. Highest level of regional metamorphism in the area is greenschist facies and injection of felsic magmas is caused contact metamorphism. Magmatism is consist of a general northwest trend large felsic to intermediate intrusive bodies. The main trend of structural features i.e. faults, fractures and other structural features is NW-SE. The Malayer granitoid complex is ellipsoid in shape and has NW-SE foliation especially at the corners of the intrusions. Petrography of the magmatic rocks revealed recrystallization of quartz and feldspars, bending of biotite, and aligment of minerals paralle to the main trend of magmatic and metamorphic country rocks. These indicated that intrusion of felsic magma is coincide to the regional metamorphism and is syn-tectoinc. Non-extensive contact metamorphism aureoles and rareness of pegmatite and aplite in the area are interpreted as injection of felsic magmas into the high-strain metamorphic zone. The regional metamorphic rocks mainly consist of meta-sandstone, slate, phyllite, schist. These gray to dark metasedimentary rocks are consist of quartz, muscovite, turmaline, epidote, biotite and chlorite. Sheeted minerals form extended schistosity and study of porphyroblast-matrix relationships shows that injection of granitic magma into the country rocks is syn to post-tectonic. Syn-tectonic indicating porphyroblast growth synchronous with the development of the external fabric. The thermal contact area of the granite can be observed in the contact margin of granite and regional metamorphic rocks, where it produced hornfelses, andalusit-garnet schists and

  7. Complex permeability and core loss of soft magnetic Fe-based nanocrystalline powder cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Füzerová, Jana, E-mail: jana.fuzerova@tuke.sk [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University, Letná 1, 042 00 Košice (Slovakia); Füzer, Ján; Kollár, Peter [Institute of Physics, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 23 Košice (Slovakia); Bureš, Radovan; Fáberová, Mária [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Košice (Slovakia)

    2013-11-15

    Rapidly quenched ribbons of Fe{sub 73}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3}Si{sub 16}B{sub 7} were ball milled and cryomilled to get powder and warm consolidated to get bulk compacts. The data presented here are relative to different experimental procedures, one corresponding to milling at room temperature (sample R1) and the other corresponding to cryomilling at temperature of liquid nitrogen (sample L1). It was found that the properties of the initial powder influenced the density, the electrical resistivity and electromagnetic properties of the resulting bulk alloys. Permeability and core loss are structure sensitive and depend on factors such as powder size and shape, porosity, purity, and internal stress. Permeability spectra of sample R1 decreases with increasing the frequency and its values are larger than that for sample L1 at low frequencies. On the other hand the permeability of sample L1 remains steady up to 1 kHz and at certain frequency is larger than that for sample R1. Also there are different frequency dependences of the imaginary parts of permeability and loss factor, respectively. The cryomilling of the amorphous ribbon positively influences on the AC magnetic properties at higher frequencies (above 100 Hz) of resulting bulk sample. - Highlights: • We prepared two different amorphous powder vitroperm samples. • We have examined changes in the properties of the bulk samples prepared by compaction. • It was found that properties of the initial powder influence the density, the electrical resistivity and electromagnetic properties of the resulting bulk alloys.

  8. Identifying protein complex by integrating characteristic of core-attachment into dynamic PPI network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Shen

    Full Text Available How to identify protein complex is an important and challenging task in proteomics. It would make great contribution to our knowledge of molecular mechanism in cell life activities. However, the inherent organization and dynamic characteristic of cell system have rarely been incorporated into the existing algorithms for detecting protein complexes because of the limitation of protein-protein interaction (PPI data produced by high throughput techniques. The availability of time course gene expression profile enables us to uncover the dynamics of molecular networks and improve the detection of protein complexes. In order to achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel algorithm DCA (Dynamic Core-Attachment. It detects protein-complex core comprising of continually expressed and highly connected proteins in dynamic PPI network, and then the protein complex is formed by including the attachments with high adhesion into the core. The integration of core-attachment feature into the dynamic PPI network is responsible for the superiority of our algorithm. DCA has been applied on two different yeast dynamic PPI networks and the experimental results show that it performs significantly better than the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of prediction accuracy, hF-measure and statistical significance in biology. In addition, the identified complexes with strong biological significance provide potential candidate complexes for biologists to validate.

  9. Distinct metamorphic evolution of alternating silica-saturated and silica-deficient microdomains within garnet in ultrahigh-temperature granulites: An example from Sri Lanka

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    P.L. Dharmapriya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the occurrence of garnet porphyroblasts that have overgrown alternating silica-saturated and silica deficient microdomains via different mineral reactions. The samples were collected from ultrahigh-temperature (UHT metapelites in the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka. In some of the metapelites, garnet crystals have cores formed via a dehydration reaction, which had taken place at silica-saturated microdomains and mantle to rim areas formed via a dehydration reaction at silica-deficient microdomains. In contrast, some other garnets in the same rock cores had formed via a dehydration reaction which occurred at silica-deficient microdomains while mantle to rim areas formed via a dehydration reaction at silica-saturated microdomains. Based on the textural observations, we conclude that the studied garnets have grown across different effective bulk compositional microdomains during the prograde evolution. These microdomains could represent heterogeneous compositional layers (paleobedding/laminations in the precursor sediments or differentiated crenulation cleavages that existed during prograde metamorphism. UHT metamorphism associated with strong ductile deformation, metamorphic differentiation and crystallization of locally produced melt may have obliterated the evidence for such microdomains in the matrix. The lack of significant compositional zoning in garnet probably due to self-diffusion during UHT metamorphism had left mineral inclusions as the sole evidence for earlier microdomains with contrasting chemistry.

  10. Neoproterozoic igneous complex emplaced along major tectonic boundary in the Kaoko Belt (NW Namibia): ion probe and LA-ICP-MS dating of magmatic and metamorphic zircons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Košler, J.; Tajčmanová, L.; Ulrich, Stanislav; Kitt, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 1 (2008), s. 153-166 ISSN 0016-7649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : boundary igneous complex * Kaoko Belt * zircon Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.797, year: 2008

  11. Identification of Protein Complexes Using Weighted PageRank-Nibble Algorithm and Core-Attachment Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Wang, Jianxin; Zhao, Bihai; Wang, Lusheng

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes play a significant role in understanding the underlying mechanism of most cellular functions. Recently, many researchers have explored computational methods to identify protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. One group of researchers focus on detecting local dense subgraphs which correspond to protein complexes by considering local neighbors. The drawback of this kind of approach is that the global information of the networks is ignored. Some methods such as Markov Clustering algorithm (MCL), PageRank-Nibble are proposed to find protein complexes based on random walk technique which can exploit the global structure of networks. However, these methods ignore the inherent core-attachment structure of protein complexes and treat adjacent node equally. In this paper, we design a weighted PageRank-Nibble algorithm which assigns each adjacent node with different probability, and propose a novel method named WPNCA to detect protein complex from PPI networks by using weighted PageRank-Nibble algorithm and core-attachment structure. Firstly, WPNCA partitions the PPI networks into multiple dense clusters by using weighted PageRank-Nibble algorithm. Then the cores of these clusters are detected and the rest of proteins in the clusters will be selected as attachments to form the final predicted protein complexes. The experiments on yeast data show that WPNCA outperforms the existing methods in terms of both accuracy and p-value. The software for WPNCA is available at "http://netlab.csu.edu.cn/bioinfomatics/weipeng/WPNCA/download.html".

  12. The post collisional metamorphic evolution from Ultra High Temperature to Amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odesan area during the Triassic collision between the North and South China cratons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Kee Wook

    2015-04-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (OGC) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odesan collision belt in Korean Peninsula which is the extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China blocks. The OGC mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneiss with porphyritic granitoid and amphibolite. The banded gneiss can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. The highest metamorphic P/T conditions of the migmatitic and garnet-biotite banded gneiss were 760-820°C/6.3-7.2kbar and 810-840°C/7.2-7.8kbar respectively. On the other hand, the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss records 940-950°C/10.5-10.7kbar that is corresponded to UHT metamorphic condition. These data indicate that the peak UHT metamorphic condition of the study area was preserved only within the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss because its lower water content than other gneisses and UHT metamorphic mineral assemblage was completely replaced by the granulite facies metamorphism in other gneisses due to their higher water content than the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss. Finally all gneisses experienced amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism which is observed locally within rocks, such as garnet rim and surrounding area. The peak UHT metamorphism is estimated to occur at ca. 250-230 Ma using SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age dating and was caused by the heat supplied from asthenospheric mantle through the opening formed by slab break-off during early post collision stage. The calculated metamorphic conditions represent that geothermal gradient of the study area during the post collision stage was 86°C/kbar indicating the regional low-P/T metamorphic event. Besides the Triassic metamorphic age, two Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of ca. 1930 and 1886 Ma are also recognized by the SHRIMP age dating from the banded gneisses and Paleoproterozoic emplacement age of ca. 1847 Ma is identified from the porphyritic granitoid which formed in the within plate tectonic

  13. Mineral chemistry of garnet in pegmatite and metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadi Khalaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The area of this study is located near Hamadan within the Sanandaj - Sirjan tectonic zone. In the Hamadan area, consisting mainly of Mesozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks, aplites and pegmatites locally contain garnets.(Baharifar et al., 2004, Amidi and Majidi, 1977; Torkian, 1995. Garnet-bearing schists and hornfelses in the area are products of regional metamorphism shown by slate and phyllite (Baharifar, 2004. In this investigation the distribution of elements in garnet in different rock type was studied to determine their mineral types and conditions of formation. Garnet samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks were analyzed by electron microprobe (EMPA, the results of which are presented in this article. Materials and methods Thirty-five samples were selected for thin section preparation and twenty thin-polished sections were prepared for mineralogical and microprobe analysis. Thin sections of garnet-bearing igneous (pegmatite and metamorphic rocks (schist and hornfels were studied by polarizing microscope. Chemical analysis was performed on the garnets (38 points using a Caimeca SX100 electron microprobe at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and electric current of 15 nA in the Mineral Processing Research Center, Iran. Separation of iron (II and Fe (III was calculated by Droop’s method (1987 and the structural formulas of the garnets were calculated using 24 oxygens to determine the relative proportions of the end-members using the mineral spreadsheet software of Preston and Still (2001. Results Based on the analyses, almandine (Fe - Al garnet and spessartine (Mn - Al garnet are the principal types of the (Kamari metamorphic and (Abaro pegmatitic garnets, that belong to the well-known pyralspite garnet group. Chemical zoning patterns of the garnets in the metamorphic rocks (schists differ from those in the igneous rocks (pegmatite, showing different compositions from core to rim. Petrographic evidence such as: co

  14. North Aegean core complexes, the gravity spreading of a thrust wedge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Brun, Jean Pierre; Sokoutis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The North Aegean core complexes developed in middle Eocene soon after the end of continental block convergence and piling up of the Hellenic Thrust Wedge. They formed during back-arc extension, driven by the Hellenic slab rollback, at the back of the thrust wedge. A series of scaled laboratory

  15. Core Self-Evaluations as Causes of Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Seeking Task Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Locke, Edwin A.; Judge, Timothy A.; Adams, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of task complexity in the relationship between core self-evaluations (CSE) and satisfaction. In Study 1, eighty three undergraduate business students worked on a strategic decision-making simulation. The simulated environment enabled us to verify the temporal sequence of variables, use an objective measure of…

  16. Reconstitution of active human core Mediator complex reveals a pivotal role of the MED14 subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevher, Murat A.; Shi, Yi; Li, Dan; Chait, Brian T.; Malik, Sohail; Roeder, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is a critical coactivator for RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription. Here, we report the reconstitution of a functional 15-subunit human core Mediator complex and its characterization by functional assays and chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry (CX-MS). Whereas the reconstituted head and middle modules can stably associate, only with incorporation of MED14 into the bi-modular complex does it acquire basal and coactivator functions. This results from a dramatically enhanced ability of MED14-containing complexes to associate with Pol II. Altogether, our analyses identify MED14 as both an architectural and a functional backbone of the Mediator complex. We further establish a conditional requirement for metazoan-specific MED26 that becomes evident in the presence of heterologous nuclear factors. This general approach paves the way for systematically dissecting the multiple layers of functionalities associated with the Mediator complex. PMID:25383669

  17. Reconstitution of active human core Mediator complex reveals a critical role of the MED14 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevher, Murat A; Shi, Yi; Li, Dan; Chait, Brian T; Malik, Sohail; Roeder, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mediator complex is a critical coactivator for RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription. Here we report the reconstitution of a functional 15-subunit human core Mediator complex and its characterization by functional assays and chemical cross-linking coupled to MS (CX-MS). Whereas the reconstituted head and middle modules can stably associate, basal and coactivator functions are acquired only after incorporation of MED14 into the bimodular complex. This results from a dramatically enhanced ability of MED14-containing complexes to associate with Pol II. Altogether, our analyses identify MED14 as both an architectural and a functional backbone of the Mediator complex. We further establish a conditional requirement for metazoan-specific MED26 that becomes evident in the presence of heterologous nuclear factors. This general approach paves the way for systematic dissection of the multiple layers of functionality associated with the Mediator complex.

  18. Paleomagnetic evidence for an inverse rotation history of Western Anatolia during the exhumation of Menderes core complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, Bora; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Sözbilir, Hasan; Özkaymak, Çağlar; Özkaptan, Murat

    2015-03-01

    Within the Aegean extensional system, the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone (İBTZ) is a crucial element in the late Cenozoic evolution of western Anatolia since it accommodates the differential deformation between the Cycladic and the Menderes metamorphic core complexes. Here, we determine the rotational history of western Anatolia using new paleomagnetic data from 87 sites in Miocene volcano-sedimentary rocks to better understand the role of the İBTZ. Our results reveal two discrete and opposite major rotational phases during the Miocene. The first phase is derived from early Miocene volcanic, sedimentary and granitic rocks and is controlled by detachment and strike-slip faults. It is characterized by an average (net) 23 ± 6 ° clockwise (CW) rotation within the İBTZ since the early Miocene. Our new data from the Menderes part on the other hand show an average - 23 ± 10 ° counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation. The data from the Cycladic part show no significant (net) rotation since the early Miocene. The second phase is derived from middle-late Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and is controlled by high-angle normal and strike-slip faults. The rotations from this phase show a very consistent pattern of - 22 ± 11 ° CCW within the İBTZ, while now the Menderes part shows an average CW rotation of 25 ± 14 °. Our paleomagnetic results hence document a major change and inversion of rotation. Between the early and late Miocene the İBTZ region experienced a large 45° CW rotation, while during the same time interval the Menderes part outside the zone experienced a similar (48°) CCW rotation. After that, the İBTZ became narrower and the sense of rotation inverted to CCW (- 23 ± 10 ° since the late Miocene), while in the Menderes part it inverted to CW (25 ± 14 ° since the late Miocene). Our new results do therefore fit the hypotheses of two-stage-extension scenario, rather than a one-single-phase of extension. We also conclude that the observed rotations

  19. Cryo-EM Structure of the TOM Core Complex from Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausewein, Thomas; Mills, Deryck J; Langer, Julian D; Nitschke, Beate; Nussberger, Stephan; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2017-08-10

    The TOM complex is the main entry gate for protein precursors from the cytosol into mitochondria. We have determined the structure of the TOM core complex by cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM). The complex is a 148 kDa symmetrical dimer of ten membrane protein subunits that create a shallow funnel on the cytoplasmic membrane surface. In the core of the dimer, the β-barrels of the Tom40 pore form two identical preprotein conduits. Each Tom40 pore is surrounded by the transmembrane segments of the α-helical subunits Tom5, Tom6, and Tom7. Tom22, the central preprotein receptor, connects the two Tom40 pores at the dimer interface. Our structure offers detailed insights into the molecular architecture of the mitochondrial preprotein import machinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of the nuclear egress core complex of human cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Eric; Milbradt, Jens; Svrlanska, Adriana; Strojan, Hanife; Häge, Sigrun; Kraut, Alexandra; Hesse, Anne-Marie; Amin, Bushra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Couté, Yohann; Marschall, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear egress of herpesvirus capsids is mediated by a multi-component nuclear egress complex (NEC) assembled by a heterodimer of two essential viral core egress proteins. In the case of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), this core NEC is defined by the interaction between the membrane-anchored pUL50 and its nuclear cofactor, pUL53. NEC protein phosphorylation is considered to be an important regulatory step, so this study focused on the respective role of viral and cellular protein kinases. Multiply phosphorylated pUL50 varieties were detected by Western blot and Phos-tag analyses as resulting from both viral and cellular kinase activities. In vitro kinase analyses demonstrated that pUL50 is a substrate of both PKCα and CDK1, while pUL53 can also be moderately phosphorylated by CDK1. The use of kinase inhibitors further illustrated the importance of distinct kinases for core NEC phosphorylation. Importantly, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses identified five major and nine minor sites of pUL50 phosphorylation. The functional relevance of core NEC phosphorylation was confirmed by various experimental settings, including kinase knock-down/knock-out and confocal imaging, in which it was found that (i) HCMV core NEC proteins are not phosphorylated solely by viral pUL97, but also by cellular kinases; (ii) both PKC and CDK1 phosphorylation are detectable for pUL50; (iii) no impact of PKC phosphorylation on NEC functionality has been identified so far; (iv) nonetheless, CDK1-specific phosphorylation appears to be required for functional core NEC interaction. In summary, our findings provide the first evidence that the HCMV core NEC is phosphorylated by cellular kinases, and that the complex pattern of NEC phosphorylation has functional relevance.

  1. FANCI Regulates Recruitment of the FA Core Complex at Sites of DNA Damage Independently of FANCD2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Castella

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA-BRCA pathway mediates repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks. The FA core complex, a multi-subunit ubiquitin ligase, participates in the detection of DNA lesions and monoubiquitinates two downstream FA proteins, FANCD2 and FANCI (or the ID complex. However, the regulation of the FA core complex itself is poorly understood. Here we show that the FA core complex proteins are recruited to sites of DNA damage and form nuclear foci in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. ATR kinase activity, an intact FA core complex and FANCM-FAAP24 were crucial for this recruitment. Surprisingly, FANCI, but not its partner FANCD2, was needed for efficient FA core complex foci formation. Monoubiquitination or ATR-dependent phosphorylation of FANCI were not required for the FA core complex recruitment, but FANCI deubiquitination by USP1 was. Additionally, BRCA1 was required for efficient FA core complex foci formation. These findings indicate that FANCI functions upstream of FA core complex recruitment independently of FANCD2, and alter the current view of the FA-BRCA pathway.

  2. Metamorphic P-T-t-d evolution of (U)HP metabasites from the South Tianshan accretionary complex (NW China) - Implications for rock deformation during exhumation in a subduction channel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldner, J.; Oliot, E.; Schulmann, K.; Štípská, P.; Kusbach, Vladimír; Anczkiewicz, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, July (2017), s. 161-187 ISSN 1342-937X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : eclogite * Tianshan massif * (U)HP metamorphic belt Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 6.959, year: 2016

  3. Simulation Based Optimization of Complex Monolithic Composite Structures Using Cellular Core Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmott, Curtis W.

    Cellular core tooling is a new technology which has the capability to manufacture complex integrated monolithic composite structures. This novel tooling method utilizes thermoplastic cellular cores as inner tooling. The semi-rigid nature of the cellular cores makes them convenient for lay-up, and under autoclave temperature and pressure they soften and expand providing uniform compaction on all surfaces including internal features such as ribs and spar tubes. This process has the capability of developing fully optimized aerospace structures by reducing or eliminating assembly using fasteners or bonded joints. The technology is studied in the context of evaluating its capabilities, advantages, and limitations in developing high quality structures. The complex nature of these parts has led to development of a model using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software Abaqus and the plug-in COMPRO Common Component Architecture (CCA) provided by Convergent Manufacturing Technologies. This model utilizes a "virtual autoclave" technique to simulate temperature profiles, resin flow paths, and ultimately deformation from residual stress. A model has been developed simulating the temperature profile during curing of composite parts made with the cellular core technology. While modeling of composites has been performed in the past, this project will look to take this existing knowledge and apply it to this new manufacturing method capable of building more complex parts and develop a model designed specifically for building large, complex components with a high degree of accuracy. The model development has been carried out in conjunction with experimental validation. A double box beam structure was chosen for analysis to determine the effects of the technology on internal ribs and joints. Double box beams were manufactured and sectioned into T-joints for characterization. Mechanical behavior of T-joints was performed using the T-joint pull-off test and compared to traditional

  4. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile

  5. IODP Expedition 340T: Borehole Logging at Atlantis Massif Oceanic Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Blackman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 340T returned to the 1.4-km-deep Hole U1309D at Atlantis Massif to carry out borehole logging including vertical seismic profiling (VSP. Seismic, resistivity, and temperature logs were obtained throughout the geologic section in the footwall of this oceanic core complex. Reliable downhole temperature measurements throughout and the first seismic coverage of the 800–1400 meters below seafloor (mbsf portionof the section were obtained. Distinct changes in velocity, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility characterize the boundaries of altered, olivine-rich troctolite intervals within the otherwise dominantly gabbroic se-quence. Some narrow fault zones also are associated with downhole resistivity or velocity excursions. Small deviations in temperature were measured in borehole fluid adjacent to known faults at 750 mbsf and 1100 mbsf. This suggests that flow of seawater remains active along these zones of faulting and rock alteration. Vertical seismic profile station coverage at zero offsetnow extends the full length of the hole, including the uppermost 150 mbsf, where detachment processes are expected to have left their strongest imprint. Analysis of wallrock properties, together with alteration and structural characteristics of the cores from Site U1309, highlights the likely interplay between lithology, structure, lithospheric hydration, and core complex evolution.

  6. Fanconi anemia core complex gene promoters harbor conserved transcription regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Daniel; Schindler, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) gene family is a recent addition to the complex network of proteins that respond to and repair certain types of DNA damage in the human genome. Since little is known about the regulation of this novel group of genes at the DNA level, we characterized the promoters of the eight genes (FANCA, B, C, E, F, G, L and M) that compose the FA core complex. The promoters of these genes show the characteristic attributes of housekeeping genes, such as a high GC content and CpG islands, a lack of TATA boxes and a low conservation. The promoters functioned in a monodirectional way and were, in their most active regions, comparable in strength to the SV40 promoter in our reporter plasmids. They were also marked by a distinctive transcriptional start site (TSS). In the 5' region of each promoter, we identified a region that was able to negatively regulate the promoter activity in HeLa and HEK 293 cells in isolation. The central and 3' regions of the promoter sequences harbor binding sites for several common and rare transcription factors, including STAT, SMAD, E2F, AP1 and YY1, which indicates that there may be cross-connections to several established regulatory pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and siRNA experiments confirmed the shared regulatory responses between the prominent members of the TGF-β and JAK/STAT pathways and members of the FA core complex. Although the promoters are not well conserved, they share region and sequence specific regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding sites (TBFs), and we identified a bi-partite nature to these promoters. These results support a hypothesis based on the co-evolution of the FA core complex genes that was expanded to include their promoters.

  7. Fanconi anemia core complex gene promoters harbor conserved transcription regulatory elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meier

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA gene family is a recent addition to the complex network of proteins that respond to and repair certain types of DNA damage in the human genome. Since little is known about the regulation of this novel group of genes at the DNA level, we characterized the promoters of the eight genes (FANCA, B, C, E, F, G, L and M that compose the FA core complex. The promoters of these genes show the characteristic attributes of housekeeping genes, such as a high GC content and CpG islands, a lack of TATA boxes and a low conservation. The promoters functioned in a monodirectional way and were, in their most active regions, comparable in strength to the SV40 promoter in our reporter plasmids. They were also marked by a distinctive transcriptional start site (TSS. In the 5' region of each promoter, we identified a region that was able to negatively regulate the promoter activity in HeLa and HEK 293 cells in isolation. The central and 3' regions of the promoter sequences harbor binding sites for several common and rare transcription factors, including STAT, SMAD, E2F, AP1 and YY1, which indicates that there may be cross-connections to several established regulatory pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and siRNA experiments confirmed the shared regulatory responses between the prominent members of the TGF-β and JAK/STAT pathways and members of the FA core complex. Although the promoters are not well conserved, they share region and sequence specific regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding sites (TBFs, and we identified a bi-partite nature to these promoters. These results support a hypothesis based on the co-evolution of the FA core complex genes that was expanded to include their promoters.

  8. Biochemical reconstitution and phylogenetic comparison of human SET1 family core complexes involved in histone methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinsky, Stephen A; Monteith, Kelsey E; Viggiano, Susan; Cosgrove, Michael S

    2015-03-06

    Mixed lineage leukemia protein-1 (MLL1) is a member of the SET1 family of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferases that are required for metazoan development. MLL1 is the best characterized human SET1 family member, which includes MLL1-4 and SETd1A/B. MLL1 assembles with WDR5, RBBP5, ASH2L, DPY-30 (WRAD) to form the MLL1 core complex, which is required for H3K4 dimethylation and transcriptional activation. Because all SET1 family proteins interact with WRAD in vivo, it is hypothesized they are regulated by similar mechanisms. However, recent evidence suggests differences among family members that may reflect unique regulatory inputs in the cell. Missing is an understanding of the intrinsic enzymatic activities of different SET1 family complexes under standard conditions. In this investigation, we reconstituted each human SET1 family core complex and compared subunit assembly and enzymatic activities. We found that in the absence of WRAD, all but one SET domain catalyzes at least weak H3K4 monomethylation. In the presence of WRAD, all SET1 family members showed stimulated monomethyltransferase activity but differed in their di- and trimethylation activities. We found that these differences are correlated with evolutionary lineage, suggesting these enzyme complexes have evolved to accomplish unique tasks within metazoan genomes. To understand the structural basis for these differences, we employed a "phylogenetic scanning mutagenesis" assay and identified a cluster of amino acid substitutions that confer a WRAD-dependent gain-of-function dimethylation activity on complexes assembled with the MLL3 or Drosophila trithorax proteins. These results form the basis for understanding how WRAD differentially regulates SET1 family complexes in vivo. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Gold, uranium and thorium in zones of greenschist displacement metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilenko, B.V.; Savitskij, A.V.; Titov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of gold, uranium (bar and mobile) and thorium in 15 zones of greenschist dislocated metamorphism in different structures of the Karelo-Kola region carried out by geologic formations of the Early-Archean-Late-Proterozoic age has been studied. More than 200 samples of well core from 0-200 m depths have been analyzed. The results obtained testify to the increase of gold, uranium and less thorium content in zones of green-schist dislocated metamorphism in comparison with the enclosing rocks 1.4-3.1 times. The variation coefficient of gold, uranium and thorium content in green-schist dislocated tectonites increases 1.5-2.9 times. The correlation coefficient of Au/U mob. pair is +0.69, and Au/U bar pair -+0.87. Essential correlation between concentrations of all three elements in enclosing rocks is absent

  10. Coral Bacterial-Core Abundance and Network Complexity as Proxies for Anthropogenic Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah C. A. Leite

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acclimatization via changes in the stable (core or the variable microbial diversity and/or abundance is an important element in the adaptation of coral species to environmental changes. Here, we explored the spatial-temporal dynamics, diversity and interactions of variable and core bacterial populations associated with the coral Mussismilia hispida and the surrounding water. This survey was performed on five reefs along a transect from the coast (Reef 1 to offshore (Reef 5, representing a gradient of influence of the river mouth, for almost 12 months (4 sampling times, in the dry and rainy seasons. A clear increasing gradient of organic-pollution proxies (nitrogen content and fecal coliforms was observed from Reef 1 to Reef 5, during both seasons, and was highest at the Buranhém River mouth (Reef 1. Conversely, a clear inverse gradient of the network analysis of the whole bacterial communities also revealed more-complex network relationships at Reef 5. Our data also indicated a higher relative abundance of members of the bacterial core, dominated by Acinetobacter sp., at Reef 5, and higher diversity of site-stable bacterial populations, likely related to the higher abundance of total coliforms and N content (proxies of sewage or organic pollution at Reef 1, during the rainy season. Thus, the less “polluted” areas may show a more-complex network and a high relative abundance of members of the bacterial core (almost 97% in some cases, resulting in a more-homogeneous and well-established bacteriome among sites/samples, when the influence of the river is stronger (rainy seasons.

  11. Alkali Metal Variation and Twisting of the FeNNFe Core in Bridging Diiron Dinitrogen Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Sean F; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun; Mercado, Brandon Q; Grubel, Katarzyna; Holland, Patrick L

    2016-03-21

    Alkali metal cations can interact with Fe-N2 complexes, potentially enhancing back-bonding or influencing the geometry of the iron atom. These influences are relevant to large-scale N2 reduction by iron, such as in the FeMoco of nitrogenase and the alkali-promoted Haber-Bosch process. However, to our knowledge there have been no systematic studies of a large range of alkali metals regarding their influence on transition metal-dinitrogen complexes. In this work, we varied the alkali metal in [alkali cation]2[LFeNNFeL] complexes (L = bulky β-diketiminate ligand) through the size range from Na(+) to K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). The FeNNFe cores have similar Fe-N and N-N distances and N-N stretching frequencies despite the drastic change in alkali metal cation size. The two diketiminates twist relative to one another, with larger dihedral angles accommodating the larger cations. In order to explain why the twisting has so little influence on the core, we performed density functional theory calculations on a simplified LFeNNFeL model, which show that the two metals surprisingly do not compete for back-bonding to the same π* orbital of N2, even when the ligand planes are parallel. This diiron system can tolerate distortion of the ligand planes through compensating orbital energy changes, and thus, a range of ligand orientations can give very similar energies.

  12. Architecture of the RNA polymerase II-Mediator core initiation complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschka, C; Larivière, L; Wenzeck, L; Seizl, M; Hemann, M; Tegunov, D; Petrotchenko, E V; Borchers, C H; Baumeister, W; Herzog, F; Villa, E; Cramer, P

    2015-02-19

    The conserved co-activator complex Mediator enables regulated transcription initiation by RNA polymerase (Pol) II. Here we reconstitute an active 15-subunit core Mediator (cMed) comprising all essential Mediator subunits from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cryo-electron microscopic structure of cMed bound to a core initiation complex was determined at 9.7 Å resolution. cMed binds Pol II around the Rpb4-Rpb7 stalk near the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). The Mediator head module binds the Pol II dock and the TFIIB ribbon and stabilizes the initiation complex. The Mediator middle module extends to the Pol II foot with a 'plank' that may influence polymerase conformation. The Mediator subunit Med14 forms a 'beam' between the head and middle modules and connects to the tail module that is predicted to bind transcription activators located on upstream DNA. The Mediator 'arm' and 'hook' domains contribute to a 'cradle' that may position the CTD and TFIIH kinase to stimulate Pol II phosphorylation.

  13. CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating of single zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone, Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Evidence for a single metamorphic event at ˜2.0 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, H.; Brandl, G.; Whitehouse, M.; de Waal, S.; Guiraud, M.

    2008-02-01

    The combination of ion microprobe dating and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircons from a high-grade rock from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt were used to constrain the age of metamorphic events in the area. Zircon grains extracted from an orthopyroxene-gedrite-bearing granulite were prepared for single crystal CL-imaging and ion microprobe dating. The grains display complex zoning when using SEM-based CL-imaging. A common feature in most grains is the presence of a distinct core with a broken oscillatory zoned structure, which clearly appears to be the remnant of an original grain of igneous origin. This core is overgrown by an unzoned thin rim measuring about 10-30 μm in diameter, which is considered as new zircon growth during a single metamorphic event. Selected domains of the zircon grains were analysed for U, Pb and Th isotopic composition using a CAMECA IMS 1270 ion microprobe (Nordsim facility). Most of the grains define a near-concordant cluster with some evidence of Pb loss. The most concordant ages of the cores yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 2689 ± 15 (2 σ) Ma, interpreted as the age of the protolith of an igneous origin. The unzoned overgrowths of the zircon grains yielded a considerably younger weighted mean 207Pb/ 206Pb age of ˜2006.5 ± 8.0 Ma (2 σ), and these data are interpreted to reflect closely the age of the ubiquitous high-grade metamorphic event in the Central Zone. This study shows clearly, based on both the internal structure of the zircons and the data obtained by ion microprobe dating, that only a single metamorphic event is recorded by the studied 2.69 Ga old rocks, and we found no evidence of an earlier metamorphic event at ˜2.5 Ga as postulated earlier by some workers.

  14. HCV Core Residues Critical for Infectivity Are Also Involved in Core-NS5A Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Katarzyna; Baugh, James; Chatterji, Udayan; Lim, Precious J.; Bobardt, Michael D.; Gallay, Philippe A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. The molecular machinery of HCV assembly and particle release remains obscure. A better understanding of the assembly events might reveal new potential antiviral strategies. It was suggested that the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A), an attractive recent drug target, participates in the production of infectious particles as a result of its interaction with the HCV core protein. However, prior to the present study, the NS5A-binding site in the viral core remained unknown. We found that the D1 domain of core contains the NS5A-binding site with the strongest interacting capacity in the basic P38-K74 cluster. We also demonstrated that the N-terminal basic residues of core at positions 50, 51, 59 and 62 were required for NS5A binding. Analysis of all substitution combinations of R50A, K51A, R59A, and R62A, in the context of the HCVcc system, showed that single, double, triple, and quadruple mutants were fully competent for viral RNA replication, but deficient in secretion of viral particles. Furthermore, we found that the extracellular and intracellular infectivity of all the mutants was abolished, suggesting a defect in the formation of infectious particles. Importantly, we showed that the interaction between the single and quadruple core mutants and NS5A was impaired in cells expressing full-length HCV genome. Interestingly, mutations of the four basic residues of core did not alter the association of core or NS5A with lipid droplets. This study showed for the first time that basic residues in the D1 domain of core that are critical for the formation of infectious extracellular and intracellular particles also play a role in core-NS5A interactions. PMID:24533158

  15. Evolution of complex organic molecules in hot molecular cores. Synthetic spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R.; Schilke, P.; Stéphan, G.; Bergin, E.; Möller, T.; Schmiedeke, A.; Zernickel, A.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Hot molecular cores (HMCs) are intermediate stages of high-mass star formation and are also known for their rich chemical reservoirs and emission line spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands. Complex organic molecules (COMs) such as methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (C2H5OH), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), and methyl formate (HCOOCH3) produce most of these observed lines. The observed spectral feature of HMCs such as total number of emission lines and associated line intensities are also found to vary with evolutionary stages. Aims: We aim to investigate the spectral evolution of these COMs to explore the initial evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation including HMCs. Methods: We developed various 3D models for HMCs guided by the evolutionary scenarios proposed by recent empirical and modeling studies. We then investigated the spatio-temporal variation of temperature and molecular abundances in HMCs by consistently coupling gas-grain chemical evolution with radiative transfer calculations. We explored the effects of varying physical conditions on molecular abundances including density distribution and luminosity evolution of the central protostar(s) among other parameters. Finally, we simulated the synthetic spectra for these models at different evolutionary timescales to compare with observations. Results: Temperature has a profound effect on the formation of COMs through the depletion and diffusion on grain surface to desorption and further gas-phase processing. The time-dependent temperature structure of the hot core models provides a realistic framework for investigating the spatial variation of ice mantle evaporation as a function of evolutionary timescales. We find that a slightly higher value (15 K) than the canonical dark cloud temperature (10 K) provides a more productive environment for COM formation on grain surface. With increasing protostellar luminosity, the water ice evaporation font (~100 K) expands and the spatial distribution of gas phase abundances of

  16. Spectroscopic properties of reaction center pigments in photosystem II core complexes: revision of the multimer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszewski, Grzegorz; Diner, Bruce A; Schlodder, Eberhard; Renger, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    Absorbance difference spectra associated with the light-induced formation of functional states in photosystem II core complexes from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (e.g., P(+)Pheo(-),P(+)Q(A)(-),(3)P) are described quantitatively in the framework of exciton theory. In addition, effects are analyzed of site-directed mutations of D1-His(198), the axial ligand of the special-pair chlorophyll P(D1), and D1-Thr(179), an amino-acid residue nearest to the accessory chlorophyll Chl(D1), on the spectral properties of the reaction center pigments. Using pigment transition energies (site energies) determined previously from independent experiments on D1-D2-cytb559 complexes, good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra is obtained. The only difference in site energies of the reaction center pigments in D1-D2-cytb559 and photosystem II core complexes concerns Chl(D1). Compared to isolated reaction centers, the site energy of Chl(D1) is red-shifted by 4 nm and less inhomogeneously distributed in core complexes. The site energies cause primary electron transfer at cryogenic temperatures to be initiated by an excited state that is strongly localized on Chl(D1) rather than from a delocalized state as assumed in the previously described multimer model. This result is consistent with earlier experimental data on special-pair mutants and with our previous calculations on D1-D2-cytb559 complexes. The calculations show that at 5 K the lowest excited state of the reaction center is lower by approximately 10 nm than the low-energy exciton state of the two special-pair chlorophylls P(D1) and P(D2) which form an excitonic dimer. The experimental temperature dependence of the wild-type difference spectra can only be understood in this model if temperature-dependent site energies are assumed for Chl(D1) and P(D1), reducing the above energy gap from 10 to 6 nm upon increasing the temperature from 5 to 300 K. At physiological temperature, there are

  17. Petrological evolution of subducted rodingite from seafloor metamorphism to dehydration of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite (Cerro del Almirez massif, southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda-López, Casto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Marchesi, Claudio; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Rodingites are common rocks associated with serpentinites in exhumed terrains that experienced subduction and high pressure metamorphism. However, the response of these rocks to devolatilization and redox reactions in subduction settings is not well constrained. In the Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif (southern Spain) rodingites constitute about 1-2% of the total volume of exposed rocks. Metarodingites are enclosed in antigorite-serpentinite and chlorite-harzburgite separated by a transitional zone that represents the front of prograde serpentinite-dehydration in a paleo-subduction setting (Padrón-Navarta et al., 2011). Metarodingites occur as boudin lenses, 1 to 20 m in length and 30 cm to 2 m in thickness. During serpentinization of peridotite host rocks, dolerites and basalts precursor of rodingites underwent intense seafloor metasomatism, causing the enrichment in Ca and remobilization of Na and K. Subsequent metamorphism during subduction transformed the original igneous and seafloor metamorphic mineralogy into an assemblage of garnet (Ti-rich hydrogrossular), diopside, chlorite, and epidote. During prograde metamorphism, garnet composition changed towards higher andradite contents. High-pressure transformation of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite released fluids which induced breakdown of garnet to epidote in metarodingites. Ti liberation by this latter reaction produced abundant titanite. Released fluids also triggered the formation of amphibole by alkalis addition. Highly recrystallized metarodingites in chlorite-harzburgite present a new generation of idiomorphic garnet with composition equal to 10-30% pyrope, 30-40% grossular and 35-55% almandine + spessartine. This garnet has titanite inclusions in the core and rutile inclusions in the rim. The contact between metarodingites and ultramafic rocks consists of a metasomatic zone (blackwall) with variable thickness (7 to 40 cm) constituted by chlorite, diopside, and titanite

  18. Haploinsufficiency for Core Exon Junction Complex Components Disrupts Embryonic Neurogenesis and Causes p53-Mediated Microcephaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanqian Mao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The exon junction complex (EJC is an RNA binding complex comprised of the core components Magoh, Rbm8a, and Eif4a3. Human mutations in EJC components cause neurodevelopmental pathologies. Further, mice heterozygous for either Magoh or Rbm8a exhibit aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly. Yet despite the requirement of these genes for neurodevelopment, the pathogenic mechanisms linking EJC dysfunction to microcephaly remain poorly understood. Here we employ mouse genetics, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses to demonstrate that haploinsufficiency for each of the 3 core EJC components causes microcephaly via converging regulation of p53 signaling. Using a new conditional allele, we first show that Eif4a3 haploinsufficiency phenocopies aberrant neurogenesis and microcephaly of Magoh and Rbm8a mutant mice. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of embryonic brains at the onset of neurogenesis identifies common pathways altered in each of the 3 EJC mutants, including ribosome, proteasome, and p53 signaling components. We further demonstrate all 3 mutants exhibit defective splicing of RNA regulatory proteins, implying an EJC dependent RNA regulatory network that fine-tunes gene expression. Finally, we show that genetic ablation of one downstream pathway, p53, significantly rescues microcephaly of all 3 EJC mutants. This implicates p53 activation as a major node of neurodevelopmental pathogenesis following EJC impairment. Altogether our study reveals new mechanisms to help explain how EJC mutations influence neurogenesis and underlie neurodevelopmental disease.

  19. Stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikin, N.P. (University Coll., Cardiff (UK)); Harmon, R.S. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1983-02-01

    D/H and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members.

  20. A stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikin, N.P.; Harmon, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members. (author)

  1. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: The experimental group (N=5) and the control group (N=5). The experimental group underwent peculiar complex core balance training. [Results] According to the analysis of covariance, there was a significant effect of peculiar complex core balance training. Therefore, the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus in the experimental group participating in peculiar complex core balance training was significantly increased compared to the control group. [Conclusion] It is concluded that peculiar complex core balance training had a positive effect on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee and lumbus in throwing event athletes.

  2. Complex inner core of the Earth: The last frontier of global seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2015-03-01

    The days when the Earth's inner core (IC) was viewed as a homogeneous solid sphere surrounded by the liquid outer core (OC) are now behind us. Due to a limited number of data sampling the IC and a lack of experimentally controlled conditions in the deep Earth studies, it has been difficult to scrutinize competitive hypotheses in this active area of research. However, a number of new concepts linking IC structure and dynamics has been proposed lately to explain different types of seismological observations. A common denominator of recent observational work on the IC is increased complexity seen in IC physical properties such as its isotropic and anisotropic structure, attenuation, inner core boundary (ICB) topography, and its rotational dynamics. For example, small-scale features have been observed to exist as a widespread phenomenon in the uppermost inner core, probably superimposed on much longer-scale features. The characterization of small-scale features sheds light on the nature of the solidification process and helps in understanding seismologically observed hemispherical dichotomy of the IC. The existence of variations in the rate and level of solidification is a plausible physical outcome in an environment where vigorous compositional convection in the OC and variations in heat exchange across the ICB may control the process of crystal growth. However, further progress is hindered by the fact that the current traveltime data of PKIKP waves traversing the IC do not allow discriminating between variations in isotropic P wave velocity and velocity anisotropy. Future studies of attenuation in the IC might provide crucial information about IC structure, although another trade-off exists—that of the relative contribution of scattering versus viscoelastic attenuation and the connection with the material properties. Future installations of dense arrays, cross paths of waves that sample the IC, and corresponding array studies will be a powerful tool to image and

  3. Crystalline diuranium phosphinidiide and μ-phosphido complexes with symmetric and asymmetric UPU cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rookes, Thomas M.; Gardner, Benedict M.; Gregson, Matthew; Tuna, Floriana; Wooles, Ashley J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Balazs, Gabor; Scheer, Manfred [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-08-21

    Reaction of [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(PH{sub 2})] (1, Tren{sup TIPS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiPr{sup i}{sub 3}){sub 3}) with C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}K and [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(THF)][BPh{sub 4}] (2) afforded a rare diuranium parent phosphinidiide complex [{U(Tren"T"I"P"S)}{sub 2}(μ-PH)] (3). Treatment of 3 with C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}K and two equivalents of benzo-15-crown-5 ether (B15C5) gave the diuranium μ-phosphido complex [{U(Tren"T"I"P"S)}{sub 2}(μ-P)][K(B15C5){sub 2}] (4). Alternatively, reaction of [U(Tren{sup TIPS})(PH)][Na(12C4){sub 2}] (5, 12C4=12-crown-4 ether) with [U{N(CH_2CH_2NSiMe_2Bu"t)_2CH_2CH_2NSi(Me)(CH_2)(Bu"t)}] (6) produced the diuranium μ-phosphido complex [{U(Tren"T"I"P"S)}(μ-P){U(Tren"D"M"B"S)}][Na(12C4){sub 2}] [7, Tren{sup DMBS}=N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}NSiMe{sub 2}Bu{sup t}){sub 3}]. Compounds 4 and 7 are unprecedented examples of uranium phosphido complexes outside of matrix isolation studies, and they rapidly decompose in solution underscoring the paucity of uranium phosphido complexes. Interestingly, 4 and 7 feature symmetric and asymmetric UPU cores, respectively, reflecting their differing steric profiles. (copyright 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA.)

  4. Complex molecules in the hot core of the low-mass protostar NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottinelli, S; Ceccarelli, C; Lefloch, B; Williams, JP; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cazaux, S; Maret, S; Parise, B; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of complex molecules (HCOOCH3, HCOOH, and CH3CN), signposts of a hot core like region, toward the low-mass Class 0 source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. This is the second low-mass protostar in which such complex molecules have been searched for and reported, the other source being IRAS

  5. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN THE L1544 PRE-STELLAR CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Vasyunin, Anton I.; Caselli, Paola [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Gießenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Marcelino, Nuria [INAF, Osservatorio di Radioastronomia, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Billot, Nicolas [Instituto de Radioastronomía Milimétrica, Avenida Divina Pastora 7, E-18012 Granada (Spain); Viti, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, 132 Hampstead Road, London NW1 2PS (United Kingdom); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vastel, Charlotte [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Lefloch, Bertrand [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Bachiller, Rafael, E-mail: i.jimenez-serra@qmul.ac.uk [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN, IGN), Calle Alfonso XII 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    The detection of complex organic molecules (COMs) toward cold sources such as pre-stellar cores (with T < 10 K) has challenged our understanding of the formation processes of COMs in the interstellar medium. Recent modeling on COM chemistry at low temperatures has provided new insight into these processes predicting that COM formation depends strongly on parameters such as visual extinction and the level of CO freeze out. We report deep observations of COMs toward two positions in the L1544 pre-stellar core: the dense, highly extinguished continuum peak with A{sub V}≥ 30 mag within the inner 2700 au; and a low-density shell with average A{sub V}∼ 7.5–8 mag located at 4000 au from the core’s center and bright in CH{sub 3}OH. Our observations show that CH{sub 3}O, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}CHO are more abundant (by factors of ∼2–10) toward the low-density shell than toward the continuum peak. Other COMs such as CH{sub 3}OCHO, c-C{sub 3}H{sub 2}O, HCCCHO, CH{sub 2}CHCN, and HCCNC show slight enhancements (by factors ≤3), but the associated uncertainties are large. This suggests that COMs are actively formed and already present in the low-density shells of pre-stellar cores. The modeling of the chemistry of O-bearing COMs in L1544 indicates that these species are enhanced in this shell because (i) CO starts freezing out onto dust grains driving an active surface chemistry; (ii) the visual extinction is sufficiently high to prevent the UV photo-dissociation of COMs by the external interstellar radiation field; and (iii) the density is still moderate to prevent severe depletion of COMs onto grains.

  6. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES IN THE L1544 PRE-STELLAR CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Vasyunin, Anton I.; Caselli, Paola; Marcelino, Nuria; Billot, Nicolas; Viti, Serena; Testi, Leonardo; Vastel, Charlotte; Lefloch, Bertrand; Bachiller, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The detection of complex organic molecules (COMs) toward cold sources such as pre-stellar cores (with T < 10 K) has challenged our understanding of the formation processes of COMs in the interstellar medium. Recent modeling on COM chemistry at low temperatures has provided new insight into these processes predicting that COM formation depends strongly on parameters such as visual extinction and the level of CO freeze out. We report deep observations of COMs toward two positions in the L1544 pre-stellar core: the dense, highly extinguished continuum peak with A_V≥ 30 mag within the inner 2700 au; and a low-density shell with average A_V∼ 7.5–8 mag located at 4000 au from the core’s center and bright in CH_3OH. Our observations show that CH_3O, CH_3OCH_3, and CH_3CHO are more abundant (by factors of ∼2–10) toward the low-density shell than toward the continuum peak. Other COMs such as CH_3OCHO, c-C_3H_2O, HCCCHO, CH_2CHCN, and HCCNC show slight enhancements (by factors ≤3), but the associated uncertainties are large. This suggests that COMs are actively formed and already present in the low-density shells of pre-stellar cores. The modeling of the chemistry of O-bearing COMs in L1544 indicates that these species are enhanced in this shell because (i) CO starts freezing out onto dust grains driving an active surface chemistry; (ii) the visual extinction is sufficiently high to prevent the UV photo-dissociation of COMs by the external interstellar radiation field; and (iii) the density is still moderate to prevent severe depletion of COMs onto grains.

  7. The Detection of Hot Cores and Complex Organic Molecules in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewiło, Marta; Indebetouw, Remy; Charnley, Steven B.; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Oliveira, Joana M.; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Ward, Jacob L.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Wiseman, Jennifer; Fukui, Yasuo; Kawamura, Akiko; Meixner, Margaret; Onishi, Toshikazu; Schilke, Peter

    2018-02-01

    We report the first extragalactic detection of the complex organic molecules (COMs) dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO) with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). These COMs, together with their parent species methanol (CH3OH), were detected toward two 1.3 mm continuum sources in the N 113 star-forming region in the low-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Rotational temperatures ({T}{rot}∼ 130 K) and total column densities ({N}{rot}∼ {10}16 cm‑2) have been calculated for each source based on multiple transitions of CH3OH. We present the ALMA molecular emission maps for COMs and measured abundances for all detected species. The physical and chemical properties of two sources with COMs detection, and the association with H2O and OH maser emission, indicate that they are hot cores. The fractional abundances of COMs scaled by a factor of 2.5 to account for the lower metallicity in the LMC are comparable to those found at the lower end of the range in Galactic hot cores. Our results have important implications for studies of organic chemistry at higher redshift.

  8. Isotopic evidence for two neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic events in the Brazilia belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Piuzanna, Danielle; Moraes, Renato de; Gioia, Simone Maria C.L

    2001-01-01

    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons. The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620 Ma. There has been increasing geochronological evidence, however, for an older Neoproterozoic metamorphic event at ca. 780 Ma, observed mainly in high grade rocks of three large mafic-ultramafic complexes in the northern part of the belt. In this study we present: (i) new U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological data, (ii) a review of the existing metamorphic ages in the Brasilia Belt, and (iii) a discussion on the tectonic model to explain the two Neoproterozoic metamorphic ages (au)

  9. Core Mediator structure at 3.4 Å extends model of transcription initiation complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Kayo; Schneider, Thomas R; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-05-11

    Mediator is a multiprotein co-activator that binds the transcription pre-initiation complex (PIC) and regulates RNA polymerase (Pol) II. The Mediator head and middle modules form the essential core Mediator (cMed), whereas the tail and kinase modules play regulatory roles. The architecture of Mediator and its position on the PIC are known, but atomic details are limited to Mediator subcomplexes. Here we report the crystal structure of the 15-subunit cMed from Schizosaccharomyces pombe at 3.4 Å resolution. The structure shows an unaltered head module, and reveals the intricate middle module, which we show is globally required for transcription. Sites of known Mediator mutations cluster at the interface between the head and middle modules, and in terminal regions of the head subunits Med6 (ref. 16) and Med17 (ref. 17) that tether the middle module. The structure led to a model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae cMed that could be combined with the 3.6 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the core PIC (cPIC). The resulting atomic model of the cPIC-cMed complex informs on interactions of the submodules forming the middle module, called beam, knob, plank, connector, and hook. The hook is flexibly linked to Mediator by a conserved hinge and contacts the transcription initiation factor IIH (TFIIH) kinase that phosphorylates the carboxy (C)-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II and was recently positioned on the PIC. The hook also contains residues that crosslink to the CTD and reside in a previously described cradle. These results provide a framework for understanding Mediator function, including its role in stimulating CTD phosphorylation by TFIIH.

  10. Measuring metamorphic history of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Melcher, C.L.; Ross, L.M.; Mills, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoluminescence sensitivity technique is used to give a new measurement of the degree of metamorphism of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Consequently the petrological assignment of these meteorites is modified. (author)

  11. Structure of the dimeric PufX-containing core complex of Rhodobacter blasticus by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Simon; Busselez, Johan; Lévy, Daniel

    2005-01-14

    We have studied photosynthetic membranes of wild type Rhodobacter blasticus, a closely related strain to the well studied Rhodobacter sphaeroides, using atomic force microscopy. High-resolution atomic force microscopy topographs of both cytoplasmic and periplasmic surfaces of LH2 and RC-LH1-PufX (RC, reaction center) complexes were acquired in situ. The LH2 is a nonameric ring inserted into the membrane with the 9-fold axis perpendicular to the plane. The core complex is an S-shaped dimer composed of two RCs, each encircled by 13 LH1 alpha/beta-heterodimers, and two PufXs. The LH1 assembly is an open ellipse with a topography-free gap of approximately 25 A. The two PufXs, one of each core, are located at the dimer center. Based on our data, we propose a model of the core complex, which provides explanation for the PufX-induced dimerization of the Rhodobacter core complex. The QB site is located facing a approximately 25-A wide gap within LH1, explaining the PufX-favored quinone passage in and out of the core complex.

  12. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irini Topalidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment.

  13. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subje...

  14. Rapid extensional unroofing of a granite-migmatite dome with relics of high-pressure rocks, the Podolsko complex, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žák, J.; Sláma, Jiří; Burjak, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 2 (2017), s. 354-380 ISSN 0016-7568 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) * granite-migmatite dome * exhumation * metamorphic core complex * U-Pb zircon geochronology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.965, year: 2016

  15. Isotopic chronometry of zoned garnets: Growth kinetics and metamorphic histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, D.; O'Nions, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Basic information on the chronological and pressure-temperature evolution of regional metamorphic terrains may in principle be derived from metamorphic garnets because of the similarly low diffusivities of Sm, Nd and major cations in this mineral. We report here Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic and major element data on prograde garnets from regionally metamorphosed pelites from Newfoundland. The garnets preserve a prograde major element zonation as well as a sympathetic variation in Sm/Nd ratio. Sm-Nd data for separated portions of the garnet from core to rim provide both upper limits on the time for garnet growth and demonstrate synchronous growth of different garnet grains on a hand specimen scale. The Rb-Sr data on the same garnet fractions are in general agreement with these results but in some cases cannot be interpreted in terms of growth. A minimum heating rate of 3 K Ma -1 is derived by combining the estimates for garnet growth time with the apparent temperature interval over which the garnet grew, deduced from the major element zonation. This value is similar to the minimum suggested by theoretical models for the thermal evolution of thickened continental crust. The growth rate is within the range of 1.3-19 mm Ma -1 , set respectively by the isotopic data and the likely upper limit for heating rate during regional metamorphism. These growth rates appear too slow to be controlled by surface reaction and suggest that other factors, such as transport, may be rate-limiting. In this case, the limits set of the effective diffusion coefficient for material transport to the growth site (=0.4-6.1x10 -17 m 2 s -1 ) suggest that grain boundary diffusion is probably the transport mechanism for supply of material to the growing garnet. (orig.)

  16. A core MRB1 complex component is indispensable for RNA editing in insect and human infective stages of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Ammerman

    Full Text Available Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing is a unique and vital process in kinetoplastids, required for creation of translatable open reading frames in most mitochondrially-encoded RNAs. Emerging as a key player in this process is the mitochondrial RNA binding 1 (MRB1 complex. MRB1 comprises an RNA-independent core complex of at least six proteins, including the GAP1/2 guide RNA (gRNA binding proteins. The core interacts in an RNA-enhanced or -dependent manner with imprecisely defined TbRGG2 subcomplexes, Armadillo protein MRB10130, and additional factors that comprise the dynamic MRB1 complex. Towards understanding MRB1 complex function in RNA editing, we present here functional characterization of the pentein domain-containing MRB1 core protein, MRB11870. Inducible RNAi studies demonstrate that MRB11870 is essential for proliferation of both insect vector and human infective stage T. brucei. MRB11870 ablation causes a massive defect in RNA editing, affecting both pan-edited and minimally edited mRNAs, but does not substantially affect mitochondrial RNA stability or processing of precursor transcripts. The editing defect in MRB1-depleted cells occurs at the initiation stage of editing, as pre-edited mRNAs accumulate. However, the gRNAs that direct editing remain abundant in the knockdown cells. To examine the contribution of MRB11870 to MRB1 macromolecular interactions, we tagged core complexes and analyzed their composition and associated proteins in the presence and absence of MRB11870. These studies demonstrated that MRB11870 is essential for association of GAP1/2 with the core, as well as for interaction of the core with other proteins and subcomplexes. Together, these data support a model in which the MRB1 core mediates functional interaction of gRNAs with the editing machinery, having GAP1/2 as its gRNA binding constituents. MRB11870 is a critical component of the core, essential for its structure and function.

  17. The cooling history and the depth of detachment faulting at the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeesters, Nicole; Cheadle, Michael J.; John, Barbara E.; Reiners, Peter W.; Gee, Jeffrey; Grimes, Craig B.

    2012-10-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are domal exposures of oceanic crust and mantle interpreted to be denuded to the seafloor by large slip oceanic detachment faults. We combine previously reported U-Pb zircon crystallization ages with (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronometry and multicomponent magnetic remanence data to determine the cooling history of the footwall to the Atlantis Massif OCC (30°N, MAR) and help establish cooling rates, as well as depths of detachment faulting and gabbro emplacement. We present nine new (U-Th)/He zircon ages for samples from IODP Hole U1309D ranging from 40 to 1415 m below seafloor. These data paired with U-Pb zircon ages and magnetic remanence data constrain cooling rates of gabbroic rocks from the upper 800 m of the central dome at Atlantis Massif as 2895 (+1276/-1162) °C Myr-1 (from ˜780°C to ˜250°C); the lower 600 m of the borehole cooled more slowly at mean rates of ˜500 (+125/-102) °C Myr-1(from ˜780°C to present-day temperatures). Rocks from the uppermost part of the hole also reveal a brief period of slow cooling at rates of ˜300°C Myr-1, possibly due to hydrothermal circulation to ˜4 km depth through the detachment fault zone. Assuming a fault slip rate of 20 mm/yr (from U-Pb zircon ages of surface samples) and a rolling hinge model for the sub-surface fault geometry, we predict that the 780°C isotherm lies at ˜7 km below the axial valley floor, likely corresponding both to the depth at which the semi-brittle detachment fault roots and the probable upper limit of significant gabbro emplacement.

  18. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Jomolhari massif: Variations in timing of syn-collisional metamorphism across western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Young, David; Roberts, Nick M. W.

    2014-03-01

    Our current understanding of the rates and timescales of mountain-building processes is largely based on information recorded in U-bearing accessory minerals such as monazite, which is found in low abundance but which hosts the majority of the trace element budget. Monazite petrochronology was used to investigate the timing of crustal melting in migmatitic metasedimentary rocks from the Jomolhari massif (NW Bhutan). The samples were metamorphosed at upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions (~ 0.85 GPa, ~ 800 °C), after an earlier High-Pressure stage (P > 1.4 GPa), and underwent partial melting through dehydration melting reactions involving muscovite and biotite. In order to link the timing of monazite growth/dissolution to the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the samples, we identified 'chemical fingerprints' in major and accessory phases that were used to back-trace specific metamorphic reactions. Variations in Eu anomaly and Ti in garnet were linked to the growth and dissolution of major phases (e.g. growth of K-feldspar and dehydration melting of muscovite/biotite). Differences in M/HREE and Y from garnet core to rim were instead related to apatite breakdown and monazite-forming reactions. Chemically zoned monazite crystals reacted multiple times during the metamorphic evolution suggesting that the Jomolhari massif experienced a prolonged high-temperature metamorphic evolution from 36 Ma to 18 Ma, significantly different from the P-T-time path recorded in other portions of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in Bhutan. Our data demonstrate unequivocally that the GHS in Bhutan consists of units that experienced independent high-grade histories and that were juxtaposed across different tectonic structures during exhumation. The GHS may have been exhumed in response to (pulsed) mid-crustal flow but cannot be considered a coherent block.

  19. Inert and stable erbium(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins bearing aryl-ether dendron for optical amplification: synthesis and emission enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Buem; Kim, Yong Hee; Nah, Min Kook; Kim, Hwan Kyu

    2005-01-01

    We have developed novel inert and stable erbium (Er)(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins for optical amplification. The functionalized metalloporphyrin ligands have been designed and synthesized to provide enough coordination sites for the formation of inert and stable 9-coordinated Er(III)-cored complexes. Er 3+ ions were encapsulated by the metalloporphyrin ligands, such as Zn(II)- and Pt(II)-porphyrins. The near-infrared (IR) emission intensity of Er 3+ ion is much stronger in the Er(III)-cored complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin than Er(III)-cored complex based on Zn(II)-porphyrin. Furthermore, we have incorporated a G2-aryl-ether functionalized dendron into the Er(III)-cored complex, yielding an Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex bearing the Pt(II)-porphyrin. The Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex shows the stronger near-IR emission intensity than the corresponding complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin by seven times in solid state. The lifetimes of the emission band of Pt(II)-porphyrin ligands in the visible region were found to be 30 and 40 μs for the Er(III)-cored complex and the Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex based on Pt(II)-porphyrin in deoxygenated THF solution samples, respectively. Also, in both cases, the sensitized luminescence intensity is increased in deoxygenated solution. Therefore, it indicates that the energy transfer from the metalloporphyrins to Er 3+ ions takes places through the triplet state. In this paper, the synthesis and photophysical properties of novel Er(III)-cored complexes based on metalloporphyrins and Er(III)-cored dendrimer complex based on metalloporphyrin will be discussed

  20. Reconstituted TOM core complex and Tim9/Tim10 complex of mitochondria are sufficient for translocation of the ADP/ATP carrier across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljev, Andreja; Ahting, Uwe; Nargang, Frank E; Go, Nancy E; Habib, Shukry J; Kozany, Christian; Panneels, Valérie; Sinning, Irmgard; Prokisch, Holger; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan; Rapaport, Doron

    2004-03-01

    Precursor proteins of the solute carrier family and of channel forming Tim components are imported into mitochondria in two main steps. First, they are translocated through the TOM complex in the outer membrane, a process assisted by the Tim9/Tim10 complex. They are passed on to the TIM22 complex, which facilitates their insertion into the inner membrane. In the present study, we have analyzed the function of the Tim9/Tim10 complex in the translocation of substrates across the outer membrane of mitochondria. The purified TOM core complex was reconstituted into lipid vesicles in which purified Tim9/Tim10 complex was entrapped. The precursor of the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) was found to be translocated across the membrane of such lipid vesicles. Thus, these components are sufficient for translocation of AAC precursor across the outer membrane. Peptide libraries covering various substrate proteins were used to identify segments that are bound by Tim9/Tim10 complex upon translocation through the TOM complex. The patterns of binding sites on the substrate proteins suggest a mechanism by which portions of membrane-spanning segments together with flanking hydrophilic segments are recognized and bound by the Tim9/Tim10 complex as they emerge from the TOM complex into the intermembrane space.

  1. Metamorphic quantum dots: Quite different nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Nasi, L.; Trevisi, G.; Bocchi, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of InAs quantum dots deposited on InGaAs metamorphic buffers by molecular beam epitaxy. By comparing morphological, structural, and optical properties of such nanostructures with those of InAs/GaAs quantum dot ones, we were able to evidence characteristics that are typical of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs structures. The more relevant are: the cross-hatched InGaAs surface overgrown by dots, the change in critical coverages for island nucleation and ripening, the nucleation of new defects in the capping layers, and the redshift in the emission energy. The discussion on experimental results allowed us to conclude that metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are rather different nanostructures, where attention must be put to some issues not present in InAs/GaAs structures, namely, buffer-related defects, surface morphology, different dislocation mobility, and stacking fault energies. On the other hand, we show that metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures can provide new possibilities of tailoring various properties, such as dot positioning and emission energy, that could be very useful for innovative dot-based devices.

  2. Petrology, geochemistry and zirconology of impure calcite marbles from the Precambrian metamorphic basement at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Can; Zhang, Pin-Gang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Groppo, Chiara; Rolfo, Franco; Yang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Deng, Liang-Peng; Song, Biao

    2017-10-01

    Impure calcite marbles from the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Wuhe Complex, southeastern margin of the North China Craton, provide an exceptional opportunity to understand the depositional processes during the Late Archean and the subsequent Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic evolution of one of the oldest cratons in the world. The studied marbles are characterized by the assemblage calcite + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + K-feldspar + quartz + rutile ± biotite ± white mica. Based on petrography and geochemistry, the marbles can be broadly divided into two main types. The first type (type 1) is rich in REE with a negative Eu anomaly, whereas the second type (type 2) is relatively poor in REE with a positive Eu anomaly. Notably, all marbles exhibit remarkably uniform REE patterns with moderate LREE/HREE fractionation, suggesting a close genetic relationship. Cathodoluminescence imaging, trace elements and mineral inclusions reveal that most zircons from two dated samples display distinct core-rim structures. Zircon cores show typical igneous features with oscillatory growth zoning and high Th/U ratios (mostly in the range 0.3-0.7) and give ages of 2.53 - 2.48 Ga, thus dating the maximum age of deposition of the protolith. Zircon rims overgrew during granulite-facies metamorphism, as evidenced by calcite + clinopyroxene + rutile + plagioclase + quartz inclusions, by Ti-in-zircon temperatures in the range 660-743 °C and by the low Th/U (mostly marbles are ascribed to syn-depositional felsic hydrothermal activity which occurred at 2.53 - 2.48 Ga. Our results, together with other published data and the inferred tectonic setting, suggest that the marbles' protolith is an impure limestone, rich in detrital silicates of igneous origin, deposited in a back-arc basin within an active continental margin during the late Archean and affected by synchronous high-T hydrothermalism at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton.

  3. Multiple domains of fission yeast Cdc19p (MCM2) are required for its association with the core MCM complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, D A; Pasion, S G; Forsburg, S L

    1998-07-01

    The members of the MCM protein family are essential eukaryotic DNA replication factors that form a six-member protein complex. In this study, we use antibodies to four MCM proteins to investigate the structure of and requirements for the formation of fission yeast MCM complexes in vivo, with particular regard to Cdc19p (MCM2). Gel filtration analysis shows that the MCM protein complexes are unstable and can be broken down to subcomplexes. Using coimmunoprecipitation, we find that Mis5p (MCM6) and Cdc21p (MCM4) are tightly associated with one another in a core complex with which Cdc19p loosely associates. Assembly of Cdc19p with the core depends upon Cdc21p. Interestingly, there is no obvious change in Cdc19p-containing MCM complexes through the cell cycle. Using a panel of Cdc19p mutants, we find that multiple domains of Cdc19p are required for MCM binding. These studies indicate that MCM complexes in fission yeast have distinct substructures, which may be relevant for function.

  4. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  5. Monazite behaviours during high-temperature metamorphism: a case study from Dinggye region, Tibetan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Jin-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Monazite is a key accessory mineral for metamorphic geochronology, but its growth mechanisms during melt-bearing high-temperature metamorphism is not well understood. Therefore, the petrology, pressure-temperature and timing of metamorphism have been investigated in pelitic and psammitic granulites from the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) in Dinggye, southern Tibet. These rocks underwent an isothermal decompression process from pressure conditions of >10 kbar to armour effect of matrix crystals (biotite and quartz). Most monazite grains formed at the M3-stage (21-19 Ma) through either dissolution-reprecipitation or recrystallization that was related to biotite dehydration melting reaction. These monazite grains record HREE and Y signatures in local equilibrium with different reactions involving either garnet breakdown or peritectic garnet growth. Another peak of monazite growth occurs during melt crystallization ( 15 Ma), and these monazites are unzoned and have homogeneous compositions. Our results documented the widespread recrystallization to account for monazite growth during high-temperature metamorphism and related melting reactions that trigger monazite recrystallization. In a regional sense, our P-T-t data along with published data indicate that the pre-M1 eclogite-facies metamorphism occurred at 39-30 Ma in the Dinggye Himalaya. Our results are in favour of a steady exhumation of the GHC rocks since Oligocene that was contributed by partial melting. Key words: U-Th-Pb geochronology, Monazite, Recrystallization, Pelitic granulite, Himalaya

  6. A study of core electron binding energies in technetium-99m complexes by internal conversion electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, J.F.; Archer, C.M.; Wei Chiu, K.; Latham, I.A.; Egdell, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Core electron binding energies in a series of 99m Tc complexes have been studied by internal conversion electron spectroscopy (ICES) in a conventional x-ray photoelectron spectrometer. In both 3d and 3p regions, a chemical shift of about 1 eV is observed per unit increase in oxidation state. The role of ICES in characterizing radiopharmaceutical agents is illustrated with studies of some novel 99m Tc-phosphine complexes that have been developed for myocardial perfusion imaging. (author)

  7. CoreFlow: A computational platform for integration, analysis and modeling of complex biological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasculescu, Adrian; Schoof, Erwin; Creixell, Pau

    2014-01-01

    between data generation, analysis and manuscript writing. CoreFlow is being released to the scientific community as an open-sourced software package complete with proteomics-specific examples, which include corrections for incomplete isotopic labeling of peptides (SILAC) or arginine-to-proline conversion......A major challenge in mass spectrometry and other large-scale applications is how to handle, integrate, and model the data that is produced. Given the speed at which technology advances and the need to keep pace with biological experiments, we designed a computational platform, CoreFlow, which...... provides programmers with a framework to manage data in real-time. It allows users to upload data into a relational database (MySQL), and to create custom scripts in high-level languages such as R, Python, or Perl for processing, correcting and modeling this data. CoreFlow organizes these scripts...

  8. Migmatization and low-pressure overprinting metamorphism as record of two pre-Cretaceous tectonic episodes in the Santander Massif of the Andean basement in northern Colombia (NW South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, C. A.; Amaya, S.; Urueña, C.; Bernet, M.

    2017-03-01

    The core of the Santander Massif in the northern Andes of Colombia is dominated by migmatitic gneisses with a 7.5 kbar. Lithologies are overprinted by low-pressure metamorphism, related to extensive Jurassic intrusions and linked with growth of cordierite and equilibration of low-pressure mineral assemblages, recorded metamorphic conditions are Pangaea.

  9. Identification of protein W, the elusive sixth subunit of the Rhodopseudomonas palustris reaction center-light harvesting 1 core complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Philip J; Hitchcock, Andrew; Swainsbury, David J K; Qian, Pu; Martin, Elizabeth C; Farmer, David A; Dickman, Mark J; Canniffe, Daniel P; Hunter, C Neil

    2018-02-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of the Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) palustris reaction center-light harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex revealed the presence of a sixth protein component, variably referred to in the literature as helix W, subunit W or protein W. The position of this protein prevents closure of the LH1 ring, possibly to allow diffusion of ubiquinone/ubiquinol between the RC and the cytochrome bc 1 complex in analogous fashion to the well-studied PufX protein from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The identity and function of helix W have remained unknown for over 13years; here we use a combination of biochemistry, mass spectrometry, molecular genetics and electron microscopy to identify this protein as RPA4402 in Rps. palustris CGA009. Protein W shares key conserved sequence features with PufX homologs, and although a deletion mutant was able to grow under photosynthetic conditions with no discernible phenotype, we show that a tagged version of protein W pulls down the RC-LH1 complex. Protein W is not encoded in the photosynthesis gene cluster and our data indicate that only approximately 10% of wild-type Rps. palustris core complexes contain this non-essential subunit; functional and evolutionary consequences of this observation are discussed. The ability to purify uniform RC-LH1 and RC-LH1-protein W preparations will also be beneficial for future structural studies of these bacterial core complexes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural and functional aspects of winged-helix domains at the core of transcription initiation complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Martin; Dumay-Odelot, Hélène; Fribourg, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    The winged helix (WH) domain is found in core components of transcription systems in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It represents a sub-class of the helix-turn-helix motif. The WH domain participates in establishing protein-DNA and protein-protein-interactions. Here, we discuss possible explanations for the enrichment of this motif in transcription systems.

  11. Nucleoporins as components of the nuclear pore complex core structure and Tpr as the architectural element of the nuclear basket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Sandra; Thyberg, Johan; Björkroth, Birgitta; Rackwitz, Hans-Richard; Cordes, Volker C

    2004-09-01

    The vertebrate nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a macromolecular assembly of protein subcomplexes forming a structure of eightfold radial symmetry. The NPC core consists of globular subunits sandwiched between two coaxial ring-like structures of which the ring facing the nuclear interior is capped by a fibrous structure called the nuclear basket. By postembedding immunoelectron microscopy, we have mapped the positions of several human NPC proteins relative to the NPC core and its associated basket, including Nup93, Nup96, Nup98, Nup107, Nup153, Nup205, and the coiled coil-dominated 267-kDa protein Tpr. To further assess their contributions to NPC and basket architecture, the genes encoding Nup93, Nup96, Nup107, and Nup205 were posttranscriptionally silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) in HeLa cells, complementing recent RNAi experiments on Nup153 and Tpr. We show that Nup96 and Nup107 are core elements of the NPC proper that are essential for NPC assembly and docking of Nup153 and Tpr to the NPC. Nup93 and Nup205 are other NPC core elements that are important for long-term maintenance of NPCs but initially dispensable for the anchoring of Nup153 and Tpr. Immunogold-labeling for Nup98 also results in preferential labeling of NPC core regions, whereas Nup153 is shown to bind via its amino-terminal domain to the nuclear coaxial ring linking the NPC core structures and Tpr. The position of Tpr in turn is shown to coincide with that of the nuclear basket, with different Tpr protein domains corresponding to distinct basket segments. We propose a model in which Tpr constitutes the central architectural element that forms the scaffold of the nuclear basket.

  12. Uranium, rare metals, and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cuney

    2014-09-01

    The Tranomaro metasomatized marbles recrystallizing under granulite-facies conditions represent a demonstrative example of fluid transfer from granulite-facies supracrustals to traps represented by regional scale skarns. Such fluids may be at the origin of the incompatible element enrichment detected in leucosomes of migmatites from St Malo in Brittany (France and Black Hills in South Dakota. The northern French Massif Central provides us with an example of a potential association between incompatible element enrichment of granitic melts and granulite-facies metamorphism. U- and F-enriched fine-grained granites are emplaced along a crustal scale shear zone active during the emplacement within the St Sylvestre peraluminous leucogranitic complex. We propose that during granulite-facies metamorphism dominated by carbonic waves in a deep segment of the continental crust, these shear zones control: (i the percolation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich fluids liberated primarily by the breakdown of biotite; (ii the enhancement of partial melting by F-rich fluids at intermediate crustal levels with the generation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich granitic melts; (iii their transfer through the crust with protracted fractionation facilitated by their low viscosity due to high F-Li contents; and finally (iv their emplacement as rare metal intrusions at shallow crust levels.

  13. Uranium and thorium migration under dislocative metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.K.; Bilibina, T.V.; Dashkova, A.D.; Il'in, V.K.; Makarova, L.I.; Shmuraeva, L.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were peculiarities of uranium and thorium behaviour in the process of dislocation metamorphism on the basis of regional fracture zones of early-proterozoic embedding of Ukrainian, Aldan and Baltic shields. The studied zones correspond to tectonite of green-shale and almandin-amphibolite facies of regional metamorphism according to mineral associations. The most peculiar feature of the tectonites of green-shale facies is uranium presence in migrationally able forms, which can be involved afterwards into the ore process by hydrothermal solutions. Adsorved forms of uranium on the crystal surface or separate grains and in the cracks, as well as microinclusions of uranium minerals, selectively timed to mineral structure defects prevail among easily mobile uranium compounds. Dissolved uranium is present, evidently in gas-liquid inclusions in minerals and pore waters. There forms of uranium presence are peculiar for epidote-chlorite mylonites, as well as cataclasites and diaphthorites related to them by blastomylonites of almandin-amphibolite facies. Wide range of manifestation of this process, caused by multikilometer extension of deep fracture zones permit to consider the formations of green-shale facies of dislocation metamorphism as one of the main uranium sources in deposit formation in different uranium-ore associations different age

  14. Metamorphic evolution of the eastern part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Inner to Central parts of the Western Carpathians consist of several tectonic units that provide unique opportunity to investigate Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the Western Carpathians. Lithological and geochemical composition of sedimentary and igneous rocks indicate the presence of Alpine-Meliata and Pre-Alpine Rakovec suture zones. The Meliata blueschists are the only evidence of subducted Triassic Meliata-Hallstatt oceanic basin and adjacent continental wedge which occurred during the Jurassic time. These processes were followed by the Cretaceous collision that suffered not only the Gemer but also the Vepor Belts. Since Alpine and Variscan metamorphism occurred in most tectonic units under similar pressure and/or temperature conditions, for reconstruction of Alpine development is necessary to understand Pre-Alpine history of each tectonic unit. The Field Meeting is aimed to comprehend Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the eastern parts of the Western Carpathians with a special respect to subduction and exhumation history of the Jurassic Meliata blueschists, as well as of Cretaceous collision in the Western Carpathians. In order to clear metamorphic characteristic and geological position of each unit a brief outline on structure and metamorphism of the Central Western Carpathians is given in the excursion guide. The manuscript of this work was improved by helpful suggestions of S. Jacko, D. Plašienka and M. Janák. This work was supported by Slovak Academic Agency, project WEGA-1/5003/98

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of heavy metals in sediment cores from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.S.; Ramelow, G.J.; Beck, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Sediment cores were obtained from several locations in the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex, including Calcasieu Lake, Calcasieu River, two bayou tributaries, and Lake Charles during the period from November 1983 to November 1985. The cores were analyzed for Cu, Zn, Cr, and Pb. The approximate sedimentation rate and a core chronology were determined by the use of 137 Cs and 210 Pb isotopes. The increase in metal concentrations after 1933, particularly along Bayou d'Inde where most industries are located, points to anthropogenic input if these metals to the system. The fact that metal concentrations tend to merge to a common value prior to 1940 throughout the system suggests that geological factors do not contribute to the observed variations in metal concentrations in this area. The background concentrations of heavy metals found in this study for the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex were: Cu (10 mg kg -1 ), Cr (25 mg kg -1 ), Pb (8 mg kg -1 ), and Zn (40 mg kg -1 ). The main emphasis of the study focused along Bayou d'Inde due to the enhanced levels of heavy metals found

  16. CoreFlow: a computational platform for integration, analysis and modeling of complex biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasculescu, Adrian; Schoof, Erwin M; Creixell, Pau; Zheng, Yong; Olhovsky, Marina; Tian, Ruijun; So, Jonathan; Vanderlaan, Rachel D; Pawson, Tony; Linding, Rune; Colwill, Karen

    2014-04-04

    A major challenge in mass spectrometry and other large-scale applications is how to handle, integrate, and model the data that is produced. Given the speed at which technology advances and the need to keep pace with biological experiments, we designed a computational platform, CoreFlow, which provides programmers with a framework to manage data in real-time. It allows users to upload data into a relational database (MySQL), and to create custom scripts in high-level languages such as R, Python, or Perl for processing, correcting and modeling this data. CoreFlow organizes these scripts into project-specific pipelines, tracks interdependencies between related tasks, and enables the generation of summary reports as well as publication-quality images. As a result, the gap between experimental and computational components of a typical large-scale biology project is reduced, decreasing the time between data generation, analysis and manuscript writing. CoreFlow is being released to the scientific community as an open-sourced software package complete with proteomics-specific examples, which include corrections for incomplete isotopic labeling of peptides (SILAC) or arginine-to-proline conversion, and modeling of multiple/selected reaction monitoring (MRM/SRM) results. CoreFlow was purposely designed as an environment for programmers to rapidly perform data analysis. These analyses are assembled into project-specific workflows that are readily shared with biologists to guide the next stages of experimentation. Its simple yet powerful interface provides a structure where scripts can be written and tested virtually simultaneously to shorten the life cycle of code development for a particular task. The scripts are exposed at every step so that a user can quickly see the relationships between the data, the assumptions that have been made, and the manipulations that have been performed. Since the scripts use commonly available programming languages, they can easily be

  17. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction In this work we present new structural and petrographic data collected in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of Monte Capanne (western Elba Island) and its metamorphic evolution. In the western Elba Island the Monte Capanne monzogranitic body (ca. 7 Ma) and its thermo-metamorphic aureole crop out. At least two different tectonic units can be distinguished: the Punta Le Tombe Unit, weak re-crystallized, and the Punta Nera Unit. In the latter one the re-crystallization is strong and a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework is evident (Morelli et al., 2002). The latter is mainly constituted by thermo-metamorphosed meta-ophiolites and meta-sedimentary successions previously correlated by Barberi et al. (1969) with the un-metamorphic ones (Complex IV and V of Trevisan, 1950) cropping out in the central-eastern Elba. According to Perrin (1975) and Reutter &Spohn (1982) a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework was recognized into such rocks. As suggested by Daniel &Jolivet (1995) complex relationships between metamorphic evolution and magmatic events are also recognizable. Geological Data The Punta Nera Unit crops out all around the Monte Capanne magmatic body and the primary contact with the underlying granitoid is somewhere preserved. This unit, strongly re-crystallized and locally crosscut by aplitic and porphyritic dikes, is represented by (Coli &Pandeli, 1997; Morelli, 2000) tectonized meta-serpentinites, meta-gabbros with rodingitic dikes, rare meta-basalts and meta-ophicalcites, meta-cherts, marbles, cherty meta-limestones, phyllites and meta-limestones with rare meta-arenites intercalations. A "pre-magmatic" tectono-metamorphic framework of this unit is well evident only in its meta-sedimentary portion. The meta-sediments are deformed by syn-metamorphic isoclinal folds caractherized by N-S trending axes, west dipping axial planes and easternward vergence. A later folding and flattening event clearly post-dated the above said folds and associated

  18. Post-peak metamorphic evolution of the Sumdo eclogite from the Lhasa terrane of southeast Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dadi; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Lingmin; Wang, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A reconstruction of the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of high-pressure eclogite-facies rocks in subduction zones may reveal important information about the tectono-metamorphic processes that occur at great depths along the plate interface. The majority of studies have focused on prograde to peak metamorphism of these rocks, whereas after-peak metamorphism has received less attention. Herein, we present a detailed petrological, pseudosection modeling and radiometric dating study of a retrograded eclogite sample from the Sumdo ultrahigh pressure belt of the Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Mineral chemical variations, textural discontinuities and thermodynamic modeling suggest that the eclogite underwent an exhumation-heating period. Petrographic observations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the garnet cores formed at the pressure peak (∼2.5 GPa and ∼520 °C) within the lawsonite eclogite-facies and garnet rims (∼1.5 GPa and spans an interval of ∼7 million years, which is a minimum estimate of the duration of the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Sumdo eclogite.

  19. Polyphase white mica growth in low-grade metapelites from La Cébila Metamorphic Complex (Famatinian Belt, Argentina: evidence from microstructural and XRD investigations Crecimiento polifásico de mica blanca en metapelitas de bajo grado del Complejo Metamórfico La Cébila (Faja Famatiniana, Argentina: evidencias a partir de investigaciones microestructurales y de DRX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián O Verdecchia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two tectono-thermal metamorphic events, M1-D1 (S1, with associated white mica and chlorite: WM1-Chl1 and M2-D2 (S2, with development of WM2-Chl2, are established from polyphase white mica growth for low-grade units from the Ordovician metasedimentary successions of La Cébila Metamorphic Complex in the Famatinian belt (western-central Argentina. The thermobarometric characterization of the M1 main event was carried out by means of clay-mineral analysis and crystallo-chemical parameter measurements. Epizonal (temperatures between 300 and 400°C and low-pressure conditions are suggested for M1 event, based in Kübler index values ranging from 0.23 to 0.17 A°20, white mica b parameter values between 9.004 and 9.022 Á (mean of 9.014 Á, n=16 and Si contents between 3.13-3.29 a.p.f.u. Temperatures of ~180-270°C are estimated for the M2 event, with Kübler index values ranging from 0.31 to 0.46 A°20. The M1-D1 event of La Cébila could be linked to high-strain heating tectono-metamorphic Ordovician regime recorded in others complexes from Famatinian foreland region of Sierras Pampeanas.Dos eventos tectono-metamórficos fueron establecidos a partir de la blastesis superpuesta de mica blanca en sucesiones metasedimentarias ordovícicas de bajo grado del Complejo Metamórfico La Cébila, cinturón Famati-niano (centro oeste de Argentina: M1-D1 (S1, con blastesis asociada de mica blanca y clorita: WM1-Chl1 y M2-D2 (S2, con desarrollo de WM2-Chl2. La caracterización termobarométrica del evento principal M1 fue llevada a cabo a través del análisis de minerales de arcilla y de la medición de parámetros cristaloquímicos. Las condiciones de epizona con temperaturas entre 300 y 400°C, y baja presión fueron estimadas para el evento M1 sobre la base de valores de índice de Kübler de 0,23 a 0,17 A°20, parámetro b de la mica blanca entre 9,004 y 9,022 Á (valor medio de 9,014 Á, n=16 y contenidos de Si entre 3,13-3,29 a.p.f.u. Se estimaron

  20. Clinical efficacy of anti-glycopeptidolipid-core IgA test for diagnosing Mycobacterium avium complex infection in lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Takanori; Araya, Jun; Yoshii, Yutaka; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Hara, Hiromichi; Nakayama, Katsutoshi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is difficult to verify the bacteriological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody test was recently developed as a diagnostic method for MAC pulmonary disease. Only a few studies evaluate its clinical efficacy. We conducted retrospective evaluations of clinical characteristics of patients suspected of MAC infection to explore the usefulness of the anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test. We retrospectively evaluated 296 patients who were suspected to have MAC infection and underwent anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test between March 2013 and July 2014 in Jikei University hospital. A total of 29 patients were diagnosed with 'definite MAC' based on the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria with multiple identifications of MAC. On the other hand, 106 patients were diagnosed with other pulmonary diseases than MAC. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test for MAC diagnosis were 58.6% and 98.1%, respectively. The definite MAC group showed no significant differences in strains, treatment history or number of segments involved. The duration of MAC disease in the positive-antibody group was significantly longer than in the negative-antibody group (P = 0.046). A significant increase in the false-negative rate was observed in patients with malignant disease (P = 0.029). The anti-GPL-core IgA antibody test demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of MAC infection especially in patients without malignant diseases. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Exploring molecular complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Detection of three new hot cores in Sagittarius B2(N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfand, M.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Garrod, R. T.; Müller, H. S. P.

    2017-08-01

    Context. The Sagittarius B2 molecular cloud contains several sites forming high-mass stars. Sgr B2(N) is one of its main centers of activity. It hosts several compact and ultra-compact HII regions, as well as two known hot molecular cores (Sgr B2(N1) and Sgr B2(N2)) in the early stage of the high-mass star formation process, where complex organic molecules (COMs) are detected in the gas phase. Aims: Our goal is to use the high sensitivity of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to characterize the hot core population in Sgr B2(N) and thereby shed new light on the star formation process in this star-forming region. Methods: We use a complete 3 mm spectral line survey conducted with ALMA to search for faint hot cores in the Sgr B2(N) region. The chemical composition of the detected sources and the column densities are derived by modeling the whole spectra under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. Population diagrams are constructed to fit rotational temperatures. Integrated intensity maps are produced to derive the peak position and fit the size of each molecule's emission distribution. The kinematic structure of the hot cores is investigated by analyzing the line wing emission of typical outflow tracers. The H2 column densities are computed from ALMA and SMA continuum emission maps. Results: We report the discovery of three new hot cores in Sgr B2(N) that we call Sgr B2(N3), Sgr B2(N4), and Sgr B2(N5). The three sources are associated with class II methanol masers, well known tracers of high-mass star formation, and Sgr B2(N5), also with a UCHII region. Their H2 column densities are found to be between approximately 16 and 36 times lower than the one of the main hot core Sgr B2(N1). The spectra of these new hot cores have spectral line densities of 11 up to 31 emission lines per GHz above the 7σ level, assigned to 22-25 molecules plus 13-20 less abundant isotopologs. We derive rotational temperatures of approximately 140-180 K for

  2. Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit Controlled by the TAL1 Complex in Human T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda, Takaomi; Lawton, Lee N.; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Fan, Zi Peng; Kohlhammer, Holger; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ma, Wenxue; Tatarek, Jessica; Ahn, Yebin; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Jamieson, Catriona H.M.; Staudt, Louis M.; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we identify the core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3 and RUNX1. We show that TAL1 forms a positive interconnected auto-regulatory loop with GATA3 and RUNX1, and that the TAL1 complex directly activates the MY...

  3. Structure of the exon junction core complex with a trapped DEAD-box ATPase bound to RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Ballut, Lionel; Johansen, Jesper Sanderhoff

    2006-01-01

    exon junction core complex containing the DEAD-box adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII) bound to an ATP analog, MAGOH, Y14, a fragment of MLN51, and a polyuracil mRNA mimic. eIF4AIII interacts with the phosphate-ribose backbone of six consecutive nucleotides...... and prevents part of the bound RNA from being double stranded. The MAGOH and Y14 subunits lock eIF4AIII in a prehydrolysis state, and activation of the ATPase probably requires only modest conformational changes in eIF4AIII motif I....

  4. New data on tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Peri-Trasmontano domain (Schistose Domain) in Northeastern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias da Silva, I.; Gonzalez Clavijo, E.

    2010-01-01

    Under the main Tras-os-Montes thrust plane, in the easternmost region of the Morais Allochthonous Complex, a geologic unit has been identified. It shows syn-tectonic S 2 -related andalusite blastesis, representative of low pressure thermal metamorphism. In the studied sector this metamorphism affects essentially the black slaty lithologies present in Neoproterozoic to Silurian formations. This kind of thermal metamorphism is easily distinguishable from the late to post S 3 plutonic-related metamorphism, due to the existence of evidence of syn kinematic mineral blastesis with rotation and boudinage, synchronously with S 2 development. Syn-kinematic andalusite blastesis seems to affect only the autochthonous Central Iberian Zone rocks and it could be associated to crustal extensional phenomena like the ones identified in the Tormes Gneissic Dome. It is proposed that at least part of this andalusite blast generation could have a distinct origin, reflecting earlier low pressure thermal metamorphic events in inner Variscan orogen zones that were tectonically imbricated to present coordinates during the second Variscan phase. The vertical proximity of only a few hundred meters between extensional structures, to the East, and the compressive ones, to the West of the studied sector, could justify the presence of both pre- and syn-S 2 andalusite blasts inside the above mentioned tectono-metamorphic unit. The kinematic criteria (top to SE) are consistent with the ones of the Variscan synorogenic extensional structures placed nearby to the SE, pointing to a possible genetic relation with those crustal thinning processes. (Author) 42 refs.

  5. A Genome-Wide Association Study and Complex Network Identify Four Core Hub Genes in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengyan Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a common and severe mental illness with unsolved pathophysiology. A genome-wide association study (GWAS has been used to find a number of risk genes, but it is difficult for a GWAS to find genes indirectly associated with a disease. To find core hub genes, we introduce a network analysis after the GWAS was conducted. Six thousand four hundred fifty eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with p < 0.01 were sifted out from Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC dataset and mapped to 2045 genes, which are then compared with the protein–protein network. One hundred twelve genes with a degree >17 were chosen as hub genes from which five significant modules and four core hub genes (FBXL13, WDFY2, bFGF, and MTHFD1L were found. These core hub genes have not been reported to be directly associated with BD but may function by interacting with genes directly related to BD. Our method engenders new thoughts on finding genes indirectly associated with, but important for, complex diseases.

  6. Alkali control of high-grade metamorphism and granitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We review petrologic observations of reaction textures from high-grade rocks that suggest the passage of fluids with variable alkali activities. Development of these reaction textures is accompanied by regular compositional variations in plagioclase, pyroxenes, biotite, amphibole and garnet. The textures are interpreted in terms of exchange and net-transfer reactions controlled by the K and Na activities in the fluids. On the regional scale, these reactions operate in granitized, charnockitized, syenitized etc. shear zones within high-grade complexes. Thermodynamic calculations in simple chemical systems show that changes in mineral assemblages, including the transition from the hydrous to the anhydrous ones, may occur at constant pressure and temperature due only to variations in the H2O and the alkali activities. A simple procedure for estimating the activity of the two major alkali oxides, K2O and Na2O, is implemented in the TWQ software. Examples of calculations are presented for well-documented dehydration zones from South Africa, southern India, and Sri Lanka. The calculations have revealed two end-member regimes of alkalis during specific metamorphic processes: rock buffered, which is characteristic for the precursor rocks containing two feldspars, and fluid-buffered for the precursor rocks without K-feldspar. The observed reaction textures and the results of thermodynamic modeling are compared with the results of available experimental studies on the interaction of the alkali chloride and carbonate-bearing fluids with metamorphic rocks at mid-crustal conditions. The experiments show the complex effect of alkali activities in the fluid phase on the mineral assemblages. Both thermodynamic calculations and experiments closely reproduce paragenetic relations theoretically predicted by D.S. Korzhinskii in the 1940s.

  7. Anisotropy effect on strengths of metamorphic rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özbek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0° and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90° to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist. The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.

  8. Hetero-metallic trigonal cage-shaped dimeric Ni3K core complex of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K(I) complex has a dimeric structure with nine coordinated potassium atoms and six coordinated nickel atoms. ... S Nagasubramanian et al. ..... Arnold L R, Kenneth D K and Rokita S E 2006 Inorg. ... Cremer D and Pople J A 1975 J. Am. Chem.

  9. Chemodynamics of metal ion complexation by charged nanoparticles: a dimensionless rationale for soft, core-shell and hard particle types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L

    2017-05-17

    Soft nanoparticulate complexants are defined by a spatial confinement of reactive sites and electric charges inside their 3D body. In turn, their reactivity with metal ions differs significantly from that of simple molecular ligands. A revisited form of the Eigen mechanism recently elucidated the processes leading to metal/soft particle pair formation. Depending on e.g. particle size and metal ion nature, chemodynamics of nanoparticulate metal complexes is controlled by metal conductive diffusion to/from the particles, by intraparticulate complex formation/dissociation kinetics, or by both. In this study, a formalism is elaborated to achieve a comprehensive and systematic identification of the rate-limiting step governing the overall formation and dissociation of nanoparticulate metal complexes. The theory covers the different types of spherical particulate complexants, i.e. 3D soft/permeable and core-shell particles, and hard particles with reactive sites at the surface. The nature of the rate-limiting step is formulated by a dynamical criterion involving a power law function of the ratio between particle radius and an intraparticulate reaction layer thickness defined by the key electrostatic, diffusional and kinetic components of metal complex formation/dissociation. The analysis clarifies the intertwined contributions of particle properties (size, soft or hard type, charge, density or number of reactive sites) and aqueous metal ion dehydration kinetics in defining the chemodynamic behavior of nanoparticulate metal complexes. For that purpose, fully parameterized chemodynamic portraits involving the defining features of particulate ligand and metal ion as well as the physicochemical conditions in the local intraparticulate environment, are constructed and thoroughly discussed under conditions of practical interest.

  10. Assembly and stoichiometry of the core structure of the bacterial flagellar type III export gate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Takuma; Makino, Fumiaki; Dietsche, Tobias; Kinoshita, Miki; Kato, Takayuki; Wagner, Samuel; Namba, Keiichi; Imada, Katsumi; Minamino, Tohru

    2017-08-01

    The bacterial flagellar type III export apparatus, which is required for flagellar assembly beyond the cell membranes, consists of a transmembrane export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex. FlhA, FlhB, FliP, FliQ, and FliR form the gate complex inside the basal body MS ring, although FliO is required for efficient export gate formation in Salmonella enterica. However, it remains unknown how they form the gate complex. Here we report that FliP forms a homohexameric ring with a diameter of 10 nm. Alanine substitutions of conserved Phe-137, Phe-150, and Glu-178 residues in the periplasmic domain of FliP (FliPP) inhibited FliP6 ring formation, suppressing flagellar protein export. FliO formed a 5-nm ring structure with 3 clamp-like structures that bind to the FliP6 ring. The crystal structure of FliPP derived from Thermotoga maritia, and structure-based photo-crosslinking experiments revealed that Phe-150 and Ser-156 of FliPP are involved in the FliP-FliP interactions and that Phe-150, Arg-152, Ser-156, and Pro-158 are responsible for the FliP-FliO interactions. Overexpression of FliP restored motility of a ∆fliO mutant to the wild-type level, suggesting that the FliP6 ring is a functional unit in the export gate complex and that FliO is not part of the final gate structure. Copurification assays revealed that FlhA, FlhB, FliQ, and FliR are associated with the FliO/FliP complex. We propose that the assembly of the export gate complex begins with FliP6 ring formation with the help of the FliO scaffold, followed by FliQ, FliR, and FlhB and finally FlhA during MS ring formation.

  11. Recommendations for a first Core Outcome Measurement set for complex regional PAin syndrome Clinical sTudies (COMPACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Sharon; Perez, Roberto SGM; Birklein, Frank; Brunner, Florian; Bruehl, Stephen; Harden R, Norman; Packham, Tara; Gobeil, Francois; Haigh, Richard; Holly, Janet; Terkelsen, Astrid; Davies, Lindsay; Lewis, Jennifer; Thomassen, Ilona; Connett, Robyn; Worth, Tina; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; McCabe, Candida S

    2017-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a persistent pain condition that remains incompletely understood and challenging to treat. Historically, a wide range of different outcome measures have been used to capture the multidimensional nature of CRPS. This has been a significant limiting factor in the advancement of our understanding of the mechanisms and management of CRPS. In 2013, an international consortium of patients, clinicians, researchers and industry representatives was established, to develop and agree on a minimum core set of standardised outcome measures for use in future CRPS clinical research, including but not limited to clinical trials within adult populations The development of a core measurement set was informed through workshops and supplementary work, using an iterative consensus process. ‘What is the clinical presentation and course of CRPS, and what factors influence it?’ was agreed as the most pertinent research question that our standardised set of patient-reported outcome measures should be selected to answer. The domains encompassing the key concepts necessary to answer the research question were agreed as: pain, disease severity, participation and physical function, emotional and psychological function, self efficacy, catastrophizing and patient's global impression of change. The final core measurement set included the optimum generic or condition-specific patient-reported questionnaire outcome measures, which captured the essence of each domain, and one clinician reported outcome measure to capture the degree of severity of CRPS. The next step is to test the feasibility and acceptability of collecting outcome measure data using the core measurement set in the CRPS population internationally. PMID:28178071

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Jens; Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Sticht, Heinrich; Britt, William J; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-13

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Milbradt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  14. Dual core processing: MRB1 is an emerging kinetoplast RNA editing complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hashimi, Hassan; Zimmer, S.L.; Ammerman, M. L.; Read, L. K.; Lukeš, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2013), s. 91-99 ISSN 1471-4922 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/2261; GA ČR GA204/09/1667 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : kinetoplastida * trypanosome * RNA editing * protein complexes * RECC * MRB1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1471492212001985

  15. Tectonic origin and deformation process of the Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in Central Qiangtang of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    The metamorphic characteristics, deformation process, geochronology of the medium-high pressure metamorphic rocks in blueschist bearing Central Qiangtang Metamorphic belt (CQMB) of Tibet were less well constrained. It is, however, commonly assumed that these rock slices in the margin also contain important implications on the evolution of the entire metamorphic belt. The well-exposed Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in north flank of the CQMB provides an unique opportunity to investigate the outer part of the CQMB, which could facilitate the study on the subduction-exhumation-post orogenic scenarios of the Triassic accretionary orogeny in Central Qiangtang. Field structural analyses indicate the Mayer Kangri metamorphic dome are bounded by low-angle normal faults (LANF) within the hanging wall of low-green schist facies mélange. It majorly consists of epidote-amphibolites, quartz-phengite schist, epidote-albite schist. The outcrop and micro structural observations of footwall metamorphic rocks show an open anticline with multiple foliation replacement, which largely differentiate themselves from the dextral strike-slip shearing of the hanging wall. Well-zoned amphiboles were found within the epidote-amphibolite after micro-structural observations and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), which indicate that the amphibole zonation demonstrates a Hastingsite core, a Ferro-actinolite mantle and a Ferro-winchite rim in most cases. The mean temperature and pressure estimates of the zoned amphibolites change from 544 °, 0.98Gpa in the core, to 426°, 0.34Gpa in the mantle, and to ca.364° and 0.70 GPa in the rim. The detailed analyses on the stepwise-heating Ar-Ar results of the zoned amphiboles provide good constrains on the episodic deformation process of the CQMB. For Hast-cores, we obtained near plateau ages of 242.4-241.2 Ma, indicating the onset of the oceanic subduction is earlier than the Anisian stage of Middle Triassic. The subsequent

  16. Nanosized complexation assemblies housed inside reverse micelles churn out monocytic delivery cores for bendamustine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yuvraj; Chandrashekhar, Anumandla; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Durga Rao Viswanadham, K K; Pawar, Vivek K; Raval, Kavit; Sharma, Komal; Singh, Pankaj K; Kumar, Animesh; Chourasia, Manish K

    2017-04-01

    We explore a plausible method of targeting bendamustine hydrochloride (BM) to circulatory monocytes by exploiting their intrinsic endocytic/phagocytic capability. We do so by complexation of sodium alginate and chitosan inside dioctyl sulfo succinate sodium (AOT) reverse micelles to form bendamustine hydrochloride loaded nanoparticles (CANPs). Dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility and UV spectroscopy were used to detail intra-micellar complexation dynamics and to prove that drug was co-captured during interaction of carbohydrate polymers. A fluorescent conjugate of drug (RBM) was used to trace its intracellular fate after its loading into nanoparticles. CANPs were sized below 150nm, had 75% drug entrapment and negative zeta potential (-30mV). Confocal microscopy demonstrated that developed chitosan alginate nanoparticles had the unique capability to carry BM specifically to its site of action. Quantitative and mechanism based cell uptake studies revealed that monocytes had voracious capacity to internalize CANPs via simultaneous scavenger receptor based endocytic and phagocytic mechanism. Comparative in vitro pharmacokinetic studies revealed obtainment of significantly greater intracellular drug levels when cells were treated with CANPs. This caused reduction in IC 50 (22.5±2.1μg/mL), enhancement in G 2 M cell cycle arrest, greater intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, and increased apopotic potential of bendamustine hydrochloride in THP-1 cells. Selective monocytic targeting of bendamustine hydrochloride using carbohydrate constructs can prove advantageous in case of leukemic disorders displaying overabundance of such cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Core regulatory network motif underlies the ocellar complex patterning in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, D.; Lemos, M. C.; Córdoba, A.

    2015-03-01

    During organogenesis, developmental programs governed by Gene Regulatory Networks (GRN) define the functionality, size and shape of the different constituents of living organisms. Robustness, thus, is an essential characteristic that GRNs need to fulfill in order to maintain viability and reproducibility in a species. In the present work we analyze the robustness of the patterning for the ocellar complex formation in Drosophila melanogaster fly. We have systematically pruned the GRN that drives the development of this visual system to obtain the minimum pathway able to satisfy this pattern. We found that the mechanism underlying the patterning obeys to the dynamics of a 3-nodes network motif with a double negative feedback loop fed by a morphogenetic gradient that triggers the inhibition in a French flag problem fashion. A Boolean modeling of the GRN confirms robustness in the patterning mechanism showing the same result for different network complexity levels. Interestingly, the network provides a steady state solution in the interocellar part of the patterning and an oscillatory regime in the ocelli. This theoretical result predicts that the ocellar pattern may underlie oscillatory dynamics in its genetic regulation.

  18. Petrología y Estructura del Complejo Ígneo-Metamórfico Aluminé, Provincia de Neuquén, Argentina Petrology and Structure of the Aluminé Igneous-Metamorphic Complex, Neuquén province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana A Urraza

    2011-01-01

    andinas (cretácicas o más modernas y el sector sur donde dominan los granitoides preandinos de edades permotriásicas-jurásicas, emplazados en un basamento paleozoico. Si bien los diagramas geoquímicos permiten diferenciar los diferentes petrotipos definidos petrográficamente y sus tendencias evolutivas podrían indicar procesos de cristalización fraccionada, la distribución areal de los mismos, sus características petrográfico-microestructurales y la geocronología, indican que podrían corresponder a diferentes pulsos-eventos magmáticos separados en el tiempo, aunque desarrollados en un contexto de características tectónicas similares.In the present contribution, the partial results of a detailed study of the magmatic, metamorphic and tectonic events developed in the Aluminé Igneous-Metamorphic Complex (AIMC are given. We define the AIMC as the set of pre-andean and andean intrusive igneous and metamorphic rocks, outcropping in the área located between the Aluminé, Moquehue, Ñorquinco and Pulmarí lakes in the Neuquén province, Argentina. Based on field and petrographic observations and geochemical characteristics, the granitic rocks forming part of the AIMC have been classified as: 1. quartz diorites, 2. tonalites-granodiorites, 3. granodiorites and 4. granites. The geochemical parameters indícate that the defined lithologies derive from calcic to weakly calcalkaline magmas of metaluminous composition, typical of Type I Cordilleran batholiths associated with active continental margins. Intercalated between the magmatic rocks, some outcrops of metamorphic basement composed mainly of schists, gneisses, amphibolites and scarce quartzose sandstones. Andesites, tuffs and basalts cover in part the metamorphites and granitoids are exposed. The structure of the sector is characterized by the presence of three main sets of regional lineaments, with NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S orientations. These directions coincide with the orientations of the three groups of

  19. An innovative approach for testing bioinformatics programs using metamorphic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have fueled the development of many sophisticated bioinformatics programs. The correctness of such programs is crucial as incorrectly computed results may lead to wrong biological conclusion or misguide downstream experimentation. Common software testing procedures involve executing the target program with a set of test inputs and then verifying the correctness of the test outputs. However, due to the complexity of many bioinformatics programs, it is often difficult to verify the correctness of the test outputs. Therefore our ability to perform systematic software testing is greatly hindered. Results We propose to use a novel software testing technique, metamorphic testing (MT, to test a range of bioinformatics programs. Instead of requiring a mechanism to verify whether an individual test output is correct, the MT technique verifies whether a pair of test outputs conform to a set of domain specific properties, called metamorphic relations (MRs, thus greatly increases the number and variety of test cases that can be applied. To demonstrate how MT is used in practice, we applied MT to test two open-source bioinformatics programs, namely GNLab and SeqMap. In particular we show that MT is simple to implement, and is effective in detecting faults in a real-life program and some artificially fault-seeded programs. Further, we discuss how MT can be applied to test programs from various domains of bioinformatics. Conclusion This paper describes the application of a simple, effective and automated technique to systematically test a range of bioinformatics programs. We show how MT can be implemented in practice through two real-life case studies. Since many bioinformatics programs, particularly those for large scale simulation and data analysis, are hard to test systematically, their developers may benefit from using MT as part of the testing strategy. Therefore our work

  20. Determination of fluorine by proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) spectrometry in igneous and metamorphic charnockitic rocks from Rogaland (S.W. Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J.M.; Duchesne, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    More than 200 specimens from different occurrences of the Rogaland igneous complex and surrounding granulite facies metamorphic rocks (S.W. Norway) have been analysed by a direct non-destructive proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) technique. The fluorine contents vary from < 25 ppm to 3500 ppm. There is a good correlation between the concentration of fluorine and that of phosphorus for igneous rocks, suggesting a control of apatite on the F content. In metamorphic rocks, amphibole and biotite besides apatite are the principal concentrations of fluorine indicating that fluorine in the system is controlled by granulite facies metamorphism conditions. (author)

  1. X-ray color maps of the zoned garnets from Silgará Formation metamorphic rocks,SantanderMassif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takasu Akira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The metamorphic rocks of the Lower Paleozoic Silgará Formation of the Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia, were affected by a Barrovian-type metamorphism under low to high temperature and medium pressure conditions. These rocks contain garnet porphyroblasts, which show several kinds of chemical zoning patterns. The garnet grains behave as closed systems with respect to the rock matrix. Most of the observed zoning patterns are due to gradual changes in physicochemical conditions during growth. However, some garnet grains show complex zoning patterns during multiple deformation and metamorphic events.

  2. Poly-phase Deformation Recorded in the Core of the Coast Plutonic Complex, Western British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblock, J. M.; Andronicos, C. L.; Hurtado, J. M.

    2006-05-01

    The Coast Plutonic Complex of western British Columbia constitutes the largest batholith within the North American Cordillera. The field area for this study is Mt. Gamsby, an unexplored region above the Kitlope River, east of the Coast Shear Zone and at the southern end of the Central Gneiss Complex. The dominant lithologies on Mt. Gamsby include amphibolite and metasedimentary gneiss, gabbro-diorite, and orthogneiss. The amphibolite gneiss contains alternating amphibolite and felsic layers, with chlorite and epidote pervasive in some regions and garnet rare. This unit is commonly migmatized and contains various folds, boudins, and shear zones. The metasedimentary gneiss contains quartz, k-spar, graphite, chlorite, and perhaps cordierite, but appears to lack muscovite and aluminosilicates. The gabbro-diorite is salt and pepper in color and contains ca. 50% pyroxene and plagioclase. The orthogneiss is light in color and plagioclase-rich, with a texture varying from coarse-grained and undeformed to mylonitic. In some regions, this unit contains abundant mafic enclaves. At least four deformational events (D1-4) are observed. The second generation of folding, F2, is dominant in the area and resulted in the production of a large synform during sinistral shearing. The S1 foliation is observed only in the amphibolite gneiss and is orthogonal to S2, creating mushroom- type fold interference patterns. S2 foliations strike NW-SE and dip steeply to the SW, suggesting SW-NE directed shortening. L2 lineations developed on S2 plunge shallowly to the NW and SE, implying strike-slip motion. Although both dextral and sinistral motions are indicated by shear band data, sinistral motion is dominant. The average right and left lateral shear band orientation is nearly identical to S2, suggesting that right and left lateral shearing were synchronous. Foliations within the orthogneiss are parallel to the axes of S2 folds and boudins in the amphibolite gneiss, suggesting that emplacement

  3. Oxyvanite, V3O5, a new mineral species and the oxyvanite-berdesinskiite V2TiO5 series from metamorphic rocks of the Slyudyanka Complex, southern Baikal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznitsky, L. Z.; Sklyarov, E. V.; Armbruster, T.; Ushchapovskaya, Z. F.; Galuskin, E. V.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Barash, I. G.

    2010-12-01

    Oxyvanite has been identified as an accessory mineral in Cr-V-bearing quartz-diopside meta- morphic rocks of the Slyudyanka Complex in the southern Baikal region, Russia. The new mineral was named after constituents of its ideal formula (oxygen and vanadium). Quartz, Cr-V-bearing tremolite and micas, calcite, clinopyroxenes of the diopside-kosmochlor-natalyite series, Cr-bearing goldmanite, eskolaite-karelianite dravite-vanadiumdravite, V-bearing titanite, ilmenite, and rutile, berdesinskiite, schreyerite, plagioclase, scapolite, barite, zircon, and unnamed U-Ti-V-Cr phases are associated minerals. Oxyvanite occurs as anhedral grains up to 0.1-0.15 mm in size, without visible cleavage and parting. The new mineral is brittle, with conchoidal fracture. Observed by the naked eye, the mineral is black, with black streak and resinous luster. The microhardness (VHN) is 1064-1266 kg/mm2 (load 30 g), and the mean value is 1180 kg/mm2. The Mohs hardness is about 7.0-7.5. The calculated density is 4.66(2) g/cm3. The color of oxyvanite is pale cream in reflected light, without internal reflections. The measured reflectance in air is as follows (λ, nm- R, %): 440-17.8; 460-18; 480-18.2; 520-18.6; 520-18.6; 540-18.8; 560-18.9; 580-19; 600-19.1; 620-19.2; 640-19.3; 660-19.4; 680-19.5; 700-19.7. Oxyvanite is monoclinic, space group C2/ c; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 10.03(2), b = 5.050(1), c = 7.000(1) Å, β = 111.14(1)°, V = 330.76(5)Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern [ d, Å, ( I in 5-number scale)( hkl)] are 3.28 (5) (20 bar 2 ); 2.88 (5) (11 bar 2 ); 2.65, (5) (310); 2.44 (5) (112); 1.717 (5) (42 bar 2 ); 1.633 (5) (31 bar 4 ); 1.446 (4) (33 bar 2 ); 1.379 (5) (422). The chemical composition (electron microprobe, average of six point analyses, wt %): 14.04 TiO2, 73.13 V2O3 (53.97 V2O3calc, 21.25 VO2calc), 10.76 Cr2O3, 0.04 Fe2O3, 0.01 Al2O3, 0.02 MgO, total is 100.03. The empirical formula is (V{1.70/3+} Cr0.30)2.0(V{0.59/4+} Ti0.41)1.0O

  4. Evidence that the assembly of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex involves the formation of a large core structure in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L

    2009-04-01

    The assembly status of the cytochrome bc(1) complex has been analyzed in distinct yeast deletion strains in which genes for one or more of the bc(1) subunits were deleted. In all the yeast strains tested, a bc(1) sub-complex of approximately 500 kDa was found when the mitochondrial membranes were analyzed by blue native electrophoresis. The subsequent molecular characterization of this sub-complex, carried out in the second dimension by SDS/PAGE and immunodecoration, revealed the presence of the two catalytic subunits, cytochrome b and cytochrome c(1), associated with the noncatalytic subunits core protein 1, core protein 2, Qcr7p and Qcr8p. Together, these bc(1) subunits build up the core structure of the cytochrome bc(1) complex, which is then able to sequentially bind the remaining subunits, such as Qcr6p, Qcr9p, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and Qcr10p. This bc(1) core structure may represent a true assembly intermediate during the maturation of the bc(1) complex; first, because of its wide distribution in distinct yeast deletion strains and, second, for its characteristics of stability, which resemble those of the intact homodimeric bc(1) complex. By contrast, the bc(1) core structure is unable to interact with the cytochrome c oxidase complex to form respiratory supercomplexes. The characterization of this novel core structure of the bc(1) complex provides a number of new elements clarifying the molecular events leading to the maturation of the yeast cytochrome bc(1) complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  5. Evidence that assembly of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex involves formation of a large core structure in the inner mitochondrial membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Vincenzo; Conte, Laura; Trumpower, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    The assembly status of the cytochrome bc1 complex has been analyzed in distinct yeast deletion strains in which genes for one or more of the bc1 subunits had been deleted. In all the yeast strains tested a bc1 sub-complex of about 500 kDa was found when the mitochondrial membranes were analyzed by blue native electrophoresis. The subsequent molecular characterization of this sub-complex, carried out in the second dimension by SDS-PAGE and immunodecoration, revealed the presence of the two catalytic subunits cytochrome b and cytochrome c1, associated with the non catalytic subunits core protein 1, core protein 2, Qcr7p and Qcr8p. Altogether these bc1 subunits build up the core structure of the cytochrome bc1 complex which is then able to sequentially bind the remaining subunits, such as Qcr6p, Qcr9p, the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and Qcr10p. This bc1 core structure may represent a true assembly intermediate during the maturation of the bc1 complex, first because of its wide distribution in distinct yeast deletion strains and second for its characteristics of stability which resemble those of the intact homodimeric bc1 complex. Differently from this latter, however, the bc1 core structure is not able to interact with the cytochrome c oxidase complex to form respiratory supercomplexes. The characterization of this novel core structure of the bc1 complex provides a number of new elements for clarification of the molecular events leading to the maturation of the yeast cytochrome bc1 complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:19236481

  6. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, B.B.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Lead isotope relations were studied in whole rock and separated phases of Mezoe-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites in order to study the record of early events in the solar system and to seek further information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead. The internal 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are 4.480+-0.011 AE (1 AE=10 9 years) for Mezoe-Madaras and 4.472+-0.005 AE for Sharps. The ages are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. U-Pb data from both meteorites plot along chords in concordia diagrams that indicate recent disturbances in U/Pb ratios. The chords are poorly defined owing to the relatively non-radiogenic character of the lead isotopes. Rb-Sr measurements on Sharps likewise fail to yield an isochron, in agreement with the U-Pb data. Data from the literature indicate a similar disturbance in the Rb-Sr system for Mezoe-Madaras. The 4.48 AE ages could be caused by pre-analysis contamination with terrestrial lead, however statistical comparison of isotope correlations between the acid-washes of analyzed samples and the residual washed samples suggests that the ages are real and not due to terrestrial contamination. The 4.48 AE age, which is distinctly younger than the well-established ages of 4.54-4.56 AE for the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages in support of the 4.48 AE metamorphic event are reviewed. Such a metamorphic age is not necessarily in conflict with 129 I/ 129 Xe data which indicate that the parent material of most chondrites, including those of type 3, cooled through temperatures sufficient to retain radiogenic Xe within a time interval of ca. 0.02 AE. (orig.)

  7. Core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by the TAL1 complex in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Takaomi; Lawton, Lee N; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Fan, Zi Peng; Kohlhammer, Holger; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ma, Wenxue; Tatarek, Jessica; Ahn, Yebin; Kelliher, Michelle A; Jamieson, Catriona H M; Staudt, Louis M; Young, Richard A; Look, A Thomas

    2012-08-14

    The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we identify the core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3, and RUNX1. We show that TAL1 forms a positive interconnected autoregulatory loop with GATA3 and RUNX1 and that the TAL1 complex directly activates the MYB oncogene, forming a positive feed-forward regulatory loop that reinforces and stabilizes the TAL1-regulated oncogenic program. One of the critical downstream targets in this circuitry is the TRIB2 gene, which is oppositely regulated by TAL1 and E2A/HEB and is essential for the survival of T-ALL cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Description and hydrogeologic implications of cored sedimentary material from the 1975 drilling program at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rightmire, C.T.

    1984-08-01

    Samples of sedimentary material from interbeds between basalt flows and from fractures in the flows, taken from two drill cores at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were analyzed for (1) particle-size distribution, (2) bulk mineralogy, (3) clay mineralogy, (4) cation-exchange capacity, and (5) carbonate content. Thin sections of selected sedimentary material were made for petrographic examination. These analyses are needed for a characterization of paths and rates of movement of radionuclides transported by infiltrating water. Preliminary interpretations indicate that (1) it may be possible to distinguish the various sedimentary interbeds on the basis of their mineralogy, (2) the presence of carbonate horizons in sedimentary interbeds may be utilized to approximate the time of exposure and the climate while the surface was exposed, and (3) the type and orientation of fracture-filling material may be utilized to determine the mechanism by which fractures were filled. 9 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  9. FOCUS, Neutron Transport System for Complex Geometry Reactor Core and Shielding Problems by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FOCUS enables the calculation of any quantity related to neutron transport in reactor or shielding problems, but was especially designed to calculate differential quantities, such as point values at one or more of the space, energy, direction and time variables of quantities like neutron flux, detector response, reaction rate, etc. or averages of such quantities over a small volume of the phase space. Different types of problems can be treated: systems with a fixed neutron source which may be a mono-directional source located out- side the system, and Eigen function problems in which the neutron source distribution is given by the (unknown) fundamental mode Eigen function distribution. Using Monte Carlo methods complex 3- dimensional geometries and detailed cross section information can be treated. Cross section data are derived from ENDF/B, with anisotropic scattering and discrete or continuous inelastic scattering taken into account. Energy is treated as a continuous variable and time dependence may also be included. 2 - Method of solution: A transformed form of the adjoint Boltzmann equation in integral representation is solved for the space, energy, direction and time variables by Monte Carlo methods. Adjoint particles are defined with properties in some respects contrary to those of neutrons. Adjoint particle histories are constructed from which estimates are obtained of the desired quantity. Adjoint cross sections are defined with which the nuclide and reaction type are selected in a collision. The energy after a collision is selected from adjoint energy distributions calculated together with the adjoint cross sections in advance of the actual Monte Carlo calculation. For multiplying systems successive generations of adjoint particles are obtained which will die out for subcritical systems with a fixed neutron source and will be kept approximately stationary for Eigen function problems. Completely arbitrary problems can

  10. Monomeric RC-LH1 core complexes retard LH2 assembly and intracytoplasmic membrane formation in PufX-minus mutants of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter G; Mothersole, David J; Ng, Irene W; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil

    2011-09-01

    In the model photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides domains of light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes surround and interconnect dimeric reaction centre-light-harvesting 1-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) 'core' complexes, forming extensive networks for energy transfer and trapping. These complexes are housed in spherical intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs), which are assembled in a stepwise process where biosynthesis of core complexes tends to dominate the early stages of membrane invagination. The kinetics of LH2 assembly were measured in PufX mutants that assemble monomeric core complexes, as a consequence of either a twelve-residue N-terminal truncation of PufX (PufXΔ12) or the complete removal of PufX (PufX(-)). Lower rates of LH2 assembly and retarded maturation of membrane invagination were observed for the larger and less curved ICM from the PufX(-) mutant, consistent with the proposition that local membrane curvature, initiated by arrays of bent RC-LH1-PufX dimers, creates a favourable environment for stable assembly of LH2 complexes. Transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution atomic force microscopy were used to examine ICM morphology and membrane protein organisation in these mutants. Some partitioning of core and LH2 complexes was observed in PufX(-) membranes, resulting in locally ordered clusters of monomeric RC-LH1 complexes. The distribution of core and LH2 complexes in the three types of membrane examined is consistent with previous models of membrane curvature and domain formation (Frese et al., 2008), which demonstrated that a combination of crowding and asymmetries in sizes and shapes of membrane protein complexes drives membrane organisation. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metamorphic Perspectives of Subduction Zone Volatiles Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    Field study of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks provides "ground-truthing" for experimental and theoretical petrologic studies estimating extents of deep volatiles subduction, and provides information regarding devolatilization and deep subduction-zone fluid flow that can be used to reconcile estimates of subduction inputs and arc volcanic outputs for volatiles such as H2O, N, and C. Considerable attention has been paid to H2O subduction in various bulk compositions, and, based on calculated phase assemblages, it is thought that a large fraction of the initially structurally bound H2O is subducted to, and beyond, subarc regions in most modern subduction zones (Hacker, 2008, G-cubed). Field studies of HP/UHP mafic and sedimentary rocks demonstrate the impressive retention of volatiles (and fluid-mobile elements) to depths approaching those beneath arcs. At the slab-mantle interface, high-variance lithologies containing hydrous phases such as mica, amphibole, talc, and chlorite could further stabilize H2O to great depth. Trench hydration in sub-crustal parts of oceanic lithosphere could profoundly increase subduction inputs of particularly H2O, and massive flux of H2O-rich fluids from these regions into the slab-mantle interface could lead to extensive metasomatism. Consideration of sedimentary N concentrations and δ15N at ODP Site 1039 (Li and Bebout, 2005, JGR), together with estimates of the N concentration of subducting altered oceanic crust (AOC), indicates that ~42% of the N subducting beneath Nicaragua is returned in the corresponding volcanic arc (Elkins et al., 2006, GCA). Study of N in HP/UHP sedimentary and basaltic rocks indicates that much of the N initially subducted in these lithologies would be retained to depths approaching 100 km and thus available for addition to arcs. The more altered upper part of subducting oceanic crust most likely to contribute to arcs has sediment-like δ15NAir (0 to +10 per mil; Li et al., 2007, GCA), and study of HP/UHP eclogites

  12. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the evolution of the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 30°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A.; Pressling, N.; Gee, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Oceanic core complexes expose lower crustal and upper mantle rocks on the seafloor by tectonic unroofing in the footwalls of large-slip detachment faults. They represent a fundamental component of the seafloor spreading system at slow and ultraslow axes. One of the most extensively studied oceanic core complexes is Atlantis Massif, located at 30°N at the intersection of the Atlantis Transform Fault and the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The central dome of the massif exposes the corrugated detachment fault surface and was drilled during IODP Expedition 304/305 (Hole U1309D). This sampled a 1.4 km faulted and complexly layered footwall section dominated by gabbroic lithologies with minor ultramafic rocks. Palaeomagnetic analyses demonstrate that the gabbroic sequences at Atlantis Massif carry highly stable remanent magnetizations that provide valuable information on the evolution of the section. Thermal demagnetization experiments recover high unblocking temperature components of reversed polarity (R1) throughout the gabbroic sequences. Correlation of structures observed on oriented borehole (FMS) images and those recorded on unoriented core pieces allows reorientation of R1 remanences. The mean remanence direction in true geographic coordinates constrains the tectonic rotation experienced by the Atlantis Massif footwall, indicating a 46°±6° counterclockwise around a MAR-parallel horizontal axis trending 011°±6°. The detachment fault therefore initiated at a steep dip of >50° and then rotated flexurally to its present day low angle geometry (consistent with a 'rolling-hinge' model for detachment evolution). In a number of intervals, the gabbros exhibit a complex remanence structure with the presence of additional intermediate temperature normal (N1) and lower temperature reversed (R2) polarity components, suggesting an extended period of remanence acquisition during different polarity intervals. Sharp break-points between different polarity components suggest

  13. STRIP1, a core component of STRIPAK complexes, is essential for normal mesoderm migration in the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Hisham; Soroka, Ekaterina; Alcorn, Heather L; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2017-12-19

    Regulated mesoderm migration is necessary for the proper morphogenesis and organ formation during embryonic development. Cell migration and its dependence on the cytoskeleton and signaling machines have been studied extensively in cultured cells; in contrast, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms that regulate mesoderm cell migration in vivo. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a mouse mutation in striatin-interacting protein 1 ( Strip1 ) that disrupts migration of the mesoderm after the gastrulation epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). STRIP1 is a core component of the biochemically defined mammalian striatin-interacting phosphatases and kinase (STRIPAK) complexes that appear to act through regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), but their functions in mammals in vivo have not been examined. Strip1 -null mutants arrest development at midgestation with profound disruptions in the organization of the mesoderm and its derivatives, including a complete failure of the anterior extension of axial mesoderm. Analysis of cultured mesoderm explants and mouse embryonic fibroblasts from null mutants shows that the mesoderm migration defect is correlated with decreased cell spreading, abnormal focal adhesions, changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and decreased velocity of cell migration. The results show that STRIPAK complexes are essential for cell migration and tissue morphogenesis in vivo. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Miocene metamorphism of pan-African granites in the Edough Massif (NE Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammor, D.; Lancelot, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Edough Massif is the eastern most crystalline core of the Maghrebides that represents the African segment of the west Mediterranean Alpine belt. U-Pb zircon dating provides upper intercept ages of 595± My and 606±55 My and orthogneiss of the lower unit and a deformed leucogranite of the upper pelitic unit, respectively. These ages suggest emplacement of the two granitoids during the Pan-African orogeny. Monazites from a paragneiss sample gave a 18± My U-Pb age that points to a Miocene age of the high-temperature metamorphism. (authors)

  15. Ternary polyplex micelles with PEG shells and intermediate barrier to complexed DNA cores for efficient systemic gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Chen, Qixian; Zha, Zengshi; Li, Hui; Toh, Kazuko; Dirisala, Anjaneyulu; Matsumoto, Yu; Osada, Kensuke; Kataoka, Kazunori; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-07-10

    Simultaneous achievement of prolonged retention in blood circulation and efficient gene transfection activity in target tissues has always been a major challenge hindering in vivo applications of nonviral gene vectors via systemic administration. Herein, we constructed novel rod-shaped ternary polyplex micelles (TPMs) via complexation between the mixed block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly{N'-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]aspartamide} (PEG-b-PAsp(DET)) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-PAsp(DET) (PNIPAM-b-PAsp(DET)) and plasmid DNA (pDNA) at room temperature, exhibiting distinct temperature-responsive formation of a hydrophobic intermediate layer between PEG shells and pDNA cores through facile temperature increase from room temperature to body temperature (~37 °C). As compared with binary polyplex micelles of PEG-b-PAsp(DET) (BPMs), TPMs were confirmed to condense pDNA into a more compact structure, which achieved enhanced tolerability to nuclease digestion and strong counter polyanion exchange. In vitro gene transfection results demonstrated TPMs exhibiting enhanced gene transfection efficiency due to efficient cellular uptake and endosomal escape. Moreover, in vivo performance evaluation after intravenous injection confirmed that TPMs achieved significantly prolonged blood circulation, high tumor accumulation, and promoted gene expression in tumor tissue. Moreover, TPMs loading therapeutic pDNA encoding an anti-angiogenic protein remarkably suppressed tumor growth following intravenous injection into H22 tumor-bearing mice. These results suggest TPMs with PEG shells and facilely engineered intermediate barrier to inner complexed pDNA have great potentials as systemic nonviral gene vectors for cancer gene therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-23

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  17. The N terminus of cGAS de-oligomerizes the cGAS:DNA complex and lifts the DNA size restriction of core-cGAS activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Arum; Park, Eun-Byeol; Lee, Janghyun; Choi, Byong-Seok; Kang, Suk-Jo

    2017-03-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a DNA-sensing enzyme in the innate immune system. Recent studies using core-cGAS lacking the N terminus investigated the mechanism for binding of double-stranded (ds) DNA and synthesis of 2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), a secondary messenger that ultimately induces type I interferons. However, the function of the N terminus of cGAS remains largely unknown. Here, we found that the N terminus enhanced the activity of core-cGAS in vivo. Importantly, the catalytic activity of core-cGAS decreased as the length of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) increased, but the diminished activity was restored by addition of the N terminus. Furthermore, the N terminus de-oligomerized the 2 : 2 complex of core-cGAS and dsDNA into a 1 : 1 complex, suggesting that the N terminus enhanced the activity of core-cGAS by facilitating formation of a monomeric complex of cGAS and DNA. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this SBIR Phase II project is the development of a unique triple junction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  19. Petrographic and Geochemical Study of Low Grade Metamorphic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Low grade metamorphic rocks, Base metal mineralization, Petrography,. Hydrogeochemistry, Negash ... Use of mineral deposit genetic models has become an important ..... The clasts show elongation due to deformation, parallel.

  20. Recycling argon through metamorphic reactions: The record in symplectites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher S.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Kelley, Simon P.; Sherlock, Sarah C.

    2018-02-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of metamorphic micas that crystallized at high temperatures are commonly interpreted as cooling ages, with grains considered to have lost 40Ar via thermally-driven diffusion into the grain boundary network. Recently reported laser-ablation data suggest that the spatial distribution of Ar in metamorphic micas does not always conform to the patterns predicted by diffusion theory and that despite high metamorphic temperatures, argon was not removed efficiently from the local system during metamorphic evolution. In the Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, felsic gneisses preserve microtextural evidence for the breakdown of phengite to biotite and plagioclase symplectites during near isothermal decompression from c. 20-25 to c. 8-12 kbar at 700 °C. These samples provide an ideal natural laboratory to assess whether the complete replacement of one K-bearing mineral by another at high temperatures completely 'resets' the Ar clock, or whether there is some inheritance of 40Ar in the neocrystallized phase. The timing of the high-temperature portion of the WGR metamorphic cycle has been well constrained in previous studies. However, the timing of cooling following the overprint is still much debated. In-situ laser ablation spot dating in phengite, biotite-plagioclase symplectites and coarser, texturally later biotite yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages that span much of the metamorphic cycle. Together these data show that despite residence at temperatures of 700 °C, Ar is not completely removed by diffusive loss or during metamorphic recrystallization. Instead, Ar released during phengite breakdown appears to be partially reincorporated into the newly crystallizing biotite and plagioclase (or is trapped in fluid inclusions in those phases) within a close system. Our data show that the microtextural and petrographic evolution of the sample being dated provides a critical framework in which local 40Ar recycling can be tracked, thus potentially allowing 40Ar/39Ar dates

  1. New P-T and U-Pb constraints on Alpine Schist metamorphism in south Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.M.; Auer, A.; Muhling, J.R.; Czertowicz, T.A.; Cooper, A.F.; Billia, M.A.; Kennedy, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphic mineral compositions of a staurolite-bearing greyschist from the middle reaches of the Moeraki River valley in south Westland reveal peak equilibration at c. 558±50 degrees C and c. 6.1±1.2 kbar. Two c. 83 Ma U-Pb monazite age populations from the cores of monazite-apatite-allanite-epidote corona structures in mylonitised schists from near Fox Glacier confirm that Alpine Schist metamorphism occurred during the Late Cretaceous. The published spread in Late Cretaceous metamorphic ages indicates that metamorphism was diachronous or was a protracted event. Further dating is required to pin down the cryptic transition into the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous metamorphosed Otago Schist, but the Alpine Schist must extend at least 11 km east of the Alpine Fault in south Westland and overprint the suture between the Pounamu and Rakaia terranes. The P-T-t results imply that the Late Cretaceous crust represented by portions of the Alpine Schist was probably of similar thickness to that beneath the Southern Alps today, but with dehydration and partial melting occurring near the base. The crust under Westland and Otago may be dry and therefore strong. (author).

  2. Femtosecond visible/visible and visible/mid-IR pump-probe study of the photosystem II core antenna complex CP47

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.L.; Breton, J.; van Wilderen, L.; Dekker, J.P.; van Grondelle, R.

    2004-01-01

    CP47 is one of the two core antenna proteins of Photosystem II involved in the transfer of solar energy toward the photochemically active reaction center, the D1D2cytb559 complex. We have performed vis/vis and vis/mid-IR pump-probe experiments at room temperature as a first step in linking the

  3. Post-Metamorphic Thermal Anomaly across the Nacimiento Block, Central California: a Hydrothermal Overprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Hughes, J.; Lahfid, A.; Delchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal history of the Nacimiento block located within the Franciscan Complex (California, USA) has been previously proposed based on both vitrinite reflectance (Rm) and illite cristallinity methods (Underwood et al., 1995). These authors suggest that the Nacimiento block is locally perturbed by a thermal anomaly (up to 300ºC), probably caused by post-metamorphic hydrothermal activity linked to the emplacement of an Au-deposit: the Los Burros Gold deposit. Although both thermal anomaly and deposit seem spatially correlated, their relationship is still poorly constrained. Detailed geological and structural mapping within the Los Burros Mining District (LBMD) coupled with a thermal study was conducted to better understand processes responsible for the anomalous temperatures recorded near the deposit. The regional maximum temperature reached by metasediments from the Nacimiento block have been first investigated using the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) method. In addition, through careful fluid-inclusion and stable isotopes (O and C) studies on the deposit, the temperature and the potential source of the fluid responsible for the Los Burros Au-deposit emplacement were investigated. RSCM technique confirms the presence of a thermal anomaly in the range 260-320ºC near LBMD. However, our structural and petrographic results suggest that the thermal anomaly is not correlated to a post-metamorphic hydrothermal overprint but rather to a late, transpressive deformation uplifting buried metamorphic rocks.

  4. Preliminary isotopic data from some amphibolites of the metamorphic basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa M, Ana Maria; Martens K, Uwe; Ordonez C, Oswaldo; Pimentel, Marcio M; Restrepo A, Jorge Julian

    2001-01-01

    Various amphibolite bodies are exposed in the Antioquia Department, Colombia, mainly around the cities of Medellin and El Retiro. Two types of amphibolites occur in the study area; the first one is considered as part of an ophiolite complex and the second one correspond to amphibolites associated to metasediments from the basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera. The present work refers to these last ones. The relationships between amphibolite bodies and other lythological units are the following ones: Intercalation of amphibolites layers with metasediments in the unit migmatites and granulites of El Retiro. The Medellin amphibolites are conformably overlaid by the paragneisses of Las Penas. The granodiorite body represented by the Antioquian Batolith is intrusive in the metamorphic rocks and the Medellin Dunites unit is in thrust fault contact with Medellin amphibolites. These amphibolites have been studied by Botero (1963), Gonzalez (1976 and 1980), Restrepo and Toussaint (1984), Ardila (1986), Restrepo (1986), Rendon (1999) and, Correa and Martens (2000). Available radiometric ages on the amphibolites come from former works by Restrepo y Toussaint (1978), Restrepo et al. (1991) that presented K-Ar ages in amphiboles and a Rb-Sr isochron which yielded a Cretaceous age that they interpreted as a metamorphic age. This work presents new evidences, obtained from field work, petrography, rock geochemistry and specially the first isotopic data on these amphibolites from the Central Cordillera Metamorphic Basement (au)

  5. Tectonic superposition of the Kurosegawa Terrane upon the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt in eastern Shikoku, southwest Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hisashi; Isozaki, Yukio; Itaya, Tetsumaru.

    1990-01-01

    Weakly metamorphosed pre-Cenozoic accretionary complex in the northern part of the Chichibu Belt in Kamikatsu Town, eastern Shikoku, consists of two distinct geologic units; the Northern Unit and Southern Unit. The Northern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites and basic tuff with allochthonous blocks of chert and limestone, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the glaucophane schist facies. The Southern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites with allochthonous blocks of sandstone, limestone, massive green rocks, and chert, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the pumpellyite-actinolite facies. The Southern Unit tectonically overlies the Northern Univ by the south-dipping Jiganji Fault. K-Ar ages were dated for the recrystallized white micas from 11 samples of pelites and basic tuff in the Northern Unit, and from 6 samples of pelites in the Southern Unit. The K-Ar ages of the samples from the Northern Unit range in 129-112 Ma, and those from the Southern Unit in 225-194 Ma. In terms of metamorphic ages, the Northern Unit and Southern Unit are referred to the constituents of the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt, and to those of the Kurosegawa Terrane, respectively. Thus, tectonic superposition of these two units in the study area suggests that the Kurosegawa Terrane occurs in a higher structural position over the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt in eastern Shikoku. (author)

  6. Superposed orogenic collision and core-complex formation at the present contact between the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin: The Bukulja and Cer Mountains in central and western Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, Liviu; Toljic, Marinko; Ducea, Mihai; Stojadinovic, Uros

    2010-05-01

    basin. An Upper Cretaceous-Eocene phase of top-WSW shortening and metamorphism in the Sava zone and its subducting lower Adriatic plate was subsequently followed by massive core-complex exhumation and top-E directed extension during initiation of the Carpathians back-arc extension. Interestingly, the newly defined extensional detachments accompanying the Pannonian extension closely follow the pre-existing subduction zone and its associated duplications in the lower orogenic plate. This conclusion is compatible with observations in other areas of the Dinarides, such as the Prosara-Motajica in Bosnia/Croatia or Kopaonik-Studenica in southern Serbia (Schefer et al., 2008; Ustaszewski et al., 2009).

  7. The Chicxulub crater - impact metamorphism of sulfate and carbonate lithologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Hornemann, U.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2003-04-01

    It is discussed whether in the aftermath of the Chicxulub event, impact-released CO_2 and SO_x have changed the Earth's climate, acting also as lethal thread for life. Undoubtedly, vaporization of carbonates and sulfates, which are major target lithologies at the Chicxulub impact site, occurred in the footprint of the projectile. What happened to these lithologies outside this very restricted zone was so far unconstrained. Petrologic observations on PEMEX and UNAM as well as on the CSDP cores allow to set up a general classification for shock-related pro-grade effects on sulfate and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Shock effects in lithic breccias are restricted to brecciation and formation of twins in calcite. Suevites mostly lack melted carbonate clasts; annealing effects in anhydrite fragments are absent. The underlying melt breccias contain anhydrite fragments still displaying a sedimentary texture, and limestone clasts, whose texture reflect crystallization from melt. Impact melt breccias from deeper levels frequently contain partially resorbed anhydrite clasts and a melt matrix with the Ca-rich mineral assemblage quartz + plagioclase + clinopyroxene; this mineral assemblage provides evidence for partial dissociation of CaSO_4. Large clasts of anhydrite consist of equant crystals with 120^o triple junctions, a feature indicative for re-crystallization in the solid state. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are virtually free of clasts from sedimentary lithologies. These rocks have an extremely high formation temperature, which caused total dissociation of CaSO_4 and CaCO_3. Finally, up to 100 μm wide veins of anhydrite + calcite + quartz cut the matrix of all lithologies except the tagamites. They probably represent "degassing vents". The given scheme is in qualitative accordance with data of shock recovery and annealing experiments as well as with modeling results. In addition, it substantiates that annealing plays a fundamental role in the impact metamorphism of

  8. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid

    2017-04-01

    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from geothermal gradients (up to 60°C/km) known in the region, and higher temperature closer to the pre-rift units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  9. The age of the rocks and the metamorphic episodes from the Southeastern of Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.; Kawashita, K.; Schmuss, R. van; Taylor, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and U-Pb geochronologic studies carried out on precambrian rocks from the southeastern Sao Paulo state suggest a Complex geologic evolution during the Archean and Proterozoic times. This region is divided in five differents allochthonous terranes named Itapira-Amparo, Piracaiba-Jundiai, Sao Roque, Embu and Costeiro, separated by thrust and strike-slip faults. The Itapira-Amparo domain has a original history dating back to 3.4 Ga. and since 2.6 to 2.5 Ga. and 2.2 to 1.9 Ga. metamorphic rockformation episode occurred involving both mantle-derived magmas and recycled material. Supracrustal sequences developed around 1.4 Ga. The domain was locally reworked in 0.8 - 0.65 Ga. In the Piracaia-Jundiai the main rock-formation event occurred at 1.4 Ga., but this domian was affected by strong granization and migmatization episodes during the period 1.1 - 0.6 Ga. The third terrain is characterized by the Sao Roque metavolcanossedimentary sequence developed during the time period 1.8 - 0.7 Ga., and comprising two metamorphic superimposed events (1.4 and 0.8 - 0.7 Ga.). the post-tectonics granites ranging in ages from 0.7 to 0.55 Ga. Within the Embu terrain ages of 2.5, 1.4 and 0,75 Ga. were obtained for the metamorphic terrain, with post-tectonic activities around 650 Ma. In the Costeiro domain all the metamorphic rocks developed in late-Proterozoic time, with syntectonic phase around 650 Ma [pt

  10. Fore arc tectonothermal evolution of the El Oro metamorphic province (Ecuador) during the Mesozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Nicolas; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Jaillard, Etienne; Monié, Patrick; Yuquilema, Jonatan; Duclaux, Guillaume; Mercier, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The El Oro metamorphic province of SW Ecuador is a composite massif made of juxtaposed terranes of both continental and oceanic affinity that has been located in a fore-arc position since Late Paleozoic times. Various geochemical, geochronological, and metamorphic studies have been undertaken on the El Oro metamorphic province, providing an understanding of the origin and age of the distinct units. However, the internal structures and geodynamic evolution of this area remain poorly understood. Our structural analysis and thermal modeling in the El Oro metamorphic province show that this fore-arc zone underwent four main geological events. (1) During Triassic times (230-225 Ma), the emplacement of the Piedras gabbroic unit at crustal-root level ( 9 kbar) triggered partial melting of the metasedimentary sequence under an E-W extensional regime at pressure-temperature conditions ranging from 4.5 to 8.5 kbar and from 650 to 900°C for the migmatitic unit. (2) At 226 Ma, the tectonic underplating of the Arenillas-Panupalí oceanic unit (9 kbar and 300°C) thermally sealed the fore-arc region. (3) Around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, the shift from trench-normal to trench-parallel subduction triggered the exhumation and underplating of the high-pressure, oceanic Raspas Ophiolitic Complex (18 kbar and 600°C) beneath the El Oro Group (130-120 Ma). This was followed by the opening of a NE-SW pull-apart basin, which tilted the massif along an E-W subhorizontal axis (110 Ma). (4) In Late Cretaceous times, an N-S compressional event generated heterogeneous deformation due to the presence of the Cretaceous Celica volcanic arc, which acted as a buttress and predominantly affected the central and eastern part of the massif.

  11. Design and accuracy analysis of a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine for ship manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenghai; Zhang, Manhui; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The current research of processing large size fabrication holes on complex spatial curved surface mainly focuses on the CNC flame cutting machines design for ship hull of ship manufacturing. However, the existing machines cannot meet the continuous cutting requirements with variable pass conditions through their fixed configuration, and cannot realize high-precision processing as the accuracy theory is not studied adequately. This paper deals with structure design and accuracy prediction technology of novel machine tools for solving the problem of continuous and high-precision cutting. The needed variable trajectory and variable pose kinematic characteristics of non-contact cutting tool are figured out and a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine designed through metamorphic principle is presented. To analyze kinematic accuracy of the machine, models of joint clearances, manufacturing tolerances and errors in the input variables and error models considering the combined effects are derived based on screw theory after establishing ideal kinematic models. Numerical simulations, processing experiment and trajectory tracking experiment are conducted relative to an eccentric hole with bevels on cylindrical surface respectively. The results of cutting pass contour and kinematic error interval which the position error is from-0.975 mm to +0.628 mm and orientation error is from-0.01 rad to +0.01 rad indicate that the developed machine can complete cutting process continuously and effectively, and the established kinematic error models are effective although the interval is within a `large' range. It also shows the matching property between metamorphic principle and variable working tasks, and the mapping correlation between original designing parameters and kinematic errors of machines. This research develops a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine and establishes kinematic error models for accuracy analysis of machine tools.

  12. Preliminary evidence for a Hercynian age of the Versoyen complex, western Alps; Evidence preliminaire d'un age Hercynian pour le complexe du Versoyen, Alpes occidentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharer, U. [Paris-7 Univ., Lab. de Geochronologie, UMR 7578, 75 (France); Cannic, S.; Lapierre, H. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Lab. de Geologie des Chaines Alpines, Upres A5025, Institut Dolomieu, Grenoble I, 38 (France)

    2000-03-01

    To date the magmatic event that generated the Versoyen mafic complex, four fractions of zircon from a cross-cutting leuco-gabbro dike, has been analyzed by the U-Pb method, defining a regression line that intercepts the concordia curve at 309 {+-} 6 (2 {sigma}) Ma and 3 240 {+-} 34 Ma. These two ages can be interpreted to date, respectively, emplacement of the leuco-gabbro into the Versoyen complex, and the age of inherited Archean zircon cores, present in the newly formed crystals. The age of 309 Ma suggests that both Versoyen mafic magmatism and subsequent eclogite facies metamorphism belong to the Hercynian, and not the Alpine orogenic cycle. (authors)

  13. Core-shell nanofibers of curcumin/cyclodextrin inclusion complex and polylactic acid: Enhanced water solubility and slow release of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Zeynep; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-02-25

    Core-shell nanofibers were designed via electrospinning using inclusion complex (IC) of model hydrophobic drug (curcumin, CUR) with cyclodextrin (CD) in the core and polymer (polylactic acid, PLA) in the shell (cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF). CD-IC of CUR and HPβCD was formed at 1:2 molar ratio. The successful formation of core-shell nanofibers was revealed by TEM and CLSM images. cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF released CUR slowly but much more in total than PLA-CUR-NF at pH 1 and pH 7.4 due to the restriction of CUR in the core of nanofibers and solubility improvement shown in phase solubility diagram, respectively. Improved antioxidant activity of cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF in methanol:water (1:1) is related with the solubility enhancement achieved in water based system. The slow reaction of cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF in methanol is associated with the shell inhibiting the quick release of CUR. On the other hand, cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF exhibited slightly higher rate of antioxidant activity than PLA-CUR-NF in methanol:water (1:1) owing to the enhanced solubility. To conclude, slow release of CUR was achieved by core-shell nanofiber structure and inclusion complexation of CUR with HPβCD provides high solubility. Briefly, electrospinning of core-shell nanofibers with CD-IC core could offer slow release of drugs as well as solubility enhancement for hydrophobic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural and magnetic characterization of three tetranuclear Cu(II) complexes with face-sharing-dicubane/double-open-cubane like core framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Aparup; Bertolasi, Valerio; Figuerola, Albert; Manna, Subal Chandra

    2017-05-01

    Three novel tetranuclear copper(II) complexes namely [Cu4(L1)4]•2(dmf) (1), [Cu4(L1)4] (2) and [Cu4(L2)2(HL2)2(H2O)2]•2(ClO4)·6(H2O) (3) (H2L1, (E)-2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol; H2L2, (E)-2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol)) were synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The structural determination reveals that complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, whereas both the complexes 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic system with space group P-1. Complexes 1 and 2 possess face-sharing dicubane core, on the other hand complex 3 has double open cubane core structure. The copper(II) ions in the cubane core are in distorted square planar geometries, and weak π…π and C-H…π interactions lead to formation of a 2D supramolecular architecture for complexes 1 and 2. At room temperature complexes 1, 2 and 3, exhibit fluorescence with a quantum yield (Φs) of 0.47, 0.49 and 0.38, respectively. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 2-300 K indicate an overall weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in all complexes. The PHI program was used to study their magnetic behaviour. In agreement with their face-sharing dicubane structure, a Hamiltonian of the type H =- J1(S1S2+S1S2'+S1'S2+S1'S2') - J2S1S1', where S1 = S1' = S2 = S2' = SCu =1/2, was used for studying complexes 1 and 2. Simulations performed suggest magnetic exchange constants with values close to J1 =-20 cm-1 and J2 =0 cm-1 for these complexes. On the other hand, the spin Hamiltonian H =- J1(S1S4+S2S3) - J2(S1S3+S2S4) - J3S1S2, where S1 = S2 = S3 = S4 = SCu =1/2, was used to study the magnetic behaviour of the double open cubane core of complex 3 and a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was found by using the parameters g1 = g2 =2.20, g3 = g4 =2.18, J1 =-36 cm-1, J2 =-44 cm-1 and J3 =0 cm-1.

  15. Characterization of the low-temperature triplet state of chlorophyll in photosystem II core complexes: Application of phosphorescence measurements and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelin, Alexey A; Neverov, Konstantin V; Krasnovsky, Alexander A; Shkuropatova, Valentina A; Shuvalov, Vladimir A; Shkuropatov, Anatoly Ya

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorescence measurements at 77 K and light-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy at 95 K were applied to study of the triplet state of chlorophyll a ((3)Chl) in photosystem II (PSII) core complexes isolated from spinach. Using both methods, (3)Chl was observed in the core preparations with doubly reduced primary quinone acceptor QA. The spectral parameters of Chl phosphorescence resemble those in the isolated PSII reaction centers (RCs). The main spectral maximum and the lifetime of the phosphorescence corresponded to 955±1 nm and of 1.65±0.05 ms respectively; in the excitation spectrum, the absorption maxima of all core complex pigments (Chl, pheophytin a (Pheo), and β-carotene) were observed. The differential signal at 1667(-)/1628(+)cm(-1) reflecting a downshift of the stretching frequency of the 13(1)-keto C=O group of Chl was found to dominate in the triplet-minus-singlet FTIR difference spectrum of core complexes. Based on FTIR results and literature data, it is proposed that (3)Chl is mostly localized on the accessory chlorophyll that is in triplet equilibrium with P680. Analysis of the data suggests that the Chl triplet state responsible for the phosphorescence and the FTIR difference spectrum is mainly generated due to charge recombination in the reaction center radical pair P680(+)PheoD1(-), and the energy and temporal parameters of this triplet state as well as the molecular environment and interactions of the triplet-bearing Chl molecule are similar in the PSII core complexes and isolated PSII RCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report here for the first time the occurrence of garnet and corundum in Mg-Al-rich rocks at Sevitturangampatti (Namakkal district) in the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone System (PCSS), southern India. The rocks contain several rare mineral assemblages such as garnet-corundum-sillimanite-cordierite-sapphirine-spinel-Mg-rich staurolite, garnet-corundum-sodic gedrite-cordierite-sillimanite/kyanite, garnet-Mg-rich staurolite-sillimanite/kyanite, sodic gedrite-Mg-rich staurolite-corundum-sapphirine, biotite-corundum-sapphirine and sodic gedrite-sapphirine-spinel-cordierite. Both garnet and corundum in these rocks occur as coarse-grained (1 mm to 10 cm) porphyroblasts in the matrix of sillimanite, cordierite and gedrite. Kyanite is common as inclusions in garnet, but matrix aluminosilicates are mainly sillimanite. The presence of rare garnet + corundum, which has so far been reported from kimberlite xenoliths, aluminous eclogites and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks as well as in high-pressure experiments, suggests that the assemblage is an indicator of an unusually high-pressure event, which has not been recorded in previous studies from southern India. Phase analysis of quartz-absent MAS system also suggests high-pressure stability of the assemblage. The inference of high pressure metamorphism is also supported by the presence of Mg-rich [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.51] staurolite, which has been reported from high-pressure rocks, included from cores of coarse-grained garnet and gedrite. Porphyroblastic occurrence of garnet + corundum as well as staurolite and kyanite inclusions suggests that the area underwent prograde high-pressure metamorphism, probably in the eclogite field. The rocks subsequently underwent continuous heating at 940 to 990 °C, suggesting ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism along a clockwise trajectory. Sapphirine + cordierite and spinel + cordierite symplectites between garnet and sillimanite suggest near isothermal decompression after the peak event

  17. An oceanic core complex (OCC) in the Albanian Dinarides? Preliminary paleomagnetic and structural results from the Mirdita Ophiolite (northern Albania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffione, M.; Morris, A.; Anderson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are dome-shaped massifs commonly associated with the inside corners of the intersection of transform faults and slow (and ultra-slow) spreading centres. They represent the uplifted footwalls of large-slip oceanic detachment faults (e.g. Cann et al., 1997; Blackman et al., 1998) and are composed of mantle and lower crustal rocks exhumed during fault displacement (Smith et al., 2006, 2008). Recent paleomagnetic studies of core samples from OCCs in the Atlantic Ocean (Morris et al., 2009; MacLeod et al., in prep) have confirmed that footwall sections undergo substantial rotation around (sub-) horizontal axes. These studies, therefore, support “rolling hinge” models for the evolution of OCCs, whereby oceanic detachment faults initiate at a steep angle at depth and then “roll-over” to their present day low angle orientations during unroofing (Buck, 1988; Wernicke & Axen, 1988; Lavier et al., 1999). However, a fully integrated paleomagnetic and structural analysis of this process is hampered by the one-dimensional sampling provided by ocean drilling of OCC footwalls. Therefore, ancient analogues for OCCs in ophiolites are of great interest, as these potentially provide 3-D exposures of these important structures and hence a more complete understanding of footwall strain and kinematics (providing that emplacement-related phases of deformation can be accounted for). Recently, the relationship between outcropping crustal and upper mantle rocks led Tremblay et al. (2009) to propose that an OCC is preserved within the Mirdita ophiolite of the Albanian Dinarides (northern Albania). This is a slice of Jurassic oceanic lithosphere exposed along a N-S corridor which escaped the main late Cenozoic Alpine deformation (Robertson, 2002, 2004; Dilek et al., 2007). Though in the eastern portion of the Mirdita ophiolite a Penrose-type sequence is present, in the western portion mantle rocks are in tectonic contact with upper crustal lithologies

  18. Simulating Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Complexes with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mukamel, Shaul; Khalil, Munira; Govind, Niranjan

    2015-12-08

    Valence-to-core (VtC) X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has emerged as a powerful technique for the structural characterization of complex organometallic compounds in realistic environments. Since the spectrum represents electronic transitions from the ligand molecular orbitals to the core holes of the metal centers, the approach is more chemically sensitive to the metal-ligand bonding character compared with conventional X-ray absorption techniques. In this paper we study how linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT) can be harnessed to simulate K-edge VtC X-ray emission spectra reliably. LR-TDDFT allows one to go beyond the single-particle picture that has been extensively used to simulate VtC-XES. We consider seven low- and high-spin model complexes involving chromium, manganese, and iron transition metal centers. Our results are in good agreement with experiment.

  19. Earthquakes, fluid pressures and rapid subduction zone metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viete, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism is commonly incomplete, meaning that large tracts of rock can remain metastable at blueschist- and eclogite-facies conditions for timescales up to millions of years [1]. When HP/LT metamorphism does take place, it can occur over extremely short durations (the role of fluids in providing heat for metamorphism [2] or catalyzing metamorphic reactions [1]. Earthquakes in subduction zone settings can occur to depths of 100s of km. Metamorphic dehydration and the associated development of elevated pore pressures in HP/LT metamorphic rocks has been identified as a cause of earthquake activity at such great depths [3-4]. The process of fracturing/faulting significantly increases rock permeability, causing channelized fluid flow and dissipation of pore pressures [3-4]. Thus, deep subduction zone earthquakes are thought to reflect an evolution in fluid pressure, involving: (1) an initial increase in pore pressure by heating-related dehydration of subduction zone rocks, and (2) rapid relief of pore pressures by faulting and channelized flow. Models for earthquakes at depth in subduction zones have focussed on the in situ effects of dehydration and then sudden escape of fluids from the rock mass following fracturing [3-4]. On the other hand, existing models for rapid and incomplete metamorphism in subduction zones have focussed only on the effects of heating and/or hydration with the arrival of external fluids [1-2]. Significant changes in pressure over very short timescales should result in rapid mineral growth and/or disequilibrium texture development in response to overstepping of mineral reaction boundaries. The repeated process of dehydration-pore pressure development-earthquake-pore pressure relief could conceivably produce a record of episodic HP/LT metamorphism driven by rapid pressure pulses. A new hypothesis is presented for the origins of HP/LT metamorphism: that HP/LT metamorphism is driven by effective pressure

  20. Dissecting the dynamic conformations of the metamorphic protein lymphotactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Sophie R; Porrini, Massimiliano; Konijnenberg, Albert; Clarke, David J; Tyler, Robert C; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R R; MacPhee, Cait E; Volkman, Brian F; Barran, Perdita E

    2014-10-30

    A mass spectrometer provides an ideal laboratory to probe the structure and stability of isolated protein ions. Interrogation of each discrete mass/charge-separated species enables the determination of the intrinsic stability of a protein fold, gaining snapshots of unfolding pathways. In solution, the metamorphic protein lymphotactin (Ltn) exists in equilibrium between two distinct conformations, a monomeric (Ltn10) and a dimeric (Ltn40) fold. Here, we use electron capture dissociation (ECD) and drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (DT IM-MS) to analyze both forms and use molecular dynamics (MD) to consider how the solution fold alters in a solvent-free environment. DT IM-MS reveals significant conformational flexibility for the monomer, while the dimer appears more conformationally restricted. These findings are supported by MD calculations, which reveal how salt bridges stabilize the conformers in vacuo. Following ECD experiments, a distinctive fragmentation pattern is obtained for both the monomer and dimer. Monomer fragmentation becomes more pronounced with increasing charge state especially in the disordered regions and C-terminal α-helix in the solution fold. Lower levels of fragmentation are seen in the β-sheet regions and in regions that contain salt bridges, identified by MD simulations. The lowest charge state of the dimer for which we obtain ECD data ([D+9H](9+)) exhibits extensive fragmentation with no relationship to the solution fold and has a smaller collision cross section (CCS) than charge states 10-13+, suggesting a "collapsed" encounter complex. Other charge states of the dimer, as for the monomer, are resistant to fragmentation in regions of β-sheets in the solution fold. This study provides evidence for preservation and loss of global fold and secondary structural elements, providing a tantalizing glimpse into the power of the emerging field of native top-down mass spectrometry.

  1. Three-dimensional structure of the ligand-binding core of GluR2 in complex with the agonist (S)-ATPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Marie-Louise; Hogner, Anders; Stensbøl, Tine B

    2003-01-01

    Two X-ray structures of the GluR2 ligand-binding core in complex with (S)-2-amino-3-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid ((S)-ATPA) have been determined with and without Zn(2+) ions. (S)-ATPA induces a domain closure of ca. 21 degrees compared to the apo form. The tert-butyl moiety...

  2. Interfacial charge separation and recombination in InP and quasi-type II InP/CdS core/shell quantum dot-molecular acceptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaifeng; Song, Nianhui; Liu, Zheng; Zhu, Haiming; Rodríguez-Córdoba, William; Lian, Tianquan

    2013-08-15

    Recent studies of group II-VI colloidal semiconductor heterostuctures, such as CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) or dot-in-rod nanorods, show that type II and quasi-type II band alignment can facilitate electron transfer and slow down charge recombination in QD-molecular electron acceptor complexes. To explore the general applicability of this wave function engineering approach for controlling charge transfer properties, we investigate exciton relaxation and dissociation dynamics in InP (a group III-V semiconductor) and InP/CdS core/shell (a heterostructure beween group III-V and II-VI semiconductors) QDs by transient absorption spectroscopy. We show that InP/CdS QDs exhibit a quasi-type II band alignment with the 1S electron delocalized throughout the core and shell and the 1S hole confined in the InP core. In InP-methylviologen (MV(2+)) complexes, excitons in the QD can be dissociated by ultrafast electron transfer to MV(2+) from the 1S electron level (with an average time constant of 11.4 ps) as well as 1P and higher electron levels (with a time constant of 0.39 ps), which is followed by charge recombination to regenerate the complex in its ground state (with an average time constant of 47.1 ns). In comparison, InP/CdS-MV(2+) complexes show similar ultrafast charge separation and 5-fold slower charge recombination rates, consistent with the quasi-type II band alignment in these heterostructures. This result demonstrates that wave function engineering in nanoheterostructures of group III-V and II-VI semiconductors provides a promising approach for optimizing their light harvesting and charge separation for solar energy conversion applications.

  3. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Multifunctional Phosphorescent Dendrimers with Iridium-Complex Core and Charge-Transporting Dendrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Toshimitsu; Shirasawa, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Toshiyasu; Tokito, Shizuo

    2005-06-01

    We report a novel class of light-emitting materials for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs): multifunctional phosphorescent dendrimers that have a phosphorescent core and dendrons based on charge-transporting building blocks. We synthesized first-generation and second-generation dendrimers consisting of a fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium [Ir(ppy)3] core and hole-transporting phenylcarbazole-based dendrons. Smooth amorphous films of these dendrimers were formed by spin-coating them from solutions. The OLEDs using the dendrimer exhibited bright green or yellowish-green emission from the Ir(ppy)3 core. The OLEDs using the film containing a mixture of the dendrimer and an electron-transporting material exhibited higher efficiency than those using the neat dendrimer film. The external quantum efficiency of OLEDs using the film containing a mixture of the first-generation dendrimer and an electron-transporting material was as high as 7.6%.

  4. The Heart of China revisited: II Early Paleozoic (ultra)high-pressure and (ultra)high-temperature metamorphic Qinling orogenic collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Thomas; Franz, Leander; Ratschbacher, Lothar; de Capitani, Christian; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Yang, Zhao; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Orogens with multiple (ultra)high-pressure ((U)HP) and (ultra)high-temperature ((U)HT) metamorphic events provide a complex but telling record of oceanic and continental interaction. The Early Paleozoic history of the "Heart of China," the Qinling orogenic collage, offers snapshots of at least three (U)HP and two (U)HT metamorphic events. The preservation of remnants of both oceanic and continental domains together with a ≥110 Myr record of magmatism allows the reconstruction of the processes that resulted in this disparate metamorphism. Herein, we first illuminate the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) evolution of the Early Paleozoic (U)HP and (U)HT events by refining the petrographic descriptions and P-T estimates, assess published, and employ new U/Th-Pb zircon, monazite, and titanite, and 40Ar-39Ar phengite geochronology to date the magmatic and metamorphic events. Then we explore how the metamorphic and magmatic events are related tectonically and how they elucidate the affinities among the various complexes in the Qinling orogenic collage. We argue that a Meso-Neoproterozoic crustal fragment—the Qinling complex—localized subduction-accretion events that involved subduction, oceanic-arc formation, and back-arc spreading along its northern margin, and mtantle-wedge exhumation and spreading-ridge subduction along its southern margin.

  5. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    domes at Russian North-East. Paper 2. Magmatism, metamorphism and migmatization in Late Mesozoic domes // Pacific geology. 1996. V. 15. № 1. P. 84-93. (in Russian) 13. Bering Strait Geologic Field Party, Koolen metamorphic complex, NE Russia: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait region // Tectonics, vol. 16, no. 5, p. 713-729 14. Bondarenko G.E., Luchitskaya M.V. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Alarmaut rise // Byul. MOIP. Otd. Geol. V. 78. Is. 3. P. 25-38. (in Russian) 15. Katkov S.M., Strikland A., Miller E.L. Age of granite batholiths in the Anyui-Chukotka Foldbelt // Doklady. Earth Sciences. 2007. Vol. 414. № 4. P. 515-518. 16. Amato J.M., Wright J.E. Potassic mafic magtism in the Kigluaik gneiss dome, northern Alaska: a geochemical study of arc magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting // J. Geophys. Res. 1997. Vol.102. N B4. P.8065-8084 17. Tikhomirov P.L., Luchitskaya M.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. Comparison of Cretaceous granitoids of the Chaun tectonic zone to those of the Taigonos Peninsula, NE Asia: rock chemistry, composition of rock forming minerals, and conditions of formation // Stephan Mueller series. Geology and Tectonic Origins of Northeast Russia: A Tribute to Leonid Parfenov (in press) 28. Velikoslavinsky S.D. Geochemical typification of acid magmatic rocks of leading geodynamic settings // Petrology. 2003. V. 11. № 4. P.363-380. (in Russian) 19. Pearce J.A. Sources and settings of granitic rocks // Episodes. 1996. V. 19. N. 4. P. 120-125

  6. Geochronologic constraints of the uplift and metamorphism along the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, C.P.; Zeitler, P.K.; Cooper, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Geochronological studies of pegmatites and Alpine Schist exposed east of the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, reveal a complex history beginning with magmatism and metamorphism at c. 68 m.y. ago and ending with rapid uplift and exhumation in the last 5 m.y. Pegmatites exposed in the Mataketake Range give conventional U-Pb monazite and SHRIMP ion-probe zircon ages of 68 ± 2.6 Ma and 67.9 ± 2.5 Ma, respectively. Inasmuch as petrologic and isotopic data indicate that the Alpine pegmatites are melts derived from the Alpine Schist, the age of the pegmatites suggests that, at least locally, the high-grade metamorphism is considerably younger than previously assumed. We tentatively suggest that metamorphism, in at least some areas of the Alpine Schist, may be associated with Late Cretaceous transtension rather than resulting from the consequences of collision during the Rangitata Orogeny. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar studies of hornblendes from the Alpine Schist, collected from the Haast River to the Franz Josef Glacier area, reveal highly disturbed spectra. Despite this complexity, these analyses define a systematic decrease in ages both across-strike toward the Alpine Fault (Haast River traverse) and northwards along-strike towards Mt Cook. This pattern of decreasing 40 Ar/ 39 Ar hornblende ages is also observed in lower closure temperature systems such as zircon and apatite fission-track ages. We interpret the decrease in ages toward the fault to be the result of deeper exhumation in the immediate vicinity of the Alpine Fault, whereas we interpret the northward younging of fault-proximal samples to be a result of both more recent and possibly more extensive exhumation than occurred in areas to the south. (author). 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Metamorphism, P-T-t Conditions of Formation, and Prospects for the Practical Use of Al2SiO5 Polymorphs, Chloritoid, and Staurolite (Yenisei Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Yenisei Ridge is an accretion-collisional orogen located in the southwestern frame of the Siberian Craton in the interfluve between Podkamennaya Tunguska, Angara, Kan, and Yenisei rivers. The Precambrian mono- and polymetamorphic complexes composed predominantly of the Mesoarchean-Neoproterozoic metapelitic rocks have been studied. Based on the typification of metamorphic complexes by pressure, temperature, metamorphic gradient, as well as age of metamorphism, the location scheme of the fields of the Precambrian sedimentary-metamorphic rock which are prospective for searching deposits of high-alumina metamorphic minerals (andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite, chloritoid, and staurolite) in the Trans-Angara segment of the Yenisei Region, was compiled. The Teya sillimanite and Panimbinsk andalusite deposits, which are confined to the fields of regional metamorphic complexes of iron-alumina metapelites of the And-Sill facies series, are recommended as a priority for the organization of prospecting works and the subsequent involvement to the metallurgical industry. These metapelites are classified as monomineral. Owing to widespread occurrence and abundance of andalusite and sillimanite, the above deposits have significant inferred resources. Stratiform deposits of garnet-staurolite and chloritoid high-alumina rocks are still insufficiently studied and should be investigated further. The prospects for the possible use of high-alumina andalusite and sillimanite together with Middle Tatarka and Kiya nepheline syenite massifs and the bauxites of the Chadobets uplift, already being explored in the region, for production of aluminum oxide, silumin, and aluminum, as well as, the prospects for the expansion of the raw material base of the Boguchansk Electrometallurgical Complex, brought into operation in 2016 in the Lower Angara region, are considered.

  8. The Metamorphic Rocks-Hosted Gold Mineralization At Rumbia Mountains Prospect Area In The Southeastern Arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasria Hasria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in Indonesia gold exploration activities  are not only focused along volcanic-magmatic belts, but also starting to shift along metamorphic and sedimentary terrains. The study area is located in Rumbia mountains, Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. This paper is aimed to describe characteristics of alteration and ore mineralization associated  with metamorphic rock-related gold deposits.  The study area is found the placer and  primary gold hosted by metamorphic rocks. The gold is evidently derived from gold-bearing quartz veins hosted by Pompangeo Metamorphic Complex (PMC. These quartz veins are currently recognized in metamorphic rocks at Rumbia Mountains. The quartz veins are mostly sheared/deformed, brecciated, irregular vein, segmented and  relatively massive and crystalline texture with thickness from 1 cm to 15.7 cm. The wallrock are generally weakly altered. Hydrothermal alteration types include sericitization, argillic, inner propylitic, propylitic, carbonization and carbonatization. There some precious metal identified consist of native gold and ore mineralization including pyrite (FeS2, chalcopyrite (CuFeS2, hematite (Fe2O3, cinnabar (HgS, stibnite (Sb2S3 and goethite (FeHO2. The veins contain erratic gold in various grades from below detection limit <0.0002 ppm to 18.4 ppm. Based on those characteristics, it obviously indicates that the primary gold deposit present in the study area is of orogenic gold deposit type. The orogenic gold deposit is one of the new targets for exploration in Indonesia

  9. Processing of complex N-glycans in IgG Fc-region is affected by core fucosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Alexandra; Gruber, Clemens; Thader, Andreas; Oostenbrink, Chris; Pechlaner, Maria; Steinkellner, Herta; Altmann, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    We investigated N-glycan processing of immunoglobulin G1 using the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (CxMab), which has a glycosite in the Fab domain in addition to the conserved Fc glycosylation, as a reporter. Three GlcNAc (Gn) terminating bi-antennary glycoforms of CxMab differing in core fucosylation (α1,3- and α1,6-linkage) were generated in a plant-based expression platform. These GnGn, GnGnF3, and GnGnF6 CxMab variants were subjected in vivo to further processing toward sialylation and GlcNAc diversification (bisected and branching structures). Mass spectrometry-based glycan analyses revealed efficient processing of Fab glycans toward envisaged structures. By contrast, Fc glycan processing largely depend on the presence of core fucose. A particularly strong support of glycan processing in the presence of plant-specific core α1,3-fucose was observed. Consistently, molecular modeling suggests changes in the interactions of the Fc carbohydrate chain depending on the presence of core fucose, possibly changing the accessibility. Here, we provide data that reveal molecular mechanisms of glycan processing of IgG antibodies, which may have implications for the generation of glycan-engineered therapeutic antibodies with improved efficacies. PMID:26067753

  10. contact metamorphism in the supracrustal rocks of the sukumaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    University of Dar es Salaam, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geology,. P. O. Box 35052, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... bounded by rational crystal faces (decussate texture). Keywords. Contact metamorphism, intrusions ..... electron microbeam X-ray analysis of thick polished materials, thin films and.

  11. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addressing the geologic significance of lineaments and their correlation with joints/fractures is still unclear. The present study attempts to analyse the lineament swarms developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in India using both unfiltered and filtered techniques. The unfiltered analysis technique shows that the ...

  12. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    ) to develop a tool that uses the diffusion zoning of these cations in garnet to constrain peak temperature conditions for garnet-bearing rocks. The thermometric approach was externally tested by applying it to garnet crystals from various metamorphic terranes worldwide and comparing the results to published...

  13. On protolith-, metamorphic overprint, microstructure and rheology of mineral assemblages in orogenic peridotites of the central Scandinavian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Mattia; Clos, Frediano; Van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2013-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides (SC) are a deeply eroded Alpine-type orogenic belt formed by closure of the Iapetus ocean and collision between Baltica and Laurentia (500-380 Ma). The SC consists of a stack of Nappe Complexes (from bottom to top called Lower, Middle, Upper and Uppermost Allochthons) thrusted to the east over the Baltic Shield (Brueckner and Van Roermund, 2004; Gee et al., 2008). Fossil lithospheric mantle fragments, called orogenic peridotites, have been found within the (upper part of) middle, upper and uppermost Allochthons, as well as in the reworked basement gneisses (a.o Western Gneiss Complex (WGC)) along the Norwegian west coast. They occur as isolated lenses that contain diverse mineral parageneses and/or bulk rock compositions. Crustal incorporation of orogenic peridotite is classically interpreted to be the result of plate collisional processes related to orogeny (Brueckner and Medaris, 2000). The WGC and parts of the upper part of the Middle Allochthon (a.o. Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in N Jämtland/S Västerbotten, central Sweden), are well known for the occurrence of high (HP) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes (of Caledonian age). The (U)HPM evidence clearly demonstrates the deep metamorphic origin of these rocks interpreted to be caused by continental subduction and/or collision. Other metamorphic rocks (of Caledonian age) exposed in allochthonous nappes are solely characterised by greenschist-, amphibolite- and/or MP granulite "facies" mineral assemblages that can be interpreted, in the absence of retrogression, to have formed in less deeply subducted (and/or metamorphic) environments. This duality in metamorphic "facies" allows for a discrimination (at least theoretically) between "deep" versus "shallow" rooted nappes (in central parts of the Scandinavian Caledonides). Conform this reasoning, this duality should also be present within the Caledonian mineral assemblages (= metamorphic overprint) of orogenic peridotites (in

  14. Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation: influence of the type of reticulation and the drying process on the release of the core material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or with transglutaminase and dried using freeze drying or spray drying. Moist samples presented Encapsulation Efficiency (%EE higher than 96%. The mean diameters ranged from 43.7 ± 3.4 to 96.4 ± 10.3 µm for moist samples, from 38.1 ± 5.36 to 65.2 ± 16.1 µm for dried samples, and from 62.5 ± 7.5 to 106.9 ± 26.1 µm for rehydrated microparticles. The integrity of the particles without crosslinking was maintained when freeze drying was used. After spray drying, only crosslinked samples were able to maintain the wall integrity. Microparticles had a round shape and in the case of dried samples rugged walls apparently without cracks were observed. Core distribution inside the particles was multinuclear and homogeneous and core release was evaluated using anhydrous ethanol. Moist particles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde at the concentration of 1.0 mM.g-1 protein (ptn, were more efficient with respect to the core retention compared to 0.1 mM.g-1 ptn or those crosslinked with transglutaminase (10 U.g-1 ptn. The drying processes had a strong influence on the core release profile reducing the amount released to all dry samples

  15. Shear heating and metamorphism in subduction zones, 1. Thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, M. J.; Castro, A. E.; Spear, F. S.

    2017-12-01

    Popular thermal-mechanical models of modern subduction systems are 100-500 °C colder at c. 50 km depth than pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions determined from exhumed metamorphic rocks. This discrepancy has been ascribed by some to profound bias in the rock record, i.e. metamorphic rocks reflect only anomalously warm subduction, not normal subduction. Accurately inferring subduction zone thermal structure, whether from models or rocks, is crucial for predicting depths of seismicity, fluid release, and sub-arc melting conditions. Here, we show that adding realistic shear stresses to thermal models implies P-T conditions quantitatively consistent with those recorded by exhumed metamorphic rocks, suggesting that metamorphic rock P-T conditions are not anomalously warm. Heat flow measurements from subduction zone fore-arcs typically indicate effective coefficients of friction (µ) ranging from 0.025 to 0.1. We included these coefficients of friction in analytical models of subduction zone interface temperatures. Using global averages of subducting plate age (50 Ma), subduction velocity (6 cm/yr), and subducting plate geometry (central Chile), temperatures at 50 km depth (1.5 GPa) increase by c. 200 °C for µ=0.025 to 700 °C for µ=0.1. However, at high temperatures, thermal softening will reduce frictional heating, and temperatures will not increase as much with depth. Including initial weakening of materials ranging from wet quartz (c. 300 °C) to diabase (c. 600 °C) in the analytical models produces concave-upward P-T distributions on P-T diagrams, with temperatures c. 100 to 500 °C higher than models with no shear heating. The absolute P-T conditions and concave-upward shape of the shear-heating + thermal softening models almost perfectly matches the distribution of P-T conditions derived from a compilation of exhumed metamorphic rocks. Numerical models of modern subduction zones that include shear heating also overlap metamorphic data. Thus, excepting the

  16. Structural and magnetic characterization of three tetranuclear Cu(II) complexes with face-sharing-dicubane/double-open-cubane like core framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Aparup; Bertolasi, Valerio; Figuerola, Albert; Manna, Subal Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Three novel tetranuclear copper(II) complexes namely [Cu 4 (L 1 ) 4 ]∙2(dmf) (1), [Cu 4 (L 1 ) 4 ] (2) and [Cu 4 (L 2 ) 2 (HL 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ]∙2(ClO 4 )·6(H 2 O) (3) (H 2 L 1 , (E)−2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol; H 2 L 2 , (E)−2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)−6-methoxyphenol)) were synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The structural determination reveals that crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, whereas both the and crystallize in the triclinic system with space group P-1. and possess face-sharing dicubane core, on the other hand complex 3 has double open cubane core structure. The copper(II) ions in the cubane core are in distorted square planar geometries, and weak π…π and C–H…π interactions lead to formation of a 2D supramolecular architecture for and . At room temperature and , exhibit fluorescence with a quantum yield (Φ s ) of 0.47, 0.49 and 0.38, respectively. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 2–300 K indicate an overall weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in all complexes. The PHI program was used to study their magnetic behaviour. In agreement with their face-sharing dicubane structure, a Hamiltonian of the type H =– J 1 (S 1 S 2 +S 1 S 2’ +S 1' S 2 +S 1' S 2’ ) – J 2 S 1 S 1’ , where S 1 = S 1’ = S 2 = S 2’ = S Cu =1/2, was used for studying and . Simulations performed suggest magnetic exchange constants with values close to J 1 =−20 cm −1 and J 2 =0 cm -1 for these complexes. On the other hand, the spin Hamiltonian H =– J 1 (S 1 S 4 +S 2 S 3 ) – J 2 (S 1 S 3 +S 2 S 4 ) – J 3 S 1 S 2 , where S 1 = S 2 = S 3 = S 4 = S Cu =1/2, was used to study the magnetic behaviour of the double open cubane core of and a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was found by using the parameters g 1 = g 2 =2.20, g 3 = g 4 =2.18, J 1 =−36 cm -1 , J 2

  17. Carboniferous high-pressure metamorphism of Ordovician protoliths in the Argentera Massif (Italy), Southern European Variscan belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Ferrando, Simona; Compagnoni, Roberto; Lombardo, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    The age of high-pressure metamorphism is crucial to identify a suitable tectonic model for the vast Variscan orogeny. Banded H P granulites from the Gesso-Stura Terrain in the Argentera Massif, Italy, have been recently described (Ferrando et al., 2008) relicts of high-pressure metamorphism in the western part of the Variscan orogen. Bulk rock chemistry of representative lithologies reveals intermediate silica contents and calc-alkaline affinity of the various cumulate layers. Enrichment in incompatible elements denotes a significant crustal component in line with intrusion during Ordovician rifting. Magmatic zircon cores from a Pl-rich layer yield scattered ages indicating a minimum protolith age of 486 ± 7 Ma. Carboniferous zircons (340.7 ± 4.2 and 336.3 ± 4.1 Ma) are found in a Pl-rich and a Pl-poor layer, respectively. Their zoning, chemical composition (low Th/U, flat HREE pattern and Ti-in-zircon temperature) and deformation indicate that they formed during the high-pressure event before decompression and mylonitisation. The proposed age for high-pressure metamorphism in the Argentera Massif proves that subduction preceded anatexis by less than 20 Ma. The new data allow a first-order comparison with the Bohemian Massif, which is located at the eastern termination of the Variscan orogen. Similarities in evolution at either end of the orogen support a Himalayan-type tectonic model for the entire European Variscides.

  18. Investigating the response of biotite to impact metamorphism: Examples from the Steen River impact structure, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.; Tschauner, O.

    2018-01-01

    Impact metamorphic effects from quartz and feldspar and to a lesser extent olivine and pyroxene have been studied in detail. Comparatively, studies documenting shock effects in other minerals, such as double chain inosilicates, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates, are lacking. In this study, we investigate impact metamorphism recorded in crystalline basement rocks from the Steen River impact structure (SRIS), a 25 km diameter complex crater in NW Alberta, Canada. An array of advanced analytical techniques was used to characterize the breakdown of biotite in two distinct settings: along the margins of localized regions of shock melting and within granitic target rocks entrained as clasts in a breccia. In response to elevated temperature gradients along shock vein margins, biotite transformed at high pressure to an almandine-Ca/Fe majorite-rich garnet with a density of 4.2 g cm-3. The shock-produced garnets are poikilitic, with oxide and silicate glass inclusions. Areas interstitial to garnets are vesiculated, in support of models for the formation of shock veins via oscillatory slip, with deformation continuing during pressure release. Biotite within granitic clasts entrained within the hot breccia matrix thermally decomposed at ambient pressure to produce a fine-grained mineral assemblage of orthopyroxene + sanidine + titanomagnetite. These minerals are aligned to the (001) cleavage plane of the original crystal. In this and previous work, the transformation of an inosilicate (pargasite) and a phyllosilicate (biotite) to form garnet, an easily identifiable, robust mineral, has been documented. We contend that in deeply eroded astroblemes, high-pressure minerals that form within or in the environs of shock veins may serve as one of the possibly few surviving indicators of impact metamorphism.

  19. The FA Core Complex Contains a Homo-dimeric Catalytic Module for the Symmetric Mono-ubiquitination of FANCI-FANCD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Swuec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the main DNA interstrand crosslink repair pathway in higher eukaryotes requires mono-ubiquitination of FANCI and FANCD2 by FANCL, the E3 ligase subunit of the Fanconi anemia core complex. FANCI and FANCD2 form a stable complex; however, the molecular basis of their ubiquitination is ill defined. FANCD2 mono-ubiquitination by FANCL is stimulated by the presence of the FANCB and FAAP100 core complex components, through an unknown mechanism. How FANCI mono-ubiquitination is achieved remains unclear. Here, we use structural electron microscopy, combined with crosslink-coupled mass spectrometry, to find that FANCB, FANCL, and FAAP100 form a dimer of trimers, containing two FANCL molecules that are ideally poised to target both FANCI and FANCD2 for mono-ubiquitination. The FANCC-FANCE-FANCF subunits bridge between FANCB-FANCL-FAAP100 and the FANCI-FANCD2 substrate. A transient interaction with FANCC-FANCE-FANCF alters the FANCI-FANCD2 configuration, stabilizing the dimerization interface. Our data provide a model to explain how equivalent mono-ubiquitination of FANCI and FANCD2 occurs.

  20. Comparison between results of detailed tectonic studies on borehole core vs microresistivity images of borehole wall from gas-bearing shale complexes, Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Kinga; Jarosiński, Marek; Pachytel, Radomir

    2017-04-01

    , cemented with calcite, were clearly visible in scanner image. We have also observed significantly lower density of veins in core than in the XRMI that occurs systematically in one formation enriched with carbonate and dolomite. In this case, veins are not fractured in core and obliterated for bare eye by dolomitization, but are still contrastive in respect of electric resistance. Calculated density of bedding planes per 1 meter reveals systematically higher density of fractures observed on core than in the XRMI (depicted automatically by interpretation program). This difference may come from additional fracking due to relaxation of borehole core while recovery. Comparison of vertical joint fractures density with thickness of mechanical beds shows either lack of significant trends or a negative correlation (greater density of bedding fractures correspond to lower density of joints). This result, obtained for shale complexes contradict that derived for sandstone or limestone. Boundary between CLUs are visible on both: joint and bedding fracture density profiles. Considering small-scale faults and slickensides we have obtained good agreement between results of core and scanner interpretation. This study in the frame of ShaleMech Project funded by Polish Committee for Scientific Research is in progress and the results are preliminary.

  1. Complex New Product Development projects - How the Project Manager’s Information Sharing With Core Actors Changes Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    2013-01-01

    A heavily burdened project manager must ensure effective information sharing with actors inside and outside the organization because this is a necessary condition for a new product development (NPD) project to achieve its objectives. Knowledge, however, on who actually assists a project manager...... with the information sharing during NPD projects is limited; therefore, this study of longitudinal objective email data (4658 emails) during a NPD project contributes to theory and practice by advancing our understanding of when and how the project manager establishes relationships with different core actors inside...

  2. Kanfenggou UHP Metamorphic Fragment in Eastern Qinling Orogen and Its Relationship to Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    In the Central Orogenic Belt, China, two UHP metamorphic belts are discriminated mainly based on a detailed structural analysis of the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment exposed in the eastern Qinling orogen, and together with previous regional structural, petrological and geochronological data at the scale of the orogenic domain. The first one corresponds to the South Altun-North QaidamNorth Qinling UHP metamorphic belt. The other is the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts. The two UHP metamorphic belts are separated by a series of tectonic slices composed by the Qinling rock group, Danfeng rock group and Liuling or Foziling rock group etc. respectively, and are different in age of the peak UHP metamorphism and geodynamic implications for continental deep subduction and collision. Regional field and petrological relationships suggest that the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment that contains a large volume of the coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses is compatible with the structures recognized in the South Altun and North Qaidam UHP metamorphic fragments exposed in the western part of China, thereby forming a large UHP metamorphic belt up to 1 000 km long along the orogen strike. This UHP metamorphic belt represents an intercontinental deep subduction and collision belt between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons, occurred during the Paleozoic. On the other hand, the well-constrained Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts occurred mainly during Triassic time (250-220 Ma), and were produced by the intrucontinental deep subduction and collision within the Yangtze craton. The Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts along the orogen. There is no reason to assume the two UHP metamorphic belts us a single giant deep subduction and collision zone in the Central Orogenic Belt situated between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Therefore, any dynamic model for the orogen must account

  3. Metamorphic reprocessing of a serpentinized carbonate-bearing peridotite after detachment from the mantle wedge: A P-T path constrained from textures and phase diagrams in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In the central Rhodope mountains of Greece a carbonate-bearing metaperidotite lens ˜ 200 × 500 m in size crops out as part of the high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic Upper Sidironero Complex ˜ 500 m SE of the Gorgona Village, north of Xanthi town. It is composed primarily of coarse grained (3-20 mm in size) olivine and orthopyroxene, medium grained clinohumite and medium to fine grained tremolite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite, talc, antigorite and various spinel phases. Whole-rock chemistry, mineral textures and compositions, and phase diagram calculations show that the metaperidotite was subjected to a prograde HP metamorphism, isofacial with the surrounding migmatitic gneisses, metapelites and amphibolites. The prograde character of metamorphism is demonstrated by inclusions of talc, antigorite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite and Ti-clinohumite in ferrit-chromite, olivine, and orthopyroxene, as well as of olivine in orthopyroxene, and by the typical change in composition of zoned spinel minerals from ferrit-chromite in the core to chromian spinel at the rim. The prograde path is characterized by successive growth of amphibole, Ti-clinohumite, olivine and orthopyroxene, followed by the breakdown of Ti-clinohumite to olivine + Mg-ilmenite and of chlorite to olivine + spinel, probably during exhumation. The construction of a partial petrogenetic P- T grid in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O (CMASCH) for Ca-poor ultramafic bulk compositions has proven highly useful for the reconstruction of the metamorphic evolution and a P- T path, indicating that the use of univariant reactions in mixed volatile systems is highly warranted. The P- T path is clearly constrained to pressures below 1.5-1.7 GPa by the absence of clinopyroxene. These pressures are slightly lower than those recorded in the closely associated Jurassic eclogites and much lower than those recorded in the diamond-bearing gneisses 5 km to the south in the same tectonic unit. The carbonate

  4. Differential equilibration and intergranular diffusion of trace elements during rapid regional metamorphism: constraints from LA-ICP-MS mapping of a garnet population

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, F. R.; Gaidies, F.

    2017-12-01

    Trace element zoning contained within a metapelitic garnet population yields information pertaining to a more complex prograde reaction history than is evident in major element zoning patterns and other conventional analyses. In particular, while trace elements may not act as a rate-limiting component for garnet crystallization, their incorporation into garnet growth surfaces provides a nuanced insight into the crystallization history of the population, and the extent of equilibration of trace elements in the matrix. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS raster maps of trace element concentrations from several population-representative, centrally sectioned garnets from a garnet-grade metapelite of the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Equilibrium forward modeling of garnet crystallization and simulation of diffusional modification indicates that the garnet population crystallized rapidly over <1 Myr between 515 °C/4.5 kbar and 565 °C/5.5 kbar, as a consequence of high heating rates during regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism. While the rate of diffusional homogenization of major divalent cations is interpreted to have exceeded the rate of interfacial advance (yielding simple prograde growth zoning), trace element distributions record a more complex transport history. In particular, yttrium and the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) document a transition from an overprinted sigmoidal core to concentric repeated HREE and yttrium annuli in all crystals. This suggests that there was a discrete increase in the length scale of equilibration along the advancing garnet interface at some point in the growth history. However, there is no evidence for a coeval change in HREE transport thorough the intergranular network. Conversely, spiral core-to-rim zoning of chromium indicates the element remains almost completely immobile in the matrix over the duration of garnet growth.

  5. Mechanical Mixing and Metamorphism of Mafic and Ultramafic Lithologies during Mylonisis at the ST. Paul Transform System, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrião, Á.; Maia, M.; Hemond, C.; Kaczmarek, M. A.; Briais, A.; Vincent, C.; Brunelli, D.

    2017-12-01

    The St. Paul Transform System offsets by 630 km the Equatorial Mid Atlantic Ridge at 1° N. It consists of four major faults separating three intra transform ridge axes. This region shows a transition from a transpressive, hot spot affected, regional-scale shear zone to the North to a region dominated by a particular oceanic core complex spreading to the South (Vincent et al., this congress). Samples collected in the region during the COLMEIA cruise (Maia et al., 2016) were studied for textures and whole-rock major and trace element contents. All samples experienced pervasive deformation at ductile to brittle conditions overprinted by late low-T alteration. Mylonitic and ultramylonitic rocks can be grouped in three main types: peridotitic, gabbroic and talc-chlorite schist. Peridotitic ultramylonites preserve few opx, cpx and sp porphyroclasts; they have homogeneous nano-micro grain size groundmass, banded foliation and late amphibole and sulfide crystallization. Locally S-C fabric overprints the mylonitic texture. Micro cracks, filled with serpentine, chlorite and oxides are common, as well fluid inclusions trails in olivine and plagioclase crystals of peridotite and gabbros respectively. Major and trace element content of the peridotitic mylonites plot in the depleted field of the abyssal peridotites; however, they present marked LREE enrichment and Eu positive anomaly. Gabbroic and talc-chlorite mylonites display REE-enriched patterns (up to 100x CI) and variable Eu anomalies. Major elements show a remarkable linear trend in the talc-chlorite group suggesting mixing of pure talc and chlorite end-members. These compositional characteristics suggest variable assimilation of MORB and E-MORB during mylonisis or early melt-rock interaction and hydrothermal evolution at variable metamorphic conditions. Vincent et al., 2017. Particular Oceanic Core Complex evolution …; this congress Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation ... Nat. Geo. doi:10

  6. Metamorphic history and age of aluminous gneisses of the Belomorian belt of the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Borisova, E.Yu.; Makarov, V.A.; Drugova, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Metamorphic conditions and age are determined for the early metamorphic stage of aluminous gneisses in the Chupa nappe in the Belomorian Mobile Belt. The granulite-facies metamorphic conditions during Late Archean time are determined based on the composition of garnet and biotie from the metapelites. The early metamorphic stage was dated at 2860 ± 30 Ma based on the U-Pb systematics of granulitic zircon from the metapelites. The U-Pb isotopic system of the zircon was strongly affected by Svecogennian metamorphism (at 1750 Ma). The geodynamic evolution of the Belomorian Mobile Belt is discussed in light of the data of this work

  7. Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoviev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    deformation systems. 2) folded (folded-thrust) deformation systems combine deformation zones with relic lenses of Paleozoid substratum, and predominantly conform systems of the main faults. Despite a high degree of regional deformation the sedimentary-stratified and intrusive-contact relations of geological bodies are stored within the deformation systems, and this differs in the main the collision systems from zones of dynamic metamorphism. 3) regional zones of dynamic metamorphism of Kuznetsk-Altai region are the concentration belts of multiple mechanic deformations and contrast dynamometamorphism of complexes. The formational basis of dynamic metamorphism zones is tectonites of the collision stage. Zones of dynamic metamorphism attract special attention in the structural model of Kuznetsk-Altai region. They not only form the typical tectonic framework of collision sutures, but also contain the main part of ore deposits of this region. Pulse mode of structure formation of Kuznetsk-Altai region is detected. Major collision events in Kuznetsk-Altai region were in the late-Carboniferous-Triassic time (307-310, 295-285, 260-250 and 240-220 Ma). This study was supported by a grant of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project nos. 14-05-00117).

  8. Stacking and metamorphism of continuous segments of subducted lithosphere in a high-pressure wedge: The example of Alpine Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Malavieille, Jacques; Molli, Giancarlo; Beltrando, Marco; Compagnoni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Alpine Corsica consists of a stack of variably metamorphosed units of continental and Tethys-derived rocks. It represents an excellent example of high-pressure (HP) orogenic belt, such as the Western Alps, exposed over a small and accessible area. Compared to the Western Alps, the geology of Alpine Corsica is poorly unraveled. During the 1970s-80s, based on either lithostratigraphic or metamorphic field observations, various classifications of the belt have been proposed, but these classifications have been rarely matched together. Furthermore, through time, the internal complexity of large domains has been progressively left aside in the frame of large-scale geodynamic reconstructions. As a consequence, major open questions on the internal structure of the belt have remained unsolved. Apart from a few local studies, Alpine Corsica has not benefited of modern developments in petrology and basin research. This feature results in several uncertainties when combining lithostratigraphic and metamorphic patterns and, consequently, in the definition of an exhaustive architecture of the belt. In this paper we provide a review on the geology of Alpine Corsica, paying particular attention to the available lithostratigraphic and metamorphic classifications of the metamorphic terranes. These data are completed by a new and exhaustive metamorphic dataset obtained by means of thermometry based on Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Material (RSCM). This technique provides reliable insights on the peak temperature of the metamorphic history for CM-bearing metasediments. A detailed metamorphic characterization of metasediments, which have been previously largely ignored due to retrogression or to the lack of diagnostic mineralogy, is thus obtained and fruitfully coupled with the available lithostratigraphic data. Nine main tectono-metamorphic units are defined, from subgreenschist (ca. 280-300 °C) to the lawsonite-eclogite-facies (ca. 500-550 °C) condition. These units are

  9. Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses near the northern margin of the Natal structural and metamorphic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogings, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses occur within three granitoid complexes at Ngoye, Bull's Run and Wangu, near the northern margin of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. A wide range of rock types is present, from nepheline syenite gneisses through to peralkaline granite gneisses, with minor carbonatite and monzodiorite gneiss intrusive phases noted within two of the bodies. It is suggested that the three alkaline gneiss occurences so far mapped constitute the remnants of a metamorphosed alkaline magmatic province, and that such magmatism occured either in a post-collisional or anorogenic post-D1, pre-D2 tectonic setting. The three complexes are described with respect to mineralogy and chemistry, followed by a brief overview of the possible tectonic setting at the time of their intrusion. 1 tab., 3 refs

  10. Dense SDM (12-core × 3-mode) transmission over 527 km with 33.2-ns mode-dispersion employing low-complexity parallel MIMO frequency-domain equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibahara, K.; Mizuno, T.; Takara, H.

    We demonstrate 12-core × 3-mode dense SDM transmission over 527 km graded-index multi-core few-mode fiber without mode-dispersion management. Employing low baud rate multi-carrier signal and frequency-domain equalization enables 33.2-ns DMD compensation with low computational complexity. © 2015 OSA...

  11. Recent massive sulfide deposits of the Semenov ore district, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 13°31' N: Associated rocks of the oceanic core complex and their hydrothermal alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsev, A. N.; Bortnikov, N. S.; Vlasov, E. A.; Beltenev, V. E.; Dobretsova, I. G.; Ageeva, O. A.

    2012-09-01

    The oceanic core complexes and large-offset detachment faults characteristic of the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge are crucial for the structural control of large hydrothermal systems, including those forming sub-seafloor polymetallic sulfide mineralization. The structural-geological, petrographic, and mineralogical data are considered for the oceanic core complex enclosing the Semenov-1, -2, -3, -4, and -5 inactive hydrothermal sulfide fields recently discovered on the Mid-Oceanic Ridge at 13°31' N. The oceanic core complex is composed of serpentinized and talc-replaced peridotites and sporadic gabbroic rocks, however, all hydrothermal fields reveal compositional indications of basaltic substrate. The volcanic structures superposed on the oceanic core complex are marked by outcrops of pillow lavas with fresh quenched glass. Dolerites regarded as volcanic conduits seem to represent separate dike swarms. The superposed volcanic structures develop largely along the near-latitudinal high-angle tectonic zone controlling the Semenov-1, -2, -5, and -3 hydrothermal sulfide fields. The manifestations of hydrothermal metasomatic alteration are diverse. The widespread talcose rocks with pyrrhotite-pyrite mineralization after serpentinite, as well as finding of talc-chlorite metabasalt are interpreted as products of hydrothermal activity in the permeable zone of detachment fault. Chloritization and brecciation of basalts with superposed quartz or opal, barite, and pyrite or chalcopyrite mineralization directly related to the sub-seafloor sulfide deposition. The native copper mineralization in almost unaltered basalts at the Semenov-4 field is suggested to precipitate from ore-forming fluids before they reach the level of sub-seafloor sulfide deposition. Amphibolites with plagiogranite veinlets are interpreted as tectonic fragments of the highest-temperature portions of hydrothermal systems, where partial melting of basic rocks in the presence of aqueous fluid with

  12. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  13. Metamorphic rocks in the deep boreholes near Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Trajanova

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Six research-captive boreholes for thermal water passed through a pile of metamorphic rocks near Maribor (Eastern Slovenia that is on average about 1000 m thick. The succession of metamorphic rocks is characteristic for the Pohorje Mt. and eastern Kobansko region. In the area of the boreholes two tectonic zones are more pronounced: the upper one, at a depth of about 510 to 550 m at the contact of the Štelenska Gora and Phyllite formations and the deeper one at a depth of about 460 to 590 m, indicating the reverse fault junction of the Phyllite and Kobansko formations. They belong to the second andthe third thrust unit of the accretionary wedge formed at the collision of the European and African plates. Four Alpine nappe units are proven in the Slovenian part of the Eastern Alps.

  14. Core level photoelectron spectroscopy of LiGaS2 and Ga-S bonding in complex sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Isaenko, L.I.; Kesler, V.G.; Lobanov, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    The electronic parameters of the lithium thiogallate LiGaS 2 have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spectral features of all constituent element core levels and Auger lines have been considered. The Ga-S bonding effects in Ga-bearing sulfide crystals have been discussed using binding energy difference Δ 2p (S-Ga) = BE(S 2p) - BE(Ga 3d) as a representative parameter to quantify the valence electron shift from gallium to sulfur atoms. The value Δ 2p (S-Ga) = 141.9 eV found for LiGaS 2 is very close to that evaluated for AgGaS 2 . This relation is an indicator of closely coincident ionicity of Ga-S bonds in LiGaS 2 and AgGaS 2 .

  15. Core level photoelectron spectroscopy of LiGaS{sub 2} and Ga-S bonding in complex sulfides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, V.V., E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.r [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, 13, Lavrentieva Ave., Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Isaenko, L.I. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Laboratory of Physical Bases of Integrated Microelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Lobanov, S.I. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-14

    The electronic parameters of the lithium thiogallate LiGaS{sub 2} have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spectral features of all constituent element core levels and Auger lines have been considered. The Ga-S bonding effects in Ga-bearing sulfide crystals have been discussed using binding energy difference {Delta}{sub 2p}(S-Ga) = BE(S 2p) - BE(Ga 3d) as a representative parameter to quantify the valence electron shift from gallium to sulfur atoms. The value {Delta}{sub 2p}(S-Ga) = 141.9 eV found for LiGaS{sub 2} is very close to that evaluated for AgGaS{sub 2}. This relation is an indicator of closely coincident ionicity of Ga-S bonds in LiGaS{sub 2} and AgGaS{sub 2}.

  16. Pathway to 50% Efficient Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); France, Ryan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perl, Emmett [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Series-connected five (5J) and six junction (6J) concentrator solar cell strategies have the realistic potential to exceed 50% efficiency to enable low-cost CPV systems. We propose three strategies for developing a practical 6J device. We have overcome many of the challenges required to build such concentrator solar cell devices: We have developed 2.1 eV AlGaInP, 1.7 eV AlGaAs, and 1.7 eV GaInAsP junctions with external radiative efficiency greater than 0.1%. We have developed a transparent tunnel junction that absorbs minimal light intended for the second junction yet resists degradation under thermal load. We have developed metamorphic grades from the GaAs to the InP lattice constant that are transparent to sub-GaAs bandgap light. We have grown and compared low bandgap junctions (0.7eV - 1.2 eV) using metamorphic GaInAs, metamorphic GaInAsP, and GaInAsP lattice-matched to InP. And finally, we have demonstrated excellent performance in a high voltage, low current 4 junction inverted metamorphic device using 2.1, 1.7, 1.4, and 1.1 eV junctions with over 8.7 mA/cm2 one-sun current density that operates up to 1000 suns without tunnel junction failure.

  17. Diffusion models in metamorphic thermo chronology: philosophy and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munha, Jose Manuel; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta

    1999-01-01

    Understanding kinetics of diffusion is of major importance to the interpretation of isotopic ages in metamorphic rocks. This paper provides a review of concepts and methodologies involved on the various diffusion models that can be applied to radiogenic systems in cooling rocks. The central concept of closure temperature is critically discussed and quantitative estimates for the various diffusion models are evaluated, in order to illustrate the controlling factors and the limits of their practical application. (author)

  18. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Taichi; Takahashi, Akihisa; Kondo, Natsuko; Mori, Eiichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Ohnishi, Ken; Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.; Thompson, Larry H.; Helleday, Thomas; Asada, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA -/- , FANCC -/- , FANCA -/- C -/- , FANCD2 -/- and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical γH2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA -/- , FANCC -/- and FANCA -/- C -/- cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2 -/- cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, γH2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: → We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). → DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. → This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. → We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  19. Software concepts for the build-up of complex systems - selection and realization taking as example a program system for calculation of hypothetical core meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuermann, W.

    1994-10-01

    Development and application of simulation systems for the analysis of complex processes require on the one hand and detailed engineering knowledge of the plant and the processes to be simulated and on the other hand a detailled knowledge about software engineering, numerics and data structures. The cooperation of specialists of both areas will become easier if it is possible to reduce the complexicity of the problems to be solved in a way that the analyses will not be disturbed and the communication between different disciplines will not become unnecessarily complicated. One solution to reduce the complexity is to consider computer science as an engineering discipline which provides mainly abstract elements and to allow engineers to build application systems based on these abstract elements. The principle of abstraction leads through the processes of modularisation and the solution of the interface problem to an almost problem independent system architecture where the elements of the system (modules, model components and models) operate only on those data assigned to them. In addition the development of abstract data types allows the formal description of the relations and interactions between system elements. This work describes how these ideas can be concretized to build complex systems which allow reliable and effective problem solutions. These ideas were applied successfully during the design, realization and application of the code system KESS, which allows the analysis of core melt down accidents in pressurized water reactors. (orig.) [de

  20. Age and significance of core complex formation in a very curved orogen: Evidence from fission track studies in the South Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fügenschuh, B.; Schmid, S. M.

    2005-07-01

    Twenty-four new zircon and apatite fission track ages from the Getic and Danubian nappes in the South Carpathians are discussed in the light of a compilation of published fission track data. A total of 101 fission track ages indicates that the Getic nappes are generally characterized by Cretaceous zircon and apatite fission track ages, indicating cooling to near-surface temperatures of these units immediately following Late Cretaceous orogeny. The age distribution of the Danubian nappes, presently outcropping in the Danubian window below the Getic nappes, depends on the position with respect to the Cerna-Jiu fault. Eocene and Oligocene zircon and apatite central ages from the part of the Danubian core complex situated southeast of this fault monitor mid-Tertiary tectonic exhumation in the footwall of the Getic detachment, while zircon fission track data from northwest of this fault indicate that slow cooling started during the Latest Cretaceous. The change from extension (Getic detachment) to strike-slip dominated tectonics along the curved Cerna-Jiu fault allowed for further exhumation on the concave side of this strike-slip fault, while exhumation ceased on the convex side. The available fission track data consistently indicate that the change to fast cooling associated with tectonic denudation by core complex formation did not occur before Late Eocene times, i.e. long after the cessation of Late Cretaceous thrusting. Core complex formation in the Danubian window is related to a larger-scale scenario that is characterized by the NNW-directed translation, followed by a 90° clockwise rotation of the Tisza-Dacia "block" due to roll-back of the Carpathian embayment. This led to a complex pattern of strain partitioning within the Tisza-Dacia "block" adjacent to the western tip of the rigid Moesian platform. Our results suggest that the invasion of these southernmost parts of Tisza-Dacia started before the Late Eocene, i.e. significantly before the onset of Miocene

  1. AJUBA LIM Proteins Limit Hippo Activity in Proliferating Cells by Sequestering the Hippo Core Kinase Complex in the Cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Radhika; Schimizzi, Gregory V; Zhang, Kun; Loza, Andrew J; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hitoshi; Longmore, Gregory D

    2016-10-15

    The Hippo pathway controls organ growth and is implicated in cancer development. Whether and how Hippo pathway activity is limited to sustain or initiate cell growth when needed is not understood. The members of the AJUBA family of LIM proteins are negative regulators of the Hippo pathway. In mammalian epithelial cells, we found that AJUBA LIM proteins limit Hippo regulation of YAP, in proliferating cells only, by sequestering a cytosolic Hippo kinase complex in which LATS kinase is inhibited. At the plasma membranes of growth-arrested cells, AJUBA LIM proteins do not inhibit or associate with the Hippo kinase complex. The ability of AJUBA LIM proteins to inhibit YAP regulation by Hippo and to associate with the kinase complex directly correlate with their capacity to limit Hippo signaling during Drosophila wing development. AJUBA LIM proteins did not influence YAP activity in response to cell-extrinsic or cell-intrinsic mechanical signals. Thus, AJUBA LIM proteins limit Hippo pathway activity in contexts where cell proliferation is needed. Copyright © 2016 Jagannathan et al.

  2. First evidence of the Ellesmerian metamorphism on Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Schneider, David A.

    2016-04-01

    The Ellesmerian fold-and-thrust belt is exposed in the High Arctic from Ellesmere Island in the east, through North Greenland, to Svalbard in the west (e.g. Piepjohn et al., 2015). It developed during Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous, and overprinted older (mainly Caledonian) structures. It is thought that this fold-and-thrust belt was formed due to collision of the Pearya Terrane and Svalbard with the Franklinian Basin of Laurentia. Traditionally, the Ellesmerian fold-and-thrust belt comprises a passive continental margin affected by foreland deformation processes, but the exact larger scale tectonic context of this belt is disputable. It is partly because the Eocene Eurekan deformation superimposed significantly the Ellesmerian structures, thus making the reconstruction of the pre-Eurekan history very difficult. Here we present for the first time evidence for Ellesmerian metamorphism within the crystalline basement of Svalbard. These rocks are exposed in the Pinkie unit on Prins Karls Forland (W-Svalbard), which exhibits tectonic contacts with the overlying sequences. The Pinkie unit is mainly composed of strongly deformed lithologies such as laminated quartzites, siliciclastic rocks and garnet-bearing mica schists. Detrital zircon dating yielded ages as young as Neoproterozoic (0.95-1.05 Ga), thus the Pinkie unit is considered to be Neoproterozoic (Kośmińska et al., 2015a). The M1 assemblages and D1 structures are affected by D2 mylonitization (cf. Faehnrich et al., 2016, this meeting). Petrological characterization and Th-U-total Pb chemical monazite dating have been performed on the Pinkie metapelites. These rocks exhibit an apparent inverted Barrovian metamorphic sequence, within which three metamorphic zones have been distinguished: garnet+staurolite+muscovite+biotite, garnet+staurolite+kyanite+muscovite+biotite, garnet+kyanite+muscovite+biotite. The P-T estimates using the QuiG barometry coupled with thermodynamic modelling revealed that the

  3. Collaborative Observation and Research (CORE) Watersheds: new strategies for tracking the regional effects of climate change on complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, P. S.

    2007-12-01

    The past 30 years of environmental research have shown that our world is not made up of discrete components acting independently, but rather of a mosaic of complex relations among air, land, water, living resources, and human activities. Recent warming of the climate is having a significant effect on the functioning of those systems. A national imperative is developing to quickly establish local, regional, and national systems for anticipating environmental degradation from a changing climate and developing cost-effective adaptation or mitigation strategies. In these circumstances, the debate over research versus monitoring becomes moot--there is a clear need for the integrated application of both across a range of temporal and spatial scales. A national framework that effectively addresses the multiple scales and complex multi-disciplinary processes of climate change is being assembled largely from existing programs through collaboration among Federal, State, local, and NGO organizations. The result will be an observation and research network capable of interpreting complex environmental changes at a range of spatial and temporal scales, but at less cost than if the network were funded as an independent initiative. A pilot implementation of the collaborative framework in the Delaware River Basin yielded multi-scale assessments of carbon storage and flux, and the effects of forest fragmentation and soil calcium depletion on ecosystem function. A prototype of a national climate-effects observation and research network linking research watersheds, regional surveys, remote sensing, and ecosystem modeling is being initiated in the Yukon River Basin where carbon flux associated with permafrost thaw could accelerate global warming.

  4. Ediacaran ( 620 Ma) high grade regional metamorphism in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield: U/Th-Pb monazite ages of the Elat schist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisha, Bar; Katzir, Yaron; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Ediacaran times witnessed a hemisphere-scale orogenesis forming the extensive Pan-African mountain ranges and resulting in the final assembly of Gondwana supercontinent. The Elat metamorphic basement (S Israel) located at the northernmost tip of a major Pan-African orogenic suture, the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS), comprises amphibolite facies schists and gneisses and was most likely shaped by this major continental collision. However the timing, number and duration of metamorphic events in Elat and elsewhere in the ANS are non-conclusive and a major emphasis was given to pre-Ediacaran island-arc related tectonics. This is mostly because U-Pb dating of zircon, widely used in Elat and elsewhere, is very successful in constraining the ages of the igneous and sedimentary protoliths, but is 'blind' to metamorphism at grades lower than granulite. Here U/Th-Pb dating of monazite, a precise chronometer of metamorphic mineral growth, is systematically applied to the Elat schist and unveils the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Elat basement. Previous U-Pb dating of detrital zircon has shown that the sedimentary protoliths of the Elat schist are the oldest basement components (≥800 Ma), and detailed structural observations of the schists portrayed a complex deformation history including four successive phases (Shimron, 1972). The earliest three phases were defined as ductile and penetrative, but some of the available geochronological data apparently contradict field relations. In-situ analysis of metamorphic monazites by LASS (Laser Ablation Split Stream) involves simultaneous measurement of U/Th-Pb isotope ratios and REE contents in a single 10 μm sized grain or domain, thus allowing determining the age of specific texture and metamorphic assemblage. Monazite dating of the Elat schist yielded two concordant age clusters at 712±6 and 613±5 Ma. The corresponding REE patterns of the dated monazite grains indicate that porphyroblast growth, either garnet or staurolite

  5. Structural and magnetic characterization of three tetranuclear Cu(II) complexes with face-sharing-dicubane/double-open-cubane like core framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Aparup [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, West Bengal (India); Bertolasi, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Centro di Strutturistica Diffrattometrica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari, 46, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Figuerola, Albert [Departament de Química Inorgànica i Orgànica (Secció de Química Inorgànica) and Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (IN2UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Manna, Subal Chandra, E-mail: scmanna@mail.vidyasagar.ac.in [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, West Bengal (India)

    2017-05-15

    Three novel tetranuclear copper(II) complexes namely [Cu{sub 4}(L{sup 1}){sub 4}]∙2(dmf) (1), [Cu{sub 4}(L{sup 1}){sub 4}] (2) and [Cu{sub 4}(L{sup 2}){sub 2}(HL{sup 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]∙2(ClO{sub 4})·6(H{sub 2}O) (3) (H{sub 2}L{sup 1}, (E)−2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol; H{sub 2}L{sup 2}, (E)−2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)−6-methoxyphenol)) were synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The structural determination reveals that crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, whereas both the and crystallize in the triclinic system with space group P-1. and possess face-sharing dicubane core, on the other hand complex 3 has double open cubane core structure. The copper(II) ions in the cubane core are in distorted square planar geometries, and weak π…π and C–H…π interactions lead to formation of a 2D supramolecular architecture for and . At room temperature and , exhibit fluorescence with a quantum yield (Φ{sub s}) of 0.47, 0.49 and 0.38, respectively. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 2–300 K indicate an overall weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in all complexes. The PHI program was used to study their magnetic behaviour. In agreement with their face-sharing dicubane structure, a Hamiltonian of the type H =– J{sub 1}(S{sub 1}S{sub 2}+S{sub 1}S{sub 2’}+S{sub 1'}S{sub 2}+S{sub 1'}S{sub 2’}) – J{sub 2}S{sub 1}S{sub 1’}, where S{sub 1} = S{sub 1’} = S{sub 2} = S{sub 2’} = S{sub Cu} =1/2, was used for studying and . Simulations performed suggest magnetic exchange constants with values close to J{sub 1} =−20 cm{sup −1} and J{sub 2} =0 cm{sup -1} for these complexes. On the other hand, the spin Hamiltonian H =– J{sub 1}(S{sub 1}S{sub 4}+S{sub 2}S{sub 3}) – J{sub 2}(S{sub 1}S{sub 3}+S{sub 2}S{sub 4}) – J{sub 3}S{sub 1}S{sub 2}, where S{sub 1} = S{sub 2} = S{sub 3} = S{sub 4

  6. High mobility group protein number17 cross-links primarily to histone H2A in the reconstituted HMG 17 - nucleosome core particle complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.R.; Yau, P.; Yasuda, H.; Traut, R.R.; Bradbury, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The neighbor relationship of lamb thymus High Mobility Group (HMG) protein 17 to native HeLa nucleosome core particle histones in the reconstituted complex has been studied. 125 I-labeled HMG 17 was cross-linking to core histones using the protein-protein cross-linking reagent 2-iminothiolane. Specific cross-linked products were separated on a two-dimensional Triton-acid-urea/SDS gel system, located by autoradiography, excised and quantified. Disulfide bonds in the cross links were then cleaved and the protein constituents were identified by SDS gel electrophoresis. HMG 17 cross-linked primarily to histone H2A while lower levels of cross-linking occurred between HMG 17 and the other histones. In contrast, cross-linking between two HMG 17 molecules bound on the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that the same nucleosome was relatively rare. It is concluded that H2A comprises part of the HMG 17 binding site but that HMG 17 is sufficiently elongated and mobile to permit cross-linking to the other histones and to a second HMG 17 molecule. These results are in agreement with the current model for the structure of the nucleosome and the proposed binding sites for HMG 17

  7. Microstructures of the Kirsehir Complex, Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISIK, V.; Caglayan, A.; Uysal, T.; Bolhar, R.

    2011-12-01

    Turkey is positioned on the boundary between the Eurasian and African/Arabian plates, providing an ideal natural laboratory for learning passive and active earth processes such as deformation, metamorphism, earthquakes and volcanism. Central Turkey historically has played an important role in evolution of the Alpine orogeny. The Kirsehir Complex is one of three Mesozoic-Early Tertiary metamorphic and plutonic mid-crustal basement units exposed in central Turkey. The most common lithology of the metamorphites are the banded gneisses, which are intercalated with layers of schists, amphibolites and quartzite, and marbles representing the structurally the highest metamorphites of the study area. The metamorphites are characterized by multiple folding episodes and overprinting faults (thrust, normal and strike-slip). These metamorphites reached peak metamorphic conditions of upper amphibolite facies, as indicated by local presence of clinopyroxene, sillimanite, hornblende, andalusite and garnet. Later, retrograde greenschist facies conditions were attained characterized by the alteration of feldspar and mafic minerals to muscovite and chlorite/actinolite, respectively. The microstructures of selected minerals can be used to bracket the metamorphic grade during which microstructure formed. Quartz displays undulose extinction, deformation bands, subgrains and deformation lamellae, and recrystallisation. The presence of lobate grain boundaries of quartz indicates that GBM recrystallisation occurred. Undulose extinction and recrystallisation are common in micas. Recrystallisation, core-mantle structures in feldspar, myrmekites in K-feldspars within the gneisses suggest that deformation occurred within the amphibolite facies. Garnet occurs as slightly elliptical porphroclats. Sillimanite is present as fibrolite growing near biotite and microboudinaged. Andalusite porphyroblast/porphroclats are elongate and microboudinaged. Kinematic indicators (asymmetric mantled grains, S

  8. Timing of metamorphism of the Lansang gneiss and implications for left-lateral motion along the Mae Ping (Wang Chao) strike-slip fault, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Searle, M. P.; Morley, C. K.; Charusiri, P.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Roberts, N. M. W.

    2013-10-01

    The Mae Ping fault (MPF), western Thailand, exhibits dominantly left-lateral strike-slip motion and stretches for >600 km, reportedly branching off the right-lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and extending southeast towards Cambodia. Previous studies have suggested that the fault assisted the large-scale extrusion of Sundaland that occurred during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, with a geological offset of ˜120-150 km estimated from displaced high-grade gneisses and granites of the Chiang Mai-Lincang belt. Exposures of high-grade orthogneiss in the Lansang National Park, part of this belt, locally contain strong mylonitic textures and are bounded by strike-slip ductile shear zones and brittle faults. Geochronological analysis of monazite from a sample of sheared biotite-K-feldspar orthogneiss suggests two episodes of crystallization, with core regions documenting Th-Pb ages between c. 123 and c. 114 Ma and rim regions documenting a significantly younger age range between c. 45-37 Ma. These data are interpreted to represent possible magmatic protolith emplacement for the Lansang orthogneiss during the Early Cretaceous, with a later episode of metamorphism occurring during the Eocene. Textural relationships provided by in situ analysis suggest that ductile shearing along the MPF occurred during the latter stages of, or after, this metamorphic event. In addition, monazite analyzed from an undeformed garnet-two-mica granite dyke intruding metamorphic units at Bhumipol Lake outside of the Mae Ping shear zone produced a Th-Pb age of 66.2 ± 1.6 Ma. This age is interpreted to date the timing of dyke emplacement, implying that the MPF cuts through earlier formed magmatic and high-grade metamorphic rocks. These new data, when combined with regional mapping and earlier geochronological work, show that neither metamorphism, nor regional cooling, was directly related to strike-slip motion.

  9. Repair pathways independent of the Fanconi anemia nuclear core complex play a predominant role in mitigating formaldehyde-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Taichi [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Kondo, Natsuko [Particle Radiation Oncology Research Center, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Biology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Ken [Department of Biology, Ibaraki Prefectual University of Health Sciences, 4669-2 Ami, Ami-mati, Inasiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus-Copernicus-University in Torun, ul. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, 85-094 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Thompson, Larry H. [Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, L452, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Helleday, Thomas [Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Off Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Asada, Hideo [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); and others

    2011-01-07

    The role of the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway for DNA damage induced by formaldehyde was examined in the work described here. The following cell types were used: mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-}, FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-}, FANCD2{sup -/-} and their parental cells, the Chinese hamster cell lines FANCD1 mutant (mt), FANCGmt, their revertant cells, and the corresponding wild-type (wt) cells. Cell survival rates were determined with colony formation assays after formaldehyde treatment. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were detected with an immunocytochemical {gamma}H2AX-staining assay. Although the sensitivity of FANCA{sup -/-}, FANCC{sup -/-} and FANCA{sup -/-}C{sup -/-} cells to formaldehyde was comparable to that of proficient cells, FANCD1mt, FANCGmt and FANCD2{sup -/-} cells were more sensitive to formaldehyde than the corresponding proficient cells. It was found that homologous recombination (HR) repair was induced by formaldehyde. In addition, {gamma}H2AX foci in FANCD1mt cells persisted for longer times than in FANCD1wt cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde-induced DSBs are repaired by HR through the FA repair pathway which is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. -- Research highlights: {yields} We examined to clarify the repair pathways of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage. Formaldehyde induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). {yields} DSBs are repaired through the Fanconi anemia (FA) repair pathway. {yields} This pathway is independent of the FA nuclear core complex. {yields} We also found that homologous recombination repair was induced by formaldehyde.

  10. Teaching Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Through Guided Inquiry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, N. J.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate Petrology at New Mexico State University (GEOL 399) has been taught using three, 5-6 week long projects in place of lectures, lab, and exams for the last six years. Reasons for changing from the traditional format include: 1) to move the focus from identification and memorization to petrologic thinking; 2) the need for undergraduate students to apply basic chemical, structural, and field concepts to igneous and metamorphic rocks; 3) student boredom in the traditional mode by the topic that has captivated my professional life, in spite of my best efforts to offer thrilling lectures, problems, and labs. The course has three guided inquiry projects: volcanic, plutonic, and pelitic dynamothermal. Two of the rock suites are investigated during field trips. Each project provides hand samples and thin sections; the igneous projects also include whole-rock major and trace element data. Students write a scientific paper that classifies and describes the rocks, describes the data (mineralogical and geochemical), and uses data to interpret parameters such as tectonic setting, igneous processes, relationship to phase diagrams, geologic history, metamorphic grade, metamorphic facies, and polymetamorphic history. Students use the text as a major resource for self-learning; mini-lectures on pertinent topics are presented when needed by the majority of students. Project scores include evaluation of small parts of the paper due each Friday and participation in peer review as well as the final report. I have found that petrology is much more fun, although more difficult, to teach using this method. It is challenging to be totally prepared for class because students are working at different speeds on different levels on different aspects of the project. Students enjoy the course, especially the opportunity to engage in scientific investigation and debate. A significant flaw in this course is that students see fewer rocks and have less experience in rock classification

  11. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better

  12. Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  13. Towards an integrated magmatic, structural and metamorphic model for the 1.1-0.9 Ga Sveconorwegian orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagstad, Trond; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Røhr, Torkil S.; Marker, Mogens K.

    2013-04-01

    Orogeny involves magmatic, metamorphic, deformational and erosional processes that are caused by or lead to crustal thickening and the development of high topography. In general, these processes operate along the margins of continental plates, either as a result of subduction of oceanic crust (accretionary) or collision between two or more continental plates (collisional). Many of these processes are common to accretionary and collisional orogeny, and do not uniquely discriminate between the two. With only a fragmented geological record, unravelling the style of orogenesis in ancient orogens may, therefore, be far from straightforward. Adding to the complexity, modern continental margins, e.g., the southern Asian margin, display significant variation in orogenic style along strike, rendering along-strike comparisons and correlations unreliable. The late Mesoproterozoic Sveconorwegian province in SW Baltica is traditionally interpreted as the eastward continuation of the Grenville province in Canada, resulting from collision with Amazonia and forming a central part in the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. We recently proposed that the Sveconorwegian segment of this orogen formed as a result of accretionary processes rather than collision. This hypothesis was based mainly on considerations of the Sveconorwegian magmatic evolution. Here, we show how the metamorphic/structural record supports (or at least may be integrated in) our model as well. The key elements in our accretionary model are: 1) formation of the Sirdal Magmatic Belt (SMB) between 1070 and 1020 Ma, most likely representing a continental arc batholith. Coeval deformation and high-grade metamorphism farther east in the orogen could represent deformation in the retroarc. 2) cessation of SMB magmatism at 1020 Ma followed by UHT conditions at 1010-1005 Ma, with temperatures in excess of 1000°C at 7.5 kbar. Subduction of a spreading ridge at ca. 1020 Ma would result in an end to arc magmatism and

  14. Internal deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts. Structures formed by complex deformation and high contrasts in viscosity observed in drill cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-04-01

    During the evaporation of a massive salt body, alternations of interrupted and full evaporation sequences can form a complex layering of different lithologies. Viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude between these different lithologies are possible in this environment. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. How up to 200m thick layers of these evaporites affect salt deformation at different scales is not well known. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt. To gain a better understanding of the internal deformation of these layers we analyzed K-Mg salt rich drill cores out of the Zechstein III-1b subunit from the Veendam Pillow 10 km southeast of Groningen, near the city Veendam in the NE Netherlands. The study area has a complex geological history with multiple tectonic phases of extension and compression forming internal deformation in the pillow but also conserving most of the original layering. Beside halite the most common minerals in the ZIII-1b are carnallite, kieserite, anhydrite and bischofite alternating in thin layers of simple composition. Seismic interpretation revealed that the internal structure of the Veendam Pillow shows areas, in which the K-Mg salt rich ZIII 1b layer is much thicker than elsewhere, as a result of salt deformation. The internal structure of the ZIII-1b on the other hand, remains unknown. The core analysis shows a strong strain concentration in the weaker Bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) and Carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) rich layers producing tectonic breccias and highly strained layers completely overprinting the original layering. Layers formed by alternating beds

  15. A metamorphic controller for plant control system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Klopot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in the design of industrial control systems is the selection and parameterization of the control algorithm. In practice, the most common solution is the PI (proportional-integral controller, which is simple to implement, but is not always the best control strategy. The use of more advanced controllers may result in a better efficiency of the control system. However, the implementation of advanced control algorithms is more time-consuming and requires specialized knowledge from control engineers. To overcome these problems and to support control engineers at the controller design stage, the paper describes a tool, i.e., a metamorphic controller with extended functionality, for selection and implementation of the most suitable control algorithm. In comparison to existing solutions, the main advantage of the metamorphic controller is its possibility of changing the control algorithm. In turn, the candidate algorithms can be tested through simulations and the total time needed to perform all simulations can be less than a few minutes, which is less than or comparable to the design time in the concurrent design approach. Moreover, the use of well-known tuning procedures, makes the system easy to understand and operate even by inexperienced control engineers. The application was implemented in the real industrial programmable logic controller (PLC and tested with linear and nonlinear virtual plants. The obtained simulation results confirm that the change of the control algorithm allows the control objectives to be achieved at lower costs and in less time.

  16. Thermal and impact history of the H chondrite parent asteroid during metamorphism: Constraints from metallic Fe-Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Tatiana V.; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Wakita, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    We have studied cloudy taenite, metallographic cooling rates, and shock effects in 30 H3-6 chondrites to elucidate the thermal and early impact history of the H chondrite parent body. We focused on H chondrites with old Ar-Ar ages (>4.4 Gyr) and unshocked and mildly shocked H chondrites, as strongly shocked chondrites with such old ages are very rare. Cooling rates for most H chondrites at 500 °C are 10-50 °C/Myr and do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type as predicted by the onion-shell model in which types 3-5 are arranged in concentric layers around a type 6 core. Some type 4 chondrites cooled slower than some type 6 chondrites and type 3 chondrites did not cool faster than other types, contrary to the onion-shell model. Cloudy taenite particle sizes, which range from 40 to 120 nm, are inversely correlated with metallographic cooling rates and show that the latter were not compromised by shock heating. The three H4 chondrites that were used to develop the onion-shell model, Ste. Marguerite, Beaver Creek, and Forest Vale, cooled through 500 °C at ⩾5000 °C/Myr. Our thermal modeling shows that these rates are 50× higher than could be achieved in a body that was heated by 26Al and cooled without disturbance by impact. Published Ar-Ar ages do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type but do correlate inversely with cloudy taenite particle size suggesting that impact mixing decreased during metamorphism. Metal and silicate compositions in regolith breccias show that impacts mixed material after metamorphism without causing significant heating. Impacts during metamorphism created Portales Valley and two other H6 chondrites with large metallic veins, excavated the fast-cooled H4 chondrites around 3-4 Myr after accretion, and mixed petrologic types. Metallographic data do not require catastrophic disruption by impact during cooling.

  17. Pinite-cordierite from spotted slate of the Brajkovac contact metamorphic aureole (Dudovica locality, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasković Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic very low to low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bukulja-Lazarevac Unit designated as Drina, Golija and Birač formations are contact metamorphosed by the intrusion of the Tertiary Brajkovac granodiorite into spotted slates and hornfelses. In some parts, they are slightly migmatized at the contact. In addition to their outcrops found at the western, eastern and northern parts of the formation, these rocks are also found in boreholes near Dudovica at about 8 km south-west from the pluton. There, at a depth of 110 m, the spotted slates comprise oval to ellipsoid pinite-rich spots which can be regarded as incipient cordierite porphyroblasts (up to 5 mm in diameter overgrowing the existing regional foliation. They are composed of cryptocrystalline mixture of a very fine sericitic material ± light glassy orange „film“ (some kind of an amorphous gel-like material often mixed with limonite matter and are abundant in inclusions: minute quartz and dusty ore minerals (magnetite prevail. In addition, within some spots an increased number of xenotime and monazite inclusions are noted. Minute flakes of neobiotite are formed at the expense of quartz-sericite-chlorite matrix. The secondary chlorite occurring as overgrowths on pinite-cordierite spots shows variable composition (brunsvigite to diabandite. The Mg/Fe+Mg ratio of cryptocrystalline pinitic mixture ranges from 0.14-0.67. The Si vs AlIV+AlVI relations deviate from the ideal muscovite-phengite join due to Tschermak substitution towards chloritic composition or a more complex mixture, including clay minerals (which reflected a decrease of Altot and Si with increase of Fe2+. Obtained data indicates that the cordierite-pinite spots can be related to contact metamorphic processes that occurred within the temperature range 300-450°C. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176019 i br. 176016

  18. Dopamine D1 receptor agonist treatment attenuates extinction of morphine conditioned place preference while increasing dendritic complexity in the nucleus accumbens core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Kendra L; Arena, Danielle T; Heinrichs, Stephen C; Nguyen, Olivia H; Kaplan, Gary B

    2017-03-30

    The dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) has a role in opioid reward and conditioned place preference (CPP), but its role in CPP extinction is undetermined. We examined the effect of D1R agonist SKF81297 on the extinction of opioid CPP and associated dendritic morphology in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region involved with reward integration and its extinction. During the acquisition of morphine CPP, mice received morphine and saline on alternate days; injections were given immediately before each of eight daily conditioning sessions. Mice subsequently underwent six days of extinction training designed to diminish the previously learned association. Mice were treated with either 0.5mg/kg SKF81297, 0.8mg/kg SKF81297, or saline immediately after each extinction session. There was a dose-dependent effect, with the highest dose of SKF81297 attenuating extinction, as mice treated with this dose had significantly higher CPP scores than controls. Analysis of medium spiny neuron morphology revealed that in the NAc core, but not in the shell, dendritic arbors were significantly more complex in the morphine conditioned, SKF81297-treated mice compared to controls. In separate experiments using mice conditioned with only saline, SKF81297 administration after extinction sessions had no effect on CPP and produced differing effects on dendritic morphology. At the doses used in our experiments, SKF81297 appears to maintain previously learned opioid conditioned behavior, even in the face of new information. The D1R agonist's differential, rather than unidirectional, effects on dendritic morphology in the NAc core suggests that it may be involved in encoding reward information depending on previously learned behavior. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Multiphase boudinage: a case study of amphibolites in marble in the Naxos migmatite core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Simon; von Hagke, Christoph; Urai, Janos L.

    2018-02-01

    In multiply deformed terrains multiphase boudinage is common, but identification and analysis of these is difficult. Here we present an analysis of multiphase boudinage and fold structures in deformed amphibolite layers in marble from the migmatitic centre of the Naxos metamorphic core complex. Overprinting between multiple boudinage generations is shown in exceptional 3-D outcrop. We identify five generations of boudinage, reflecting the transition from high-strain high-temperature ductile deformation to medium- to low-strain brittle boudins formed during cooling and exhumation. All boudin generations indicate E-W horizontal shortening and variable direction of bedding parallel extension, evolving from subvertical extension in the earliest boudins to subhorizontal N-S extension during exhumation. Two phases of E-W shortening can be inferred, the first associated with lower crustal synmigmatic convergent flow and the second associated with exhumation and N-S extension, possibly related to movement of the North Anatolian Fault.

  20. Possible zircon U-Pb evidence for Pan-African granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, J.J.M.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Four zircon fractions of garnet-bearing two-pyroxene granulite, from the Furua granulite complex of southern Tanzania, plot very close to concordia. A discordia yields a lower intercept at 652 +- 10 Ma, an age slightly higher than the Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages reported from the surrounding amphibolite-facies rocks. The U-Pb systematics indicate the presence of a very small amount of older (2-3 Ga) radiogenic lead. The zircon data may be interpreted as indicating an event of granulite-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. This interpretation is at variance with current models postulating that the granulite complexes in the Mozambique belt are relicts of older, possibly Archaean events of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  1. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-08-01

    High pressure granulite and granulite gneiss from the Rychleby Mountains in the East Sudetes form an approximately 7 km long and 0.8 km wide body, which is enclosed by amphibolite facies orthogneiss with a steep foliation. Well preserved felsic granulite is located in the central part of the body, where several small bodies of mafic granulite are also present. In comparison to other high pressure granulites in the Bohemian Massif, which show strong mineral and textural re-equilibration under granulite facies conditions, the mafic granulite samples preserve eclogite facies minerals (garnet, omphacite, kyanite, rutile and phengite) and their field and textural relations indicate that both mafic and felsic granulites shared common metamorphic history during prograde eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies events. Garnet from both granulite varieties shows prograde compositional zoning and contains inclusions of phengite. Yttrium and REEs in garnet show typical bell-shaped distributions with no annular peaks near the grain rims. Investigation of major and trace elements zoning, including REEs distribution in garnet, was combined with thermodynamic modelling to constrain the early eclogite facies metamorphism and to estimate pressure-temperature conditions of the subsequent granulite facies overprint. The first (U)HP metamorphism occurred along a low geothermal gradient in a subduction-related environment from its initial stage at 0.8 GPa/460 °C and reached pressures up to 2.5 GPa at 550 °C. The subsequent granulite facies overprint (1.6-1.8 GPa/800-880 °C) affected the rocks only partially; by replacement of omphacite into diopside + plagioclase symplectite and by compositional modification of garnet rims. The mineral textures and the preservation of the eclogite facies prograde compositional zoning in garnet cores confirm that the granulite facies overprint was either too short or too faint to cause recrystallisation and homogenisation of the eclogite

  2. Simple and complex hyperplastic papillary proliferations of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases of apparently localized papillary lesions with fibrovascular stromal cores and epithelial metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, M B; Hart, W R

    2001-11-01

    The clinicopathologic features of nine cases of papillary proliferation of the endometrium devoid of malignant nuclear features were studied. The patients ranged in age from 33 to 71 years (median 57 years). All were postmenopausal, except the youngest. The most common symptom was postmenopausal bleeding. Two patients were receiving hormonal replacement therapy and two were taking megestrol acetate. Two lesions were incidental findings in a hysterectomy specimen. Seven were diagnosed in endometrial biopsy or curettage specimens. In six cases (67%) the lesion involved an endometrial polyp. In all cases the papillae had fibrovascular stromal cores and variable degrees of branching. Two architectural patterns were found. A simple papillary pattern with involvement of only a few glands and little epithelial proliferation occurred in five cases, including three that were entirely intracystic. A complex papillary pattern with more extensive involvement of endometrial glands, a greater degree of branching of the papillae, and cellular tufting occurred in four cases. One or more metaplastic epithelial changes occurred in all cases, including endocervical-type mucinous metaplasia in nine cases (90%), eosinophilic cell change in eight (89%), ciliated cell change in seven (70%), focal squamous metaplasia in two cases (22%), and hobnail cell change in two (22%). Mitotic figures were found in three cases. In four lesions (44%), all with a complex papillary pattern, the proliferating cells had mild nuclear atypia. Three of these patients underwent hysterectomy within 5 months. Simple nonpapillary hyperplasia and two endometrial polyps were found in one patient, complex nonpapillary hyperplasia in one, and atrophic endometrium in the other. Two patients had additional endometrial samplings within 4 months that contained small residual simple papillary lesions. One of these had another biopsy at 16 months that showed only atrophy. One patient had no subsequent diagnostic or

  3. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  4. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desilva, S.L.; Sharpton, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary

  5. Constraining metamorphic rates through allanite and monazite petrochronology: a case study from the Miyar Valley (High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, Martin; Goswami-Banerjee, Sriparna

    2014-05-01

    Dating metamorphic rocks raises specific issues because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over millions or tens of millions of years so that metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". Therefore, an accurate interpretation of radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in LREE-accessory phases like monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages are collectively interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. As a consequence, to correctly interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is essential to accurately determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A meticulous account of the chemical and textural evolution of monazite and allanite along a well constrained prograde pelitic sequence of the High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar (Miyar Valley; e.g. Robyr et al., 2002; 2006; 2014) reveals that: (1) the occurrence of the first metamorphic allanite coincides with the biotite-in isograd and (2) the formation of the first metamorphic monazite occurs at the staurolite-in isograd. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite porphyroblasts indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. Thermobarometry results show that the metamorphic allanites are appeared in the 400-420 °C, while the signature of the first metamorphic monazite is found at ~ 600 °C with staurolite-in isograd. Allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages thus constrain the timing when the rocks reached the ~ 420 °C and ~ 600 °C isotherms respectively. In situ LA-ICPMS dating of coexisting allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet

  6. The discovery of hornblende-garnet-zoisite hornfels in the metamorphic basement of Xiangshan uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhenpin; Dong Yongjie; Yu Jianfa; Hu Rongquan; Wu Shuilin

    2007-01-01

    Some vein rocks are found among mica schist in the metamorphic rock area of the Xiangshan uranium ore field. They are petrologically denominated as hornblende-garnet-zoisite hornfels. The primitive rocks are basic vein rocks. The hornfels are formed under thermal metamorphism with the temperature about 640 degree C and belong to low-pressure faces. This is closed to the form condition of EarlyMiddle Proterozoic metamorphic rocks in the area. The metamorphism forming the hornfels means that the Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rocks was superimposed to another thermal metamorphism and produced the second phase metamorphic minerals such as staurolite, almandine and biotite. The lattice of the second phase metamorphic mineral developed continuously with the first phase minerals. The overlapping metamorphism made the first phase metamorphic mineral suffer recrystallization, auto purification and idiomorphism. The discovery of hornfelsed basic rock veins discloses that strong geologic process with the activity of fault, magma and metamorphism were still taken placed in Paleozoic era within the metamorphic basement of the Xiangshan uranium ore field. (authors)

  7. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of geothermal gradients of >30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on

  8. Pb-Pb zircon ages of the Porto Nacional high-grade metamorphic terrain, northern portion of the Goias Massif, central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorayeb, Paulo Sergio de Sousa; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail: gorayebp@ufpa.br; c_moura@ufpa.br; Barros, Gisele Ribeiro de [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica (PIBIC)]. E-mail: agbarros@amazon.com.br

    2000-03-01

    Single zircon Pb-evaporation ages were determined for a mafic granulite, two enderbites and a kinzigite of the Porto Nacional High-Grade Metamorphic Terrain (PNHGT) in the Goias massif. Zircons from mafic granulites and one of the enderbites of yielded average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages of 2125{+-}3 Ma and 2153{+-}1 Ma, respectively, being interpreted as minimum ages of the igneous protoliths. The other enderbite, whose zircons presented round terminations, yielded an average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb age of 2097 {+-} 2 Ma. Zircons from the kinzigite, displaying cores and rims overgrowth, presented {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages ranging between 2027 and 2115 Ma. However, a very homogeneous zircon crystal without overgrowth yielded age of 2100 {+-} 2 Ma, with a distinctive low Th/U value (0.02). This zircon is interpreted as a metamorphic crystal and its age probably sets the age of the granulite facies metamorphism, indicating that the PNHGT is a result of the Transamazonian thermotectonic event. (author)

  9. The Punta del Este terrain and its volcano sedimentary cover, metamorphic and sedimentary: geology, geochemistry and geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Gariep belt it develops over the West Africa coastal region of Namibia underlying on Namaqua metamorphic complex.It characterized by supra crustal rocks affected for a very low to low metamorphism and in two tecto no-stratigraphic units identified by Base i et al 2005 showing that sediments of Formation Rocha in Uruguay and the Group Oranjemund Gariep in S E Africa have similar ages in the provenance of the zircons, suggesting that they were probably deposited in the same basin. This unit exhibits detrital zircons around 600my, sedimentation and metamorphism and deformación occur in a narrow time interval from 600-610 to 574 m (Granite de Castillo intrusion) .Cam pal et al, 2005 proposed to the Cerros Aguirre Formation similar in a range of age of different events. To the east separated from the Punta del Este Terrane –Pelotas. Aigua .Florianopolis batholith s by the shear zone Alferez Cordillera (Preciozzi et al. 1999, Basei et al. 2000) Another option develops this granitic belt is an integral part of Land Punta del Este Terrane(Preciozzi in this work), being deployed on a thin cratonic granite edge. The climax of the post-brasilian magmatism is 580my, strongly related to trans current movements (eg shear zones Major Gercino-Alferez- Cordillera and Sierra Ballena.In South America an old west domain is formed by the Piedra Alta Terrane which integrate the Río de la Pl ata Craton, a central domain intensely reworked by Neoproterozoic events known so far as Nico Perez . The primary coverage is integrated by two volcano-sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation and Cerros de Aguirre Formation)In this study are considered the Geology,Geochemistry and Geochronology of the different units of Rocha Formation

  10. Tetranuclear copper(II) complexes bridged by alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate and incorporation of sugar acids through the Cu4 core structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Merii; Sah, Ajay Kumar; Tanase, Tomoaki; Mikuriya, Masahiro

    2006-08-21

    Tetranuclear copper(II) complexes containing alpha-D-glucose-1-phosphate (alpha-D-Glc-1P), [Cu4(mu-OH){mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(bpy)4(H2O)2]X3 [X = NO3 (1a), Cl (1b), Br (1c)], and [Cu4(mu-OH){mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(phen)4(H2O)2](NO3)3 (2) were prepared by reacting the copper(II) salt with Na2[alpha-D-Glc-1P] in the presence of diimine ancillary ligands, and the structure of 2 was characterized by X-ray crystallography to comprise four {Cu(phen)}2+ fragments connected by the two sugar phosphate dianions in 1,3-O,O' and 1,1-O mu4-bridging fashion as well as a mu-hydroxo anion. The crystal structure of 2 involves two chemically independent complex cations in which the C2 enantiomeric structure for the trapezoidal tetracopper(II) framework is switched according to the orientation of the alpha-D-glucopyranosyl moieties. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data of 1a indicated that antiferromagnetic spin coupling is operative between the two metal ions joined by the hydroxo bridge (J = -52 cm(-1)) while antiferromagnetic interaction through the Cu-O-Cu sugar phosphate bridges is weak (J = -13 cm(-1)). Complex 1a readily reacted with carboxylic acids to afford the tetranuclear copper(II) complexes, [Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-CA)2(bpy)4](NO3)2 [CA = CH3COO (3), o-C6H4(COO)(COOH) (4)]. Reactions with m-phenylenediacetic acid [m-C6H4(CH2COOH)2] also gave the discrete tetracopper(II) cationic complex [Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-m-C6H4(CH2COO)(CH2COOH))2(bpy)4](NO3)2 (5a) as well as the cluster polymer formulated as {[Cu4{mu-(alpha-D-Glc-1P)}2(mu-m-C6H4(CH2COO)2)(bpy)4](NO3)2}n (5b). The tetracopper structure of 1a is converted into a symmetrical rectangular core in complexes 3, 4, and 5b, where the hydroxo bridge is dissociated and, instead, two carboxylate anions bridge another pair of Cu(II) ions in a 1,1-O monodentate fashion. The similar reactions were applied to incorporate sugar acids onto the tetranuclear copper(II) centers. Reactions of 1a with delta

  11. Precipitation of Oriented Rutile and Ilmenite Needles in Garnet, Northeastern Connecticut, USA: Evidence for Extreme Metamorphic Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    We report the discovery of oriented needles of rutile and, less commonly, ilmenite in the cores of garnets from northeastern CT, USA. The rocks preserve granulite facies mineral assemblages, form part of the Merrimack Synclinorium, and underwent metamorphism and deformation during the Acadian orogeny. The needles appear identical to those reported from a number of extreme P-T environments worldwide, including UHP metamorphic rocks, high-P granulites, and garnet peridotites. The needles are predominantly oriented along directions in garnet. The long axes of the rutile needles commonly do not go extinct parallel to the cross hairs under cross-polarized light (e.g., Griffin et al., 1971). This anomalous extinction indicates that the needles do not preserve a specific crystallographic relationship with their garnet hosts (e.g., Hwang et al., 2007). The needles range from a few hundred nm to a few um in diameter, and can be mm-scale in length. Micrometer-scale plates of rutile, srilankite and crichtonite have also been observed in some garnets together with the Fe-Ti oxide needles. Several origins for the needles have been proposed in the literature; we investigate the hypothesis that they precipitated in situ from originally Ti-rich garnet. Chemical profiles across garnets indicate that some retain Ti zoning, with elevated-Ti concentrations in the cores dropping to low values in the rims. For these zoned garnets, high-resolution, 2-D chemical mapping using the JEOL JXA-8530F field emission gun electron microprobe at Yale University reveals that the needles are surrounded by well-defined Ti-depletion halos. Chemical profiles also document strong depletions of Cr (which is present in both rutile and ilmenite) directly adjacent to needles. The observed Ti-depletions demonstrate that the needles precipitated from Ti-bearing garnet, probably during cooling and/or decompression associated with exhumation. The rutile precipitates must be largely incoherent with respect to the

  12. Zircon and monazite petrochronologic record of prolonged amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones, NW Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergouz, Celia; Martin, Laure; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Thébaud, Nicolas; Fiorentini, Marco

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the understanding of thermal-tectonic evolution of high-grade terranes, we conducted a systematic study of textures, REE content and U-Pb ages of zircon and monazite grains extracted from migmatitic metapelites across the amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic gradient exposed in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones (Italy). This study documents the behaviour of these accessory minerals in the presence of melt. The absence of relict monazite grains in the metasediments and the gradual decrease in the size of inherited zircon grains from amphibolite to granulite facies cores indicate partial to total dissolution of accessory minerals during the prograde path and partial melting. The retrograde path is marked by (i) growth of new zircon rims (R1 and R2) around inherited cores in the mesosome, (ii) crystallisation of stubby zircon grains in the leucosome, especially at granulite facies, and (iii) crystallisation of new monazite in the mesosome. Stubby zircon grains have a distinctive fir-tree zoning and a constant Th/U ratio of 0.20. Together, these features reflect growth in the melt; conversely, the new zircon grains with R1 rims have dark prismatic habits and Th/U ratios ages obtained on both types are similar, indicating contemporaneous growth of stubby zircon and rims around unresorbed zircon grains, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of the melt at the grain scale. In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone the interquartile range (IQR) of U-Pb ages on zircon and monazite are interpreted to represent the length of zircon and monazite crystallisation in the presence of melt. Accordingly, they provide an indication on the minimum duration for high-temperature metamorphism and partial melting of the lower crust: 20 Ma and 30 Ma in amphibolite and granulite facies, respectively. In amphibolite facies, zircon crystallisation between 310 and 294 Ma (IQR) is interpreted to reflect metamorphic peak condition and earlier retrograde history; conversely

  13. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  14. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  15. Deep levels in metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dot structures with different composition of the embedding layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovynskyi, S.; Datsenko, O.; Seravalli, L.; Kozak, O.; Trevisi, G.; Frigeri, P.; Babichuk, I. S.; Golovynska, I.; Qu, Junle

    2017-12-01

    Deep levels in metamorphic InAs/In x Ga1-x As quantum dot (QD) structures are studied with deep level thermally stimulated conductivity (TSC), photoconductivity (PC) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and compared with data from pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs QDs investigated previously by the same techniques. We have found that for a low content of indium (x = 0.15) the trap density in the plane of self-assembled QDs is comparable or less than the one for InGaAs/GaAs QDs. However, the trap density increases with x, resulting in a rise of the defect photoresponse in PC and TSC spectra as well as a reduction of the QD PL intensity. The activation energies of the deep levels and some traps correspond to known defect complexes EL2, EL6, EL7, EL9, and EL10 inherent in GaAs, and three traps are attributed to the extended defects, located in InGaAs embedding layers. The rest of them have been found as concentrated mainly close to QDs, as their density in the deeper InGaAs buffers is much lower. This an important result for the development of light-emitting and light-sensitive devices based on metamorphic InAs QDs, as it is a strong indication that the defect density is not higher than in pseudomorphic InAs QDs.

  16. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-06-09

    Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn 2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn 2+ , the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn 2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn 2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn 2+ and Cu⁺ match the biological requirements for controlling-binding and delivering-these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn 2+ and Cu⁺. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  17. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Krężel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn2+, the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn2+ and Cu+ match the biological requirements for controlling—binding and delivering—these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn2+ and Cu+. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  18. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  19. Preparation, characterization, and luminescence properties of dysprosium perchlorate with MABA-Si and phen or dipy complexes as well as SiO{sub 2}@Dy(MABA-Si)L core-shell structure nanometermeter luminescent composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen-Xian, E-mail: nmglwx@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Zheng, Yu-Shan [Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Product Quality Inspection Institute, Hohhot 010010 (China); Cao, Xiao-fang; Bai, Juan; Fu, Zhi-Fang; Bao, Jin-Rong; Li, Yi-Lian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Two novel ternary rare earth complexes Dy(MABA-Si)·L{sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O (L= Phen or Dipy) were prepared using HOOCC{sub 6}H{sub 4}N(CONH(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}Si-(OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2} which was abbreviated or denoted as MABA-Si. MABA-Si was the first ligand, L was the second ligand. The corresponding two SiO{sub 2}@Dy(MABA-Si)L nanometermeter luminescent composites were synthesized as well, and the silica spheres is the core, and the ternary rare earth complex Dy(MABA-Si)·L{sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O was the shell layer, who was abbreviated or denoted as Dy((MABA-Si)L). The ternary complexes have been characterized by element analysis, molar conductivity, IR spectra and {sup 1}HNMR spectra. The results showed that the chemical formula of the complex was Dy(MABA-Si)·L{sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 3}·2H{sub 2}O. The fluorescent spectra illustrated that the complexes displayed its characteristic luminescence in solid state, and the luminescence was superior than Dy{sup 3+}. The core-shell structure of SiO{sub 2}@Dy(MABA-Si)L nanometermeter luminescent composite was characterized by SEM, TEM and IR spectra. Based on the SEM photographs, the core-shell structure particles showed its regular microstructure including smooth surface, and good dispersity. The ternary complex coated on the mono-dispersed SiO{sub 2} spheres by self-assembly. The fluorescent spectra illustrated that the core-shell structure of SiO{sub 2}@Dy(MABA-Si)L nanometermeter luminescent composites exhibited stronger fluorescent than the ternary complexes. The fluorescence lifetime of the complexes and core-shell structure composites was measured as well.

  20. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) is the main metamorphic unit of the Himalayas, stretching for over 2400 km, bounded to the South by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the North by the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) whose contemporanous activity controlled its exhumation between 23 and 17 Ma (Godin et al., 2006). Several shear zones and/or faults have been recognized within the GHS, usually regarded as out of sequence thrusts. Recent investigations, using a multitechnique approach, allowed to recognize a tectonic and metamorphic discontinuity, localized in the mid GHS, with a top-to-the SW sense of shear (Higher Himalayan Discontinuity: HHD) (Carosi et al., 2010; Montomoli et al., 2013). U-(Th)-Pb in situ monazite ages provide temporal constraint of the acitivity of the HHD from ~ 27-25 Ma to 18-17 Ma. Data on the P and T evolution testify that this shear zone affected the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the belt and different P and T conditions have been recorded in the hanging-wall and footwall of the HHD. The HHD is a regional tectonic feature running for more than 700 km, dividing the GHS in two different portions (Iaccarino et al., 2015; Montomoli et al., 2015). The occurrence of even more structurally higher contractional shear zone in the GHS (above the HHD): the Kalopani shear zone (Kali Gandaki valley, Central Nepal), active from ~ 41 to 30 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite) points out to a more complex deformation pattern in the GHS characterized by in sequence shearing. The actual proposed models of exhumation of the GHS, based exclusively on the MCT and STD activities, are not able to explain the occurrence of the HHD and other in-sequence shear zones. Any model of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the GHS should account for the occurrence of the tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities within the GHS and its consequences on the metamorphic paths and on the assembly of Himalayan belt. References Godin L., Grujic D., Law, R. D. & Searle, M. P. 2006

  1. At what conditions does zircon grow/dissolve during high-T metamorphism? Relating zircon textures to PT-conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Manzotti, Paola; Engi, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A key question in ziconology is when and how zircon grows during metamorphism. To shed light on zircon forming processes and the corresponding PT-conditions during high-T metamorphism a case study was undertaken. The Ivrea Zone (N-Italy) exposes a lower continental crustal section in which a continuous metamorphic field gradient from amphibolite to granulite facies is documented. This field gradient is thought to reflect protracted heating during late Paleozoic times, with a probable high-T peak in the Permian. We present first results from a primarily textural study supported by U-Pb ages, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-Zrn thermometry. Four types of zircon were identified based on their overgrowth proportions and the preservation of detrital cores. Zircon grains were thus classified as Type1 - detrital grains with no overgrowth or very narrow rims (300 Ma) and appears to reflect an early dehydration phase. Rim2b has Permian ages (median 275 Ma), is by far the most common overgrowth type, found in a wide PT-range. Its development appears related to biotite breakdown. Rim3 is texturally indicative of magmatic zircon, occurs only in diatexites. Rim4 is the latest overgrowth and is locally found at all metamorphic grades. Textural features suggest late fluid-related recrystallization of existing zircon. At lowest grade (675±35°C, 6±2 kbar) zircons show type1 only, overgrowths are too thin to clearly identify the rim type. Further upgrade (~700°C, 7 kbar) type1 and type2 dominate. Type2 zircons show rim1, rim2a and occasionally rim4. At the Mu-out isograd (750±50°C, 8.2±1.4 kbar) most zircons are of type2, now with rim2b instead of 2a, in addition to rim1 and rim4. Near and in granulite facies (to 800°C, 8±2 kbar) mostly zircon type2 and type4 are present. While rim1 gets more narrow with increasing metamorphic grade, rim2b grows significantly thicker. Occasionally rim2a and rim4 occur. Close to the Bt-out isograd (~860°C, 9.2±1.7 kbar), mostly type3 and type4 are

  2. Thermal effects of metamorphic reactions in a three-component slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Dolejš, David; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Thermal evolution of a subducting crust is of primary importance for understanding physical properties, phase transformations, fluid migration and melting regimes at convergent plate boundaries. Various factors influencing the thermal structure of a subduction zone have been considered previously......), and moderately serpentinized harzburgite (SHB). These layers are examined over the range of pressure-temperature conditions of interest by computing metamorphic phase diagrams and retrieving whole-rock thermodynamic properties. Our results suggest that metamorphic reactions consume a significant amount of slab...

  3. Improving the SMM and luminescence properties of lanthanide complexes with LnO9 cores in the presence of ZnII: an emissive Zn2Dy single ion magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondo, Matilde; Corredoira-Vázquez, Julio; Herrera-Lanzós, Antía; García-Deibe, Ana M; Sanmartín-Matalobos, Jesús; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Colacio, Enrique; Nuñez, Cristina

    2017-12-12

    Mononuclear complexes of stoichiometry [Ln(H 3 L)(H 2 O)(NO 3 )](NO 3 ) 2 (Ln = Tb, 1; Dy, 2, Er, 3), which crystallise with different solvates, and the heterotrinuclear compound [Zn 2 Dy(L)(NO 3 ) 3 (OH)] (4) can be obtained with the same H 3 L compartmental ligand. The single X-ray crystal structure of the mononuclear complexes shows a LnO 9 core with a muffin-like disposition while the geometry of the DyO 9 core in 4 seems to be closer to spherical capped square antiprism. The analysis of the magnetic properties of all the complexes demonstrates that the mononuclear lanthanide compounds do not show slow relaxation of the magnetization, even when the samples are diluted with a diamagnetic matrix and subjected to a dc applied field of 1000 Oe. Nevertheless, the heterotrinuclear dysprosium complex 4·3H 2 O is a field-induced single ion magnet, with an estimated U eff barrier of 59 K. The luminescence characterisation of all the metal complexes in methanol solution at 298 K also shows a notable increase in the fluorescence emission of the heterotrinuclear complex with respect to the mononuclear ones, in such a way that 4 can be defined as a fluorescent single ion magnet.

  4. Constraints on the Lost City Hydrothermal System from borehole thermal data; 3-D models of heat flow and hydrothermal circulation in an oceanic core complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, S.; McCaig, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    A perennial problem in near-ridge hydrothermal circulation is that the only directly measurable data to test models is often vent fluid temperature. Surface heat flow measurements may be available but without the underlying thermal structure it is not known if they are transient and affected by local hydrothermal flow, or conductive. The Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex at 30 °N on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, offers a unique opportunity to better constrain hydrothermal circulation models. The temperature profile in gabbroic rocks of IODP Hole 1309D was measured in IODPExpedition 340T, and found to be near-conductive, but with a slight inflexion at ~750 mbsf indicating downward advection of fluid above that level. The lack of deep convection is especially remarkable given that the long-lived Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is located only 5km to the south. We have modelled hydrothermal circulation in the Massif using Comsol Multiphysics, comparing 2-D and 3-D topographic models and using temperature-dependent conductivity to give the best estimate of heatflow into the Massif. We can constrain maximum permeability in gabbro below 750 mbsf to 5e-17 m2. The thermal gradient in the upper part of the borehole can be matched with a permeability of 3e-14 m2 in a 750 m thick layer parallel to the surface of the massif, with upflow occurring in areas of high topography and downflow at the location of the borehole. However in 3-D the precise flow pattern is quite model dependent, and the thermal structure can be matched either by downflow centred on the borehole at lower permeability or centred a few hundred metres from the borehole at higher permeability. The borehole gradient is compatible with the longevity (>120 kyr) and outflow temperature (40-90 °C) of the LCHF either with a deep more permeable (1e-14 m2 to 1e-15 m2) domain beneath the vent site in 2-D or a permeable fault slot 500 to 1000m wide and parallel to the transform fault in 3-D. In both cases topography

  5. Amphibole and felsic veins from the gabbroic oceanic core complex of Atlantis Bank (Southwest Indian Ridge, IODP Hole U1473A): when the fluids meets the melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, A.; Tribuzio, R.; Antonicelli, M.; Zanetti, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a petrological/geochemical investigation of brown amphibole and felsic veins drilled during IODP 360 expedition at Atlantis Bank, a gabbroic oceanic core complex from Southwest Indian Ridge. The main purpose of this study is to unravel the role of seawater and magmatic components in the origin of these veins. Brown amphibole veins were collected at 90-170 mbsf. These veins typically include minor modal amounts of plagioclase and are associated with alteration halos made up of brown amphibole and whitish milky plagioclase in host gabbros. Two sets of late magmatic felsic veins, which mostly consist of plagioclase and minor brown amphibole, were selected. Amphibole-plagioclase geothermometry (Holland and Blundy, 1994) documents that crystallization of brown amphibole and felsic veins occurred in the 850-700 °C interval. In the brown amphibole veins, amphibole and plagioclase have relatively low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and significant Cl (0.2-0.3 wt%). The development of these veins at near surface levels is therefore attributed to seawater-derived fluids migrating downward through cracks developing in the exhuming gabbro. To explain the high temperature estimates for the development of these shallow veins, however, the seawater-derived fluids must have interacted not only with the gabbros, but also with a high temperature magmatic component. This petrogenetic hypothesis is consistent with oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of amphiboles from shallow veins in adjacent Hole 735B gabbros (Alt and Bach, 2006). Trace element compositions of amphibole and plagioclase from the felsic veins show formation by silicate melts rich in incompatible elements. In addition, Cl concentrations in amphibole from the felsic veins are low, thereby indicating that the melts feeding these veins had low or no seawater component. We cautiously propose that: (i) the felsic veins were generated by SiO2-rich melts residual after crystallization of Fe

  6. Cathodoluminescence (CL Characteristics of Quartz from Different Metamorphic Rocks within the Kaoko Belt (Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sittner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quartz of metamorphic rocks from the Kaoko belt (Namibia representing metamorphic zones from greenshist to granulite facies were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy to characterize their CL properties. The samples cover P-T conditions from the garnet zone (500 ± 30 °C, 9 ± 1 kbar up to the garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-K-feldspar zone (750 ± 30 °C, 4.0–5.5 kbar. Quartz from 10 different localities and metamorphic environments exclusively exhibits blue CL. The observed CL colors and spectra seem to be more or less independent of the metamorphic grade of the host rocks, but are determined by the regional geological conditions. Quartz from different localities of the garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-K-feldspar zone shows a dominant 450 nm emission band similar to quartz from igneous rocks, which might be related to recrystallization processes. In contrast, quartz from different metamorphic zones in the western part of the central Kaoko zone (garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and kyanite-sillimanite-muscovite zone is characterized by a heterogeneous blue-green CL and a dominant 500 nm emission band that strongly decreases in intensity under electron irradiation. Such CL characteristics are typical for quartz of pegmatitic and/or hydrothermal origin and indicate the participation of fluids during neoformation of quartz during metamorphism.

  7. REE distributions in a high-grade Archaean gneiss complex in Scotland: Implications for the genesis of ancient sialic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Seventeen rocks from the Lewisian Gneiss of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, which represent three distinct lithological types at granulite to greenschist facies of metamorphism show rare-earth element patterns which seem not to have been disturbed by their complex metamorphic history. Some indication of their origin can be obtained by simple geochemical models. (Auth.)

  8. Physiological effects and cellular responses of metamorphic larvae and juveniles of sea urchin exposed to ionic and nanoparticulate silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesky, Adriano; Ribeiro, Ciro A Oliveiro; Pelletier, Émilien

    2016-05-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) would likely result in their discharge into wastewater and inevitable release in densely populated coastal areas. It is known that AgNPs can cause harmful effects to marine fauna, but how they affect development stages is still an open question. In order to understand in details how polymer-coated AgNPs (PAAm-AgNPs) (from 0.19 to 4.64mM as Ag) can affect critical stages of marine invertebrate development, metamorphic larvae and juveniles of sea urchins were used as biological models. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrix with PERMANOVA showed organisms in a multivariate space undergoing through different physiological conditions as a function of time, chemical forms of silver, nominal concentrations, and presence or absence of food. Sublethal effects such as lethargy, oedema and immobility mainly characterized PAAm-AgNPs effects with juveniles and postlarvae, whereas necrosis and death arose in Ag(+) conditions in short-term tests. Chronically exposed metamorphic larvae had their morphogenic processes interrupted by PAAm-AgNPs and a high mortality rate was observed in recovery period. On the contrary, Ag(+) ions caused progressive mortality during exposure, but a quick recovery in uncontaminated seawater was observed. By means of fluorescent markers we showed that nanosilver could be transferred between consecutive stages (swimming larvae and postlarvae) and highlighted how important is food to enhance PAAm-AgNPs uptake. Using TEM we observed that unfed juveniles had nanosilver aggregates mostly restricted to their coelomic sinuses, while metamorphic larvae already had nano-contamination overspread in different tissues and blastocoel. Our main hypothesis for nanotoxicity of PAAM-AgNPs relies on the slow dissolution of nano-core over time, but in this study the effects of particulate silver form itself are also evoked. Main mechanisms governing tissular and cellular responses

  9. Material Evidence for Ocean Impact from Shock-Metamorphic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y.; Takayama, K.; Iancu, O. G.

    1993-07-01

    Continental impact reveals an excavated crater that has few fresh fine ejecta showing major high shock metamorphism due to weathering [1]. A giant ocean impact rarely remains as an excavated crater mainly due to crushing by dynamic plate-tectonic movements on the crust [2]. However, all impact materials, including fine-grained ejecta, can be obtained with artificial impact experiments [3]. The purpose of this study is to discuss material evidence for ocean impact based on shock-metamorphic experiments. Artificial impact experiments indicate that fine shocked quartz (SQ) aggregates can be formed on several target rocks (Table 1) [1]. It is found in Table 1 that (1) the largest-density deviation of SQ grain is found not at the wall-rock or the impact crater but at fine-grained ejecta, and (2) silica-poor rocks of basalt, gabbro, and anorthosite can also make fine SQ aggregates by impact. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows formations of fine shocked quartz aggregates from ocean-floor rocks of basalt, gabbroic anorthosite, and granite [3]. An asteroid (about 10 km across) hits the Earth ~65 m.y. ago [4] to result in global catastrophe by titanic explosion and climate change. But shocked quartz grains found in the K/T boundary layer were considered to come from crystalline continental rocks [5]. The present result as listed in Table 1 indicates that fine SQ aggregates can also be formed at sea-floor basaltic and gabbroic rocks [3]. The present result of formation of the SQ grains from sea- floor target rocks is nearly consistent with the finding of a sea-impact crater at the K/T boundary near the Caribbean [6]. Impact-induced volcanism at the K/T boundary can explained by the penetration from thin ocean crust to upper mantle reservoirs, if giant impact of a 10-km- diameter asteroid hit the ocean [2,7]. The present result can explain "phreatomagmatic (magmatic vapor) explosion," which is created by abrupt boiling between high-temperature magma and cold

  10. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherby Josh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement, i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA, a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We

  11. Structural, metamorphic and geochronological insights on the Variscan evolution of the Alpine basement in the Belledonne Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréville, Kévin; Trap, Pierre; Faure, Michel; Melleton, Jérémie; Li, Xian-Hua; Lin, Wei; Blein, Olivier; Bruguier, Olivier; Poujol, Marc

    2018-02-01

    A structural and petrochronological study was carried out in the southern part of the Belledonne crystalline massif. A first tectonometamorphic event, Dx, corresponds to the eastward thrusting of the Chamrousse ophiolitic complex characterized by a low-temperature-moderate-pressure metamorphism reaching 0.535 ± 0.045 GPa and 427.5 ± 17.5 °C. A subsequent D1 deformation is defined by a penetrative S1 foliation that mostly dips toward the west and displays an E-W- to NE-SW-trending mineral and stretching lineation L1. D1 is associated with a top-to-the east shearing and is responsible for the crustal thickening accommodated by the eastward nappe stacking and the emplacement of the Chamrousse ophiolitic complex upon the Rioupéroux-Livet unit. This event is characterized by an amphibolite facies metamorphism (0.58 GPa ± 0.06; 608 ± 14 °C) that attains partial melting at the base of the nappe pile (0.78 ± 0.07 GPa; 680.5 ± 11.5 °C). LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of monazite grains from the mica schists of the Rioupéroux-Livet unit constrain the age of D1 to 337 ± 7 Ma. The D2 tectono-metamorphic event is characterized by NE-SW trending, upright to NE-verging synfolial folding. Folding associated with D2 is pervasively developed in all lithotectonic units with the development of a steeply-dipping S2 foliation. In particular, D2 involves the uppermost weakly metamorphosed Taillefer unit. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating performed on detrital zircon grains shows that the Taillefer conglomerates was deposited during the Visean. A zircon SIMS U-Pb age of 352 ± 1 Ma from a plagioglase-rich leucocratic sill of the Rioupéroux-Livet unit is interpreted as the age of magmatic emplacement. Our results suggest that the D2 event took place between 330 Ma and 310 Ma. We propose a new interpretation of the tectonometamorphic evolution of the southern part of the Belledonne massif, focusing on the Middle Carboniferous stages of the Variscan orogeny.

  12. Pressure-temperature evolution of Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Welayati Formation (Kabul Block), Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2015-11-01

    The Welayati Formation, consisting of alternating layers of mica-schist and quartzite with lenses of amphibolite, unconformably overlies the Neoarchean Sherdarwaza Formation of the Kabul Block that underwent Paleoproterozoic granulite-facies and Neoproterozoic amphibolite-facies metamorphic events. To analyze metamorphic history of the Welayati Formation and its relations to the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation, petrographic study and pressure-temperature (P-T) pseudosection modeling were applied to staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mica-schists, which crop out to the south of Kabul City. Prograde metamorphism, identified by inclusion trails and chemical zonation in garnet from the micaschists indicates that the rocks underwent burial from around 6.2 kbar at 525 °C to maximum pressure conditions of around 9.5 kbar at temperatures of around 650 °C. Decompression from peak pressures under isothermal or moderate heating conditions are indicated by formation of biotite and plagioclase porphyroblasts which cross-cut and overgrow the dominant foliation. The lack of sillimanite and/or andalusite suggests that cooling and further decompression occurred in the kyanite stability field. The results of this study indicate a single amphibolite-facies metamorphism that based on P-T conditions and age dating correlates well with the Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation. The rocks lack any paragenetic evidence for a preceding granulite-facies overprint or subsequent Paleozoic metamorphism. Owing to the position of the Kabul Block, within the India-Eurasia collision zone, partial replacement of the amphibolite-facies minerals in the micaschist could, in addition to retrogression of the Neoproterozoic metamorphism, relate to deformation associated with the Alpine orogeny.

  13. K-Ar ages of the low-grade metamorphic rocks in the Altar massif, Northwest Sonora, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayama, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Ken; Takeda, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    The K-Ar ages of low-grade regional metamorphism, granodiorite intrusion and its contact metamorphism were studied in the Altar massif of Northwest Sonora, Mexico. The results gave the ages of 55 Ma for metamorphic hornblende and 15 to 17 Ma for mica of metamorphic rocks and granodiorite. About the meaning of these discordant ages and the too young ages of 15 to 17 Ma against the previously presented data, we pointed out the following two possibilities; 1) the contact effect of the Miocene granodiorite on the regional metamorphic rocks of the Laramide phase, 2) both regional metamorphism and granodiorite intrusion took place during the Laramide phase, whereas the young ages, 15 to 17 Ma, show the time of temperature release after the low-angle thrust movement, which is well known in the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt in Nevada and Utah. (author)

  14. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  15. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  16. Development of III-Sb metamorphic DBR membranes on InP for vertical cavity laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addamane, S. J.; Mansoori, A.; Renteria, E. J.; Dawson, N.; Shima, D. M.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dawson, L. R.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2016-04-01

    Sb-based metamorphic DBR membranes are developed for InP-based vertical cavity laser applications. The reflectivity of the metamorphic DBR membrane is compared to the reflectivity of a lattice-matched DBR to characterize the optical quality of the DBR membrane. The metamorphic interface between InP and the III-antimonides is found to degrade the reflectivity of the DBR. Therefore, the growth temperature for the metamorphic DBR is optimized in order to obtain highly reflective (>99.8%) III-Sb thin-film membranes.

  17. Effect of food on metamorphic competence in the model system Crepidula fornicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Dianna K; McCann, Michael J; Glenn, Mica McCarty; Hooks, Alexandra P; Shumway, Sandra E

    2014-12-01

    Food quality and quantity, as well as temperature, are all factors that are expected to affect rates of development, and are likely to be affected by expected climatic change. We tested the effect of a mixed diet versus a single-food diet on metamorphic competence in the emerging model species Crepidula fornicata. We then compared our results with other published studies on this species that examined time to metamorphic competence across a range of food concentrations and rearing temperatures. Ours was the only study to test the effects of single food versus a mixed diet on metamorphic competence for this species. Diet composition did not affect metamorphic competence or survivorship. Comparing results across studies, we found that the shortest time to metamorphic competence was typically found when the food availability per larva was the greatest, independent of rearing temperature. Unfortunately, some published studies did not include important metadata needed for comparison with other studies; these data included larval rearing density, food density, frequency of feeding, and rearing temperature. Mortality rates were not always reported and when reported were often measured in different ways, preventing comparison. Such metadata are essential for comparisons among studies as well as among taxa, and for the determination of generalizable patterns and evolutionary trends. Increased reporting of all such metadata is essential if we are to use scientific studies performed to their fullest potential. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  18. Evolutionary genetics of metamorphic failure using wild-caught vs. laboratory axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S R; Shaffer, H B

    2000-09-01

    In many organisms metamorphosis allows for an ecologically important habitat-shift from water to land. However, in some salamanders an adaptive life cycle mode has evolved that is characterized by metamorphic failure (paedomorphosis); these species remain in the aquatic habitat throughout the life cycle. Perhaps the most famous example of metamorphic failure is the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which has become a focal species for developmental biology since it was introduced into laboratory culture in the 1800s. Our previous genetic linkage mapping analysis, using an interspecific crossing design, demonstrated that a major gene effect underlies the expression of metamorphic failure in laboratory stocks of the Mexican axolotl. Here, we repeated this experiment using A. mexicanum that were sampled directly from their natural habitat at Lake Xochimilco, Mexico. We found no significant association between the major gene and metamorphic failure when wild-caught axolotls were used in the experimental design, although there is evidence of a smaller genetic effect. Thus, there appears to be genetic variation among Mexican axolotls (and possibly A. tigrinum tigrinum) at loci that contribute to metamorphic failure. This result suggests a role for more than one mutation and possibly artificial selection in the evolution of the major gene effect in the laboratory Mexican axolotl.

  19. Isotopic studies of marbles in the Sanbagawa metamorphic terrain, central Shikoku, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hideki; Enami, Masaki; Yanagi, Takeru.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic studies were carried out on marbles occurring in crystalline schists and epidote amphibolites of the Sanbagawa metamorphic terrain, central Shikoku, Japan, in order to estimate metamorphic temperatures and to elucidate their origin. Carbon isotopic fractionation between calcite and graphite shows the metamorphic temperature of 460 deg C at the transitional part between the garnet and albite-biotite zones. Marbles are isotopically classified into two groups. (1) some marbles in epidote amphibolite masses show characteristically negative delta 13 C values and low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. These marbles are interpreted as have been derived from magmatic or deep-seated carbonates. (2) marbles collected from the crystalline schists and from the marginal part of epidote amphibolite masses, have high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and delta 13 C values similar to those of typical sedimentary carbonates. They were probably derived from sedimentary carbonates and/or carbonates re-equilibrated with metamorphic fluid segregated from crystalline schists during the Sanbagawa metamorphism. (author)

  20. Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Dharma Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report equilibrium sapphirine + quartz assemblage in biotite–orthopyroxene–garnet granulites from a new locality in Panasapattu of Paderu region in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, which provide new evidence for ultrahigh-temperature (UHT metamorphism at 1030–1050 °C and 10 kbar in this region. The development of migmatitic texture, stabilization of the garnet–orthopyroxene–plagioclase–K-feldspar association, prograde biotite inclusions within garnet and sapphirine as well as sapphirine and cordierite inclusions within garnet in these granulites indicate that the observed peak assemblages probably formed during prograde dehydration melting of a Bt–Sill–Qtz assemblage, and constrain the prograde stage of the p–T path. The core domains of orthopyroxene porphyroblasts have up to w(Al2O3 9.6%, which suggest that the temperatures reached up to 1150 °C suggesting extreme crustal metamorphism. These conditions were also confirmed by the garnet–orthopyroxene thermobarometery, which yields a p–T range of 1012–960 °C and 9.4 kbar. The p–T phase topologies computed using isochemical sections calculated in the model system Na2O–CaO–K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O (NCKFMASH for metapelites, garnet-free sapphirine granulites and garnet-bearing sapphirine granulites match the melt-bearing assemblages observed in these rocks. Isochemical sections constructed in the NCKFMASH system for an average sub-aluminous metapelite bulk composition, and contoured for modal proportions of melt and garnet, as well as for the compositional isopleths of garnet, predict phase and reaction relations that are consistent with those observed in the rocks. Garnet and orthopyroxene contain Ti-rich phlogopite inclusions, suggesting formation by prograde melting reactions at the expense of phlogopite during ultrahigh-temperature conditions. These p–T results underestimate ‘peak’ conditions, in part as a result of the modification

  1. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  2. Timing and duration of Variscan high-pressure metamorphism in the French Massif Central: A multimethod geochronological study from the Najac Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Van Den Driessche, Jean

    2018-05-01

    Accurate dating of eclogite-facies metamorphism is of paramount importance in order to understand the tectonic evolution of an orogen. An eclogite sample from the Najac Massif (French Massif Central, Variscan belt) displays a zircon-bearing garnet-omphacite-amphibole-rutile-quartz peak assemblage. Pseudosection modeling suggests peak pressure conditions of 15-20 kbar, 560-630 °C. Eclogite-facies garnet displays Lu-enriched cores and Sm-rich rims and yields a Lu-Hf age of 382.8 ± 1.0 Ma and a Sm-Nd age of 376.7 ± 3.3 Ma. The ages are interpreted as marking the beginning of the prograde garnet growth during the initial stages of the eclogite-facies metamorphism, and the high-pressure (and temperature) peak reached by the rock, respectively. Zircon grains display chondrite-normalized REE spectra with variably negative, positive or no Eu anomalies and are characterized by either enriched or flat HREE patterns. However, they yield a well constrained in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, despite this REE pattern variability. Zr zonation in garnet, Y content in zircon and the diversity of zircon HREE spectra may suggest that zircon crystallized prior to and during incipient garnet growth on the prograde P-T path, recording the initial stages of the eclogite-facies conditions. Consequently, the zircon age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, comparable within error with the Lu-Hf age obtained on garnet, is interpreted as dating the beginning of the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Accordingly, the duration of the prograde part of the eclogite-facies event is estimated at 6.1 ± 4.3 Myr. Subsequent exhumation is constrained by an apatite U-Pb age at 369 ± 13 Ma.

  3. Distributed consensus for metamorphic systems using a gossip algorithm for CAT(0) metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellachehab, Anass; Jakubowicz, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    We present an application of distributed consensus algorithms to metamorphic systems. A metamorphic system is a set of identical units that can self-assemble to form a rigid structure. For instance, one can think of a robotic arm composed of multiple links connected by joints. The system can change its shape in order to adapt to different environments via reconfiguration of its constituting units. We assume in this work that several metamorphic systems form a network: two systems are connected whenever they are able to communicate with each other. The aim of this paper is to propose a distributed algorithm that synchronizes all the systems in the network. Synchronizing means that all the systems should end up having the same configuration. This aim is achieved in two steps: (i) we cast the problem as a consensus problem on a metric space and (ii) we use a recent distributed consensus algorithm that only make use of metrical notions.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METAMORPHISM DEGREE AND LIBERATION SIZE OF COMPACT ITABIRITES FROM THE IRON QUADRANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fina Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron ore exploited in Brazil can be classified into several lithological types which have distinct features. The progress of mining over time leads to scarcity of high grade iron ores, leading to the exploitation of poor, contaminated and compact ores. There is a growing trend of application of process flowsheets involving grinding to promote mineral liberation, essential condition for concentration processes. Several authors have correlated metamorphism processes of banded iron formations to mineralogical features observed on itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle, mainly the crystals size. This paper presents the implications of such variation in defining the mesh of grinding. Mineralogical characterization and grinding, desliming and flotation tests have been carried out with samples from two regions of the Iron Quadrangle subjected to different degrees of metamorphism. It was found a trend of reaching satisfactory liberation degree in coarser size for the itabirite of higher metamorphic degree, which has larger crystals. The flotation tests have confirmed the mineralogical findings.

  5. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-02-01

    The primary objectives of this report are to list known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks in New Mexico, and to provide an annotated bibliography of geologic reports concerning these regions. Only plutonic, metamorphic, vein, and Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits are considered in this report; other nonsandstone uranium deposits (such as shale, limestone, phosphorite, coal, evaporative precipitates, and fossil placer deposits) will be considered at a later time. These objectives were achieved through a literature search. Some field examinations of some of the radioactive occurrences have been completed. A table of known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks was compiled from the literature (Appendix I)

  6. On the Magnitude and Orientation of Stress during Shock Metamorphism: Understanding Peak Ring Formation by Combining Observations and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, A.; Poelchau, M.; Collins, G. S.; Timms, N.; Cavosie, A. J.; Lofi, J.; Salge, T.; Riller, U. P.; Ferrière, L.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Osinski, G.; Morgan, J. V.; Expedition 364 Science Party, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    Shock metamorphism occurs during the earliest moments after impact. The magnitude and orientation of shock leaves recordable signatures in rocks, which spatially vary across an impact structure. Consequently, observations of shock metamorphism can be used to understand deformation and its history within a shock wave, and to examine subsequent deformation during crater modification. IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 recovered nearly 600 m of shocked target rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub Crater. Samples from the expedition were used to measure the magnitude and orientation of shock in peak ring materials, and to determine the mechanism of peak-ring emplacement. Here, we present the results of petrographic analyses of the shocked granitic target rocks of the Chicxulub peak ring; using universal-stage optical microscopy, back-scattered electron images, and electron back-scatter diffraction. Deformation microstructures in quartz include planar deformation features (PDFs), feather features (FFs), which are unique to shock conditions, as well as planar fractures and crystal-plastic deformation bands. The assemblage of PDFs in quartz suggest that the peak-ring rocks experienced shock pressures of 15 GPa throughout the recovered drill core, and that the orientation of FFs are consistent with the present-day orientation of the maximum principal stress direction during shock is close to vertical. Numerical impact simulations of the impact event were run to determine the magnitude and orientation of principal stresses during shock and track those orientations throughout crater formation. Our results are remarkably consistent with the geological data, and accurately predict both the shock-pressure magnitudes, and the final near-vertical orientation of the direction of maximum principal stress in the shock wave. Furthermore, analysis of the state of stress throughout the impact event can be used to constrain the timing of fracture and fault orientations observed in the core

  7. The Katmandu and Gosainkund nappes, central Nepal Himalaya (cartography, structure, metamorphism, geochemistry and radio-chronology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, S.M.

    1998-10-01

    In central Nepal, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out to characterize and distinguish the crystalline nappes of Katmandu and Gosainkund from the Midland formations. Two principal deformations are recorded: one ductile, syn-metamorphic, marked by microstructures (stretching lineation, S-C structures, etc. ), another, post-metamorphic, recorded by an anticline, roughly EW -directed, and by NNE-SSW -directed folds. The syn-metamorphic P-T conditions show differences between Katmandu Crystalline Nappe (900-720 MPa; 700-480 deg C) and Gosainkund Crystalline Nappe (890-580 MPa; 750-590 deg C). They exhibit well preserved inverted metamorphism between the Upper Midland Formations (750 Mpa; 560 deg C) and the Gosainkund Nappe. In central Nepal, the augen gneisses and the 'Lesser Himalayan' Cambro-Ordovician granites bear similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics which suggest a common origin. However, the geological setting and age of the Proterozoic Ulleri augen gneiss rule out correlation with these formations. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses of muscovite, indicate cooling ages younger from south to north: 22 to 13 Ma in the Katmandu Nappe, 16 to 5 Ma in the Gosainkund Nappe, and 12 to 6 Ma in the Midland Formation. The principal points summarized by this study are the following: clear distinction between two nappes marked by their litho-stratigraphy and metamorphism; the ductile movement of MCT in the north of Katmandu is blocked since approximately 25 Ma; the late emplacement and late or common post metamorphic history of the two nappes; but earlier cooling history of the Katmandu nappe; the present uplift of the Katmandu region, underlined by the intense micro-seismicity, concerns indifferently the two nappes that form a single tectonic block at present; the combined uplift of the two nappes is due to the displacement on a ramp of major decollement surface. (author)

  8. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  9. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  10. 2 : 2 Fe(III): ligand and "adamantane core" 4 : 2 Fe(III): ligand (hydr)oxo complexes of an acyclic ditopic ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiladi, Morten; Larsen, Frank B.; McKenzie, Christine J.

    2005-01-01

    A bis-hydroxo-bridged diiron(III) complex and a bis-mu-oxo-bis-mu-hydroxo-bridged tetrairon( III) complex are isolated from the reaction of 2,6-bis((N, N'-bis-(2-picolyl) amino) methyl)-4-tert-butylphenol (Hbpbp) with iron perchlorate in acidic and neutral solutions respectively. The X-ray struct......A bis-hydroxo-bridged diiron(III) complex and a bis-mu-oxo-bis-mu-hydroxo-bridged tetrairon( III) complex are isolated from the reaction of 2,6-bis((N, N'-bis-(2-picolyl) amino) methyl)-4-tert-butylphenol (Hbpbp) with iron perchlorate in acidic and neutral solutions respectively. The X...

  11. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The preservation of premetamorphic, whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios in Adirondack metasediments shows that neither these rocks nor adjacent anorthosites and gneisses have been penetrated by large amounts of externally derived, hot CO2-H2O fluids during granulite facies metamorphism. This conclusion is supported by calculations of the effect of fluid volatilization and exchange and is also independently supported by petrologic and phase equilibria considerations. The data suggest that these rocks were not an open system during metamorphism; that fluid/rock ratios were in many instances between 0.0 and 0.1; that externally derived fluids, as well as fluids derived by metamorphic volatilization, rose along localized channels and were not pervasive; and thus that no single generalization can be applied to metamorphic fluid conditions in the Adirondacks. Analyses of 3 to 4 coexisting minerals from Adirondack marbles show that isotopic equilibrium was attained at the peak of granulite and upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Thus the isotopic compositions of metamorphic fluids can be inferred from analyses of carbonates and fluid budgets can be constructed. Carbonates from the granulite facies are on average, isotopically similar to those from lower grade or unmetamorphosed limestones of the same age showing that no large isotopic shifts accompanied high grade metamorphism. Equilibrium calculations indicate that small decreases in ??18O, averaging 1 permil, result from volatilization reactions for Adirondack rock compositions. Additional small differences between amphibolite and granulite facies marbles are due to systematic lithologie differences. The range of Adirondack carbonate ??18O values (12.3 to 27.2) can be explained by the highly variable isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed limestones in conjunction with minor 18O and 13C depletions caused by metamorphic volatilization suggesting that many (and possibly most) marbles have closely preserved their

  12. Pre-Alpine contrasting tectono-metamorphic evolutions within the Southern Steep Belt, Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Manuel; Zucali, Michele; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Spalla, Maria Iole; Yao, Weihua

    2018-06-01

    In the Southern Steep Belt, Italian Central Alps, relicts of the pre-Alpine continental crust are preserved. Between Valtellina and Val Camonica, a poly-metamorphic rock association occurs, which belongs to the Austroalpine units and includes two classically subdivided units: the Languard-Campo nappe (LCN) and the Tonale Series (TS). The outcropping rocks are low to medium grade muscovite, biotite and minor staurolite-bearing gneisses and micaschists, which include interlayered garnet- and biotite-bearing amphibolites, marbles, quartzites and pegmatites, as well as sillimanite-bearing gneisses and micaschists. Permian intrusives (granitoids, diorites and minor gabbros) emplaced in the metamorphic rocks. We performed a detailed structural, petrological and geochronological analysis focusing on the two main lithotypes, namely, staurolite-bearing micaschists and sillimanite-bearing paragneisses, to reconstruct the Variscan and Permian-Triassic history of this crustal section. The reconstruction of the tectono-metamorphic evolution allows for the distinction between two different tectono-metamorphic units during the early pre-Alpine evolution (D1) and predates the Permian intrusives, which comprise rocks from both TS and LCN. In the staurolite-bearing micaschists, D1 developed under amphibolite facies conditions (P = 0.7-1.1 GPa, T = 580-660 °C), while in the sillimanite-bearing paragneisses formed under granulite facies conditions (P = 0.6-1.0 GPa, T> 780 °C). The two tectono-metamorphic units coupled together during the second pre-Alpine stage (D2) under granulite-amphibolite facies conditions at a lower pressure (P = 0.4-0.6 GPa, T = 620-750 °C) forming a single tectono-metamorphic unit (Languard-Tonale Tectono-Metamorphic Unit), which comprised the previously distinguished LCN and TS. Geochronological analyses on zircon rims indicate ages ranging between 250 and 275 Ma for D2, contemporaneous with the emplacement of Permian intrusives. This event developed under

  13. First data on Sm-Nd systematization of Khanka Massif metamorphic rocks, Primor'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, M.A.; Khanchuk, A.I.; Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Lavrik, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The age of the metamorphic rocks of the Khanka massif, Primor'e, is determined through the method of the Sm-Nd isotopic dating. The results of the isotopic studies on the amphibolites of the Nakhimov suite of the Khanka massif indicated that the rocks of this suite are not older than 1.7 billion years. The obtained age corresponds to the time of the amphibolite protolith formation, the source whereof is the moderately depleted mantle. The isotopic age of the amphibole and plagioclase mineral fractions constitutes 733 ± 25 mln years, which reflects the time of the Nakhimov suite rocks metamorphism [ru

  14. Mobility enhancement in tensile-strained Ge grown on InAlP metamorphic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Gong, Qian; Zhou, Haifei; Kang, Chuanzhen; Yan, Jinyi; Liu, Qingbo; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth of tensile-strained Ge on InAlP metamorphic templates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good control of biaxial tensile strain in the Ge layer was demonstrated in the range of 0.5–2.0% by adjusting the In content of the metamorphic template. It was found that the growth of Ge was layer-by-layer (2D) even under high tensile strain of 2.0%, resulting in a smooth surface with roughness less than 1.5 nm. Hall results showed that the electron mobility of Ge increased monotonically with tensile strain.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-10/TIMP-2 structure and analyses define conserved core interactions and diverse exosite interactions in MMP/TIMP complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotica Batra

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play central roles in vertebrate tissue development, remodeling, and repair. The endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs regulate proteolytic activity by binding tightly to the MMP active site. While each of the four TIMPs can inhibit most MMPs, binding data reveal tremendous heterogeneity in affinities of different TIMP/MMP pairs, and the structural features that differentiate stronger from weaker complexes are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the comparatively weakly bound human MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex at 2.1 Å resolution. Comparison with previously reported structures of MMP-3/TIMP-1, MT1-MMP/TIMP-2, MMP-13/TIMP-2, and MMP-10/TIMP-1 complexes offers insights into the structural basis of binding selectivity. Our analyses identify a group of highly conserved contacts at the heart of MMP/TIMP complexes that define the conserved mechanism of inhibition, as well as a second category of diverse adventitious contacts at the periphery of the interfaces. The AB loop of the TIMP N-terminal domain and the contact loops of the TIMP C-terminal domain form highly variable peripheral contacts that can be considered as separate exosite interactions. In some complexes these exosite contacts are extensive, while in other complexes the AB loop or C-terminal domain contacts are greatly reduced and appear to contribute little to complex stability. Our data suggest that exosite interactions can enhance MMP/TIMP binding, although in the relatively weakly bound MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex they are not well optimized to do so. Formation of highly variable exosite interactions may provide a general mechanism by which TIMPs are fine-tuned for distinct regulatory roles in biology.

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-10/TIMP-2 structure and analyses define conserved core interactions and diverse exosite interactions in MMP/TIMP complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Jyotica; Soares, Alexei S; Mehner, Christine; Radisky, Evette S

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play central roles in vertebrate tissue development, remodeling, and repair. The endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate proteolytic activity by binding tightly to the MMP active site. While each of the four TIMPs can inhibit most MMPs, binding data reveal tremendous heterogeneity in affinities of different TIMP/MMP pairs, and the structural features that differentiate stronger from weaker complexes are poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the comparatively weakly bound human MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex at 2.1 Å resolution. Comparison with previously reported structures of MMP-3/TIMP-1, MT1-MMP/TIMP-2, MMP-13/TIMP-2, and MMP-10/TIMP-1 complexes offers insights into the structural basis of binding selectivity. Our analyses identify a group of highly conserved contacts at the heart of MMP/TIMP complexes that define the conserved mechanism of inhibition, as well as a second category of diverse adventitious contacts at the periphery of the interfaces. The AB loop of the TIMP N-terminal domain and the contact loops of the TIMP C-terminal domain form highly variable peripheral contacts that can be considered as separate exosite interactions. In some complexes these exosite contacts are extensive, while in other complexes the AB loop or C-terminal domain contacts are greatly reduced and appear to contribute little to complex stability. Our data suggest that exosite interactions can enhance MMP/TIMP binding, although in the relatively weakly bound MMP-10/TIMP-2 complex they are not well optimized to do so. Formation of highly variable exosite interactions may provide a general mechanism by which TIMPs are fine-tuned for distinct regulatory roles in biology.

  17. Core mechanics and configuration behavior of advanced LMFBR core restraint concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Wei, B.C.

    1978-02-01

    Core restraint systems in LMFBRs maintain control of core mechanics and configuration behavior. Core restraint design is complex due to the close spacing between adjacent components, flux and temperature gradients, and irradiation-induced material property effects. Since the core assemblies interact with each other and transmit loads directly to the core restraint structural members, the core assemblies themselves are an integral part of the core restraint system. This paper presents an assessment of several advanced core restraint system and core assembly concepts relative to the expected performance of currently accepted designs. A recommended order for the development of the advanced concepts is also presented

  18. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn-Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn-Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  19. Metamorphism Near the Dike-Gabbro Transition in the Ocean Crust Based on Preliminary Results from Oman Drilling Project Hole GT3A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C. E.; Nozaka, T.; Harris, M.; Michibayashi, K.; de Obeso, J. C.; D'Andres, J.; Lefay, R.; Leong, J. A. M.; Zeko, D.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Oman Drilling Project Hole GT3A intersected 400 m of altered basaltic dikes, gabbros, and diorites. The 100% recovery affords an unprecedented opportunity to study metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration near the dike-gabbro transition in the ocean crust. Hydrothermal alteration is ubiquitous; all rocks are at least moderately altered, and mean alteration intensity is 54%. The earliest alteration in all rock types is background replacement of igneous minerals, some of which occurred at clinopyroxene amphibolite facies, as indicated by brown-green hornblende, calcic plagioclase, and secondary cpx. In addition, background alteration includes greenschist, subgreenschist, and zeolite facies minerals. More extensive alteration is locally observed in halos around veins, patches, and zones related to deformation. Dense networks of hydrothermal veins record a complex history of fluid-rock alteration. During core description, 10,727 individual veins and 371 vein networks were logged in the 400 m of Hole GT3A. The veins displayed a range of textures and connectivities. The total density of veins in Hole GT3A is 26.8 veins m-1. Vein density shows no correlation with depth, but may be higher near dike margins and faults. Vein minerals include amphibole, epidote, quartz, chlorite, prehnite, zeolite (chiefly laumontite) and calcite in a range of combinations. Analysis of crosscutting relations leads to classification of 4 main vein types. In order of generally oldest to youngest these are: amphibole, quartz-epidote-chlorite (QEC), zeolite-prehnite (ZP), and calcite. QEC and ZP vein types may contain any combination of minerals except quartz alone; veins filled only by quartz may occur at any relative time. Macroscopic amphibole veins are rare and show no variation with depth. QEC vein densities appear to be higher (>9.3 veins m-1) in the upper 300 m of GT3A, where dikes predominate. In contrast, there are 5.5 veins m-1 at 300-400 m, where gabbros and diorites are abundant. ZP

  20. Evidence for Complex P-T-t Histories in Subduction Zone Rocks: A Case Study from Syros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce, J. S.; Kendall, J.; Caddick, M. J.; Baxter, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical models predict that material can move freely at the interface between the subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge (mélange zone) independent of the motion of the subducting slab (i.e. Cloos 1982, Gerya et al. 2002). This is possible because the mélange zone consists of rigid blocks of metagabbroic and metabasic material suspended in a strongly sheared matrix of serpentinite, talc, and chlorite. The implication of this is that blocks of subducted material exposed in outcrops at the earth's surface could experience complex Pressure-Temperature-time (P-T-t) paths due to the cycling and recycling of subducted material within the mélange zone. Such behavior can affect the expulsion and retention of fluid during metamorphism and thus affect elemental cycles, geodynamics, mineral phase equilibra and mass transport of materials in the mélange zone depending on the physical properties and location of the blocks. The island of Syros, Greece preserves rocks that experienced blueschist-eclogite grade metamorphism during the subduction of the Pindos Oceanic Unit and thus provides a natural laboratory for investigating the evolution of subducted lithologies. Complex compositional zoning in a garnet-bearing quartz mica schist indicates that garnet crystals grew in two distinct stages. The presence of distinct cores and rims is interpreted as the result of a complex P-T-t history. Through the use of thermodynamic modeling, we calculate that the core of the garnet equilibrated at 485oC and 22.5 kbars. The edge of the first growth zone is predicted to stop growing at approximately 530oC and 20.5 kbars. We calculate that the rim began to grow at 21.7 kbars and 560oC and that the end of garnet growth occurred at approximately 16 kbars and 500oC. Sm/Nd garnet geochronology was used to date the cores of the garnets at 47 ± 3 Ma, with preliminary results suggesting that the rims grew at a significantly younger age. These data support the hypothesis that the cycling

  1. Eclogite-facies metamorphism in impure marble from north Qaidam orogenic belt: Geodynamic implications for early Paleozoic continental-arc collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xu, Rongke; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Zheng, Youye

    2018-06-01

    In the North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, impure marble and interbedded eclogite represent a particular sedimentary provenance and tectonic setting, which have important implications for a controversial problem - the dynamic evolution of early Paleozoic subduction-collision complexes. In this contribution, detailed field work, mineral chemistry, and whole-rock geochemistry are presented for impure marble to provide the first direct evidence for the recycling of carbonate sediments under ultrahigh-pressures during subduction and collision in the Yuka terrane, in the North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt. According to conventional geothermobarometry, pre-peak subduction to 0.8-1.3 GPa/485-569 °C was followed by peak UHP metamorphism at 2.5-3.3 GPa/567-754 °C and cooling to amphibolite facies conditions at 0.6-0.7 GPa/571-589 °C. U-Pb dating of zircons from impure marble reveals a large group with ages ranging from 441 to 458 Ma (peak at 450 Ma), a smaller group ranging from 770 to 1000 Ma (peak at 780 Ma), and minor >1.8 Ga zircon aged ca. 430 Ma UHP metamorphism. The youngest detrital zircons suggest a maximum depositional age of ca. 442 Ma and a burial rate of ca. 1.0-1.1 cm/yr when combined with P-T conditions and UHP metamorphic age. The REE and trace element patterns of impure marble with positive Sr and U anomalies, negative high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti), and Ce anomalies imply that the marble had a marine limestone precursor. Impure marble intercalated with micaschist and eclogite was similar to limestone and siltstone protoliths deposited in continental fore-arc or arc setting with basic volcanic activity. Therefore, the Yuka terrane most likely evolved in a continental island arc setting during the Paleozoic. These data suggest that metasediments were derived from a mixture of Proterozoic continental crust and juvenile early Paleozoic oceanic and/or island arc crust. In addition, their protoliths were likely

  2. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Chinese Altai, central Asia: new insights from microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Jian; Schulmann, Karel; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun

    2013-04-01

    The Altai Orogen, extending from Russia, through northeast Kazakhstan and northwest China, to western and southern Mongolia, occupies a pivotal position in understanding the accretionary process of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and has drawn much attention in recent years. However, its orogenic evolution remains poorly constrained, because previous studies were mainly focused on the geochronological and geochemical signatures and much less work has been done on metamorphic and structural studies. Metamorphic rocks widely occur in the southern Altai Range and have previously been separated into high-T/low-P and medium-P types. Recent studies demonstrated that these two kinds of rocks may have similar protoliths, i.e. early Paleozoic arc-related assemblages, but experienced different metamorphic histories. The development of biotite, garnet, staurolite and kyanite metamorphic zonal sequences in the low- to medium- grade rocks, demonstrate typical medium-pressure metamorphism that has been suggested as a major consequence of the orogenesis. The high-T/low-P metamorphism, represented by the growth of garnet+cordierite+sillimanite+k-feldspar and was accompanied by extensive anatexis, remains its tectonic significance poorly constrained. Field structural investigation in the Chinese Altai reveals that the high-T/low-P metamorphic rocks have major S-L fabrics (defined by the strongly aligned biotite and sillimanite) exactly in the same orientations as those developed in the associated medium-P grade rocks. Geochronological studies constrain the major fabrics in both kinds of rocks developed during mid-Devonian, coeval with the strong magmatism in the region. Micro-structural investigation on both kinds of rocks show similar prograde metamorphic history featured by clockwise P-T path evolution. Phase equilibrium modeling in the MnNCKFMASH system indicates that the development of major fabrics in the medium-P metamorphic rocks mainly recorded the notable increase of

  3. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement [fr

  4. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the

  5. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the amphiboles

  6. Fluid and mass transfer at subduction interfaces-The field metamorphic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Gray E.; Penniston-Dorland, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    The interface between subducting oceanic slabs and the hanging wall is a structurally and lithologically complex region. Chemically disparate lithologies (sedimentary, mafic and ultramafic rocks) and mechanical mixtures thereof show heterogeneous deformation. These lithologies are tectonically juxtaposed at mm to km scales, particularly in more intensely sheared regions (mélange zones, which act as fluid channelways). This juxtaposition, commonly in the presence of a mobile fluid phase, offers up huge potential for mass transfer and related metasomatic alteration. Fluids in this setting appear capable of transporting mass over scales of kms, along flow paths with widely varying geometries and P-T trajectories. Current models of arc magmatism require km-scale migration of fluids from the interface into mantle wedge magma source regions and implicit in these models is the transport of any fluids generated in the subducting slab along and ultimately through the subduction interface. Field and geochemical studies of high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks elucidate the sources and compositions of fluids in subduction interfaces and the interplay between deformation and fluid and mass transfer in this region. Recent geophysical studies of the subduction interface - its thickness, mineralogy, density, and H2O content - indicate that its rheology greatly influences the ways in which the subducting plate is coupled with the hanging wall. Field investigation of the magnitude and styles of fluid-rock interaction in metamorphic rocks representing "seismogenic zone" depths (and greater) yields insight regarding the roles of fluids and elevated fluid pore pressure in the weakening of plate interface rocks and the deformation leading to seismic events. From a geochemical perspective, the plate interface contributes to shaping the "slab signature" observed in studies of the composition of arc volcanic rocks. Understanding the production of fluids with hybridized chemical

  7. Response of zircon to melting and metamorphism in deep arc crust, Fiordland (New Zealand): implications for zircon inheritance in cordilleran granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shrema; Kemp, A. I. S.; Collins, W. J.

    2018-04-01

    The Cretaceous Mount Daniel Complex (MDC) in northern Fiordland, New Zealand was emplaced as a 50 m-thick dyke and sheet complex into an active shear zone at the base of a Cordilleran magmatic arc. It was emplaced below the 20-25 km-thick, 125.3 ± 1.3 Ma old Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO) and is characterized by metre-scale sheets of sodic, low and high Sr/Y diorites and granites. 119.3 ± 1.2 Ma old, pre-MDC lattice dykes and 117.4 ± 3.1 Ma late-MDC lattice dykes constrain the age of the MDC itself. Most dykes were isoclinally folded as they intruded, but crystallised within this deep-crustal, magma-transfer zone as the terrain cooled and was buried from 25 to 50 km (9-14 kbar), based on published P-T estimated from the surrounding country rocks. Zircon grains formed under these magmatic/granulite facies metamorphic conditions were initially characterized by conservatively assigning zircons with oscillatory zoning as igneous and featureless rims as metamorphic, representing 54% of the analysed grains. Further petrological assignment involved additional parameters such as age, morphology, Th/U ratios, REE patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperature estimates. Using this integrative approach, assignment of analysed grains to metamorphic or igneous groupings improved to 98%. A striking feature of the MDC is that only 2% of all igneous zircon grains reflect emplacement, so that the zircon cargo was almost entirely inherited, even in dioritic magmas. Metamorphic zircons of MDC show a cooler temperature range of 740-640 °C, reflects the moderate ambient temperature of the lower crust during MDC emplacement. The MDC also provides a cautionary tale: in the absence of robust field and microstructural relations, the igneous-zoned zircon population at 122.1 ± 1.3 Ma, derived mostly from inherited zircons of the WFO, would be meaningless in terms of actual magmatic emplacement age of MDC, where the latter is further obscured by younger (ca. 114 Ma) metamorphic overgrowths

  8. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.

    2008-07-01

    -thrust belts. Our work to the east of Death Valley suggests these thrusts were part of a NW trending thrust system that overprinted an older NE trending fold-thrust system that tracks into the Death Valley region from Nevada. These NW trending thrusts probably underlie all of the southern Black Mountains (south of the turtlebacks) and we suggest that pre-extensional structural relief along these basement thrusts placed basement at shallow crustal levels throughout what is now the Black Mountains; a conclusion consistent with the absence of rocks younger than Cambrian beneath Tertiary unconformities throughout the southern Death Valley region. In Late Miocene time, a major detachment system formed and the turtlebacks represent a mid-crustal shear zone developed during that time period, but this system is older, and structurally beneath younger detachments systems that comprise the Amargosa fault system. During motion on the detachment, an ~2km thick plutonic sheet was emplaced along the shear zone forming the Miocene plutonic assemblages of the Black Mountains, and produced upper amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblages along the floor of the pluton in what are now the Copper Canyon and Mormon Point turtlebacks, but the Badwater Turtleback escaped this metamorphism due to a different structural position. Motion continued along the floor of the pluton but syn-extensional folding produced structural relief along folds with axes parallel to the extension direction. Ultimately a new detachment system cut obliquely across the older extensional system, removing the roof of the pluton, but cutting down to its floor in the turtlebacks. This fault system formed a complex detachment system updip in the famous 'Amargosa Chaos', and removing the entire cover sequence from the Black Mountains (~10-12km of crustal section). The turtlebacks are therefore a composite structure in which extension contemporaneous with folding, presumably as a result of distributed transcurrent motion during

  9. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruixue [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Changzhou Institute of Energy Storage Materials and Devices, Changzhou 213000 (China); Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Li, Decheng, E-mail: lidecheng@suda.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g{sup −1} after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  10. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g −1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  11. The structure of a mixed GluR2 ligand-binding core dimer in complex with (S)-glutamate and the antagonist (S)-NS1209

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Christina; Pickering, Darryl S; Mirza, Osman

    2006-01-01

    domains has been observed. (S)-NS1209 adopts a novel binding mode, including hydrogen bonding to Tyr450 and Gly451 of D1. Parts of (S)-NS1209 occupy new areas of the GluR2 ligand-binding cleft, and bind near residues that are not conserved among receptor subtypes. The affinities of (RS)-NS1209 at the Glu....... The thermodynamics of binding of the antagonists (S)-NS1209, DNQX and (S)-ATPO to the GluR2 ligand-binding core have been determined by displacement isothermal titration calorimetry. The displacement of (S)-glutamate by all antagonists was shown to be driven by enthalpy....

  12. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of Archean core complex formatio and pancratonic strike-slip deformation in the East Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, T.E.; Nelson, D.R.; Wijbrans, J.R.; White, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb dating of zircons from granitic rocks in the East Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrain has provided time constraints for main tectonic events in the Shaw Granitoid Complex and has shown that deformation was intricately related to granitoid

  13. Using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter to Teach Phase Equilibria to Students of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Anton H.; Millam, Evan L.; Wright, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    As an aid for teaching phase equilibria to undergraduate students of igneous and metamorphic petrology, we have designed a laboratory exercise that allows them to create a phase diagram from data produced by differential scanning calorimetry. By preparing and analyzing samples of naphthalene and phenanthrene, students acquire hands-on insight into…

  14. The ammonium content in the Malayer igneous and metamorphic rocks (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, Vahid; Hirt, Ann Marie; Valizadeh, Mohammad-Vali; Bokani, Saeed Jabbari

    2011-04-01

    The ammonium (NH4+) contents of the Malayer area (Western Iran) have been determined by using the colorimetric method on 26 samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is the first analysis of the ammonium contents of Iranian metamorphic and igneous rocks. The average ammonium content of metamorphic rocks decreases from low-grade to high-grade metamorphic rocks (in ppm): slate 580, phyllite 515, andalusite schist 242. In the case of igneous rocks, it decreases from felsic to mafic igneous types (in ppm): granites 39, monzonite 20, diorite 17, gabbro 10. Altered granitic rocks show enrichment in NH4+ (mean 61 ppm). The high concentration of ammonium in Malayer granites may indicate metasedimentary rocks as protoliths rather than meta-igneous rocks. These granitic rocks (S-types) have high K-bearing rock-forming minerals such as biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar which their potassium could substitute with ammonium. In addition, the high ammonium content of metasediments is probably due to inheritance of nitrogen from organic matter in the original sediments. The hydrothermally altered samples of granitic rocks show highly enrichment of ammonium suggesting external sources which intruded additional content by either interaction with metasedimentary country rocks or meteoritic solutions.

  15. Reaction induced nucleation and growth v. grain coarsening in contact metamorphic, impure carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Brodhag, Sabine; Herwegh, Marco

    2010-01-01

    aureole of the Adamello pluton (N-Italy). As a function of increasing distance from the pluton contact, the investigated samples have peak metamorphic temperatures ranging from the stability field of diopside/tremolite down to diagenetic conditions. All samples consist of calcite as the dominant matrix...

  16. Grain coarsening in polymineralic contact metamorphic carbonate rocks: The role of different physical interactions during coarsening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodhag, Sabine; Herwegh, Marco; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    ) and microstructures with considerable second-phase volume fractions of up to 0.5. The variations might be of general validity for any polymineralic rock, which undergoes grain coarsening during metamorphism. The new findings are important for a better understanding of the initiation of strain localization based...... on the activation of grain size dependent deformation mechanisms....

  17. Enzyme clusters during the metamorphic period of Ambystoma mexicanum: role of thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Mooren, P. G.; de Graaf, A.

    1982-01-01

    Enzyme activities and DNA content have been measure in axolotl liver during the metamorphic period (4-8 months after spawning). Three different types of enzyme activity profiles were observed. In the type I profile (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, arginase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, and glutamate

  18. Review of the intrusive, structural and metamorphic history of the Namaqualand geotraverse and environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blignault, H.J.; Van Aswegen, G.; Van der Merwe, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Namaqualand excursion is concerned with the geologic strata, stratigraphy and metamorhic history of the Namaqualand geotraverse and its environs. The general aim of the project was to decipher the history and interactions of tectonic, metamorphic and magmatic processes. Isotope dating were used to determine the ages of various rock formations

  19. Fluid-driven metamorphism of the continental crust governed by nanoscale fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sorenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    The transport of fluids through the Earth’s crust controls the redistribution of elements to form mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, the release and sequestration of greenhouse gases, and facilitates metamorphic reactions that influence lithospheric rheology. In permeable systems with a

  20. Assessment of fire-damaged concrete. Combining metamorphic petrology and concrete petrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Nijland, T.G.

    2001-01-01

    Metamorphic petrology is a branch of geology that deals with the study of changes in rocks due changing physio-chemical conditions. As conditions shift in or out of the thermodynamic stability field of phases, new phases may appear whereas others disappear. A basic approach is mapping of so-called

  1. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees Part II, Valle de Arán, Sheet 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    1963-01-01

    The structural geology and metamorphic petrology of the Bosost area in the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees) is discussed. The rocks exposed in this area consist of Cambro-Ordovician mica-schists with numerous granite and pegmatite bodies, phyllites and limestones; Silurian slates and schists and

  2. Assessment of role of metamorphic remobilization in genesis of uranium ores from Ralston Buttes area, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Ralston Buttes mining district, the principal source of commercial uranium in the Front Range since the late 1940s, is located northeast of Golden and southeast of the Front Range mineral belt. Uranium ore occurs in veins emplaced in fault breccia in Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The progenitors of the metamorphic rocks are a possible source for the uranium. Hornblende gneisses of the Idaho Springs Formation is the major rock type in the area, thus its origin is a major consideration in assessing the quantity of uranium that might have been contributed by metamorphic processes. To evaluate this, 41 rock samples (19 hornblende gneisses, 7 biotite gneisses, 5 chlorite gneisses, and 10 metapelites) were analyzed for major elements, and 3 rock samples (16 hornblende gneisses, 8 biotite gneisses, 4 chlorite gneisses, and 5 mica schists) were analyzed for trace metals (Rb, Sc, Zr, V, Ni, Co, Cr, Ba, U, and Th). Four samples of hornblende gneiss and 1 sample of mica schists were also analyzed for rare earth elements. Major elements are rare earth data indicate that the hornblende gneiss was derived from sediments and tholeiitic basalts. Trace element data suggest a volcanic provenance for these sediments. Rare earth patterns and uranium and thorium abundances of metapelites are similar to average North American shales. Low uranium and thorium values and low thorium-uranium ratios in hornblende gneisses and mica schists preclude large-scale uranium remobilization during metamorphism of these source rocks

  3. 3D-Reconstructions and Virtual 4D-Visualization to Study Metamorphic Brain Development in the Sphinx Moth Manduca Sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huetteroth, Wolf; El Jundi, Basil; El Jundi, Sirri; Schachtner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    DURING METAMORPHOSIS, THE TRANSITION FROM THE LARVA TO THE ADULT, THE INSECT BRAIN UNDERGOES CONSIDERABLE REMODELING: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D) to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1.

  4. 3D-reconstructions and virtual 4D-visualization to study metamorphic brain development in the sphinx moth Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Huetteroth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During metamorphosis, the transition from the larva to the adult, the insect brain undergoes considerable remodeling: New neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1.

  5. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in metamorphic rocks from northern Kyushu, western Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Terada, Kentaro; Sano, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric ages of detrital zircons in psammitic schists from the Nagasaki, Kurume, Konoha and Kiyama areas, northern Kyushu, were obtained from 238 U/ 206 Pb ratio and isotopic compositions of Pb using a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP II). Zircons from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show bimodal age distribution with peaks at ca. 1900 Ma and 250 Ma. It is suggested from this study that the older zircons were derived from Proterozoic landmass and the Korean Peninsula. Zircons from the Kiyama metamorphic rock show a different pattern with ages concentrated at 380-590 Ma. Such zircons are rare in rock samples from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas, indicating that Kiyama rocks and a different origin than those from the other three areas. The youngest zircons from the Kiyama, Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show ages of 382±23 Ma, 238±13 Ma, 249±13 Ma, and 175±4 Ma, respectively, These data mark the upper age limit of their deposition. Since a continuous igneous activity occurred during the period from 300 to 170 Ma in Far East Asia, and the metamorphic age has been close to the zircon age of each area, these youngest ages for the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas are considered nearly contemporary to the depositional ages. An evaluation of the nature of metamorphism and available ages suggest the possibility that the Nagasaki metamorphic rocks as well as the schist from the Kurume area belong to the Suo zone of the Sangun belt, whereas the metamorphic rocks in the Konoha area may belong to the Ryoke belt or Suo zone of the Sangun belt. (author)

  6. MRB3010 is a core component of the MRB1 complex that facilitates an early step of the kinetoplastid RNA editing process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ammerman, M. L.; Hashimi, Hassan; Novotná, Lucie; Číčová, Zdeňka; Mcevoy, S. M.; Lukeš, Julius; Read, L. K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2011), 865-877 ISSN 1355-8382 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/1667; GA MŠk 2B06129; GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : RNA editing * trypanosome * MRB1 complex * mitochondria * kinetoplast Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.095, year: 2011

  7. Insight to the interaction of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) core with the peripheral components in the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex via multifaceted structural approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Wang, Junjie; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Sax, Martin; Park, Yun-Hee; Nemeria, Natalia S; Kumaran, Sowmini; Song, Jaeyoung; Jordan, Frank; Furey, William

    2013-05-24

    Multifaceted structural approaches were undertaken to investigate interaction of the E2 component with E3 and E1 components from the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc), as a representative of the PDHc from Gram-negative bacteria. The crystal structure of E3 at 2.5 Å resolution reveals similarity to other E3 structures and was an important starting point for understanding interaction surfaces between E3 and E2. Biochemical studies revealed that R129E-E2 and R150E-E2 substitutions in the peripheral subunit-binding domain (PSBD) of E2 greatly diminished PDHc activity, affected interactions with E3 and E1 components, and affected reductive acetylation of E2. Because crystal structures are unavailable for any complete E2-containing complexes, peptide-specific hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to identify loci of interactions between 3-lipoyl E2 and E3. Two peptides from the PSBD, including Arg-129, and three peptides from E3 displayed statistically significant reductions in deuterium uptake resulting from interaction between E3 and E2. Of the peptides identified on E3, two were from the catalytic site, and the third was from the interface domain, which for all known E3 structures is believed to interact with the PSBD. NMR clearly demonstrates that there is no change in the lipoyl domain structure on complexation with E3. This is the first instance where the entire wild-type E2 component was employed to understand interactions with E3. A model for PSBD-E3 binding was independently constructed and found to be consistent with the importance of Arg-129, as well as revealing other electrostatic interactions likely stabilizing this complex.

  8. Insight to the Interaction of the Dihydrolipoamide Acetyltransferase (E2) Core with the Peripheral Components in the Escherichia coli Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex via Multifaceted Structural Approaches*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Wang, Junjie; Arjunan, Palaniappa; Sax, Martin; Park, Yun-Hee; Nemeria, Natalia S.; Kumaran, Sowmini; Song, Jaeyoung; Jordan, Frank; Furey, William

    2013-01-01

    Multifaceted structural approaches were undertaken to investigate interaction of the E2 component with E3 and E1 components from the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc), as a representative of the PDHc from Gram-negative bacteria. The crystal structure of E3 at 2.5 Å resolution reveals similarity to other E3 structures and was an important starting point for understanding interaction surfaces between E3 and E2. Biochemical studies revealed that R129E-E2 and R150E-E2 substitutions in the peripheral subunit-binding domain (PSBD) of E2 greatly diminished PDHc activity, affected interactions with E3 and E1 components, and affected reductive acetylation of E2. Because crystal structures are unavailable for any complete E2-containing complexes, peptide-specific hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to identify loci of interactions between 3-lipoyl E2 and E3. Two peptides from the PSBD, including Arg-129, and three peptides from E3 displayed statistically significant reductions in deuterium uptake resulting from interaction between E3 and E2. Of the peptides identified on E3, two were from the catalytic site, and the third was from the interface domain, which for all known E3 structures is believed to interact with the PSBD. NMR clearly demonstrates that there is no change in the lipoyl domain structure on complexation with E3. This is the first instance where the entire wild-type E2 component was employed to understand interactions with E3. A model for PSBD-E3 binding was independently constructed and found to be consistent with the importance of Arg-129, as well as revealing other electrostatic interactions likely stabilizing this complex. PMID:23580650

  9. Elastic properties and seismic anisotropy of the Seve Nappe Complex - Laboratory core measurements from the International Continental Drilling Project COSC-1 well, Åre, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Zappone, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The COSC-1 scientific borehole was drilled in the summer of 2014 to ~2.5 km depth to study the structure and composition of the Middle Allochthon of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides. It crosscuts the amphibolite-grade lower part of the Seve nappe and intersects a mylonite zone in the lower 800 m of the borehole. We selected six core samples representing the primary lithologies in the COSC-1 borehole for laboratory investigation of elastic properties. The cores consisted of two amphibolites with differing grain sizes, a calc-silicate gneiss, a felsic gneiss, a coarse grained amphibole bearing gneiss, and a garnet bearing mylonitic schist from the basal shear zone. Both P- and S-waves were measured at ultrasonic frequency (1 MHz), and room temperature hydrostatic pressure conditions up to 260 MPa. Measurements were made along three mutually perpendicular directions, one perpendicular to foliation and two parallel to the foliation with one aligned with mineral lineation. Vp and Vs, anisotropy, and elastic properties are reported as an extrapolation of the high-pressure portion of the ultrasonic measurements back to the intersection with the zero pressure axis. The Vp and Vs in the direction perpendicular to foliation ranges from 5.51-6.67 km/s and 3.18-4.13 km/s, respectively. In the direction parallel to foliation the Vp and Vs ranges from 6.31-7.25 km/s and 3.52-4.35 km/s, respectively. Vp anisotropy ranges from 3% in the calc-silicate gneiss to 18% in mylonitic schist. Acoustic impedance estimations at lithostatic pressure conditions at base of the borehole (70 MPa) show that acoustic impedance contrast generating reflection coefficients between the basal shear zone and overlying units are significant enough to cause seismic reflections. Above the mylonite zone/shear zone, the reflectivity within the lower Seve nappe is due to the impedance contrast between the felsic gneiss and the amphibolite. This result fits with 3D seismic reflection imaging in the area of

  10. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  11. Geology of the Biwabik Iron Formation and Duluth Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Mark A; Miller, James D; Morey, G B

    2008-10-01

    The Biwabik Iron Formation is a approximately 1.9 billion year-old sequence of iron-rich sedimentary rocks that was metamorphosed at its eastern-most extent by approximately 1.1 billion year-old intrusions of the Duluth Complex. The metamorphic recrystallization of iron-formation locally produced iron-rich amphiboles and other fibrous iron-silicate minerals. The presence of these minerals in iron-formation along the eastern part of what is known as the Mesabi Iron Range, and their potential liberation by iron mining has raised environmental health concerns. We describe here the geologic setting and mineralogic composition of the Biwabik Iron Formation in and adjacent to the contact metamorphic aureole of the Duluth Complex. The effects of metamorphism are most pronounced within a few kilometers of the contact, and decrease progressively away from it. The contact aureole has been divided into four metamorphic zones-each characterized by the composition and crystal structure of the metamorphic minerals it contains. The recrystallization of iron-formation to iron-rich amphibole minerals (grunerite and cummingtonite) and iron-pyroxene minerals (hedenbergite and ferrohypersthene) is best developed in zones that are most proximal to the Duluth Complex contact.

  12. The effects of metamorphism on iron mineralogy and the iron speciation redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Eiler, John M.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2018-03-01

    As the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust, iron is a key player in the planetary redox budget. Observations of iron minerals in the sedimentary record have been used to describe atmospheric and aqueous redox environments over the evolution of our planet; the most common method applied is iron speciation, a geochemical sequential extraction method in which proportions of different iron minerals are compared to calibrations from modern sediments to determine water-column redox state. Less is known about how this proxy records information through post-depositional processes, including diagenesis and metamorphism. To get insight into this, we examined how the iron mineral groups/pools (silicates, oxides, sulfides, etc.) and paleoredox proxy interpretations can be affected by known metamorphic processes. Well-known metamorphic reactions occurring in sub-chlorite to kyanite rocks are able to move iron between different iron pools along a range of proxy vectors, potentially affecting paleoredox results. To quantify the effect strength of these reactions, we examined mineralogical and geochemical data from two classic localities where Silurian-Devonian shales, sandstones, and carbonates deposited in a marine sedimentary basin with oxygenated seawater (based on global and local biological constraints) have been regionally metamorphosed from lower-greenschist facies to granulite facies: Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations, Vermont, USA and the Waterville and Sangerville-Vassalboro Formations, Maine, USA. Plotting iron speciation ratios determined for samples from these localities revealed apparent paleoredox conditions of the depositional water column spanning the entire range from oxic to ferruginous (anoxic) to euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic). Pyrrhotite formation in samples highlighted problems within the proxy as iron pool assignment required assumptions about metamorphic reactions and pyrrhotite's identification depended on the extraction techniques

  13. Eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism records early collision in West Gondwana: new data from the Southern Brasilia Belt, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Brown, Michael; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2009-01-01

    constrain the age of. (1) retrograded eclogite from a block along the tectonic contact beneath the uppermost nappe in a stack of passive margin-derived nappes; (2) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the uppermost passive margin-derived nappe; (3) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism...... in the overlying arc-derived nappe. Rare zircons from a retrograded eclogite yield a Pb-206/U-238 age of 678 +/- 29 Ma. which we interpret as most likely to (late close-to-peak-P metamorphism and to provide a minimum age for detachment of the overlying passive margin-derived nappe from the subducting plate. Zircon...

  14. Paleomagnetism of the Oman Ophiolite: New Results from Oman Drilling Project Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Till, J. L.; Koornneef, L.; Usui, Y.; Kim, H.; Morris, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Oman Drilling Project drilled holes at four sites in a transect through the southern massifs of the Samail ophiolite, and recovered 1500 m of igneous and metamorphic rocks. We focus on three sites from the oceanic crustal section including lower layered gabbros (GT1A), the mid-crustal layered to foliated gabbro transition (GT2A), and the shallower transition from sheeted dikes to varitextured gabbros (GT3A). Detailed core descriptions, analyses, and paleomagnetic measurements, were made on D/V Chikyu from July to September 2017 to utilize the core laboratory facilities similar to IODP expeditions. Shipboard measurements included anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and alternating field and thermal demagnetization of 597 discrete samples. Sample demagnetization behavior is varied from each of the cores, with some revealing multiple components of magnetization, and others yielding nearly univectorial data. The interpretation of results from the lower crustal cores is complicated by the pervasive presence of secondary magnetite. In almost all samples, a stable component was resolved (interpreted as a characteristic remanent magnetization) after removal of a lower-coercivity or lower unblocking-temperature component. The inclinations of the stable components in the core reference frame are very consistent in Hole GT1A. However, a transition from negative to positive inclinations in GT2A suggests some structural complexity, possibly as a result of intense late faulting activity. Both abrupt and gradual transitions between multiple zones of negative and positive inclinations occur in Hole GT3A. Interpretation and direct comparison of remanence between drill sites is difficult as recovered core pieces currently remain azimuthally unoriented, and GT2A was drilled at a plunge of 60°, whereas GT1A and GT3A were both drilled vertically. Work is ongoing to use borehole imagery to reorient the core pieces and paleomagnetic data into a geographic in situ reference

  15. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglinger, Aurelien

    2013-01-01

    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  16. Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

    2014-05-01

    Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojević Šoštarić et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pamić et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the

  17. Synthesis and characterization of organohydrazino complexes of technetium, rhenium, and molybdenum with the [M(η1-HxNNR)(η2-HyNNR)] core and their relationship to radiolabeled organohydrazine-derivatives chemotactic peptides with diagnostic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.J.; Maresca, K.P.; Nicholson, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the details of the preparation of the imaging agent and its imaging properties. In order to define some structural possibilities for the coordination chemistry relevant to these reagents, they also present the results of investigations of the syntheses and structures of Tc, Mo, and Re complexes with hydrazinopyridine, which not only establish the formation of the robust unit, but also implicate chelate formation through the pyridine nitrogen as a significant structural determinant. The structures of the parent (bis)hydrazino-trichlorometalate core compounds are presented, allowing analysis of structural changes that occur when (2) protonation sites on the ligand change, (2) a different metal is employed, and (3) a different chelating hydrazine is utilized. The structures of the thiolate substitution products of these parent compounds are also presented. These derivatives demonstrate that rhenium and technetium have analogous substitution chemistry

  18. Epitaxial nanowire formation in metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip

    2017-07-01

    Metamorphic growth presents routes to novel nanomaterials with unique properties that may be suitable for a range of applications. We discuss self-assembled, epitaxial nanowires formed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices. The heterostructures incorporate strain-engineered GaPAs compositional grades on 6°-B miscut GaAs substrates. Lateral diffusion within the SPS into vertically aligned, three-dimensional columns results in nanowires extending along A directions with a lateral period of 70-90 nm. The microstructure is probed by transmission electron microscopy to confirm the presence of coherent GaAs nanowires within GaPAs barriers. The compositional profile is inferred from analysis of {200} dark-field image contrast and lattice images.

  19. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  20. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  1. Research advances in contact model and mechanism configuration for nut shelling manipulation based on metamorphic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan BAO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are the important economic forest tree species of China. De-shell is the key operation of nut deep processing. There are some problems in the current nut cracking devices such as the low decorticating rate, the high nuts losses rate and nutmeat integrity problems, etc.. The foundation of force analysis is to establish contact model for nut and mechanical. The nut surface is rough and irregular, so the contact area cannot be modeled as regular shape. How to set up contact constraint model is the key problem to accomplish non-loss shelling. In order to study the shell-breaking mechanism and structural design of the nut shelling manipulation, a multi-fingered metamorphic manipulator is presented. An overview of the nut shelling technology and the contact manipulator modeling are proposed. The origin and application of metamorphic mechanisms are introduced. Then the research contents and development prospects of nut shelling manipulator are described.

  2. Ammonium in Witwatersrand reefs: a possible indicator of metamorphic fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ammonium concentrations and NH 4 + /K ratios in the Kimberley Reef indicate chemical interaction with metamorphic fluids. The data, although preliminary, also suggests a gold-ammonium association in that higher gold levels are related to higher NH 4 + /K ratios. Samples from the Ventersdorp Contact Reef are also hydrothermally altered but no ammonium was detected. The low ammonium concentrations suggest that over-printing by NH 4 -bearing metamorphic fluids was negligible. From this it is concluded that chemically different fluid systems must have been operative, probably at different times, during Witwatersrand history. It appears, therefore, that ammonium geochemistry is potentially useful in the study of fluid flow and related gold (re)distribution in Witwatersrand reefs. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  4. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included

  5. Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwei Hui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.

  6. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  7. On the K-Ar ages of the rocks of two kinds existed in the Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks located in the Horokanai district, Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Masayuki; Ueda, Yoshio.

    1981-01-01

    In the Fransiscan metamorphic rocks known as the typical high-pressure type metamorphic belts, existence of the blocks of high grade metamorphic rocks of older age in the widely distributed low grade ones of younger age is commonly noticed. This feature has been explained as a phenomenon that the blocks had been tectonically mixed with the surroundings - so-called tectonic blocks - based on the absolute age determination of the component minerals. The Kamuikotan tectonic belt is a melange zone in which occur various kinds of metamorphic rocks of high-pressure and low-pressure types. The high-pressure Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks can be classified into two kinds based upon the modes of occurrence and mineral paragenesis. One is the low grade metamorphic rocks of greenschist and glaucophane schist and the other, the high grade metamorphic rocks of epidote glaucophane schist and epidote amphibolite. The high grade metamorphic rocks always occur as isolated blocks in the low grade metamorphics and associated serpentinite. The report discusses the age of muscovites separated from the two types of high-pressure Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks in the Horokanai district, central Hokkaido. The muscovites separated from the low grade metamorphics of the district give the age of 72 - 116 m.y., while those separated from the high grade metamorphics give the age of 132 - 145 m.y. These ages seem to agree with the idea that the blocks of high grade metamorphics (epidote glaucophane schist and epidote amphibolite) would be the ''tectonic blocks'' - namely the fragments tectonically mixed into the low grade metamorphics of younger age. (author)

  8. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  9. Rb-Sr dating of low-grade metamorphics in the U.S.S.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhov, I.M.; Varshavskaya, E.S.; Kutyavin, E.P.; Melnikov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    Geologically well-dated low-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks from five localities have been studied using the whole-rock Rb-Sr age method. All age values obtained are younger than those suggested by stratigraphy. When whole-rock points fit either an isochron or an errorchron with low value of the mean square of weighted deviates, the slope of this line gives the age of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  10. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of plagioclase and maskelynite in Martian meteorites: Evidence of progressive shock metamorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz,Jorg; Greshake,Ansgar; Stoffler,Dieter

    2005-01-01

    We present the first systematic Micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of plagioclase of different degree of shock metamorphism in Martian meteorites. The equilibrium shock pressure of all plagioclase phases of seventeen unpaired Martian meteorites was determined by measuring the shock-induced reduction of the refractive index. Systematic variations in the recorded Raman spectra of the plagioclase phases correlate with increasing shock pressure. In general, the shock induced deformation of t...

  11. Dating of retrograde metamorphism in Western Carpathians by K-Ar analysis of muscovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Korikovskij, S.P.; Krasivskaya, I.S.; Arakelyants, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using the K-Ar isotope dating method of muscovites it was found that many retrogradely metamorphosed rocks are the results of Variscan retrograde metamorphism and are not pre-Cambrian or Alpine metamorphites (diaphthorites). Samples for dating were taken from the Western Carpathian crystalline formation. The content of radiogenic argon was determined by mass spectrometry using the method of isotope dilution. (M.D.)

  12. Metal mobility during metamorphism and formation of orogenic gold deposits: Insights from the Dalradian of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Orogenic gold deposits occur within metamorphic belts throughout the world and have through time represented the source for over 25% of the world’s gold production. Although orogenic gold deposits are of great economic importance, controversies exist on the subject of fluid and metal sources and there have been few studies of gold´s distribution and mobility outside of large economic deposits. Research made by Pitcairn et al. (2006), on the Mesozoic Otago and Alpine schists of New Zealand, ob...

  13. Enhanced Contacts for Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using Carbon Nanotube Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-18

    substrates through a shadow mask. The native oxide was removed by HCl (hydrochloric acid) immersion immediately before the deposition process...34Pushing Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction Solar Cells Toward Higher Efficiency at Realistic Operating Conditions," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 3...Multijunction Solar Cells," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 2, pp. 377-381, Jul 2012. [7] F. Newman, et al., "PROGRESS IN ADAPTING INVERTED

  14. Metamorphism and plutonism around the middle and south forks of the Feather River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Anna Martta

    1976-01-01

    The area around the Middle and South Forks of the Feather River provides information on metamorphic and igneous processes that bear on the origin of andesitic and granitic magmas in general and on the variation of their potassium content in particular. In the north, the area joins the Pulga and Bucks Lake quadrangles studied previously. Tectonically, this area is situated in the southern part of an arcuate segment of the Nevadan orogenic belt in the northwestern Sierra Nevada. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed calcalkaline island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite with interbedded tuff layers (the Franklin Canyon Formation), all probably correlative with Devonian rocks in the Klamath Mountains. Younger rocks form a sequence of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks including some limestone (The Horseshoe Bend Formation), probably Permian in age. All the volcanic and sedimentary rocks were folded and recrystallized to the greenschist facies during the Nevadan (Jurassic) orogeny and were invaded by monzotonalitic magmas shortly thereafter. A second lineation and metamorphism to the epidote-amphibolite facies developed in a narrow zone around the plutons. In light of the concept of plate tectonics, it is suggested that the early (Devonian?) island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite (the Franklin Canyon Formation) were derived from the mantle above a Benioff zone by partial melting of peridotite in hydrous conditions. The water was probably derived from an oceanic plate descending to the mantle. Later (Permian?) magmas were mainly basaltic; some discontinuous layers of potassium-rich rhyolite indicate a change into anhydrous conditions and a deeper level of magma generation. The plutonic magmas that invaded the metamorphic rocks at the end of the Jurassic may contain material from the mantle, the subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the downfolded metamorphic rocks. The ratio of partial melts from these three sources may have changed with time

  15. Limited mobility of argon in a metamorphic terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foland, K A [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia (USA). Dept. of Geology

    1979-06-01

    Excess /sup 40/Ar in biotite from some relatively anhydrous charnockitic rocks in the Appalachian Piedmont indicates limited mobility or argon. Biotite from the Arden pluton of the granulite-facies Wilmington Complex apparently formed as a retrograde product at the expense of pyroxene and K-feldspar Rb-Sr ages of biotite from all rocks are approximately 365 Myr. The same micas have apparent K-Ar ages which range from about 365-590 Mye, six of which clearly exceed the Sr isotope whole-rock date of 500 Myr. They contain variable amounts of excess /sup 40/Ar incorporated during crystallization or recrystallization of biotite at about 365 Myr ago. None of the other minerals appears to contain significant amounts of excess argon. The K-Ar apparent ages show strong, positive correlation with whole-rock K concentrations. These relations yield a correlation between excess argon in the biotite phase and rock potassium. This suggests that excess /sup 40/Ar in biotite is of local derivation and is due to an imprint of the local argon activity. If the amount incorporated is roughly proportional to the prevailing argon partial pressure then substantial differences in psub(Ar) existed. Argon did not have a uniform chemical potential over large rock volumes. Analysis of closely spaced samples suggests different argon activity over the scale of less than 10 m. This implies restricted transport of Ar and is probably due to very low effective permeability of the anhydrous assemblages.

  16. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  17. Petrographic and EMP study of metamorphic rocks from the Variscan basement of Dinarides (Vranica Mountains, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrvanovic, S [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    The Vranica Mountains are located in the middle part of Bosnia and Herzegovina or in the southeastern part of the Mid - Bosnian schist Mountains (MBSM). The Mid - Bosnian schist Mountains represent one of the largest allochtonous Paleozoic terranes in the Dinarides. This region is characterized by a multistage geodynamic evolution. The presented results concern Variscan metamorphism of the Silur-Devonian protolith formations that occurred mainly during the Early Carboniferous in LT/MP greenschist facies. Petrographical description of metamorphic rocks is completed by EMPA of muscovite, chlorite and chloritoid. The Early Alpine metamorphic overprint is related to the closure of a Tethyan Basin and Early Cretaceous collision of the Adria microplate with the Tissia-Moesia continental Blocks. The Neo-Alpine metamorphic overprint occurred due to the collision of the African and Euroasian Plates. (authors)

  18. Gneiss Macuira: tectonic evolution of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Alta Guajira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I; A Julian; Zuluaga C; A, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Macuira Gneiss is a Paleozoic metamorphic unit that outcrops in the Simarua, Jarara and Macuira ranges, Alta Guajira. It is composed by a lithologies metamorphosed under amphibolite facies P-T conditions and consist of amphibolitic and quartz feldspathic gneisses, amphibolites, schists, pegmatites, calc-silicated rocks and marbles, with migmatization evidences in gneisses and amphibolites. Five foliations (S1-5) and three folding events (F1-3) were identified and interpreted as product of two metamorphic events, developed in a progressive barrovian metamorphic gradient of intermediate pressure with intermediate P-T ratio, interpreted as product of continental collision tectonics. This unit is important in understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Alta Guajira and Caribbean because it records different deformational phases pre-, syn- and post-migmatitic, that could be related with different tectonic episodes: the first associated with the collision between Laurasia and Gondwana (Alleghanian Orogeny - Late Paleozoic), and the second related with the Caribbean Plate evolution (Andean Orogeny - Meso-Cenozoic).

  19. Study of the metamorphic belts and tectonics; Henseitai kenkyu to tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    Study of metamorphic belts and tectonics is introduced. Minerals supposedly originating in the transitional zone and the lower mantle, that is, inclusions in diamond in kimberlite, are deemed to carry information about the depth level of 670km and lower. The place of origin of peridotite, Alpe Arami of Switzerland, is again estimated at a level of 300km or deeper. In the tectonic cross section in this region, the oceanic crust is bent and folded, and such a structure enables the supposition that fragments off the transitional zone may be carried upward to the ground surface. This region is now being limelighted, with plume tectonics enjoying popularity. The split of Pangaea is related with the ascent of plume. In the eastern part of Australia, there are alkali rocks attributable to the plume that was supposedly active at the end of the Proterozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating by SHRIMP offers a new approach to the tectonics of metamorphic rocks, and is reinforcing the position of metamorphic petrology relative to the study of collision and split of continents. 64 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Evaluating the importance of metamorphism in the foundering of continental crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Timothy; Clarke, Geoffrey L; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan R

    2017-10-12

    The metamorphic conditions and mechanisms required to induce foundering in deep arc crust are assessed using an example of representative lower crust in SW New Zealand. Composite plutons of Cretaceous monzodiorite and gabbro were emplaced at ~1.2 and 1.8 GPa are parts of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO); examples of the plutons are tectonically juxtaposed along a structure that excised ~25 km of crust. The 1.8 GPa Breaksea Orthogneiss includes suitably dense minor components (e.g. eclogite) capable of foundering at peak conditions. As the eclogite facies boundary has a positive dP/dT, cooling from supra-solidus conditions (T > 950 ºC) at high-P should be accompanied by omphacite and garnet growth. However, a high monzodioritic proportion and inefficient metamorphism in the Breaksea Orthogneiss resulted in its positive buoyancy and preservation. Metamorphic inefficiency and compositional relationships in the 1.2 GPa Malaspina Pluton meant it was never likely to have developed densities sufficiently high to founder. These relationships suggest that the deep arc crust must have primarily involved significant igneous accumulation of garnet-clinopyroxene (in proportions >75%). Crustal dismemberment with or without the development of extensional shear zones is proposed to have induced foundering of excised cumulate material at P > 1.2 GPa.

  1. Chemical-Petrographic Types and Shock Metamorphism of 184 Grove Mountains Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiu Dai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We reported the petrography and mineral chemistry of 184 equilibrated ordinary chondrites collected from Grove Mountains, Antarctica. The chemical-petrographic types and shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. They were classified into 46 H groups (22 H4, 20 H5, and four H6, 133 L groups (eight L4, 75 L5, and 50 L6, and five LL groups (four LL4 and one LL5. Some of these chondrites could be paired; however, both H and L group meteorites were affected. Further studies such as terrestrial ages and thermal luminescence are required in order to confirm the pairings. The relative abundances of H, L, and LL are different in Grove Mountain meteorites, when compared to those in Transcontinental Ridge meteorites. Based on the shock effects, the shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. Compared to previous studies, the heavily shocked samples of S4 and S5 have a higher fraction (59 out of 184 in Grove Mountain ordinary chondrites. The L group (54 out of 59 is the dominant chemical group in the heavily shocked chondrites, except for five meteorites which belong to the H group. The shock metamorphism degrees of the H and L groups are distinct, which may indicate different surface properties in their parent bodies. In addition, the petrologic types and shock degrees are probably closely related, with the most heavily shocked chondrites observed in types 5 and 6.

  2. The role of evaporites in the formation of gems during metamorphism of carbonate platforms: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Dubessy, Jean; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Banks, David; Branquet, Yannick; Feneyrol, Julien; Fallick, Anthony E.; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The mineral and fluid inclusions trapped by gemstones during the metamorphism of carbonate platform successions are precious markers for the understanding of gem genesis. The nature and chemical composition of inclusions highlight the major contribution of evaporites through dissolution or fusion, depending on the temperature of formation from greenschist to granulite facies. The fluids are highly saline NaCl-brines circulating either in an open system in the greenschist facies (Colombian and Afghan emeralds) and with huge fluid-rock metasomatic interactions, or sulphurous fluids (ruby, garnet tsavorite, zoisite tanzanite and lapis-lazuli) or molten salts formed in a closed system with a low fluid mobility (ruby in marble) in the conditions of the amphibolite to granulite facies. These chloride-fluoride-sulphate ± carbonate-rich fluids scavenged the metals essential for gem formation. At high temperature, the anions SO4 2-, NO3 -, BO3 - and F- are powerful fluxes which lower the temperature of chloride- and fluoride-rich ionic liquids. They provided transport over a very short distance of aluminium and/or silica and transition metals which are necessary for gem growth. In summary, the genetic models proposed for these high-value and ornamental gems underline the importance of the metamorphism of evaporites formed on continental carbonate shelves and emphasise the chemical power accompanying metamorphism at moderate to high temperatures of evaporite-rich and organic matter-rich protoliths to form gem minerals.

  3. Geology and genesis of uranium deposits in sedimentary and metamorphic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.; Belevtsev, Ya.N.

    1980-01-01

    Main genetic types of uranium deposits in sedimentary cover are described. Their genetic classification is based on the principle of conjugation of ore-forming process with the stages of lithogenesis of ore-enclosing rocks. Examples of poligeneity of uranium mineralization are presented. Texture-structural peculiarities of ores and types of ore-controlling zonality are considered as criteria of definite deposits belonging to various genetic classes. The analysis is given of main regularities of location of exogenous and poligenic uranium deposits. Processes of uranium ore-formation under the conditions of low and high degrees of metamorphism are considered. On the basis of separate types of deposits shown is the possibility of mobilization, transfer and concentration of ore substance, its transformation from primary to secondary forms. Metamorphous and ultrametamorphous deposits are formed as a result of ore element translocation within considerable distances under the effect of endogenous solutions and their concentration in favourable structures. Conclusions on the effect of lithogenesis and metamorphism processes on the ore formation are substantiated by field observations, analyses (including methods of isotopic geochemistry) as well as by experiments

  4. Rubidium-strontium chronology of the metamorphism and prehistory of central Australian granulites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, C M [La Trobe Univ., Bundoora (Australia); Compston, W

    1978-11-01

    Rubidium-strontium isotopic study of intermediate-pressure granulites at Mt. Aloysius, central Australia reveals total rock isochrons that either record the metamorphism or predate it. The gneisses involved, typically quartz + feldspar + orthopyroxene + garnet granulites, occur in five lithological units which outline a simple fold structure. The distribution of isotopic ages in a 25 km/sup 2/ area is tested using 74 samples collected in groups of 2 to 4 both along and across strike in each of the units. Two total rock isochron ages of 1200 and 1550 Myr occur, and both are found at different sites in one unit. Mineral ages are younger and independent of location, with feldspars giving 800 Myr and biotites 730 Myr. The 1200 Myr isochrons show the features of outcrop-scale Sr isotopic homogenisation and are taken to record the time of metamorphism. Contemporaneous regional depletion of U, commonly associated with granulite facies metamorphism, confirms the interpretation. The 1550 Myr isochrons describe entire lithological units and are best assigned to the supracrustal genesis of the rocks. The preservation of two ages indicates that isotopic equilibration of anhydrous total rocks is incomplete even within the granulite facies. Careful interpretation is required to assign geological meaning to granulite isochrons.

  5. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrabady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry, and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous mafic granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture zone of NE Iran. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the Sabzevar granulites are likely derived from a MORB-type precursor. They are thus considered as remnants of a dismembered dynamo-thermal sole formed during subduction of a back-arc basin (proto-Sabzevar Ocean formed in the upper-plate of the Neotethyan slab. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone, followed by cooling during exhumation. Transition from a nascent to a mature stage of oceanic subduction is the geodynamic scenario proposed to accomplish for the reconstructed thermobaric evolution. When framed with the regional scenario, results of this study point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing disparity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected to emerge with further investigations.

  6. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  7. Timing of metamorphism and exhumation in the Nordøyane ultra-high-pressure domain, Western Gneiss Region, Norway: New constraints from complementary CA-ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. P.; Jamieson, R. A.; Dunning, G. R.; Pecha, M. E.; Robinson, P.; Steenkamp, H. M.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a combined CA-ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology study of zircon and associated rutile and titanite from the Nordøyane ultra-high-pressure (UHP) domain in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway. The dated samples include 4 eclogite bodies, 2 host-rock migmatites, and 2 cross-cutting pegmatites and leucosomes, all from the island of Harøya. Zircon from a coesite eclogite yielded an age of ca. 413 Ma, interpreted as the time of UHP metamorphism in this sample. Zircon data from the other eclogite bodies yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 413 Ma, 407 Ma, and 406 Ma; zircon trace-element data associated with 413 Ma and 407 Ma ages are consistent with eclogite-facies crystallization. In all of the eclogites, U-Pb dates from zircon cores, interpreted as the times of protolith crystallization, range from ca. 1680-1586 Ma, consistent with Gothian ages from orthogneisses in Nordøyane and elsewhere in the WGR. A zircon core age of ca. 943 Ma from one sample agrees with Sveconorwegian ages of felsic gneisses and pegmatites in the western part of the area. Migmatites hosting the eclogite bodies yielded zircon core ages of ca. 1657-1591 Ma and rim ages of ca. 395-392 Ma, interpreted as the times of Gothian protolith formation and Scandian partial melt crystallization, respectively. Pegmatite in an eclogite boudin neck yielded a crystallization age of ca. 388 Ma, interpreted as the time of melt crystallization. Rutile and titanite from 3 samples (an eclogite and two migmatites) yielded concordant ID-TIMS ages of 378-376 Ma. The results are similar to existing U-Pb data from other Nordøyane eclogites (415-405 Ma). In combination with previous pressure-temperature data from the coesite eclogite, these ages indicate that peak metamorphic conditions of 3 GPa/760 °C were reached ca. 413 Ma, followed by decompression to 1 GPa/810 °C by ca. 397 Ma and cooling below ca. 600 °C by ca. 375 Ma. The results are compatible with protracted UHP

  8. Seismic imaging of the metamorphism of young sediment into new crystalline crust in the actively rifting Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John; Stock, Joann; Fuis, Gary S.; Williams, Colin F.; Delph, Jonathan; Davenport, Kathy; Livers, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Plate-boundary rifting between transform faults is opening the Imperial Valley of southern California and the rift is rapidly filling with sediment from the Colorado River. Three 65–90 km long seismic refraction profiles across and along the valley, acquired as part of the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project, were analyzed to constrain upper crustal structure and the transition from sediment to underlying crystalline rock. Both first arrival travel-time tomography and frequency-domain full-waveform inversion were applied to provide P-wave velocity models down to ∼7 km depth. The valley margins are fault-bounded, beyond which thinner sediment has been deposited on preexisting crystalline rocks. Within the central basin, seismic velocity increases continuously from ∼1.8 km/s sediment at the surface to >6 km/s crystalline rock with no sharp discontinuity. Borehole data show young sediment is progressively metamorphosed into crystalline rock. The seismic velocity gradient with depth decreases approximately at the 4 km/s contour, which coincides with changes in the porosity and density gradient in borehole core samples. This change occurs at ∼3 km depth in most of the valley, but at only ∼1.5 km depth in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We interpret progressive metamorphism caused by high heat flow to be creating new crystalline crust throughout the valley at a rate comparable to the ≥2 km/Myr sedimentation rate. The newly formed crystalline crust extends to at least 7–8 km depth, and it is shallower and faster where heat flow is higher. Most of the active seismicity occurs within this new crust.

  9. Seismic imaging of the metamorphism of young sediment into new crystalline crust in the actively rifting Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John A.; Stock, Joann M.; Fuis, Gary S.; Williams, Colin F.; Delph, Jonathan R.; Davenport, Kathy K.; Livers, Amanda J.

    2016-11-01

    Plate-boundary rifting between transform faults is opening the Imperial Valley of southern California and the rift is rapidly filling with sediment from the Colorado River. Three 65-90 km long seismic refraction profiles across and along the valley, acquired as part of the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project, were analyzed to constrain upper crustal structure and the transition from sediment to underlying crystalline rock. Both first arrival travel-time tomography and frequency-domain full-waveform inversion were applied to provide P-wave velocity models down to ˜7 km depth. The valley margins are fault-bounded, beyond which thinner sediment has been deposited on preexisting crystalline rocks. Within the central basin, seismic velocity increases continuously from ˜1.8 km/s sediment at the surface to >6 km/s crystalline rock with no sharp discontinuity. Borehole data show young sediment is progressively metamorphosed into crystalline rock. The seismic velocity gradient with depth decreases approximately at the 4 km/s contour, which coincides with changes in the porosity and density gradient in borehole core samples. This change occurs at ˜3 km depth in most of the valley, but at only ˜1.5 km depth in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We interpret progressive metamorphism caused by high heat flow to be creating new crystalline crust throughout the valley at a rate comparable to the ≥2 km/Myr sedimentation rate. The newly formed crystalline crust extends to at least 7-8 km depth, and it is shallower and faster where heat flow is higher. Most of the active seismicity occurs within this new crust.

  10. Early Cretaceous wedge extrusion in the Indo-Burma Range accretionary complex: implications for the Mesozoic subduction of Neotethys in SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Cai, Fulong; Sein, Kyaing; Naing, Soe

    2017-06-01

    The Indo-Burma Range (IBR) of Myanmar, the eastern extension of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Neotethyan belt of Tibet in China, contains mélanges with serpentinite, greenschist facies basalt, chert, sericite schist, silty slate and unmetamorphosed Triassic sandstone, mudstone and siltstone interbedded with chert in the east, and farther north high-pressure blueschist and eclogite blocks in the Naga Hills mélange. Our detailed mapping of the Mindat and Magwe sections in the middle IBR revealed a major 18 km antiformal isocline in a mélange in which greenschist facies rocks in the core decrease in grade eastwards and westwards symmetrically `outwards' to lower grade sericite schist and silty slate, and at the margins to unmetamorphosed sediments, and these metamorphic rocks are structurally repeated in small-scale imbricated thrust stacks. In the Mindat section the lower western boundary of the isoclinal mélange is a thrust on which the metamorphic rocks have been transported over unmetamorphosed sediments of the Triassic Pane Chaung Group, and the upper eastern boundary is a normal fault. These relations demonstrate that the IBR metamorphic rocks were exhumed by wedge extrusion in a subduction-generated accretionary complex. Along strike to the north in the Naga Hills is a comparable isoclinal mélange in which central eclogite lenses are succeeded `outwards' by layers of glaucophane schist and glaucophanite, and to lower grade greenschist facies sericite schist and slate towards the margins. In the Natchaung area (from west to east) unmetamorphosed Triassic sediments overlie quartzites, sericite schists, actinolite schists and meta-volcanic amphibolites derived from MORB-type basalt, which are in fault contact with peridotite. Olivine in the peridotite has undulatory extinction suggesting deformation at 600-700 °C, similar to the peak temperature of the amphibolite; these relations suggest generation in a metamorphic sole. The amphibolites have U/Pb zircon ages of 119

  11. Tuning the Solubility of Copper Complex in Atom Transfer Radical Self-Condensing Vinyl Polymerizations to Control Polymer Topology via One-Pot to the Synthesis of Hyperbranched Core Star Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Cheng Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simple one-pot methodology for proceeding from atom transfer reaction-induced conventional free radical polymerization (AT-FRP to atom transfer self-condensing vinyl polymerization (AT-SCVP through manipulation of the catalyst phase homogeneity (i.e., CuBr/2,2'-bipyridine (CuBr/Bpy in a mixture of styrene (St, 4-vinyl benzyl chloride (VBC, and ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate. Tests of the solubilities of CuBr/Bpy and CuBr2/Bpy under various conditions revealed that both temperature and solvent polarity were factors affecting the solubility of these copper complexes. Accordingly, we obtained different polymer topologies when performing AT-SCVP in different single solvents. We investigated two different strategies to control the polymer topology in one-pot: varying temperature and varying solvent polarity. In both cases, different fractions of branching revealed the efficacy of varying the polymer topology. To diversify the functionality of the peripheral space, we performed chain extensions of the resulting hyperbranched poly(St-co-VBC macroinitiator (name as: hbPSt MI with either St or tBA (tert-butyl acrylate. The resulting hyperbranched core star polymer had high molecular weights (hbPSt-g-PSt: Mn = 25,000, Đ = 1.77; hbPSt-g-PtBA: Mn = 27,000, Đ = 1.98; hydrolysis of the tert-butyl groups of the later provided a hyperbranched core star polymer featuring hydrophilic poly(acrylic acid segments.

  12. U-Pb age of the Diana Complex and Adirondack granulite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the most concordant analyses, the 207Pb/206Pb ages range between 1115 and 1150 Ma. Detailed petrographic studies revealed that most grains contained at least two phases of zircon growth, either primary magmatic cores enclosed by variable thickness of metamorphic overgrowths or magmatic portions enclosing ...

  13. U-Pb age of the Diana Complex and Adirondack granulite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    with two of the multi-grain analyses yielded an upper-intercept age of 1118 ± 2.8 Ma and a lower .... Color. Features. Inheritance? 1. 0.040. Euhedral. Clear, slight. Not whole xtal .... visible in this view) without inclusions and metamorphic cores.

  14. Evidence for Cyclical Fractional Crystallization, Recharge, and Assimilation in Basalts of the Kimama Core, Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: A 5.5-million-year Highlight Reel of Petrogenetic processes in a Mid-Crustal Sill Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Katherine E.; Shervais, John W.; Christiansen, Eric H.; Vetter, Scott K.

    2018-02-01

    -Fe flows are compositionally unrelated to SROT magmas and represent highly fractionated basalt, probably accompanied by crustal assimilation. These evolved lavas may be sourced from the Craters of the Moon/Great Rift system to the northeast. The Kimama drill core is the longest record of geochemical variation in the central Snake River Plain and reinforces the concept of magma processing in a layered complex.

  15. Drilling the leading edge of the mantle wedge and the underlying metamorphic sole of the Samail Ophiolite: Hole BT1B, Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Kelemen, P. B.; Coggon, J. A.; Harris, M.; Matter, J. M.; Michibayashi, K.; Takazawa, E.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hole BT1B (23°21.861' N, 58°10.957' E) was drilled by the Oman Drilling Project (OmDP) on the north side of Wadi Mansah in the Samail ophiolite, Oman. OmDP is an international collaboration supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, Deep Carbon Observatory, NSF, IODP, JAMSTEC, and the European, Japanese, German and Swiss Science Foundations, with in-kind support in Oman from the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Water Resources, Public Authority of Mining, Sultan Qaboos University, and the German University of Technology. Hole BT1B was cored from 6 to 23 March 2017, to a depth of 300.05 m. The outer surfaces of the cores were imaged and described onsite before being curated, boxed and shipped to the IODP drill ship Chikyu. Hole BT1B sampled carbonated peridotite (listvenite), 2 carbonate-veined serpentinite bands at 80-100 and 180-185 m depth, a few cm of ultracataclasite and 70 cm of fault gouge at 197 m depth, followed by 103 m metamorphic sole. Onboard Chikyu, BT1B underwent X-ray computed tomography (CT) and multi-sensor logging, imaging and spectroscopy, macroscopic and thin section observations, physical properties measurements, and XRF, XRD and ICP-MS analyses. 1st authors of abstracts reporting initial results are Beinlich (matrix characteristics), de Obeso (modeling mass transfer), Godard (XRF and ICP-MS whole rock data), Greenberger (infrared spectroscopy), Johnson (XRF core scanner), Kelemen (overall petrology), Manning (veins), and Michibayashi (X-ray CT). Listvenite is composed of carbonate + quartz + Fe-oxyhydroxides, + minor relict spinel ± chromian mica (fuchsite). The mineralogy suggests formation at < 150°C. The bulk rock density is similar to that of gabbro but the P-wave velocity is generally higher. Rock textures suggest viscous deformation, while additional brittle deformation is recorded by older veins and younger breccias and faults. The metamorphic sole consists of fine-grained to microcrystalline

  16. Geochronology, geochemistry, and petrogenesis of late Permian to early Triassic mafic rocks from Darongshan, South China: Implications for ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and S-type granite generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang-Chun; Luo, Bi-Ji; Xu, Ya-Jun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi

    2018-05-01

    The role of the mantle in generating ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and peraluminous S-type granites, and the extent of crust-mantle interaction are topics fundamental to our understanding of the Earth's evolution. In this study we present geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for dolerites and mafic volcanic rocks from the Darongshan granite complex belt in western Cathaysia, South China. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses yielded magma crystallization ages of ca. 250-248 Ma for the dolerites, which are coeval with eruption of the mafic volcanic rocks, ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism, and emplacement of S-type granites in the Darongshan granite complex belt. The mafic volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline or shoshonitic, enriched in Th, U, and light rare earth elements, and depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti. The dolerites are characterized by high Fe2O3tot (11.61-20.39 wt%) and TiO2 (1.62-3.17 wt%), and low MgO (1.73-4.38 wt%), Cr (2.8-10.8 ppm) and Ni (2.5-11.4 ppm). Isotopically, the mafic volcanic rocks have negative whole-rock εNd(t) values (-6.7 to -9.0) and high ISr values (0.71232 to 0.71767), which are slightly depleted compared with the dolerite samples (εNd(t) = -10.3 to -10.4 and ISr = 0.71796 to 0.71923). Zircons in the dolerites have εHf(t) values of -7.6 to -10.9. The mafic volcanic rocks are interpreted to have resulted from the partial melting of an enriched lithospheric mantle source with minor crustal contamination during ascent, whereas the dolerites formed by late-stage crystallization of enriched lithospheric mantle-derived magmas after fractionation of olivine and pyroxene. The formation of these mantle-derived mafic rocks may be attributed to transtension along a NE-trending strike-slip fault zone that was related to oblique subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate beneath South China. Such underplated mafic magmas would provide sufficient heat for the generation of ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism and S-type granites, and

  17. Automated Core Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Aiyoshi, Eitaro

    2005-01-01

    Multistate searching methods are a subfield of distributed artificial intelligence that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple states and mechanisms for coordination of independent agents' actions. This paper proposes a multistate searching algorithm with reinforcement learning for the automatic core design of a boiling water reactor. The characteristics of this algorithm are that the coupling structure and the coupling operation suitable for the assigned problem are assumed and an optimal solution is obtained by mutual interference in multistate transitions using multiagents. Calculations in an actual plant confirmed that the proposed algorithm increased the convergence ability of the optimization process

  18. SHRIMP chronology of the Magallanes Basin basement, Tierra del Fuego: Cambrian plutonism and Permian high-grade metamorphism Geocronología SHRIMP del basamento de la Cuenca de Magallanes, Tierra del Fuego: plutonismo Cámbrico y metamorfismo Pérmico de alto grado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hervé

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new SHRTMP U-Pb zircon ages are reported for gneisses and foliated plutonic rocks belonging to the Tierra del Fuego igneous and metamorphic basement complex (TFIMC, obtained from the bottom of borehole cores through the Magallanes Basin. Three of the samples yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages (523±7 Ma, 522±6 Ma and 538±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating Early Cambrian igneous crystallization of the host rocks. A migmatitic gneiss shows peaks at ca. 950-1,100 Ma and 560-650 Ma from inherited zircon grains in addition to two grains with ages of ca. 525 Ma, suggesting involvement of Grenvillian and Brasiliano material in the protolith of a Cambrian migmatite. A cordierite-sillimanite-garnet gneiss contains igneous zircons of Cambrian age and a population of U-rich metamorphic Permian zircons, indicating that a Permian high-grade metamorphic and anatectic (P=2-3 kbar, T=730-770°C event affected the Cambrian igneous rocks or sedimentary rocks derived from them. Cambrian/Ediacaran plutonic rocks are known from the basement of NW Argentina, the Sierra de la Ventana, the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, and the Ross Orogen in Antarctica. The Permian metamorphic event is coeval with the deformation and low-grade metamorphism of the sedimentary successions that overlie the basement in many of these areas. In Tierra del Fuego at least 8 to 12 km of cover rocks were removed following the high-grade Permian metamorphic episode and the unconformable deposition of the Tobífera Formation volcanic rocks in the Middle to Late Jurassic. This eroded cover could nave been an important source of detritus for the conglomeratic Permian and Triassic? Successions of neighboring regions in South America, Africa and Antarctica.Cinco nuevas edades radiométricas logradas mediante análisis U-Pb en circón utilizando el SHRIMP, fueron determinadas en gneises y rocas plutónicas foliadas obtenidas desde el fondo de pozos de sondajes en la Cuenca de Magallanes y

  19. Prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes in high-pressure subduction zone serpentinites from East Thessaly, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros

    2016-04-01

    The East Thessaly region, Central Greece, includes metaophiolitic mélange formations which extend from the eastern foothills of Mt. Olympus and Ossa, throughout the Agia basin, Mt. Mavrovouni (Sklithro region), South Pelion and reaching up to northeast Othris (regions of Aerino and Velestino). They appear in the form of dispersed and deformed thrust sheets having been variably emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks of the Pelagonian tectonostratigraphic zone[1]. These formations consist mainly of serpentinites, as well as metasediments, metagabbros, metadolerites, rodingites, ophicalcites, talc-schists and chromitites. Based upon petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data and XRD patterns, the subduction zone-related serpentinites from the regions of Potamia, Anavra, Aetolofos and Kalochori-Chasanbali (Agia basin), as well as from the regions of Aerino and Velestino, are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite and are distinguished into two groups. The first group includes serpentinites from the metaophiolitic formations of Potamia, Anavra, Aerino and Velestino, which are marked by destibillization of lizardite to antigorite, mostly along the grain boundaries of the lizardite mesh textured relics. The presence of lizardite and antigorite in almost equal amounts indicates medium-temperature blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (˜340-370 ° C; P≈10-11 kbar)[2,3,4]. The second serpentinite group appears in the regions of Aetolofos and Kalochori, characterized by the predominance of antigorite, the minor occurrence of lizardite and the complete replacement of spinel by Cr-magnetite. The absence of metamorphic olivine suggests that these serpentinites were most likely formed at slightly higher temperature and pressure conditions compared to the first serpentinite group, corresponding to medium or high temperature blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-380 ° C; P≈12 kbar)[2,3,4]. These metamorphic conditions are

  20. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic

  1. Geology of uranium vein deposits (including Schwartzwalder Mine) in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Front Range, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voto, R.H. de; Paschis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is one of many uranium vein occurrences in the Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Front Range, Colorado. The principal veins of significant uranium content occur marginal to the Colorado Mineral Belt; are localized by structural dilation zones, vein junctions, fault deflections or branching; and occur dominantly within or at the contact of certain preferred metamorphic-stratigraphic units, particularly the siliceous, garnetiferous gneisses, where these rock units are broken by faults and fractures associated with the north-northwest-trending throughgoing faults. Uranium at the Schwartzwalder mine occurs primarily as open-space brecciated vein filling along the steeply west-dipping Illinois vein and numerous east-dipping subsidiary veins where they cut preferred metamorphic host rocks that are tightly folded. Uraninite occurs with molybdenite, adularia, jordisite, ankerite, pyrite, base-metal sulphides, and calcite in vein-filling paragenetic sequence. Minor wall-rock alteration is mainly hematite alteration and bleaching. Vertical relief on the developed ore deposit is 900 metres and still open-ended at depth. No vertical zonation of alteration, vein mineralogy, density of the subsidiary veins, or ore grade has been detected. The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is of substantial tonnage (greater than 10,000 metric tons of U 3 O 8 ) and grade (averaging 0.57% U 3 O 8 ). Structural mapping shows that the Illinois vein-fault is a Proterozoic structure. Discordant Proterozoic (suggested) and Laramide dates have been obtained from Schwartzwalder ore. The data suggest, therefore, a Proterozoic ancestry of this heretofore presumed Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary) hydrothermal uranium deposit. The authors suggest a polygenetic model for the origin of the Schwartzwalder uranium deposit

  2. Extensional ductile tectonics of the Sioule metamorphic series (Variscan French Massif Central)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, M.; Grolier, J.; Pons, J.

    1993-09-01

    In the Northern part of the Variscan French Massif Central, the Sioule series, from top to bottom, consists of a pre-Viséan granite, migmatite, gneiss and mica schist. Two ductile deformations have been recognized. The earlier phase is characterized by a north-east-south-west trending stretching lineation; the second phase, characterized by a north-west-south-east trending mineral, stretching and crenulation lineation, is better marked in the lower mica schist part than in the upper granito-gneissic part. This second phase occurred during retrogression of the metamorphic rocks; related shear criteria indicate a top to the south-west shear. The Namurian-Westphalian magmatic bodies such as the Echassières leucogranite, Pouzol-Servant microgranite and numerous north-east -south-west trending microgranite dykes are emplaced in extensional fractures related to the same north-west-south-east maximum stretching direction. The asymmetrical shapes of the two granitic massifs indicate that they intruded towards the south-east. The synkinematic retrogression of the metamorphic rocks, the shape of the magmatic bodies and a re-examination of the numerous available data support the interpretation that the deformation is due to the extensional tectonic regime related to the Variscan crustal re-quilibration. This interpretation is in agreement with the correlation of the Sioule series with the Chavanon series. The two series belong to a unique tectono-metamorphic unit left-laterally offset by the Stephanian motion of the Sillon Houiller fault. This study also shows that the Sillon Houiller did not play a significant part during the Namurian-Westphalian extensional tectonics of the Massif Central.

  3. A versatile digitally-graded buffer structure for metamorphic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingjie; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Xingyou; Gu, Yi; Shi, Yanhui; Ji, Wanyan; Du, Ben

    2018-04-01

    Exploring more effective buffer schemes for mitigating dislocation deficiencies is the key technology towards higher performance metamorphic devices. Here we demonstrate a versatile metamorphic grading structure consisting of 38-period alternated multilayers of In0.52Al0.48As and In0.82Al0.18As on InP substrate, thicknesses of which in each period were gradually varied in opposite directions from 48.7 and 1.3 nm to 1.3 and 48.7 nm, respectively, akin to a digital alloy. Both preferentially dislocation nucleation and blocking of threading dislocation transmission are observed near the In0.82Al0.18As/In0.52Al0.48As interfaces, which help relax the strain and lower the residual defect density. A 2.6 μm In0.83Ga0.17As pin photodetector is fabricated on this pseudo-substrate, attaining a low dark current density of 2.9  ×  10‑6 A cm‑2 and a high detectivity of 1.8  ×  1010 cmHz1/2W‑1 at room temperature, comparable with the states of the art that on linearly-graded buffer layers. These results indicate such digitally-graded buffer structures are promising for enhancing performances of metamorphic devices, and can be easily generalized to other lattice-mismatched material systems.

  4. Investigating the translation of Earth's inner core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Elizabeth A; Cormier, Vernon F; Geballe, Zachary M

    2012-01-01

    The Earth’s inner core provides unique insights into processes that are occurring deep within our Earth today, as well as processes that occurred in the past. The seismic structure of the inner core is complex, and is dominated by anisotropic and isotropic differences between the Eastern...... for models of a translating inner core. Additionally, we investigate the structure at the base of the outer core and the inner core boundary by analyzing PKP-Cdiff waves. The search for observable PKP-Cdiff is particularly concentrated in regions that are predicted to be actively freezing and melting...... and Western ‘hemispheres’ of the inner core. Recent geodynamical models suggest that this hemispherical dichotomy can be explained by a fast translation of the inner core. In these models one side of the inner core is freezing, while the other side is melting, leading to the development of different seismic...

  5. Metaultramafic schists and dismembered ophiolites of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite of northwestern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Loren A.; Merschat, Arthur J.; Vance, R. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Metaultramafic rocks (MUR) in the Ashe Metamorphic Suite (AMS) of northwestern North Carolina include quartz ± feldspar-bearing QF-amphibolites and quartz-deficient, locally talc-, chlorite-, and/or Mg-amphibole-bearing TC-amphibolites. Some workers divide TC-amphibolites into Todd and Edmonds types, based on mineral and geochemical differences, and we provisionally add a third type – olivine ± pyroxene-rich, Rich Mountain-type rocks. Regionally, MUR bodies range from equant, Rich Mountain- to highly elongate, Todd-TC-amphibolite-type bodies. The MURs exhibit three to five mineral associations containing assemblages with olivine, anthophyllitic amphibole, Mg-hornblende, Mg-actinolite, cummingtonite, and serpentine representing decreasing eclogite to greenschist facies grades of metamorphism over time. MUR protoliths are difficult to determine. Southwestern MUR bodies have remnant olivine ± pyroxene-rich assemblages representing ultrabasic-basic, dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite protoliths. Northeastern TC-amphibolite MURs contain hornblende and actinolitic amphiboles plus chlorites – aluminous and calcic assemblages suggesting to some that metasomatism of basic, QF-amphibolites yields all TC-amphibolites. Yet MgO-CaO-Al2O3 and trace element chemistries of many TC-amphibolites resemble compositions of plagioclase peridotites. We show that a few AMS TC-amphibolites had basaltic/gabbroic protoliths, while presenting arguments opposing application of the metasomatic hypothesis to all TC-amphibolites. We establish that MUR bodies are petrologically heterolithic and that TC-amphibolites are in contact with many rock types; that those with high Cr, Ni, and Mg have olivine- or pyroxene-dominated protoliths; that most exhibit three or more metamorphic mineral associations; and that contacts thought to be metasomatic are structural. Clearly, different MUR bodies have different chemistries representing various protoliths, and have different mineral assemblages, reflecting

  6. Research of the chemical activity of microgrinding coals of various metamorphism degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Butakov, E. B.; Kuznetsov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of mechanically activating grinding of coals of various degrees of metamorphism by two different methods - determination of the flash time in a vertical tubular furnace and thermogravimetric analysis. In the experiments, the coals that had been processed on a vibrating centrifugal mill and a disintegrator, aged for some time, were compared. The experiments showed a decrease in the ignition temperature of mechanically activated coals - deactivation of fuel, as well as the effect of mechanical activation on the further process of thermal-oxidative degradation.

  7. Forecast of promising areas for uranium prospection at the metamorphic Massif of Isla de la Juventud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora, L.E.; Macola, E.; Sanchez, J.; Torres, J.C.; Alaminos, C.; LLanes, A.; Morales, M.

    1995-01-01

    A mineralization conceptual model for uranium of the metamorphic Massif of Isla de la Juventud was established taking into account the study of the geological and metallogenic characteristic of the territory. The determined indications of mineralization were plotted on the geological map in order to conform a forecasting map and the selection of 22 hypothetical promising areas was carried out. As result of the field words three really promising areas were selected. A group of exploration techniques needed to evaluate the targets areas is presented

  8. Dating by fission tracers of some metamorphic rocks within the city of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A.C.; Poupeau, G.

    1984-01-01

    Fission-Track (FT) ages were measured in apatites from metamorphic rocks outcropping within the city of Rio de Janeiro. One apatite presented a 'substraction age' of 124 + - 10 my (2σ) and a second one a 'plateau age' of 117 + - 5 my. These ages are supposed to be related to the isostatic uplift related to the opening of the South-Atlantic Ocean. A younger plateau age of 85 + - 5 my might possibly be related to a later readjustment phase. Based on these and Fonseca et al. (1984) results, a cooling history for the rocks in Rio de Janeiro city is proposed. (Author) [pt

  9. Uranium mineralization possibilities in metamorphic Massif of Isla de Juventud, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora Dominguez, L.E.; Llanes Castro, A.I.; Pena Fortes, B.; Capote Rodriguez, G.

    1996-01-01

    The geologic and metallogenic characteristic of the metamorphic Massif shows the presence of possible uranium vein type mineralization as a result of a hidrotermal genetic process. Metalliferous fluids rising along the fault system were responsible for the deposition of the uranium in the reduction zones, i.e. presence of pyrite, organic matter and others. This type of uranium minerization is proposed for the Bibijagua area and for the Revolucion and Lela area the same type is expected. The gamma spectrometric analysis was used to evaluate the geological samples

  10. Nanodiamond Formation at the Lithogenesis and Low-Stages of Regional Metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, S. K.; Melnik, N. N.; Vyalov, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    Samples of gilsonite from Adzharia, anthraxolite and graphite of coal from Taimyr, shungite from Karelia, and anthracite from Donbass are studied using Raman spectroscopy. Peaks at 1600 cm-1, indicating the presence of nanographite, are recorded in all samples. The anthracite sample from Donbass, 1330 cm-1, corresponds to the sp 3-line of carbon hybridization conforming to a nanodiamond. It is concluded that in nature diamonds can be formed at late stages of lithogenesis (catagensis, metagenesis), and for coals, it can occur at the zeolite stage of regional metamorphism of rocks, before the green schist stage.

  11. Microtectonic-assisted P-T determination on low-grade Alpine metamorphic rocks from the "Tisia Mega-Unit" of the Slavonian Mountains in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balen, Dražen; Lihter, Iva; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The internal structure of the Tisia (Tisza) Mega-Unit in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system encompasses large Alpine nappe systems brought to its present-day position by complex regional-scale movements. The Slavonian Mountains are part of the Bihor nappe system which is below the Codru and above the Mecsek nappe systems. The low-grade metamorphic schist unit of the Slavonian Mountains includes numerous rocks which were previously related to Precambrian and/or Lower Paleozoic orogeneses. However, recent studies (e.g. Balen, 2014, European Geosciences Union General Assembly, EGU 2014-6122) show that the metapelites of this unit should be attributed to the Alpine orogeny and the poorly known P-T conditions, which they experienced, should be refined. Although metapelites can be sensitive to changes of metamorphic conditions and, therefore, be suitable for the P-T estimation of metamorphic event(s), the extraction of mineral assemblages, being in equilibrium, and associated microtectonic data for particular low-grade metamorphic rocks is not straightforward. On the contrary, due to lack of suitable minerals and complex mictotectonic features, one can be faced with a severe problem concerning (dis)equilibrium. To avoid this, the observation scale in the research was set to the sub-mm level taking into account microtectonic positions of minerals. The investigated samples from the Slavonian Mountains are fine-grained schists consisting of chlorite (15-30 vol. %), white mica (15-25 vol. %), quartz (10-25 vol. %), feldspars (albite 10-15 vol. %; some K-feldspar), biotite (<5 vol. %), opaques (<5 vol. %), and accessory minerals (zircon, monazite, xenotime, apatite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, barite, parisite-(Ce), rutile). The schists show complex microtectonic fabric including well-developed foliations, pervasive folding, crenulation and cleavage. Foliations are defined by the preferred orientation of phyllosilicates and thin quartz and feldspar ribbons. Chlorite

  12. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlis, T L; Serpa, L [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 7996 (United States); Miller, M [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)], E-mail: tlpavlis@utep.edu

    2008-07-01

    -thrust belts. Our work to the east of Death Valley suggests these thrusts were part of a NW trending thrust system that overprinted an older NE trending fold-thrust system that tracks into the Death Valley region from Nevada. These NW trending thrusts probably underlie all of the southern Black Mountains (south of the turtlebacks) and we suggest that pre-extensional structural relief along these basement thrusts placed basement at shallow crustal levels throughout what is now the Black Mountains; a conclusion consistent with the absence of rocks younger than Cambrian beneath Tertiary unconformities throughout the southern Death Valley region. In Late Miocene time, a major detachment system formed and the turtlebacks represent a mid-crustal shear zone developed during that time period, but this system is older, and structurally beneath younger detachments systems that comprise the Amargosa fault system. During motion on the detachment, an {approx}2km thick plutonic sheet was emplaced along the shear zone forming the Miocene plutonic assemblages of the Black Mountains, and produced upper amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblages along the floor of the pluton in what are now the Copper Canyon and Mormon Point turtlebacks, but the Badwater Turtleback escaped this metamorphism due to a different structural position. Motion continued along the floor of the pluton but syn-extensional folding produced structural relief along folds with axes parallel to the extension direction. Ultimately a new detachment system cut obliquely across the older extensional system, removing the roof of the pluton, but cutting down to its floor in the turtlebacks. This fault system formed a complex detachment system updip in the famous 'Amargosa Chaos', and removing the entire cover sequence from the Black Mountains ({approx}10-12km of crustal section). The turtlebacks are therefore a composite structure in which extension contemporaneous with folding, presumably as a result of distributed

  13. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlis, T L; Serpa, L; Miller, M

    2008-01-01

    -thrust belts. Our work to the east of Death Valley suggests these thrusts were part of a NW trending thrust system that overprinted an older NE trending fold-thrust system that tracks into the Death Valley region from Nevada. These NW trending thrusts probably underlie all of the southern Black Mountains (south of the turtlebacks) and we suggest that pre-extensional structural relief along these basement thrusts placed basement at shallow crustal levels throughout what is now the Black Mountains; a conclusion consistent with the absence of rocks younger than Cambrian beneath Tertiary unconformities throughout the southern Death Valley region. In Late Miocene time, a major detachment system formed and the turtlebacks represent a mid-crustal shear zone developed during that time period, but this system is older, and structurally beneath younger detachments systems that comprise the Amargosa fault system. During motion on the detachment, an ∼2km thick plutonic sheet was emplaced along the shear zone forming the Miocene plutonic assemblages of the Black Mountains, and produced upper amphibolite facies metamorphic assemblages along the floor of the pluton in what are now the Copper Canyon and Mormon Point turtlebacks, but the Badwater Turtleback escaped this metamorphism due to a different structural position. Motion continued along the floor of the pluton but syn-extensional folding produced structural relief along folds with axes parallel to the extension direction. Ultimately a new detachment system cut obliquely across the older extensional system, removing the roof of the pluton, but cutting down to its floor in the turtlebacks. This fault system formed a complex detachment system updip in the famous 'Amargosa Chaos', and removing the entire cover sequence from the Black Mountains (∼10-12km of crustal section). The turtlebacks are therefore a composite structure in which extension contemporaneous with folding, presumably as a result of distributed transcurrent motion

  14. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  15. Comparative study of the thermoluminescence properties of natural metamorphic quartz belonging to Turkey and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topaksu, M.; Dogan, T.; Yüksel, M.; Kurt, K.; Topak, Y.; Yegingil, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitization of the thermoluminescence (TL) peak of metamorphic quartzes from Adiyaman in Turkey (TMQ) and