WorldWideScience

Sample records for metals materials cycle

  1. Toxic Heavy Metals: Materials Cycle Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Robert U.

    1992-02-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies.

  2. Challenges in high temperature low cycle fatigue testing of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhya, R.; Valsan, M.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of the high strain Low Cycle Fatigue properties of structural materials is an involved and complicated procedure requiring skill and diligence from the experimentalist. This presentation describes the various testing methods to evaluate the LCF properties of structural materials, the complexities involved and some solutions to exacting requirements, not covered by the testing procedure standards. The basic components of servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machines is described, as are the calibration and maintenance procedures. Results of LCF tests conducted at the authors' laboratory on AISI 316L(N) stainless steel and Mod.9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel are described. The complications in total strain controlled testing of weld joints is brought out and soft zone development in Mod. 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel is described. The special requirements for testing in environmental chambers is a challenging task. In-house chambers, designed to carry out testing in dynamic sodium environment is highlighted. These chambers have provision to accommodate extensometers for strain measurements, and also house all the safety instrumentation needed to carry out to mechanical testing in dynamic sodium environment. The variation of LCF results as a function of specimen geometry is examined. The various failure criteria adopted by laboratories in different countries are also touched upon. (author)

  3. Metallic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommeyer, G.

    1987-01-01

    The structure and properties of metallic composite materials and composite materials with metallic matrix are considered. In agreement with the morphology of constituent phases the following types of composite materials are described: dispersion-strengthened composite materials; particle-reinforced composite materials; fibrous composite materials; laminar composite materials. Data on strength and electric properties of the above-mentioned materials, as well as effect of the amount, location and geometric shape of the second phase on them, are presented

  4. Vanadium oxide based cpd. useful as a cathode active material - is used in lithium or alkali metal batteries to prolong life cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    A mixt. of metallic iron particles and vanadium pentoxide contg. V in its pentavalent state in a liq. is reacted to convert at least some of the pentavalent V to its tetravalent state and form a gel. The liq. phase is then sepd. from the oxide based gel to obtain a solid material(I) comprising Fe......, V and oxygen where at least some of the V is in the tetravalent state. USE-(I) is a cathode active material in electric current producing storage cells. ADVANTAGE-Use of (I) in Li or alkali metal batteries gives prolonged life cycles.Storage cells using (I) have improved capacity during charge...

  5. Chemicals in material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material and diisob...

  6. Heavy metals in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astruc, M.; Lester, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach to the problems associated with heavy metals in the hydrological cycle is presented. Research and practical experience from a broad spectrum of disciplines are drawn together concentrating on the following themes: water quality, domestic and industrial wastes, sludge and dredge materials, soil interactions, effects on aquatic ecosystems, organometallics (with particular reference to tin compounds), speciation, the marine environment and health effects. One paper is within INIS scope and is processed separately. (U.K.)

  7. Metallic materials for medical use

    OpenAIRE

    Illarionov Anatoly; Belikov Sergey; Grib Stella; Yurovskikh Artem

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the metallic materials used as implants in orthopedics, the alloying system and a complex of the physical-mechanical properties for metallic materials certified for medical use, as well as the advantages and drawbacks of using metallic materials as implants. Approaches to improve the quality of an implant made of metallic materials are noted.

  8. Strategies to curb structural changes of lithium/transition metal oxide cathode materials & the changes’ effects on thermal & cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiqian, Yu; Enyuan, Hu; Seongmin, Bak; Yong-Ning, Zhou; Xiao-Qing, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Structural transformation behaviors of several typical oxide cathode materials during a heating process are reviewed in detail to provide in-depth understanding of the key factors governing the thermal stability of these materials. We also discuss applying the information about heat induced structural evolution in the study of electrochemically induced structural changes. All these discussions are expected to provide valuable insights for designing oxide cathode materials with significantly improved structural stability for safe, long-life lithium ion batteries, as the safety of lithium-ion batteries is a critical issue; it is widely accepted that the thermal instability of the cathodes is one of the most critical factors in thermal runaway and related safety problems. Project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies (Grant No. DE-SC0012704).

  9. Toward a sustainable energy supply with reduced environmental burden. Development of metal fuel fast reactor cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tadafumi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Kensuke

    2009-01-01

    CRIEPI has been studying the metal fuel fast reactor cycle as an outstanding alternative for the future energy sources. In this paper, development of the metal fuel cycle is reviewed in the view point of technological feasibility and material balance. Preliminary estimation of reduction of the waste burden due to introduction of the metal fuel cycle technology is also reported. (author)

  10. Knowledge-based metals & materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Norwegian metal and material industry (defined as all metal and material related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  11. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  12. Thermal reliability test of Al-34%Mg-6%Zn alloy as latent heat storage material and corrosion of metal with respect to thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.Q.; Zhang, R.Y.; Liu, Z.P.; Lu, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the thermal reliability and corrosion of the Al-34%Mg-6%Zn alloy as a latent heat energy storage material with respect to various numbers of thermal cycles. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis technique was applied to the alloy after 0, 50, 500 and 1000 melting/solidification cycles in order to measure the melting temperatures and the latent heats of fusion of the alloy. The containment materials were stainless steel (SS304L), carbon steel (steel C20) in the corrosion tests. The DSC results indicated that the change in melting temperature for the alloy was in the range of 3.06-5.3 K, and the latent heat of fusion decreased 10.98% after 1000 thermal cycles. The results show that the investigated Al-34%Mg-6%Zn alloy has a good thermal reliability as a latent heat energy storage material with respect to thermal cycling for thermal energy storage applications in the long term in view of the small changes in the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature. Gravimetric analysis as mass loss (mg/cm 2 ), corrosion rate (mg/day) and a microscopic or metallographic investigation were performed for corrosion tests and showed that SS304L may be considered a more suitable alloy than C20 in long term thermal storage applications

  13. Electrode for disintegrating metallic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persang, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A graphite electrode is provided for disintegrating and removing metallic material from a workpiece, e.g., such as portions of a nuclear reactor to be repaired while in an underwater and/or radioactive environment. The electrode is provided with a plurality of openings extending outwardly, and a manifold for supplying a mixture of water and compressed gas to be discharged through the openings for sweeping away the disintegrated metallic material during use of the electrode

  14. Advanced breeder cycle uses metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory have been developing a concept called the Integral fast Reactor (IFR). This fast breeder reactor could effectively increase Uranium resources a hundred fold making nuclear power essentially an inexhaustible energy source. The IFR is outlined. In the IFR, the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling are combined with a new metallic fuel which is allowed to swell and gives an improved burnup level and a radically different refining process to allow breakthroughs in passive safety, fuel cycle economics and waste management. (author)

  15. Chemical contamination of material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling represents a backbone of sustainable society in the context of circular economy. Ideally, materials are converted into products, used by the consumers, and discarded, just to be recycled and converted into newly manufactured products. Furthermore, materials may also contain che...

  16. Space-Spurred Metallized Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Spurred R&D toward improved vacuum metallizing techniques led to an extensive line of commercial products, from insulated outdoor garments to packaging for foods, from wall coverings to window shades, from life rafts to candy wrappings, reflective blankets to photographic reflectors. Metallized Products, Inc. (MPI) was one of the companies that worked with NASA in development of the original space materials. MPI markets its own metallized products and supplies materials to other manufacturers. One of the most widely used MPI products is TXG laminate. An example is a reflective kite, the S.O.S. Signal Kite that can be flown as high as 200 feet to enhance radar and visual detectability. It offers a boon to campers, hikers, mountain climbers and boaters. It is produced by Solar Reflections, Inc. The company also markets a solar reflective hat. Another example is by Pro-Tektion, Inc. to provide protection for expensive musical equipment that have sensitive electronic components subject to damage from the heat of stage lights, dust, or rain at outdoor concerts. MP supplied the material and acceptance of the covers by the sound industry has been excellent.

  17. Novel non-platinum metal catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel non-platinum metal catalyst material for use in low temperature fuel cells and electrolysers and to fuel cells and electrolysers comprising the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material. The present invention also relates to a novel method for synthesizing...... the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material....

  18. Superelastic load cycling of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorontsov, V.A.; Jones, N.G.; Rahman, K.M.; Dye, D.

    2015-01-01

    The superelastic beta titanium alloy, Gum Metal, has been found to accumulate plastic strain during tensile load cycling in the superelastic regime. This is evident from the positive drift of the macroscopic stress vs. strain hysteresis curve parallel to the strain axis and the change in its geometry subsequent to every load–unload cycle. In addition, there is a progressive reduction in the hysteresis loop width and in the stress at which the superelastic transition occurs. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has shown that the lattice strain exhibited the same behaviour as that observed in macroscopic measurements and identified further evidence of plastic strain accumulation. The mechanisms responsible for the observed behaviour have been evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, which revealed a range of different defects that formed during load cycling. The formation of these defects is consistent with the classical mathematical theory for the bcc to orthorhombic martensitic transformation. It is the accumulation of these defects over time that alters its superelastic behaviour

  19. Nuclear material production cycle vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for rapidly and systematically identifying vulnerable equipment in a nuclear material or similar production process and ranking that equipment according to its attractiveness to a malevolent attacker. A multistep approach was used in the analysis. First, the entire production cycle was modeled as a flow diagram. This flow diagram was analyzed using graph theoretical methods to identify processes in the production cycle and their locations. Models of processes that were judged to be particularly vulnerable based on the cycle analysis then were developed in greater detail to identify equipment in that process that is vulnerable to intentional damage

  20. Resource Efficient Metal and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.; van Schaik, Antoinette

    Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Materials, Water, Sludges, Emissions, Land); Economic Feasibility (BAT & Recycling Systems Simulation / Digitalization, Product vis-à-vis Material Centric Recycling); and Social — Licence to Operate (Legislation, consumer, policy, theft, manual labour.). In order to realize this primary production has to be linked systemically with typical actors in the recycling chain such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Recyclers & Collection, Physical separation specialists as well as process metallurgical operations that produce high value metals, compounds and products that recycle back to products. This is best done with deep knowledge of multi-physics, technology, product & system design, process control, market, life cycle management, policy, to name a few. The combination of these will be discussed as Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Recycling (DfR) applications.

  1. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  2. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  3. Bibliography on cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, M.G.; Scott, A.J.; Woodfield, W.G.; Cushing, C.E.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography is a listing of pertinent literature directly addressing the cycling of trace metals in freshwater ecosystems. Data on cycling, including the influences of environmental mediators, are included. 151 references

  4. Brazing of special metallic materials and material combinations using a special material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lison, R.

    1981-01-01

    The special materials include metals of groups IVa, Va and VIa of the periodic tables and their alloys. Their particular properties have won them applications in many highly specialized industries. For these materials to be used, mastery of thermal joining methods appropriate to their characteristics is necessary. High-temperature brazing is one such method for joining special materials. This paper presents variants of this technique suitable for each individual special material. Compatibility tests between various brazing metals and various special materials have been carried out by simulating the temperature/time cycle involved in brazing procedures. Special materials are relatively expensive, and their special properties are not required at every point in a structure: elsewhere they can be replaced by a different special material or by other metals or alloys. This means that joints must be made between two special materials or between a special material and a conventional material. When certain conditions are fulfilled, such joins can be made by high-temperature brazing. This paper also shows the extent to which the geometry of the join determines the choice of process. Example of applications are also given. (orig.)

  5. Environmental challenges of anthropogenic metals flows and cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Voet, Ester; Salminen, Reijo; Eckelman, Matthew

    This report from the UNEP-hosted International Resource Panel, Environmental Risk and Challenges of Anthropogenic Metals Flows and Cycles, gives a clear picture of the potential environmental impacts of metals at different stages of the life-cycle while linking with other areas of resource use...

  6. Strategies to curb structural changes of lithium/transition metal oxide cathode materials and the changes’ effects on thermal and cycling stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiqian; Hu Enyuan; Bak, Seongmin; Zhou Yong-Ning; Yang Xiao-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Structural transformation behaviors of several typical oxide cathode materials during a heating process are reviewed in detail to provide in-depth understanding of the key factors governing the thermal stability of these materials. We also discuss applying the information about heat induced structural evolution in the study of electrochemically induced structural changes. All these discussions are expected to provide valuable insights for designing oxide cathode materials with significantly improved structural stability for safe, long-life lithium ion batteries, as the safety of lithium-ion batteries is a critical issue; it is widely accepted that the thermal instability of the cathodes is one of the most critical factors in thermal runaway and related safety problems. (topical review)

  7. Recycling of nonferrous metals from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, A

    1982-02-01

    Recycling of metals was one of the 9 central subjects of the international symposium on 'Materials and Energy from Refuse', held in Antwerpen on October 20 to 22, 1981. Six of 65 poster sessions papers were on metal recycling; four of them discussed the recycling of nonferrous metals.

  8. Low cycle fatigue of irradiated LMFBR materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    A review of low cycle fatigue data on irradiated LMFBR materials was conducted and extensive graphical representations of available data are presented. Representative postirradiation tensile properties of annealed 304 and 316 SS are selected and employed in several predictive methods to estimate irradiated material fatigue curves. Experimental fatigue data confirm the use of predictive methods for establishing conservative design curves over the range of service conditions relevant to such CRBRP components as core former, fixed radial shielding, core barrel, lower inlet module and upper internals structures. New experimental data on fatigue curves and creep-fatigue interaction in irradiated 20 percent cold worked (CW) 316 SS and Alloy 718 would support the design of removable radial shielding and upper internals in CRBRP. New experimental information on notched fatigue behavior and cyclic stress-strain curves of all these materials in the irradiated condition could provide significant design data

  9. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  10. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  11. Radioactive materials transportation life-cycle cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.C.; Donovan, K.S.; Spooner, O.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses factors that should be considered when estimating the life-cycle cost of shipping radioactive materials and the development of a working model that has been successfully used. Today's environmental concerns have produced an increased emphasis on cleanup and restoration of production plants and interim storage sites for radioactive materials. The need to transport these radioactive materials to processing facilities or permanent repositories is offset by the reality of limited resources and ever-tightening budgets. Obtaining the true cost of transportation is often difficult because of the many direct and indirect costs involved and the variety of methods used to account for fixed and variable expenses. In order to make valid comparisons between the cost of alternate transportation systems for new and/or existing programs, one should consider more than just the cost of capital equipment or freight cost per mile. Of special interest is the cost of design, fabrication, use, and maintenance of shipping containers in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A spread sheet model was developed to compare the life-cycle costs of alternate fleet configurations of TRUPACT-II, which will be used to ship transuranic waste from U.S. Department of Energy sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico

  12. Life cycle assessment of metals: a scientific synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Nuss

    Full Text Available We have assembled extensive information on the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of 63 metals in their major use forms, and illustrated the interconnectedness of metal production systems. Related cumulative energy use, global warming potential, human health implications and ecosystem damage are estimated by metal life cycle stage (i.e., mining, purification, and refining. For some elements, these are the first life cycle estimates of environmental impacts reported in the literature. We show that, if compared on a per kilogram basis, the platinum group metals and gold display the highest environmental burdens, while many of the major industrial metals (e.g., iron, manganese, titanium are found at the lower end of the environmental impacts scale. If compared on the basis of their global annual production in 2008, iron and aluminum display the largest impacts, and thallium and tellurium the lowest. With the exception of a few metals, environmental impacts of the majority of elements are dominated by the purification and refining stages in which metals are transformed from a concentrate into their metallic form. Out of the 63 metals investigated, 42 metals are obtained as co-products in multi output processes. We test the sensitivity of varying allocation rationales, in which the environmental burden are allocated to the various metal and mineral products, on the overall results. Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to further investigate the stability of our results. This analysis is the most comprehensive life cycle comparison of metals to date and allows for the first time a complete bottom-up estimate of life cycle impacts of the metals and mining sector globally. We estimate global direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions in 2008 at 3.4 Gt CO2-eq per year and primary energy use at 49 EJ per year (9.5% of global use, and report the shares for all metals to both impact categories.

  13. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  14. Effects of thermal cycling on aluminum metallization of power diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Mads; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Kristensen, Peter Kjær

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of aluminum metallization on top of power electronic chips is a well-known wear out phenomenon under power cycling conditions. However, the origins of reconstruction are still under discussion. In the current study, a method for carrying out passive thermal cycling of power diodes...

  15. Metallic materials for mechanical damping capacity applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, R. C.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoeșu, R.; (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Manole, V.; Paraschiv, P.; Chicet, D. L.

    2016-08-01

    Some metallic materials exhibit good damping capacity of mechanical energy into thermal energy. This property along with the others metallic characteristics make this materials interesting for a big number of applications. These materials can be used as bumpers in different applications including automotive field. Beside grey cast iron and shape memory alloys few new metallic materials are presented for the supposition of high damping capacity. We analyze the causes that increase the internal friction of some metallic materials and possibilities to enhance this property through different mechanical, physical or chemical methods. Shape memory alloys, especially those based on copper, present a different damping capacity on martensite, austenite or transition state. In the transformation range M ↔A, which in case of copper base shape memory alloys is quite large, the metallic intelligent materials present a high internal friction, almost comparable with natural rubber behavior that can transform mechanical energy into thermal energy till a certain value of the external solicitation. These materials can be used as noise or small vibrations bumpers or even as shock absorbers in automotive industry.

  16. Precious-metal-base advanced materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowicki, T.; Carbonnaux, C.

    1993-01-01

    Precious metals constitute also the base of several advanced materials used in the industry in hundreds of metric tons. Platinum alloys have been used as structural materials for equipments in the glass industry. The essential reason for this is the excellent resistance of platinum alloys to oxidation and electrolytical corrosion in molten glasses at temperatures as high as 1200-1500 C. The major drawback is a weak creep resistance. The unique way for significant improvement of platinum base materials creep resistance is a strengthening by an oxide dispersion (ODS). In the case of CLAL's patented ''Plativer'' materials, 0.05 wt% of Y 2 O 3 is incorporated within the alloy matrix by the flame spraying process. Further improvement of platinum base materials is related, in the authors opinion, to the development of precious metals base intermetallics. Another interesting applications of precious metals are silver base electrical contacts. They are in fact silver matrix composites containing varying amounts of well-dispersed particles of constituents such as CdO, SnO 2 , Ni, WC or C. In the case of such materials, particular properties are required and tested : resistance to arc erosion, resistance to welding and contact resistance. Many other technically fascinating precious metals base materials exist: brazing alloys for assembling metals, superconductors and ceramics; dental materials including magnetic biocompatible alloys; silver composites for superconductor wire jackets. The observation of current evolution indicates very clearly that precious metals cannot be replaced by common metals because of their unique characteristics due to their atomic level properties

  17. Metal Matrix Composite Material by Direct Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Marants, A.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, P. H.; Smurov, I.

    Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a laser cladding process for producing a protective coating on the surface of a metallic part or manufacturing layer-by-layer parts in a single-step process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the possibility to create carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite objects. Powders of steel 16NCD13 with different volume contents of titanium carbide are tested. On the base of statistical analysis, a laser cladding processing map is constructed. Relationships between the different content of titanium carbide in a powder mixture and the material microstructure are found. Mechanism of formation of various precipitated titanium carbides is investigated.

  18. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF METALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.M.; KIM, H.C.; WANG, W.

    2007-03-30

    Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This report aims in updating the life-cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu, Al, Mo) and in defining the emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, In, Ge, Se, Te and Ga) used in photovoltaics.

  19. Atomic scale modelling of materials of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolus, M.

    2011-10-01

    This document written to obtain the French accreditation to supervise research presents the research I conducted at CEA Cadarache since 1999 on the atomic scale modelling of non-metallic materials involved in the nuclear fuel cycle: host materials for radionuclides from nuclear waste (apatites), fuel (in particular uranium dioxide) and ceramic cladding materials (silicon carbide). These are complex materials at the frontier of modelling capabilities since they contain heavy elements (rare earths or actinides), exhibit complex structures or chemical compositions and/or are subjected to irradiation effects: creation of point defects and fission products, amorphization. The objective of my studies is to bring further insight into the physics and chemistry of the elementary processes involved using atomic scale modelling and its coupling with higher scale models and experimental studies. This work is organised in two parts: on the one hand the development, adaptation and implementation of atomic scale modelling methods and validation of the approximations used; on the other hand the application of these methods to the investigation of nuclear materials under irradiation. This document contains a synthesis of the studies performed, orientations for future research, a detailed resume and a list of publications and communications. (author)

  20. Hand Book of Metal Material Contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Hui

    1989-06-01

    This book first gives descriptions of using of this hand book and contents. It tells of steel such as bar steel, section steel, and steel sheet which are steel for general structure and steel for pressure vessel, a steel pipe, carbon steel for machine structure and alloy steel, steel for special things, stainless steel, heat resisting steel, tool steel, spring steel, forging, steel casting, nonferrous metal such as aluminium and aluminium alloy, casting, list of similar steel per metal, list of steel like ASTM, AISI per number, and list of collecting standard per metal material.

  1. Volcanic Metal Emissions and Implications for Geochemical Cycling and Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M.; Mather, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanoes emit substantial fluxes of metals to the atmosphere in volcanic gas plumes in the form of aerosol, adsorbed onto silicate particles and even in some cases as gases.. A huge database of metal emissions has been built over the preceding decades, which shows that volcanoes emit highly volatile metals into the atmosphere, such as As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Re, Se, Tl, among others. Understanding the cycling of metals through the Solid Earth system has importance for tackling a wide range of Earth Science problems, e.g. (1) the environmental impacts of metal emissions; (2) the sulfur and metal emissions of volcanic eruptions; (3) the behavior of metals during subduction and slab devolatilization; (4) the influence of redox on metal behavior in subduction zones; (5) the partitioning of metals between magmatic vapor, brines and melts; and (6) the relationships between volcanism and ore deposit formation. It is clear, when comparing the metal composition and flux in the gases and aerosols emitted from volcanoes, that they vary with tectonic setting. These differences allow insights into how the magmatic vapor was generated and how it interacted with melts and sulfides during magma differentiation and decompression. Hotspot volcanoes (e.g. Kilauea, Hawaii; volcanoes in Iceland) outgas a metal suite that mirrors the sulfide liquid-silicate melt partitioning behaviors reconstructed from experiments (as far as they are known), suggesting that the aqueous fluids (that will later be outgassed from the volcano) receive metals directly from oxidation of sulfide liquids during degassing and ascent of magmas towards the surface. At arc volcanoes, the gaseous fluxes of metals are typically much higher; and there are greater enrichments in elements that partition strongly into vapor or brine from silicate melts such as Cu, Au, Zn, Pb, W. We collate and present data on volcanic metal emissions from volcanoes worldwide and review the implications of the data array for metal cycling

  2. Development of metallic fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Ho; Lee, Chong Tak; Yang, Yeoung Seok; Kim, Ki Hwan; Hwang, Sung Chan; Joo, Keun Sik; Ann, Hyun Suk; Chang, Sae Jung.

    1997-09-01

    Through the control of melting and casting parameters, the sound and homogenous U-10wt.%Zr alloy could be fabricated. The yield and segregation of Zr elements were 85% and ±0.1wt.%, and the density of the alloy was about 16.6 g/cm 3 . The major phase were α-U and δ-UZr 2 . The microstructure showed the laminar structure with fiber morphology which was arranged alternatively with uranium and Zr-rich phase. This alloy will be used for KALIMER fuel material through developing the fabrication technology and the characteristics analysis. And electrorefining study was performed to separate uranium from uranium-neodymium and uranium-zirconium alloy by their different free energy for chloride formation. The liquid cadmium phase becomes the anode of the electrorefining cell. Uranium is electrolytically transported through a molten salt electrolyte to a low carbon steel cathode. The electrolyte is composed of KCl-LiCl eutectic and some UCl 3 , which are installed in the salt to facilitate the electrotransport of uranium. In pyrochemical process the reaction condition of chlorination and the maintenance its purity in preparing UCl 4 by chlorination of UO 2 is strongly dependent on the reaction temperature and time. (author).52 refs., 40 tabs., 129 figs

  3. Development of a Hemispherical Metal Diaphragm for Single-Cycle Liquid-Metal Positive Expulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorland, Sol

    1965-01-01

    This report presents experimental results pertaining to the design and development of a metallic expulsion diaphragm for single-cycle positive expulsion of high-temperature liquid in an agravity condition...

  4. Statistical evaluation of low cycle loading curves parameters for structural materials by mechanical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daunys, Mykolas; Sniuolis, Raimondas

    2006-01-01

    About 300 welded joint materials that are used in nuclear power energy were tested under monotonous tension and low cycle loading in Kaunas University of Technology together with St. Peterburg Central Research Institute of Structural Materials in 1970-2000. The main mechanical, low cycle loading and fracture characteristics of base metals, weld metals and some heat-affected zones of welded joints metals were determined during these experiments. Analytical dependences of low cycle fatigue parameters on mechanical characteristics of structural materials were proposed on the basis of a large number of experimental data, obtained by the same methods and testing equipment. When these dependences are used, expensive low cycle fatigue tests may be omitted and it is possible to compute low cycle loading curves parameters and lifetime for structural materials according to the main mechanical characteristics given in technical manuals. Dependences of low cycle loading curves parameters on mechanical characteristics for several groups of structural materials used in Russian nuclear power energy are obtained by statistical methods and proposed in this paper

  5. FBR metallic materials test manual (English version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odaka, Susumu; Kato, Shoichi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2003-06-01

    For the development of the fast breeder reactor, this manual describes the method of in-air and in-sodium material tests and the method of organization the data. This previous manual has revised in accordance with the revision of Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) and the conversion to the international unit. The test methods of domestic committees such as the VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) workshop were also refereed. The material test technologies accumulated in this group until now were also incorporated. This English version was prepared in order to provide more engineers with the FBR metallic materials test manual. (author)

  6. Porous carbon-coated ZnO nanoparticles derived from low carbon content formic acid-based Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks towards long cycle lithium-ion anode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Song; Fan, Ruiqing; Li, Bingjiang; Qiang, Liangsheng; Yang, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The nanocomposites constructed from Zn-based MOFs exhibit low carbon content with super-high rate capability and long cycling life. - Highlights: • Novel ZnO@porous carbon matrix nanocomposites are constructed by pyrolysis of Zn-based MOFs. • The nanocomposites constructed with Zn-based MOFs show low carbon content. • The constructed nanocomposites exhibit high energy density, super-high rate capability and long cycling life. - Abstract: Single-C formic acid-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are used to construct novel ZnO@porous carbon matrix nanocomposites by controlled pyrolysis. In the constructed nanocomposites, the porous carbon matrices act as a confined support to prevent agglomeration of the ZnO nanoparticles and create a rapid electron conductive network. Meanwhile, the well-defined, continuous porous structured MOFs provide a large specific surface area, which increases the contact of electrolyte-electrode and improves the penetration of electrolyte. Especially, the reasonable choice of formic acid-based MOFs construct the low carbon content composite, which contribute to the high energy density and long cycle life. The constructed nanocomposites show stable, ultrahigh rate lithium ion storage properties of 650 mAh g −1 at charge/discharge rate of 1 C even after 200 cycles.

  7. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H; Blink, J A

    2008-12-12

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste

  8. LIFE Materials: Fuel Cycle and Repository Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, H.; Blink, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The fusion-fission LIFE engine concept provides a path to a sustainable energy future based on safe, carbon-free nuclear power with minimal nuclear waste. The LIFE design ultimately offers many advantages over current and proposed nuclear energy technologies, and could well lead to a true worldwide nuclear energy renaissance. When compared with existing and other proposed future nuclear reactor designs, the LIFE engine exceeds alternatives in the most important measures of proliferation resistance and waste minimization. The engine needs no refueling during its lifetime. It requires no removal of fuel or fissile material generated in the LIFE engine. It leaves no weapons-attractive material at the end of life. Although there is certainly a need for additional work, all indications are that the 'back end' of the fuel cycle does not to raise any 'showstopper' issues for LIFE. Indeed, the LIFE concept has numerous benefits: (1) Per unit of electricity generated, LIFE engines would generate 20-30 times less waste (in terms of mass of heavy metal) requiring disposal in a HLW repository than does the current once-through fuel cycle. (2) Although there may be advanced fuel cycles that can compete with LIFE's low mass flow of heavy metal, all such systems require reprocessing, with attendant proliferation concerns; LIFE engines can do this without enrichment or reprocessing. Moreover, none of the advanced fuel cycles can match the low transuranic content of LIFE waste. (3) The specific thermal power of LIFE waste is initially higher than that of spent LWR fuel. Nevertheless, this higher thermal load can be managed using appropriate engineering features during an interim storage period, and could be accommodated in a Yucca-Mountain-like repository by appropriate 'staging' of the emplacement of waste packages during the operational period of the repository. The planned ventilation rates for Yucca Mountain would be sufficient for LIFE waste to meet the thermal constraints of

  9. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerks, P.L.; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%·day -1 of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn·m -2 ·day -1 ) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  10. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klerks, P.L. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Dept. of Biology, Lafayette, Louisiana (United States)]. E-mail: klerks@usl.edu; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E. [Univ. of Toledo, Dept. of Biology, Toledo, Ohio (United States)

    1997-07-15

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%{center_dot}day{sup -1} of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}day{sup -1}) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  11. Fast thermal cycling-enhanced electromigration in power metallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Van Hieu; Salm, Cora; Krabbenborg, B.H.; Krabbenborg, B.H.; Bisschop, J.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Kuper, F.G.

    Fast thermal nterconnects used in power ICs are susceptible to short circuit failure due to a combination of fast thermal cycling and electromigration stresses. In this paper, we present a study of electromigration-induced extrusion short-circuit failure in a standard two level metallization

  12. Ab Initio Studies of Metal Hexaboride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kevin M.

    Metal hexaborides are refractory ceramics with several qualities relevant to materials design, such as low work functions, high hardness, low thermal expansion coefficients, and high melting points, among many other properties of interest for industrial applications. Thermal and mechanical stability is a common feature provided by the covalently-bonded network boron atoms, and electronic properties can vary significantly with the resident metal. While these materials are currently employed as electron emitters and abrasives, promising uses of these materials also include catalytic applications for chemical dissociation reactions of various molecules such as hydrogen, water and carbon monoxide, for example. However, these extensions require a thorough understanding of particular mechanical and electronic properties. This dissertation is a collection of studies focused on understanding the behavior of metal hexaboride materials using computational modeling methods to investigate materials properties of these from both classical and quantum mechanical points of view. Classical modeling is performed using molecular dynamics methods with interatomic potentials obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Atomic mean-square displacements from the quasi-harmonic approximation and lattice energetic data are produced with DFT for developing the potentials. A generalized method was also developed for the inversion of cohesive energy curves of crystalline materials; pairwise interatomic potentials are extracted using detailed geometrical descriptions of the atomic interactions and a list of atomic displacements and degeneracies. The surface structure of metal hexaborides is studied with DFT using several model geometries to describe the terminal cation layouts, and these provide a basis for further studies on metal hexaboride interactions with hydrogen. The surface electronic structure calculations show that segregated regions of metal and boron

  13. Liquid metal reactor core material HT9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    1998-03-01

    A state-of-the art is surveyed on the liquid metal reactor core materials HT9. The purpose of this report is to give an insight for choosing and developing the materials to be applied to the KAERI prototype liquid metal reactor which is planned for the year of 2010. In-core stability of cladding materials is important to the extension of fuel burnup. Austenitic stainless steel (AISI 316) has been used as core material in the early LMR due to the good mechanical properties at high temperatures, but it has been found to show a poor swelling resistance. So many efforts have been made to solve this problem that HT9 have been developed. HT9 is 12Cr-1MoVW steel. The microstructure of HT9 consisted of tempered martensite with dispersed carbide. HT9 has superior irradiation swelling resistance as other BCC metals, and good sodium compatibility. HT9 has also a good irradiation creep properties below 500 dg C, but irradiation creep properties are degraded above 500 dg C. Researches are currently in progress to modify the HT9 in order to improve the irradiation creep properties above 500 dg C. New design studies for decreasing the core temperature below 500 dg C are needed to use HT9 as a core material. On the contrary, decrease of the thermal efficiency may occur due to lower-down of the operation temperature. (author). 51 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs

  14. Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vegt, O.M.; Haije, W.G.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare and quantify the environmental impact of three rotorblades made of different materials and to establish which stage in the life cycle contributes most. The life cycle of a product can be represented by the production phase, including depletion of raw materials (mining) and production (machining) of products, the utilisation phase, including use of energy, maintenance and cleaning, and the disposal phase, including landfill, incineration, recycling, etc. The environmental impact of a product is not only determined by the materials selected but also by the function of the product itself. E.g. when natural fibres are applied in vehicles as a substitution for metals the environmental impact in the use phase will be reduced due to a lower energy consumption caused by a lower car weight. The influence on the environmental impact of the production phase must also be taken into account. The material relation between the production phase and the use phase and the disposal phase is complicated. In general the lifetime of a product use phase can be extended (positive aspect), e.g. by application of a coating onto the surface. Due to the coating the product can not easily be recycled, which is a negative aspect. The three types of composites used in the rotorblade of the wind energy converter considered in this study are: flaxfibre reinforced epoxy, carbon fibre reinforced epoxy and glassfibre reinforced polyester. The assessment is performed using the computer program Simapro 3, which is based on the Dutch CML method for the environmental life-cycle assessment of products using the Eco-Indicator 95 evaluation method. The CML method defines five phases for an LCA: goal definition and scoping; inventory; classification; impact assessment; and improvement analysis. The improvement analysis is not part of this work. Performing an LCA is a time-consuming process due to the detailed information that is required. In chapter five some

  15. Metals and Alloys Material Stabilization Process Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RISENMAY, H.R.; BURK, R.A.

    2000-05-18

    This Plan outlines the process for brushing metal and alloys in accordance with the path forward discussed in the Integrated Project Management Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617, and requirements set forth in the Project Management Plan for Materials Stabilization, HNF-3605. This plan provides the basis for selection of the location to process, the processes involved, equipment to be used, and the characterization of the contents of the can. The scope of the process is from retrieval of metals and alloys from storage to transfer back to storage in a repackaged configuration.

  16. Corrosion of metal materials embedded in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, G.S.; Farina, S.B.; Schulz, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon steel is the material most frequently used to strengthen reinforced concrete structures; however, stainless steel and galvanized steel reinforcements are also used in construction concretes; and they are not often used in Latin America. Meanwhile, there are other metals that are embedded in the concrete forming part of the openings (aluminum) or in tubing systems (copper and lead). The use of concrete as a cementing material is also useful for immobilizing wastes, such as for example those generated by the nuclear industry. There is a great deal of research and development on the corrosion of steel reinforcements, but the same is not true for the behavior of other metals embedded in concrete and that also undergo corrosive processes. This work aims to study the corrosion of different metals: copper, lead, aluminum, zinc, stainless steel and carbon steel; embedded in concrete with and without the presence of aggressive species for the metal materials. Test pieces were made of mortar containing rods of different materials for testing, and with chlorides added in concentrations of 0; 0.3 % and 1% (mass of chloride per mass of cement). The test pieces were exposed to different conditions; laboratory environment with a relative humidity (RH) of 45%, a controlled atmosphere with 98% RH and submerged in a solution of 3.5% NaCl. The susceptibility to corrosion of the different metals was evaluated using techniques to monitor the corrosion potential, the resistivity of the mortar and the polarization resistance (PR). The rods were weighed before being placed inside the test pieces to later determine the loss of weight generated by the corrosion process. Polarization curves for the metals were also traced in a simulated pore solution (SPS) and in SPS with added chloride. The results obtained to date show that, of all the metals analyzed, aluminum is the most susceptible to corrosion, and that the test specimens with 0% and 1% of chloride exposed to the laboratory

  17. Metals and Alloys Material Stabilization Process Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RISENMAY, H.R.; BURK, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This Plan outlines the process for brushing metal and alloys in accordance with the path forward discussed in the Integrated Project Management Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant Stabilization and Deactivation Project, HNF-3617, and requirements set forth in the Project Management Plan for Materials Stabilization, HNF-3605. This plan provides the basis for selection of the location to process, the processes involved, equipment to be used, and the characterization of the contents of the can. The scope of the process is from retrieval of metals and alloys from storage to transfer back to storage in a repackaged configuration

  18. Carnot cycle for magnetic materials: The role of hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasso, Carlo P.; Basso, Vittorio; LoBue, Martino; Bertotti, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The role of hysteresis in a refrigeration thermodynamic cycle involving ferromagnetic materials is discussed. A model allowing to calculate magnetization, entropy and entropy production in systems with hysteresis is used to compute a non-ideal Carnot cycle performed on a ferromagnetic material

  19. Microporous Metal Organic Materials for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; Jing Li; Karl Johnson

    2008-11-30

    We have examined a number of Metal Organic Framework Materials for their potential in hydrogen storage applications. Results obtained in this study may, in general, be summarized as follows: (1) We have identified a new family of porous metal organic framework materials with the compositions M (bdc) (ted){sub 0.5}, {l_brace}M = Zn or Co, bdc = biphenyl dicarboxylate and ted = triethylene diamine{r_brace} that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen ({approx}4.6 wt%) at 77 K and a hydrogen pressure of 50 atm. The modeling performed on these materials agree reasonably well with the experimental results. (2) In some instances, such as in Y{sub 2}(sdba){sub 3}, even though the modeling predicted the possibility of hydrogen adsorption (although only small quantities, {approx}1.2 wt%, 77 K, 50 atm. hydrogen), our experiments indicate that the sample does not adsorb any hydrogen. This may be related to the fact that the pores are extremely small or may be attributed to the lack of proper activation process. (3) Some samples such as Zn (tbip) (tbip = 5-tert butyl isophthalate) exhibit hysteresis characteristics in hydrogen sorption between adsorption and desorption runs. Modeling studies on this sample show good agreement with the desorption behavior. It is necessary to conduct additional studies to fully understand this behavior. (4) Molecular simulations have demonstrated the need to enhance the solid-fluid potential of interaction in order to achieve much higher adsorption amounts at room temperature. We speculate that this may be accomplished through incorporation of light transition metals, such as titanium and scandium, into the metal organic framework materials.

  20. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  1. Characterization of nano structured metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin A, M.; Gutierrez W, C.; Cruz C, R.; Angeles C, C.

    1997-01-01

    Nowadays the search of new materials with specific optical properties has carried out to realize a series of experiments through the polymer synthesis [(C 3 N 3 ) 2 (NH) 3 ] n doped with gold metallic nanoparticles. The thermal stability of a polymer is due to the presence of tyazine rings contained in the structure. The samples were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction by the Powder method, Ft-infrared and its thermal properties by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TGA). One of the purposes of this work is to obtain nano structured materials over a polymeric matrix. (Author)

  2. Transuranic material recovery in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, R.W.; Goff, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept that is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The plans for demonstrating the IFR fuel cycle, including its waste processing options, by processing irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel in its associated Fuel Cycle Facility have been developed for the first refining series. This series has been designed to provide the data needed for the further development of the IFR program. An important piece of the data needed is the recovery of TRU material during the reprocessing and waste operations

  3. Method of electrolytic decontamination of contaminated metal materials for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Yoshio; Ishibashi, Masaru; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To electrolytically eliminate radioactive materials from metal materials contaminated with radioactive materials, as well as efficiently remove metal ions leached out in an electrolyte. Method: In the case of anodic dissolution of metal materials contaminated with radioactivity in an electrolyte to eliminate radioactive contaminating materials on the surface of the metal materials, a portion of an electrolytic cell is defined with partition membranes capable of permeating metal ions therethrough. A cathode connected to a different power source is disposed to the inside of the partition membranes and fine particle of metals are suspended and floated in the electrolyte. By supplying an electric current between an insoluble anode disposed outside of the partition membranes and the cathode, metal ions permeating from the outside of the partition membranes are deposited on the fine metal particles. Accordingly, since metal ions in the electrolyte are removed, the electrolyte can always be kept clean. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1991-12-01

    The proceedings contain 16 contributions to the following topics: 1. Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; 2. Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environment under Off-Normal Conditions; 3. Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; and 4. Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium. (MM)

  5. Blender 2.6 cycles, materials and textures cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, practical style this Cookbook deep-dives into a wide-array of techniques used to create realistic materials and textures.This book is perfect for you if you have used Blender before but are new to the impressive Cycles renderer. You should have some knowledge of the Blender interface, though this is not a strict requirement. If you want to create realistic, stunning materials and textures using Cycles, then this book is for you!

  6. Randomly grain growth in metallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIME), Unidad Profesional Ticoman, Av. Ticoman 600, Del. G.A.M., C.P. 07340 Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Edif. 6 y Edif. Z planta baja C.P.07300, Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail: adaramil@yahoo.com.mx; Chavez, F. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Edif. 6 y Edif. Z planta baja C.P.07300, Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico); Demedices, L. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIME), Unidad Profesional Ticoman, Av. Ticoman 600, Del. G.A.M., C.P. 07340 Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Edif. 6 y Edif. Z planta baja C.P.07300, Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico); Cruz, A.; Macias, M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, (SEPI-ESIQIE), Unidad Profesional Zacatenco, Edif. 6 y Edif. Z planta baja C.P.07300, Distrito Federal, Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-30

    Computational modeling of grain structures is a very important topic in materials science. In this work, the development of the computational algorithms for a mathematical model to predict grain nucleation and grain growth is presented. The model place a number of nucleated points randomly in a liquid pool according with the solid and liquid fractions (X{sub sol} and X{sub liq}) of metal solute and the local temperature distribution (SS{sub I,J}). Then these points grows isotropically until obtain a grain structure with straight interfaces. Different grain morphologies such as columnar and equiaxed can be obtained as a function of the temperature distributions and growth directions.

  7. Randomly grain growth in metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Chavez, F.; Demedices, L.; Cruz, A.; Macias, M.

    2009-01-01

    Computational modeling of grain structures is a very important topic in materials science. In this work, the development of the computational algorithms for a mathematical model to predict grain nucleation and grain growth is presented. The model place a number of nucleated points randomly in a liquid pool according with the solid and liquid fractions (X sol and X liq ) of metal solute and the local temperature distribution (SS I,J ). Then these points grows isotropically until obtain a grain structure with straight interfaces. Different grain morphologies such as columnar and equiaxed can be obtained as a function of the temperature distributions and growth directions.

  8. Organic derivatives of lanthanides containing metal in cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syutkina, O.P.; Rybakova, L.F.; Egorova, E.N.; Sigalov, A.B.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of 2.2'-dilithium biphenyl with LnBr 3 (Ln=Pr, Sm, Gd, Ho, Yb here bromium atoms are comparatively easily replaced. Previously unknown organic derivatives of lanthanides containing metal in the cycle are obtained. It is established that a successful extraction of the compound requires reaction conditions, such as the use of ether as a solvent with the followinq addition of TGP, the order of addition of reagents. Compounds are extracted in the form of solvates containing TGP melecules. The complexes prepared are coloured, depending on the metal, beige (Pr, Sm) brown (Gd, Yb) and red-brown (Ho). They dissolve readily in TGP moderately in benzen toluene, CCl 4 . When stored their solubility in benzene and CCl 4 decreases considerably, and after 3-2 days, they are practically insoluhle. The compounds prepared are characterized by the elementary analysis, IR and PMR spectra

  9. Characterization of liquid metal reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, H. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The objectives of this report were to assess the material requirements for LMR environment, to select the optimum candidates for KALIMER components, to characterize the performance for establishing a database of the structural materials for KALIMER, and to develop the basic material technologies for the localization of the advanced materials. Stainless steel ingots were melted by VIM and hot-rolled to plate with the thickness of 15mm. The plate was solution-treated for 1 hr at 1100 deg C and then water-quenched. Specimens were taken parallel to the rolling direction of the plate. The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed on the high temperature mechanical properties of 316MRP (Liquid Metal Reactor, Primary candidate material) stainless steels with the different nitrogen content from 0.04 to 0.15% and with the different phosphorus content from 0.002 to 0.02%. Heat treatment was performed to investigate the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Mo steels for LMR heat transfer tube materials and core materials. The Cr-Mo steels were normalized at the temperatures between 900 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1hrs and tempered at the temperatures between 500 deg C and 800 deg C for 2hrs. Conventional optical and electron micrographic studies were carried out to investigate the martensite lath structure, carbide indentification and carbide shape. Vickers microhardness was measured at room temperature using 10g load. Tensile properties were tested at high temperature. Charpy V-notch impact tests were also carried out at temperature between -120 deg C and +180 deg C. (author). 72 refs., 28 tabs., 244 figs

  10. Metal nanoparticles in DBS card materials modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, A.; Frolov, G.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    In the recent years the method of collecting and storing Dried Blood Spots (DBS) on special cellulose membrane (paper) has gained wide popularity. But possible damage of biosamples caused by microorganisms in case of their incomplete drying is a disadvantage of the method. It can be overcome by treating sample-collection membranes with colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles, having antibacterial effect. The team studied antibacterial properties of nonwoven material samples with various coatings (alcohol sols of copper, aluminium, iron, titanium, silver and vanadium nanoparticles). Colloidal solutions of nanoparticles were obtained by means of electroerosion method with further low-temperature plasma condensation. Antibacterial activity of fiberglass and cellulose membrane samples with nanoparticle coatings was studied using B. cereus and plaque bacteria cultures. It was revealed that nanostructured coatings can suppress bacterial activity; in addition they can diffuse from the membrane surface into medium which leads to widening the areas of inhibiting testing cultures’ growth. Thus, membrane materials treatment with alcohol-sols of metal nanoparticles can be seen as promising for conferring antibacterial properties to DBS carriers.

  11. Metal nanoparticles in DBS card materials modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, A; Frolov, G; Kuznetsov, D; Kolesnikov, E; Chuprunov, K; Kondakov, S; Osipov, A; Samsonova, J

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years the method of collecting and storing Dried Blood Spots (DBS) on special cellulose membrane (paper) has gained wide popularity. But possible damage of biosamples caused by microorganisms in case of their incomplete drying is a disadvantage of the method. It can be overcome by treating sample-collection membranes with colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles, having antibacterial effect. The team studied antibacterial properties of nonwoven material samples with various coatings (alcohol sols of copper, aluminium, iron, titanium, silver and vanadium nanoparticles). Colloidal solutions of nanoparticles were obtained by means of electroerosion method with further low-temperature plasma condensation. Antibacterial activity of fiberglass and cellulose membrane samples with nanoparticle coatings was studied using B. cereus and plaque bacteria cultures. It was revealed that nanostructured coatings can suppress bacterial activity; in addition they can diffuse from the membrane surface into medium which leads to widening the areas of inhibiting testing cultures’ growth. Thus, membrane materials treatment with alcohol-sols of metal nanoparticles can be seen as promising for conferring antibacterial properties to DBS carriers. (paper)

  12. Efficient waveguide coupler based on metal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Junbo; Chang, Shengli; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Huanyu

    2015-10-01

    Because of the diffraction limit of light, the scale of optical element stays in the order of wavelength, which makes the interface optics and nano-electronic components cannot be directly matched, thus the development of photonics technology encounters a bottleneck. In order to solve the problem that coupling of light into the subwavelength waveguide, this paper proposes a model of coupler based on metal materials. By using Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) wave, incident light can be efficiently coupled into waveguide of diameter less than 100 nm. This paper mainly aims at near infrared wave band, and tests a variety of the combination of metal materials, and by changing the structural parameters to get the maximum coupling efficiency. This structure splits the plane incident light with wavelength of 864 nm, the width of 600 nm into two uniform beams, and separately coupled into the waveguide layer whose width is only about 80 nm, and the highest coupling efficiency can reach above 95%. Using SPPs structure will be an effective method to break through the diffraction limit and implement photonics device high-performance miniaturization. We can further compress the light into small scale fiber or waveguide by using the metal coupler, and to save the space to hold more fiber or waveguide layer, so that we can greatly improve the capacity of optical communication. In addition, high-performance miniaturization of the optical transmission medium can improve the integration of optical devices, also provide a feasible solution for the photon computer research and development in the future.

  13. Weapons material and the commercial fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the United States and the former USSR had arsenals of ∼18,000 and 27,200 nuclear weapons, respectively. Approximately 10,000 of the US and 13,000 of the former USSR weapons were in the strategic category, and the remainder were tactical weapons. The dramatic changes in the political climate between the United States and the republics of the former USSR have resulted in the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I and II), agreements to substantially reduce nuclear weapons arsenals. Tactical weapons have already been collected in Russia, and strategic weapons are to be collected by the end of 1994. The major issues in accomplishing the treaty reductions appear to be funding, transport safety, storage capacity, and political issues between Russia and Ukraine because the latter seems to be using its weapons for political leverage on other matters. Collectively, the US and former USSR warhead stockpiles contain tremendous inventories of high-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium which if converted to light water reactor fuel would equate to an enormous economic supply of natural uranium, conversion services, and enrichment separative work. The potential for this material entering the light water reactor fuel marketplace was enhanced in July 1992, when the two US industrial companies, Nuclear Fuel Services and Allied-Signal, announced that they had reached a preliminary agreement with the Russian ministry, Minatom, and the Russian Academay of Sciences to convert Russian high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium

  14. Material accountancy for metallic fuel pin casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, R.G.; Orechwa, Y.; Beitel, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The operation of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) is based on the electrometallurgical processing of spent metallic reactor fuel. The pin casting operation, although only one of several operations in FCF, was the first to be on-line. As such, it has served to demonstrate the material accountancy system in many of its facets. This paper details, for the operation of the pin casting process with depleted uranium, the interaction between the mass tracking system (MTG) and some of the ancillary computer codes which generate pertinent information for operations and material accountancy. It is necessary to distinguish between two types of material balance calculations -- closeout for operations and material accountancy for safeguards. The two have much in common, for example, the mass tracking system database and the calculation of an inventory difference, but, in general, are not congruent with regard to balance period and balance spatial domain. Moreover, the objective, assessment, and reporting requirements of the calculated inventory difference are very different in the two cases

  15. Life cycle assessment of polysaccharide materials: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310872022; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2008-01-01

    Apart from conventional uses of polysaccharide materials, such as food, clothing, paper packaging and construction, new polysaccharide products and materials have been developed. This paper reviews life cycle assessment (LCA) studies in order to gain insight of the environmental profiles of

  16. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described

  17. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  18. Evaluation of Package Stress during Temperature Cycling using Metal Deformation Measurement and FEM Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeglauer, J.; Bohm, C.; Otremba, R.; Maerz, J.; Nelle, P.; Stecher, M.; Alpern, P.

    2006-01-01

    Plastic encapsulated devices that are exposed to Temperature Cycling (TC) tests undergo an excessive mechanical stress due to different Coefficients of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of the various materials used in the system. Especially in the corners of the die, passivation cracks and shifted metal lines can be observed, which demonstrates an increasing mechanical stress from chip center to the corners of the die. This effect has been known for a long time. This paper presents a simple measurement technique to quantify the mechanical shear stress at the chip-Mold Compound (MC) interface by measuring the deformation of a periodical metal structure. Based on this deformation measurement, we evaluated the stress distribution within the package, and the influence of different parameters such as number of cycles and chip size. Furthermore, these experimental results were compared with FEM simulation, and showed good agreement but could not account in all cases for the total amount of observed shift

  19. Economic Growth and the Evolution of Material Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Wei Qiang; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between material cycles and economic growth is essential for relieving environmental pressures associated with material extraction, production, and consumption. We developed an integrated analytical framework of dematerialization analysis incorporating both material...... flow and stock indicators. A four-quadrant diagram is designed to classify different stages of dematerialization based on the elasticity of material flow/stock to economic output or well-being. We then conducted a case study on the long-term evolution of aluminum cycle in the U.S., and found...... and secondary material recycling, take effect at different stages of economic development. Comprehensive understanding of dematerialization depends on in-depth analysis on material-economy relationships from an integrated stock and flow perspective....

  20. Metallic CoS₂ nanowire electrodes for high cycling performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ren; Faber, Matthew S; Dziedzic, Rafal; Wen, Zhenhai; Jin, Song; Mao, Shun; Chen, Junhong

    2015-12-11

    We report metallic cobalt pyrite (CoS2) nanowires (NWs) prepared directly on current collecting electrodes, e.g., carbon cloth or graphite disc, for high-performance supercapacitors. These CoS2 NWs have a variety of advantages for supercapacitor applications. Because the metallic CoS2 NWs are synthesized directly on the current collector, the good electrical connection enables efficient charge transfer between the active CoS2 materials and the current collector. In addition, the open spaces between the sea urchin structure NWs lead to a large accessible surface area and afford rapid mass transport. Moreover, the robust CoS2 NW structure results in high stability of the active materials during long-term operation. Electrochemical characterization reveals that the CoS2 NWs enable large specific capacitance (828.2 F g(-1) at a scan rate of 0.01 V s(-1)) and excellent long term cycling stability (0-2.5% capacity loss after 4250 cycles at 5 A g(-1)) for pseudocapacitors. This example of metallic CoS2 NWs for supercapacitor applications expands the opportunities for transition metal sulfide-based nanostructures in emerging energy storage applications.

  1. Metallic CoS2 nanowire electrodes for high cycling performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ren; Faber, Matthew S.; Dziedzic, Rafal; Wen, Zhenhai; Jin, Song; Mao, Shun; Chen, Junhong

    2015-12-01

    We report metallic cobalt pyrite (CoS2) nanowires (NWs) prepared directly on current collecting electrodes, e.g., carbon cloth or graphite disc, for high-performance supercapacitors. These CoS2 NWs have a variety of advantages for supercapacitor applications. Because the metallic CoS2 NWs are synthesized directly on the current collector, the good electrical connection enables efficient charge transfer between the active CoS2 materials and the current collector. In addition, the open spaces between the sea urchin structure NWs lead to a large accessible surface area and afford rapid mass transport. Moreover, the robust CoS2 NW structure results in high stability of the active materials during long-term operation. Electrochemical characterization reveals that the CoS2 NWs enable large specific capacitance (828.2 F g-1 at a scan rate of 0.01 V s-1) and excellent long term cycling stability (0-2.5% capacity loss after 4250 cycles at 5 A g-1) for pseudocapacitors. This example of metallic CoS2 NWs for supercapacitor applications expands the opportunities for transition metal sulfide-based nanostructures in emerging energy storage applications.

  2. Advances in nuclear fuel cycle materials and concepts. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the new trends in the materials used in various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. This will cover fuels for various types of reactors (PWRs, HTRs, ... etc.) cladding materials, control rod materials, reactor structural materials, as well as materials used in the back end of the fuel cycle. Problems associated with corrosion of fuel cladding materials as well as those in control rod materials (B 4 C swelling...etc.), and approaches for combating these influences are reviewed. For the case of reactor pressure vessel materials issues related to the influences of alloy composition, design approaches including the use of more forged parts and minimizing, as for as possible, longitudinal welds especially in the central region, are discussed. Furthermore the application of techniques for recovery of pre-irradiation mechanical properties of PVS components is also covered. New candidate materials for the construction of high level waste containers including modified types of stainless steel (high Ni and high MO), nickel-base alloys and titanium alloys are also detailed. Finally, nuclear fuel cycle concepts involving plutonium and actinides recycling shall be reviewed. 28 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Advances in nuclear fuel cycle materials and concepts. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, A A [Materials Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the new trends in the materials used in various steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. This will cover fuels for various types of reactors (PWRs, HTRs, ... etc.) cladding materials, control rod materials, reactor structural materials, as well as materials used in the back end of the fuel cycle. Problems associated with corrosion of fuel cladding materials as well as those in control rod materials (B{sub 4} C swelling...etc.), and approaches for combating these influences are reviewed. For the case of reactor pressure vessel materials issues related to the influences of alloy composition, design approaches including the use of more forged parts and minimizing, as for as possible, longitudinal welds especially in the central region, are discussed. Furthermore the application of techniques for recovery of pre-irradiation mechanical properties of PVS components is also covered. New candidate materials for the construction of high level waste containers including modified types of stainless steel (high Ni and high MO), nickel-base alloys and titanium alloys are also detailed. Finally, nuclear fuel cycle concepts involving plutonium and actinides recycling shall be reviewed. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao; Shen, Jingguo; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide

  5. Preparation of oxide materials from metal alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turevskaya, E.P.; Turova, N.Ya.; Yanovskaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on the sol-gel technologies on the basis of alkoxides are presented. The synthesis and properties of titanates zirconates, niobates, tantalates, vanadates and solid solutions on the basis of Mo, W and Bi oxides, iron oxides and high-temperature superconductors are presented. The most important aspects, determining the choice of optimal conditions for preparation of oxides of concrete compositions with required properties are pointed out. Accomplishment of the whole chain of studies made it possible to synthesize a broad range of metal alkoxides and study their properties and also carry out large-scale studies on preparation of various oxides and materials on the basis thereof, using the source base of the sol-gel method [ru

  6. Cast bulk metallic glass alloys: prospects as wear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Shiflet, Gary J. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA)

    2005-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are single phase materials with unusual physical and mechanical properties. One intriguing area of possible use is as a wear material. Usually, pure metals and single phase dilute alloys do not perform well in tribological conditions. When the metal or alloy is lightweight, it is usually soft leading to galling in sliding situations. For the harder metals and alloys, their density is usually high, so there is an energy penalty when using these materials in wear situations. However, bulk metallic glasses at the same density are usually harder than corresponding metals and dilute single phase alloys, and so could offer better wear resistance. This work will discuss preliminary wear results for metallic glasses with densities in the range of 4.5 to 7.9 g/cc. The wear behavior of these materials will be compared to similar metals and alloys.

  7. Metal/graphite-composite materials for fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneringer, G.; Kny, E.; Fischer, W.; Reheis, N.; Staffler, R.; Samm, U.; Winter, J.

    1995-01-01

    The utilization of graphite as a structural material depends to an important extent on the availability of a joining technique suitable for the production of reliable large scale metal/graphite-composites. This study has been conducted to evaluate vacuum brazes and procedures for graphite and metals which can be used in fusion applications up to about 1500 degree C. The braze materials included: AgCuTi, CuTi, NiTi, Ti, ZrTi, Zr. Brazing temperatures ranged from 850 degree C to 1900 degree C. The influence of graphite quality on wettability and pore-penetration of the braze has been investigated. Screening tests of metal/graphite-assemblies with joint areas exceeding some square-centimeters have shown that they can only successfully be produced when graphite is brazed to a metal, such as tungsten or molybdenum with a coefficient of thermal expansion closely matching that of graphite. Therefore all experimental work on evaluation of joints has been concentrated on molybdenum/graphite brazings. The tensile strength of molybdenum/graphite-composites compares favorably with the tensile strength of bulk graphite from room temperature close to the melting temperature of the braze. In electron beam testing the threshold damage line for molybdenum/graphite-composites has been evaluated. Results show that even composites with the low melting AgCuTi-braze are expected to withstand 10 MW/m 2 power density for at least 10 3 cycles. Limiter testing in TEXTOR shows that molybdenum/graphite-segments with 3 mm graphite brazed on molybdenum-substrate withstand severe repeated TEXTOR plasma discharge conditions without serious damage. Results prove that actively cooled components on the basis of a molybdenum/graphite-composite can sustain a higher heat flux than bulk graphite alone. (author)

  8. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors, such as material qualities, construction types and soil types. In our work, we consider a broad range of parameter values in the modeling of leaching and fate. This allows distinguishing between the impacts of various road constructions, as well as sites with different soil properties. The findings of this study promote the quantitative consideration of environmental impacts of long-term leaching in Life Cycle Assessment, complementing site-specific risk

  9. Metal-binding silica materials for wastewater cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroh, F.O. [TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, TPL, Inc. is developing two series of high-efficiency covalently modified silica materials for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. These materials have metal ion capacities greatly exceeding those of commercial ion exchange resins. One series, containing thiol groups, has high capacity for {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} heavy metal ions such as Hg, Pb, Ag, and Cd; the other, containing quaternary ammonium groups, has high capacity for anionic metal ions such as pertechnetate, arsenate, selenite, and chromate. These materials have high selectivity for the contaminant metals and will function well in harsh systems that inactivate other systems.

  10. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, Oliver; Bayer, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  11. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Oliver [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Geography and Geoecology, Adenauerring 20, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bayer, Peter, E-mail: bayer@erdw.ethz.ch [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Geological Institute, Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Juraske, Ronnie [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Verones, Francesca [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hellweg, Stefanie [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, John-von-Neumann-Weg 9, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  12. Material efficiency: rare and critical metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Robert U; Peiró, Laura Talens

    2013-03-13

    In the last few decades, progress in electronics, especially, has resulted in important new uses for a number of geologically rare metals, some of which were mere curiosities in the past. Most of them are not mined for their own sake (gold, the platinum group metals and the rare Earth elements are exceptions) but are found mainly in the ores of the major industrial metals, such as aluminium, copper, zinc and nickel. We call these major metals 'attractors' and the rare accompanying metals 'hitch-hikers'. The key implication is that rising prices do not necessarily call forth greater output because that would normally require greater output of the attractor metal. We trace the geological relationships and the functional uses of these metals. Some of these metals appear to be irreplaceable in the sense that there are no known substitutes for them in their current functional uses. Recycling is going to be increasingly important, notwithstanding a number of barriers.

  13. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H U [ed.

    1991-12-15

    The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) Specialists Meeting on Properties of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment was held during June 18 to June 20, 1991, at the Nuclear Research Centre (Kernforschungszentrum) in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Specialists Meeting was divided into five technical sessions which addressed topics as follows: Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environments under Off-Normal Conditions;Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium; and Conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. Material control and accountability in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed to unify the complexes, used in the systems for control and accountability of nuclear materials, and to use the successful experience of developing these complexes. It is shown that the problem of control, accountability and physical protection may by achieved by using the developed complex Probabilistic expert-advising system, permitting to analyse the safety in nuclear fuel cycles [ru

  15. Cycling of lithium/metal oxide cells using composite electrolytes containing fumed silicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jian; Fedkiw, Peter S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect on cycle capacity is reported of cathode material (metal oxide, carbon, and current collector) in lithium/metal oxide cells cycled with fumed silica-based composite electrolytes. Three types of electrolytes are compared: filler-free electrolyte consisting of methyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) oligomer (PEGdm, M w =250)+lithium bis(trifluromethylsufonyl)imide (LiTFSI) (Li:O=1:20), and two composite systems of the above baseline liquid electrolyte containing 10-wt% A200 (hydrophilic fumed silica) or R805 (hydrophobic fumed silica with octyl surface group). The composite electrolytes are solid-like gels. Three cathode active materials (LiCoO 2 , V 6 O 13 , and Li x MnO 2 ), four conducting carbons (graphite Timrex [reg] SFG 15, SFG 44, carbon black Vulcan XC72R, and Ketjenblack EC-600JD), and three current collector materials (Al, Ni, and carbon fiber) were studied. Cells with composite electrolytes show higher capacity, reduced capacity fade, and less cell polarization than those with filler-free electrolyte. Among the three active materials studied, V 6 O 13 cathodes deliver the highest capacity and Li x MnO 2 cathodes render the best capacity retention. Discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO 2 cells is affected greatly by cathode carbon type, and the capacity decreases in the order of Ketjenblack>SFG 15>SFG 44>Vulcan. Current collector material also plays a significant role in cell cycling performance. Lithium/vanadium oxide (V 6 O 13 ) cells deliver increased capacity using Ni foil and carbon fiber current collectors in comparison to an Al foil current collector

  16. All-Metallic Vertical Transistors Based on Stacked Dirac Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Liu, Qihang; Quhe, Ruge; Zheng, Jiaxin; Ye, Meng; Yu, Dapeng; Shi, Junjie; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    It is an ongoing pursuit to use metal as a channel material in a field effect transistor. All metallic transistor can be fabricated from pristine semimetallic Dirac materials (such as graphene, silicene, and germanene), but the on/off current ratio is very low. In a vertical heterostructure composed by two Dirac materials, the Dirac cones of the two materials survive the weak interlayer van der Waals interaction based on density functional theory method, and electron transport from the Dirac ...

  17. Effect of weld metal toughness on fracture behavior under ultra-low cycle fatigue loading (earthquake)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermajani, M. [School of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaini, F. Malek, E-mail: Fmalek@modares.ac.ir [School of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Miresmaeili, R. [School of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghakouchak, A.A. [School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadmand, M. [Department of Research and Development, MAPNA Electric and Control (MECO) Company, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-21

    Results from 12 ultra-low cycle fatigue tests performed on the weld metals of both toughness and non-toughness rated grades are presented. Fracture resistance under these loadings seemed to be dependent on materials' toughness, displacement amplitude, and stress state triaxiality, while the toughness effect was more highlighted at high stress levels and concentrations. To study the effect of microstructures on these failures, supporting ancillary tests including all-weld tension coupons, Charpy V-notched impact tests, and optical and scanning electron microscope analyses were performed. The favored microstructures appeared to be those which absorbed energy by plastic deformation and, hence, hindered void formation and/or could avoid crack propagation by deflection. Considering the response of the tested materials to cyclic loadings and the requirements of the materials specified in AISC341 Provisions could question the adequacy of these requirements for weld metals. However, the role of microstructural features like inclusions would be the same in both the Charpy impact tests and ultra-low cycle loadings.

  18. MATERIALS FOR PRODUCTION OF METAL MOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Jakovlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of alloying with manganese, chromium, nickel, copper and molybdenum on mechanical characteristics and thermocyclic endurance of grayed steel and possibility of its application for metal casting molds is investigated.

  19. Roofing Materials Assessment: Investigation of Five Metals in Runoff from Roofing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Nancy; Granuke, Kyle; McCall, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    To assess the contribution of five toxic metals from new roofing materials to stormwater, runoff was collected from 14 types of roofing materials and controls during 20 rain events and analyzed for metals. Many of the new roofing materials evaluated did not show elevated metals concentrations in the runoff. Runoff from several other roofing materials was significantly higher than the controls for arsenic, copper, and zinc. Notably, treated wood shakes released arsenic and copper, copper roofing released copper, PVC roofing released arsenic, and Zincalume® and EPDM roofing released zinc. For the runoff from some of the roofing materials, metals concentrations decreased significantly over an approximately one-year period of aging. Metals concentrations in runoff were demonstrated to depend on a number of factors, such as roofing materials, age of the materials, and climatic conditions. Thus, application of runoff concentrations from roofing materials to estimate basin-wide releases should be undertaken cautiously.

  20. Degradation of materials under conditions of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, S.J.; Searle, H.; Stolberg, L.

    2010-01-01

    A capsule method has been developed and employed to measure the degradation rates of selected materials under some of the most challenging conditions relevant to the sulphur-iodine (SI) and the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production. The materials tested so far include metals and engineering alloys, structural and functional polymers, elastomers, carbon-based materials, ceramics and glasses, and composites. A number of characterization methods have been used to detect and quantify the degradation of the diverse materials and, when feasible, establish the mode of attack. The paper details the results of this ongoing experimental investigation. The investigation currently focuses on the copper-chlorine hybrid cycle. The environment representative of the conditions in the electrolyser subsystem was approximated with an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (13.6 mol/kg), copper(II) chloride (1.36 mol/kg) and copper(I) chloride (1.36 mol/kg) at 160°C and 2.5 MPa (absolute). The current (tentative) recommendations for the selection of the materials required for the construction of the electrolyser subsystem of the copper-chlorine hybrid cycle, and the associated rationale, are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Evaluating the Aspect of Nuclear Material in Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Shunsuke; Pickett, Susan; Oda, Takuji; Choi, Jor-Shan; Kuno, Yusuke; Takana, Satoru [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8685 (Japan); Nagasaki, Shinya [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The increasing number of countries that wish to introduce nuclear power plants raises attention to proliferation resistance in nuclear power plants, and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In order to achieve adequate proliferation resistance, it is important to evaluate it and to construct effective international institutional frameworks as well as technologies involving high level of proliferation resistance. Although some methods have been proposed for evaluation of the proliferation resistance, their validities have not been investigated in detail. In the present paper, therefore, we compare some of the proposed methodologies. It is essential to detect the abuse or diversion of nuclear material before the nuclear explosive device can be manufactured in order to prevent proliferation. The time needed for the detection of material primary depends on the safeguards that the country applies, and the time needed for fabrication mainly depends on the attributes of the nuclear material. Hence, we divided the proliferation resistance into two parts: the level of safeguards and the material. For examination of evaluation methods such as the one proposed by Charlton [1] or the figure of merit (FOM) [2], sensitivity analysis was performed on weighting factors and scenarios. The validity and characteristics of each method were discussed, focusing on the applicability of each method to the assessment of multi-national approaches such as GNEP. [1] W. S. Charlton, R. L. LeBouf, C. Gariazzo, D. G. Ford, C. Beard, S. Landeberger, M. Whitaker, 'Proliferation resistance assessment methodology for nuclear fuel cycles', Nuclear Technology, 157, 1 (2007). [2] C.G. Bathke et al, 'An assessment of the proliferation resistance of materials in advanced nuclear fuel cycles', 8. International Conference on Facility Operations (2008). (authors)

  2. Low-cycle fatigue and cyclic deformation behavior of Type 16-8-2 weld metal at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raske, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue behavior of Type 16-8-2 stainless steel ASA weld metal at 593 0 C was investigated, and the results are compared with existing data for Type 316 stainless steel base metal. Tests were conducted under axial strain control and at a constant axial strain rate of 4 x 10 -3 s -1 for continuous cyclic loadings as well as hold times at peak tensile strain. Uniform-gauge specimens were machined longitudinally from the surface and root areas of 25.4-mm-thick welded plate and tested in the as-welded condition. Results indicate that the low-cycle fatigue resistance of this weld metal is somewhat better than that of the base metal for continuous-cycling conditions and significantly better for tension hold-time tests. This is attributed to the fine duplex delta ferrite-austenite microstructure in the weld metal. The initial monotonic tensile properties and the cyclic stress-strain behavior of this material were also determined. Because the cyclic changes in mechanical properties are strain-history dependent, a unique cyclic stress-strain curve does not exist for this material

  3. Materials performance in prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Two prototype Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) columns have been metallurgically examined after retirement, to determine the causes of failure and to evaluate the performance of the column container materials in this application. Leaking of the fluid heating and cooling subsystems caused retirement of both TCAP columns, not leaking of the main hydrogen-containing column. The aluminum block design TCAP column (AHL block TCAP) used in the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, Building 773-A, failed in one nitrogen inlet tube that was crimped during fabrication, which lead to fatigue crack growth in the tube and subsequent leaking of nitrogen from this tube. The Third Generation stainless steel design TCAP column (Third generation TCAP), operated in 773-A room C-061, failed in a braze joint between the freon heating and cooling tubes (made of copper) and the main stainless steel column. In both cases, stresses from thermal cycling and local constraint likely caused the nucleation and growth of fatigue cracks. No materials compatibility problems between palladium coated kieselguhr (the material contained in the TCAP column) and either aluminum or stainless steel column materials were observed. The aluminum-stainless steel transition junction appeared to be unaffected by service in the AHL block TCAP. Also, no evidence of cracking was observed in the AHL block TCAP in a location expected to experience the highest thermal shock fatigue in this design. It is important to limit thermal stresses caused by constraint in hydride systems designed to work by temperature variation, such as hydride storage beds and TCAP columns

  4. The geochemical record of the ancient nitrogen cycle, nitrogen isotopes, and metal cofactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda V; Glass, Jennifer B

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycle is the only global biogeochemical cycle that is driven by biological functions involving the interaction of many microorganisms. The N cycle has evolved over geological time and its interaction with the oxygen cycle has had profound effects on the evolution and timing of Earth's atmosphere oxygenation (Falkowski and Godfrey, 2008). Almost every enzyme that microorganisms use to manipulate N contains redox-sensitive metals. Bioavailability of these metals has changed through time as a function of varying redox conditions, and likely influenced the biological underpinnings of the N cycle. It is possible to construct a record through geological time using N isotopes and metal concentrations in sediments to determine when the different stages of the N cycle evolved and the role metal availability played in the development of key enzymes. The same techniques are applicable to understanding the operation and changes in the N cycle through geological time. However, N and many of the redox-sensitive metals in some of their oxidation states are mobile and the isotopic composition or distribution can be altered by subsequent processes leading to erroneous conclusions. This chapter reviews the enzymology and metal cofactors of the N cycle and describes proper utilization of methods used to reconstruct evolution of the N cycle through time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE BRAKE ROTORS: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites (MMCs have become attractive for engineering structural applications due to their excellent specific strength and are increasingly seen as an alternative to conventional materials, particularly in the automotive industry. In this study, a historical background on the development and application of metal matrix composites for automotive brake rotors is presented. The discussion also includes an analysis of the product life cycle with stir casting as a case study. The historical review analysis revealed that gradual development of material and processing techniques have led to lighter weight, lower cost and higher performance brake rotors as a result of a better understanding of the mechanics of metal matrix composites. It emerged from the study that the stir casting technique provides ease of operation, sustainability and, most significantly, very competitive costs without sacrificing quality relative to other techniques; as such, it is the most attractive manufacturing process in the industry. These findings can be used for future design and manufacture of an efficient and effective aluminium matrix composite brake rotor for automotive and other applications.

  6. Low cycle fatigue lifetime of HIP bonded Bi-metallic first wall structures of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Toshihisa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Kazunori

    1998-10-01

    A HIP bonded bi-metallic panel composed of a dispersion strengthened copper (DSCu) layer and type 316L stainless steel (SS316L) cooling pipes is the reference design of the ITER first wall. To examine the fatigue lifetime of the first wall panel under cyclic mechanical loads, low cycle fatigue tests of HIP bonded bi-metallic specimens made of SS316L and DSCu were conducted with the stress ratio of -1.0 and five nominal strain range conditions ranging from 0.2 to 1.0%. Elasto-plastic analysis has also been conducted to evaluate local strain ranges under the nominal strains applied. Initial cracks were observed at the inner surface of the SS316L cooling pipes for all of the specimens tested, which was confirmed by the elasto-plastic analysis that the maximum strains of the test specimens were developed at the same locations. It was found that the HIP bonded bi-metallic test specimens had a fatigue lifetime longer than that of the SS316L raw material obtained by round bar specimens. Similarly, the fatigue lifetime of the DSCu/SS316L HIP interface was also longer than the round bar test results for the HIP joints. From these results, it has been confirmed that the bi-metallic first wall panel with built-in cooling pipes made by HIP bonding has a sufficient fatigue lifetime in comparison with the raw fatigue data of the materials, which also suggests that the fatigue lifetime evaluation has an adequate margin against fracture if it follows the design fatigue curve based on the material fatigue data. (author)

  7. Transition-metal chlorides as conversion cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ting; Chen, Zhong X.; Cao, Yu L.; Ai, Xin P.; Yang, Han X.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble AgCl and soluble CuCl 2 were selected and investigated as model compounds of transition-metal chlorides for electrochemical conversion cathode materials. The experimental results demonstrated that the AgCl nanocrystals can convert reversibly to metallic Ag with nearly full utilization of its one-electron redox capacity (187 mAh g −1 ). Similarly, the CuCl 2 -filled mesoporous carbon can realize a reversible two-electron transfer reaction, giving a very high reversible capacity of 466 mAh g −1 after 20 cycles. These data imply that the metal chlorides can undergo complete electrochemical conversion utilizing their full oxidation states for electrical energy storage as previously reported metal fluorides, possibly being used as high capacity cathode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  8. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  9. Metallic photonic band-gap materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigalas, M.M.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Soukoulis, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the transmission and absorption of electromagnetic waves propagating in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D periodic metallic photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. For 2D systems, there is substantial difference between the s- and p-polarized waves. The p-polarized waves exhibit behavior similar to the dielectric PBG's. But, the s-polarized waves have a cutoff frequency below which there are no propagating modes. For 3D systems, the results are qualitatively the same for both polarizations but there are important differences related to the topology of the structure. For 3D structures with isolated metallic scatterers (cermet topology), the behavior is similar to that of the dielectric PBG's, while for 3D structures with the metal forming a continuous network (network topology), there is a cutoff frequency below which there are no propagating modes. The systems with the network topology may have some interesting applications for frequencies less than about 1 THz where the absorption can be neglected. We also study the role of the defects in the metallic structures

  10. Multiaxial Cycle Deformation and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Mild Carbon Steel and Related Welded-Metal Specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilian Qu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-cycle fatigue experiments of mild carbon Q235B steel and its related welded-metal specimens are performed under uniaxial, in-phase, and 90° out-of-phase loading conditions. Significant additional cyclic hardening for 90° out-of-phase loading conditions is observed for both base metal and its related weldment. Besides, welding process produces extra additional hardening under the same loading conditions compared with the base metal. Multiaxial low-cycle fatigue strength under 90° out-of-phase loading conditions is significantly reduced for both base-metal and welded-metal specimens. The weldment has lower fatigue life than the base metal under the given loading conditions, and the fatigue life reduction of weldment increases with the increasing strain amplitude. The KBM, FS, and MKBM critical plane parameters are evaluated for the fatigue data obtained. The FS and MKBM parameters are found to show better correlation with fatigue lives for both base-metal and welded-metal specimens.

  11. Design of multi materials combining crystalline and amorphous metallic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, A.; Ragani, J.; Liu, Y.; Gravier, S.; Suéry, M.; Blandin, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elaboration of multi materials associating metallic glasses and conventional crystalline alloys by co-deformation performed at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the metallic glasses. ► Elaboration of filamentary metal matrix composites with a core in metallic glass by co extrusion. ► Sandwich structures produced by co-pressing. ► Detection of atomic diffusion from the glass to the crystalline alloys during the processes. ► Good interfaces between the metallic glasses and the crystalline alloys, as confirmed by mechanical characterisation. - Abstract: Multi materials, associating zirconium based bulk metallic glasses and crystalline metallic alloys like magnesium alloys or copper are elaborated by co-deformation processing performed in the supercooled liquid regions (SLR) of the bulk metallic glasses. Two processes are investigated: co-extrusion and co-pressing. In the first case, filamentary composites with various designs can be produced whereas in the second case sandwich structures are obtained. The experimental window (temperature, time) in which processing can be carried out is directly related to the crystallisation resistance of the glass which requires getting information about the crystallisation conditions in the selected metallic glasses. Thermoforming windows are identified for the studied BMGs by thermal analysis and compression tests in their SLR. The mechanical properties of the produced multi materials are investigated thanks to specifically developed mechanical devices and the interfaces between the amorphous and the crystalline alloys are characterised.

  12. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M.

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ''Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.'' The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC's SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook

  13. On Subsurface Crack Growth in Fibre Metal Laminate Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth in fibre metal laminates (FMLs) is significantly more complex than in monolithic materials due to the interaction of various physical mechanisms that govern the growth of cracks in laminates...

  14. Laser assisted embedding of nanoparticles into metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dong; Suslov, Sergey; Ye Chang; Liao Yiliang; Liu, C. Richard; Cheng, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a methodology of half-embedding nanoparticles into metallic materials. Transparent and opaque nanoparticles are chosen to demonstrate the process of laser assisted nanoparticle embedding. Dip coating method is used to coat transparent or opaque nanoparticle on the surface of metallic material. Nanoparticles are embedded into substrate by laser irradiation. In this study, the mechanism and process of nanoparticle embedding are investigated. It is found both transparent and opaque nanoparticles embedding are with high densities and good uniformities.

  15. Life cycle assessment of metal alloys for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovrh Rebec, K.; Markoli, B.; Leskovar, B.

    2018-03-01

    The study compared environmental footprints of two types of Al-alloys: well-known 5083 aluminium alloy with magnesium and traces of manganese and chromium in its composition. This material is highly resistant to seawater corrosion and the influence of industrial chemicals. Furthermore, it retains exceptional strength after welding. The comparisons were made to an innovative alloy where the aluminium based matrix is reinforced by metastable quasicrystals (QC), thus avoiding magnesium in its composition. Furthermore, we checked other aluminium ingots’ footprints and compared European average and Germany country specific production data. Environmental footprints were assessed via cradle to gate life cycle assessment. Our findings normalized to 1 m2 plate suggest, that newly proposed alloy could save around 50 % in value of parameters abiotic resources depletion of fossil fuels, acidification, eutrophication, global warming potential and photochemical ozone creation potential if we compare Qc5 to 6 mm 5083 alloy plate. Only abiotic resources depletion of elements and ozone depletion parameters increase for Qc5 compared to 6 mm 5083 alloy plate.

  16. Friction material composites copper-metal-free material design perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2015-01-01

    This book examines material composites used in connection with brake friction, their design and safety. To aid in understanding, the essentials of friction are explained. This second edition was extended to include friction material composites without copper, as they offer an environmentally friendlier option. The second edition is intended to support beginners by offering insights into the essentials of friction material composites, helping them to develop a broader understanding of brake friction materials. Friction materials find wide-ranging applications in household and industrial appliances, brake pads for automotive applications, rail brake friction pads and composition brake blocks. This second edition is an introductory volume to a set of related books, and is based on the author’s experience and expertise with various material manufacturers, brake manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, researchers and testing labs around the world with which the author has been associated for the past 28 years.

  17. Elevated temperature erosive wear of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Manish

    2006-01-01

    Solid particle erosion of metals and alloys at elevated temperature is governed by the nature of the interaction between erosion and oxidation, which, in turn, is determined by the thickness, pliability, morphology, adhesion characteristics and toughness of the oxide scale. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present state of understanding of the elevated temperature erosion behaviour of metals and alloys. First of all, the erosion testing at elevated temperature is reviewed. This is followed by discussion of the essential features of elevated temperature erosion with special emphasis on microscopic observation, giving details of the erosion-oxidation (E-O) interaction mechanisms. The E-O interaction has been elaborated in the subsequent section. The E-O interaction includes E-O maps, analysis of transition criteria from one erosion mechanism to another mechanism and quantification of enhanced oxidation kinetics during erosion. Finally, the relevant areas for future studies are indicated. (topical review)

  18. Nanofluid based on self-nanoencapsulated metal/metal alloys phase change materials with tuneable crystallisation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Nuria; Gimeno-Furio, Alexandra; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Cabedo, Luis; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; Julia, J Enrique

    2017-12-14

    Nanofluids using nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials (nePCM) allow increments in both the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the base fluid. Incremented heat capacity is produced by the melting enthalpy of the nanoparticles core. In this work two important advances in this nanofluid type are proposed and experimentally tested. It is firstly shown that metal and metal alloy nanoparticles can be used as self-encapsulated nePCM using the metal oxide layer that forms naturally in most commercial synthesis processes as encapsulation. In line with this, Sn/SnOx nanoparticles morphology, size and thermal properties were studied by testing the suitability and performance of encapsulation at high temperatures and thermal cycling using a commercial thermal oil (Therminol 66) as the base fluid. Secondly, a mechanism to control the supercooling effect of this nePCM type based on non-eutectic alloys was developed.

  19. Special metals - materials of modern technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booss, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    This article is anether attempt to give a survey of special metals, their production, processing and application, as has been made in four previous articles. The article confines itself essentially to publications made in 12 German and 12 English journals, focussed on metallurgy, metallography, electrochemistry, and sections of electrical engineering. For the first time, some articles written in Russian have been included. (orig./IHOE) [de

  20. Performance ratio hardness characteristics polystyrene-metal composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, V.F.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Lytvynenko, V.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A.; Hazhmuradov, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The methods of measuring the hardness of layered polystyrene-metallic composite materials. It is proposed to use powder-like tungsten and powder-like steel as radiation-protective layer. A measurement of the hardness of composites of different composition, and given its dependence on the particle size and their form. The possibility of increasing the hardness of the composites reinforced with metallic additives. Radiation-protective characteristics were calculated for the studied species of composite materials. Influence of the quantitative composition of the metal components is studied on the change of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation

  1. Recent Advances as Materials of Functional Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, also known as hybrid inorganic-organic materials, represent an emerging class of materials that have attracted the imagination of solid-state chemists because MOFs combine unprecedented levels of porosity with a range of other functional properties that occur through the metal moiety and/or the organic ligand. The purpose of this critical review is to give a representative and comprehensive overview of the arising developments in the field of functional metal-organic frameworks, including luminescence, magnetism, and porosity through presenting examples. This review will be of interest to researchers and synthetic chemists attempting to design multifunctional MOFs.

  2. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments

  3. Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle Research Program: availability of geotoxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, B.G.; Kresan, P.L.

    1982-09-01

    This report represents an analog approach to the characterization of the environmental behavior of geotoxic waste materials (toxic material emplaced in the earth's crust) as drawn from literature on the Oklo natural fission reactors and uranium ore deposits relative to radioactive wastes, and hydrothermal metal ore deposits relative to stable toxic wastes. The natural analog data were examined in terms of mobility and immobility of selected radioactive or stable waste elements and are presented in matrix relationship with their prime geochemical variables. A numerical system of ranking those relationships for purposes of hazard-indexing is proposed. Geochemical parameters (especially oxidation/reduction potential) are apparently more potent mobilizers/immobilizers than geological or hydrological conditions in many, if not most, geologic environments for most radioactive waste elements. Heavy metal wastes, by analogy to hydrothermal ore systems and geothermal systems, are less clear in their behavior but similar geochemical patterns do apply. Depth relationships between geochemical variables and waste element behavior show some surprises. It is significantly indicated that for waste isolation, deeper is not necessarily better geochemically. Relatively shallow isolation in host rocks such as shale could offer maximum immobility. This paper provides a geochemical outline for examining analog models as well as a departure point for improved quantification of geological and geochemical indexing of toxic waste hazards.

  4. Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle Research Program: availability of geotoxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, B.G.; Kresan, P.L.

    1982-09-01

    This report represents an analog approach to the characterization of the environmental behavior of geotoxic waste materials (toxic material emplaced in the earth's crust) as drawn from literature on the Oklo natural fission reactors and uranium ore deposits relative to radioactive wastes, and hydrothermal metal ore deposits relative to stable toxic wastes. The natural analog data were examined in terms of mobility and immobility of selected radioactive or stable waste elements and are presented in matrix relationship with their prime geochemical variables. A numerical system of ranking those relationships for purposes of hazard-indexing is proposed. Geochemical parameters (especially oxidation/reduction potential) are apparently more potent mobilizers/immobilizers than geological or hydrological conditions in many, if not most, geologic environments for most radioactive waste elements. Heavy metal wastes, by analogy to hydrothermal ore systems and geothermal systems, are less clear in their behavior but similar geochemical patterns do apply. Depth relationships between geochemical variables and waste element behavior show some surprises. It is significantly indicated that for waste isolation, deeper is not necessarily better geochemically. Relatively shallow isolation in host rocks such as shale could offer maximum immobility. This paper provides a geochemical outline for examining analog models as well as a departure point for improved quantification of geological and geochemical indexing of toxic waste hazards

  5. Inorganic and Metallic Nanotubular Materials Recent Technologies and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kijima, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the synthesis, characterization and applications of inorganic and metallic nanotubular materials. It cover a wide variety of nanotubular materials excluding carbon nanotubes, ranging from metal oxides, sulfides and nitrides such as titanium oxide, tungsten sulfide, and boron nitride, as well as platinum and other noble-metals to unique nanotubes consisting of water, graphene or fullerene. Based on their structural and compositional characteristics, these nanotubular materials are of importance for their potential applications in electronic devices, photocatalysts, dye-sensitized solar cells, nanothermometers, electrodes for fuel cells and batteries, sensors, and reinforcing fillers for plastics, among others. Such materials are also having a great impact on future developments, including renewable-energy sources as well as highly efficient energy-conversion and energy-saving technologies. This book will be of particular interest to experts in the fields of nanotechnology, material science ...

  6. Material parameter identification on metal matrix composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available conditions that best replicate the experimental data. The quality of the fits is subject to the limits of the material model and boundary parameterisation. An alternative procedure that uses the time and strain history to evolve the yield stress is also...

  7. Metal Oxide Nanostructured Materials for Optical and Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    With a rapidly growing population, dwindling resources, and increasing environmental pressures, the need for sustainable technological solutions becomes more urgent. Metal oxides make up much of the earth's crust and are typically inexpensive materials, but poor electrical and optical properties prevent them from being useful for most semiconductor applications. Recent breakthroughs in chemistry and materials science allow for the growth of high-quality materials with nanometer-scale features...

  8. Leading research on super metal. 3. Amorphous and nanostructured metallic materials; Super metal no sendo kenkyu. 3. Kogata buzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Very fine structure control technique for amorphous and nanostructured metallic materials was reviewed to exceed the marginal performance of small metallic member materials. In Japan, high strength alloys and anticorrosion alloys are currently developed as an amorphous structure control technique, and ultra fine powder production and nano-compaction molding are studied for nanostructured materials. Fabrication of amorphous alloy wire materials and metal glass in USA are also introduced. Fabrication of metallic nanocrystals deposited within gas phase in Germany are attracting attention. The strength and abrasion resistance are remarkably enhanced by making nanostructured crystals and dispersing them. It may be most suitable to utilize amorphous and nanostructured metallic materials for earth-friendly materials having anticorrosion, and catalyst and biomaterial affinities, and also for magnetic materials. It is important for controlling micro-structures to clarify the formation mechanism of structures. For their processing techniques, the diversity and possibility are suggested, as to the condensation and solidification of gaseous and liquid phase metals, the molding and processing of very fine solid phase alloys, and the manufacturing members by heat treatment. 324 refs., 109 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. All heavy metals closed-cycle analysis on water-cooled reactors of uranium and thorium fuel cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Sidik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Waris, Abdul; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Uranium and Thorium fuels as the basis fuel of nuclear energy utilization has been used for several reactor types which produce trans-uranium or trans-thorium as 'by product' nuclear reaction with higher mass number and the remaining uranium and thorium fuels. The utilization of recycled spent fuel as world wide concerns are spent fuel of uranium and plutonium and in some cases using recycled minor actinide (MA). Those fuel schemes are used for improving an optimum nuclear fuel utilization as well to reduce the radioactive waste from spent fuels. A closed-cycle analysis of all heavy metals on water-cooled cases for both uranium and thorium fuel cycles has been investigated to evaluate the criticality condition, breeding performances, uranium or thorium utilization capability and void reactivity condition. Water-cooled reactor is used for the basic design study including light water and heavy water-cooled as an established technology as well as commercialized nuclear technologies. A developed coupling code of equilibrium fuel cycle burnup code and cell calculation of SRAC code are used for optimization analysis with JENDL 3.3 as nuclear data library. An equilibrium burnup calculation is adopted for estimating an equilibrium state condition of nuclide composition and cell calculation is performed for calculating microscopic neutron cross-sections and fluxes in relation to the effect of different fuel compositions, different fuel pin types and moderation ratios. The sensitivity analysis such as criticality, breeding performance, and void reactivity are strongly depends on moderation ratio and each fuel case has its trend as a function of moderation ratio. Heavy water coolant shows better breeding performance compared with light water coolant, however, it obtains less negative or more positive void reactivity. Equilibrium nuclide compositions are also evaluated to show the production of main nuclides and also to analyze the isotopic composition pattern especially

  10. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  11. Material Cycles and Chemicals: Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of Contaminants in Paper Recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    material source-segregation and collection was the least effective strategy for reducing chemical contamination, if the overall recycling rates should be maintained at the current level (approximately 70% for Europe). The study provides a consistent approach for evaluating contaminant levels in material......This study provides a systematic approach for assessment of contaminants in materials for recycling. Paper recycling is used as an illustrative example. Three selected chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), are evaluated within the paper...... cycle. The approach combines static material flow analysis (MFA) with dynamic material and substance flow modeling. The results indicate that phasing out of chemicals is the most effective measure for reducing chemical contamination. However, this scenario was also associated with a considerable lag...

  12. Status quo of ceramic material for metal halide discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappen, Theo G M M

    2005-01-01

    Polycrystalline alumina is an excellent ceramic material for use as the envelope for metal halide discharge lamps. Although this material was introduced in the mid-1960s, and is thus already known for several decades, recent years have seen considerable effort aimed at further development of these ceramic envelope materials. Developments are not only in the field of ceramic shaping technologies, but are also concentrated on the material properties of the ceramic material itself. Optical, mechanical as well as the chemical properties of the ceramic envelope are strongly controlled by the shape as well as the microstructure of the ceramics used

  13. Fungal nanoscale metal carbonates and production of electrochemical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianwei; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2017-09-01

    Fungal biomineralization of carbonates results in metal removal from solution or immobilization within a solid matrix. Such a system provides a promising method for removal of toxic or valuable metals from solution, such as Co, Ni, and La, with some carbonates being of nanoscale dimensions. A fungal Mn carbonate biomineralization process can be applied for the synthesis of novel electrochemical materials. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Metal-molecular assembly for functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuo, Yutaka; Negishi, Yuichi; Yoshizawa, Michito; Uemura, Takashi; Takaya, Hikaru; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Yoshimoto, Soichiro

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on modern coordination chemistry, covering porous coordination polymers, metalloproteins, metallopeptides, nanoclusters, nanocapsules, aligned polymers, and fullerenes. As well, it deals with applications to electronic devices and surface characterization. These wide-ranging topics are integrally described from the perspectives of dimensionality (one-, two-, and three-dimension), new materials design, synthesis, molecular assembly, function and application. The nine chapters making up this book have been authored by scientists who are at the cutting edge of research in this p

  15. Management Model Applicable to Metallic Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Ioana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithmic analysis of the marketing mix in metallurgy. It also analyzes the main correlations and their optimizing possibilities through an efficient management. Thus, both the effect and the importance of the marketing mix, for components (the four “P-s” areanalyzed in the materials’ industry, but their correlations as well, with the goal to optimize the specific management. There are briefly presented the main correlations between the 4 marketing mix components (the 4 “P-s” for a product within the materials’ industry, including aspects regarding specific management.Keywords: Management Model, Materials Industry, Marketing Mix, Correlations.

  16. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, ΔT, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to ∼550 degrees C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to ∼650 degrees C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above ∼600 degrees C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150 degrees C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material

  17. Model of bidirectional reflectance distribution function for metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Zhu Jing-Ping; Liu Hong; Hou Xun

    2016-01-01

    Based on the three-component assumption that the reflection is divided into specular reflection, directional diffuse reflection, and ideal diffuse reflection, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model of metallic materials is presented. Compared with the two-component assumption that the reflection is composed of specular reflection and diffuse reflection, the three-component assumption divides the diffuse reflection into directional diffuse and ideal diffuse reflection. This model effectively resolves the problem that constant diffuse reflection leads to considerable error for metallic materials. Simulation and measurement results validate that this three-component BRDF model can improve the modeling accuracy significantly and describe the reflection properties in the hemisphere space precisely for the metallic materials. (paper)

  18. Model of bidirectional reflectance distribution function for metallic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Hong; Hou, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Based on the three-component assumption that the reflection is divided into specular reflection, directional diffuse reflection, and ideal diffuse reflection, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model of metallic materials is presented. Compared with the two-component assumption that the reflection is composed of specular reflection and diffuse reflection, the three-component assumption divides the diffuse reflection into directional diffuse and ideal diffuse reflection. This model effectively resolves the problem that constant diffuse reflection leads to considerable error for metallic materials. Simulation and measurement results validate that this three-component BRDF model can improve the modeling accuracy significantly and describe the reflection properties in the hemisphere space precisely for the metallic materials.

  19. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizjak Karmen Fifer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  1. Metal-decored graphites as anode materials for use in lithium-ion accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, Bjoern Karl

    2015-01-01

    Graphitic materials are currently the most frequently used anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIB). This type of battery is considered to be the ideal application for energy storage in electromobility or in mobile devices that require a high power density. Although intercalated graphite has only about 8 % of the gravimetric energy density of lithium metal, these materials are preferred due to safety reasons. However, by chemical modification of the surface, the electrochemical performance of graphite can be enhanced. In the thesis presented at hand, a novel synthesis route for the preparation of homogenous metal depositions on graphite is shown. The reaction proceeds via a gas phase reaction by the thermal decomposition of metal carboxylates. The decomposition process was analyzed by thermogravimetry and gas phase analysis. In comparison to the unmodified graphite, copper-coated graphite shows in increased capacity and cycle stability when used as anode materials in LIBs. Special emphasis should be placed on an improved adhesion of the active material on the copper current collector. The proven catalytic activity of the metal depositions not only enables a use in battery devices but could also be innovating for catalytic processes such as chlorine-alkali electrolysis.

  2. Flop casting of nuclear materials for advanced fuel cycle research - 5247

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, A.J.; Koury, D.J.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Vollmer, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Next generation fast reactor designs of nuclear reactors utilizing metallic fuel are being developed as an alternative fuel cycle option in an effort to reduce carbon emissions. Metallic fuel systems are attractive because of their high thermal conductivity, fissile atom density, and inherent safety. Metallic fuel systems are also being investigated because of their potential to reach high burnups. The increased targeted burnups for metallic fuels lead to higher concentrations of actinides, lanthanides, and other fission products, which alter the fuel properties and impact the performance of the fuel. Before designs can be implemented, the fission product concentrations must be studied at variable fuel geometries and stages of fuel burnup. Arc flop casting serves as a viable option for casting alloys as the molds can be tailored to fit design specific requirements while cutting costs in time-consuming machining. Arc casting is done as the final preparation step in a small arc furnace with an argon or 5% hydrogen-argon atmosphere after the sample has been subsequently melted, overturned, and re-melted. The flop casting mold is then fitted to the chamber as needed and the previously prepared sample is quickly hit with a high current arc causing the molten metal to fill the copper mold. The U-Zr-Pu system will serve as the basis for this research as it has been extensively studied since the 1950 years, although flop casting can be adapted to any metallic fuel system. Multiple U-Zr-Pu with varying fission product concentrations alloys, Technetium metal, and Plutonium alloys have been flop cast based on burnup calculations. Prepared samples were cast using different molds and dimensions, then characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Thermogravimetric Analysis. The goal of this research is to test and develop flop casting techniques for the production of metallic fuel alloys applicable for various stages and

  3. Investigations on the metabolism of metals in decapod crustaceas in relation with moulting cycles and reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.-L.M.

    1975-07-01

    A study of the metabolism of metals was carried out in decapod crustaceas; it showed that it was subject to cyclic variations during the life of the animals, closely correlated with growth moults. The metabolism of metals was also considered in its relations with reproduction, especially oogenesis and spermatogenesis, and embryonic development. In relation with moult, various factors playing a role on metal metabolism were investigated: role of metals in the organism, fasting and nutrition cycles and biochemical reserves, physico-chemical form of the metal and ultrastructure of uptake surfaces. The histological and histochemical aspects of the uptake of a number of metals were studied as well as inter-metallic and inter-organic relationships [fr

  4. Morphology evolution and nanostructure of chemical looping transition metal oxide materials upon redox processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lang; Cheng, Zhuo; Guo, Mengqing; Fan, Jonathan A.; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal are heavily used in chemical looping technologies because of their high oxygen carrying capacity and high thermal reactivity. These oxygen activities result in the oxide formation and oxygen vacancy formation that affect the nanoscale crystal phase and morphology within these materials and their subsequent bulk chemical behavior. In this study, two selected earlier transition metals manganese and cobalt as well as two selected later transition metals copper and nickel that are important to chemical looping reactions are investigated when they undergo cyclic redox reactions. We found Co microparticles exhibited increased CoO impurity presence when oxidized to Co_3O_4 upon cyclic oxidation; CuO redox cycles prefer to be limited to a reduced form of Cu_2O and an oxidized form of CuO; Mn microparticles were oxidized to a mixed phases of MnO and Mn_3O_4, which causes delamination during oxidation. For Ni microparticles, a dense surface were observed during the redox reaction. The atomistic thermodynamics methods and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to elucidate the effect of oxygen dissociation and migration on the morphological evolution of nanostructures during the redox processes. Our results indicate that the earlier transition metals (Mn and Co) tend to have stronger interaction with O_2 than the later transition metals (Ni and Cu). Also, our modified Brønsted−Evans−Polanyi (BEP) relationship for reaction energies and total reaction barriers reveals that reactions of earlier transition metals are more exergonic and have lower oxygen dissociation barriers than those of later transition metals. In addition, it was found that for these transition metal oxides the oxygen vacancy formation energies increase with the depth. The oxide in the higher oxidation state of transition metal has lower vacancy formation energy, which can facilitate forming the defective nanostructures. The fundamental understanding of these metal

  5. Feasibility investigation of non-metallic and light weight metallic materials for light weight compressor pistons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, C.M.; Bergsma, O.K.; Eijk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Steel and aluminium have been the traditional materials of choice for pistons. In order to reduce moving mass-related vibrational problems, a feasibility assessment is made of the application of other materials in a project for the research group of the EFRC. In particular, polymer and metal matrix

  6. Influence of metal dental materials on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Chiba, Michiko; Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan). Main Hospital; Nakata, Minoru; Fujita, Isao

    1998-11-01

    Differences in magnetic susceptibility produce artifacts and signal loss in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was undertaken to compare the degree of artifacts on MRI caused by metallic dental materials. The influence on MRI of six types of dental alloys, a dental implant, orthodontic appliance, and magnetic attachment was investigated. Among the dental metals, nickel-chromium alloy and cobalt-chromium alloy, which have ferromagnetism, caused significant metal artifacts. Gold-platinum alloy, gold-silver-palladium alloy, silver alloy, and amalgam alloy produced slight metal artifacts. The orthodontic appliance mainly consisted of iron, and the keeper for its magnetic attachment was made of stainless steel. For these reasons, marked metal artifacts and signal loss could be seen in both of them owing to their ferromagnetism. These results suggest that orthodontic appliances and magnetic attachments impair evaluation of the GRE and EPI techniques. It is therefore preferable to use predominantly diamagnetic or paramagnetic dental materials for MRI of the head and neck. Removable keepers should be used more widely to prevent metal artifacts and enhance safety on MRI. (author)

  7. Influence of metal dental materials on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Chiba, Michiko; Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Nakata, Minoru; Fujita, Isao

    1998-01-01

    Differences in magnetic susceptibility produce artifacts and signal loss in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was undertaken to compare the degree of artifacts on MRI caused by metallic dental materials. The influence on MRI of six types of dental alloys, a dental implant, orthodontic appliance, and magnetic attachment was investigated. Among the dental metals, nickel-chromium alloy and cobalt-chromium alloy, which have ferromagnetism, caused significant metal artifacts. Gold-platinum alloy, gold-silver-palladium alloy, silver alloy, and amalgam alloy produced slight metal artifacts. The orthodontic appliance mainly consisted of iron, and the keeper for its magnetic attachment was made of stainless steel. For these reasons, marked metal artifacts and signal loss could be seen in both of them owing to their ferromagnetism. These results suggest that orthodontic appliances and magnetic attachments impair evaluation of the GRE and EPI techniques. It is therefore preferable to use predominantly diamagnetic or paramagnetic dental materials for MRI of the head and neck. Removable keepers should be used more widely to prevent metal artifacts and enhance safety on MRI. (author)

  8. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  9. An overview on the Bauschinger effect in metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanfeng; Li Cong; Ling Xuyu; Shen Baoluo; Gao Shengji

    2002-01-01

    The Bauschinger effect in metallic materials including f.c.c. (face-centered cubic) and b.c.c. (body-centered cubic) materials such as pure alloys, casting alloys, copper alloys, aluminium alloys and metal matrix composite materials, and h.c.p. (hexagonal close packed) materials such as zirconium alloys and titanium alloys have been summarized comprehensively. The mechanism of Bauschinger effect is reviewed from the point of dislocation theory and internal stress (or back stress) that is responsible for the effect. Based upon these theories, the methods for calculating internal stress and models for simulating the effect are described briefly, which could explain the effect quantitatively. Finally, the measures to reduce or eliminate the effect have been pointed out, along with the issues to be researched in the future

  10. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)

  11. Recent Advancements in Self-Healing Metallic Materials and Self-Healing Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicli, Volkan; Yan, Xiaojun; Salowitz, Nathan; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    2018-04-01

    Engineered self-healing materials inspired by natural biological organisms that can repair damage are receiving increasing interest in recent years. Most studies have been focused on self-healing polymers, concretes, and ceramics. Self-healing metallic materials pose challenges due to the high temperatures used in manufacturing and the chemistries involved. This article summarizes and evaluates the self-healing mechanisms used in metallic materials and reviews recent studies into self-healing in aluminum, zinc, and Sn-Bi alloys. Generalizations about the various classifications are drawn from the review highlighting major hurdles in the widespread practical application of metallic self-healing materials, as well as the potential directions for future studies.

  12. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2016-01-01

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal (_5_6Ba, _6_4Gd, _8_2Pb, _8_3Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  13. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal ({sub 56}Ba, {sub 64}Gd, {sub 82}Pb, {sub 83}Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  14. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal battery is an attractive energy storage system owing to the ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential of Li metal anode. However, safety concern associated with dendrite growth and limited cycle life especially at a high charge current density are two critical challenges hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report for the first time that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as additive in the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-based electrolyte can significantly enhance the charging capability and the long-term cycle life of Li metal batteries with a moderately high cathode loading of 1.75 mAh cm-2. Unprecedented stable-cycling (97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles) along with very limited increase in electrode over-potential has been achieved at a high current density of 1.75 mA cm-2. This unparalleled fast charging and stable cycling performance is contributed from both the stabilized Al cathode current collector, and, more importantly, the robust and conductive SEI layer formed on Li metal anode in the presence of the LiPF6 additive.

  15. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  16. Accumulation and biological cycling of heavy metal in four salt marsh species, from Tagus estuary (Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, B., E-mail: baduarte@fc.ul.p [Centro de Oceanografia, Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, 1749-1016 Lisboa (Portugal); Caetano, M. [INRB/IPIMAR - Instituto Nacional de Recursos Biologicos, Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida, P.R. [Centro de Oceanografia, Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, 1749-1016 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Evora, Largo dos Colegiais 2, 7004-516 Evora (Portugal); Vale, C. [INRB/IPIMAR - Instituto Nacional de Recursos Biologicos, Av. Brasilia, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Cacador, I. [Centro de Oceanografia, Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, 1749-1016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-05-15

    Pools of Zn, Cu, Cd and Co in leaf, stem and root tissues of Sarcocornia fruticosa, Sarcocornia perennis, Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima were analyzed on a bimonthly basis, in a Tagus estuary salt marsh. All the major concentrations were found in the root tissues, being the concentrations in the aboveground organs neglectable for sediment budget proposes, as seen by the low root-aboveground translocation. Metal annual accumulation, root turnovers and cycling coefficients were also assessed. S. maritima showed the higher root turnovers and cycling coefficients for most of the analyzed metals, making this a phytostabilizer specie. By contrast the low root turnover, cycling coefficient and low root necromass generation makes S. perennis the most suitable specie for phytoremediation processes. Although the high amounts of metal return to the sediments, due to root senescence, salt marshes can still be considered sinks of heavy metals, cycling heavy metals mostly between sediment and root. - The efficiency of the phytoremediative processes and metal budgets are greatly influenced by the turnover periods and necromass generation.

  17. Low-cycle fatigue-cracking mechanisms in fcc crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P.; Qu, S.; Duan, Q. Q.; Wu, S. D.; Li, S. X.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2011-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue (LCF) cracking behavior in various face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystalline materials, including Cu single crystals, bicrystals and polycrystals, Cu-Al and Cu-Zn alloys, ultrafine-grained (UFG) Al-Cu and Cu-Zn alloys, was systematically investigated and reviewed. In Cu single crystals, fatigue cracking always nucleates along slip bands and deformation bands. The large-angle grain boundary (GB) becomes the preferential site in bicrystals and polycrystals. In addition, fatigue cracking can also nucleate along slip bands and twin boundaries (TBs) in polycrystalline materials. However, shear bands and coarse deformation bands are observed to the preferential sites for fatigue cracking in UFG materials with a large number of GBs. Based on numerous observations on fatigue-cracking behavior, the fatigue-cracking mechanisms along slip bands, GBs, TBs, shear bands and deformation bands were systematically compared and classified into two types, i.e. shear crack and impingement crack. Finally, these fatigue-cracking behaviors are discussed in depth for a better understanding of their physical nature and the transition from intergranular to transgranular cracking in various fcc crystalline materials. These comprehensive results for fatigue damage mechanisms should significantly aid in obtaining the optimum design to further strengthen and toughen metallic materials in practice.

  18. 3rd Workshop on metal ceramic materials for functional applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korb, G [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    This workshop contains contributions about materials and processing, characterization and modeling of properties and applications of metallic ceramics and composite structures. It was held on behalf of the Taiwan-Austrian scientific collaboration in Vienna, June 4{sup th} - 6{sup th} 1997. (Suda)

  19. Recycling of Metals and Materials: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Ruth K., Comp.; Castrow, Lee, Comp.

    Recycling of metals and materials has as its purpose the easing of two major environmental crises. First, we re-utilize scarce and non-renewable resources. Second, solid waste disposal problems can be alleviated. Industry has long been concerned with reclaiming its own waste products, and is now beginning to respond to the need for dealing with…

  20. Study on corrosion of metal materials in nitrate molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wei; Yang, Bo; Li, Maodong; Li, Shiping; Xin, Mingliang; Zhang, Shuanghong; Huang, Guojia

    2017-01-01

    High temperature molten salts as a heat transfer heat storage medium has been more widely used in the field of concentrated solar thermal power generation. In the thermal heat storage system, metal material stability and performance at high temperatures are of one major limitation in increasing this operating temperature. In this paper, study on corrosion of 321H, 304, 316L, P91 metal materials in modified solar two molten salts. The corrosion kinetics of 304, 316L, 321H, P91 metal material in the modified solar two molten salts at 450°C, 500°C is also investigated. Under the same condition it was found that 304, 321H corroded at a rate of 40% less than P91. Spallation of corrosion products was observed on P91 steel, while no obvious observed on other kinds of stainless steel. Corrosion rates of 304, 321H, and 316L slowly increased with temperature. Oxidation mechanisms little varied with temperature. Corrosion products of metal materials observed at 450°C, 500°C were primarily Fe oxide and Fe, Cr oxide.

  1. 3rd Workshop on metal ceramic materials for functional applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korb, G.

    1997-01-01

    This workshop contains contributions about materials and processing, characterization and modeling of properties and applications of metallic ceramics and composite structures. It was held on behalf of the Taiwan-Austrian scientific collaboration in Vienna, June 4 th - 6 th 1997. (Suda)

  2. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  3. IAEA programme on nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies - 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The following Coordinated Research Projects: 1) Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC); 2) Structural Materials Radiation Effects (SMoRE); 3) Water Chemistry (FUWAC) and 4) Fuel Modelling (FUMEX-III) are shortly described. The data collected by the IAEA Expert Group of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors including information about fuel assembly damage that did not result in breach of the fuel rod cladding, such as assembly bow or crud deposition an the experience with these unexpected fuel issues shows that they can seriously affect plant operations, and it is clear that concerns about reliability in this area are of similar importance today as fuel rod failures, at least for LWR fuel are discussed. Detection, examination and analysis of fuel failures and description of failures and mitigation measures as well as preparation of a Monograph on Zirconium including an overview of Zirconium for nuclear applications, including extraction, forming, properties and irradiation experience are presented

  4. On low cycle fatigue in metal matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Ø; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2000-01-01

    A numerical cell model analysis is used to study the development of fatigue damage in aluminium reinforced by aligned, short SiC fibres. The material is subjected to cyclic loading with either stress control or strain control, and the matrix material is represented by a cyclic plasticity model......, in which continuum damage mechanics is incorporated to model fatigue damage evolution. This material model uses a superposition of kinematic and isotropic hardening, and is able to account for the Bauschinger effect as well as ratchetting, mean stress relaxation, and cyclic hardening or softening. The cell...... model represents a material with transversely staggered fibres. With focus on low cyclic fatigue, the effect of different fibre aspect ratios, different triaxial stress states, and balanced as well as unbalanced cyclic loading is studied....

  5. Machinability studies of infrared window materials and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Morris, T.O.; Sladky, R.E.; Steger, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Diamond machining of materials for optical applications is becoming an important fabrication process. Development work in material-removal technology to better understand the mechanics of the diamond-turning process, its limitations, and applications is described. The technique is presently limited to a select group of metals, most of which are of a face-center-cubic crystal structure. Machinability studies were done which were designed to better understand diamond compatibility and thus expand the range of applicable materials. Nonconventional methods such as ultrasonic tool stimulation were investigated. Work done to determine the machinability of infrared window materials indicates that this is a viable fabrication technique for many materials, although additional effort is needed to optimize the process for particular materials

  6. Superior cycle performance of Sn-C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shuzhao; Zhu Xuefeng; Lian Peichao; Yang Weishen; Wang Haihui

    2011-01-01

    A novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, tin nanoparticles coated with carbon embedded in graphene (Sn-C/graphene), was fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent annealing. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The size of the Sn-C nanoparticles is about 50-200 nm. The reversible specific capacity of the nanocomposite is ∼662 mAh g -1 at a specific current of 100 mA g -1 after 100 cycles, even ∼417 mAh g -1 at the high current of 1000 mA g -1 . These results indicate that Sn-C/graphene possesses superior cycle performance and high rate capability. The enhanced electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the characteristic structure of the nanocomposite with both of the graphene and carbon shells, which buffer the volume change of the metallic tin and prevent the detachment and agglomeration of pulverized tin. - Graphical abstract: Tin nanoparticles coated with carbon embedded in graphene have been successfully fabricated by hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent annealing. This nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries exhibits superior cycle performance. Highlights: → A novel Sn-C/graphene nanocomposite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. → Carbon coating and graphene improve the cycle performance of the Sn anode material. → Possess large capacity, superior cycle performance, and high rate capability.

  7. Modelling of the high temperature behaviour of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of components of metallic high-temperature materials by the finite element method requires the application of phenomenological viscoplastic material models. The route from the choice of a convenient model, the numerical integration of the equations and the parameter identification to the design of components is described. The Chaboche-model is used whose evolution equations are explicitly integrated. The parameters are determined by graphical and numerical methods in order to use the material model for describing the deformation behaviour of a chromium steel and an intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy. (orig.)

  8. Computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials for improved corrosion performance: computational dynamics of laser alloyed metallic materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fatoba, OS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser alloying is a material processing method which utilizes the high power density available from defocused laser beam to melt both metal coatings and a part of the underlying substrate. Since melting occur solitary at the surface, large...

  9. Development of materials resistant to metal dusting degradation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.

    2006-04-24

    Metal dusting corrosion has been a serious problem in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, such as reforming and syngas production systems. This form of deterioration has led to worldwide material loss for 50 years. For the past three years, we have studied the mechanism of metal dusting for Fe- and Ni-base alloys. In this report, we present a correlation between the weight loss and depth of pits that form in Ni-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys were also tested at 1 and 14.8 atm (210 psi), in a high carbon activity environment. Higher system pressure was found to accelerate corrosion in most Ni-base alloys. To reduce testing time, a pre-pitting method was developed. Mechanical scratches on the alloy surface led to fast metal dusting corrosion. We have also developed preliminary data on the performance of weldments of several Ni-base alloys in a metal dusting environment. Finally, Alloy 800 tubes and plates used in a reformer plant were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopy. The oxide scale on the surface of the Alloy 800 primarily consists of Fe{sub 1+x}Cr{sub 2-X}O{sub 4} spinel phase with high Fe content. Carbon can diffuse through this oxide scale. It was discovered that the growth of metal dusting pits could be stopped by means of a slightly oxidized alloy surface. This leads to a new way to solve metal dusting problem.

  10. The neutronic and fuel cycle performance of interchangeable 3500 MWth metal and oxide fueled LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, E.K.; Wade, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study summarizes the neutronic and fuel cycle analysis performed at Argonne National Laboratory for an oxide and a metal fueled 3500 MWth LMR. These reactor designs formed the basis for a joint US/European study of LMR ATWS events. The oxide and metal core designs were developed to meet reactor performance specifications that are constrained by requirements for core loading interchangeability and for a small burnup reactivity swing. Differences in the computed performance parameters of the oxide and metal cores, arising from basic differences in their neutronic characteristics, are identified and discussed. It is shown that metal and oxide cores designed to the same ground rules exhibit many similar performance characteristics; however, they differ substantially in reactivity coefficients, control strategies, and fuel cycle options. 12 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Tensile Behavior of CF/AL Fiber Metal Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan Noor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to estimate the effect of thermal cycling on the tensile behavior of CARALL composites. Fiber metal laminates (FMLs, based on 2D woven carbon fabric and 2024-T3 Alclad aluminum alloy sheet, was manufactured by pressure molding technique followed by hand layup method. Before fabrication, aluminum sheets were anodized with phosphoric acid to produce micro porous alumina layer on surface. This micro-porous layer is beneficial to produce strong bonding between metal and fiber surfaces in FMLs. The effect of thermal cycling (-65 to +70ºC on the tensile behavior of Cf/Al based FML was studied. Tensile strength was increased after 10 thermal cycles, but it was slightly decreased to some extent after 30, and 50 thermal cycles. Tensile modulus also shown the similar behavior as that of tensile strength.

  12. Investigating the Dendritic Growth during Full Cell Cycling of Garnet Electrolyte in Direct Contact with Li Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguesse, Frederic; Manalastas, William; Buannic, Lucienne; Lopez Del Amo, Juan Miguel; Singh, Gurpreet; Llordés, Anna; Kilner, John

    2017-02-01

    All-solid-state batteries including a garnet ceramic as electrolyte are potential candidates to replace the currently used Li-ion technology, as they offer safer operation and higher energy storage performances. However, the development of ceramic electrolyte batteries faces several challenges at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, which need to withstand high current densities to enable competing C-rates. In this work, we investigate the limits of the anode/electrolyte interface in a full cell that includes a Li-metal anode, LiFePO 4 cathode, and garnet ceramic electrolyte. The addition of a liquid interfacial layer between the cathode and the ceramic electrolyte is found to be a prerequisite to achieve low interfacial resistance and to enable full use of the active material contained in the porous electrode. Reproducible and constant discharge capacities are extracted from the cathode active material during the first 20 cycles, revealing high efficiency of the garnet as electrolyte and the interfaces, but prolonged cycling leads to abrupt cell failure. By using a combination of structural and chemical characterization techniques, such as SEM and solid-state NMR, as well as electrochemical and impedance spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that a sudden impedance drop occurs in the cell due to the formation of metallic Li and its propagation within the ceramic electrolyte. This degradation process is originated at the interface between the Li-metal anode and the ceramic electrolyte layer and leads to electromechanical failure and cell short-circuit. Improvement of the performances is observed when cycling the full cell at 55 °C, as the Li-metal softening favors the interfacial contact. Various degradation mechanisms are proposed to explain this behavior.

  13. Failure of metals III: Fracture and fatigue of nanostructured metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, André; Amine Benzerga, A.; Pardoen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pushing the internal or external dimensions of metallic alloys down to the nanometer scale gives rise to strong materials, though most often at the expense of a low ductility and a low resistance to cracking, with negative impact on the transfer to engineering applications. These characteristics are observed, with some exceptions, in bulk ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline metals, nano-twinned metals, thin metallic coatings on substrates and freestanding thin metallic films and nanowires. This overview encompasses all these systems to reveal commonalities in the origins of the lack of ductility and fracture resistance, in factors governing fatigue resistance, and in ways to improve properties. After surveying the various processing methods and key deformation mechanisms, we systematically address the current state of the art in terms of plastic localization, damage, static and fatigue cracking, for three classes of systems: (1) bulk ultra-fine grained and nanocrystalline metals, (2) thin metallic films on substrates, and (3) 1D and 2D freestanding micro and nanoscale systems. In doing so, we aim to favour cross-fertilization between progress made in the fields of mechanics of thin films, nanomechanics, fundamental researches in bulk nanocrystalline metals and metallurgy to impart enhanced resistance to fracture and fatigue in high-strength nanostructured systems. This involves exploiting intrinsic mechanisms, e.g. to enhance hardening and rate-sensitivity so as to delay necking, or improve grain-boundary cohesion to resist intergranular cracks or voids. Extrinsic methods can also be utilized such as by hybridizing the metal with another material to delocalize the deformation - as practiced in stretchable electronics. Fatigue crack initiation is in principle improved by a fine structure, but at the expense of larger fatigue crack growth rates. Extrinsic toughening through hybridization allows arresting or bridging cracks. The content and discussions are based on

  14. Environmental impacts of construction materials use: a life cycle perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available of the environmental impacts of a product (or service). The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concept previously known as Life Cycle Analysis has emerged as one of the most appropriate tools for assessing product-related environmental impacts and for supporting an effective...

  15. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  16. Fundamentals of radiation materials science metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of t...

  17. Cutting More than Metal: Breaking the Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Chris

    2014-01-01

    New technology is changing the way we do business at NASA. The ability to use these new tools is made possible by a learning culture able to embrace innovation, flexibility, and prudent risk tolerance, while retaining the hard-won lessons learned of other successes and failures. Technologies such as 3-D manufacturing and structured light scanning are re-shaping the entire product life cycle, from design and analysis, through production, verification, logistics and operations. New fabrication techniques, verification techniques, integrated analysis, and models that follow the hardware from initial concept through operation are reducing the cost and time of building space hardware. Using these technologies to be more efficient, reliable and affordable requires we bring them to a level safe for NASA systems, maintain appropriate rigor in testing and acceptance, and transition new technology. Maximizing these technologies also requires cultural acceptance and understanding and balancing rules with creativity. Evolved systems engineering processes at NASA are increasingly more flexible than they have been in the past, enabling the implementation of new techniques and approaches. This paper provides an overview of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's new approach to development, as well as examples of how that approach has been incorporated into NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program, which counts among its key tenants - safety, affordability, and sustainability. One of the 3D technologies that will be discussed in this paper is the design and testing of various rocket engine components.

  18. Biodegradable Materials and Metallic Implants-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2017-09-26

    Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used in either one of the aforesaid forms. Some of these materials are designed to degrade or to be resorbed inside the body rather than removing the implant after its function is served. Many properties such as mechanical properties, non-toxicity, surface modification, degradation rate, biocompatibility, and corrosion rate and scaffold design are taken into consideration. The current review focuses on state-of-the-art biodegradable bioceramics, polymers, metal alloys and a few implants that employ bioresorbable/biodegradable materials. The essential functions, properties and their critical factors are discussed in detail, in addition to their challenges to be overcome.

  19. Biodegradable Materials and Metallic Implants—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress made in biomaterials and their clinical applications is well known. In the last five decades, great advances have been made in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. A variety of bioimplants are currently used in either one of the aforesaid forms. Some of these materials are designed to degrade or to be resorbed inside the body rather than removing the implant after its function is served. Many properties such as mechanical properties, non-toxicity, surface modification, degradation rate, biocompatibility, and corrosion rate and scaffold design are taken into consideration. The current review focuses on state-of-the-art biodegradable bioceramics, polymers, metal alloys and a few implants that employ bioresorbable/biodegradable materials. The essential functions, properties and their critical factors are discussed in detail, in addition to their challenges to be overcome. PMID:28954399

  20. New half-metallic materials with an alkaline earth element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Koichi; Geshi, Masaaki; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Naoshi

    2004-01-01

    New candidates for half-metallic materials were theoretically designed recently by Geshi et al. The materials are calcium pnictides, i.e. CaP, CaAs and CaSb. When the zinc-blende structure was assumed, these compounds showed half-metallic electronic band-structure, in which a curious flat band was found. To explain this magnetism, we investigated characters of orbitals on this flat band of CaAs. The hybridization of p states of As with d states of Ca is shown to be essential for formation of a flat band made of localized orbitals. The appearance of complete spin polarization in the flat band suggests that the flat-band mechanism is relevant for the ferromagnetism. A connection from the first-principles result to a solvable Hubbard model with a flat band is discussed

  1. Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)

  2. Corrosion of metallic materials. Dry corrosion, aqueous corrosion and corrosion by liquid metal, methods of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, Max

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on a course on materials given in an engineering school. The author first gives an overview of metallurgy issues: metallic materials (pure metals, metallic alloys), defects of crystal lattices (point defects, linear defects or dislocations), equilibrium diagrams, steels and cast, thermal processing of steels, stainless steels, aluminium and its alloys, copper and its alloys. The second part addresses the properties and characterization of surfaces and interfaces: singularity of a metal surface, surface energy of a metal, energy of grain boundaries, adsorption at a material surface, metal-electrolyte interface, surface oxide-electrolyte interface, techniques of surface analysis. The third chapter addresses the electrochemical aspects of corrosion: description of the corrosion phenomenon, free enthalpy of a compound and free enthalpy of a reaction, case of dry corrosion (thermodynamic aspect, Ellingham diagram, oxidation mechanisms, experimental study, macroscopic modelling), case of aqueous corrosion (electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, experimental determination of corrosion rate). The fourth part addresses the different forms of aqueous corrosion: generalized corrosion (atmospheric corrosion, mechanisms and tests), localized corrosion (galvanic, pitting, cracking, intergranular, erosion and cavitation), particular cases of stress cracking (stress corrosion, fatigue-corrosion, embrittlement by hydrogen), and bi-corrosion (of non alloyed steels, of stainless steels, and of aluminium and copper alloys). The sixth chapter addresses the struggle and the protection against aqueous corrosion: methods of prevention, scope of use of main alloys, geometry-based protection of pieces, use of corrosion inhibitors, use of organic or metallic coatings, electrochemical protection. The last chapter proposes an overview of corrosion types in industrial practices: in the automotive industry, in the oil industry, in the aircraft industry, and in the

  3. Spintronic materials and devices based on antiferromagnetic metals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.Y.; Song, C.; Zhang, J.Y.; Pan, F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent experimental developments on antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics mainly comprising Mn-based noncollinear AFM metals. IrMn-based tunnel junctions and Hall devices have been investigated to explore the manipulation of AFM moments by magnetic fields, ferromagnetic materials and electric fields. Room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance based on IrMn as well as FeMn has been successfully achieved, and electrical control of the AFM exchange spring i...

  4. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of metal film on bismuth telluride-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Wen Hsuan; Chen, Yi Ray; Tseng, Shih Chun; Yang, Ping Hsing; Wu, Ren Jye; Hwang, Jenn Yeu

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion barriers have a significant influence on the reliability and life time of thermoelectric modules. Although nickel is commonly used as a diffusion barrier in commercial thermoelectric modules, several studies have verified that Ni migrates to bismuth telluride-based material during high temperature cycles and causes a loss in efficacy. In this paper, the influence of metal layers coated to p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 on the interface characterization and thermoelectric property is studied using a RF magnetron sputtering. The findings from this study demonstrate the structural and thermoelectric properties of p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 coated with different metal layers. The crystalline phase and compositional change of the interface between the Bi 2 Te 3 materials and the metal layers were determined using an X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Formation of NiTe was observed in the sample of Ni/p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based films post-annealed in an N 2 atmosphere at 200 °C. In contrast, no Co x Te y was formed in the sample of Co/p-type Bi 2 Te 3 based films post-annealed at 200 °C. For as-deposited Ni/p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 based legs, the Ni slightly diffused into the Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. A similar phenomenon also occurred in the as-deposited Co/p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. The Seebeck coefficients of the Co contacts on the Bi 2 Te 3 based material displayed better behavior than those of the Ni contacts on the Bi 2 Te 3 based legs. Thus Co could be a suitable diffusion barrier for bulk Bi 2 Te 3 based material. The observed effects on the thermoelectric and structural properties of metal/Bi 2 Te 3 based material are crucial for understanding the interface between the diffusion barrier and thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • Interface characterization of metal coated to p-type and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 is studied. • We examined the phase transformation of metal/Bi 2 Te 3 based films

  5. IAEA programme on nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The coordinated research project on Improvement of Models Used For Fuel Behaviour Simulation (FUMEX II) is also presented

  6. Metallic materials corrosion problems in molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, G.; Dixmier, J.; Jarny, P.

    1977-01-01

    The USA forecastings concerning the molten salt reactors are reviewed (mixtures of fluorides containing the fuel, operating between 560 and 700 0 C). Corrosion problems are important in these reactors. The effects of certain characteristic factors on corrosion are analyzed: humidity and metallic impurities in the salts, temperature gradients, speed of circulation of salts, tellurium from fission products, coupling. In the molten fluorides and experimental conditions, the materials with high Ni content are particularly corrosion resistant alloys (hastelloy N). The corrosion of this material is about 2.6 mg.cm -2 at 700 0 C [fr

  7. Expanding Application of Perforated Metal Materials in Construction and Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironovs, V.; Tatarinov, A.; Gorbacova, S.

    2017-10-01

    Perforated metal materials (PMM) combine a range of properties, including rigidity, strength, lightweight, small thickness, a dosed transparency and decorative attractiveness. All these bring new application effects in construction industry and architecture. Nowadays, PMM are widely used in design of facades and interiors all over the world, becoming more popular in Latvia as well. The paper touches several aspects of PMM applications, including its decoration function, shadowing of sunlight, sound and noise barrier function and the problem of corrosion when exploited outdoors. Possible perfection may include using different coatings, multi-layer design variants and integration with other constructional materials in order to provide better sound absorption, corrosion resistance and functionality.

  8. Semiconductor Metal-Organic Frameworks: Future Low-Bandgap Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Mendiratta, Shruti; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2017-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with low density, high porosity, and easy tunability of functionality and structural properties, represent potential candidates for use as semiconductor materials. The rapid development of the semiconductor industry and the continuous miniaturization of feature sizes of integrated circuits toward the nanometer (nm) scale require novel semiconductor materials instead of traditional materials like silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide etc. MOFs with advantageous properties of both the inorganic and the organic components promise to serve as the next generation of semiconductor materials for the microelectronics industry with the potential to be extremely stable, cheap, and mechanically flexible. Here, a perspective of recent research is provided, regarding the semiconducting properties of MOFs, bandgap studies, and their potential in microelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Batteries using lithium (Li) metal as anodes are considered promising energy storage systems because of their high energy densities. However, safety concerns associated with dendrite growth along with limited cycle life, especially at high charge current densities, hinder their practical uses. Here we report that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as an additive in LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-solvent-based electrolytes significantly enhances the charging capability and cycling stability of Li metal batteries. In a Li metal battery using a 4-V Li-ion cathode at a moderately high loading of 1.75mAh cm(-2), a cyclability of 97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles along with very limited increase in electrode overpotential is accomplished at a charge/discharge current density up to 1.75 mA cm(-2). The fast charging and stable cycling performances are ascribed to the generation of a robust and conductive solid electrolyte interphase at the Li metal surface and stabilization of the Al cathode current collector.

  10. Biogeochemical Cycling of Nutrients and Trace Metals in the Sediment of Haringvliet Lake: Response to Salinization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canavan, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines sediment redox processes associated with organic matter degradation and their impact on the cycling of nutrients (N, P) and trace metals (Cd, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn). Our study site, Haringvliet Lake, is located in the Rhine-Meuse River Delta in the southwest of The Netherlands. This

  11. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  12. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  13. Compatibility tests between molten salts and metal materials (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    2003-08-01

    Latent heat storage technology using molten salts can reduce temperature fluctuations of heat transfer fluid by latent heat for middle and high temperature regions. This enables us to operate several heat utilization systems in cascade connected to High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) from high to low temperature range by setting the latent heat storage system after a heat utilization system to reduce thermal load after the heat utilization systems. This latent heat technology is expected to be used for effective use of heat such as equalization of electric load between night and daytime. In the application of the latent heat technology, compatibility between molten salts and metal materials is very important because molten salts are corrosive, and heat transfer pipes and vessels will contact with the molten salts. It will be necessary to prevail the latent heat storage technique that normal metal materials can be used for the pipes and vessels. However, a few studies have been reported of compatibility between molten salts and metals in middle and high temperature ranges. In this study, four molten salts, range of the melting temperature from 490degC to 800degC, are selected and five metals, high temperature and corrosion resistance steels of Alloy600, HastelloyB2, HastelloyC276, SUS310S and pure Nickel are selected for the test with the consideration of metal composition. Test was performed in an electric furnace by setting the molten salts and the metals in melting pots in an atmosphere of nitrogen. Results revealed excellent corrosion resistance of pure Nickel and comparatively low corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys such as Alloy600 and Hastelloys against Li 2 CO 3 . Corrosion resistance of SUS310S was about same as nickel based alloys. Therefore, if some amount of corrosion is permitted, SUS310S would be one of the candidate alloys for structure materials. These results will be used as reference data to select metals in latent heat technology

  14. Concurrent material-fabrication optimization of metal-matrix laminates under thermo-mechanical loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Morel, M. R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is developed to tailor fabrication and material parameters of metal-matrix laminates for maximum loading capacity under thermomechanical loads. The stresses during the thermomechanical response are minimized subject to failure constrains and bounds on the laminate properties. The thermomechanical response of the laminate is simulated using nonlinear composite mechanics. Evaluations of the method on a graphite/copper symmetric cross-ply laminate were performed. The cross-ply laminate required different optimum fabrication procedures than a unidirectional composite. Also, the consideration of the thermomechanical cycle had a significant effect on the predicted optimal process.

  15. Fracture resistance of metal-free composite crowns-effects of fiber reinforcement, thermal cycling, and cementation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Franziska; Eickemeyer, Grit; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The improved mechanical properties of contemporary composites have resulted in their extensive use for the restoration of posterior teeth. However, the influence of fiber reinforcement, cementation technique, and physical stress on the fracture resistance of metal-free crowns is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of fiber reinforcement, physical stress, and cementation methods on the fracture resistance of posterior metal-free Sinfony crowns. Ninety-six extracted human third molars received a standardized tooth preparation: 0.5-mm chamfer preparation and occlusal reduction of 1.3 to 1.5 mm. Sinfony (nonreinforced crowns, n=48) and Sinfony-Vectris (reinforced crowns, n=48) crowns restoring original tooth contour were prepared. Twenty-four specimens of each crown type were cemented, using either glass ionomer cement (GIC) or resin cement. Thirty-two crowns (one third) were stored in humidity for 48 hours. Another third was exposed to 10,000 thermal cycles (TC) between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C. The remaining third was treated with thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TCML), consisting of 1.2 million axial loads of 50 N. The artificial crowns were then vertically loaded with a steel sphere until failure occurred. Significant differences in fracture resistance (N) between experimental groups were assessed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test (alpha=.05). Fifty percent of the Sinfony and Sinfony-Vectris crowns cemented with glass ionomer cement loosened after thermal cycling. Thermal cycling resulted in a significant reduction in the mean fracture resistance for Sinfony crowns cemented with GIC, from 2037 N to 1282 N (P=.004). Additional fatigue produced no further effects. Fiber reinforcement significantly increased fracture resistance, from 1555 N to 2326 N (P=.001). The minimal fracture resistance was above 600 N for all combinations of material, cement and loading. Fracture resistance of metal-free Sinfony crowns was significantly increased by

  16. Nuclear material attractiveness: an assessment of material associated with a closed fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Wallace, R.K.; Hase, K.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ireland, J.R.; Johnson, M.W.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Sleaford, B.W.; Robel, M.; Bradley, K.S.; Collins, B.A.; Prichard, A.W.; Smith, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the various processing steps required for a closed fuel cycle. This paper combines the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR with new results for the final, repeated burning of SNM in fast-spectrum reactors: fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS). The results of this paper suggest that all reprocessing products evaluated so far need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, or undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed. (authors)

  17. Nuclear Material Attractiveness: An Assessment Of Material Associated With A Closed Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Ebbinghaus, B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Wallace, R.K.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Jarvinen, G.D.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J.R.; Johnson, M.W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the various processing steps required for a closed fuel cycle. This paper combines the results from earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of SNM associated with the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel by various reprocessing schemes and the recycle of plutonium as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in LWR with new results for the final, repeated burning of SNM in fast-spectrum reactors: fast reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS). The results of this paper suggest that all reprocessing products evaluated so far need to be rigorously safeguarded and provided moderate to high levels of physical protection. These studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, or undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed.

  18. Metal cycling within mountain pine beetle impacted watersheds of Keystone Gulch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, E. M.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Wanty, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Metal cycling in mountain watersheds may be altered due to rapid landscape changes. Previous studies have examined the impact of deforestation and wildfires, on the fate and transport of metals in watersheds. However, we have only begun to understand changes in metal cycling in watersheds impacted by the mountain pine beetle. Warming climates and extended droughts have enabled pine beetles to impact larger areas. In these areas tree death occurs an average of three years after the initial infestation. In this short period of time the trees stop transpiring, defoliate, and die. The rapid deposition of pine needles to the forest floor, and subsequent decomposition of the needles, increases organic carbon (OC) availability and release metals that are stored in the impacted watersheds. Consequently, both OC and metal fluxes into and through the beetle-infested watersheds may be larger than those in non-infested watersheds. Four watersheds along Keystone Gulch Rd., located in Keystone, CO, were chosen for soil, water, and needle sampling because of their similar bedrock, drainage area, tree density and type, aspect, and their varying degree of pine beetle infestation. Sequential extractions using simulated rainwater, MgCl2, and pyrophosphate (representing soil pore water, exchangeable fraction, and organically bound metals) were performed on the Keystone Gulch soil samples to develop a better understanding of the distribution of metals in soils. Samples were classified by degree of beetle impact within and between the watersheds. The most obvious differences in the soil extractions between the four watersheds were observed for aluminum and iron and to a slightly lesser extent copper and zinc. In general, aluminum, iron, and zinc concentrations were higher while copper concentrations were lower in soils from less beetle-impacted watersheds. Metal concentrations in stream waters will be evaluated in the context of metal mobility through and out of the watershed.

  19. Application of biowaste materials for the sorption of heavy metals in contaminated aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Iqbal, M.; Akhtar, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    Biowaste materials were evaluated as metal ion adsorbents in aqueous medium. The biowaste used were black gram husk, wheat bran, sheesham (dalbergia sissoo) sawdust pea pod, rice husk and cotton and mustard seed cakes. All these biosorbents, except pea pod and rice husk, exhibited good adsorption potential for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni. Black gram husk (bgh) was found to have the highest sorption capacity with 100, 99.4, 95.7, 98.2 and 93.1% removal of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni, respectively. The metal ions adsorbed by bgh desorbed with 0.1 M HCl and the regenerated biosorbent was reused successfully for sorption of metal ions in the next cycle. Concentration of the tested metals achieved at equilibrium in the contaminated aqueous medium was well below the maximum limits recommended by UNEP for sewage discharge. The study indicates the potential of bgh as a new, inexpensive and efficient biosorbent for the treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals. (author)

  20. Liquid metal batteries - materials selection and fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, T.; Bund, A.; El-Mofid, W.; Horstmann, G. M.; Lalau, C.-C.; Landgraf, S.; Nimtz, M.; Starace, M.; Stefani, F.; Weber, N.

    2017-07-01

    Liquid metal batteries are possible candidates for massive and economically feasible large-scale stationary storage and as such could be key components of future energy systems based mainly or exclusively on intermittent renewable electricity sources. The completely liquid interior of liquid metal batteries and the high current densities give rise to a multitude of fluid flow phenomena that will primarily influence the operation of future large cells, but might be important for today’s smaller cells as well. The paper at hand starts with a discussion of the relative merits of using molten salts or ionic liquids as electrolytes for liquid metal cells and touches the choice of electrode materials. This excursus into electrochemistry is followed by an overview of investigations on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in liquid metal batteries, namely the Tayler instability and electromagnetically excited gravity waves. A section on electro-vortex flows complements the discussion of flow phenomena. Focus of the flow related investigations lies on the integrity of the electrolyte layer and related critical parameters.

  1. Liquid metal current collector applications and material compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.L.; Stevens, H.O.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this paper has been to summarize briefly the material considerations involved in the development of liquid metal current collectors for homopolar machinery applications. A significant amount of data in this regard has been obtained over the last several years by individual researchers for NaK exposure conditions. However, NaK material compatibility data over the entire time and temperature range of interest is highly desirable. At DTNSRDC, a 300 kW superconducting homopolar motor and generator are under test, both utilizing free surface tongue-and-groove current collectors with NaK as the working fluid. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of other aspects of machine design, the intention is to use these machines as vehicles for testing of the several liquid metal current collector concepts which are considered worthwhile candidates for incorporation in future full-scale machines. It is likely that the optimal collector approach for a large low speed motor may be quite different from that for a smaller high speed generator, possibly involving the use of different liquid metals

  2. Superior Cycle Stability Performance of Quasi-Cuboidal CoV2O6 Microstructures as Electrode Material for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yucheng; Chai, Hui; Dong, Hong; Xu, Jiayu; Jia, Dianzeng; Zhou, Wanyong

    2016-10-12

    In this study, a rapid, facile, and environment-friendly microwave-assisted method followed by annealing for synthesizing the quasi-cuboidal CoV 2 O 6 is developed. The as-prepared samples manifest high supercapacitor properties with a specific capacitance of 223 F g -1 , good rate capability, and superior cycle stability, retaining 123.3% capacitance when the number of cycles reaches 15,000 after determined by electrochemical tests. More importantly, the quasi-cuboidal CoV 2 O 6 for the first time is introduced into the supercapacitor as a kind of electrode material. The superior electrochemical performance of the quasi-cuboidal CoV 2 O 6 will render the metal vanadium oxides as new and attractive active material for promising application in supercapacitors.

  3. Materials Characterization and Microelectronic Implementation of Metal-insulator Transition Materials and Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    materials like crystalline semiconductors, graphene , and composites, the materials discussed here could have a significant impact. This thesis investigates...diagnosis [124], crystallinity of pharmaceutical materials [125], materials diagnosis for restoration of paintings [126], and materials research [127...temperature dots and paint were placed on samples on the substrate. Temperature dots are typically used in the transportation of goods such as food in order

  4. Metal-nanotube composites as radiation resistant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Rafael I.; Valencia, Felipe; Mella, José; Kiwi, Miguel, E-mail: m.kiwi.t@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, CEDENNA, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 7800024 (Chile); Duin, Adri C. T. van [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); So, Kang Pyo; Li, Ju [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bringa, Eduardo M. [CONICET and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza 5500 (Argentina)

    2016-07-18

    The improvement of radiation resistance in nanocomposite materials is investigated by means of classical reactive molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, we study the influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an Ni matrix on the trapping and possible outgassing of He. When CNTs are defect-free, He atoms diffuse alongside CNT walls and, although there is He accumulation at the metal-CNT interface, no He trespassing of the CNT wall is observed, which is consistent with the lack of permeability of a perfect graphene sheet. However, when vacancies are introduced to mimic radiation-induced defects, He atoms penetrate CNTs, which play the role of nano-chimneys, allowing He atoms to escape the damaged zone and reduce bubble formation in the matrix. Consequently, composites made of CNTs inside metals are likely to display improved radiation resistance, particularly when radiation damage is related to swelling and He-induced embrittlement.

  5. Photothermal heating in metal-embedded microtools for material transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Material transport is an important mechanism in microfluidics and drug delivery. The methods and solutions found in literature involve passively diffusing structures, microneedles and chemically fueled structures. In this work, we make use of optically actuated microtools with embedded metal layer...... as heating element for controlled loading and release. The new microtools take advantage of the photothermal-induced convection current to load and unload cargo. We also discuss some challenges encountered in realizing a self-contained polymerized microtool. Microfluidic mixing, fluid flow control...... and convection currents have been demonstrated both experimentally and numerically for static metal thin films or passively floating nanoparticles. Here we show an integration of aforementioned functionalities in an opticallyfabricated and actuated microtool. As proof of concept, we demonstrate loading...

  6. Metal-nanotube composites as radiation resistant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Rafael I.; Valencia, Felipe; Mella, José; Kiwi, Miguel; Duin, Adri C. T. van; So, Kang Pyo; Li, Ju; Bringa, Eduardo M.

    2016-01-01

    The improvement of radiation resistance in nanocomposite materials is investigated by means of classical reactive molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, we study the influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in an Ni matrix on the trapping and possible outgassing of He. When CNTs are defect-free, He atoms diffuse alongside CNT walls and, although there is He accumulation at the metal-CNT interface, no He trespassing of the CNT wall is observed, which is consistent with the lack of permeability of a perfect graphene sheet. However, when vacancies are introduced to mimic radiation-induced defects, He atoms penetrate CNTs, which play the role of nano-chimneys, allowing He atoms to escape the damaged zone and reduce bubble formation in the matrix. Consequently, composites made of CNTs inside metals are likely to display improved radiation resistance, particularly when radiation damage is related to swelling and He-induced embrittlement.

  7. The ion implantation of metals and engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1978-01-01

    An entirely new method of metal finishing, by the process of ion implantation, is described. Introduced at first for semiconductor device applications, this method has now been demonstrated to produce major and long-lasting improvements in the durability of material surfaces, as regards both wear and corrosion. The process is distinct from that of ion plating, and it is not a coating technique. After a general description of ion implantation examples are given of its effects on wear behaviour (mostly in steels and cemented carbides) and on corrosion, in a variety of metals and alloys. Its potential for producing decorative finishes is mentioned briefly. The equipment necessary for carrying out ion implantation for engineering applications has now reached the prototype stage, and manufacture of plant for treating a variety of tools and components is about to commence. These developments are outlined. (author)

  8. Additive manufacturing of metals the technology, materials, design and production

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Li; Baughman, Brian; Godfrey, Donald; Medina, Francisco; Menon, Mamballykalathil; Wiener, Soeren

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a unique guide to the three-dimensional (3D) printing of metals. It covers various aspects of additive, subtractive, and joining processes used to form three-dimensional parts with applications ranging from prototyping to production. Examining a variety of manufacturing technologies and their ability to produce both prototypes and functional production-quality parts, the individual chapters address metal components and discuss some of the important research challenges associated with the use of these technologies. As well as exploring the latest technologies currently under development, the book features unique sections on electron beam melting technology, material lifting, and the importance this science has in the engineering context. Presenting unique real-life case studies from industry, this book is also the first to offer the perspective of engineers who work in the field of aerospace and transportation systems, and who design components and manufacturing networks. Written by the leadin...

  9. Development, characterization and evaluation of materials for open cycle MHD. Quarterly report for the period ending June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.; Daniel, J.L.

    1978-10-01

    The objectives of this program are directed toward the development and characterization of high temperature ceramics for open-cycle, coal-fired MHD power generators. The current activities are directed to electrode and insulator materials, and include (1) determination of the effects of alkali seed on the behavior of ceramics in a dc electric field; (2) development and testing of improved high temperature ceramic electrodes and insulators with controlled composition, microstructure, and properties; and (3) characterization and evaluation of materials utilized in channels being tested for MHD power generator development. Research is reported on (1) evaluation of metal electrodes from 250 hour MHD test, (2) characterization and properties of USSR MgO insulating wall material, (3) thermal diffusivity/thermal conductivity of electrode and insulator materials, (4) coprecipitation of ceramic powders, (5) properties of yttria chromites, and (6) rare earth hafnates. (WHK)

  10. Extreme Toughening of Soft Materials with Liquid Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazem, Navid; Bartlett, Michael D; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-05-01

    Soft and tough materials are critical for engineering applications in medical devices, stretchable and wearable electronics, and soft robotics. Toughness in synthetic materials is mostly accomplished by increasing energy dissipation near the crack tip with various energy dissipation techniques. However, bio-materials exhibit extreme toughness by combining multi-scale energy dissipation with the ability to deflect and blunt an advancing crack tip. Here, we demonstrate a synthetic materials architecture that also exhibits multi-modal toughening, whereby embedding a suspension of micron sized and highly deformable liquid metal (LM) droplets inside a soft elastomer, the fracture energy dramatically increases by up to 50x (from 250 ± 50 J m -2 to 11,900 ± 2600 J m -2 ) over an unfilled polymer. For some LM-embedded elastomer (LMEE) compositions, the toughness is measured to be 33,500 ± 4300 J m -2 , which far exceeds the highest value previously reported for a soft elastic material. This extreme toughening is achieved by (i) increasing energy dissipation, (ii) adaptive crack movement, and (iii) effective elimination of the crack tip. Such properties arise from the deformability of the LM inclusions during loading, providing a new mechanism to not only prevent crack initiation, but also resist the propagation of existing tears for ultra tough, soft materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Equipment for the investigation of the thermomechanical fatigue of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, F.; Petersen, C.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the European research program on nuclear fusion, a question is to be answered which is of great importance for the design of a fusion reactor, namely: To what extent is the 'First Wall structure' damaged by the pulsating mode of operation in this reactor type. This pulsating mode of operation leads to a thermal and mechanical cyclic stress in the metal support structure of the reactor. Thermomechanical cyclic stresses of a similar kind also occur in aircraft turbines, rocket drive units, and heat generating systems. For simulation of such stresses, a facility was developed in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center which permits to produce thermomechanical cyclic stresses in uniaxial metallic materials specimens. The results of investigations with a martensitic 12%-Cr steel are explained. The stress range variations show a degressive behavior at the onset of fatigue and develop into a linear decline. The plastic strain reached a plateau after a number of cycles which was dependent on the mechanical strain (linear behavior). Relationships can be described by a simple transformation of number of cycles to failure between mechanical strain and number of stress cycles to failure. (orig./MM) [de

  12. Solar Metal Sulfate-Ammonia Based Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping (Inventor); T-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Muradov, Nazim (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Two classes of hybrid/thermochemical water splitting processes for the production of hydrogen and oxygen have been proposed based on (1) metal sulfate-ammonia cycles (2) metal pyrosulfate-ammonia cycles. Methods and systems for a metal sulfate MSO.sub.4--NH3 cycle for producing H2 and O2 from a closed system including feeding an aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 solution into a photoctalytic reactor to oxidize the aqueous (NH3)(4)SO3 into aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 and reduce water to hydrogen, mixing the resulting aqueous (NH3)(2)SO4 with metal oxide (e.g. ZnO) to form a slurry, heating the slurry of aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 and ZnO(s) in the low temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of NH3 and H2O and solid ZnSO4(s), heating solid ZnSO4 at a high temperature reactor to produce a gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 and solid product ZnO, mixing the gaseous mixture of SO2 and O2 with an NH3 and H2O stream in an absorber to form aqueous (NH4)(2)SO3 solution and separate O2 for aqueous solution, recycling the resultant solution back to the photoreactor and sending ZnO to mix with aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4 solution to close the water splitting cycle wherein gaseous H2 and O2 are the only products output from the closed ZnSO4--NH3 cycle.

  13. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  14. Degradation of metallic materials studied by correlative tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, T. L.; Holroyd, N. J. H.; Lewandowski, J. J.; Ogurreck, M.; Rau, C.; Kelley, R.; Pickering, E. J.; Daly, M.; Sherry, A. H.; Pawar, S.; Slater, T. J. A.; Withers, P. J.

    2017-07-01

    There are a huge array of characterization techniques available today and increasingly powerful computing resources allowing for the effective analysis and modelling of large datasets. However, each experimental and modelling tool only spans limited time and length scales. Correlative tomography can be thought of as the extension of correlative microscopy into three dimensions connecting different techniques, each providing different types of information, or covering different time or length scales. Here the focus is on the linking of time lapse X-ray computed tomography (CT) and serial section electron tomography using the focussed ion beam (FIB)-scanning electron microscope to study the degradation of metals. Correlative tomography can provide new levels of detail by delivering a multiscale 3D picture of key regions of interest. Specifically, the Xe+ Plasma FIB is used as an enabling tool for large-volume high-resolution serial sectioning of materials, and also as a tool for preparation of microscale test samples and samples for nanoscale X-ray CT imaging. The exemplars presented illustrate general aspects relating to correlative workflows, as well as to the time-lapse characterisation of metal microstructures during various failure mechanisms, including ductile fracture of steel and the corrosion of aluminium and magnesium alloys. Correlative tomography is already providing significant insights into materials behaviour, linking together information from different instruments across different scales. Multiscale and multifaceted work flows will become increasingly routine, providing a feed into multiscale materials models as well as illuminating other areas, particularly where hierarchical structures are of interest.

  15. IAEA programme on nuclear fuel cycle and materials technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The coordinated research project on Improvement of Models Used For Fuel Behaviour Simulation (FUMEX II) as well as the changes, trends and main outputs of Sub-programme B.2 for 2006/2007 are discussed. The aim, composition and activities within the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) Database project are also presented

  16. Structural applications of metal foams considering material and geometrical uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mohammadreza

    Metal foam is a relatively new and potentially revolutionary material that allows for components to be replaced with elements capable of large energy dissipation, or components to be stiffened with elements which will generate significant supplementary energy dissipation when buckling occurs. Metal foams provide a means to explore reconfiguring steel structures to mitigate cross-section buckling in many cases and dramatically increase energy dissipation in all cases. The microstructure of metal foams consists of solid and void phases. These voids have random shape and size. Therefore, randomness ,which is introduced into metal foams during the manufacturing processes, creating more uncertainty in the behavior of metal foams compared to solid steel. Therefore, studying uncertainty in the performance metrics of structures which have metal foams is more crucial than for conventional structures. Therefore, in this study, structural application of metal foams considering material and geometrical uncertainty is presented. This study applies the Sobol' decomposition of a function of many random variables to different problem in structural mechanics. First, the Sobol' decomposition itself is reviewed and extended to cover the case in which the input random variables have Gaussian distribution. Then two examples are given for a polynomial function of 3 random variables and the collapse load of a two story frame. In the structural example, the Sobol' decomposition is used to decompose the variance of the response, the collapse load, into contributions from the individual input variables. This decomposition reveals the relative importance of the individual member yield stresses in determining the collapse load of the frame. In applying the Sobol' decomposition to this structural problem the following issues are addressed: calculation of the components of the Sobol' decomposition by Monte Carlo simulation; the effect of input distribution on the Sobol' decomposition

  17. Strain Rate Dependant Material Model for Orthotropic Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignjevic, Rade

    2016-01-01

    In manufacturing processes anisotropic metals are often exposed to the loading with high strain rates in the range from 10"2 s"-"1 to 10"6 s"-"1 (e.g. stamping, cold spraying and explosive forming). These types of loading often involve generation and propagation of shock waves within the material. The material behaviour under such a complex loading needs to be accurately modelled, in order to optimise the manufacturing process and achieve appropriate properties of the manufactured component. The presented research is related to development and validation of a thermodynamically consistent physically based constitutive model for metals under high rate loading. The model is capable of modelling damage, failure and formation and propagation of shock waves in anisotropic metals. The model has two main parts: the strength part which defines the material response to shear deformation and an equation of state (EOS) which defines the material response to isotropic volumetric deformation [1]. The constitutive model was implemented into the transient nonlinear finite element code DYNA3D [2] and our in house SPH code. Limited model validation was performed by simulating a number of high velocity material characterisation and validation impact tests. The new damage model was developed in the framework of configurational continuum mechanics and irreversible thermodynamics with internal state variables. The use of the multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient makes the model applicable to arbitrary plastic and damage deformations. To account for the physical mechanisms of failure, the concept of thermally activated damage initially proposed by Tuller and Bucher [3], Klepaczko [4] was adopted as the basis for the new damage evolution model. This makes the proposed damage/failure model compatible with the Mechanical Threshold Strength (MTS) model Follansbee and Kocks [5], 1988; Chen and Gray [6] which was used to control evolution of flow stress during plastic

  18. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seni, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mills, R H [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  19. Inorganic material candidates to replace a metallic or non-metallic concrete containment liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seni, C.; Mills, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Internal liners for concrete containments are generally organic or metals. They have to be able to inhibit radioactive leakage into the environment, but both types have shortcomings. The results of research to develop a better liner are published in this paper. The best material found was fibre-reinforced mortar. Of the fibres considered, steel, kevlar and glass were the best, each showing advantages and disadvantages. 1 ref., 9 tabs., 12 figs

  20. Innovations in Advanced Materials and Metals Manufacturing Project (IAM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Elizabeth [Columbia River Economic Development Council, Vancouver, WA (United States)

    2017-01-06

    This project, under the Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge, Innovations in Advanced Materials and Metals Manufacturing Project, contracted with Cascade Energy to provide a shared energy project manager engineer to work with five different companies throughout the Portland metro grant region to implement ten energy efficiency projects and develop a case study to analyze the project model. As a part of the project, the energy project manager also looked into specific new technologies and methodologies that could change the way energy is consumed by manufacturers—from game-changing equipment and technology to monitor energy use to methodologies that change the way companies interact and use their machines to reduce energy consumption.

  1. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaghy, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    An article made of a zirconium alloy can be electrolytically plated with a layer of a metal such as copper, nickel or chromium when the article is free of any loosely adhering film formed during an activation step. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution of ammonium bifluoride and sulfuric acid. Next the loosely adhering film formed in the first step is removed by chemical treatment, ultrasonic cleaning, or by swabbing the surface with cotton or an organic material. Finally the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution in the presence of an electrode receiving current

  2. PLASTICITY OF SELECTED METALLIC MATERIALS IN DYNAMIC DEFORMATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek PAWLICKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of a modernized flywheel machine has been presented in the paper. The laboratory stand enables to perform dynamic tensile tests and impact bending with a linear velocity of the enforcing element in the range of 5÷40 m/s. A new data acquisition system, based on the tensometric sensors, allows for significant qualitative improvement of registered signals. Some preliminary dynamic forming tests were performed for the selected group of metallic materials. Subsequent microstructural examinations and identification of the fracture type enabled to describe a correlation between strain rate, strain and microstructure.

  3. Examination of material manufactured by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobránsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with assessing microstructural properties of metal component manufactured by additive DMLS technology. Two series of samples were assessed. The first one was manufactured without heat treatment. Samples in the second series were treated with heat in order to assess increase in hardness and influence on modification of microstructure. Subsequently, values of hardness were measured by Vickers Hardness Test and modification of microstructure was observed by optical microscope. Evaluations were carried out in three planes in order to assess the differences in layering of material during its processing. Differences in values of hardness and microstructural components were discovered by examination of changes in three planes.

  4. Accounting of media conditions in the Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Metals on Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Payet, Jerome

    2003-01-01

    Impact from metals play a major role in all Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) studies. Nevertheless, LCIA methods are typically not adapted for such compounds ignoring problems of speciation and bioavailability. Current uncertainty on metal toxicity estimates are on average twice as high...... of the influence of media condition on the toxicity : Partial Least Square projection to latent Structure Regression (PLSR) was carried out to estimate the relative variable importance and linear regression was used to, identify the relation between media parameters the response of Daphnia magna....

  5. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  6. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Liquid metal reactor concept: core design and structural materials” was to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials. Main results arising from national and international R&D programmes and projects in the field were reviewed, and new activities to be carried out under the IAEA aegis were identified on the basis of the analysis of current research and technology gaps

  7. Electrode materials for an open-cycle MHD generator channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegin, G.P.; Romanov, A.I.; Akopov, F.A.; Gokhshtejn, Ya.P.; Rekov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations, technological developments and tests of high temperature materials for MHD electrodes on the base of zirconium dioxide, stabilized with oxides of calcium, yttrium, neodymium, and dioxide of cerium, chromites, tamping masses from stabilized dioxide of zirconium, cermets are considered. It is established that binary and ternary solutions on the base of zirconium dioxide and alloyed chromites are the perspective materials for the MHD electrodes on pure fuel

  8. Heavy metal ion removal by adsorption on to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson-Charrier, M.; Guibal, E.; Le Cloirec, P.; Surjous, R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of regulations constraints in the industrial waste-waters management leads to the study of new treatment processes, using raw or functionalized biological materials. These processes show competitive performances in metal ion sorption efficiency for the low metal content effluents. Uptake capacities of Uranium as high as 400 mg.g -1 chitosan, equivalent to the double of the uptake capacity of fungal origin biomass, can be reached. The application of these processes to real mine wastewaters gives efficiency coefficient upper to 90%, the residual concentrations are compatible to a direct injection into the environment. The grafting of functional groups onto the chitosan scales up the sorption performances to uptake capacity upper than 600 mg.g -1 polymer. pH, metal concentration are cited as major parameters, particle size influences both uptake kinetics and sorption equilibrium, in the case of the uranium accumulation by chitosan. The desorption of uranium from the sorbent allows the valorization of uranium and the re-use of the sorbent. (authors). 21 refs., 10 figs

  9. Research on utilization of isotopes for metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebashi, Yoichi; Kagaya, Yutaka; Kametani, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    As the research on the utilization of unsealed radioisotopes for metallic materials, among the refining of nonferrous metals already carried out in the National Research Institute for Metals, the refining reaction of copper sulfide was taken up. In this refining reaction, it is important to know the oxidation behavior of sulfur in copper sulfide for improving the refining method. However in the oxidation of sulfur, the kinds of the oxides formed are many, and when copper and iron ions coexist as in this case, their separation and analysis are very difficult. The utilization of radioisotopes is required for identifying the oxidation products and the oxides in melt, and for identifying various compound ions. The solvent for thin layer chromatography was selected, and the effects exerted by the moving rate, concentration and coexisting elements of various sulfur acid ions on the thin layer of silica gel were clarified. In the suspension reaction of copper sulfide without a power source, it was elucidated that S 2 O 3 2- arose consistently from the initial stage of reaction, and the reaction equation was forecast. The melting state of sulfur in anode oxidation reaction was studied. (Kako, I.)

  10. Energy Approach-Based Simulation of Structural Materials High-Cycle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayev, A. F.; Korolev, A. V.; Kochetkov, A. V.; Sklyarova, A. I.; Zakharov, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    The paper describes the mechanism of micro-cracks development in solid structural materials based on the theory of brittle fracture. A probability function of material cracks energy distribution is obtained using a probabilistic approach. The paper states energy conditions for cracks growth at material high-cycle loading. A formula allowing to calculate the amount of energy absorbed during the cracks growth is given. The paper proposes a high- cycle fatigue evaluation criterion allowing to determine the maximum permissible number of solid body loading cycles, at which micro-cracks start growing rapidly up to destruction.

  11. Liquid metal mist cooling and MHD Ericsson cycle for fusion energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1989-01-01

    The combination of liquid metal mist coolant and a liquid metal MHD (LMMHD) energy conversion system (ECS) based on the Ericsson cycle is being proposed for high temperature fusion reactors. It is shown that the two technologies are highly matchable, both thermodynamically and physically. Thermodynamically, the author enables delivering the fusion energy to the cycle with probably the highest practical average temperature commensurate with a given maximum reactor design constraint. Physically, the mist cooling and LMMHD ECSs can be coupled directly, thus eliminating the need for primary heat exchangers and reheaters. The net result is expected to be a high efficiency, simple and reliable heat transport and ECS. It is concluded that the proposed match could increase the economic viability of fusion reactors, so that a thorough study of the two complementary technologies is recommended. 11 refs., 3 figs

  12. Diel cycle of iron, aluminum and other heavy metals in a volcano watershed in northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that heavy metals in surface water show diel (24-hr) changes in concentrations due to diel biogeochemical cycle. Accordingly, it is important to have a better sampling policy for monitoring the environmental impact of heavy metals of surface water, especially volcanic and mining areas. This study investigated Tatun Volcano watershed in northern Taiwan with a 24-h sampling operation to explore the diel cycle of arsenic concentrations and discuss on the corresponding biogeochemical processes. According to the previous studies, solar energy is the main factor of diel cycles, which could have strong effects on temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and many other water qualities. These changes produce a series of chain reactions and finally result in the change of heavy metal concentrations. In general, diel cycle of dissolved oxygen is dominated by metabolism of aquatic plants and sunlight photoreduction in acidic stream water; therefore, the Fe and Al contents would be accordingly changed. In addition, the concentrations of heavy metals will be simultaneously modified due to the high adsorption capacity of Fe and Al hydroxides. In this study, the results of hydro chemical analysis show that creek water is characterized by higher temperature, low pH value (3.0-4.5) and high SO4content(60-400 ppm) due to the mixing of hot spring. That the pH dramatically drops in the noon demonstrates that pH is highly dependent on photoreduction. This can be confirmed by the opposite trend of Fe concentration. The high Fe content in the noon also demonstrates that the precipitation of Fe hydroxides is not dominant in the day time and Fe is mainly in dissolved and/or colloid forms. Under the situation, heavy metals are supposed to have a similar trend with Fe. However, arsenic, aluminum and rare earth elements show a quite different diel cycle from Fe and other heavy metals. It concludes that arsenic and rare earth elements may be adsorbed by Al hydroxides instead of Fe

  13. 78 FR 71532 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans... material control and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM) and the proposed guidance... and how the NRC will review and inspect these plans. DATES: The public meeting will be held on...

  14. Evaluation of material integrity on electricity power steam generator cycles (turbine casing) component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histori; Benedicta; Farokhi; S A, Soedardjo; Triyadi, Ari; Natsir, M

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of material integrity on power steam generator cycles component was done. The test was carried out on casing turbine which is made from Inconel 617. The tested material was taken from t anjung Priok plant . The evaluation was done by metallography analysis using microscope with magnification of 400. From the result, it is shown that the material grains are equiaxed

  15. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01Ba, Ca, La, or K; 0.02material itself or as a support for said unary or binary metal oxides.

  16. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs.

  17. Life cycle assessment of sustainable raw material acquisition for functional magnetite bionanoparticle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Joshi, Nimisha; Shemfe, Mobolaji; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2017-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have several applications, including use in medical diagnostics, renewable energy production and waste remediation. However, the processes for MNP production from analytical-grade materials are resource intensive and can be environmentally damaging. This work for the first time examines the life cycle assessment (LCA) of four MNP production cases: (i) industrial MNP production system; (ii) a state-of-the-art MNP biosynthesis system; (iii) an optimal MNP biosynthesis system and (iv) an MNP biosynthesis system using raw materials sourced from wastewaters, in order to recommend a sustainable raw material acquisition pathway for MNP synthesis. The industrial production system was used as a benchmark to compare the LCA performances of the bio-based systems (cases ii-iv). A combination of appropriate life cycle impact assessment methods was employed to analyse environmental costs and benefits of the systems comprehensively. The LCA results revealed that the state-of-the-art MNP biosynthesis system, which utilises analytical grade ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide as raw materials, generated environmental costs rather than benefits compared to the industrial MNP production system. Nevertheless, decreases in environmental impacts by six-fold were achieved by reducing sodium hydroxide input from 11.28 to 1.55 in a mass ratio to MNPs and replacing ferric chloride with ferric sulphate (3.02 and 2.59, respectively, in a mass ratio to MNPs) in the optimal biosynthesis system. Thus, the potential adverse environmental impacts of MNP production via the biosynthesis system can be reduced by minimising sodium hydroxide and substituting ferric sulphate for ferric chloride. Moreover, considerable environmental benefits were exhibited in case (iv), where Fe(III) ions were sourced from metal-containing wastewaters and reduced to MNPs by electrons harvested from organic substrates. It was revealed that 14.4 kJ and 3.9 kJ of primary fossil resource

  18. Effect of metals on the lytic cycle of the coccolithovirus, EhV86.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha eGledhill

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we show that metals, and in particular copper (Cu, can disrupt the lytic cycle in the Emiliania huxleyi - EhV86 host-virus system. Numbers of virus particles produced per E. huxleyi cell and E. huxleyi lysis rates were reduced by Cu at total metal concentrations over 500 nM in the presence of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 250 nM in the absence of EDTA in acute short term exposure experiments. Zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd and cobalt (Co were not observed to affect the lysis rate of EhV86 in these experiments. The cellular glutathione (GSH content increased in virus infected cells, but not as a result of metal exposure. In contrast, the cellular content of phytochelatins (PCs increased only in response to metal exposure. The increase in gluthatione content is consistent with increases in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS on viral infection, while increases in PC content are likely linked to metal homeostasis and indicate that metal toxicity to the host was not affected by viral infection. We propose that Cu prevents lytic production of EhV86 by interfering with virus DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis through a transcriptional block, which ultimately suppresses the formation of ROS, a biochemical response required for successful virus infection.

  19. Use of polyethylene glycol for the improvement of the cycling stability of bischofite as thermal energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Ushak, Svetlana; Galleguillos, Hector; Fernandez, Angel; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Grágeda, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bischofite as phase change material for TES is studied. • Thermophysical properties of bischofite mixtures with PEG were determined. • The aim was to improve the cycling stability of bischofite. • The heating and cooling during 30 cycles were measured. • The most stable sample was bischofite + 5% PEG 2 000. - Abstract: Bischofite is a by-product of the non-metallic mining industry. It has been evaluated as phase change material in thermal energy storage, but it shows little cycling stability, therefore in this paper the mixture of bischofite with an additive was studied. Since polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a PCM itself, in this paper PEG (with different molecular weights) is used as additive in a PCM (bischofite) to improve its thermal behaviour. Results show that adding 5% PEG 2 000 to bischofite gives a more cycling stable PCM without affecting its melting temperature neither decreasing significantly its heat of fusion. This research shows that mixing an inorganic PCM with an organic additive can be a good option to improve the thermal performance of the PCM

  20. Materials requirements for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Horton, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Materials requirements for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are quite varied with requisite applications ranging from ex-reactor components such as piping, pumps, steam generators and heat exchangers to in-reactor components such as heavy section reactor vessels, core structurals, fuel pin cladding and subassembly flow ducts. Requirements for ex-reactor component materials include: good high temperature tensile, creep and fatigue properties; compatibility with high temperature flowing sodium; resistance to wear, stress corrosion cracking, and crack propagation; and good weldability. Requirements for in-reactor components include most of those cited above for ex-reactor components as supplemented by the following: resistance to radiation embrittlement, swelling and radiation enhanced creep; good neutronics; compatibility with fuel and fission product materials; and resistance to mass transfer via flowing sodium. Extensive programs are currently in place in a number of national laboratories and industrial contractors to address the materials requirements for LMFBRs. These programs are focused on meeting the near term requirements of early LMFBRs such as the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor as well as the longer term requirements of larger near-commercial and fully-commercial reactors

  1. High temperature metallic materials for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The Specialists' Meeting was organized in conjunction with an earlier meeting on this topic held in Vienna, Austria, 1981, which provided for a comprehensive review of the status of materials development and testing at that time and for a description of test facilities. This meeting provided an opportunity (1) to review and discuss the progress made since 1981 in the development, testing and qualification of high temperature metallic materials, (2) to critically assess results achieved, and (3) to give directions for future research and development programmes. In particular, the meeting provided a form for a close interaction between component designers and materials specialists. The meeting was attended by 48 participants from France, People's Republic of China, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Poland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USSR and USA presenting 22 papers. The technical part of the meeting was subdivided into four technical sessions: Components Design and Testing - Implications for Materials (4 papers); Microstructure and Environmental Compatibility (4 papers); Mechanical Properties (9 papers); New Alloys and Developments (6 papers). At the end of the meeting a round table discussion was organized in order to summarize the meeting and to make recommendations for future activities. This volume contains all papers presented at the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Tool-life prediction under multi-cycle loading during metal forming: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yiran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the friction and wear behaviour of a hard coating were studied by using ball-on-disc tests to simulate the wear process of the coated tools for sheet metal forming process. The evolution of the friction coefficient followed a typical dual-plateau pattern, i.e. at the initial stage of sliding, the friction coefficient was relatively low, followed by a sharp increase due to the breakdown of the coatings after a certain number of cyclic dynamic loadings. This phenomenon was caused by the interactive response between the friction and wear from a coating tribo-system, which is often neglected by metal forming researchers, and constant friction coefficient values are normally used in the finite element (FE simulations to represent the complex tribological nature at the contact interfaces. Meanwhile, most of the current FE simulations consider single-cycle loading processes, whereas many metal-forming operations are conducted in a form of multi-cycle loading. Therefore, a novel friction/wear interactive friction model was developed to, simultaneously, characterise the evolutions of friction coefficient and the remaining thickness of the coating layer, to enable the wear life of coated tooling to be predicted. The friction model was then implemented into the FE simulation of a sheet metal forming process for feasibility study.

  3. Thermophysical properties of novel zeolite materials for sorption cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-08-01

    his article discusses the thermophysical properties of zeolite-based adsorbents. Three types of zeolite (Z-01, Z-02 and Z-05) with different chemical compositions developed by Mitsubishi Plastics, Inc. are analyzed for possible applications in adsorption chillers and desalination cycles driven by low-temperature waste heat sources. The experiments are performed using static volumetric method with N2 gas sorption at 77 K. Thermophysical properties such as pore surface area, micropore volume and pore size distribution are evaluated using standard multipoint Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Non-Local Density Functional Theory (NLDFT) methods. It is observed that Aluminosilicate functionalized Z-02 exhibits the highest surface area with huge micropore volume. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  4. Study of dimensional changes during redox cycling of oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossdal, A.; Darell, O.; Lambert, A.; Schols, E.; Comte, E.; Leenman, R.N.; Blom, R.

    2015-01-01

    Dimensional and phase changes of four candidate oxygen carrier materials for chemical looping combustion are investigated by dilatometry and high-temperature X-ray diffraction during four redox cycles. NiO/Ni2AlO4 does not exhibit significant dimensional changes during cycling, and it is shown that

  5. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  6. MAT-FLX: a simplified code for computing material balances in fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierantoni, F.; Piacentini, F.

    1983-01-01

    This work illustrates a calculation code designed to provide a materials balance for the electro nuclear fuel cycle. The calculation method is simplified but relatively precise and employs a progressive tabulated data approach

  7. Fatigue behaviour of metallic materials; Ermuedungsverhalten metallischer Werkstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, H.J. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    The 16 contributions selected for this book, each from experts in their fields, are intended to give a broad survey of the phenomenon and mechanisms of fatigue in metallic materials, addressing important aspects and showing the cross-disciplinarity of scientific research required to obtain a complete picture. Emphasis has been placed on the matter being discussed in a way that is easy to digest as well as complete in information, which was possible only by deliberate restriction to the essential knowledge available today, leaving aside what recent scientific research may have revealed, or whatever interesting specific aspects there may be. The known mechanisms of fatigue and their effects in metallic materials as well as the conclusions to be drawn from the engineering angle with regard to the applicability of the materials and systems design are the points of main interest of the book, which offers readers to develop a sound, general understanding of the processes involved and a feeling for the effects induced in the materiuals by cyclic stress. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In diesem 16 Fachbeitraege enthaltenden Buch wird versucht, einen ueberschau- und erfassbaren Ueberblick ueber die Ermuedung metallischer Werkstoffe unter Beruecksichtigung der wichtigen Teilaspekte und Wissenschaftsgebiete darzustellen. Die Betonung wird bewusst auf Verstaendlichkeit und Uebersichtlichkeit gelegt, was nur durch Einschraenkung der Breite der Behandlung und durch Verzicht auf neueste wissenschaftliche Details moeglich ist. Im Vordergrund stehen die bei der Ermuedung ablaufenden werkstoffkundlichen Vorgaenge und die sich daraus ergebenden Konsequenzen fuer den Werkstoffeinsatz und die -auslegung. Primaer soll ein solides Grundverstaendnis fuer die moeglichen Prozesse vermittelt werden, aus dem sich ein Gefuehl fuer die Vorgaenge im Werkstoff bei zyklischer Beanspruchung entwickeln kann. (orig.)

  8. Certification of an iron metal reference material for neutron dosimetry (EC nuclear reference material 524)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.; Pauwels, J.; Lievens, F.

    1993-01-01

    Iron metal, of > 99.996% nominal purity, in the form of 0.1 mm thick foil and of 0.5 mm diameter wire has been certified for its manganese and cobalt mass fractions. The certified value of the cobalt mass fraction ( -1 ) is based on 39 accepted results from five laboratories using two different methods. The certified value of the manganese mass fraction ( -1 ) is based on 41 accepted results from five laboratories using three different methods. The overall purity was also verified. The material is intended to be used as a reference material in neutron dosimetry. (authors). 8 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Certification of a nickel metal reference material for neutron dosimetry (EC Nuclear Reference Material 521)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel metal, of 99.99 % nominal purity and natural isotopic composition, in the form of 0.1 mm thick foil and 0.5 mm diameter wire has been certified for its cobalt mass fraction. The certified value of cobalt (<0.1μg.g-1) is based on 38 results obtained by neutron activation analysis, emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma excitation and atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas the isotopic composition of the nickel was verified by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The material is intended to be used as a reference material in neutron metrology

  10. Certification of a niobium metal reference material for neutron dosimetry (EC nuclear reference material 526)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.; Pauwels, J.

    1990-01-01

    Niobium metal, of 99.999% nominal purity, in the form of 0.02 and 0.1 mm thick foil and of 0.5 mm diameter wire, has been certified for its tantalum mass fraction. The certified value of the tantalum mass fraction is 0.3 ± 0.09 mg. Kg -1 , and is based on 70 results obtained by six independent laboratories by neutron activation analysis or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The material is intended to be used as a reference material in neutron metrology

  11. Certification of an aluminium metal reference material for neutron dosimetry (EC nuclear reference material 523)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, J.; Ingelbrecht, C.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminium metal of > 99.999% nominal purity in the form of 0.1 mm and 1 mm thick foil and of 1 mm diameter wire has been certified for its sodium mass fraction. The certified value of the sodium mass fraction ( -1 ) is based on 21 results from three laboratories using two different methods, which are neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The overall purity was estimated using spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The material is intended to be used as a reference material in neutron metrology

  12. Materials considerations for the coupling of thermochemical hydrogen cycles to tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1980-01-01

    Candidate materials are discussed and initial choices made for the critical elements in a liquid Li-Na Cauldron Tandem Mirror blanket and the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Cycle for thermochemical hydrogen production. V and Ti alloys provide low neutron activation, good radiation damage resistance, and good chemical compatibility for the Cauldron design. Aluminide coated In-800H and siliconized SiC are materials choices for heat exchanger components in the thermochemical cycle interface

  13. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions. [in thermionic energy conversion and metallic fluid heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs), offering unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing by virtue of operating on working-fluid vaporization/condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures, share complex materials problems. Simplified equations are presented that verify and solve such problems, suggesting the possibility of cost-effective applications in the near term for TEC and MFHP devices. Among the problems discussed are: the limitation of alkali-metal corrosion, protection against hot external gases, external and internal vaporization, interfacial reactions and diffusion, expansion coefficient matching, and creep deformation.

  14. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W.; Ogunseitan, Oladele A.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS 2 p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane

  15. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W. [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS{sub 2} p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane.

  16. New multifunctional lightweight materials based on cellular metals - manufacturing, properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephani, Guenter; Quadbeck, Peter; Andersen, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Cellular metallic materials are a new class of materials which have been the focus of numerous scientific studies over the past few years. The increasing interest in cellular metals is due to the fact that the introduction of pores into the materials significantly lowers the density. These highly porous materials also possess combinations of properties which are not possible to achieve with other materials. Besides the drastic weight and material savings that arise from the cell structure, there are also other application-specific benefits such as noise and energy absorption, heat insulation, mechanical damping, filtration effects and also catalytic properties. Cellular metallic materials are hence multi-functional lightweight materials.

  17. 41 CFR 109-45.1003 - Recovery of silver from precious metals bearing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery of silver from precious metals bearing materials. 109-45.1003 Section 109-45.1003 Public Contracts and Property Management... of Precious Metals § 109-45.1003 Recovery of silver from precious metals bearing materials. The...

  18. Ceramic superconductor/metal composite materials employing the superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting composite materials having particles of superconducting material disposed in a metal matrix material with a high electron-boson coupling coefficient (.lambda.). The superconducting particles can comprise any type of superconductor including Laves phase materials, Chevrel phase materials, A15 compounds, and perovskite cuprate ceramics. The particles preferably have dimensions of about 10-500 nanometers. The particles preferably have dimensions larger than the superconducting coherence length of the superconducting material. The metal matrix material has a .lambda. greater than 0.2, preferably the .lambda. is much higher than 0.2. The metal matrix material is a good proximity superconductor due to its high .lambda.. When cooled, the superconductor particles cause the metal matrix material to become superconducting due to the proximity effect. In cases where the particles and the metal matrix material are chemically incompatible (i.e., reactive in a way that destroys superconductivity), the particles are provided with a thin protective metal coating. The coating is chemically compatible with the particles and metal matrix material. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cuprate ceramic particles are reactive and therefore require a coating of a noble metal resistant to oxidation (e.g., silver, gold). The proximity effect extends through the metal coating. With certain superconductors, non-noble metals can be used for the coating.

  19. Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Aref

    This study aims to investigate the mechanical and fatigue behavior of additively manufactured metallic materials. Several challenges associated with different metal additive manufacturing (AM) techniques (i.e. laser-powder bed fusion and direct laser deposition) have been addressed experimentally and numerically. Experiments have been carried out to study the effects of process inter-layer time interval--i.e. either building the samples one-at-a-time or multi-at-a-time (in-parallel)--on the microstructural features and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel samples, fabricated via a direct laser deposition (DLD). Next, the effect of building orientation--i.e. the orientation in which AM parts are built--on microstructure, tensile, and fatigue behaviors of 17-4 PH stainless steel, fabricated via a laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) method was investigated. Afterwards, the effect of surface finishing--here, as-built versus machined--on uniaxial fatigue behavior and failure mechanisms of Inconel 718 fabricated via a laser-powder bed fusion technique was sought. The numerical studies, as part of this dissertation, aimed to model the mechanical behavior of AM materials, under monotonic and cyclic loading, based on the observations and findings from the experiments. Despite significant research efforts for optimizing process parameters, achieving a homogenous, defect-free AM product--immediately after fabrication--has not yet been fully demonstrated. Thus, one solution for ensuring the adoption of AM materials for application should center on predicting the variations in mechanical behavior of AM parts based on their resultant microstructure. In this regard, an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity-damage model was employed to quantify the damage evolution in DLD 316L SS, under tensile loading, using the microstructural features associated with the manufacturing process. Finally, fatigue behavior of AM parts has been modeled based on the crack-growth concept

  20. Thermal analysis of a Phase Change Material for a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasiello, M.; Braimakis, K.; Andreozzi, A.; Karellas, S.

    2017-11-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a promising technology for low temperature power generation, for example for the utilization of medium temperature solar energy. Since heat generated from solar source is variable throughout the day, the implementation of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems to guarantee the continuous operation of solar ORCs is a critical task, and Phase Change Materials (PCM) rely on latent heat to store large amounts of energy. In the present study, a thermal analysis of a PCM for a solar ORC is carried out. Three different types of PCMs are analyzed. The energy equation for the PCM is modeled by using the heat capacity method, and it is solved by employing a 1Dexplicit finite difference scheme. The solar source is modeled with a time-variable temperature boundary condition, with experimental data taken from the literature for two different solar collectors. Results are presented in terms of temperature profiles and stored energy. It has been shown that the stored energy depends on the heat source temperature, on the employed PCM and on the boundary conditions. It has been demonstrated that the use of a metal foam can drastically enhance the stored energy due to the higher overall thermal conductivity.

  1. A Difference in Using Atomic Layer Deposition or Physical Vapour Deposition TiN as Electrode Material in Metal-Insulator-Metal and Metal-Insulator-Silicon Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the

  2. Fabrication of ultrahigh density metal-cell-metal crossbar memory devices with only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu; Goh, J. Y.; Guo, Zaibing; Luo, Ping; Wang, Chenchen; Qiu, Jinjun; Ho, Pin; Chen, Yunjie; Zhang, Mingsheng; Han, Guchang

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half

  3. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  4. Environmental degradation of materials and corrosion control in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, J.; Elboujdaini, M.; Shoesmith, D.; Patnaik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials and Corrosion Control In Metals (EDMCCM), held in Quebec City in 1999, was very successful. Encouraged by this success. the Metallurgical Society of CIM organized the Second International Conference in what is hoped will be an on-going series. This meeting was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in August 2003. The objective of this conference was to provide a wide-ranging forum for the discussion of recent developments in the study and understanding of corrosion degradation of metals and alloys and the variety of processes by which corrosion damage accumulates. The scope of the meeting ranged from the fundamental to the very applied with a primary emphasis on the inter-relationships between chemical, electrochemical, mechanical and metallurgical features of corrosion. This symposium was an excellent forum for the exchange of ideas and approaches between generally disparate fields of endeavour. The success of the symposium can be gauged from the large number of papers presented and the outstanding level of international participation, with authors from China, Iran, Japan, North America, Russia, United Kingdom and Venezuela. In addition authors from six Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan) participated. Six keynote presentations covered a wide range of topics and industries in corrosion and corrosion control, and a total 45 papers were presented, spread over three days in six individual sessions; Electrochemistry and Corrosion of Metals, Corrosion and Cracking Behaviour. Hydrogen in Steel and Pipeline Corrosion, Corrosion Case Studies and Applications, Characterization of Corrosion Behaviour, and Corrosion Protection Coatings. (author)

  5. Results from low cycle fatigue testing of 316L plate and weld material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstroem, R.; Josefsson, B.; Haag, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens for low cycle fatigue testing from the second heat of the CEC reference 316L plate and from Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) weld material have been neutron irradiated near room temperature to a displacement dose of approximately 0.3 dpa. The low cycle fatigue testing of both irradiated and unirradiated specimens was performed at 75, 250 and 450 degrees C, and with strain ranges of 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5%. There is no clear effect of the irradiation on low cycle fatigue properties. For the weld material the endurance is shorter than for plate, and the dependences on temperature and strain range are not clear

  6. Sensitization behaviour of modified 316N and 316L stainless steel weld metals after complex annealing and stress relieving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvathavarthini, N.; Dayal, R.K.; Khatak, H.S.; Shankar, V.; Shanmugam, V.

    2006-01-01

    Sensitization behaviour of austenitic stainless steel weld metals prepared using indigenously developed modified 316N (C = 0.05%; N = 0.12%) and 316L (C = 0.02%; N = 0.07%) electrodes was studied. Detailed optical and scanning electron microscopic examination was carried out to understand the microstructural changes occurring in the weld metal during isothermal exposure at various temperatures ranging from 500 deg. C to 850 deg. C (773-1123 K). Based on these studies the mechanism of sensitization in the austenite-ferrite weld metal has been explained. Time-temperature-sensitization (TTS) diagrams were established using ASTM A262 Practice E test. From the TTS diagrams, critical cooling rate (CCR) above which there is no risk of sensitization was calculated for both materials. The heating/cooling rates to be followed for avoiding sensitization during heat treatment cycles consisting of solution-annealing and stress-relieving in fabrication of welded components of AISI 316LN stainless steel (SS) were estimated taking into account the soaking time and the number of times the component undergoes thermal excursions in the sensitization regime. The results were validated by performing controlled heating and cooling heat treatment trials on welded specimens

  7. Evaluation of Plasma Spray hydroxy Apatite Coatings on Metallic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, S.; Mitsul, K.; Kasahara, M.; Sawal, R.; Izawa, S.; Nakayama, M.; Itoi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Biocompatible Hydroxy apatite (HAp) coatings on metallic substrate by plasma spray techniques have been developed. Long-term credibility of plasma spray HAp coatings has been evaluated in physiological saline by electrochemical measurements. It was found that the corrosion resistance of SUS316L based HAp/Ti combined coatings was excellent even after more than 10 weeks long-term immersion. It was shown that postal heat treatment improved both the crystallinity and corrosion resistance of HAp. By lowering cooling rate during heat treatment process, less cracks produced in HAp coating layer, which lead to higher credibility of HAp during immersion in physiological saline. The ICP results showed that the dissolution level of substrate metallic ions was low and HAp coatings produced in this research can be acceptable as biocompatible materials. Also, the concentration of dissolved ions from HAp coatings with postal heat treatment was lower compared to those from samples without postal heat treatment. The adherence of HAp coatings with Ti substrate and other mechanical properties were also assessed by three-point bending test. The poor adhesion of HAp coating to titanium substrate can be improved by introducing a plasma spray titanium intermediate layer

  8. Transport and screen blockage characteristics of reflective metallic insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocard, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    In the event of a LOCA within a nuclear power plant, it is possible for insulation debris to be generated by the break jet. Such debris has the potential for PWR sump screen (or BWR RHR suction inlet) blockage and thus can affect the long-term recirculation capability. In addition to the variables of break jet location and orientation, the types and quantities of debris which could be generated are dependent on the insulation materials employed. This experimental investigation was limited to reflective metallic insulation and components thereof. The study was aimed at determining the flow velocities needed to transport the insulation debris to the sump screens and the resulting modes of screen blockage. The tests revealed that thin metallic foils (0.0025 in. and 0.004 in.) could transport at low flow velocities, 0.2 to 0.5 ft/sec. Thicker foils (0.008 in.) transported at higher velocities, 0.4 to 0.8 ft/sec, and as fabricated half cylinder insulation units required velocities in excess of 1.0 ft/sec for transport. The tests also provided information on screen blockage patterns that showed blockage could occur at the lower portion of the screen as foils readily flipped on the screen when reaching it

  9. Spintronic materials and devices based on antiferromagnetic metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Y. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent experimental developments on antiferromagnet (AFM spintronics mainly comprising Mn-based noncollinear AFM metals. IrMn-based tunnel junctions and Hall devices have been investigated to explore the manipulation of AFM moments by magnetic fields, ferromagnetic materials and electric fields. Room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance based on IrMn as well as FeMn has been successfully achieved, and electrical control of the AFM exchange spring is realized by adopting ionic liquid. In addition, promising spin-orbit effects in AFM as well as spin transfer via AFM spin waves reported by different groups have also been reviewed, indicating that the AFM can serve as an efficient spin current source. To explore the crucial role of AFM acting as efficient generators, transmitters, and detectors of spin currents is an emerging topic in the field of magnetism today. AFM metals are now ready to join the rapidly developing fields of basic and applied spintronics, enriching this area of solid-state physics and microelectronics.

  10. Templated synthesis, postsynthetic metal exchange, and properties of a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-01-18

    Reaction of biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate (H 3BPT) and CdCl 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) afforded porph@MOM-10, a microporous metal-organic material containing CdTMPyP cations encapsulated in an anionic Cd(II) carboxylate framework, [Cd 6(BPT) 4Cl 4(H 2O) 4]. Porph@MOM-10 is a versatile platform that undergoes exchange to serve as the parent of a series of porph@MOMs that exhibit permanent porosity and heterogeneous catalytic activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Economics of radioactive material transportation in the light-water reactor nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, S.A.; O'Malley, L.C.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents estimates of certain transportation costs, in 1979 dollars, associated with Light-Water Reactor (LWR) once-through and recycle fuel cycles. Shipment of fuel, high-level waste and low-level waste was considered. Costs were estimated for existing or planned transportation systems and for recommended alternate systems, based on the assumption of mature fuel cycles. The annual radioactive material transportation costs required to support a nominal 1000-MW(e) LWR in a once-through cycle in which spent fuel is shipped to terminal storage or disposal were found to be approx. $490,000. Analogous costs for an average reactor operating in a fuel cycle with uranium and plutonim recycle were determined to be approx. $770,000. These results assume that certain recommended design changes will occur in radioactive material shipping systems as a mature fuel cycle evolves

  12. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  13. Standard test methods for rockwell hardness of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests. 1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes: Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing Machines Annex A1 Rockwell Hardness Standardizing Machines Annex A2 Standardization of Rockwell Indenters Annex A3 Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test Blocks Annex A4 Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a Test Piece Annex A5 Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex Cylindrical Surfaces Annex A6 1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test. List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding to Tensile Strength Appendix X1 Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell Hardness Uncertainty Appendix X...

  14. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  15. Some aspects of hydrogen interaction with amorphous metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spivak, L.V.; Khonik, V.A.; Skryabina, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    For the first time is considered change of some properties of amorphous metallic materials (AMM) directly in the process of hydrogenation. A supposition is made that many found effects are consequence of accumulation and relief of internal stresses during hydrogenation, exposure or following annealing of AMM. Fe 81 B 14 Si 15 , Fe 52 Co 20 Si 15 B 13 , Fe 5 Co 70 Si 15 B 10 , Fe 5 Co 58 Ni 10 Si 11 B 16 , Co 67 Fe 4 Cr 7 Si 8 B 14 84KChSP, Ni 60 Nb 35 Ti 5 , Ni 60 Nb 40 and Pd 17,5 Cu 6 Si 16.5 AMM were investigated. 24 refs.; 4 figs

  16. Method of bonding metals to ceramics and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; DeWald, A.P.; Chienping Ju; Rigsbee, J.M.

    1993-01-05

    A composite and method of forming same wherein the composite has a non-metallic portion and an alloy portion wherein the alloy comprises an alkali metal and a metal which is an electrical conductor such as Cu, Ag, Al, Sn or Au and forms an alloy with the alkali metal. A cable of superconductors and composite is also disclosed.

  17. Biohydrometallurgical methods for metals recovery from waste materials

    OpenAIRE

    J. Willner; J. Kadukova; A. Fornalczyk; M. Saternus

    2015-01-01

    The article draws attention to recently conducted research of bacterial leaching of metals from various polymetallic waste. These wastes are the carriers of valuable metals: base metals, precious and platinum group metals (e.g. electronic waste, spent catalysts) or rare earth elements.

  18. Biohydrometallurgical methods for metals recovery from waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Willner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article draws attention to recently conducted research of bacterial leaching of metals from various polymetallic waste. These wastes are the carriers of valuable metals: base metals, precious and platinum group metals (e.g. electronic waste, spent catalysts or rare earth elements.

  19. Influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lei; Zhang, Shude; Yang, Songwang; Li, Xiaomin; Yu, Yu; Wei, Qingzhu; Ni, Zhichun; Li, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Interfaces have a significant impact on the performance of perovskite solar cells. This work investigated the influence of hole transport material/metal contact interface on photovoltaic behaviours of perovskite solar devices. Different hole material/metal contact interfaces were obtained by depositing the metal under different conditions. High incident kinetic energy metal particles were proved to penetrate and embed into the hole transport material. These isolated metal particles in hole transport materials capture holes and increase the apparent carrier transport resistance of the hole transport layer. Sample temperature was found to be of great significance in metal deposition. Since metal vapour has a high temperature, the deposition process accumulated a large amount of heat. The heat evaporated the additives in the hole transport layer and decreased the hole conductivity. On the other hand, high temperature may cause iodization of the metal contact.

  20. Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alamer, Badriah

    2015-01-01

    are known as Metal Organic Framework (MOFs). This exceptional new family of porous materials is fabricated by linkage of metal ions or clusters and organic linkers via strong bonds. MOFs have been awarded with remarkable interest and widely studied due

  1. A life cycle framework to support materials selection for Ecodesign: A case study on biodegradable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, I.; Peças, P.; Henriques, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle framework to support material selection in Ecodesign. • Early design stage estimates and sensitivity analyses based on process-based models. • Sensitivity analysis to product geometry, industrial context and EoL scenarios. • Cost and environmental performance comparison – BDP vs. fossil based polymers. • Best alternatives mapping integrating cost and environmental performances. - Abstract: Nowadays society compels designers to develop more sustainable products. Ecodesign directs product design towards the goal of reducing environmental impacts. Within Ecodesign, materials selection plays a major role on product cost and environmental performance throughout its life cycle. This paper proposes a comprehensive life cycle framework to support Ecodesign in material selection. Dealing with new materials and technologies in early design stages, process-based models are used to represent the whole life cycle and supply integrated data to assess material alternatives, considering cost and environmental dimensions. An integrated analysis is then proposed to support decision making by mapping the best alternative materials according to the importance given to upstream and downstream life phases and to the environmental impacts. The proposed framework is applied to compare the life cycle performance of injection moulded samples made of four commercial biodegradable polymers with different contents of Thermo Plasticized Starch and PolyLactic Acid and a common fossil based polymer, Polypropylene. Instead of labelling materials just as “green”, the need to fully capture all impacts in the whole life cycle was shown. The fossil based polymer is the best economic alternative, but polymers with higher content of Thermo Plasticized Starch have a better environmental performance. However, parts geometry and EoL scenarios play a major role on the life cycle performance of candidate materials. The selection decision is then supported by mapping

  2. Steam water cycle chemistry of liquid metal cooled innovative nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurmanov, Victor; Lemekhov, Vadim; Smykov, Vladimir

    2012-09-01

    The Federal Target Program (FTP) of Russian Federation 'Nuclear Energy Technologies of the New Generation for 2010-2015 and for Perspective up to 2020' is aimed at development of advanced nuclear energy technologies on the basis of closed fuel cycle with fast reactors. There are advanced fast reactor technologies of the 4. generation with liquid metal cooled reactors. Development stages of maturity of fast sodium cooled reactor technology in Russia includes experimental reactors BR-5/10 (1958-2002) and BOR-60 (since 1969), nuclear power plants (NPPs) with BN-350 (1972-1999), BN-600 (since 1980), BN-800 (under construction), BN-1200 (under development). Further stage of development of fast sodium cooled reactor technology in Russia is commercialization. Lead-bismuth eutectic fast reactor technology has been proven at industrial scale for nuclear submarines in former Soviet Union. Lead based technology is currently under development and need for experimental justification. Current status and prospects of State Corporation 'Rosatom' participation in GIF activities was clarified at the 31. Meeting of Policy Group of the International Forum 'Generation-IV', Moscow, May 12-13, 2011. In June, 2010, 'Rosatom' joined the Sodium Fast Reactor Arrangement as an authorized representative of the Russian Government. It was also announced the intention of 'Rosatom' to sign the Memorandum on Lead Fast Reactor based on Russia's experience with lead-bismuth and lead cooled fast reactors. In accordance with the above FTP some innovative liquid metal cooled reactors of different design are under development in Russia. Gidropress, well known as WER designer, develops innovative lead-bismuth eutectic cooled reactor SVBR-100. NIKIET develops innovative lead cooled reactor BRESTOD-300. Some other nuclear scientific centres are also involved in this activity, e.g. Research and Development Institute for Power Engineering (RDIPE). Optimum

  3. Metal- and Carbon-Based Materials as Heterogeneous Electrocatalysts for CO₂ Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azam; Ullah, Haseeb; Nasir, Jamal Abdul; Shuda, Suzanne; Chen, Wei; Khan, M Abdullah

    2018-05-01

    Climate change caused by continuous rising level of CO2 and the depletion of fossil fuels reserves has made it highly desirable to electrochemically convert CO2 into fuels and commodity chemicals. Implementing this approach will close the carbon cycle by recycling CO2 providing a sustainable way to store energy in the chemical bonds of portable molecular fuels. In order to make the process commercially viable, the challenge of slow kinetics of CO2 electroreduction and low energy efficiency of the process need to be addressed. To this end, this review summarizes the progress made in the past few years in the development of heterogeneous electrocatalysts with a focus on nanostructured material for CO2 reduction to CO, HCOOH/HCOO-, CH2O, CH4, H2C2O4/HC2O-4, C2H4, CH3OH, CH3CH2OH, etc. The electrocatalysts presented here are classified into metals, metal alloys, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides and carbon based materials on the basis of their elemental composition, whose performance is discussed in light of catalyst activity, product selectivity, Faradaic efficiency (FE), catalytic durability and in selected cases mechanism of CO2 electroreduction. The effect of particle size, morphology and solution-electrolyte type and composition on the catalyst property/activity is also discussed and finally some strategies are proposed for the development of CO2 electroreduction catalysts. The aim of this article is to review the recent advances in the field of CO2 electroreduction in order to further facilitate research and development in this area.

  4. Damage mechanisms and metallic materials development in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yugui; Liu, Wei; Yao, Zhiming; Ke, Wei

    2002-01-01

    The investigation on the synergistic effects among corrosion, slurry erosion and cavitation erosion has special significance for hydraulic turbines operated in Yangtze River and Yellow River where the high concentration solid particles exist in water. Two typical metallic materials i.e. Cr-Mn-N stainless steel and Ni-Ti shapememory-alloy, and two typical materials used for hydraulic turbines 20SiMn and 0Cr13Ni5Mo as compared materials were selected in order to investigate the roles of work-hardening ability and martensitic transformation as well as pseudoelastics in damage mechanism in multiphase flow. Both modified rotating disk rig and ultrasonic vibration facility were used to simulate the possible damage mechanism of materials in multiphase flow. The effects of corrosion on cavitation erosion were investigated through adding 3wt% NaCl. The degradation mechanism was analyzed by electrochemical test, SEM observation, hardness and roughness measurement. The results showed that there was a strong synergistic interaction among electrochemical corrosion, slurry erosion and cavitation erosion for 20SiMn in liquid-solid two-phase medium. In contrast, corrosion played little role for 0Cr13Ni5Mo. Cr-Mn-N stainless steel with high Mn content showed better resistance to cavitation erosion and slurry erosion than 0Cr13Ni5Mo, which was mainly due to its good work-hardening ability as well as strain-induced martensite transformation. The cavitation micro-cracks for Cr-Mn-N stainless steel were parallel to the specimen surface in contrast with 0Cr13Ni5Mo whose micro-cracks were perpendicular to the surface. Ni-Ti alloy with pseudoelasticity showed excellent resistance to combined interaction of cavitation erosion and slurry erosion

  5. Solar Cycle Response and Long-Term Trends in the Mesospheric Metal Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, E. C. M.; Plane, J. M. C.; Chipperfield, M.; Feng, W.; Marsh, D. R.; Hoffner, J.; Janches, D.

    2016-01-01

    The meteoric metal layers (Na, Fe, and K) which form as a result of the ablation of incoming meteors act as unique tracers for chemical and dynamical processes that occur within the upper mesosphere lower thermosphere region. In this work, we examine whether these metal layers are sensitive Fe indicators of decadal long-term changes within the upper atmosphere. Output from a whole-atmosphere climate model is used to assess the response of the Na, K, and Fe layers across a 50 year period (1955-2005). At short timescales, the K layer has previously been shown to exhibit a very different seasonal behavior compared to the other metals. Here we show that this unusual behavior is also exhibited at longer time scales (both the 11 year solar cycle and 50 year periods), where K displays a much more pronounced response to atmospheric temperature changes than either Na or Fe. The contrasting solar cycle behavior of the K and Na layers predicted by the model is confirmed using satellite and lidar observations for the period 2004-2013.

  6. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Surojo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount 0, 2, and 4 vol. %. Friction testing was performed to measure coefficient of friction by pressing surface specimen against the surface of rotating disc. The results show that cast iron chip and Cu short wire have effect on increasing coefficient of friction of brake shoe material. They form contact plateau at contact surface. At contact surface, the Cu short wires which have parallel orientation to the sliding contact were susceptible to detach from the matrix.

  7. An in situ method of creating metal oxide–carbon composites and their application as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zichao

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are actively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and their nanocomposites with carbon frequently show better performance in galvanostatic cycling studies, compared to the pristine metal oxide. An in situ, scalable method for creating a variety of transition metal oxide-carbon nanocomposites has been developed based on free-radical polymerization and cross-linking of poly(acrylonitrile) in the presence of the metal oxide precursor containing vinyl groups. The approach yields a cross-linked polymer network, which uniformly incorporates nanometre-sized transition metal oxide particles. Thermal treatment of the organic-inorganic hybrid material produces nearly monodisperse metal oxide nanoparticles uniformly embedded in a porous carbon matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling electrochemical measurements in a lithium half-cell are used to evaluate the electrochemical properties of a Fe3O 4-carbon composite created using this approach. These measurements reveal that when used as the anode in a lithium battery, the material exhibits stable cycling performance at both low and high current densities. We further show that the polymer/nanoparticle copolymerization approach can be readily adapted to synthesize metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites based on different particle chemistries for applications in both the anode and cathode of LIBs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Leading research on super metal. 2. Aluminium materials; Super metal no sendo kenkyu. 2. Ogata sozai (aluminium kei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Aluminum materials were surveyed to improve aluminum materials drastically so as to play an important role as prospective materials in response to the changing social environment. Aluminum materials have become the following metal materials to iron materials due to their light weight, durability, and profitability. Based on their merits and demerits, it was made clear how the aluminum materials contribute to the future resource saving, energy saving, and global environmental protection. Review was made on the two research and development themes which contribute to the creation of super metals. Hence, the themes proposed are focused on the creation of new aluminum mill products with ultra fine grain structure using very low temperature processing and on the creation of super-formability aluminum alloy sheets by advanced texture control using processing which can enhance the shearing stress. Results of the research and development are expected to provide wide applicability for other metals, ceramics, and polymers. 433 refs., 315 figs., 56 tabs.

  9. Synthesis by plasma of polymer-metal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez R, G.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is the design of an experimental set-up to synthesize polymer- metal composites by plasma with versatility in the conditions of synthesis. The main components are a vacuum system capable to reach up to 10 -2 mbar and valves and accessories to control the pressure in the system. In order to generate the electrical discharges and the plasma, an electrical circuit with an inductive connection at 13.56 MHz of frequency was constructed. The electric field partially ionizes the reactor atmosphere where the polymer-metal composites were synthesized. The reactor has two metallic electrodes, one in front of the other, where the particles electrically charged collide against the electrodes producing ablation on them. The polymer-metal composites were synthesized by means of an inductive connection at 13.56 MHz. Aniline, 3-chlorine-ethylene and electrodes of silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) were used in a cylindrical reactor coupled with an external coil to generate glow discharges. The average pressures were 6.15 X 10 -1 and 5.2 X 10 -1 mbar for the synthesis of Poly aniline (P An) and Poly chloroethylene (PE-CI), respectively. The synthesis was performed during 60 and 180 minutes for P An and PE-CI, respectively. The polymers were formed, as films, with an average thickness of 6.42 μm for P An and, in the case of PE-CI, with an approximately growing rate of 14 ηm/W. The power in the syntheses was 30, 50, 70 and 90 W for P An and 50, 100, 120, 140 170, and 200 W for PE-CI. The characterization of the polymer-metal composites was done by energy dispersive spectroscopy to study the composition and the relation of the elements involved in the synthesis. The morphology of the films was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The infrared analysis (IR) was done to study the chemicals bonds and the structure of these polymers. Another important study in these materials was the behavior of the electrical conductivity (σ), which was complemented

  10. Determination of the long-term release of metal(loid)s from construction materials using DGTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmukat, A; Duester, L; Ecker, D; Heininger, P; Ternes, T A

    2013-09-15

    Long-term leaching experiments are crucial to estimate the potential release of dangerous substances from construction materials. The application of Diffuse Gradients in Thin film (DGT) in static-batch experiments was tested to study the long-term release of metal(loid)s from construction materials for hydraulic engineering, for half a year. Long-term release experiments are essential to improve calculations of the life-time release for this materials. DGTs in batch experiments were found to be a space and labour efficient application, which enabled (i) to study, in a non-invasive manner, the total release of nine metal(loid)s for half a year, (ii) to differentiate between release mechanisms and (iii) to study mechanisms which were contrary to the release or caused experimental artefacts in the batch experiments. For copper slag (test material) it was found that eight metal(loid)s were released over the whole time period of 184 d. Cu, Ni and Pb were found to be released, predominantly caused by (the) weathering of sulphide minerals. Only for Zn a surface depletion mechanism was identified. The results from the long-term batch experiments deliver new information on the release of metal(loid)s during the life cycle of construction materials with regard to river basin management objectives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical factors affecting life cycle assessments of material choice for vehicle mass reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review examines the use of life-cycle assessments (LCAs) to compare different lightweight materials being developed to improve light-duty vehicle fuel economy. Vehicle manufacturers are designing passenger cars and light-duty trucks using lighter weight materials and design ...

  12. The global warming potential of building materials : An application of life cycle analysis in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Zanetti, Michela; Pierobon, Francesca; Gatto, Paola; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the global-warming potential of materials used to construct the walls of 3 building types - traditional, semimodern, and modern - in Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal, using the life-cycle assessment approach. Traditional buildings use local materials, mainly wood

  13. 78 FR 79328 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ..., 72, 74, and 150 [NRC-2009-0096 and NRC-2013-0195] RIN 3150-AI61 Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans... of this document. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may access...

  14. Primordial Molecular Cloud Material in Metal-Rich Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2016-03-01

    The menagerie of objects that make up our Solar System reflects the composition of the huge molecular cloud in which the Sun formed, a late addition of short-lived isotopes from an exploding supernova or stellar winds from a neighboring massive star, heating and/or alteration by water in growing planetesimals that modified and segregated the primordial components, and mixing throughout the Solar System. Outer Solar System objects, such as comets, have always been cold, hence minimizing the changes experienced by more processed objects. They are thought to preserve information about the molecular cloud. Elishevah Van Kooten (Natural History Museum of Denmark and the University of Copenhagen) and co-authors in Denmark and at the University of Hawai'i, measured the isotopic compositions of magnesium and chromium in metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites. They found that the meteorites preserve an isotopic signature of primordial molecular cloud materials, providing a potentially detailed record of the molecular cloud's composition and of materials that formed in the outer Solar System.

  15. Pressure Resistance Welding of High Temperature Metallic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerred, N.; Zirker, L.; Charit, I.; Cole, J.; Frary, M.; Butt, D.; Meyer, M.; Murty, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Pressure Resistance Welding (PRW) is a solid state joining process used for various high temperature metallic materials (Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys of MA957, MA754; martensitic alloy HT-9, tungsten etc.) for advanced nuclear reactor applications. A new PRW machine has been installed at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) in Idaho Falls for conducting joining research for nuclear applications. The key emphasis has been on understanding processing-microstructure-property relationships. Initial studies have shown that sound joints can be made between dissimilar materials such as MA957 alloy cladding tubes and HT-9 end plugs, and MA754 and HT-9 coupons. Limited burst testing of MA957/HT-9 joints carried out at various pressures up to 400 C has shown encouraging results in that the joint regions do not develop any cracking. Similar joint strength observations have also been made by performing simple bend tests. Detailed microstructural studies using SEM/EBSD tools and fatigue crack growth studies of MA754/HT-9 joints are ongoing.

  16. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  17. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  18. Metal-Free Oxidation of Primary Amines to Nitriles through Coupled Catalytic Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kyle M; Bobbitt, James M; Eldirany, Sherif A; Kissane, Liam E; Sheridan, Rose K; Stempel, Zachary D; Sternberg, Francis H; Bailey, William F

    2016-04-04

    Synergism among several intertwined catalytic cycles allows for selective, room temperature oxidation of primary amines to the corresponding nitriles in 85-98% isolated yield. This metal-free, scalable, operationally simple method employs a catalytic quantity of 4-acetamido-TEMPO (ACT; TEMPO=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine N-oxide) radical and the inexpensive, environmentally benign triple salt oxone as the terminal oxidant under mild conditions. Simple filtration of the reaction mixture through silica gel affords pure nitrile products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-13

    The supercritical carbon-dioxide (referred to as SC-CO2 hereon) Brayton cycle is being considered for power conversion systems for a number of nuclear reactor concepts, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR), fluoride saltcooled high temperature reactor (FHR), and high temperature gas reactor (HTGR), and several types of small modular reactors (SMR). The SC-CO2 direct cycle gas fast reactor has also been recently proposed. The SC-CO2 Brayton cycle (discussed in Chapter 1) provides higher efficiencies compared to the Rankine steam cycle due to less compression work stemming from higher SC-CO2 densities, and allows for smaller components size, fewer components, and simpler cycle layout. For example, in the case of a SFR using a SC-CO2 Brayton cycle instead of a steam cycle would also eliminate the possibility of sodium-water interactions. The SC-CO2 cycle has a higher efficiency than the helium Brayton cycle, with the additional advantage of being able to operate at lower temperatures and higher pressures. In general, the SC-CO2 Brayton cycle is well-suited for any type of nuclear reactor (including SMR) with core outlet temperature above ~ 500°C in either direct or indirect versions. In all the above applications, materials corrosion in high temperature SC-CO2 is an important consideration, given their expected lifetimes of 20 years or longer. Our discussions with National Laboratories and private industry early on in this project indicated materials corrosion to be one of the significant gaps in the implementation of SC-CO2 Brayton cycle. Corrosion can lead to a loss of effective load-bearing wall thickness of a component and can potentially lead to the generation of oxide particulate debris which can lead to three-body wear in turbomachinery components. Another environmental degradation effect that is rather unique to CO2 environment is the possibility

  20. Derivative criteria of plasticity anddurability of metal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustov Yuriy Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Criteria of plasticity and durability derivative of standard indicators of plasticity (δ, ψ and durability (σ , σ are offered. Criteria К and К follow from the equation of relative indicators of durability and plasticity. The purpose of the researches is the establishment of interrelation of derivative criteria with the Page indicator. The values of derivative criteria were defined for steels 50X and 50XH after processing by cold, and also for steels 50G2 and 38HGN after sorbitizing. It was established that the sum of the offered derivative criteria of plasticity and durability С considered for the steels is almost equal to unit and corresponds to a square root of relative durability and plasticity criterion C . Both criteria testify to two-unity opposite processes of deformation and resistance to deformation. By means of the equations for S and С it is possible to calculate an indicator of uniform plastic deformation of σ and through it to estimate synergetic criteria - true tension and specific energy of deformation and destruction of metal materials. On the basis of the received results the expressions for assessing the uniform and concentrated components of plastic deformation are established. The preference of the dependence of uniform relative lengthening from a cubic root of criterion К , and also to work of the criteria of relative lengthening and relative durability is given. The advantage of the formulas consists in simplicity and efficiency of calculation, in ensuring necessary accuracy of calculation of the size δ for the subsequent calculation of structural and power (synergetic criteria of reliability of metals.

  1. Certification of a copper metal reference material for neutron dosimetry. (EC nuclear reference material 522)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingelbrecht, C.; Pauwels, J.; Lievens, F.

    1993-01-01

    Copper metal of ≥ 99.995% nominal purity in the form of 0.1 and 1.0 mm thick foil and 0.5 and 1.0 mm diameter wire has been certified for its cobalt and silver mass fractions. The certified values are -1 and 0.95 ± 0.04 mg.kg -1 respectively, based on 66 results for cobalt and 88 results for silver obtained by nine laboratories using three methods. This reference material, EC-NRM 522, is intended for reactor neutron dosimetry. (authors). 14 refs., 1 annexe, 10 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  3. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  4. A Study of Deposition Coatings Formed by Electroformed Metallic Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hayashi

    Full Text Available Major joining methods of dental casting metal include brazing and laser welding. However, brazing cannot be applied for electroformed metals since heat treatment could affect the fit, and, therefore, laser welding is used for such metals. New methods of joining metals that do not impair the characteristics of electroformed metals should be developed. When new coating is performed on the surface of the base metal, surface treatment is usually performed before re-coating. The effect of surface treatment is clinically evaluated by peeling and flex tests. However, these testing methods are not ideal for deposition coating strength measurement of electroformed metals. There have been no studies on the deposition coating strength and methods to test electroformed metals. We developed a new deposition coating strength test for electroformed metals. The influence of the negative electrolytic method, which is one of the electrochemical surface treatments, on the strength of the deposition coating of electroformed metals was investigated, and the following conclusions were drawn: 1. This process makes it possible to remove residual deposits on the electrodeposited metal surface layer. 2. Cathode electrolysis is a simple and safe method that is capable of improving the surface treatment by adjustments to the current supply method and current intensity. 3. Electrochemical treatment can improve the deposition coating strength compared to the physical or chemical treatment methods. 4. Electro-deposition coating is an innovative technique for the deposition coating of electroformed metal.

  5. Wear Resistance of 3D Printing Resin Material Opposing Zirconia and Metal Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Man Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing offers many advantages in dental prosthesis manufacturing. This study evaluated the wear resistance of 3D printing resin material compared with milling and conventional resin materials. Sixty substrate specimens were prepared with three types of resin materials: 3D printed resin, milled resin, and self-cured resin. The 3D printed specimens were printed at a build angle of 0° and 100 μm layer thickness by digital light processing 3D printing. Two kinds of abraders were made of zirconia and CoCr alloy. The specimens were loaded at 5 kg for 30,000 chewing cycles with vertical and horizontal movements under thermocycling condition. The 3D printed resin did not show significant difference in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear compared to the milled and the self-cured resins. No significant difference was revealed depending on the abraders in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear. In SEM views, the 3D printed resin showed cracks and separation of inter-layer bonds when opposing the metal abrader. The results suggest that the 3D printing using resin materials provides adequate wear resistance for dental use.

  6. Wear Resistance of 3D Printing Resin Material Opposing Zirconia and Metal Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Man; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Joo-Hee

    2018-06-20

    3D printing offers many advantages in dental prosthesis manufacturing. This study evaluated the wear resistance of 3D printing resin material compared with milling and conventional resin materials. Sixty substrate specimens were prepared with three types of resin materials: 3D printed resin, milled resin, and self-cured resin. The 3D printed specimens were printed at a build angle of 0° and 100 μm layer thickness by digital light processing 3D printing. Two kinds of abraders were made of zirconia and CoCr alloy. The specimens were loaded at 5 kg for 30,000 chewing cycles with vertical and horizontal movements under thermocycling condition. The 3D printed resin did not show significant difference in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear compared to the milled and the self-cured resins. No significant difference was revealed depending on the abraders in the maximal depth loss or the volume loss of wear. In SEM views, the 3D printed resin showed cracks and separation of inter-layer bonds when opposing the metal abrader. The results suggest that the 3D printing using resin materials provides adequate wear resistance for dental use.

  7. Materials safeguards and accountability in the low enriched uranium conversion-fabrication sector of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.; Nilson, R.; Jaech, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Today materials accounting in the low enriched conversion-fabrication sector of the LWR fuel cycle is of increased importance. Low enriched uranium is rapidly becoming a precious metal with current dollar values in the range of one dollar per gram comparing with gold and platinum at 7-8 dollars per gram. In fact, people argue that its dollar value exceeds its safeguards value. Along with this increased financial incentive for better material control, the nuclear industry is faced with the impending implementation of international safeguards and increased public attention over its ability to control nuclear materials. Although no quantity of low enriched uranium (LEU) constitutes a practical nuclear explosive, its control is important to international safeguards because of plutonium production or further enrichment to an explosive grade material. The purpose of the paper is to examine and discuss some factors in the area of materials safeguards and accountability as they apply to the low enriched uranium conversion-fabrication sector. The paper treats four main topics: basis for materials accounting; our assessment of the proposed new IAEA requirements; adequacy of current practices; and timing and direction of future modifications

  8. Multifunctional Metallic and Refractory Materials for Energy Efficient Handling of Molten Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingbo Liu; Ever Barbero; Bruce Kang; Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan; James Headrick; Carl Irwin

    2009-02-06

    The goal of the project was to extend the lifetime of hardware submerged in molten metal by an order of magnitude and to improve energy efficiency of molten metal handling process. Assuming broad implementation of project results, energy savings in 2020 were projected to be 10 trillion BTU/year, with cost savings of approximately $100 million/year. The project team was comprised of materials research groups from West Virginia University and the Missouri University of Science and Technology formerly University of Missouri – Rolla, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, International Lead and Zinc Research Organization, Secat and Energy Industries of Ohio. Industry partners included six suppliers to the hot dip galvanizing industry, four end-user steel companies with hot-dip Galvanize and/or Galvalume lines, eight refractory suppliers, and seven refractory end-user companies. The results of the project included the development of: (1) New families of materials more resistant to degradation in hot-dip galvanizing bath conditions were developed; (2) Alloy 2020 weld overlay material and process were developed and applied to GI rolls; (3) New Alloys and dross-cleaning procedures were developed for Galvalume processes; (4) Two new refractory compositions, including new anti-wetting agents, were identified for use with liquid aluminum alloys; (5) A new thermal conductivity measurement technique was developed and validated at ORNL; (6) The Galvanizing Energy Profiler Decision Support System (GEPDSS)at WVU; Newly Developed CCW Laser Cladding Shows Better Resistance to Dross Buildup than 316L Stainless Steel; and (7) A novel method of measuring the corrosion behavior of bath hardware materials. Project in-line trials were conducted at Southwire Kentucky Rod and Cable Mill, Nucor-Crawfordsville, Nucor-Arkansas, Nucor-South Carolina, Wheeling Nisshin, California Steel, Energy Industries of Ohio, and Pennex Aluminum. Cost, energy, and environmental benefits resulting from the project

  9. Levels of immunoreactive inhibin-like material in urine during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandekar, S.P.; Vanage, G.R.; Arbatti, N.J.; Sheth, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    Using a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay, the authors determined levels of inhibinlike material in the urine of eight healthy women with normal menstrual cycle length of 28 +- 4 days. The results revealed a cyclic variation in urinary immunoreactive inhibin levels during the menstrual cycles, with a sharp rise in levels three to four days prior to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks. These levels of immunoreactive inhibin may thus serve as a parameter to detect impending LH surge. (author)

  10. Materials damaging and rupture - Volumes 1-2. General remarks, metallic materials. Non-metallic materials and biomaterials, assemblies and industrial problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, M.; Bompard, P.

    2009-01-01

    The rupture and damaging of materials and structures is almost always and unwanted events which may have catastrophic consequences. Even if the mechanical failure causes can often be analyzed using a thorough knowledge of materials behaviour, the forecasting and prevention of failures remain difficult. While the macroscopic mechanical behaviour is often the result of average effects at the structure or microstructure scale, the damage is very often the result of the combination of load peaks, of localization effects and of microstructure defects. This book, presented in two volumes, takes stock of the state-of-the-art of the knowledge gained in the understanding and modelling of rupture and damaging phenomena of materials and structure, mostly of metallic type. It gives an outline of the available knowledge for other classes of materials (ceramics, biomaterials, geo-materials..) and for different types of applications (aeronautics, nuclear industry). Finally, it examines the delicate problem, but very important in practice, of the behaviour of assemblies. Content: Vol.1 - physical mechanisms of materials damaging and rupture; rupture mechanics; cyclic plasticity and fatigue crack growth; fatigue crack propagation; environment-induced cracking; contacts and surfaces. Vol.2 - glasses and ceramics; natural environments: soils and rocks; mechanical behaviour of biological solid materials: the human bone; contribution of simulation to the understanding of rupture mechanisms; assemblies damaging and rupture; industrial cases (behaviour of PWR pressure vessel steels, and thermal and mechanical stresses in turbojet engines). (J.S.)

  11. Enhancement of the lithium cycling capability using Li–Zn alloy substrate for lithium metal batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen; Yang, Yifu; Shao, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Li-Zn alloy substrate is novelly formed by Li electrodeposition on the Zn substrate precursor. • The coulombic efficiency of Li deposition/stripping on the Li-Zn alloy substrate remains high at 96.7% after 400 cycles. • The SEI film formed during the formation of Li-Zn alloy is stable during Li deposition/stripping cycling on the Li-Zn substrate. • The exchange current density of Li deposition on the Li-Zn substrate is 9.21 × 10 −4 A cm −2 which is nearly eight times larger than that on the Cu substrate. - Abstract: The cycling performance of a Li metal electrode in rechargeable Li batteries is studied using a novelly formed Li–Zn alloy as a substrate. A Zn layer electrodeposited on a Cu disk with ultrasonic assistance is used as a substrate precursor. Li electrodeposition followed to form the Li–Zn alloy. The morphologies of the substrate before and after Li deposition and stripping are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrochemical properties of the substrate are investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The growth states of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) films of Li deposits on the Li–Zn alloy and Cu surfaces are compared by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); exchange current densities of Li electrodeposition on Cu, Zn, and Li–Zn alloy substrates are also compared based on tests of constant current pulse deposition. The efficiency of Li deposition/stripping on the Li–Zn alloy substrate remains high at 96.7% after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.1 mA cm −2 and 250 cycles at the current density of 0.2 mA cm −2 . These results can be attributed to the formation of a stable SEI film on the Li–Zn substrate and the high exchange current density of Li deposition and stripping on this substrate. The Li–Zn alloy proposed in this work may be a perfect substrate for enhancing the cycling capability of Li metal electrode

  12. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2013-09-15

    Copper-indium-gallium-selenium-sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS₂ p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilising the emergency planning cycle for the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.

    2004-01-01

    As a world leader in the transport of radioactive material (RAM) British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and its subsidiary Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) recognise the importance of adopting the emergency planning cycle. The emergency response arrangements prepared and maintained in support of the International Transport business have been developed through this cycle to ensure that their emergency response section may achieve its aim and that the business unit is able to respond to any International Transport related incident in a swift, combined and co-ordinated manner. This paper outlines the eight key stages of the planning cycle and the experience that BNFL has gained in respect of its emergency response activities

  14. Development and application of basis database for materials life cycle assessment in china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqing; Gong, Xianzheng; Liu, Yu

    2017-03-01

    As the data intensive method, high quality environmental burden data is an important premise of carrying out materials life cycle assessment (MLCA), and the reliability of data directly influences the reliability of the assessment results and its application performance. Therefore, building Chinese MLCA database is the basic data needs and technical supports for carrying out and improving LCA practice. Firstly, some new progress on database which related to materials life cycle assessment research and development are introduced. Secondly, according to requirement of ISO 14040 series standards, the database framework and main datasets of the materials life cycle assessment are studied. Thirdly, MLCA data platform based on big data is developed. Finally, the future research works were proposed and discussed.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of metal - metal oxide nano structured electrode materials for electrolysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoevska-Gogovska, Dafinka

    2012-01-01

    hypo-hyper d-interaction between Ru and Ti0 2 - In some systems the existence of Co(II) was indicated, most probably as Co(OH) 2 , and of small amount of Co(0). By means of TEM and SEM microscopic study the shape and size of created particles were determined. So, it was found that the carbon nano tubes diameter is about 20 nm. The existence of interweaved filiform aggregates of MWCNTs with large empty space between them was determined, a phenomenon that does not exists when the carrier is of the traditional Vulcan XC-72 with spherical aggregates and less empty space in between. Except of the inter-particulate porosity, the trans-particulate porosity (along the nano tubes) was identified too. With infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) it was demonstrated that the difference in the activity of tested materials is not due to the increased hypo-hyper d-interaction, but to other factors, as a.g. the initial intrinsic activity of metallic systems and the size of the metallic phase in the catalysts. Electrochemical characterization was performed by means of cyclic voltammetry, potentiodynamic method and stationary galvanostatic method in alkaline and PEM hydrogen electrolyser. The achieved catalytic activity for HER in the alkaline electrolyser decreased as follows: Ru > CoRuPt (4:0,5:0,5) > CoRu (1:1) > CoRu (4:1) > Co. In the PEM electrolyser the rating was some different, i.e.: CoRuPt (4:0,5:0,5) > CoPt (1:1) > Pt > CoRu (1:1) > Ru > CoRu (4:1). For OER the rating determined in the PEM electrolyser was as follows: CoRu (1:1) > Ru > CoRu (4:1) > Pt > CoRuPt (4:0,5:0,5) > CoPt (1:1). (Author)

  16. Comparative study of material loss at the taper interface in retrieved metal-on-polyethylene and metal-on-metal femoral components from a single manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Paul; Racasan, Radu; Bhattacharya, Saugatta; Blunt, Liam; Isaac, Graham

    2017-08-01

    There have been a number of reports on the occurrence of taper corrosion and/or fretting and some have speculated on a link to the occurrence of adverse local tissue reaction specifically in relation to total hip replacement which have a metal-on-metal bearing. As such a study was carried out to compare the magnitude of material loss at the taper in a series of retrieved femoral heads used in metal-on-polyethylene bearings with that in a series of retrieved heads used in metal-on-metal bearings. A total of 36 metal-on-polyethylene and 21 metal-on-metal femoral components were included in the study all of which were received from a customer complaint database. Furthermore, a total of nine as-manufactured femoral components were included to provide a baseline for characterisation. All taper surfaces were assessed using an established corrosion scoring method and measurements were taken of the female taper surface using a contact profilometry. In the case of metal-on-metal components, the bearing wear was also assessed using coordinate metrology to determine whether or not there was a relationship between bearing and taper material loss in these cases. The study found that in this cohort the median value of metal-on-polyethylene taper loss was 1.25 mm 3 with the consequent median value for metal-on-metal taper loss being 1.75 mm 3 . This study also suggests that manufacturing form can result in an apparent loss of material from the taper surface determined to have a median value of 0.59 mm 3 . Therefore, it is clear that form variability is a significant confounding factor in the measurement of material loss from the tapers of femoral heads retrieved following revision surgery.

  17. ANDRA - Referential Materials. Volume 1: Context and scope; Volume 2: Argillaceous materials; Volume 3: Cementitious materials; Volume 4: The corrosion of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This huge document gathers four volumes. The first volume presents some generalities about materials used in the storage of radioactive materials (definition, design principle, current choices and corresponding storage components, general properties of materials and functions of the corresponding storage components, physical and chemical solicitations experienced by materials in a storage), and the structure and content of the other documents. The second volume addresses argillaceous materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage, and about their design. It presents and comments the crystalline and chemical, and physical and chemical characteristics of swelling argillaceous materials and minerals, describes how these swelling argillaceous materials are shaped and set up, presents and comments physical properties (hydraulic, mechanical and thermal properties) of these materials, comments and discusses the modelling of the geo-chemical behaviour, and their behaviour in terms of containment and transport of radionuclides. The third volume addresses cementitious materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage, and about their definition and specifications. It presents some more detailed generalities (cement definition and composition, hydration, microstructure of hydrated cements, adjuvants), presents and comments their physical properties (fresh concrete structure and influence of composition, main aimed properties in the hardened status, transfer, mechanical, and thermal properties, shaping and setting up of these materials, technical solutions for hydraulic works). The fourth volume addresses the corrosion of metallic materials. It presents some generalities about these materials in the context of a deep geological storage of radioactive materials. It presents metallic materials and discusses their corrosion behaviour. It describes the peculiarities

  18. Fractal Model for Acoustic Absorbing of Porous Fibrous Metal Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the changing rules between sound absorbing performance and geometrical parameters of porous fibrous metal materials (PFMMs, this paper presents a fractal acoustic model by incorporating the static flow resistivity based on Biot-Allard model. Static flow resistivity is essential for an accurate assessment of the acoustic performance of the PFMM. However, it is quite difficult to evaluate the static flow resistivity from the microstructure of the PFMM because of a large number of disordered pores. In order to overcome this difficulty, we firstly established a static flow resistivity formula for the PFMM based on fractal theory. Secondly, a fractal acoustic model was derived on the basis of the static flow resistivity formula. The sound absorption coefficients calculated by the presented acoustic model were validated by the values of Biot-Allard model and experimental data. Finally, the variation of the surface acoustic impedance, the complex wave number, and the sound absorption coefficient with the fractal dimensions were discussed. The research results can reveal the relationship between sound absorption and geometrical parameters and provide a basis for improving the sound absorption capability of the PFMMs.

  19. Metal alkoxides as starting materials for hydrolysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, Omaima Awad

    1999-12-01

    In this thesis the preparation of some metal alkoxides and their hydrolysis products were studied. The characteristic of each prepared alkoxides and their hydrolyzates were determined. Tetra ethoxysilane was prepared by the elemental route (the reaction of silicon powder with liquid ethanol) in the presence of tin ethoxide as a catalyst. The use of tin alkoxide is considered one of the most developed ways used recently in chemistry, compared to the usage of acids and bases as catalyst previously. It had been confirmed by the usage of (infrared) IR spectroscopy, the structure of the prepared material. Also tin isopropoxide had been prepared and hydrolyzed. Ethoxides of aluminium, magnesium and tin had been prepared by the elemental route. The gelation product had been analyzed. tetraethoxysilane had been also prepared by the halosilane route. Isopropoxide of each aluminium, magnesium and tin had been synthesized, hydrolyzed, allowed to gel and analyzed by IR (infrared) spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography. However, results obtained indicated that tin ethoxide is an effective catalyst in the direct synthesis of tetraethoxysilane from silicon powder and liquid ethanol. Gas-liquid chromatography, infra-red (IR) analysis showed that the final reaction product was tetraethoxysilane. (Author)

  20. Research process of nondestructive testing pitting corrosion in metal material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo ZHANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitting corrosion directly affects the usability and service life of metal material, so the effective nondestructive testing and evaluation on pitting corrosion is of great significance for fatigue life prediction because of data supporting. The features of pitting corrosion are elaborated, and the relation between the pitting corrosion parameters and fatigue performance is pointed out. Through introducing the fundamental principles of pitting corrosion including mainly magnetic flux leakage inspection, pulsed eddy current and guided waves, the research status of nondestructive testing technology for pitting corrosion is summarized, and the key steps of nondestructive testing technologies are compared and analyzed from the theoretical model, signal processing to industrial applications. Based on the analysis of the signal processing specificity of different nondestructive testing technologies in detecting pitting corrosion, the visualization combined with image processing and signal analysis are indicated as the critical problems of accurate extraction of pitting defect information and quantitative characterization for pitting corrosion. The study on non-contact nondestructive testing technologies is important for improving the detection precision and its application in industries.

  1. Degradation of materials under conditions of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production - part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, S.J.; Searle, H.; Guerout, F.

    2011-01-01

    A capsule method was employed to screen a number of materials for degradation under selected conditions of the sulphur-iodine (SI) and the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycles. A summary of the results of an experimental investigation is given. The recommendations for the selection of the materials required for the construction of the electrolyser subsystem of the copper chlorine hybrid cycle are presented and discussed with the associated rationale. Some remaining uncertainties are illustrated on the basis of the experimental evidence gathered. (author)

  2. U. S. Fuel Cycle Technologies R and D Program for Next Generation Nuclear Materials Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M. C.; Vega, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies R and D program under the Office of Nuclear Energy is working to advance technologies to enhance both the existing and future fuel cycles. One thrust area is in developing enabling technologies for next generation nuclear materials management under the Materials Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies (MPACT) Campaign where advanced instrumentation, analysis and assessment methods, and security approaches are being developed under a framework of Safeguards and Security by Design. An overview of the MPACT campaign's activities and recent accomplishments is presented along with future plans

  3. U.S. FUEL CYCLE TECHNOLOGIES R&D PROGRAM FOR NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. MILLER

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Technologies R&D program under the Office of Nuclear Energy is working to advance technologies to enhance both the existing and future fuel cycles. One thrust area is in developing enabling technologies for next generation nuclear materials management under the Materials Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies (MPACT Campaign where advanced instrumentation, analysis and assessment methods, and security approaches are being developed under a framework of Safeguards and Security by Design. An overview of the MPACT campaign's activities and recent accomplishments is presented along with future plans.

  4. Solvent properties of hydrazine in the preparation of metal chalcogenide bulk materials and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min; Mitzi, David B

    2009-08-21

    A combination of unique solvent properties of hydrazine enables the direct dissolution of a range of metal chalcogenides at ambient temperature, rendering this an extraordinarily simple and soft synthetic approach to prepare new metal chalcogenide-based materials. The extended metal chalcogenide parent framework is broken up during this process, and the resulting metal chalcogenide building units are re-organized into network structures (from 0D to 3D) based upon their interactions with the hydrazine/hydrazinium moieties. This Perspective will review recent crystal and materials chemistry developments within this family of compounds and will briefly discuss the utility of this approach in metal chalcogenide thin-film deposition.

  5. Analytical methods for fissionable materials in the nuclear fuel cycle. Covering June 1974--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1975-10-01

    Research progress is reported on method development for the dissolution of difficult-to-dissolve materials, the automated analysis of plutonium and uranium, the preparation of plutonium materials for the Safeguard Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) Program, and the analysis of HTGR fuel and SALE uranium materials. The previously developed Teflon-container, metal-shell apparatus was applied to the dissolution of various nuclear materials. Gas--solid reactions, mainly using chlorine at elevated temperatures, are promising for separating uranium from refractory compounds. An automated spectrophotometer designed for determining plutonium and uranium was tested successfully. Procedures were developed for this instrument to analyze uranium--plutonium mixtures and the effects of diverse ions upon the analysis of plutonium and uranium were further established. A versatile apparatus was assembled to develop electrotitrimetric methods that will serve as the basis for precise automated determinations of plutonium. Plutonium materials prepared for the Safeguard Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) Program were plutonium oxide, uranium--plutonium mixed oxide, and plutonium metal. Improvements were made in the methods used for determining uranium in HTGR fuel materials and SALE uranium materials. Plutonium metal samples were prepared, characterized, and distributed, and half-life measurements were in progress as part of an inter-ERDA-laboratory program to measure accurately the half-lives of long-lived plutonium isotopes

  6. Recent materials compatibility studies in refractory metal-alkali metal systems for space power applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Davies, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced Rankine and other proposed space power systems utilize refractory metals in contact with both single-phase and two-phase alkali metals at elevated temperatures. A number of recent compatibility experiments are described which emphasize the excellent compatibility of refractory metals with the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium, under a variety of environmental conditions. The alkali metal compatibilities of tantalum-, columbium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-base alloys are discussed.

  7. New Nuclear Materials Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    One of the major aims of the International Atomic Energy Agency in furthering the peaceful uses of atomic energy is to encourage the development of economical nuclear power. Certainly, one of the more obvious methods of producing economical nuclear power is the development of economical fuels that can be used at high temperatures for long periods of time, and which have sufficient strength and integrity to operate under these conditions without permitting the release of fission products. In addition it is desirable that after irradiation these new fuels be economically reprocessed to reduce further the cost of the fuel cycle. As nuclear power becomes more and more competitive with conventional power the interest in new and more efficient higher-temperature fuels naturally increases rapidly. For these reasons, the Agency organized a Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non-Metallic Fuel Elements, which was held from 1 to 5 July 1963 at the International Hotel, Prague, with the assistance and co-operation of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. A total of 151 scientists attended, from 23 countries and 4 international organizations. The participants heard and discussed more than 60 scientific papers

  8. Metallic Nanocomposites as Next-Generation Thermal Interface Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Charles C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagabandi, Nirup [Texas A& M University; Oh, Jun K. [Texas A& M University; Akbulut, Mustafa [Texas A& M University; Yegin, Cengiz [Texas A& M University

    2017-09-14

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are an integral and important part of thermal management in electronic devices. The electronic devices are becoming more compact and powerful. This increase in power processed or passing through the devices leads to higher heat fluxes and makes it a challenge to maintain temperatures at the optimal level during operation. Herein, we report a free standing nanocomposite TIM in which boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) are uniformly dispersed in copper matrices via an organic linker, thiosemicarbazide. Integration of these metal-organic-inorganic nanocomposites was made possible by a novel electrodeposition technique where the functionalized BNNS (f-BNNS) experience the Brownian motion and reach the cathode through diffusion, while the nucleation and growth of the copper on the cathode occurs via the electrochemical reduction. Once the f-BNNS bearing carbonothioyl/thiol groups on the terminal edges come into the contact with copper crystals, the chemisorption reaction takes place. We performed thermal, mechanical, and structural characterization of these nanocomposites using scanning electron microcopy (SEM), diffusive laser flash (DLF) analysis, phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectence (PSTTR), and nanoindentation. The nanocomposites exhibited a thermal conductivity ranging from 211 W/mK to 277 W/mK at a filler mass loading of 0-12 wt.percent. The nanocomposites also have about 4 times lower hardness as compared to copper, with values ranging from 0.27 GPa to 0.41 GPa. The structural characterization studies showed that most of the BNNS are localized at grain boundaries - which enable efficient thermal transport while making the material soft. PSTTR measurements revealed that the synergistic combinations of these properties yielded contact resistances on the order of 0.10 to 0.13 mm2K/W, and the total thermal resistance of 0.38 to 0.56 mm2K/W at bondline thicknesses of 30-50 um. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the

  9. Metallic Nanocomposites as Next-Generation Thermal Interface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Charles C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagabandi, Nirup [Texas A& M University; Oh, Jun Kyun [Texas A& M University; Akbulut, Mustafa [Texas A& M University; Yegin, Cengiz [Texas A& M University

    2017-07-27

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are an integral and important part of thermal management in electronic devices. The electronic devices are becoming more compact and powerful. This increase in power processed or passing through the devices leads to higher heat fluxes and makes it a challenge to maintain temperatures at the optimal level during operation. Herein, we report a free standing nanocomposite TIM in which boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) are uniformly dispersed in copper matrices via an organic linker, thiosemicarbazide. Integration of these metal-organic-inorganic nanocomposites was made possible by a novel electrodeposition technique where the functionalized BNNS (f-BNNS) experience the Brownian motion and reach the cathode through diffusion, while the nucleation and growth of the copper on the cathode occurs via the electrochemical reduction. Once the f-BNNS bearing carbonothioyl/thiol groups on the terminal edges come into the contact with copper crystals, the chemisorption reaction takes place. We performed thermal, mechanical, and structural characterization of these nanocomposites using scanning electron microcopy (SEM), diffusive laser flash (DLF) analysis, phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectence (PSTTR), and nanoindentation. The nanocomposites exhibited a thermal conductivity ranging from 211 W/mK to 277 W/mK at a filler mass loading of 0-12 wt.percent. The nanocomposites also have about 4 times lower hardness as compared to copper, with values ranging from 0.27 GPa to 0.41 GPa. The structural characterization studies showed that most of the BNNS are localized at grain boundaries - which enable efficient thermal transport while making the material soft. PSTTR measurements revealed that the synergistic combinations of these properties yielded contact resistances on the order of 0.10 to 0.13 mm2K/W, and the total thermal resistance of 0.38 to 0.56 mm2K/W at bondline thicknesses of 30-50 um. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the

  10. Determination of the mechanism and extent of surface degradation in Ni-based cathode materials after repeated electrochemical cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Hwang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We take advantage of scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to investigate the changes in near-surface electronic structure and quantify the degree of local degradation of Ni-based cathode materials with the layered structure (LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 and LiNi0.4Mn0.3Co0.3O2 after 20 cycles of delithiation and lithiation. Reduction of transition metals occurs in the near-surface region of cathode materials: Mn is the major element to be reduced in the case of relatively Mn-rich composition, while reduction of Ni ions is dominant in Ni-rich materials. The valences of Ni and Mn ions are complementary, i.e., when one is reduced, the other is oxidized in order to maintain charge neutrality. The depth of degradation zone is found to be much deeper in Ni-rich materials. This comparative analysis provides important insights needed for the devising of new cathode materials with high capacity as well as long lifetime.

  11. Synthesis by plasma of polymer-metal materials; Sintesis por plasma de materiales polimero-metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, G

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work is the design of an experimental set-up to synthesize polymer- metal composites by plasma with versatility in the conditions of synthesis. The main components are a vacuum system capable to reach up to 10{sup -2} mbar and valves and accessories to control the pressure in the system. In order to generate the electrical discharges and the plasma, an electrical circuit with an inductive connection at 13.56 MHz of frequency was constructed. The electric field partially ionizes the reactor atmosphere where the polymer-metal composites were synthesized. The reactor has two metallic electrodes, one in front of the other, where the particles electrically charged collide against the electrodes producing ablation on them. The polymer-metal composites were synthesized by means of an inductive connection at 13.56 MHz. Aniline, 3-chlorine-ethylene and electrodes of silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) were used in a cylindrical reactor coupled with an external coil to generate glow discharges. The average pressures were 6.15 X 10{sup -1} and 5.2 X 10{sup -1} mbar for the synthesis of Poly aniline (P An) and Poly chloroethylene (PE-CI), respectively. The synthesis was performed during 60 and 180 minutes for P An and PE-CI, respectively. The polymers were formed, as films, with an average thickness of 6.42 {mu}m for P An and, in the case of PE-CI, with an approximately growing rate of 14 {eta}m/W. The power in the syntheses was 30, 50, 70 and 90 W for P An and 50, 100, 120, 140 170, and 200 W for PE-CI. The characterization of the polymer-metal composites was done by energy dispersive spectroscopy to study the composition and the relation of the elements involved in the synthesis. The morphology of the films was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The infrared analysis (IR) was done to study the chemicals bonds and the structure of these polymers. Another important study in these materials was the behavior of the electrical conductivity ({sigma

  12. Development, characterization and evaluation of materials for open cycle MHD. Quarterly report, June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.

    1979-10-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop, test, characterize, and evaluate materials for open-cycle, coal-fired MHD power generators. The specific immediate goals emphasize electrode and insulator materials, including: (1) testing and evaluation of the enhanced effects of alkali seed on materials in a dc electric field; (2) development and testing of improved electrodes and insulators with controlled microstructures, compositions and properties; and (3) characterization and evaluation of materials relating to both the US MHD Program and the US-USSR Cooperative Program for MHD power generators. Progress is reported

  13. System for Prevention, Detection and Response to Radioactive Materials in Scrap Metal in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarovska, O., E-mail: makarovska@hq.snrc.gov.ua [State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2011-07-15

    The State control system to prevent, detect and respond to cases of radioactive material in scrap metal is functioning in Ukraine. The system includes regulations for the safe and secure management of metal scrap and administrative and technical measures to prevent, detect and respond to cases of radioactive material in scrap metal. The key elements of prevention are the system of licensing and supervision in the sphere of radioactive material use and the State system for inventory, registration and control of radiation sources. Metal scrap management is licensed by the Ministry of Industrial Policy and one of the licence conditions is radiation control of the scrap metal. State supervision of the operations with metal scrap is provided by Ministry of Health and Ministry of Environmental Protection according to the regulation 'State sanitary-ecological standard for metal scrap management'. Specific standards exist for the export of metal scrap. Export consignments are followed by a certificate that proves the radiological safety of the metal. Ukrainian metallurgical plants provide an input radiation control of metal scrap and an output control of the produced metal. Thus, there exists a five barrier system of metal scrap control: border control; exclusion zone perimeter control; metal scrap dealers control; metallurgical plants (input control and output control of produced metal); and export consignments radiological certification. To regain control over orphan sources (including occasional radioactive material in the scrap metal) the 'procedure for interaction of executive authorities and involved legal entities in case of revealing of radiation sources in no legal use' was approved by a Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. The investigation of each case with feedback, information of involved bodies, safe and secure storage of restored radioactive material are provided according to this procedure. (author)

  14. Studying international fuel cycle robustness with the GENIUSv2 discrete facilities/materials fuel cycle systems analysis tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, P.H. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2009-06-15

    GENIUSv2 (Global Evaluation of Nuclear Infrastructure Utilization Scenarios, hereafter 'GENIUS') is a discrete-facilities/materials nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis tool currently under development at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. For a given scenario, it models nuclear fuel cycle facilities (reactors, fuel fabrication, enrichment, etc.), the institutions that own them (utilities and governments), and the regions in which those institutions operate (sub-national, national, and super-national entities). Facilities work together to provide each other with the materials they need. The results of each simulation include the electricity production in each region as well as operational histories of each facility and isotopic and facility histories of each material object. GENIUS users specify an initial condition and a facility deployment plan. The former describes each region and institution in the scenario as well as facilities that exist at the start. The latter specifies all the facilities that will be built over the course of the simulation (and by which institutions). Each region, institution, and facility can be assigned financial parameters such as tax and interest rates, and facilities also get assigned technical information about how they actually operate. Much of the power of the data model comes from the flexibility to model individual entities to a fine level of detail or to allow them to inherit region-, institution-, or facility-type-specific default parameters. Most importantly to the evaluation of regional, national, and international policies, users can also specify rules that define the affinity (or lack thereof) for trade of particular commodities between particular entities. For instance, these rules could dictate that a particular region or institution always buy a certain commodity (ore, enriched UF{sub 6}, fabricated fuel, etc.) from a particular region or institution, never buy from that region, or merely have a certain

  15. Electrochromic device containing metal oxide nanoparticles and ultraviolet blocking material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guillermo; Koo, Bonil; Gregoratto, Ivano; Basu, Sourav; Rosen, Evelyn; Holt, Jason; Thomsen, Scott

    2017-10-17

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant. The electrochromic device also includes nanoparticles containing one or more transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a solid state electrolyte, a counter electrode, and at least one protective layer to prevent degradation of the one or more nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) and visible radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  16. Charge transfer and redistribution at interfaces between metals and 2D materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Large potential steps are observed at the interfaces between metals and novel 2D materials. They can lower the work function by more than 1 eV, even when the two parts are only weakly interacting. In this thesis the transfer and redistribution of electrons in metal|2D material heterostructures are

  17. Metallic 1T phase MoS2 nanosheets as supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerce, Muharrem; Voiry, Damien; Chhowalla, Manish

    2015-04-01

    Efficient intercalation of ions in layered materials forms the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries and capacitors. Recent research has focused on the exfoliation of layered materials and then restacking the two-dimensional exfoliated nanosheets to form electrodes with enhanced electrochemical response. Here, we show that chemically exfoliated nanosheets of MoS2 containing a high concentration of the metallic 1T phase can electrochemically intercalate ions such as H(+), Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) with extraordinary efficiency and achieve capacitance values ranging from ∼400 to ∼700 F cm(-3) in a variety of aqueous electrolytes. We also demonstrate that this material is suitable for high-voltage (3.5 V) operation in non-aqueous organic electrolytes, showing prime volumetric energy and power density values, coulombic efficiencies in excess of 95%, and stability over 5,000 cycles. As we show by X-ray diffraction analysis, these favourable electrochemical properties of 1T MoS2 layers are mainly a result of their hydrophilicity and high electrical conductivity, as well as the ability of the exfoliated layers to dynamically expand and intercalate the various ions.

  18. Electric Resistance Tests on Compacted Clay Material under Dynamic Load Coupled with Dry-Wet Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of compacted clay material under dynamic load coupled with dry-wet cycling is one of the most important areas in the field of transportation. In this paper, experiments in terms of compacted clay under dynamic load coupled with dry-wet cycling are performed, and synchronous resistivity tests are also conducted. According to the test results, the influences of cumulative plastic strain, dry-wet cycles, and amplitudes on the soil resistivity are analyzed. Then a new damage factor based on resistivity is proposed to evaluate the long-term performance of compacted clay material. The result of research shows that the evolution of the soil resistivity can be divided into two stages, which has a contrary tendency with that of cumulative plastic strain. The dry-wet cycles and amplitudes have a significant effect on the damage of the compacted soil, which indicates that the dry-wet cycling of compacted soil materials should not be ignored in road engineering, especially in rainy and humid areas.

  19. Monitoring Low-Cycle Fatigue Material-Degradation by Ultrasonic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Himawan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Any system consisting of structural material often undergoes fatigue, which is caused by dynamic load cycle. As a structural system, nuclear power plant is very likely to have low-cycle fatigue at many of its components. Taking into account the importance of monitoring low-cycle fatigue on structural components to prevent them from getting failure, the authors have conducted a work to monitor material degradation caused by low-cycle fatigue by using ultrasonic method. An alloy of Cu-40Zn was used as a test specimen. Ultrasonic water immersion procedure was employed in this ultrasonic test. The probe used is a focusing type and has frequency as high as 15 MHz. The specimen area tested is in the middle part divided into 14 points × 23 points. The results, which were frequency spectrums, were analyzed using two parameters: frequency spectrum peak intensity and attenuation function gradient. The analysis indicates that peak intensity increases at the beginning of load cycle and then decreases. Meanwhile, gradient of attenuation function is lower at the beginning of fatigue process, and then consistently gets higher. It concludes that low-fatigue material degradation can be monitored by using ultrasonic method.

  20. Damage and failure modeling of lotus-type porous material subjected to low-cycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kramberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of low-cycle fatigue behaviour of lotus-type porous material is presented in this paper. Porous materials exhibit some unique features which are useful for a number of various applications. This paper evaluates a numerical approach for determining of damage initiation and evolution of lotus-type porous material with computational simulations, where the considered computational models have different pore topology patterns. The low-cycle fatigue analysis was performed by using a damage evolution law. The damage state was calculated and updated based on the inelastic hysteresis energy for stabilized cycle. Degradation of the elastic stifness was modeled using scalar damage variable. In order to examine crack propagation path finite elements with severe damage were deleted and removed from the mesh during simulation. The direct cyclic analysis capability in Abaqus/Standard was used for low-cycle fatigue analysis to obtain the stabilized response of a model subjected to the periodic loading. The computational results show a qualitative understanding of pores topology influence on low-cycle fatigue under transversal loading conditions in relation to pore orientation.

  1. New method of thermal cycling stability test of phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putra Nandy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Material (PCM is the most promising material as thermal energy storage nowadays. As thermal energy storage, examination on endurance of material for long-term use is necessary to be carried out. Therefore, thermal cycling test is performed to ensure thermal stability of PCM. This study have found a new method on thermal cycling test of PCM sample by using thermoelectric as heating and cooling element. RT 22 HC was used as PCM sample on this thermal cycling test. The new method had many advantages compared to some references of the same test. It just needed a small container for PCM sample. The thermoelectric could release heat to PCM sample and absorb heat from PCM sample uniformly, respectively, was called as heating and cooling process. Hence, thermoelectric had to be supported by a relay control device to change its polarity so it could heat and cool PCM sample alternately and automatically. On the other hand, the thermoelectric was cheap, easy to be found and available in markets. It can be concluded that new method of thermal cycling test by using thermoelectric as source of heating and cooling can be a new reference for performing thermal cycling test on PCM.

  2. Spectral and physical properties of metal in meteorite assemblages - implications of asteroid surface materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffey, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    One of the objectives of the present paper is related to a definition of the spectral contribution of the nickel-iron metal component in meteoritic assemblages. Another objective is the elucidation of the chemical, physical, and petrographic properties of the metal grains which affect the spectral signature in asteroid surface materials. It is pointed out that an improved understanding of the spectral and physical properties of metal in asteroid regoliths should permit an improved characterization of these objects, and, in particular, a better evaluation of the differentiated or undifferentiated nature of the S-type and M-type asteroids. Attention is given to the spectra of iron and nickel-iron metals, the spectral effects of metal in chondritic assemblages, the spectral reflectance of metal grains in ordinary chondrites, the nature of the surfaces of chondritic metal grains, the origin of coats on chondritic metal grains, and the fragmentation of metal on asteroid surfaces. 57 references

  3. Environmental Fatigue of Metallic Materials in Nuclear Power Plants - A Review of Korean Test Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Changheul; Jang, Hun; Hong, Jongdae [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyunchul [Doosan Heavy Industry and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Soon; Lee, Jaegon [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Environmental fatigue of the metallic components in light water reactors has been the subject of extensive research and regulatory interest in Korea and abroad. Especially, it was one of the key domestic issues for the license renewal of operating reactors and licensing of advanced reactors during the early 2000s. To deal with the environmental fatigue issue domestically, a systematic test program has been initiated and is still underway. The materials tested were SA508 Gr.1a low alloy steels, 316LN stainless steels, cast stainless steels, and an Alloy 690 and 52M weld. Through tests and subsequent analysis, the mechanisms of reduced low cycle fatigue life have been investigated for those alloys. In addition, the effects of temperature, dissolved oxygen level, and dissolved hydrogen level on low cycle fatigue behaviors have been investigated. In this paper, the test results and key analysis results are briefly summarized. Finally, an on-going test program for hot-bending of 347 stainless steel is introduced.

  4. Crosslinked Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline Composites as a Pseudocapacitive Material with High Cycling Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The poor cycling stability of polyaniline (PANI limits its practical application as a pseudocapacitive material due to the volume change during the charge-discharge procedure. Herein, crosslinked carbon nanotubes/polyaniline (C-CNTs/PANI composites had been designed by the in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of crosslinked carbon nanotubes (C-CNTs, which were obtained by coupling of the functionalized carbon nanotubes with 1,4-benzoquinone. The composite showed a specific capacitance of 294 F/g at the scan rate of 10 mV/s, and could retain 95% of its initial specific capacitance after 1000 CV cycles. Such high electrochemical cycling stability resulting from the crosslinked skeleton of the C-CNTs makes them potential electrode materials for a supercapacitor.

  5. Standard format and content for radiological contingency plans for fuel cycle and materials facilities. Regulatory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This report is issued as guidance to those fuel cycle and major materials licensees who are required by the NRC to prepare and submit a radiological contingency plan. This Standard Format has been prepared to help assure uniformity and completeness in the preparation of those plans

  6. Metallic Sn-Based Anode Materials: Application in High-Performance Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hangjun; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    With the fast-growing demand for green and safe energy sources, rechargeable ion batteries have gradually occupied the major current market of energy storage devices due to their advantages of high capacities, long cycling life, superior rate ability, and so on. Metallic Sn-based anodes are perceived as one of the most promising alternatives to the conventional graphite anode and have attracted great attention due to the high theoretical capacities of Sn in both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) (994 mA h g -1 ) and sodium-ion batteries (847 mA h g -1 ). Though Sony has used Sn-Co-C nanocomposites as its commercial LIB anodes, to develop even better batteries using metallic Sn-based anodes there are still two main obstacles that must be overcome: poor cycling stability and low coulombic efficiency. In this review, the latest and most outstanding developments in metallic Sn-based anodes for LIBs and SIBs are summarized. And it covers the modification strategies including size control, alloying, and structure design to effectually improve the electrochemical properties. The superiorities and limitations are analyzed and discussed, aiming to provide an in-depth understanding of the theoretical works and practical developments of metallic Sn-based anode materials.

  7. Risk associated with the transport of radioactive materials in the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Mairs, J.; Niel, C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out the regulatory framework within which nuclear fuel cycle materials are transported. It establishes the basic principles of those safety regulations and explains the graded approach to satisfying those requirements depending on the hazard of the radioactive contents. The paper outlines the minimum performance standards required by the Regulations. It covers the performance standards for Type C packages in a little more detail because these are new to the 1996 Edition of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and are less well reported elsewhere at present. The paper then gives approximate data on the number of shipments of radioactive materials that service the nuclear fuel cycles in France, Germany and the UK. The quantities are expressed as average annual quantities per GW el installed capacity. There is also a short discussion of the general performance standards required of Type B packages in comparison with tests that have simulated specific accident conditions involving particular packages. There follows a discussion on the probability of packages experiencing accident conditions that are comparable with the tests that Type B packages are required to withstand. Finally there is a summary of the implementation of the Regulations for sea and air transport and a description of ongoing work that may have a bearing on the future development of mode related Regulations. Nuclear fuel cycle materials are transported in accordance with strict and internationally agreed safety regulations which are the result of a permanent and progressive process based on social concern and on the advancement of knowledge provided by research and development. Transport operations take place in the public domain and some become high profile events in the management of these materials, attracting a lot of public, political and media attention. The risks associated with the transport of radioactive materials are low and it is important

  8. Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahmani, Johanne; Hodson, Mark E.; Black, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg -1 ), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg -1 , 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg -1 ). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites

  9. Effects of metals on life cycle parameters of the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nahmani@univ-metz.fr; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Two control and eight field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils were inoculated with Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Three, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after inoculation, earthworm survival, body weight, cocoon production and hatching rate were measured. Seventeen metals were analysed in E. fetida tissue, bulk soil and soil solution. Soil organic carbon content, texture, pH and cation exchange capacity were also measured. Cocoon production and hatching rate were more sensitive to adverse conditions than survival or weight change. Soil properties other than metal concentration impacted toxicity. The most toxic soils were organic-poor (1-10 g C kg{sup -1}), sandy soils (c. 74% sand), with intermediate metal concentrations (e.g. 7150-13,100 mg Pb kg{sup -1}, 2970-53,400 mg Zn kg{sup -1}). Significant relationships between soil properties and the life cycle parameters were determined. The best coefficients of correlation were generally found for texture, pH, Ag, Cd, Mg, Pb, Tl, and Zn both singularly and in multivariate regressions. Studies that use metal-amended artificial soils are not useful to predict toxicity of field multi-contaminated soils. - Soil pH, organic carbon content and texture can exert a greater influence on earthworm life cycle parameters than soil metal concentrations at metal-contaminated sites.

  10. Materials reliability in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    Operating experience of nuclear fuel cycle facilities has proved that the performance and availability of key equipment largely depend on the reliability of its construction materials. In general, the materials of construction have performed well in accordance with the design criteria of equipment. In some cases, however, materials failure problems have been encountered, the causes of which are related to their corrosion and mechanical degradation. In response to the growing interest in these topics, the IAEA convened the Technical Committee Meeting on ''Materials Reliability in the Back-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'' at its Headquarters from September 2 to 5, 1986. This Technical Document contains the 15 papers presented during the Meeting. Material aspects of the following fields of the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle are covered: interim and long-term storage of spent fuel; final disposal of spent fuel; storage and vitrification of High Level Liquid Wastes (HLLW); long-term storage of High Level Wastes (HLW); and spent fuel treatment

  11. Some technical aspects of the nuclear material accounting and control at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, O.A.; Babaev, N.S.; Gryazev, V.M.; Gadzhiev, G.I.; Gabeskiriya, V.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities of nuclear material accounting and control are discussed at nuclear facilities of fuel cycle (WWER-type reactor, fuel fabrication plant, reprocessing plant and uranium enrichment facility) and zero energy fast reactor facility. It is shown that for nuclear material control the main method is the accounting with the application isotopic correlations at the reprocessing plant and enrichment facility. Possibilities and limitations of the application of destructive and non-destructive methods are discussed for nuclear material determinations at fuel facilities and their role in the accounting and safeguards systems as well as possibilities of the application of neutron method at a zero energy fast reactor facility [ru

  12. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division for the period January 1, 1983, to June 30, 1984. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The emphasis of the program can be described as the scientific design of materials. The efforts are directed toward three classes of materials: high-temperature metallic alloys based on intermetallic compounds, structural ceramics, and radiation-resistant alloys

  13. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division for the period January 1, 1983, to June 30, 1984. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The emphasis of the program can be described as the scientific design of materials. The efforts are directed toward three classes of materials: high-temperature metallic alloys based on intermetallic compounds, structural ceramics, and radiation-resistant alloys.

  14. Heat-processing method and facility for helium-containing metal material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takahiko; Kodama, Hideyo; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Aono, Yasuhisa; Nagata, Tetsuya; Hattori, Shigeo; Kaneda, Jun-ya; Ono, Shigeki.

    1996-01-01

    Electric current is supplied to an objective portion of a He-containing metal material to be applied with heat processing without causing melting, to decrease the He content of the portion. Subsequently, the defect portion of the tissues of the He-containing metal is modified by heating the portion with melting. Since electric current can be supplied to the metal material in a state where the metal material is heated and the temperature thereof is elevated, an effect of further reducing the He content can be obtained. Further, if the current supply and/or the heating relative to the metal material is performed in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere, an effect of reducing the degradation of the surface of the objective portion to be supplied with electric current can be obtained. (T.M.)

  15. Mesomorphic glass nanocomposites made of metal alkanoates and nanoparticles as emerging nonlinear-optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbovskiy, Y.; Klimusheva, G.; Mirnaya, T.

    2016-09-01

    Mesomorphic metal alkanoates is very promising yet overlooked class of nonlinear-optical materials. Metal alkanoates can exhibit a broad variety of condensed states of matter including solid crystals, plastic crystals, lyotropic and thermotropic ionic liquid crystals, liquids, mesomorphic glasses, and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Glass-forming properties of metal alkanoates combined with their use as nano-reactors and anisotropic host open up simple and efficient way to design various photonic nanomaterials. Despite very interesting physics, the experimental data on optical and nonlinearoptical properties of such materials are scarce. The goal of the present paper is to fill the gap by discussing recent advances in the field of photonic materials made of metal alkanoates, organic dyes, and nanoparticles. Optical and nonlinear-optical properties of the following materials are reviewed: (i) mesomorphic glass doped with organic dyes; (ii) smectic glass composed of cobalt alkanoates; (iii) semiconductor nanoparticles embedded in a glassy host; (iv) metal nanoparticles - glass (the cobalt octanoate) nanocomposites.

  16. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye; Khashab, Niveen M.; Tao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets

  17. Self-Assembling Protein Materials for Metal Nanoparticle Templation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    can enhance fluorescence of the metal itself, the Raman signal of a molecule on the surface of the metal, and the scattering of light. These physical...and application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Chem. Commun. 1984–1986 (2009). doi:10.1039/b822507a 149. Scheibel, T. et al. Conducting...Nanoparticles of Uniform Size and Shape. Biomacromolecules 13, 98–105 (2012). 206. Teja, A. S. & Koh , P.-Y. Synthesis, properties, and applications of

  18. Analytical methods for fissionable material determinations in the nuclear fuel cycle. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Development of dissolution techniques for difficult-to-dissolve nuclear materials, development of methods and automated instruments for plutonium and uranium determinations, preparation of plutonium-containing materials for the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program, analysis of SALE uranium materials, preparation of certified reference material plutonium metal, measurement of longer plutonium isotope half-lives, and study of ion exchange behavior of elements in various media continued. Gas-solid reaction of carbonyl chloride with uranium-bearing materials at elevated temperature is superior to reaction with chlorine for uranium volatilization and separation. Neither reaction with a variety of nonaqueous solvents nor reaction with molten selenium oxide provides practical dissolution of refractory materials characteristic of nuclear fuel cycle materials. The LASL automated spectrophotometer has been used to determine 0.1-mg amounts without instrumental or procedural changes. A microgram-sensitive spectrophotometric method for uranium has been developed, and the automated spectrophotometer is being modified to its use. A controlled-potential coulometric method has been developed for selective determination of plutonium. An automated analyzer to use this method is being built. Uranium-plutonium mixed oxide powder, for SALE samples, has not remained stable during storage, but high-density pellets have. In a DOE interlaboratory program, the half-life of 239 Pu has been measured, experiments on 241 Pu half-life measurement are in progress, and 240 Pu half-life measurement is planned. Ion exchange distributions for over 50 elements have been measured to determine cation exchange in nitric acid and anion exchange in both hydrobromic and hydriodic acids

  19. Analytical methods for fissionable material determinations in the nuclear fuel cycle. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterbury, G.R. (comp.)

    1978-01-01

    Development of dissolution techniques for difficult-to-dissolve nuclear materials, development of methods and automated instruments for plutonium and uranium determinations, preparation of plutonium-containing materials for the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory Evaluation (SALE) program, analysis of SALE uranium materials, preparation of certified reference material plutonium metal, measurement of longer plutonium isotope half-lives, and study of ion exchange behavior of elements in various media continued. Gas-solid reaction of carbonyl chloride with uranium-bearing materials at elevated temperature is superior to reaction with chlorine for uranium volatilization and separation. Neither reaction with a variety of nonaqueous solvents nor reaction with molten selenium oxide provides practical dissolution of refractory materials characteristic of nuclear fuel cycle materials. The LASL automated spectrophotometer has been used to determine 0.1-mg amounts without instrumental or procedural changes. A microgram-sensitive spectrophotometric method for uranium has been developed, and the automated spectrophotometer is being modified to its use. A controlled-potential coulometric method has been developed for selective determination of plutonium. An automated analyzer to use this method is being built. Uranium-plutonium mixed oxide powder, for SALE samples, has not remained stable during storage, but high-density pellets have. In a DOE interlaboratory program, the half-life of /sup 239/Pu has been measured, experiments on /sup 241/Pu half-life measurement are in progress, and /sup 240/Pu half-life measurement is planned. Ion exchange distributions for over 50 elements have been measured to determine cation exchange in nitric acid and anion exchange in both hydrobromic and hydriodic acids.

  20. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  1. A metal foil vacuum pump for the fuel cycle of fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giegerich, Thomas; Day, Christian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Technische Physik (ITEP), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    At KIT Karlsruhe, a new vacuum pump based on the physical principle of superpermeation is under development. This metal foil pump shall be used in the fuel cycle of a fusion reactors and forms the central part of the Direct Internal Recycling concept (DIR), a shortcut between the machine exhaust pumping and the fuelling systems. This vacuum pump simplifies the fusion fuel cycle dramatically and provides two major functions simultaneously: A separating and pumping function. It separates a hydrogen isotopes and impurities containing gas flow sharply into a pure H-isotopes flow that is also being compressed. The remaining impurity enriched gas flow passes the pump without being pumped. For superpermeability, a source of molecular hydrogen is needed. This can be achieved by different methods inside of the pump. Most important are plasma based or hot rod (atomizer) based methods. In this talk, the physical working principle and the modeling of this pump is presented and the development towards a technical separator pumping module is shown up.

  2. The Life Cycle Application of Intelligent Software Modeling for the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda; Parris, Frank; Nerren, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been funding development of intelligent software models to benefit payload ground operations for nearly a decade. Experience gained from simulator development and real-time monitoring and control is being applied to engineering design, testing, and operation of the First Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1). MSRR-1 is the first rack in a suite of three racks comprising the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) which will operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF will accommodate advanced microgravity investigations in areas such as the fields of solidification of metals and alloys, thermo-physical properties of polymers, crystal growth studies of semiconductor materials, and research in ceramics and glasses. The MSRR-1 is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the behavior of different materials during high temperature processing in a low gravity environment. The planned MSRR-1 mission duration is five (5) years on-orbit and the total design life is ten (IO) years. The MSRR-1 launch is scheduled on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3) to ISS, currently in February of 2003). The objective of MSRR-1 is to provide an early capability on the ISS to conduct material science, materials technology, and space product research investigations in microgravity. It will provide a modular, multi-user facility for microgravity research in materials crystal growth and solidification. An intelligent software model of MSRR-1 is under development and will serve multiple purposes to support the engineering analysis, testing, training, and operational phases of the MSRR-1 life cycle development. The G2 real-time expert system software environment developed by Gensym Corporation was selected as the intelligent system shell for this development work based on past experience gained and the effectiveness of the programming environment. Our approach of multi- uses of the simulation model and

  3. Implications for metal and volatile cycles from the pH of subduction zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Matthieu E.; Connolly, James A. D.; Manning, Craig E.

    2016-11-01

    The chemistry of aqueous fluids controls the transport and exchange—the cycles—of metals and volatile elements on Earth. Subduction zones, where oceanic plates sink into the Earth’s interior, are the most important geodynamic setting for this fluid-mediated chemical exchange. Characterizing the ionic speciation and pH of fluids equilibrated with rocks at subduction zone conditions has long been a major challenge in Earth science. Here we report thermodynamic predictions of fluid-rock equilibria that tie together models of the thermal structure, mineralogy and fluid speciation of subduction zones. We find that the pH of fluids in subducted crustal lithologies is confined to a mildly alkaline range, modulated by rock volatile and chlorine contents. Cold subduction typical of the Phanerozoic eon favours the preservation of oxidized carbon in subducting slabs. In contrast, the pH of mantle wedge fluids is very sensitive to minor variations in rock composition. These variations may be caused by intramantle differentiation, or by infiltration of fluids enriched in alkali components extracted from the subducted crust. The sensitivity of pH to soluble elements in low abundance in the host rocks, such as carbon, alkali metals and halogens, illustrates a feedback between the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system and the speciation of subduction zone fluids via the composition of the seawater-altered oceanic lithosphere. Our findings provide a perspective on the controlling reactions that have coupled metal and volatile cycles in subduction zones for more than 3 billion years7.

  4. Development and preliminary analyses of material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Tetsuo

    1994-01-01

    Material balance evaluation model in nuclear fuel cycle has been developed using ORIGEN-2 code as basic engine. This model has feature of: It can treat more than 1000 nuclides including minor actinides and fission products. It has flexibility of modeling and graph output using a engineering work station. I made preliminary calculation of LWR fuel high burnup effect (reloading fuel average burnup of 60 GWd/t) on nuclear fuel cycle. The preliminary calculation shows LWR fuel high burnup has much effect on Japanese Pu balance problem. (author)

  5. Levels of immunoreactive inhibin-like material in urine during the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandekar, S.P.; Vanage, G.R.; Arbatti, N.J.; Sheth, A.R. (Institute for Research in Reproduction, Parel, Bombay (India))

    1983-12-01

    Using a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay, the authors determined levels of inhibin-like material in the urine of eight healthy women with normal menstrual cycle length of 28 +- 4 days. The results revealed a cyclic variation in urinary immunoreactive inhibin levels during the menstrual cycles, with a sharp rise in levels three to four days prior to luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) peaks. These levels of immunoreactive inhibin may thus serve as a parameter to detect impending LH surge. 23 refs.

  6. Development of aircraft brake materials. [evaluation of metal and ceramic materials in sliding tests simulation of aircraft braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements of brake materials were outlined and a survey made to select materials to meet the needs of high temperature brakes. A number of metals and ceramic materials were selected and evaluated in sliding tests which simulated aircraft braking. Nickel, molybdenum tungsten, Zr02, high temperature cements and carbons were tested. Additives were then incorporated into these materials to optimize their wear or strength behavior with particular emphasis on nickel and molybdenum base materials and a high temperature potassium silicate cement. Optimum materials were developed which improved wear behavior over conventional brake materials in the simulated test. The best materials are a nickel, aluminum oxide, lead tungstate composition containing graphite or molybdenum disulphite; a molybdenum base material containing LPA100 (an intermetallic compound of cobalt, molybdenum, and silicon); and a carbon material (P5).

  7. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn-Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn-Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  8. Manganese pyridinedicarboxylates: New anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Hailong; Li, Zhiwei; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Manganese 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylate and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate. • Firstly tested as anode materials. • High capacity and good cycle stability. - Abstract: It is significant to discover new environmental friendly, sustainable and renewable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Manganese dicarboxylate [Mn 2 (pdc) 2 (H 2 O) 3 ] n ⋅2nH 2 O (pdc = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate) is firstly found to be a high-energy anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It shows a high discharge capacity of 573.7 mA h g −1 for the second cycle between a 0.05 and 3.0 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 500 mA g −1 . The reversible capacity of 457.2 mA h g −1 is remained after 100 cycles with a capacity retention being 79.6%. In addition, it is found that Mn 2,5-pyridinedicarboxyle was also stable anode materials with high capacity

  9. Manganese pyridinedicarboxylates: New anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with good cycling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Hailong, E-mail: feilin09053@gmail.com [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 2 Xueyuan Road, University Town Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Zhiwei; Liu, Xin [College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 2 Xueyuan Road, University Town Fuzhou, Fujian 350116 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Manganese 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylate and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate. • Firstly tested as anode materials. • High capacity and good cycle stability. - Abstract: It is significant to discover new environmental friendly, sustainable and renewable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Manganese dicarboxylate [Mn{sub 2}(pdc){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n}⋅2nH{sub 2}O (pdc = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate) is firstly found to be a high-energy anode material for lithium-ion batteries. It shows a high discharge capacity of 573.7 mA h g{sup −1} for the second cycle between a 0.05 and 3.0 V voltage limit at a discharge current density of 500 mA g{sup −1}. The reversible capacity of 457.2 mA h g{sup −1} is remained after 100 cycles with a capacity retention being 79.6%. In addition, it is found that Mn 2,5-pyridinedicarboxyle was also stable anode materials with high capacity.

  10. A study on metal organic framework (MOF-177) synthesis, characterization and hydrogen adsorption -desorption cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viditha, V.; Venkateswer Rao, M.; Srilatha, K.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500 085, A.P. (India); Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu [Director, TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen has long been considered to be an ideal alternative to fossil-fuel systems and much work has now been done on its storage. There are four main methods of hydrogen storage: as a liquid; as compressed hydrogen; in the form of metal hydrides; and by physisorption. Among all the materials metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are considered to have desirable properties like high porosity, pore volume and high thermal stability. MOF-177 is considered to be an ideal storage material. In this paper we study about its synthesis and hydrogen storage capacities of MOF-177 at different pressures ranging from 25, 50, 75 and 100 bar respectively. The obtained samples are characterized by XRD, BET and SEM. The recorded results show that the obtained hydrogen capacity is 1.1, 2.20, 2.4 and 2.80 wt%. The desorption capacity is 0.9, 2.1, 2.37 and 2.7 wt% at certain temperatures like 373 K.

  11. Metal-ceramic materials. Study and prediction of effective mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakulov, Valerii V.; Smolin, Igor Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of stochastic metal-ceramic composite materials was numerically simulated on mesoscopic scale level. Deformation of mesoscopic volumes of composites, whose structure consists of a metal matrix and randomly distributed ceramic inclusions, was numerically simulated. The results of the numerical simulation were used for evaluation of the effective elastic and strength properties of metal-ceramic materials with different parameters of the structure. The values of the effective mechanical properties of investigated materials were obtained, and the character of the dependence of the effective elastic and strength properties on the structure parameters of composites was determined.

  12. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  13. Metal Oxide/Graphene Composites for Supercapacitive Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gyoung Hwa; Baek, Seungmin; Lee, Seungyeol; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2016-04-05

    Graphene composites with metal or metal oxide nanoparticles have been extensively investigated owing to their potential applications in the fields of fuel cells, batteries, sensing, solar cells, and catalysis. Among them, much research has focused on supercapacitor applications and have come close to realization. Composites include monometal oxides of cobalt, nickel, manganese, and iron, as well as their binary and ternary oxides. In addition, their morphological control and hybrid systems of carbon nanotubes have also been investigated. This review presents the current trends in research on metal oxide/graphene composites for supercapacitors. Furthermore, methods are suggested to improve the properties of electrochemical capacitor electrodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Microbial profile on metallic and ceramic bracket materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhoury, Patrick; Nathanson, Dan; Hughes, Christopher V; Socransky, Sigmund; Feres, Magda; Chou, Laisheng Lee

    2002-08-01

    The placement of orthodontic appliances creates a favorable environment for the accumulation of a microbiota and food residues, which, in time, may cause caries or exacerbate any pre-existing periodontal disease. The purpose of the present study was to compare the total bacterial counts present on metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets in order to clarify which bracket type has a higher plaque retaining capacity and to determine the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp on both types of brackets. Thirty-two metallic brackets and 24 ceramic brackets were collected from orthodontic patients at the day of debonding. Two brackets were collected from each patient; one from a maxillary central incisor and another from a maxillary second premolar. Sixteen patients who used metallic brackets and 12 patients who used ceramic brackets were sampled. Bacterial populations were studied using "checkerboard" DNA-DNA hybridization, which uses DNA probes to identify species in complex microbial samples. The significance of differences between groups was determined using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Results showed no significant differences between metallic and ceramic brackets with respect to the caries-inducing S mutans and L acidophilus spp counts. Mean counts of 8 of 35 additional species differed significantly between metallic and ceramic brackets with no obvious pattern favoring one bracket type over the other. This study showed higher mean counts of Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss vincentii, Streptococcus anginosus, and Eubacterium nodatum on metallic brackets while higher counts of Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter showae, and Selenomonas noxia were found on ceramic brackets.

  15. Investigation of Liquid Metal Embrittlement of Materials for use in Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Jaworski, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Liquid metals can provide a continually replenished material for the first wall and extraction blankets of fusion reactors. However, research has shown that solid metal surfaces will experience embrittlement when exposed to liquid metals under stress. Therefore, it is important to understand the changes in structural strength of the solid metal materials and test different surface treatments that can limit embrittlement. Research was conducted to design and build an apparatus for exposing solid metal samples to liquid metal under high stress and temperature. The apparatus design, results of tensile testing, and surface imaging of fractured samples will be presented. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  16. New Nuclear Materials Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements. Vol. II. Proceedings of the Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non Metallic Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    One of the major aims of the International Atomic Energy Agency in furthering the peaceful uses of atomic energy is to encourage the development of economical nuclear power. Certainly, one of the more obvious methods of producing economical nuclear power is the development of economical fuels that can be used at high temperatures for long periods of time, and which have sufficient strength and integrity to operate under these conditions without permitting the release of fission products. In addition it is desirable that after irradiation these new fuels be economically reprocessed to reduce further the cost of the fuel cycle. As nuclear power becomes more and more competitive with conventional power the interest in new and more efficient higher-temperature fuels naturally increases rapidly. For these reasons, the Agency organized a Conference on New Nuclear Materials Technology, Including Non-Metallic Fuel Elements, which was held from 1 to 5 July 1963 at the International Hotel, Prague, with the assistance and co-operation of the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. A total of 151 scientists attended, from 23 countries and 4 international organizations. The participants heard and discussed more than 60 scientific papers. The Agency wishes to thank the scientists who attended this Conference for their papers and for many spirited discussions that truly mark a successful meeting. The Agency wishes also to record its gratitude for the assistance and generous hospitality accorded the Conference, the participants and the Agency's staff by the Government of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and by the people of Prague. The scientific information contained in these Proceedings should help to quicken the pace of progress in the fabrication of new and m ore economical fuels, and it is hoped that these proceedings will be found useful to all workers in this and related fields

  17. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material is disclosed. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy

  18. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy.

  19. A strong-topological-metal material with multiple Dirac cones

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Huiwen; Pletikosić, I; Gibson, Q. D.; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Valla, T.; Cava, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a new, cleavable, strong-topological-metal, Zr2Te2P, which has the same tetradymite-type crystal structure as the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se. Instead of being a semiconductor, however, Zr2Te2P is metallic with a pseudogap between 0.2 and 0.7 eV above the fermi energy (EF). Inside this pseudogap, two Dirac dispersions are predicted: one is a surface-originated Dirac cone protected by time-reversal symmetry (TRS), while the other is a bulk-originated and slightly gapped Dirac cone...

  20. On metallic gratings coated conformally with isotropic negative-phase-velocity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inchaussandague, Marina E.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Depine, Ricardo A.

    2008-01-01

    Application of the differential method (also called the C method) to plane-wave diffraction by a perfectly conducting, sinusoidally corrugated metallic grating coated with a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, lossless dielectric-magnetic material shows that coating materials with negative index of refraction may deliver enhanced maximum nonspecular reflection efficiencies in comparison to coating materials with positive index of refraction

  1. On metallic gratings coated conformally with isotropic negative-phase-velocity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inchaussandague, Marina E. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: mei@df.uba.ar; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [CATMAS-Computational and Theoretical Materials Sciences Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States)], E-mail: akhlesh@psu.edu; Depine, Ricardo A. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: rdep@df.uba.ar

    2008-03-31

    Application of the differential method (also called the C method) to plane-wave diffraction by a perfectly conducting, sinusoidally corrugated metallic grating coated with a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, lossless dielectric-magnetic material shows that coating materials with negative index of refraction may deliver enhanced maximum nonspecular reflection efficiencies in comparison to coating materials with positive index of refraction.

  2. Interactions between heavy metals and photosynthetic materials studied by optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Catucci, Lucia; Piletska, Elena; Piletsky, Sergey; Agostiano, Angela

    2009-11-01

    In this work studies on rapid inhibitory interactions between heavy metals and photosynthetic materials at different organization levels were carried out by optical assay techniques, investigating the possibility of applications in the heavy metal detection field. Spinach chloroplasts, thylakoids and Photosystem II proteins were employed as biotools in combination with colorimetric assays based on dichlorophenol indophenole (DCIP) photoreduction and on fluorescence emission techniques. It was found that copper and mercury demonstrated a strong and rapid photosynthetic activity inhibition, that varied from proteins to membranes, while other metals like nickel, cobalt and manganese produced only slight inhibition effects on all tested photosynthetic materials. By emission measurements, only copper was found to rapidly influence the photosynthetic material signals. These findings give interesting information about the rapid effects of heavy metals on isolated photosynthetic samples, and are in addition to the literature data concerning the effects of growth in heavy metal enriched media.

  3. Study of the Formability of Laminated Lightweight Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girjob Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to test the formability of laminated materials. Laminated materials are considered a good choice when parts with reduced weight are considered. Thus, a laminated material, aluminum - polypropylene - aluminum (Al-PP-Al, as sheet 1.2 mm and 1.4 mm thickness was used. Before processing the material by means of unconventional plastic deformation, its formability was determined by running the Nakajima test. After obtaining the forming limit curves, the material was machined by means of incremental forming.

  4. Testing of High Thermal Cycling Stability of Low Strength Concrete as a Thermal Energy Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete has the potential to become a solution for thermal energy storage (TES integrated in concentrating solar power (CSP systems due to its good thermal and mechanical properties and low cost of material. In this study, a low strength concrete (C20 is tested at high temperatures up to 600 °C. Specimens are thermally cycled at temperatures in the range of 400–300 °C, 500–300 °C, and 600–300 °C, which TES can reach in operation. For comparison, specimens also cycled at temperature in the range of 400–25 °C (room temperature, 500–25 °C, and 600–25 °C. It is found from the test results that cracks are not observed on the surfaces of concrete specimens until the temperature is elevated up to 500 °C. There is mechanical deterioration of concrete after exposure to high temperature, especially to high thermal cycles. The residual compressive strength of concrete after 10 thermal cycles between 600 °C and 300 °C is about 58.3%, but the specimens remain stable without spalling, indicating possible use of low strength concrete as a TES material.

  5. Temperature analysis of laser ignited metalized material using spectroscopic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Ishaan; Sharma, Pallavi; Daipuriya, Ritu; Singh, Manpreet

    2018-05-01

    The temperature measurement of the laser ignited aluminized Nano energetic mixture using spectroscopy has a great scope in in analysing the material characteristic and combustion analysis. The spectroscopic analysis helps to do in depth study of combustion of materials which is difficult to do using standard pyrometric methods. Laser ignition was used because it consumes less energy as compared to electric ignition but ignited material dissipate the same energy as dissipated by electric ignition and also with the same impact. Here, the presented research is primarily focused on the temperature analysis of energetic material which comprises of explosive material mixed with nano-material and is ignited with the help of laser. Spectroscopy technique is used here to estimate the temperature during the ignition process. The Nano energetic mixture used in the research does not comprise of any material that is sensitive to high impact.

  6. Facile and large-scale preparation of sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hongmei; Zhao, Li; Yue, Wenbo; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based metal oxides are desirable as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior electrochemical properties. In this work, sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide (ZnO, NiO) composites are facilely synthesized on a large scale through self-assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets and metal ammine complexes, and then thermal decomposition of the self-assembled products. ZnO or NiO nanoparticles with diameters of 5∼10 nm are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets, which may provide the space for accommodating the volume change of metal oxides during cycles, and highly improve the electronic conductivity of the composites. Accordingly, these sandwich-structured composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared to metal oxide particles or stacked graphene nanosheets. This facile synthesis method is very suitable for the large-scale production of three-dimensional graphene-based composites as high-performance anodes for LIBs.

  7. Electrocatalytic Applications of Graphene–Metal Oxide Nanohybrid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halder, Arnab; Zhang, Minwei; Chi, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    Development of state-of-the-art electrocatalysts using commercially available precursors with low cost is an essential step in the advancement of next-generation electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems. In this regard, noble metal-free and graphene-sup‐ ported nanocomposites are of part...

  8. Radioactive materials in scrap metal, the situation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jossen, H.

    2005-01-01

    About 10 years ago, different happenings in the Swiss and international metal scrap recycling scene created a sensibility to unwanted radioactive substances in scrap metal. Italy, one of the main buyers for scrap metals, started at its borders with systematic checks, arranged by authorities. As a consequence, in Switzerland a concept was elaborated under cooperation of the recycling companies, the Italian authorities, the Federal Office of Public Health (BAG), Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) and the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (Suva) to fulfil the different requirements. Individual radioprotection, protection of environment, protection of work yard and machinery and the quality assurance of the recycled metals and the resulting products requires adapted solutions with the main issues: training, suitable measuring equipment and an intervention-and waste management. Detected radioactive substances are professionally recovered, stored and submitted to the radioactive waste collection. The investigation of the happenings can lead to useful hints on gaps and on chances for improvements in general radioprotection. (orig.)

  9. Material Life Cycle Analysis for the Reduction of Waste Generation at Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Materials Management (SMM) Strategy. SMM is defined as an approach to serving human needs by using/reusing resources productively and sustainably...tributable to the product or process during its life cycle. In the case of waste management , different alternatives for reuse, recycling, and disposal—in...Installation Management (ACSIM). 2010. Qualified Recycling Program Handbook . Washington, DC: U.S. Army ACSIM, http://www.usar.army.mil/Portals/98

  10. Analysis of material recovery facilities for use in life-cycle assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Levis, James W.; Damgaard, Anders; Barlaz, Morton A.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Insights derived from life-cycle assessment of solid waste management strategies depend critically on assumptions, data, and modeling at the unit process level. Based on new primary data, a process model was developed to estimate the cost and energy use associated with material recovery facilities (MRFs), which are responsible for sorting recyclables into saleable streams and as such represent a key piece of recycling infrastructure. The model includes four modules, each with a different proc...

  11. Non-Destructive Metallic Materials Testing—Recent Research and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Manuel R. S. Tavares

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive testing (NDT has become extremely important formicrostructural characterization, mainly by allowing the assessment of metallic material properties in an effective and reasonable manner, in addition to maintaining the integrity of the evaluated metallic samples and applicability in service in many cases [...

  12. Development of metal fuel and study of construction materials (I-IV), Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlovic, A.

    1965-11-01

    The studies were devoted to problems related to application of metal uranium as fuel in heavy water reactors. Influence of thermal treatment on material texture and recrystallization of cast uranium was investigated. Structural changes of uranium alloys with molybdenum and niobium were tested during different heat treatments. A review of the possibilities for using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors is included

  13. Gas-solid heat exchange in a fibrous metallic material measured by a heat regenerator technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golombok, M.; Jariwala, H.; Shirvill, C.

    1990-01-01

    The convective heat transfer properties of a porous metallic fibre material used in gas surface combustion burners are studied. The important parameter governing the heat transfer between hot gas and metal fibre—the heat transfer coefficient—is measured using a non-steady-state method based on

  14. New class of materials - amorphous metals. Properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuchkov, L. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Scinces, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the result of a cycle of scientific investigations and testing of physicomechanical, physicochemical and electromagnetic shielding properties of both electrochemically and metallurgically produced thin amorphous and crystalline films of Fe, Co, Ni and their alloys and Cr. Key words: microhardness, tensile strength, corrosion resistance, shielding.

  15. Assessment of Material Solutions of Multi-level Garage Structure Within Integrated Life Cycle Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałach, Daniel; Sagan, Joanna; Gicala, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents an environmental and economic analysis of the material solutions of multi-level garage. The construction project approach considered reinforced concrete structure under conditions of use of ordinary concrete and high-performance concrete (HPC). Using of HPC allowed to significant reduction of reinforcement steel, mainly in compression elements (columns) in the construction of the object. The analysis includes elements of the methodology of integrated lice cycle design (ILCD). By making multi-criteria analysis based on established weight of the economic and environmental parameters, three solutions have been evaluated and compared within phase of material production (information modules A1-A3).

  16. Technical Meeting on Liquid Metal Reactor Concepts: Core Design and Structural Materials. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Technical Meeting is to present and discuss innovative liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) core designs with special focus on the choice, development, testing and qualification of advanced reactor core structural materials

  17. Metal-organic Materials (moms) For Co2 Adsorption And Methods Of Using Moms

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-06-11

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems that exhibit permanent porosity and using hydrophobic MOMs to separate components in a gas, methods of separating CO.sub.2 from a gas, and the like.

  18. Metal-organic Materials (moms) For Co2 Adsorption And Methods Of Using Moms

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Nugent, Patrick; Burd, Stephen D.; Luebke, Ryan; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems that exhibit permanent porosity and using hydrophobic MOMs to separate components in a gas, methods of separating CO.sub.2 from a gas, and the like.

  19. Metal-organic materials (MOMs) for adsorption of polarizable gases and methods of using MOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaworotko, Michael; Mohamed, Mona H.; Elsaidi, Sameh

    2017-06-14

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for multi-component metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems including the MOM, systems for separating components in a gas, methods of separating polarizable gases from a gas mixture, and the like.

  20. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  1. Surface properties of ceramic/metal composite materials for thermionic converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.R.; Bozack, M.J.; Swanson, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Ceramic/metal composite electrode materials are of interest for thermionic energy conversion (TEC) applications for several reasons. These materials consist of submicron metal fibers or islands in an oxide matrix and therefore provide a basis for fabricating finely structured electrodes, with projecting or recessed metallic regions for more efficient electron emission or collection. Furthermore, evaporation and surface diffusion of matrix oxides may provide oxygen enhancement of cesium adsorption and work function lowering at both the collecting and emitting electrode surfaces of the TEC. Finally, the high work function oxide matrix or oxide-metal interfaces may provide efficient surface ionization of cesium for space-charge reduction in the device. The authors are investigating two types of ceramic/metal composite materials. One type is a directionally solidified eutectic consisting of a bulk oxide matrix such as UO 2 or stabilized ZrO 2 with parallel metal fibers (W) running through the oxide being exposed at the surface by cutting perpendicular to the fiber direction. The second type of material, called a surface eutectic, consists of a refractory substrate (Mo) with a thin layer of deposited and segregated material (Mo-Cr 2 O 3 -A1 2 O 3 ) on the surface. The final configuration of this layer is an oxide matrix with metallic islands scattered throughout

  2. Left-handed materials in metallic magnetic granular composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.; Lin, Z.F.; Hu, L.-B.

    2003-01-01

    There is recently interests in the 'left-handed' materials. In these materials the direction of the wave vector of electromagnetic radiation is opposite to the direction of the energy flow. We present simple arguments that suggests that magnetic composites can also be left-handed materials. However, the physics involved seems to be different from the original argument. In our argument, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument

  3. Influence of metal loading on hydrocracking of rapeseed oil using bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gille, T.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    Hydrocracking of rapeseed oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, PtNiMo, Pt) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the support material and their metal loading influence the product selectivity as well as the deactivation tendencies of the catalyst sample. (orig.)

  4. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  5. Hierarchical structured graphene/metal oxide/porous carbon composites as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Ren, Yu; Zhou, Wuzong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles display different behavior within CMK-3. • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 show various electrochemical properties • CMK-3-CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 are further wrapped by graphene nanosheets. • Graphene-encapsulated composites show better electrochemical performances. - Abstract: As a novel anode material for lithium-ion batteries, CeO 2 displays imperceptible volumetric and morphological changes during the lithium insertion and extraction processes, and thereby exhibits good cycling stability. However, the low theoretical capacity and poor electronic conductivity of CeO 2 hinder its practical application. In contrast, Co 3 O 4 possesses high theoretical capacity, but undergoes huge volume change during cycling. To overcome these issues, CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are formed inside the pores of CMK-3 and display various electrochemical behaviors due to the different morphological structures of CeO 2 and Co 3 O 4 within CMK-3. Moreover, the graphene/metal oxide/CMK-3 composites with a hierarchical structure are then prepared and exhibit better electrochemical performances than metal oxides with or without CMK-3. This novel synthesis strategy is hopefully employed in the electrode materials design for Li-ion batteries or other energy conversion and storage devices.

  6. Developments in welding and joining methods of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilarczyk, J.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of the welding technology on the economy development. The welding and joining methods review. The particular role of the laser welding and its interesting applications: with filler metal, twin spot laser welding, hybrid welding process, remote welding. The fiber lasers. The high intensity electron beams applications for surface modification. The TIG welding with the use of the active flux. Friction welding, friction stir welding and friction linear welding. (author)

  7. Dislocations in materials with mixed covalent and metallic bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen-Manh, D.; Cawkwell, M.J.; Groeger, R.; Mrovec, M.; Porizek, R.; Pettifor, D.G.; Vitek, V.

    2005-01-01

    Environment-dependent bond-order potentials have been developed for L1 0 TiAl, bcc Mo and fcc Ir. They comprise both the angular character of bonding and the screening effect of nearly free electrons. These potentials have been employed in atomistic studies of screw dislocations that revealed the non-planar character of their cores. It is argued that both covalent as well as metallic character of bonding govern these structures, which in turn control the mechanical behaviour

  8. Filter materials for metal removal from mine drainage--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westholm, Lena Johansson; Repo, Eveliina; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    A large number of filter materials, organic and inorganic, for removal of heavy metals in mine drainage have been reviewed. Bark, chitin, chitosan, commercial ion exchangers, dairy manure compost, lignite, peat, rice husks, vegetal compost, and yeast are examples of organic materials, while bio-carbons, calcareous shale, dolomite, fly ash, limestone, olivine, steel slag materials and zeolites are examples of inorganic materials. The majority of these filter materials have been investigated in laboratory studies, based on various experimental set-ups (batch and/or column tests) and different conditions. A few materials, for instance steel slag materials, have also been subjects to field investigations under real-life conditions. The results from these investigations show that steel slag materials have the potential to remove heavy metals under different conditions. Ion exchange has been suggested as the major metal removal mechanisms not only for steel slag but also for lignite. Other suggested removal mechanisms have also been identified. Adsorption has been suggested important for activated carbon, precipitation for chitosan and sulphate reduction for olivine. General findings indicate that the results with regard to metal removal vary due to experimental set ups, composition of mine drainage and properties of filter materials and the discrepancies between studies renders normalisation of data difficult. However, the literature reveals that Fe, Zn, Pb, Hg and Al are removed to a large extent. Further investigations, especially under real-life conditions, are however necessary in order to find suitable filter materials for treatment of mine drainage.

  9. Fabrication techniques of metal liner used for pressure vessels made by composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, W.K.; Al-Qureshi, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Different viable techniques for the manufacturing of metal liner used for pressure vessels are presented. The aim of these metal liner is to avoid the fluid leakage from the pressurized vessel and to serve as a mandreal to be wound by composite material. The studied techniques are described and the practical results are illustrated. Finally a comparative study of the manufacturing techniques is made in order to define the process that furnishes the metal liner with the best characteristics. The advantages offered by these type of pressure vessels when compared with the conventional metallic vessels, are also presented. (Author) [pt

  10. Application of Iron Oxide Nano materials for the Removal of Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, P.N.; Chopda, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century water polluted by heavy metal is one of the environment problems. Various methods for removal of the heavy metal ions from the water have extensively been studied. Application of iron oxide nana particles based nano materials for removal of heavy metals is well-known adsorbents for remediation of water. Due to its important physiochemical property, inexpensive method and easy regeneration in the presence of external magnetic field make them more attractive toward water purification. Surface modification strategy of iron oxide nanoparticles is also used for the remediation of water increases the efficiency of iron oxide for the removal of the heavy metal ions from the aqueous system.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF MATERIAL RESISTANCE TO PLASTIC DEFORMATION AT PROCESSING METALS BY PRESSURE WITH IMPOSING ULTRASONIC OSCILLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Klubovich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains substantiation for application of experimental technique in order to investigate material resistance to plastic deformation at processing metals by pressure with imposing ultrasonic oscillations while proceeding from laws of similarity. It is shown that at modeling any metal processing by pressure with imposing ultrasonic oscillations it is possible to consider that actual elastic and plastic metal properties remain constant during processing under ultrasound action. The second aspect that requires a special attention at modeling is pulse or vibration-shock deformation at processing metals by pressure with imposing ultrasonic oscillations.

  12. Ceramic/metal seals. [refractory materials for hermetic seals for lighium-metal sulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredbenner, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Design criteria are discussed for a hermetic seal capable of withstanding the 450 C operating temperature of a lithium-metal sulfide battery system. A mechanical seal consisting of two high strength alloy metal sleeves welded or brazed to a conductor assembly and pressed onto a ceramic is described. The conductor center passes through the ceramic but is not sealed to it. The seal is effected on the outside of the taper where the tubular part is pressed down over and makes contact.

  13. Review of the IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials Section activities related to WWER fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Fuel Cycle Programme, designated as Programme B, has the main objective of supporting Member States in policy making, strategic planning, developing technology and addressing issues with respect to safe, reliable, economically efficient, proliferation resistant and environmentally sound nuclear fuel cycle. This paper is concentrated on describing the work within Sub-programme B.2 'Fuel Performance and Technology'. Two Technical Working Groups assist in the preparation of the IAEA programme in the nuclear fuel cycle area - Technical Working Group on Water Reactor Fuel Performance and Technology and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options. The activities of the Unit within the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section working on Fuel Performance and Technology are given, based on the sub-programme structure of the Agency programme and budget for 2002-2003. Within the framework of Co-ordinated Research Projects a study of the delayed hydride cracking (DHC) of the zirconium alloys used in pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) involving 10 countries has been completed. It achieved very effective transfer of know-how at the laboratory level in three technologically important areas: 1) Controlled hydriding of samples to predetermined levels; 2) Accurate measurement of hydrogen concentrations at the relatively low levels found in pressure tubes and RBMK channel tubes; and 3) In the determination of DHC rates under various conditions of temperature and stress. A new project has been started on the 'Improvement of Models used for Fuel Behaviour Simulation' (FUMEX II) to assist Member States in improving the predictive capabilities of computer codes used in modelling fuel behaviour for extended burnup. The IAEA also collaborates with organisations in the Member States to support activities and meetings on nuclear fuel cycle related topics

  14. Plasma spraying of refractory metals and refractory hard materials. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.; Lugscheider, E.; Jaeger, D.

    1989-01-01

    Suitable spraying processes for manufacturing refractory metals, refractory hard materials as well as spray materials with refractory components are the VPS- and IPS-spraying techniques. The advantages of these special spraying process variations are described. The reactive spraying materials are systematically organized. The characteristical properties used in purpose of improving the substrate surfaces are explained. Finally some examples of the latest results of research concerning plasma spraying of reactive materials are shown. 16 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  15. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN MECHANICAL AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF METALLIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuo, SAKAI; Masaki, NAKAJIMA; Keiro, TOKAJI; Norihiko, HASEGAWA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyota College of Technology; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University

    1997-01-01

    Many papers on the statistical aspect of materials strength have been collected and reviewed by The Research Group for Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength.A book of "Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength" was written by this group, and published in 1992.Based on the experimental data compiled in this book, distribution patterns of mechanical properties are systematically surveyed paying an attention to metallic materials.Thus one can obtain the fundamental knowledge for a reliabilit...

  16. Statistical treatment of hazards result from radioactive material in metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.F.; Rashad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive sources have a wide range of uses in medicine and industry. Radioactive materials entering the public domain in an uncontrolled manner may creating a serious risk of radiation exposure for workers and the public as well as excessive costs for plant decontamination and waste of product to be borne by the metal industry. This paper describes the major accidents that had happened in the last decades due to radioactive material in metal scrap, provides assessment of associated hazards and lessons learned. This will help Regulatory Authority to introduce measures capable to avoid the recurrence of similar events. The study highlights the situation for metal scrap incidents in Egypt.

  17. Influence of freeze-thaw cycling on the resilient modulues of PFBC materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, W.E.; Butalia, T.S.; Meek, B.L. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic stress-strain characteristics of a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) material, before and after freeze and thaw cycling, were studied to evaluate its suitability as a substitute for conventional road construction materials in the design of flexible pavement systems. Samples compacted in the laboratory at two different moisture contents (optimum and 8% above optimum) were cyclically load tested after being allowed to cure for various duration. The results of the cyclic tests are presented in terms of the Resilient Modulus, which is a measure of the elastic property of the soil supporting the roadway. The modulus of the samples compacted near the optimum moisture content compared satisfactorily with data available for conventional materials. Samples compacted at moisture contents higher than the optimum exhibited a significant reduction in a resilient modulus values after freeze-thaw cycling. This comparing indicates that properly compacted PFBC holds good promise as a subgrade material in the construction of low traffic volume roads. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Further assessments of the attractiveness of materials in advanced nuclear fuel cycles from a safeguards perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, Charles G.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Wallace, Richard K.; Ireland, John R.; Johnson, M.W.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Bradley, Keith S.; Collins, Brian A.; Smith, Brian W.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of an extension to an earlier study [1] that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with the Purex, Urex+ and COEX reprocessing schemes. This study focuses on the materials associated with the Urex, COEX, Thorex and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study also examines what is required to render plutonium as 'unattractive.' Furthermore, combining the results of this study with those from the earlier study permits a comparison of the uranium- and thorium-based fuel cycles on the basis of the attractiveness of the SNM associated with each fuel cycle. Both studies were performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and are based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that has been couched in terms chosen for consistency with those normally used for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [2]. The methodology and key findings will be presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance (e.g. by increasing impediments to the diversion, theft, undeclared production of SNM for the purpose of acquiring a nuclear weapon), and how they could be used to help inform policy makers, will be discussed. (authors)

  19. Multiscale Interfacial Strategy to Engineer Mixed Metal-Oxide Anodes toward Enhanced Cycling Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Li, Shaowen; Edström, Kristina; Wei, Bingqing

    2018-06-13

    Interconnected macro/mesoporous structures of mixed metal oxide (MMO) are developed on nickel foam as freestanding anodes for Li-ion batteries. The sustainable production is realized via a wet chemical etching process with bio-friendly chemicals. By means of divalent iron doping during an in situ recrystallization process, the as-developed MMO anodes exhibit enhanced levels of cycling efficiency. Furthermore, this atomic-scale modification coherently synergizes with the encapsulation layer across a micrometer scale. During this step, we develop a quasi-gel-state tri-copolymer, i.e., F127-resorcinol-melamine, as the N-doped carbon source to regulate the interfacial chemistry of the MMO electrodes. Electrochemical tests of the modified Fe x Ni 1- x O@NC-NiF anode in both half-cell and full-cell configurations unravel the favorable suppression of the irreversible capacity loss and satisfactory cyclability at the high rates. This study highlights a proof-of-concept modification strategy across multiple scales to govern the interfacial chemical process of the electrodes toward better reversibility.

  20. The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, I.

    1987-01-01

    The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of fuel for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble fission product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions

  1. The transuranic mass balance during the introduction of metal fuel FBR cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoo, Takeshi; Inoue, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    The mass flow of plutonium and minor actinides is calculated for a future light water reactor-fast breeder reactor (LWR-FBR) transition scenario, in which power generation by LWRs is continued on a certain scale for a long period before the replacement by FBRs begins. The burnup of the LWR spent fuel is considered to be higher than the current standard. It is assumed that all the plutonium and minor actinides recovered from LWRs are used to start up and feed metal fuel commercial FBRs, which replace those LWRs that have reached the end of their life. The results show that the accumulated plutonium and minor actinides from the LWRs can be consistently consumed without further accumulation, by gradually establishing the FBR power generation and its fuel cycle on the same scale. The optimum content of the minor actinides in the standard FBR fuel is about 2 weight percents. This result indicates that if FBRs are introduced in the future, extension of the LWR usage period will cause no significant problems in terms of the consumption of accumulated transuranic elements. (author)

  2. TRANSITION METAL OXIDES AS MATERIALS FOR ADDITIVE LASER MARKING ON STAINLESS STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Stoyanov Mihalev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The product information plays an important role in the improvement of the manufacturing, allowing the tracking of the part through the full life cycle. Laser marking is one of the most versatile techniques for this purpose. In this paper, a modification of the powder bed selective laser melting for additive laser marking of stainless steel parts is presented. This modification is based on the use of only one transition metal oxide chemically bonded to the stainless steel substrate, without using any additional materials and cleaning substances. The resulting additive coatings, produced from initial MoO3 and WO3 powders, show strong adhesion, high hardness, long durability and a high optical contrast. For estimation of the chemical and structural properties, the Raman and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD spectroscopy have been implemented. A computer model of the process of the laser melting and re-solidification has been developed as well. A comparative analysis of the properties of both (MoO3 and WO3 additive coatings has been performed. An attempt for a qualitative explanation of the thermo-chemical phenomena during the marking process has been undertaken.

  3. Analysis of material flow in metal forming processes by using computer simulation and experiment with model material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dong Won

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze material flow in the metal forming processes by using computer simulation and experiment with model material, plasticine. A UBET program is developed to analyze the bulk flow behaviour of various metal forming problems. The elemental strain-hardening effect is considered in an incremental manner and the element system is automatically regenerated at every deforming step in the program. The material flow behaviour in closed-die forging process with rib-web type cavity are analyzed by UBET and elastic-plastic finite element method, and verified by experiments with plasticine. There were good agreements between simulation and experiment. The effect of corner rounding on material flow behavior is investigated in the analysis of backward extrusion with square die. Flat punch indentation process is simulated by UBET, and the results are compared with that of elastic-plastic finite element method. (Author)

  4. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2017-01-26

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets. The composition has high conductivity and flexibility. The composition can be made by a one-pot synthesis in which a graphene material precursor is converted to the graphene material, and the metal precursor is converted to the metal. A reducing solvent or dispersant such as NMP can be used. Devices made from the composition include a pressure sensor which has high sensitivity. Two two- dimension materials can be combined to form a hybrid material.

  5. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  6. Activation of human leukocytes on tantalum trabecular metal in comparison to commonly used orthopedic metal implant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, T A; Peter, E; Muhr, G; Köller, M

    2009-02-01

    We analyzed leukocyte functions and cytokine response of human leukocytes toward porous tantalum foam biomaterial (Trabecular Metaltrade mark, TM) in comparison to equally sized solid orthopedic metal implant materials (pure titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, pure tantalum, and tantalum coated stainless steel). Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) were cocultured with equally sized metallic test discs for 24 h. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to the other used test materials there was a significant increase in the release of IL (interleukin)-1ra and IL-8 from PMN, and of IL-1ra, IL-6, and TNF-alpha from PBMC in response to the TM material. The cytokine release correlated with surface roughness of the materials. In contrast, the release of IL-2 was not induced showing that mainly myeloid leukocytes were activated. In addition, supernatants of these leukocyte/material interaction (conditioned media, CM) were subjected to whole blood cell function assays (phagocytosis, chemotaxis, bacterial killing). There was a significant increase in the phagocytotic capacity of leukocytes in the presence of TM-conditioned media. The chemotactic response of leukocytes toward TM-conditioned media was significantly higher compared to CM obtained from other test materials. Furthermore, the bactericidal capacity of whole blood was enhanced in the presence of TM-conditioned media. These results indicate that leukocyte activation at the surface of TM material induces a microenvironment, which may enhance local host defense mechanisms.

  7. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Silvestre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions, including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  8. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, José D.; Pargana, Nuno; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel D.; Durão, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions), including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards. PMID:28773516

  9. Insulation Cork Boards-Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, José D; Pargana, Nuno; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel D; Durão, Vera

    2016-05-20

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A "cradle-to-cradle" environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows ( i.e. , uptakes and emissions), including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage-the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation-the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date "cradle-to-cradle" environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  10. Real-time materials evolution visualized within intact cycling alkaline batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallaway, JW; Erdonmez, CK; Zhong, Z; Croft, M; Sviridov, LA; Sholklapper, TZ; Turney, DE; Banerjee, S; Steingart, DA

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community has focused on the problem of inexpensive, safe, and sustainable large-scale electrical energy storage, which is needed for a number of emerging societal reasons such as stabilizing intermittent renewables-based generation like solar and wind power. The materials used for large-scale storage will need to be low cost, earth-abundant, and safe at the desired scale. The Zn-MnO2 "alkaline" battery chemistry is associated with one-time use, despite being rechargeable. This is due to material irreversibilities that can be triggered in either the anode or cathode. However, as Zn and MnO2 have high energy density and low cost, they are economically attractive even at limited depth of discharge. As received, a standard bobbin-type alkaline cell costs roughly $20 per kW h. The U. S. Department of Energy ARPA-E $100 per kW h cost target for grid storage is thus close to the cost of alkaline consumer primary cells if re-engineered and/or cycled at 5-20% nominal capacity. Herein we use a deeply-penetrating in situ technique to observe ZnO precipitation near the separator in an alkaline cell anode cycled at 5% DOD, which is consistent with cell failures observed at high cycle life. Alkaline cells designed to avoid such causes of cell failure could serve as a low-cost baseload for large-scale storage.

  11. Comparative study of hydrogen storage on metal doped mesoporous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, P. M.; Sapag, K.; Oliva, M. I.; Eimer, G. A.

    2018-06-01

    The hydrogen adsorption capacity of mesoporous materials MCM-41 modified with Co, Fe, Ti, Mg and Ni at 77 K and 10 bar was investigated. Various techniques including XRD, N2 adsorption and DRUV-vis were employed for the materials characterization. The results showed that a low nickel loading on MCM-41 support promoted the presence of hydrogen-favorable sites, increasing the hydrogen storage capacity.

  12. Exploring the mechanical strength of additively manufactured metal structures with embedded electrical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J., E-mail: J.Li5@lboro.ac.uk; Monaghan, T.; Masurtschak, S.; Bournias-Varotsis, A.; Friel, R.J.; Harris, R.A.

    2015-07-15

    Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) enables the integration of a wide variety of components into solid metal matrices due to the process induced high degree of metal matrix plastic flow at low bulk temperatures. Exploitation of this phenomenon allows the fabrication of previously unobtainable novel engineered metal matrix components. The feasibility of directly embedding electrical materials within UAM metal matrices was investigated in this work. Three different dielectric materials were embedded into UAM fabricated aluminium metal-matrices with, research derived, optimal processing parameters. The effect of the dielectric material hardness on the final metal matrix mechanical strength after UAM processing was investigated systematically via mechanical peel testing and microscopy. It was found that when the Knoop hardness of the dielectric film was increased from 12.1 HK/0.01 kg to 27.3 HK/0.01 kg, the mechanical peel testing and linear weld density of the bond interface were enhanced by 15% and 16%, respectively, at UAM parameters of 1600 N weld force, 25 µm sonotrode amplitude, and 20 mm/s welding speed. This work uniquely identified that the mechanical strength of dielectric containing UAM metal matrices improved with increasing dielectric material hardness. It was therefore concluded that any UAM metal matrix mechanical strength degradation due to dielectric embedding could be restricted by employing a dielectric material with a suitable hardness (larger than 20 HK/0.01 kg). This result is of great interest and a vital step for realising electronic containing multifunctional smart metal composites for future industrial applications.

  13. Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Materials for Sodium Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guoqiang; Hou, Hongshuai; Ge, Peng; Huang, Zhaodong; Zhao, Ganggang; Yin, Dulin; Ji, Xiaobo

    2018-01-01

    Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are extensively explored and are regarded as one of the most promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for electrochemical energy conversion and storage, owing to the abundant raw material resources, low cost, and similar electrochemical behavior of elemental sodium compared to lithium. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted enormous attention due to their high surface areas, tunable structures, and diverse applications in drug delivery, gas storage, and catalysis. Recently, there has been an escalating interest in exploiting MOF-derived materials as anodes for sodium energy storage due to their fast mass transport resulting from their highly porous structures and relatively simple preparation methods originating from in situ thermal treatment processes. In this Review, the recent progress of the sodium-ion storage performances of MOF-derived materials, including MOF-derived porous carbons, metal oxides, metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites, and other materials (e.g., metal phosphides, metal sulfides, and metal selenides), as SIB anodes is systematically and completely presented and discussed. Moreover, the current challenges and perspectives of MOF-derived materials in electrochemical energy storage are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Metal-Organic Framework Derived Iron Sulfide-Carbon Core-Shell Nanorods as a Conversion-Type Battery Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Shuo; Cao, Xianyi

    2017-01-01

    of a redox conversion-type lithium-ion battery, this composite material has demonstrated high lithium-ion storage capacity at 1148 mA h g-1 under the current rate of 500 mA g-1 for 170 cycles and an impressive rate-retention capability at 657 mA h g-1 with a current density of 2000 mA g-1. On the basis......We report the design and nanoengineering of carbon-film-coated iron sulfide nanorods (C@Fe7S8) as an advanced conversion-type lithium-ion storage material. The structural advantages of the iron-based metal-organic framework (MIL-88-Fe) as both a sacrificed template and a precursor are explored...

  15. Comparison of filter media materials for heavy metal removal from urban stormwater runoff using biofiltration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H S; Lim, W; Hu, J Y; Ziegler, A; Ong, S L

    2015-01-01

    The filter media in biofiltration systems play an important role in removing potentially harmful pollutants from urban stormwater runoff. This study compares the heavy metal removal potential (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) of five materials (potting soil, compost, coconut coir, sludge and a commercial mix) using laboratory columns. Total/dissolved organic carbon (TOC/DOC) was also analysed because some of the test materials had high carbon content which affects heavy metal uptake/release. Potting soil and the commercial mix offered the best metal uptake when dosed with low (Cu: 44.78 μg/L, Zn: 436.4 μg/L, Cd, 1.82 μg/L, Pb: 51.32 μg/L) and high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu: 241 μg/L, Zn: 1127 μg/L, Cd: 4.57 μg/L, Pb: 90.25 μg/L). Compost and sludge also had high removal efficiencies (>90%). Heavy metal leaching from these materials was negligible. A one-month dry period between dosing experiments did not affect metal removal efficiencies. TOC concentrations from all materials increased after the dry period. Heavy metal removal was not affected by filter media depth (600 mm vs. 300 mm). Heavy metals tended to accumulate at the upper 5 cm of the filter media although potting soil showed bottom-enriched concentrations. We recommend using potting soil as the principal media mixed with compost or sludge since these materials perform well and are readily available. The use of renewable materials commonly found in Singapore supports a sustainable approach to urban water management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Internal Morphologies of Cycled Li-Metal Electrodes Investigated by Nano-Scale Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Sarah; Liu, Danny X; Kumar, Arjun; Whitacre, Jay F; Love, Corey T; Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Litster, Shawn

    2017-06-07

    While some commercially available primary batteries have lithium metal anodes, there has yet to be a commercially viable secondary battery with this type of electrode. Research prototypes of these cells typically exhibit a limited cycle life before dendrites form and cause internal cell shorting, an occurrence that is more pronounced during high-rate cycling. To better understand the effects of high-rate cycling that can lead to cell failure, we use ex situ nanoscale-resolution X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) with the aid of Zernike phase contrast to image the internal morphologies of lithium metal electrodes on copper wire current collectors that have been cycled at low and high current densities. The Li that is deposited on a Cu wire and then stripped and deposited at low current density appears uniform in morphology. Those cycled at high current density undergo short voltage transients to >3 V during Li-stripping from the electrode, during which electrolyte oxidation and Cu dissolution from the current collector may occur. The effect of temperature is also explored with separate cycling experiments performed at 5 and 33 °C. The resulting morphologies are nonuniform films filled with voids that are semispherical in shape with diameters ranging from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers, where the void size distributions are temperature-dependent. Low-temperature cycling elicits a high proportion of submicrometer voids, while the higher-temperature sample morphology is dominated by voids larger than 2 μm. In evaluating these morphologies, we consider the importance of nonidealities during extreme charging, such as electrolyte decomposition. We conclude that nano-CT is an effective tool for resolving features and aggressive cycling-induced anomalies in Li films in the range of 100 nm to 100 μm.

  17. Rate equations modeling for hydrogen inventory studies during a real tokamak material thermal cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, X., E-mail: xavier.bonnin@iter.org [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Hodille, E. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Ning, N. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Sang, C. [School of Physics and Optoelectronics Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Grisolia, Ch. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-08-15

    Prediction and control of tritium inventory in plasma-facing components (PFCs) is a critical nuclear safety issue for ITER and future fusion devices. This goal can be achieved through rate equations models as presented here. We calibrate our models with thermal desorption spectrometry results to obtain a validated set of material parameters relevant to hydrogen inventory processes in bulk tungsten. The best fits are obtained with two intrinsic trap types, deep and shallow, and an extrinsic trap created by plasma irradiation and plastic deformation of the tungsten matrix associated with blister formation. We then consider a realistic cycle of plasma discharges consisting of 400 s of plasma exposure followed by a resting period of 1000 s, repeating for several hours. This cycle is then closed by a long “overnight” period, thus providing an estimate of the amount of tritium retained in the PFCs after a full day of standard operation.

  18. Effects of HTGR helium on the high cycle fatigue of structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, P.; Sabatini, R.L.; Gerlach, L.

    1982-01-01

    High cycle fatigue tests have been conducted on Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy X in air and in HTGR helium environments containing low and high levels of moisture. For the helium environments, a higher mositure level usually gives a lower fatigue strength. For air, however, the strength is usually much lower than those for helium. For long test times at higher test temperatures, the fatigue strengths for Incoloy 800H often show a large decrease, and the fatigue limits are much lower than those anticipated from low cycle tests. Optical and scanning electron microscope observations were made to correlate fatigue life with surface and bulk microstructural changes in the material during test. Oxide scale cracking and spallation, surface recrystallization and intergranular attack appear to contribute to losses in fatigue strength

  19. The mechanisms of heavy metal immobilization by cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Shengen

    2017-05-15

    Safe disposal of solid wastes containing heavy metals is a significant task for environment protection. Immobilization treatment is an effective technology to achieve this task. Cementitious material treatments and thermal treatments are two types of attractive immobilization treatments due to that the heavy metals could be encapsulated in their dense and durable wasteforms. This paper discusses the heavy metal immobilization mechanisms of these methods in detail. Physical encapsulation and chemical stabilization are two fundamental mechanisms that occur simultaneously during the immobilization processes. After immobilization treatments, the wasteforms build up a low permeable barrier for the contaminations. This reduces the exposed surface of wastes. Chemical stabilization occurs when the heavy metals transform into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases. The heavy metal bearing phases in the wasteforms are also reviewed in this paper. If the heavy metals are incorporated into more stable and less soluble metal bearing phases, the potential hazards of heavy metals will be lower. Thus, converting heavy metals into more stable phases during immobilization processes should be a common way to enhance the immobilization effect of these immobilization methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple criteria decision making with life cycle assessment for material selection of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of interdisciplinary approaches in today’s modern engineering, current efforts in optimal design of composites include seeking material selection protocols that can (1 simultaneously consider a series of mechanical/electrical/chemical cost criteria over a set of alternative material options, and (2 closely take into account environmental aspects of final products including recycling and end-of-life disposal options. In this paper, in addition to a review of some recent experimental and methodological advances in the above areas, a new application of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM is presented to deal with decision conflicts often seen among design criteria in composite material selection with the help of life cycle assessment (LCA. To show the application, an illustrative case study on a plastic gear material selection is conducted where the cost, mechanical and thermal properties along with environmental impact criteria are to be satisfied simultaneously. A pure plastic gear is compared to a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/aluminum-powder composite alternative. Results suggest that simple MCDM models, including a signal-to-noise measure adapted to MCDM in the same case study, can be used to explore both trade-offs and design break-even points in large decision spaces as the decision maker’s perspective over environmental, material performance and cost attributes change during the design process. More advanced topics including the account of material data uncertainties are addressed.

  1. Macro and Microscopic Investigation on Fracture Specimen of Alloy 617 Base Metal and Weldment in Low Cycle Fatigue Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Jin; Dewa, Rando Tungga [Pukyung National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates macro- and microscopic fractography performed on fracture specimens from low cycle fatigue (LCF) testings through an Alloy 617 base metal and weldments. The weldment specimens were taken from gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) pad of Alloy 617. The aim of the present study is to investigate the macro- and microscopic aspects of the low cycle fatigue fracture mode and mechanism of Alloy 617 base metal and GTAWed weldment specimens. Fully axial total strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature with total strain ranges of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%. Macroscopic fracture surfaces of Alloy 617 base metal specimens showed a flat type normal to the fatigue loading direction, whereas the GTAWed weldment specimens were of a shear/star type. The fracture surfaces of both the base metal and weldment specimens revealed obvious fatigue striations at the crack propagation regime. In addition, the fatigue crack mechanism of the base metal showed a transgranular normal to fatigue loading direction; however, the GTAWed weldment specimens showed a transgranular at approximately 45° to the fatigue loading direction.

  2. Macro and Microscopic Investigation on Fracture Specimen of Alloy 617 Base Metal and Weldment in Low Cycle Fatigue Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seon Jin; Dewa, Rando Tungga; Kim, Won Gon

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates macro- and microscopic fractography performed on fracture specimens from low cycle fatigue (LCF) testings through an Alloy 617 base metal and weldments. The weldment specimens were taken from gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) pad of Alloy 617. The aim of the present study is to investigate the macro- and microscopic aspects of the low cycle fatigue fracture mode and mechanism of Alloy 617 base metal and GTAWed weldment specimens. Fully axial total strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature with total strain ranges of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%. Macroscopic fracture surfaces of Alloy 617 base metal specimens showed a flat type normal to the fatigue loading direction, whereas the GTAWed weldment specimens were of a shear/star type. The fracture surfaces of both the base metal and weldment specimens revealed obvious fatigue striations at the crack propagation regime. In addition, the fatigue crack mechanism of the base metal showed a transgranular normal to fatigue loading direction; however, the GTAWed weldment specimens showed a transgranular at approximately 45° to the fatigue loading direction

  3. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHargue, C.J.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The major elements of the Materials Sciences Program can be grouped under the areas of (1) structural characterization, (2) high-temperature alloy studies, (3) structural ceramics, and (4) radiation effects

  4. Structure, production and properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard materials and hard metals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1979-07-01

    The report contains contributions by various authors to the research project on the production, structure, and physical properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard metals and hard materials), in particular WC-, TaC-, and MoC-base materials. (GSCH) [de

  5. Control and Management of Radioactive Material Inadvertently Incorporated into Scrap Metal. Proceedings of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive substances can become associated with scrap metal in various ways and if not discovered they can be incorporated into steel and non-ferrous metals through the melting process. This can cause health hazards as well as environmental concerns and there can be serious commercial implications. Numerous incidents have occurred in recent years involving the discovery of radioactive substances in scrap metal and, in some cases, in metal from the melting process. These incidents have proved to be very costly in relation to the recovery and cleanup operations required but also in terms of the potential loss of confidence of the industry in scrap metal as a resource. This has led the scrap metal industry to seek ways of managing the problem. In most countries, shipments of scrap metal are monitored but at different points in the distribution chain and to different extents and efficiencies. As yet, only limited efforts towards unifying and harmonizing monitoring strategies and methods in the context of scrap metal have been made at the international level. The Conference was organized into five sessions: the global perspective, national policies and strategies, compliance with radiological criteria, management of incidents with contaminated scrap metal, and improving confidence and protecting the interests of stakeholders. The aim of the first session was to present the views and perspectives of the different organizations concerned with radioactive material in scrap metal, scrap metal recycling, steel making, radiation source security and safety and international trade and economics. The second session covered some of the national policies and strategies being used to address the control of radioactive material that has been inadvertently incorporated into scrap metal were presented. In addition to the oral presentations, contributions describing the situation in many countries of the world in the form of posters were displayed. The many posters reporting national

  6. Control and Management of Radioactive Material Inadvertently Incorporated into Scrap Metal. Proceedings of an International Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    Radioactive substances can become associated with scrap metal in various ways and if not discovered they can be incorporated into steel and non-ferrous metals through the melting process. This can cause health hazards as well as environmental concerns and there can be serious commercial implications. Numerous incidents have occurred in recent years involving the discovery of radioactive substances in scrap metal and, in some cases, in metal from the melting process. These incidents have proved to be very costly in relation to the recovery and cleanup operations required but also in terms of the potential loss of confidence of the industry in scrap metal as a resource. This has led the scrap metal industry to seek ways of managing the problem. In most countries, shipments of scrap metal are monitored but at different points in the distribution chain and to different extents and efficiencies. As yet, only limited efforts towards unifying and harmonizing monitoring strategies and methods in the context of scrap metal have been made at the international level. The Conference was organized into five sessions: the global perspective, national policies and strategies, compliance with radiological criteria, management of incidents with contaminated scrap metal, and improving confidence and protecting the interests of stakeholders. The aim of the first session was to present the views and perspectives of the different organizations concerned with radioactive material in scrap metal, scrap metal recycling, steel making, radiation source security and safety and international trade and economics. The second session covered some of the national policies and strategies being used to address the control of radioactive material that has been inadvertently incorporated into scrap metal were presented. In addition to the oral presentations, contributions describing the situation in many countries of the world in the form of posters were displayed. The many posters reporting national

  7. Corrosion resistance of metal materials for HLW canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Takashi; Muraoka, Susumu; Tashiro, Shingo

    1982-02-01

    In order to verify the materials as an important artificial barrier for canister of vitrified high-level waste from spent fuel reprocessing, data and reports were researched on corrosion resistance of the materials under conditions from glass form production to final disposal. Then, in this report, investigated subjects, improvement methods and future subjects are reviewed. It has become clear that there would be no problem on the inside and outside corrosion of the canister during glass production, but long term corrosion and radiation effect tests and the vitrification methods would be subjects in future on interim storage and final disposal conditions. (author)

  8. Metallic materials corrosion in the CRNL radwaste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; McVey, E.G.; Disney, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion coupon evaluation and in-service materials performance for the CRNL waste incinerator has been carried out since 1980. Data are presented to show that types 309, 310 and 446 stainless steel, Alloy 625 and Alloy 333 all perform well in short-term tests in the afterburner environment (850-1000 0 C) but are subject to sigma-phase embrittlement and grain boundary carbide precipitation following long-term exposures. Several alloys performed satisfactorily in the primary chamber (500 0 C), and the material of construction, type 310 stainless steel, continues to provide good service

  9. Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, engineering oriented work, rather than basic research and development (R&D), has led to significant progress in improving the economics of innovative fast reactors and associated fuel cycle facilities, while maintaining and even enhancing the safety features of these systems. Optimization of plant size and layout, more compact designs, reduction of the amount of plant materials and the building volumes, higher operating temperatures to attain higher generating efficiencies, improvement of load factor, extended core lifetimes, high fuel burnup, etc. are good examples of achievements to date that have improved the economics of fast neutron systems. The IAEA, through its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR) and Technical Working Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options and Spent Fuel Management (TWG-NFCO), devotes many of its initiatives to encouraging technical cooperation and promoting common research and technology development projects among Member States with fast reactor and advanced fuel cycle development programmes, with the general aim of catalysing and accelerating technology advances in these fields. In particular the theme of fast reactor deployment, scenarios and economics has been largely debated during the recent IAEA International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles: Safe Technologies and Sustainable Scenarios, held in Paris in March 2013. Several papers presented at this conference discussed the economics of fast reactors from different national and regional perspectives, including business cases, investment scenarios, funding mechanisms and design options that offer significant capital and energy production cost reductions. This Technical Meeting on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycle Facilities with Improved Economic Characteristics addresses Member States’ expressed need for information exchange in the field, with the aim of identifying the main open issues and launching possible initiatives to help and

  10. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF 6 releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger

  11. Harmonisation of criticality assessments of packages for the transport of fissile nuclear fuel cycle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, L.

    2004-01-01

    The transport of fissile nuclear fuel cycle materials is an international business, and for international shipments the regulations require a package to be certified by each country through or into which the consignment is to be transported. This raises a number of harmonisation issues, which have an important bearing on transport activities. National authorities carry out independent reviews of the criticality safety of packages containing fissile materials but the underlying assumptions used in the calculations can differ, and the outcome is that implementation of the regulations is not uniform. A single design may require multiple criticality analyses to obtain base approval and foreign validations. When several competent authorities are involved, the approval and validation process of package design can often become a time-consuming, expensive and unpredictably lengthy process that can have a significant detrimental effect upon the businesses involved. The characteristics of the fissile nuclear fuel cycle materials transported by the various countries have much in common and so have the designs of the packages to contain them. A greater degree of standardisation should allow criticality safety to be assessed consistently and efficiently with benefits for the nuclear transport industry and the regulatory bodies. (author)

  12. Harmonisation of criticality assessments of packages for the transport of fissile nuclear fuel cycle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, L.

    2004-01-01

    The transport of fissile nuclear fuel cycle materials is an international business and for international shipments the regulations require a package to be certified by each country through or into which the consignment is to be transported. This raises a number of harmonisation issues, which have an important bearing on transport activities. National authorities carry out independent reviews of criticality safety of packages containing fissile materials but the underlying assumptions used in the calculations can differ, and the outcome is that implementation of the regulations is not uniform. A single design may require multiple criticality analyses to obtain base approval and foreign validations. When several Competent Authorities are involved, the approval and validation process of package design can often become time consuming, expensive and an unpredictably lengthy process that can have a significant detrimental effect upon the businesses involved. The characteristics of the fissile nuclear fuel cycle materials transported by the various countries have much in common and so have the designs of the packages to contain them. A greater degree of standardisation should allow criticality safety to be assessed consistently and efficiently with benefits for the nuclear transport industry and the regulatory bodies

  13. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF/sub 6/ releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger.

  14. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  15. Technical committee meeting on material-coolant interactions and material movement and relocation in liquid metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Material-Coolant Interactions and Material Movement and Relocation in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors was sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hosted by PNC, on behalf of the Japanese government. A broad range of technical subjects was discussed in the TCM, covering entire aspects of material motion and interactions relevant to the safety of LMFRs. Recent achievement and current status in research and development in this area were presented including European out-of-pile test of molten material movement and relocation; molten material-sodium interaction; molten fuel-coolant interaction; core disruptive accidents; sodium boiling; post accident material relocation, heat removal and relevant experiments already performed or planned

  16. Technical committee meeting on material-coolant interactions and material movement and relocation in liquid metal fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on Material-Coolant Interactions and Material Movement and Relocation in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors was sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and hosted by PNC, on behalf of the Japanese government. A broad range of technical subjects was discussed in the TCM, covering entire aspects of material motion and interactions relevant to the safety of LMFRs. Recent achievement and current status in research and development in this area were presented including European out-of-pile test of molten material movement and relocation; molten material-sodium interaction; molten fuel-coolant interaction; core disruptive accidents; sodium boiling; post accident material relocation, heat removal and relevant experiments already performed or planned.

  17. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  18. Hard metal - a wear resistant material. Hartmetall - ein verschleissbestaendiger Werkstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaska, J.; Dreyer, K. (Krupp Widia GmbH, Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    The article provides a survey of the various types of alloys of presently used carbides, their production processes and properties. Cermets (alloys with a high content of titanium carbide) are in the foreground here. With an eye on the future, advancements of further improved carbide materials are described, which feature at the same time a high resistance to wear and tenacity. (orig.).

  19. Diversity in the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Professions (DMMM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Amy Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Slide presentation includes background data on diversity in employed persons in metallurgical and materials and other engineering disciplines by ethnicity and gender, and it includes TMS strategic goals for 2018, diversity and inclusion goals, outputs, programming details, as well as supporting initiatives.

  20. Rocksalt nitride metal/semiconductor superlattices: A new class of artificially structured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bivas; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.

    2018-06-01

    Artificially structured materials in the form of superlattice heterostructures enable the search for exotic new physics and novel device functionalities, and serve as tools to push the fundamentals of scientific and engineering knowledge. Semiconductor heterostructures are the most celebrated and widely studied artificially structured materials, having led to the development of quantum well lasers, quantum cascade lasers, measurements of the fractional quantum Hall effect, and numerous other scientific concepts and practical device technologies. However, combining metals with semiconductors at the atomic scale to develop metal/semiconductor superlattices and heterostructures has remained a profoundly difficult scientific and engineering challenge. Though the potential applications of metal/semiconductor heterostructures could range from energy conversion to photonic computing to high-temperature electronics, materials challenges primarily had severely limited progress in this pursuit until very recently. In this article, we detail the progress that has taken place over the last decade to overcome the materials engineering challenges to grow high quality epitaxial, nominally single crystalline metal/semiconductor superlattices based on transition metal nitrides (TMN). The epitaxial rocksalt TiN/(Al,Sc)N metamaterials are the first pseudomorphic metal/semiconductor superlattices to the best of our knowledge, and their physical properties promise a new era in superlattice physics and device engineering.

  1. An unique synchrotron beamline for fine X ray characterizations of nuclear fuel cycle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitaud, B.; Lequien, S.

    2004-01-01

    A beamline dedicated to the study of highly radioactive samples up to 18.5 GBq will be constructed on the new third generation synchrotron SOLEIL. Based on the use of X ray beam of very high flux, this beamline named MARS will give true opportunities for new studies of chemistry and physics on fuel cycle materials with the respect of safety conditions. Complementary investigations should be carried out on different experimental stations. The three main techniques will be the micro fluorescence, the micro absorption and the high resolution diffraction. The MARS beamline should be up and working for the international community by the beginning of 2007. (authors)

  2. An unique synchrotron beamline for fine X ray characterizations of nuclear fuel cycle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaud, B.; Lequien, S

    2004-07-01

    A beamline dedicated to the study of highly radioactive samples up to 18.5 GBq will be constructed on the new third generation synchrotron SOLEIL. Based on the use of X ray beam of very high flux, this beamline named MARS will give true opportunities for new studies of chemistry and physics on fuel cycle materials with the respect of safety conditions. Complementary investigations should be carried out on different experimental stations. The three main techniques will be the micro fluorescence, the micro absorption and the high resolution diffraction. The MARS beamline should be up and working for the international community by the beginning of 2007. (authors)

  3. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems: Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  4. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems - Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long-time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  5. A matrix in life cycle perspective for selecting sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysundara, U.G. Yasantha [Ministry of Education, Isurupaya, Battaramulla (Sri Lanka); Babel, Sandhya [Environmental Technology Program, School of Biochemical Engineering and Technology, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, P.O. Box 22, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); Gheewala, Shabbir [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a matrix to select sustainable materials for buildings in Sri Lanka, taking into consideration environmental, economic and social assessments of materials in a life cycle perspective. Five building elements, viz., foundations, roofs, ceilings, doors and windows, and floors are analyzed based on materials used for these elements. Environmental burdens associated with these elements are analyzed in terms of embodied energy and environmental impacts such as global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Economic analysis is based on market prices and affordability of materials. Social factors that are taken into account are thermal comfort, interior (aesthetics), ability to construct quickly, strength and durability. By compiling the results of analyses, two building types with minimum and maximum impacts are identified. These two cases along with existing buildings are compared in a matrix of environmental, economic and social scores. Analysis of the results also indicates need for higher consideration of environmental parameters in decision-making over social and economic factors, as social and economic scores do not vary much between cases. Hence, this matrix helps decision-makers to select sustainable materials for buildings, meaningfully, and thus helps to move towards a more sustainable buildings and construction sector. (author)

  6. Investigation of Lithium Metal Hydride Materials for Mitigation of Deep Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Atwell, William

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure to crew, electronics, and non-metallic materials is one of many concerns with long-term, deep space travel. Mitigating this exposure is approached via a multi-faceted methodology focusing on multi-functional materials, vehicle configuration, and operational or mission constraints. In this set of research, we are focusing on new multi-functional materials that may have advantages over traditional shielding materials, such as polyethylene. Metal hydride materials are of particular interest for deep space radiation shielding due to their ability to store hydrogen, a low-Z material known to be an excellent radiation mitigator and a potential fuel source. We have previously investigated 41 different metal hydrides for their radiation mitigation potential. Of these metal hydrides, we found a set of lithium hydrides to be of particular interest due to their excellent shielding of galactic cosmic radiation. Given these results, we will continue our investigation of lithium hydrides by expanding our data set to include dose equivalent and to further understand why these materials outperformed polyethylene in a heavy ion environment. For this study, we used HZETRN 2010, a one-dimensional transport code developed by NASA Langley Research Center, to simulate radiation transport through the lithium hydrides. We focused on the 1977 solar minimum Galactic Cosmic Radiation environment and thicknesses of 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 g/cm2 to stay consistent with our previous studies. The details of this work and the subsequent results will be discussed in this paper.

  7. The application of prepared porous carbon materials: Effect of different components on the heavy metal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Wei, Yuexing; Yu, Lei; Tang, Xinhong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, five typical municipal solid waste (MSW) components (tyres, cardboard, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylic textile, toilet paper) were used as raw materials to prepare four kinds of MSW-based carbon materials (paperboard-based carbon materials (AC1); the tyres and paperboard-based carbon materials (AC2); the tyres, paperboard and PVC-based carbon materials (AC3); the tyres, paperboard, toilet paper, PVC and acrylic textile-based carbon materials (AC4)) by the KOH activation method. The characteristic results illustrate that the prepared carbon adsorbents exhibited a large pore volume, high surface area and sufficient oxygen functional groups. Furthermore, the application of AC1, AC2, AC3, AC4 on different heavy metal (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Cr(3+)) removals was explored to investigate their adsorption properties. The effects of reaction time, pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption capability of heavy metals were investigated. Comparisons of heavy metal adsorption on carbon of different components were carried out. Among the four samples, AC1 exhibits the highest adsorption capacity for Cu(2+); the highest adsorption capacities of Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) are obtained for AC2; that of Cr(3+) are obtained for AC4. In addition, the carbon materials exhibit better adsorption capability of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) than the other two kind of metal ions (Zn(2+) and Cr(3+)). © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. An integrated approach to the back-end of the fusion materials cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Kolbasov, B.; Massaut, V.; Pampin, R.

    2007-01-01

    Within the frame of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Co-operative Program on the Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power, an international collaborative study on fusion radioactive waste has been initiated to examine the back-end of the fusion materials cycle as an important stage in maximising the environmental benefits of fusion. The study addresses the management procedures for active materials following the change out of replaceable components and decommissioning of fusion facilities. Numerous differences exist between fission and fusion in terms of activated material type, quantity, activity levels, half-life, radiotoxicity, etc. For fusion, it is important to clearly define the parameters that govern the back-end of the materials cycle. A fusion-specific, unique approach is necessary and needs to be developed. Recycling of materials and clearance (i.e. declassification to non-radioactive material) are the two recommended options for reducing the amount of fusion waste, while disposal as low-level waste (LLW) could be an alternative route for specific materials and components. Both recycling and clearance criteria have been recently revised by national and international institutions. These revisions and their consequences are examined here with applications to selected studies: - Recycling: the important radioactive quantities to be limited are contact dose rate, decay heat, and radioactivity concentration. Handling (hands-on, simple shielded, and remote handling approaches), routing related questions (recycling outside the nuclear industry, recycling in nuclear-specific foundries, other possible recycling scenarios without melting), and other issues (C-14, material impurities) are examined. - Clearance: a definition of a list of nuclides relevant to fusion is made with a proposal of a scenario and a simplified procedure for calculation of a set of fusion-specific clearance limits. - Disposal: a proposal of a generalized definition of

  9. Some metallic materials and fluoride salts for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Hron, M.; Matal, O.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a special Ni base alloy MONICR for high temperature applications in fluoride salt environments developed in the framework of the complex R and D program for the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) - SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incinerator by Neutron fluX) concept development in the Czech Republic. Selected results of MONICR alloy tests and results of semi products fabrication from this alloy are discussed in the paper. The results of the structural materials tests are applied on semi-products and for the design of the testing devices as the autoclave in loop arrangement for high temperature fluoride salts applications. Material properties other Ni base alloys are compared to those of MONICR. Corrosion test results of the alloy A686 in the LiF - NaF - ZrF 4 molten salt are provided and compared to the measured values of the polarizing resistance. (author)

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF METALLIC MATERIALS IN HARSH CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Novello, Frederic; Dedry, Olivier; De Noose, Vincent; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient energy recovery from renewable sources and from waste incineration causes new problems of corrosion at high temperature. A similar situation exists for new recycling processes and new energy storage units. These corrosions are generally considered to be caused by ashes or molten salts, the composition of which differs considerably from one plant to another. Therefore, for the assessment of corrosion-resistance of advanced materials, it is essential to precisely evaluate the c...

  11. Simulation of Metal Particulates in High Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-28

    temperatures and pressures disintegrate the carbon- fiber casing, thus not producing any fragments. These carbon-fiber casing warheads are a solution...Polymer-Bonded Explosive (PBX) and Livermore’s High-Energy Explosive (LX) are examples of ex- plosives that use “ plastic ” as a binder material. Other...simulation data to empirical data does not provide any benefit to this research due to the complexity of plastically bonded explosives like PBX9501. The

  12. Application of Metamodels to Identification of Metallic Materials Models

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kusiak, Jan; Szeliga, Danuta; Rauch, Łukasz; Sztangret, Łukasz; Górecki, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of the efficiency of the inverse analysis (IA) for various material tests was the objective of the paper. Flow stress models and microstructure evolution models of various complexity of mathematical formulation were considered. Different types of experiments were performed and the results were used for the identification of models. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all the models and the importance of parameters in these models was evaluated. Metamodels based on artificial ne...

  13. Jet formation in cerium metal to examine material strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, B. J., E-mail: bjjensen@lanl.gov; Cherne, F. J.; Prime, M. B.; Yeager, J. D.; Ramos, K. J.; Hooks, D. E.; Cooley, J. C.; Dimonte, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Fezzaa, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Iverson, A. J.; Carlson, C. A. [National Security Technologies LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-11-21

    Examining the evolution of material properties at extreme conditions advances our understanding of numerous high-pressure phenomena from natural events like meteorite impacts to general solid mechanics and fluid flow behavior. Recent advances in synchrotron diagnostics coupled with dynamic compression platforms have introduced new possibilities for examining in-situ, spatially resolved material response with nanosecond time resolution. In this work, we examined jet formation from a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cerium initially shocked into a transient, high-pressure phase, and then released to a low-pressure, higher-temperature state. Cerium's rich phase diagram allows us to study the yield stress following a shock induced solid-solid phase transition. X-ray imaging was used to obtain images of jet formation and evolution with 2–3 μm spatial resolution. From these images, an analytic method was used to estimate the post-shock yield stress, and these results were compared to continuum calculations that incorporated an experimentally validated equation-of-state (EOS) for cerium coupled with a deviatoric strength model. Reasonable agreement was observed between the calculations and the data illustrating the sensitivity of jet formation on the yield stress values. The data and analysis shown here provide insight into material strength during dynamic loading which is expected to aid in the development of strength aware multi-phase EOS required to predict the response of matter at extreme conditions.

  14. Rational Design of Two-Dimensional Metallic and Semiconducting Spintronic Materials Based on Ordered Double-Transition-Metal MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Liang

    2016-12-30

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials that display robust ferromagnetism have been pursued intensively for nanoscale spintronic applications, but suitable candidates have not been identified. Here we present theoretical predictions on the design of ordered double-transition-metal MXene structures to achieve such a goal. On the basis of the analysis of electron filling in transition-metal cations and first-principles simulations, we demonstrate robust ferromagnetism in Ti2MnC2Tx monolayers regardless of the surface terminations (T = O, OH, and F), as well as in Hf2MnC2O2 and Hf2VC2O2 monolayers. The high magnetic moments (3–4 μB/unit cell) and high Curie temperatures (495–1133 K) of these MXenes are superior to those of existing 2D ferromagnetic materials. Furthermore, semimetal-to-semiconductor and ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transitions are predicted to occur in these materials in the presence of small or moderate tensile in-plane strains (0–3%), which can be externally applied mechanically or internally induced by the choice of transition metals.

  15. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Cylinders Surrounded by Various Reflector Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Jones; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Monteirth

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1958 to determine critical masses of cylinders of Oralloy (Oy) reflected by a number of materials. The experiments were all performed on the Comet Universal Critical Assembly Machine, and consisted of discs of highly enriched uranium (93.3 wt.% 235U) reflected by half-inch and one-inch-thick cylindrical shells of various reflector materials. The experiments were performed by members of Group N-2, particularly K. W. Gallup, G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and R. H. White. This experiment was intended to ascertain critical masses for criticality safety purposes, as well as to compare neutron transport cross sections to those obtained from danger coefficient measurements with the Topsy Oralloy-Tuballoy reflected and Godiva unreflected critical assemblies. The reflector materials examined in this series of experiments are as follows: magnesium, titanium, aluminum, graphite, mild steel, nickel, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, natural uranium, tungsten, beryllium, aluminum oxide, molybdenum carbide, and polythene (polyethylene). Also included are two special configurations of composite beryllium and iron reflectors. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with six different parameters was evaluated; namely, extrapolation to the uranium critical mass, uranium density, 235U enrichment, reflector density, reflector thickness, and reflector impurities. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of the platen and diaphragm), two simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. First of all, since impurities in core and reflector materials are only estimated, they are not included in the benchmark models. Secondly, the room, support structure, and other possible surrounding equipment were not included in the model. Bias values that result from these two simplifications were determined and associated

  16. Texture, microstructure, and fractal features of the low-cycle fatigue failure of the metal in pipeline welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, V. V.; Gopkalo, E. E.; Shkatulyak, N. M.; Gopkalo, A. P.; Cherneva, T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Crystallographic texture and fracture features are studied after low-cycle fatigue tests of laboratory specimens cut from the base metal and the characteristic zones of a welded joint in a pipeline after its longterm operation. The fractal dimensions of fracture surfaces are determined. The fractal dimension is shown to increase during the transition from ductile to quasi-brittle fracture, and a relation between the fractal dimension of a fracture surface and the fatigue life of the specimen is found.

  17. The Influence of Free Space Environment in the Mission Life Cycle: Material Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; de Groh, Kim K.

    2014-01-01

    The natural space environment has a great influence on the ability of space systems to perform according to mission design specification. Understanding the natural space environment and its influence on space system performance is critical to the concept formulation, design, development, and operation of space systems. Compatibility with the natural space environment is a primary factor in determining the functional lifetime of the space system. Space systems being designed and developed today are growing in complexity. In many instances, the increased complexity also increases its sensitivity to space environmental effects. Sensitivities to the natural space environment can be tempered through appropriate design measures, material selection, ground processing, mitigation strategies, and/or the acceptance of known risks. The design engineer must understand the effects of the natural space environment on the space system and its components. This paper will discuss the influence of the natural space environment in the mission life cycle with a specific focus on the role of material selection.

  18. Fabrication of cellulose/graphene paper as a stable-cycling anode materials without collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunliang; Cha, Ruitao; Yang, Luming; Mou, Kaiwen; Jiang, Xingyu

    2018-03-15

    Flexible and foldable devices attract substantial attention in low-cost electronics. Among the flexible substrate materials, paper has several attractive advantages. In our study, we fabricate cellulose/graphene paper by wet end formation (papermaking). The cationic polyacrylamide remarkably improve the retention ratio of graphene of cellulose/graphene slurry. Besides, cellulose/graphene paper exhibits well mechanical properties such as its flexibility and folding endurance. And we replace copper foil collector with cellulose/graphene paper in lithium-ion batteries without collector, and investigate its electrochemical properties. The obtained results show that cellulose/graphene paper presents excellent charge-discharge stability after 1600th cycles as the anode of lithium-ion batteries. These advantages highlight the potential applications of cellulose/graphene paper as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Materials for Nonaqueous Flow Batteries with a High Coulombic Efficiency and Stable Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Margarita; Cheng, Qian; Yang, Yuan; Nuckolls, Colin; Hernández Sánchez, Raúl; Sisto, Thomas J

    2017-12-13

    This manuscript presents a working redox battery in organic media that possesses remarkable cycling stability. The redox molecules have a solubility over 1 mol electrons/liter, and a cell with 0.4 M electron concentration is demonstrated with steady performance >450 cycles (>74 days). Such a concentration is among the highest values reported in redox flow batteries with organic electrolytes. The average Coulombic efficiency of this cell during cycling is 99.868%. The stability of the cell approaches the level necessary for a long lifetime nonaqueous redox flow battery. For the membrane, we employ a low cost size exclusion cellulose membrane. With this membrane, we couple the preparation of nanoscale macromolecular electrolytes to successfully avoid active material crossover. We show that this cellulose-based membrane can support high voltages in excess of 3 V and extreme temperatures (-20 to 110 °C). These extremes in temperature and voltage are not possible with aqueous systems. Most importantly, the nanoscale macromolecular platforms we present here for our electrolytes can be readily tuned through derivatization to realize the promise of organic redox flow batteries.

  20. Paint coating characterization for thermoelastic stress analysis of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S; Burguete, R L

    2010-01-01

    In thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) it is normal practice to coat metallic specimens with black paint to enhance and standardize the surface emissivity. It is assumed that the paint coating has no effect on the thermal emission from the specimen, but it is well known that the response is sensitive to paint coating thickness, particularly at higher frequencies. In this paper the effects of loading frequency and paint coating thickness on the thermoelastic response are investigated. The thermoelastic response is compared to theory, and optimum test conditions and coating characteristics are suggested. The motivation for the work is to develop a TSA-based means of residual stress assessment, where the measurement of much smaller temperature changes than those that are resolved in standard TSA is required; therefore the analysis is much more sensitive to the effects of the paint coating. However, the work presented in this paper is relevant to a wide range of TSA investigations and presents data that will be of interest to all practitioners of TSA

  1. Grain Structure Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyao Yan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain structure control is challenging for metal additive manufacturing (AM. Grain structure optimization requires the control of grain morphology with grain size refinement, which can improve the mechanical properties of additive manufactured components. This work summarizes methods to promote fine equiaxed grains in both the additive manufacturing process and subsequent heat treatment. Influences of temperature gradient, solidification velocity and alloy composition on grain morphology are discussed. Equiaxed solidification is greatly promoted by introducing a high density of heterogeneous nucleation sites via powder rate control in the direct energy deposition (DED technique or powder surface treatment for powder-bed techniques. Grain growth/coarsening during post-processing heat treatment can be restricted by presence of nano-scale oxide particles formed in-situ during AM. Grain refinement of martensitic steels can also be achieved by cyclic austenitizing in post-processing heat treatment. Evidently, new alloy powder design is another sustainable method enhancing the capability of AM for high-performance components with desirable microstructures.

  2. Fabrication of ultrahigh density metal-cell-metal crossbar memory devices with only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2013-05-20

    A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half-pitch without alignment issues. Depending on the different dry-etch mechanisms in transferring high and low density nanopatterns, suitable dry-etch angles and methods are studied for the transfer of high density nanopatterns. Some novel process methods have also been developed to eliminate the sidewall and other conversion obstacles for obtaining high density of uniform metallic nanopatterns. With these methods, ultrahigh density trilayer crossbar devices (∼2 × 1010 bit cm-2-kilobit electronic memory), which are composed of built-in practical magnetoresistive nanocells, have been achieved. This scalable process that we have developed provides the relevant industries with a cheap means to commercially fabricate three-dimensional high density metal-cell-metal nanodevices. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Ki-jeong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kong@krict.re.kr; Choi, Youngmin [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Beyong-Hwan [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-O [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyunju [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, P.O.Box 107, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT.

  4. Investigation of metal/carbon-related materials for fuel cell applications by electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Ki-jeong; Choi, Youngmin; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-O; Chang, Hyunju

    2006-01-01

    The potential of carbon-related materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphite nanofibers (GNFs), supported metal catalysts as an electrode for fuel cell application was investigated using the first-principle electronic structure calculations. The stable binding geometries and energies of metal catalysts are determined on the CNT surface and the GNF edge. The catalyst metal is more tightly bound to the GNF edge than to the CNT surface because of the existence of active dangling bonds of edge carbon atoms. The diffusion barrier of metal atoms on the surface and edge is also obtained. From our calculation results, we have found that high dispersity is achievable for GNF due to high barrier against the diffusion of metal atoms, while CNT appears less suitable. The GNF with a large edge-to-wall ratio is more suitable for the high-performance electrode than perfect crystalline graphite or CNT

  5. Interface Characterization of Metals and Metal-nitrides to Phase Change Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Deepu; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the interfacial contact properties of the CMOS compatible electrode materials W, TiW, Ta, TaN and TiN to doped-Sb2Te phase change material (PCM). This interface is characterized both in the amorphous and in the crystalline state of the doped-Sb2Te. The electrical nature of the

  6. Impulse Hydroforming Method for Very Thin Sheets from Metallic or Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Beerwald, C.; Beerwald, M.; Dirksen, U.; Henselek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Forming of very thin metallic and hybrid material foils is a demanding task in several application areas as for example in food or pharmaceutical packaging industries. Narrow forming limits of very thin sheet metals as well as minor process reliability due to necessary exact tool manufacturing (small punch-die clearance), both, causes abiding interest in new and innovative forming processes. In this contribution a new method using high pressure pulses will be introduced to form small geometry...

  7. Investigation of possibility of recovery nonferrous metals and producing building materials from copper-nickel smelterslag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlov A.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pelletized slag of copper-nickel smelter ("Pechenganikel" combine, "Kola MMC" JSC has been investigated as a potential technogenic deposit. It has been shown that nonferrous metals can be re-extracted from slag using flotation. The work presents the results of laboratory simulation of heap leaching of non-ferrous metals. Ceramic building materials from slag-based feed have been produced and their main properties have been studied

  8. Method of quantitative analysis of superconducting metal-conducting composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, V.N.; Zhuravlev, V.V.; Petranovskij, V.P.; Pimenov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Technique for quantitative analysis of superconducting metal-containing composite materials, SnO 2 -InSn, WO 3 -InW, Zn)-InZn in particular, has been developed. The method of determining metal content in a composite is based on the dependence of superconducting transition temperature on alloy composition. Sensitivity of temperature determination - 0.02K, error of analysis for InSn system - 0.5%

  9. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-01-01

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made

  10. Functionally Graded Materials by Laser Metal Deposition (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    composition of Fe-82 wt% V (powder-1) and Inconel - 625 (powder-2) powders are listed in Table 1. The substrate materials used for the experiment were cold...like laser power, travel speed and powder feed rate is yet to be determined to obtain a successful FGM. Inconel - 625 deposits showed macro-cracks...Composition (wt%) Powder-1: Fe-82 wt% V V (82), Al (0.68), Si (0.9), C (0.07), S (0.01), P (0.02), Fe (18) Powder-2: Inconel - 625 Ni (58), Cr (20-23

  11. Reduced material model for closed cell metal foam infiltrated with phase change material based on high resolution numerical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsenbrügge, Christoph; Marth, Wieland; Navarro y de Sosa, Iñaki; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Voigt, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Closed cell metal foam sandwich structures were investigated. • High resolution numerical studies were conducted using CT scan data. • A reduced model for use in commercial FE software reduces needed degrees of freedom. • Thermal inertia is increased about 4 to 5 times in PCM filled structures. • The reduced material model was verified using experimental data. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of closed cell metal foam infiltrated with paraffin wax as latent heat storage for application in high precision tool machines was examined. Aluminium foam sandwiches with metallically bound cover layers were prepared in a powder metallurgical process and cross-sectional images of the structures were generated with X-ray computed tomography. Based on the image data a three dimensional highly detailed model was derived and prepared for simulation with the adaptive FE-library AMDiS. The pores were assumed to be filled with paraffin wax. The thermal conductivity and the transient thermal behaviour in the phase-change region were investigated. Based on the results from the highly detailed simulations a reduced model for use in commercial FE-software (ANSYS) was derived. It incorporates the properties of the matrix and the phase change material into a homogenized material. A sandwich-structure with and without paraffin was investigated experimentally under constant thermal load. The results were used to verify the reduced material model in ANSYS.

  12. Development of materials for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD): ceramic electrode. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.

    1986-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, supported by the US Department of Energy, developed advanced materials for use in open-cycle, closed cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation, an advanced energy conversion system in which the flow of electrically conducting fluid interacts with an electric field to convert the energy directly into electricity. The purpose of the PNL work was to develop electrodes for the MHD channel. Such electrodes must have: (1) electrical conductivity above 0.01 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ from near room temperature to 1900/sup 0/K, (2) resistance to both electrochemical and chemical corrosion by both slag and potassium seed, (3) resistance to erosion by high-velocity gases and particles, (4) resistance to thermal shock, (5) adequate thermal conductivity, (6) compatibility with other channel components, particularly the electrical insulators, (7) oxidation-reduction stability, and (8) adequate thermionic emission. This report describes the concept and development of high-temperature, graded ceramic composite electrode materials and their electrical and structural properties. 47 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Ultra-small Fe3O4 nanocrystals decorated on 2D graphene nanosheets with excellent cycling stability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Manman; Yang, Mingzhi; Liu, Weiliang; Li, Mei; Su, Liwei; Qiao, Congde; Wu, Xianbin; Ma, Houyi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals decorated on 2D graphene nanosheets with excellent cycling stability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries Manman Ren, Mingzhi Yang, Weiliang Liu, Mei Li, Liwei Su, Congde Qiao, Xianbin Wu, Houyi Ma Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals/graphene nanosheets composites demonstrate excellent long-term cycling stability at high-rate. - Abstract: Ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals (NCs)/garphene nanosheets (GNSs) composites have been synthesized through a facile gel-like film (GF) assisted method in this work. Fe 3 O 4 NCs with particle size ∼10 nm homogeneously dispersed on 2D GNSs. Profiting from the ultra-small Fe 3 O 4 NCs and GNSs, the composites demonstrate superior long-term and high-rate performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Even at the current density of 5 A g −1 , the reversible capacity still maintains 323.4 mAh g −1 after 700 cycles. This work might enlighten us on exploring preferable strategies to develop advanced metal oxides NCs/GNSs composites anode materials for lithium ion batteries or other energy storage devices.

  14. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  15. Standard test method for dynamic tear testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the dynamic tear (DT) test using specimens that are 3/16 in. to 5/8 in. (5 mm to 16 mm) inclusive in thickness. 1.2 This test method is applicable to materials with a minimum thickness of 3/16 in. (5 mm). 1.3 The pressed-knife procedure described for sharpening the notch tip generally limits this test method to materials with a hardness level less than 36 HRC. Note 1—The designation 36 HRC is a Rockwell hardness number of 36 on Rockwell C scale as defined in Test Methods E 18. 1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Comparison of properties of silver-metal oxide electrical contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in physical properties such as density, porosity, hardness and electrical conductivity of the Ag-SnO2 and Ag-SnO2In2O3 electrical contact materials induced by introduction of metal oxide nanoparticles were investigated. Properties of the obtained silver-metal oxide nanoparticle composites are discussed and presented in comparison to their counterparts with the micro metal oxide particles as well as comparable Ag-SnO2WO3 and Ag-ZnO contact materials. Studied silvermetal oxide composites were produced by powder metallurgy method from very fine pure silver and micro- and nanoparticle metal oxide powders. Very uniform microstructures were obtained for all investigated composites and they exhibited physical properties that are comparable with relevant properties of equivalent commercial silver based electrical contact materials. Both Ag-SnO2 and Ag- SnO2In2O3 composites with metal oxide nanoparticles were found to have lower porosity, higher density and hardness than their respective counterparts which can be attributed to better dispersion hardening i.e. higher degree of dispersion of metal oxide in silver matrix.

  17. Relationship between organizational life cycle and budgeting process in mechanical metal company of high and middle Valley Itajaí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marques

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was investigate the relationship of the different stages of organizational life cycle of companies in the field of mechanical metal in Alto and Médio Vale do Itajaí, with the profile of the budgeting process. The methodology used was characterized as descriptive performed by means of a survey, with a quantitative approach. We used a questionnaire with 54 questions divided into four blocks, adapted from Frezatti et al. (2010. The life cycle model in the implement of research is to Miller and Friesen (1984. Questionnaires were sent to 193 companies in the metal mechanic industry of the Alto and Médio Vale do Itajaí. We obtained 31 answers who were treated statistically by means of descriptive statistics, discriminant analysis and correlation analysis. The results show that most companies are in stages of birth and rejuvenation. It was also found that the budgeting process most commonly used by companies is budgetary control. It was identified that there is a relationship between budgeting process artifacts and the stage of life cycle that the company is, but this use occurs differently in each stage. Thus it is concluded that, as the company becomes more complex and advanced stages of the life cycle, the greater is the use of budgeting process, with significant drop in the use of these artifacts when the company is at the stage of decline.

  18. Research on metallic material defect detection based on bionic sensing of human visual properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei Jiang; Cheng, Tao

    2018-05-01

    Due to the fact that human visual system can quickly lock the areas of interest in complex natural environment and focus on it, this paper proposes an eye-based visual attention mechanism by simulating human visual imaging features based on human visual attention mechanism Bionic Sensing Visual Inspection Model Method to Detect Defects of Metallic Materials in the Mechanical Field. First of all, according to the biologically visually significant low-level features, the mark of defect experience marking is used as the intermediate feature of simulated visual perception. Afterwards, SVM method was used to train the advanced features of visual defects of metal material. According to the weight of each party, the biometrics detection model of metal material defect, which simulates human visual characteristics, is obtained.

  19. International measures needed to protect metal recycling facilities from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattia, M.; Wiener, R.

    1999-01-01

    In almost every major city and region of every country, there is a recycling facility that is designed to process or consume scrap metal. These same countries will probably have widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. This material and equipment will have metal as a primary component of its housing or instrumentation. It is this metal that will cause these sources of radioactivity, when lost, stolen or mishandled, to be taken to a metal recycling facility to be sold for the value of the metal. This is the problem that has faced scrap recycling facilities for many years. The recycling industry has spent millions of dollars for installation of radiation monitors and training in identification of radioactive material. It has expended millions more for the disposal of radioactive material that has mistakenly entered these facilities. Action must be taken to prevent this material from entering the conventional recycling process. There are more than 2,300 known incidents of radioactive material found in recycled metal scrap. Worldwide, more than 50 smeltings of radioactive sources have been confirmed. Seven fatal accidents involving uncontrolled radioactive material have also been documented. Hazardous exposures to radioactive material have plagued not just the workers at metal recycling facilities. The families of these workers, including their children, have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of radioactivity. The threat from this material does not stop there. Radioactive material that is not caught at recycling facilities can be melted and the radioactivity has been found in construction materials used to build homes, as well as shovels, fencing material, and furniture offered for sale to the general public. The time has come for the international community to address the issue of the uncontrolled sources of radioactive material. The following are the key points that must be addressed. (i) Identification of sources

  20. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne's waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne's metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities